WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional neutronic analyses

  1. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  2. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  3. UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.

  4. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  5. Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Marmotti, M; Kampmann, R

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional position-sensitive gaseous detectors have been developed at the Geesthacht Neutron Facility (GeNF) for high-resolution neutron and X-ray diffractometry. They are multi-wire proportional counters with delay-line readout and sensitive areas of 300 mm x 300 mm or 500 mm x 500 mm. For detecting X-rays, neutrons and hard X-rays the counters are filled with Ar/CO sub 2 , sup 3 He/CF sub 4 and Xe/CO sub 2 , respectively. One neutron detector is used at the ARES diffractometer at GKSS, which is dedicated to the analysis of residual stresses. Further ones are used for analysing textures and residual stresses at the hard-X-ray beamline PETRA-2 at HASYLAB, and one detector is being developed for the neutron reflectometer REFSANS at the research reactor FRM-II in Munich, Germany. (orig.)

  6. An algorithm for multi-group two-dimensional neutron diffusion kinetics in nuclear reactor cores

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Schramm

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to introduce a new methodology for two{dimensional multi{ group neutron diffusion kinetics in a reactor core. The presented methodology uses a polyno- mial approximation in a rectangular homogeneous domain with non{homogeneous boundary conditions. As it consists on a truncated Taylor series, its error estimates varies with the size of the rectangle. The coefficients are obtained mainly by their relations with the independent term, which is determined by the dif...

  7. Optimization of micro-strip gas chamber as two-dimensional neutron detector using gadolinium converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaoka, Sei; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Hideshi; Soyama, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-02-01

    A micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) has been developing as a two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector for neutron scattering experiments using high-intensity pulsed-neutron source in a high-intensity proton accelerator facility. MSGC is required for the high count rate, high detective efficiency, high positional resolution, stabilization and covering large area. Our purpose in this paper is to verify the proper of Gadolinium as MSGC converter. First, the basic property of Gadolinium converter was examined by simple experiments using a zero-dimensional neutron detector on the purpose of deriving the detective efficiency. Second, the optimization of the arrangement of a capillary plate in MSGC has been done by simulation on the MSGC using Gadolinium converter. As a result of that, it has been proved that Gadolinium can be theoretically used as a converter of MSGC. (author)

  8. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Energy Research Center, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.

  9. Intelligent pulse light source in the performance calibration system of two-dimensional neutron detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Fang

    2017-07-01

    Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project will use numerous two-dimensional (2D) neutron detectors whose ZnS (Ag) scintillator is doped with 6Li. To ensure the consistency of all neutron detectors, a calibration system for the performance of 2D neutron detectors is designed. For radiation protection, the state control of the radiation source gets more and more strict. It is impossible to directly carry out experiments with massive radioactive particles. Thus, the following scheme has been designed. The controlled pulsed laser light source on a 2D mobile platform is used to replace the neutron bombardment to generate the photon. The pulse signal drives the laser diode to generate pulse light. The pulse light source located on the 2D platform is controlled by the core controller, and goes to the wavelength shift fiber through the optical fiber. The host computer (PC) receives the signal from the electronics system, processes data, and automatically calibrates the performance parameters. As shown by the experimental results, the pulse light source can perfectly meet all requirements of 2D neutron detector calibration system.

  10. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-01

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 × 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 ×105 cm-3s-1, respectively.

  11. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gheisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2. The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume equal to 6.79 × 106 cm−2s−1 and 2.20 ×105 cm−3s−1, respectively.

  12. Detector-Response Correction of Two-Dimensional γ-Ray Spectra from Neutron Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusev G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron-capture reaction produces a large variety of γ-ray cascades with different γ-ray multiplicities. A measured spectral distribution of these cascades for each γ-ray multiplicity is of importance to applications and studies of γ-ray statistical properties. The DANCE array, a 4π ball of 160 BaF2 detectors, is an ideal tool for measurement of neutron-capture γ-rays. The high granularity of DANCE enables measurements of high-multiplicity γ-ray cascades. The measured two-dimensional spectra (γ-ray energy, γ-ray multiplicity have to be corrected for the DANCE detector response in order to compare them with predictions of the statistical model or use them in applications. The detector-response correction problem becomes more difficult for a 4π detection system than for a single detector. A trial and error approach and an iterative decomposition of γ-ray multiplets, have been successfully applied to the detector-response correction. Applications of the decomposition methods are discussed for two-dimensional γ-ray spectra measured at DANCE from γ-ray sources and from the 10B(n, γ and 113Cd(n, γ reactions.

  13. On three-dimensional reconstruction of a neutron/x-ray source from very few two-dimensional projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volegov, P. L., E-mail: volegov@lanl.gov; Danly, C. R.; Merrill, F. E.; Simpson, R.; Wilde, C. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2015-11-28

    The neutron imaging system at the National Ignition Facility is an important diagnostic tool for measuring the two-dimensional size and shape of the source of neutrons produced in the burning deuterium-tritium plasma during the stagnation phase of inertial confinement fusion implosions. Very few two-dimensional projections of neutron images are available to reconstruct the three-dimensional neutron source. In this paper, we present a technique that has been developed for the 3D reconstruction of neutron and x-ray sources from a minimal number of 2D projections. We present the detailed algorithms used for this characterization and the results of reconstructed sources from experimental data collected at Omega.

  14. Proteins isolated with TRIzol are compatible with two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Clifford; Truman, Penelope

    2012-02-01

    TRIzol is used for RNA isolation but also permits protein recovery. We investigated whether proteins prepared with TRIzol were suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Proteins from TRIzol-treated SH-SY5Y cells produced 2-DE spot patterns similar to those from an equivalent untreated sample. Subsequent identification of TRIzol-treated proteins using peptide mass fingerprinting was successful. TRIzol exposure altered neither the mass of myoglobin extracted from sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gels nor the masses of myoglobin peptides produced by in-gel trypsin digestion. These findings suggest that proteins isolated with TRIzol remain amenable to proteomic analyses.

  15. Two-dimensional finite element neutron diffusion analysis using hierarchic shape functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, D.C.

    1997-04-01

    Recent advances have been made in the use of p-type finite element method (FEM) for structural and fluid dynamics problems that hold promise for reactor physics problems. These advances include using hierarchic shape functions, element-by-element iterative solvers and more powerful mapping techniques. Use of the hierarchic shape functions allows greater flexibility and efficiency in implementing energy-dependent flux expansions and incorporating localized refinement of the solution space. The irregular matrices generated by the p-type FEM can be solved efficiently using element-by-element conjugate gradient iterative solvers. These solvers do not require storage of either the global or local stiffness matrices and can be highly vectorized. Mapping techniques based on blending function interpolation allow exact representation of curved boundaries using coarse element grids. These features were implemented in a developmental two-dimensional neutron diffusion program based on the use of hierarchic shape functions (FEM2DH). Several aspects in the effective use of p-type analysis were explored. Two choices of elemental preconditioning were examined--the proper selection of the polynomial shape functions and the proper number of functions to use. Of the five shape function polynomials tested, the integral Legendre functions were the most effective. The serendipity set of functions is preferable over the full tensor product set. Two global preconditioners were also examined--simple diagonal and incomplete Cholesky. The full effectiveness of the finite element methodology was demonstrated on a two-region, two-group cylindrical problem but solved in the x-y coordinate space, using a non-structured element grid. The exact, analytic eigenvalue solution was achieved with FEM2DH using various combinations of element grids and flux expansions.

  16. Semi-phenomenological analysis of neutron scattering results for quasi-two dimensional quantum anti-ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Chaudhury, Ranjan; Paul, Samir K.

    2017-01-01

    The available results from the inelastic neutron scattering experiment performed on the quasi-two dimensional spin 1/2 anti-ferromagnetic material La2CuO4 have been analysed theoretically. The formalism of ours is based on a semi-classical like treatment involving a model of an ideal gas of mobile vortices and anti-vortices built on the background of the Néel state, using the bipartite classical spin configuration corresponding to an XY-anisotropic Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet on a square lattice. The results for the integrated intensities for our spin 1/2 model corresponding to different temperatures, show occurrence of vigorous unphysical oscillations, when convoluted with a realistic spectral window function. These results indicate failure of the conventional semi-classical theoretical model of ideal vortex/anti-vortex gas arising in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory for the low spin magnetic systems. A full fledged quantum mechanical formalism and calculations seem crucial for the understanding of topological excitations in such low spin systems. Furthermore, a severe disagreement is found to occur at finite values of energy transfer between the integrated intensities obtained theoretically from the conventional formalism and those obtained experimentally. This further suggests strongly that the full quantum treatment should also incorporate the interaction between the fragile-magnons and the topological excitations. This is quite plausible in view of the recent work establishing such a process in XXZ quantum ferromagnet on 2D lattice. The high spin XXZ quasi-two dimensional antiferromagnet like MnPS3 however follows the conventional theory quite well.

  17. Investigation of the influence of topographic irregularities and two dimensional effects on the intensity of surface ground motion with one- and two-dimensional analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yılmazoğlu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the surface ground motion that occurs during an earthquake in ground sections having different topographic forms has been examined with one and two dynamic site response analyses. One-dimensional analyses were undertaken using the Equivalent-Linear Earthquake Response Analysis program based on the equivalent linear analysis principle and the Deepsoil program which is able to make both equivalent linear and nonlinear analyses and two-dimensional analyses using the Plaxis software. The viscous damping parameters used in the dynamic site response analyses undertaken with the Plaxis software were obtained using the DeepSoil program. In the dynamic site response analyses, the synthetic acceleration over a 475 yr replication period representing the earthquakes in Istanbul was used as the basis of the bedrock ground motion. The peak ground acceleration obtained different depths of soils and acceleration spectrum values have been compared. The surface topography and layer boundaries in the 5-5' section were selected in order to examine the effect of the land topography and layer boundaries on the analysis results were flattened and compared with the actual status. The analysis results showed that the characteristics of the surface ground motion changes in relation to the varying local soil conditions and land topography.

  18. Two-Dimensional Neutronic and Fuel Cycle Analysis of the Transatomic Power Molten Salt Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Robertson, Sean [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Dewan, Leslie [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massie, Mark [Transatomic Power Corporation, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-01-15

    This status report presents the results from the first phase of the collaboration between Transatomic Power Corporation (TAP) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide neutronic and fuel cycle analysis of the TAP core design through the Department of Energy Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear, Nuclear Energy Voucher program. The TAP design is a molten salt reactor using movable moderator rods to shift the neutron spectrum in the core from mostly epithermal at beginning of life to thermal at end of life. Additional developments in the ChemTriton modeling and simulation tool provide the critical moderator-to-fuel ratio searches and time-dependent parameters necessary to simulate the continuously changing physics in this complex system. Results from simulations with these tools show agreement with TAP-calculated performance metrics for core lifetime, discharge burnup, and salt volume fraction, verifying the viability of reducing actinide waste production with this design. Additional analyses of time step sizes, mass feed rates and enrichments, and isotopic removals provide additional information to make informed design decisions. This work further demonstrates capabilities of ORNL modeling and simulation tools for analysis of molten salt reactor designs and strongly positions this effort for the upcoming three-dimensional core analysis.

  19. An analytical discrete ordinates solution for a nodal model of a two-dimensional neutron transport problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)

  20. Neutronics code VALE for two-dimensional triagonal (hexagonal) and three-dimensional geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1981-08-01

    This report documents the computer code VALE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with the diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport for a triagonal arrangement of mesh points on planes in two- and three-dimensional geometry. This code parallels the VENTURE neutronics code in the local computation system, making exposure and fuel management capabilities available. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by Reactor Physics RRT Division of the US DOE. The programming in FORTRAN is straightforward, although data is transferred in blocks between auxiliary storage devices and main core, and direct access schemes are used. The size of problems which can be handled is essentially limited only by cost of calculation since the arrays are variably dimensioned. The memory requirement is held down while data transfer during iteration is increased only as necessary with problem size. There is provision for the more common boundary conditions including the repeating boundary, 180/sup 0/ rotational symmetry, and the rotational symmetry conditions for the 30/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/, and 120/sup 0/ triangular grids on planes. A variety of types of problems may be solved: the usual neutron flux eignevalue problem, or a direct criticality search on the buckling, on a reciprocal velocity absorber (prompt mode), or on nuclide concentrations. The adjoint problem and fixed source problem may be solved, as well as the dominating higher harmonic, or the importance problem for an arbitrary fixed source.

  1. Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhaney, S.A.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, various detectors available for small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are discussed, along with some current developments being actively pursued. A section has been included to outline the various methodologies of position encoding/decoding with discussions on trends and limitations. Computer software/hardware vary greatly from institute and experiment and only a general discussion is given to this area. 85 refs., 33 figs.

  2. Techniques useful in two-dimensional correlation and codistribution spectroscopy (2DCOS and 2DCDS) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Isao

    2016-11-01

    Certain techniques useful in enhancing the features of two-dimensional correlation and codistribution spectra (2DCOS and 2DCDS) are reviewed. 2DCOS sorts out the coordinated or sequential variations of spectral intensities induced by an external perturbation applied to a sample system. 2DCDS is designed to determine the order of the presence of individual species. Pareto scaling of data helps to regulate overwhelmingly strong signal contributions, which may obscure the fine features of 2DCOS and 2DCDS spectra. Pearson unit-variance scaling has some limitations by itself but is useful in some applications. Modified forms of asynchronous 2D spectrum combine the features of both synchronous and asynchronous spectra and can be used as a stand-alone 2D map for the streamlined determination of the sequential order of spectral intensity variations. Null-space projection simplifies congested 2D spectra by eliminating select features, such as contribution from a specific component. Node attenuation is a band narrowing technique suitable for 2D analysis, because it does not produce opposite-sign side lobes. Performance of each technique in enhancing the features of 2D spectra is demonstrated with a model set of experimental spectra.

  3. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Kumada, H.; Shibata, Y.; Nose, T.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours.

  4. Wavelet-based spatial comparison technique for analysing and evaluating two-dimensional geophysical model fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saux Picart

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Complex numerical models of the Earth's environment, based around 3-D or 4-D time and space domains are routinely used for applications including climate predictions, weather forecasts, fishery management and environmental impact assessments. Quantitatively assessing the ability of these models to accurately reproduce geographical patterns at a range of spatial and temporal scales has always been a difficult problem to address. However, this is crucial if we are to rely on these models for decision making. Satellite data are potentially the only observational dataset able to cover the large spatial domains analysed by many types of geophysical models. Consequently optical wavelength satellite data is beginning to be used to evaluate model hindcast fields of terrestrial and marine environments. However, these satellite data invariably contain regions of occluded or missing data due to clouds, further complicating or impacting on any comparisons with the model. A methodology has recently been developed to evaluate precipitation forecasts using radar observations. It allows model skill to be evaluated at a range of spatial scales and rain intensities. Here we extend the original method to allow its generic application to a range of continuous and discontinuous geophysical data fields, and therefore allowing its use with optical satellite data. This is achieved through two major improvements to the original method: (i all thresholds are determined based on the statistical distribution of the input data, so no a priori knowledge about the model fields being analysed is required and (ii occluded data can be analysed without impacting on the metric results. The method can be used to assess a model's ability to simulate geographical patterns over a range of spatial scales. We illustrate how the method provides a compact and concise way of visualising the degree of agreement between spatial features in two datasets. The application of the new method, its

  5. Flutter and Forced Response Analyses of Cascades using a Two-Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, O.

    1999-01-01

    Flutter and forced response analyses for a cascade of blades in subsonic and transonic flow is presented. The structural model for each blade is a typical section with bending and torsion degrees of freedom. The unsteady aerodynamic forces due to bending and torsion motions. and due to a vortical gust disturbance are obtained by solving unsteady linearized Euler equations. The unsteady linearized equations are obtained by linearizing the unsteady nonlinear equations about the steady flow. The predicted unsteady aerodynamic forces include the effect of steady aerodynamic loading due to airfoil shape, thickness and angle of attack. The aeroelastic equations are solved in the frequency domain by coupling the un- steady aerodynamic forces to the aeroelastic solver MISER. The present unsteady aerodynamic solver showed good correlation with published results for both flutter and forced response predictions. Further improvements are required to use the unsteady aerodynamic solver in a design cycle.

  6. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  7. Moving Crystal Slow-Neutron Wavelength Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1973-01-01

    Experimental proof that a moving single crystal can serve as a slow-neutron wavelength analyser of special features is presented. When the crystal moves with a velocity h/(2 md) (h-Planck constant, m-neutron mass, d-interplanar spacing) perpendicular to the diffracting plane and the analysed...

  8. An analytical approach for a nodal formulation of a two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problem in heterogeneous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso Barichello, Liliane; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada

    2015-05-15

    A nodal formulation of a fixed-source two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in Cartesian geometry, defined in a heterogeneous medium, is solved by an analytical approach. Explicit expressions, in terms of the spatial variables, are derived for averaged fluxes in each region in which the domain is subdivided. The procedure is an extension of an analytical discrete ordinates method, the ADO method, for the solution of the two-dimensional homogeneous medium case. The scheme is developed from the discrete ordinates version of the two-dimensional transport equation along with the level symmetric quadrature scheme. As usual for nodal schemes, relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown angular fluxes at the contours are introduced as auxiliary equations. Numerical results are in agreement with results available in the literature.

  9. Two-dimensional DORT discrete ordinates X-Y geometry neutron flux calculations for the Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, C.O.

    1990-07-01

    Results are reported for two-dimensional discrete ordinates, X-Y geometry calculations performed for seven Halden Heavy Boiling Water Reactor core configurations. The calculations were performed in support of an effort to reassess the neutron fluence received by the reactor vessel. Nickel foil measurement data indicated considerable underprediction of fluences by the previously used multigroup removal- diffusion method. Therefore, calculations by a more accurate method were deemed appropriate. For each core configuration, data are presented for (1) integral fluxes in the core and near the vessel wall, (2) neutron spectra at selected locations, (3) isoflux contours superimposed on the geometry models, (4) plots of the geometry models, and (5) input for the calculations. The initial calculations were performed with several mesh sizes. Comparisons of the results from these calculations indicated that the uncertainty in the calculated fluxes should be less than 10%. However, three-dimensional effects (such as axial asymmetry in the fuel loading) could contribute to much greater uncertainty in the calculated neutron fluxes. 7 refs., 22 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = ½ systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Bech

    polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described bylinear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo......Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O and La_2_-_xSr_xCuO_4. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O...

  11. Efficient method of protein extraction from Theobroma cacao L. roots for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolde, F Z; Almeida, A-A F; Silva, F A C; Oliveira, T M; Pirovani, C P

    2014-07-04

    Theobroma cacao is a woody and recalcitrant plant with a very high level of interfering compounds. Standard protocols for protein extraction were proposed for various types of samples, but the presence of interfering compounds in many samples prevented the isolation of proteins suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). An efficient method to extract root proteins for 2-DE was established to overcome these problems. The main features of this protocol are: i) precipitation with trichloroacetic acid/acetone overnight to prepare the acetone dry powder (ADP), ii) several additional steps of sonication in the ADP preparation and extractions with dense sodium dodecyl sulfate and phenol, and iii) adding two stages of phenol extractions. Proteins were extracted from roots using this new protocol (Method B) and a protocol described in the literature for T. cacao leaves and meristems (Method A). Using these methods, we obtained a protein yield of about 0.7 and 2.5 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root, and a total of 60 and 400 spots could be separated, respectively. Through Method B, it was possible to isolate high-quality protein and a high yield of roots from T. cacao for high-quality 2-DE gels. To demonstrate the quality of the extracted proteins from roots of T. cacao using Method B, several protein spots were cut from the 2-DE gels, analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry, and identified. Method B was further tested on Citrus roots, with a protein yield of about 2.7 mg per 1.0 g lyophilized root and 800 detected spots.

  12. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

  13. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = 1/2 systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech Christensen, N

    2005-01-01

    Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO){sub 2}x4D{sub 2}O and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO){sub 2}4D{sub 2}O. Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Using polarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described by linear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the high temperature superconductors La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}Cu characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles that seen in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. The presence of dispersive excitations does not require superconductivity to exist. For La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}CuO{sub 4}, but not for La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}, the onset superconductivity gives rise to a spectral weight shift which displays qualitative and quantitative similarities to the resonance mode observed in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. (au)

  14. Neutron scattering study of Rb2Cu1-xCoxF4: A two-dimensional randomly ferromagnet-antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schins, A.G.; Nielsen, M.; Arts, A.F.M.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the magnetic order in the randomly mixed two-dimensional ferromagnet-antiferromagnet Rb2Cu1-xCoxF4 has been performed. For x = 0.037, 0.083, and 0.88, the system enters an oblique ferromagnetic phase, an axial ferromagnetic, and an axial antiferromagnetic phase...

  15. Systematic secretome analyses of rice leaf and seed callus suspension-cultured cells: workflow development and establishment of high-density two-dimensional gel reference maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Young-Ho; Jeong, Seung-Hee; Kim, So Hee; Singh, Raksha; Lee, Jae-Eun; Cho, Yoon-Seong; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Jwa, Nam-Soo

    2008-12-01

    Secreted proteins control a multitude of biological and physiological processes in multicellular organisms such as plants. Identification of secreted proteins in reference plants like Arabidopsis and rice under normal growth conditions and adverse environmental conditions will help better understand the secretory pathways. Here, we have performed a systematic in planta and in vitro analyses of proteins secreted by rice leaves (in planta) and seed callus suspension-cultured cells (SCCs; in vitro), respectively, using a combination of biochemical and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) coupled with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Secreted proteins prepared from either leaves or SCCs medium were essentially free from contamination of intracellular proteins as judged by biochemical and Western blot analyses. 2-DGE analyses of secreted proteins collectively identified 222 protein spots with only 6 protein spots common to both in planta and in vitro derived data sets. Data were used to establish high-resolution and high-density 2-D gel reference maps for both in planta and in vitro secreted proteins. Identified proteins belonged to 11 (in planta) and 6 (in vitro) functional classes. Proteins involved in carbon metabolism (33%) and cell wall metabolism having plant defense mechanism (18%) were highly represented in the in planta secreted proteins accounting for 51% of total identified proteins, whereas proteins of cell wall metabolism having plant defense mechanism (64%) were predominant in the in vitro secreted proteins. Interestingly, secreted proteins possessing signal peptides were significantly lower in an in planta (27%) prepared secreted protein population than in vitro (76%) as predicted by SignalP prediction tool, implying the notion that plant might possess yet unidentified secretory pathway(s) in addition to the classical endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi pathway. Taken together, this systematic study provides evidence for (i) significant

  16. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  17. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  18. Medical Isotope Production Analyses In KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, Alberto [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gohar, Yousry [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Medical isotope production analyses in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT) neutron source facility were performed to include the details of the irradiation cassette and the self-shielding effect. An updated detailed model of the facility was used for the analyses. The facility consists of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), which has a subcritical assembly using low-enriched uranium fuel elements with a beryllium-graphite reflector. The beryllium assemblies of the reflector have the same outer geometry as the fuel elements, which permits loading the subcritical assembly with different number of fuel elements without impacting the reflector performance. The subcritical assembly is driven by an external neutron source generated from the interaction of 100-kW electron beam with a tungsten target. The facility construction was completed at the end of 2015, and it is planned to start the operation during the year of 2016. It is the first ADS in the world, which has a coolant system for removing the generated fission power. Argonne National Laboratory has developed the design concept and performed extensive design analyses for the facility including its utilization for the production of different radioactive medical isotopes. 99Mo is the parent isotope of 99mTc, which is the most commonly used medical radioactive isotope. Detailed analyses were performed to define the optimal sample irradiation location and the generated activity, for several radioactive medical isotopes, as a function of the irradiation time.

  19. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  20. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  1. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  2. Design Analyses and Shielding of HFIR Cold Neutron Scattering Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallmeier, F.X.; Selby, D.L.; Winn, B.; Stoica, D.; Jones, A.B.; Crow, L. [Neutron Sciences Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Research reactor geometries and special characteristics present unique dosimetry analysis and measurement issues. The introduction of a cold neutron moderator and the production of cold neutron beams at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor have created the need for modified methods and devices for analyzing and measuring low energy neutron fields (0.01 to 100 meV). These methods include modifications to an MCNPX version to provide modeling of neutron mirror reflection capability. This code has been used to analyze the HFIR cold neutron beams and to design new instrument equipment that will use the beams. Calculations have been compared with time-of-flight measurements performed at the start of the neutron guides and at the end of one of the guides. The results indicate that we have a good tool for analyzing the transport of these low energy beams through neutron mirror and guide systems for distance up to 60 meters from the reactor. (authors)

  3. Neutronic Analyses in Support of the HFIR Beamline Modifications and Lifetime Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remec, I.; Blakeman, E. D.

    2009-08-01

    At the High Flux Isotope Reactor, in operation since 1966 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a larger HB-2 beam tube was installed to enhance capabilities for neutron science research. Neutronic analyses, including dosimetry measurements, radiation transport simulations, and simultaneous neutron and gamma spectrum adjustment calculations, performed to assess the impact of modifications on the PV lifetime are presented.

  4. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  5. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSES OF SPALLATION NEUTRONS GENERATED BY 100 MEV PROTONS AT THE KYOTO UNIVERSITY CRITICAL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEOL HO PYEON

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neutron spectrum analyses of spallation neutrons are conducted in the accelerator-driven system (ADS facility at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA. High-energy protons (100 MeV obtained from the fixed field alternating gradient accelerator are injected onto a tungsten target, whereby the spallation neutrons are generated. For neutronic characteristics of spallation neutrons, the reaction rates and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons are measured by the foil activation method and by an organic liquid scintillator, respectively. Numerical calculations are executed by MCNPX with JENDL/HE-2007 and ENDF/B-VI libraries to evaluate the reaction rates of activation foils (bismuth and indium set at the target and the continuous energy distribution of spallation neutrons set in front of the target. For the reaction rates by the foil activation method, the C/E values between the experiments and the calculations are found around a relative difference of 10%, except for some reactions. For continuous energy distribution by the organic liquid scintillator, the spallation neutrons are observed up to 45 MeV. From these results, the neutron spectrum information on the spallation neutrons generated at the target are attained successfully in injecting 100 MeV protons onto the tungsten target.

  7. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  8. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  9. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, Peter Kjær; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were...... carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1–3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample...

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  11. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Analyses of pH-Dependent Protein Expression in Facultatively Alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 Lead to Characterization of an S-Layer Protein with a Role in Alkaliphily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Raymond; Messner, Paul; Guffanti, Arthur A.; Kent, Rebecca; Scheberl, Andrea; Kendrick, Nancy; Krulwich, Terry Ann

    2000-01-01

    The large majority of proteins of alkaliphilic Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 grown at pH 7.5 and 10.5, as studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses, did not exhibit significant pH-dependent variation. A new surface layer protein (SlpA) was identified in these studies. Although the prominence of some apparent breakdown products of SlpA in gels from pH 10.5-grown cells led to discovery of the alkaliphile S-layer, the largest and major SlpA forms were present in large amounts in gels from pH 7.5-grown cells as well. slpA RNA abundance was, moreover, unchanged by growth pH. SlpA was similar in size to homologues from nonalkaliphiles but contained fewer Arg and Lys residues. An slpA mutant strain (RG21) lacked an exterior S-layer that was identified in the wild type by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic analysis of whole-cell extracts further indicated the absence of a 90-kDa band in the mutant. This band was prominent in wild-type extracts from both pH 7.5- and 10.5-grown cells. The wild type grew with a shorter lag phase than RG21 at either pH 10.5 or 11 and under either Na+-replete or suboptimal Na+ concentrations. The extent of the adaptation deficit increased with pH elevation and suboptimal Na+. By contrast, the mutant grew with a shorter lag and faster growth rate than the wild type at pH 7.5 under Na+-replete and suboptimal Na+ conditions, respectively. Logarithmically growing cells of the two strains exhibited no significant differences in growth rate, cytoplasmic pH regulation, starch utilization, motility, Na+-dependent transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid, or H+-dependent synthesis of ATP. However, the capacity for Na+-dependent pH homeostasis was diminished in RG21 upon a sudden upward shift of external pH from 8.5 to 10.5. The energy cost of retaining the SlpA layer at near-neutral pH is apparently adverse, but the constitutive presence of SlpA enhances the capacity of the extremophile to adjust to high pH. PMID:11029415

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Neutronic analyses and tools development efforts in the European DEMO programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U., E-mail: ulrich.fischer@kit.edu [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Bachmann, C. [European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA), Garching (Germany); Bienkowska, B. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Catalan, J.P. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Drozdowicz, K.; Dworak, D. [Association IPPLM-Euratom, IPPLM Warsaw/INP Krakow (Poland); Leichtle, D. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Lengar, I. [MESCS-JSI, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jaboulay, J.-C. [CEA, DEN, Saclay, DM2S, SERMA, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lu, L. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Moro, F. [Associazione ENEA-Euratom, ENEA Fusion Division, Frascati (Italy); Mota, F. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Szieberth, M. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); Palermo, I. [Centro de Investigaciones Energéticas, Medioambientales y Tecnológicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Pampin, R. [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Barcelona (Spain); Porton, M. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre for Fusion Energy (CCFE), Culham (United Kingdom); Pereslavtsev, P. [Association KIT-Euratom, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ogando, F. [Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid (Spain); Rovni, I. [Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •Evaluation of neutronic tools for application to DEMO nuclear analyses. •Generation of a DEMO model for nuclear analyses based on MC calculations. •Nuclear analyses of the DEMO reactor equipped with a HCLL-type blanket. -- Abstract: The European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) recently launched a programme on Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) with the aim to develop a conceptual design of a fusion demonstration reactor (DEMO) addressing key technology and physics issues. A dedicated part of the PPPT programme is devoted to the neutronics which, among others, has to define and verify requirements and boundary conditions for the DEMO systems. The quality of the provided data depends on the capabilities and the reliability of the computational tools. Accordingly, the PPPT activities in the area of neutronics include both DEMO nuclear analyses and development efforts on neutronic tools including their verification and validation. This paper reports on first neutronics studies performed for DEMO, and on the evaluation and further development of neutronic tools.

  14. Analysing neutron scattering data using McStas virtual experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udby, L.; Willendrup, P. K.; Knudsen, E.; Niedermayer, Ch.; Filges, U.; Christensen, N. B.; Farhi, E.; Wells, B. O.; Lefmann, K.

    2011-04-01

    With the intention of developing a new data analysis method using virtual experiments we have built a detailed virtual model of the cold triple-axis spectrometer RITA-II at PSI, Switzerland, using the McStas neutron ray-tracing package. The parameters characterising the virtual instrument were carefully tuned against real experiments. In the present paper we show that virtual experiments reproduce experimentally observed linewidths within 1-3% for a variety of samples. Furthermore we show that the detailed knowledge of the instrumental resolution found from virtual experiments, including sample mosaicity, can be used for quantitative estimates of linewidth broadening resulting from, e.g., finite domain sizes in single-crystal samples.

  15. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  16. Comparison of 2D and 3D Neutron Transport Analyses on Yonggwang Unit 3 Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeng, Aoung Jae; Kim, Byoung Chul; Lim, Mi Joung; Kim, Kyung Sik; Jeon, Young Kyou [Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Choon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institutes, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    10 CFR Part 50 Appendix H requires periodical surveillance program in the reactor vessel (RV) belt line region of light water nuclear power plant to check vessel integrity resulting from the exposure to neutron irradiation and thermal environment. Exact exposure analysis of the neutron fluence based on right modeling and simulations is the most important in the evaluation. Traditional 2 dimensional (D) and 1D synthesis methodologies have been widely applied to evaluate the fast neutron (E > 1.0 MeV) fluence exposure to RV. However, 2D and 1D methodologies have not provided accurate fast neutron fluence evaluation at elevations far above or below the active core region. RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries) program for 3D geometries calculation was therefore developed both by Westinghouse Electronic Company, USA and Korea Reactor Integrity Surveillance Technology (KRIST) for the analysis of In-Vessel Surveillance Test and Ex-Vessel Neutron Dosimetry (EVND). Especially EVND which is installed at active core height between biological shielding material and concrete also evaluates axial neutron fluence by placing three dosimetries each at Top, Middle and Bottom part of the angle representing maximum neutron fluence. The EVND programs have been applied to the Korea Nuclear Plants. The objective of this study is therefore to compare the 3D and the 2D Neutron Transport Calculations and Analyses on the Yonggwang unit 3 Reactor as an example.

  17. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  18. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  19. Computational Neutronics Methods and Transmutation Performance Analyses for Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Ferrer; M. Asgari; S. Bays; B. Forget

    2007-03-01

    The once-through fuel cycle strategy in the United States for the past six decades has resulted in an accumulation of Light Water Reactor (LWR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). This SNF contains considerable amounts of transuranic (TRU) elements that limit the volumetric capacity of the current planned repository strategy. A possible way of maximizing the volumetric utilization of the repository is to separate the TRU from the LWR SNF through a process such as UREX+1a, and convert it into fuel for a fast-spectrum Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR). The key advantage in this scenario is the assumption that recycling of TRU in the ABR (through pyroprocessing or some other approach), along with a low capture-to-fission probability in the fast reactor’s high-energy neutron spectrum, can effectively decrease the decay heat and toxicity of the waste being sent to the repository. The decay heat and toxicity reduction can thus minimize the need for multiple repositories. This report summarizes the work performed by the fuel cycle analysis group at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to establish the specific technical capability for performing fast reactor fuel cycle analysis and its application to a high-priority ABR concept. The high-priority ABR conceptual design selected is a metallic-fueled, 1000 MWth SuperPRISM (S-PRISM)-based ABR with a conversion ratio of 0.5. Results from the analysis showed excellent agreement with reference values. The independent model was subsequently used to study the effects of excluding curium from the transuranic (TRU) external feed coming from the LWR SNF and recycling the curium produced by the fast reactor itself through pyroprocessing. Current studies to be published this year focus on analyzing the effects of different separation strategies as well as heterogeneous TRU target systems.

  20. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  1. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  2. Design and burn-up analyses of new type holder for silicon neutron transmutation doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeda, Masao; Arai, Masaji; Tamai, Kazuo; Kawasaki, Kozo

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a new silicon irradiation holder with a neutron filter to increase the irradiation efficiency. The neutron filter is made of an alloy of aluminum and B4C particles. We fabricated a new holder based on the results of design analyses. This filter has limited use in applications requiring prolonged use due to a decrease in the amount of (10)B in B4C particles. We investigated the influence of (10)B reduction on doping distribution in a silicon ingot by using the Monte Carlo Code MVP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bragg prism monochromator and analyser for super ultra-small angle neutron scattering studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Apoorva G Wagh; Sohrab Abbas; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer

    2008-11-01

    We have designed, fabricated and operated a novel Bragg prism monochromator–analyser combination. With a judicious choice of the Bragg reflection, its asymmetry and the apex angle of the silicon single crystal prism, the monochromator has produced a neutron beam with sub-arcsec collimation. A Bragg prism analyser with the opposite asymmetry has been tailored to accept a still sharper angular profile. With this optimized monochromator–analyser pair, we have attained the narrowest and sharpest neutron angular profile to date. At this facility, we have recorded the first SUSANS spectra spanning wave vector transfers ∼ 10−6 Å-1 to characterize samples containing agglomerates up to tens of micrometres in size.

  4. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  5. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  6. Neutronics Conversion Analyses of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL) High Flux Reactor (RHF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Calzavara, Y. [Inst. Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble (France)

    2014-09-30

    The following report describes the neutronics results obtained with the MCNP model of the RHF U7Mo LEU reference design that has been established in 2010 during the feasibility analysis. This work constitutes a complete and detailed neutronics analysis of that LEU design using models that have been significantly improved since 2010 and the release of the feasibility report. When possible, the credibility of the neutronics model is tested by comparing the HEU model results with experimental data or other codes calculations results. The results obtained with the LEU model are systematically compared to the HEU model. The changes applied to the neutronics model lead to better comparisons with experimental data or improved the calculation efficiency but do not challenge the conclusion of the feasibility analysis. If the U7Mo fuel is commercially available, not cost prohibitive, a back-end solution is established and if it is possible to manufacture the proposed element, neutronics analyses show that the performance of the reactor would not be challenged by the conversion to LEU fuel.

  7. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  8. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  9. Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.

  10. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  11. Neutronic Analyses for HEU to LEU fuel conversion of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. H.; Newton, T. H.; Bergeron, A.; Horelik, N.; Stevens, J. G (Nuclear Engineering Division); ( NS)

    2011-03-02

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) reactor (MITR-II), based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is a research reactor designed primarily for experiments using neutron beam and in-core irradiation facilities. It delivers a neutron flux comparable to current LWR power reactors in a compact 6 MW core using Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) fuel. In the framework of its non-proliferation policies, the international community presently aims to minimize the amount of nuclear material available that could be used for nuclear weapons. In this geopolitical context, most research and test reactors both domestic and international have started a program of conversion to the use of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) fuel. A new type of LEU fuel based on a mixture of uranium and molybdenum (UMo) is expected to allow the conversion of compact high performance reactors like the MITR-II. This report presents the results of steady state neutronic safety analyses for conversion of MITR-II from the use of HEU fuel to the use of U-Mo LEU fuel. The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the safety analyses meet current requirements for an LEU core replacement of MITR-II.

  12. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  13. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  14. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  15. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  16. Correction: Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telling, Mark T F; Campbell, Stuart I; Engberg, Dennis; Martín Y Marero, David; Andersen, Ken H

    2016-03-21

    Correction for 'Spectroscopic characteristics of the OSIRIS near-backscattering crystal analyser spectrometer on the ISIS pulsed neutron source' by Mark T. F. Telling et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2005, 7, 1255-1261.

  17. Linear Two-Dimensional MHD of Accretion Disks: Crystalline structure and Nernst coefficient

    CERN Document Server

    Montani, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional MHD configurations characterising the steady state of the accretion disk on a highly magnetised neutron star. The model we describe has a local character and represents the extension of the crystalline structure outlined in Coppi (2005), dealing with a local model too, when a specific accretion rate is taken into account. We limit our attention to the linearised MHD formulation of the electromagnetic back-reaction characterising the equilibrium, by fixing the structure of the radial, vertical and azimuthal profiles. Since we deal with toroidal currents only, the consistency of the model is ensured by the presence of a small collisional effect, phenomenologically described by a non-zero constant Nernst coefficient (thermal power of the plasma). Such an effect provides a proper balance of the electron force equation via non zero temperature gradients, related directly to the radial and vertical velocity components. We show that the obtained profile has the typical oscillating feat...

  18. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  19. L'analyse par activation de neutrons de réacteur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G.

    2003-02-01

    Quand les neutrons traversent la matière, certains sont transmis sans interaction, les autres interagissent avec le milieu traversé par diffusion et par absorption. Ce phénomène d'absorption est utilisé pour se protéger des neutrons, mais aussi pour les détecter; il peut également être utilisé pour identifier les noyaux “absorbants" et ainsi analyser le milieu traversé. En effet par différentes réactions nucléaires (n,γ), (n,p), (n,α), (n,fission), on obtient des noyaux résiduels qui sont souvent radioactifs; on dit que l'échantillon est “activé". Si l'on connaît le rendement d'activation et donc le pourcentage de noyaux ainsi “transmutés", les mesures de radioactivité induite vont permettre de déterminer la composition de l'échantillon irradié. Cette méthode dite d'analyse par activation neutronique est pratiquée depuis la découverte du neutron. Elle a permis grâce à sa sélectivité et à sa sensibilité d'avoir accès au domaine des traces et des ultra-traces dans des champs d'application très divers comme la métallurgie, l'archéologie, la biologie, la géochimie etc...

  20. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  1. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  2. Critical Behaviour of Pure and Site-Random Two Dimensional Antiferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgenau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T......Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T...

  3. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  4. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  5. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  6. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  7. International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) neutron source term simulation and neutronics analyses of the high flux test module

    CERN Document Server

    Simakov, S P; Heinzel, V; Moellendorff, U V

    2002-01-01

    The report describes the new results of the development work performed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe on the neutronics of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF). An important step forward has been done in the simulation of neutron production of the deuteron-lithium source using the Li(d,xn) reaction cross sections from evaluated data files. The developed Monte Carlo routine and d-Li reaction data newly evaluated at INPE Obninsk have been verified against available experimental data on the differential neutron yield from deuteron-bombarded thick lithium targets. With the modified neutron source three-dimensional distributions of neutron and photon fluxes, displacement and gas production rates and nuclear heating inside the high flux test module (HFTM) were calculated. In order to estimate the uncertainty resulting from the evaluated data, two independent libraries, recently released by INPE and LANL, have been used in the transport calculations. The proposal to use a reflector around ...

  8. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  10. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  11. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  12. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  13. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  14. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  15. Two-dimensional position sensitive ionization chamber with GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Noritaka; Noro, Tetsuo; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Takao, Hideaki; Nishio, Yasutaka

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a multi-anode ionization chamber for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at Kyushu University. Furthermore, we are planning to construct a neutron detector with high position resolution by combining the chamber with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a neutron converter. One of purposes is the measurement of p-> , pn knockout reaction from unstable nuclei. The multi-anode ionization chamber is composed of subdivided multiple anodes, a cathode to produce an uniform electric field, and a Frisch grid. The chamber must have position sensitivity because obtaining a beam profile is required for AMS measurements, where counting loss should be avoided. Also in the case of the neutron detector, it is necessary to measure the position to deduce the scattering angles. We have recently established a two-dimensional position readout system by the following methods: the measurement of horizontal position is enabled by trimming some anodes into wedge-like shape, and vertical position can be determined by the ratio of induced charge on the grid to the total charge on anodes. In addition, improvement of S/N ratio is important for isotope separation and position resolution. We installed a rectangular-shaped GEM and tried improving S/N ratio by electron amplification.

  16. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used...... for prediction purposes. However, we suggest that life insurance companies use the estimation technique and the cross-validation for bandwidth selection when analyzing their portfolio mortality. The non-parametric approach may give valuable information prior to developing more sophisticated prediction models...

  17. Computational Neutronics Methods and Transmutation Performance Analyses for Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Asgari; B. Forget; S. Piet; R. Ferrer; S. Bays

    2007-03-01

    The urgency for addressing repository impacts has grown in the past few years as a result of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) accumulation from commercial nuclear power plants. One obvious path that has been explored by many is to eliminate the transuranic (TRU) inventory from the SNF thus reducing the need for additional long term repository storage sites. One strategy for achieving this is to burn the separated TRU elements in the currently operating U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) fleet. Many studies have explored the viability of this strategy by loading a percentage of LWR cores with TRU in the form of either Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels or Inert Matrix Fuels (IMF). A task was undertaken at INL to establish specific technical capabilities to perform neutronics analyses in order to further assess several key issues related to the viability of thermal recycling. The initial computational study reported here is focused on direct thermal recycling of IMF fuels in a heterogeneous Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) bundle design containing Plutonium, Neptunium, Americium, and Curium (IMF-PuNpAmCm) in a multi-pass strategy using legacy 5 year cooled LWR SNF. In addition to this initial high-priority analysis, three other alternate analyses with different TRU vectors in IMF pins were performed. These analyses provide comparison of direct thermal recycling of PuNpAmCm, PuNpAm, PuNp, and Pu.

  18. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  19. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  20. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  1. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  2. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  3. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  4. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  5. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  6. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  7. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  8. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  10. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  11. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  12. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  13. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  14. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  15. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  16. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  17. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  18. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA-booster subcritical assembly part 1: analytical models and main neutronics parameters.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-09-11

    This study was carried out to model and analyze the YALINA-Booster facility, of the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus, with the long term objective of advancing the utilization of accelerator driven systems for the incineration of nuclear waste. The YALINA-Booster facility is a subcritical assembly, driven by an external neutron source, which has been constructed to study the neutron physics and to develop and refine methodologies to control the operation of accelerator driven systems. The external neutron source consists of Californium-252 spontaneous fission neutrons, 2.45 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Deuterium reactions, or 14.1 MeV neutrons from Deuterium-Tritium reactions. In the latter two cases a deuteron beam is used to generate the neutrons. This study is a part of the collaborative activity between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) of USA and the Joint Institute for Power and Nuclear Research of Belarus. In addition, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a coordinated research project benchmarking and comparing the results of different numerical codes with the experimental data available from the YALINA-Booster facility and ANL has a leading role coordinating the IAEA activity. The YALINA-Booster facility has been modeled according to the benchmark specifications defined for the IAEA activity without any geometrical homogenization using the Monte Carlo codes MONK and MCNP/MCNPX/MCB. The MONK model perfectly matches the MCNP one. The computational analyses have been extended through the MCB code, which is an extension of the MCNP code with burnup capability because of its additional feature for analyzing source driven multiplying assemblies. The main neutronics parameters of the YALINA-Booster facility were calculated using these computer codes with different nuclear data libraries based on ENDF/B-VI-0, -6, JEF-2.2, and JEF-3.1.

  19. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  20. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  1. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  2. Homogenization of Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals at Low Frequencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NI Qing; CHENG Jian-Chun

    2005-01-01

    @@ Effective velocities of elastic waves propagating in two-dimensional phononic crystal at low frequencies are analysed theoretically, and exact analytical formulas for effective velocities of elastic waves are derived according to the method presented by Krokhin et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 (2003) 264302]. Numerical calculations for phononic crystals consisted of array of Pb cylinders embedded in epoxy show that the composites have distinct anisotropy at low filling fraction. The anisotropy increases as the filling fraction increases, while as the filling fraction closes to the limitation, the anisotropy decreases.

  3. The problem of friction in two-dimensional relative motion

    CERN Document Server

    Grech, D K; Grech, Dariusz; Mazur, Zygmunt

    2000-01-01

    We analyse a mechanical system in two-dimensional relative motion with friction. Although the system is simple, the peculiar interplay between two kinetic friction forces and gravity leads to the wide range of admissible solutions exceeding most intuitive expectations. In particular, the strong qualitative dependence between behaviour of the system, boundary conditions and parameters involved in its description is emphasised. The problem is intended to be discussed in theoretical framework and might be of interest for physics and mechanics students as well as for physics teachers.

  4. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  5. Neutronic analyses of design issues affecting the tritium breeding performance in different DEMO blanket concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereslavtsev, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.pereslavtsev@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute for Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Realistic 3D MCNP model based on the CAD engineering model of DEMO. • Automated procedure for the generation and arrangement of the blanket modules for different DEMO concepts: HCPB, HCLL, WCLL, DCLL. • Several parameters affecting tritium breeding ratio (TBR) were investigated. • A set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts. - Abstract: Neutronic analyses were performed to assess systematically the tritium breeding ratio (TBR) variations in the DEMO for the different blanket concepts HCPB, HCLL, WCLL and DCLL DEMOs due to modifications of the blanket configurations. A dedicated automated procedure was developed to fill the breeding modules in the common generic model in correspondence to the different concepts. The TBR calculations were carried out using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code. The following parameters affecting the global TBR were investigated: TBR poloidal distribution, radial breeder zone depth, {sup 6}Li enrichment, steel content in the breeder modules, poloidal segmentation of the breeder blanket volume, size of gaps between blankets, thickness of the first wall and of the tungsten armour. Based on the results a set of practical guidelines was prepared for the designers developing the individual breeding blanket concepts with the goal to achieve the required tritium breeding performance in DEMO.

  6. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  7. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  8. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  9. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  10. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  11. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  12. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  13. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  14. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  15. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  16. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  17. Monte Carlo modeling and analyses of YALINA- booster subcritical assembly Part II : pulsed neutron source.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, A.; Gohar, M. Y. A.; Rabiti, C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-22

    One of the most reliable experimental methods for measuring the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly is the Sjoestrand method applied to the reaction rate generated from a pulsed neutron source. This study developed a new analytical methodology for characterizing the kinetic parameters of a subcritical assembly using the Sjoestrand method, which allows comparing the analytical and experimental time dependent reaction rates and the reactivity measurements. In this methodology, the reaction rate, detector response, is calculated due to a single neutron pulse using MCNP/MCNPX computer code or any other neutron transport code that explicitly simulates the fission delayed neutrons. The calculation simulates a single neutron pulse over a long time period until the delayed neutron contribution to the reaction is vanished. The obtained reaction rate is superimposed to itself, with respect to the time, to simulate the repeated pulse operation until the asymptotic level of the reaction rate, set by the delayed neutrons, is achieved. The superimposition of the pulse to itself was calculated by a simple C computer program. A parallel version of the C program is used due to the large amount of data being processed, e.g. by the Message Passing Interface (MPI). The new calculation methodology has shown an excellent agreement with the experimental results available from the YALINA-Booster facility of Belarus. The facility has been driven by a Deuterium-Deuterium or Deuterium-Tritium pulsed neutron source and the (n,p) reaction rate has been experimentally measured by a {sup 3}He detector. The MCNP calculation has utilized the weight window and delayed neutron biasing variance reduction techniques since the detector volume is small compared to the assembly volume. Finally, this methodology was used to calculate the IAEA benchmark of the YALINA-Booster experiment.

  18. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  19. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  20. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  1. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  2. Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-12-01

    The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.

  3. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  4. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  5. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  8. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  9. Nonclassical Symmetry Analysis of Heated Two-Dimensional Flow Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Imran; Naz, Rehana; Khan, Muhammad Danish

    2015-12-01

    This article analyses the nonclassical symmetries and group invariant solution of boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flows. First, we derive the nonclassical symmetry determining equations with the aid of the computer package SADE. We solve these equations directly to obtain nonclassical symmetries. We follow standard procedure of computing nonclassical symmetries and consider two different scenarios, ξ1≠0 and ξ1=0, ξ2≠0. Several nonclassical symmetries are reported for both scenarios. Furthermore, numerous group invariant solutions for nonclassical symmetries are derived. The similarity variables associated with each nonclassical symmetry are computed. The similarity variables reduce the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in terms of similarity variables. The reduced system of ODEs are solved to obtain group invariant solution for governing boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flow problems. We successfully formulate a physical problem of heat transfer analysis for fluid flow over a linearly stretching porous plat and, with suitable boundary conditions, we solve this problem.

  10. Neutronic analyses of the preliminary design of a DCLL blanket for the EUROfusion DEMO power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palermo, Iole, E-mail: iole.palermo@ciemat.es; Fernández, Iván; Rapisarda, David; Ibarra, Angel

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We perform neutronic calculations for the preliminary DCLL Blanket design. • We study the tritium breeding capability of the reactor. • We determine the nuclear heating in the main components. • We verify if the shielding of the TF coil is maintained. - Abstract: In the frame of the newly established EUROfusion WPBB Project for the period 2014–2018, four breeding blanket options are being investigated to be used in the fusion power demonstration plant DEMO. CIEMAT is leading the development of the conceptual design of the Dual Coolant Lithium Lead, DCLL, breeding blanket. The primary role of the blanket is of energy extraction, tritium production, and radiation shielding. With this aim the DCLL uses LiPb as primary coolant, tritium breeder and neutron multiplier and Eurofer as structural material. Focusing on the achievement of the fundamental neutronic responses a preliminary blanket model has been designed. Thus detailed 3D neutronic models of the whole blanket modules have been generated, arranged in a specific DCLL segmentation and integrated in the generic DEMO model. The initial design has been studied to demonstrate its viability. Thus, the neutronic behaviour of the blanket and of the shield systems in terms of tritium breeding capabilities, power generation and shielding efficiency has been assessed in this paper. The results demonstrate that the primary nuclear performances are already satisfactory at this preliminary stage of the design, having obtained the tritium self-sufficiency and an adequate shielding.

  11. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  12. Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Q B; Zhao, P W; Jolos, R V; Meng, J

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor ($\\gamma=-30^\\circ$) coupling to one $h_{11/2}$ proton particle and one $h_{11/2}$ neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobb...

  13. Two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian for chiral and wobbling modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q. B.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhao, P. W.; Jolos, R. V.; Meng, J.

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional collective Hamiltonian (2DCH) on both azimuth and polar motions in triaxial nuclei is proposed to investigate the chiral and wobbling modes. In the 2DCH, the collective potential and the mass parameters are determined from three-dimensional tilted axis cranking (TAC) calculations. The broken chiral and signature symmetries in the TAC solutions are restored by the 2DCH. The validity of the 2DCH is illustrated with a triaxial rotor (γ =-30∘ ) coupling to one h11 /2 proton particle and one h11 /2 neutron hole. By diagonalizing the 2DCH, the angular momenta and energy spectra are obtained. These results agree with the exact solutions of the particle rotor model (PRM) at high rotational frequencies. However, at low frequencies, the energies given by the 2DCH are larger than those by the PRM due to the underestimation of the mass parameters. In addition, with increasing angular momentum, the transitions from the chiral vibration to chiral rotation and further to longitudinal wobbling motion have been presented in the 2DCH.

  14. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  15. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  16. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  17. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  18. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  19. Analyses of silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, lead fluoride, bismuth as low-pass velocity filters for neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, D.; Holmryd, S.

    1969-01-01

    Transmission measurement of neutrons by filter materials for low energy neutrons is important for the study of structure and dynamics of condensed matter. Since only thermal neutrons are useful for such experiments, filter materials that transmit thermal neutrons while attenuating fast neutrons and gamma rays are of considerable interest.

  20. The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.

  1. Use of particles other than neutrons in activation analysis; Emploi de particules autres que les neutrons en analyse par actuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-15

    Nuclear reactions obtained by irradiation in {gamma} Bremsstrahlung, {alpha} particles and protons are particularly suitable for dosing very small traces of light elements. We consider the possibilities presented by activation in {gamma} radiation of 28 MeV maximum energy, mainly for the measurement of C, F, N, O, P and S. Non-destructive methods of analysis for beryllium are described. Under certain conditions they may also be used for other elements such as B, Ca, Li and Na. We give also the results of our first experiments carried out in an attempt to find a method for dosing carbon and oxygen by irradiation in {alpha} particles and protons. For each type of activation the possible types of interference with other nuclear refections are considered. (author) [French] Des reactions nucleaires obtenues par irradiation dans des rayons {gamma} de freinage, des particules {alpha} et des protons, sont particulierement indiquees pour les dosages de traces ultimes de certains elements legers. Nous etudions les possibilites offertes par les activations en rayons {alpha} d'energie maximum 28 MeV, principalement pour les dosages de C, F, N, O, P et S. Des methodes d'analyse non destructives appliquees au beryllium sont decrites. Sous certaines conditions, elles peuvent egalement etre utilisees pour d'autres materiaux comme B, Ca, Li et Na. Nous donnons d'autre part les resultats de nos premieres experiences effectuees pour la mise au point des methodes de dosage du carbone et de l'oxygene par irradiation dans les particules {alpha} et les protons. Pour chaque type d'activation, les possibilites d'interferences avec d'autres reactions nucleaires sont examinees. (auteur)

  2. FX2-TH: a two-dimensional nuclear reactor kinetics code with thermal-hydraulic feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shober, R.A.; Daly, T.A.; Ferguson, D.R.

    1978-10-01

    FX2-TH is a two-dimensional, time-dependent nuclear reactor kinetics program with thermal and hydraulic feedback. The neutronics model used is multigroup neutron diffusion theory. The following geometry options are available: x, r, x-y, r-z, theta-r, and triangular. FX2-TH contains two basic thermal and hydraulic models: a simple adiabatic fuel temperature calculation, and a more detailed model consisting of an explicit representation of a fuel pin, gap, clad, and coolant. FX2-TH allows feedback effects from both fuel temperature (Doppler) and coolant temperature (density) changes. FX2-TH will calculate a consistent set of steady state conditions by iterating between the neutronics and thermal-hydraulics until convergence is reached. The time-dependent calculation is performed by the use of the improved quasistatic method. A disk editing capability is available. FX2-TH is operational on IBM system 360 or 370 computers and on the CDC 7600.

  3. Screening in two-dimensional gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Korcyl, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the problem of screening in 1+1 dimensional gauge theories. Using QED2 as a warm-up for the non-abelian models we show the mechanism of the string breaking, in particular the vanishing overlap of the Wilson loops to the broken-string ground state that has been conjectured in higher-dimensional analyses. We attempt to extend our analysis to non-integer charges in the quenched and unquenched cases, in pursuit of the numerical check of a renowned result for the string tension between arbitrarily-charged fermions in the massive Schwinger model.

  4. Screening in two-dimensional gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korcyl, Piotr [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Koren, Mateusz [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Cracow (Poland). Inst. Fizyki

    2012-12-15

    We analyze the problem of screening in 1+1 dimensional gauge theories. Using QED{sub 2} as a warmup for the non-abelian models we show the mechanism of the string breaking, in particular the vanishing overlap of the Wilson loops to the broken-string ground state that has been conjectured in higher-dimensional analyses. We attempt to extend our analysis to non-integer charges in the quenched and unquenched cases, in pursuit of the numerical check of a renowned result for the string tension between arbitrarily-charged fermions in the massive Schwinger model.

  5. Beam transient analyses of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors based on neutron transport method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Mingtao; Wu, Hongchun [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Zheng, Youqi, E-mail: yqzheng@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China); Wang, Kunpeng [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, PO Box 8088, Beijing 100082 (China); Li, Xunzhao; Zhou, Shengcheng [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A transport-based kinetics code for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors is developed. • The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated. • The impacts of neutronic parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are investigated. - Abstract: The Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR) is almost external source dominated since there is no additional reactivity control mechanism in most designs. This paper focuses on beam-induced transients with an in-house developed dynamic analysis code. The performance of different kinetics methods adapted to the ADSR is investigated, including the point kinetics approximation and space–time kinetics methods. Then, the transient responds of beam trip and beam overpower are calculated and analyzed for an ADSR design dedicated for minor actinides transmutation. The impacts of some safety-related neutronics parameters deteriorating with fuel depletion are also investigated. The results show that the power distribution varying with burnup leads to large differences in temperature responds during transients, while the impacts of kinetic parameters and feedback coefficients are not very obvious. Classification: Core physic.

  6. The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.

  7. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  8. Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.

  9. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  10. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  11. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  12. Neutron Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, A. K.; Brenizer, J. S.

    Neutron radiography and its related two-dimensional (2D) neutron imaging techniques have been established as invaluable nondestructive inspection methods and quantitative measurement tools. They have been used in a wide variety of applications ranging from inspection of aircraft engine turbine blades to study of two-phase fluid flow in operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Neutron radiography is similar to X-ray radiography in that the method produces a 2D attenuation map of neutron radiation that has penetrated the object being examined. However, the images produced differ and are often complementary due to the differences between X-ray and neutron interaction mechanisms. The uses and types of 2D neutron imaging have expanded over the past 15 years as a result of advances in imaging technology and improvements in neutron generators/sources and computers. Still, high-intensity sources such as those from reactors and spallation neutron sources, together with conventional film radiography, remain the mainstay of high-resolution, large field-of-view neutron imaging. This chapter presents a summary of the history, methods, and related variations of neutron radiography techniques.

  13. Quantifying leaf venation patterns: two-dimensional maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Amin, Mira; Pakulska, Malgosia

    2009-01-01

    The leaf vasculature plays crucial roles in transport and mechanical support. Understanding how vein patterns develop and what underlies pattern variation between species has many implications from both physiological and evolutionary perspectives. We developed a method for extracting spatial vein pattern data from leaf images, such as vein densities and also the sizes and shapes of the vein reticulations. We used this method to quantify leaf venation patterns of the first rosette leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana throughout a series of developmental stages. In particular, we characterized the size and shape of vein network areoles (loops), which enlarge and are split by new veins as a leaf develops. Pattern parameters varied in time and space. In particular, we observed a distal to proximal gradient in loop shape (length/width ratio) which varied over time, and a margin-to-center gradient in loop sizes. Quantitative analyses of vein patterns at the tissue level provide a two-way link between theoretical models of patterning and molecular experimental work to further explore patterning mechanisms during development. Such analyses could also be used to investigate the effect of environmental factors on vein patterns, or to compare venation patterns from different species for evolutionary studies. The method also provides a framework for gathering and overlaying two-dimensional maps of point, line and surface morphological data.

  14. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja

    2016-02-01

    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.

  15. Transient cases analyses of the TRIGA IPR-R1 using thermal hydraulic and neutron kinetic coupled codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Patricia A.L.; Costa, Antonella L.; Pereira, Claubia; Veloso, Maria A.F.; Scari, Maria E., E-mail: patricialire@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: antonella@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: dora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: melizabethscari@yahoo.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto Nacional de Ciencias e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (INCT/CNPq), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miro, Rafael; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: rmiro@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Simulations and analyses of nuclear reactors have been improved by utilization of coupled thermal-hydraulic (TH) and neutron kinetics (NK) system codes especially to simulate transients that involve strong feedback effects between NK and TH. The TH-NK coupling technique was initially developed and used to simulate the behavior of power reactors; however, several coupling methodologies are now being applied for research reactors. This work presents the coupling methodology application between RELAP5 and PARCS codes using as a model the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor. Analyses of steady state and transient conditions and comparisons with results from simulations using only the RELAP5 code are being presented in this paper. (author)

  16. Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.

  17. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  18. Development of novel rare earth doped fluoride and oxide scintillators for two-dimensional imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Yoshikawa; T. Iguchi; G. Boulon; M. Nikd; T. Yanagida; Y. Yokota; K. Kamada; N. Kawaguchi; K. Fukuda; A. Yamazaki; K. Watanabe; A. Uritani

    2011-01-01

    Two topics were focused.The first one was about the gamma-ray scintillator,pr3+:Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG).The second one was about neutron scintillator,Ce3+:6LiCaAlF6 and Eu2+:6LiCaAlF6 (6LiCAF).Those scintillators have been developed very recently for modem imaging applications in the medical and homeland security fields.In both cases,the rare earth ions are playing the crucial role as emission centers.Pr3+ in LuAG provided fast 5d→4f transition providing noticeably shorter decay time than that of Ce3+.Among several candidate hosts,LuAG showed the best performance.Bulk crystal growth,basic scintillation properties,two-dimensional gamma-ray imaging and positron emission mammography (PEM) application were demonstrated.Due to the international situation,the homeland security was compromized by illicit traffic of explosives,drugs,nuclear materials,etc.and the ways to its improvement became an important R&D topic.For this purpose the Ce and Eu doped LiCAF appeared competitive candidates.Especially,when substitution of 3He neutron detectors was considered,the discrimination ability of gamma-ray from alpha-ray was important.Bulk crystal growth,basic scintillation properties and two-dimensional neutron imaging were demonstrated.

  19. Scale-selective dissipation in energy-conserving finite element schemes for two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Natale, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the multiscale properties of energy-conserving upwind-stabilised finite element discretisations of the two-dimensional incompressible Euler equations. We focus our attention on two particular methods: the Lie derivative discretisation introduced in Natale and Cotter (2016a) and the SUPG discretisation of the vorticity advection equation. Such discretisations provide control on enstrophy by modelling different types of scale interactions. We quantify the performance of the schemes in reproducing the non-local energy backscatter that characterises two-dimensional turbulent flows.

  20. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; CHEN Yi-Xue; WANG Wei-Jin; YANG Shou-Hai; WU Jun; YIN Wen; LIANG Tian-Jiao; JIA Xue-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan,Guangdong, China.Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The target of calculations is to optimize the neutron beamline shielding design to guarantee personal safety and minimize cost. Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and the first collision source methodology is also illustrated. Two-dimensional dose distribution is calculated. The dose at the end of the neutron beam line is less than 2.5μSv/h. The models have ensured that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the standard limit required.

  1. Analyses of the reflector tank, cold source, and beam tube cooling for ANS reactor. [Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marland, S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1992-07-01

    This report describes my work as an intern with Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., in the summer of 1991. I was assigned to the Reactor Technology Engineering Department, working on the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS). My first project was to select and analyze sealing systems for the top of the diverter/reflector tank. This involved investigating various metal seals and calculating the forces necessary to maintain an adequate seal. The force calculations led to an analysis of several bolt patterns and lockring concepts that could be used to maintain a seal on the vessel. Another project involved some pressure vessel stress calculations and the calculation of the center of gravity for the cold source assembly. I also completed some sketches of possible cooling channel patterns for the inner vessel of the cold source. In addition, I worked on some thermal design analyses for the reflector tank and beam tubes, including heat transfer calculations and assisting in Patran and Pthermal analyses. To supplement the ANS work, I worked on other projects. I completed some stress/deflection analyses on several different beams. These analyses were done with the aid of CAASE, a beam-analysis software package. An additional project involved bending analysis on a carbon removal system. This study was done to find the deflection of a complex-shaped beam when loaded with a full waste can.

  2. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  3. RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang

    2006-01-01

    The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.

  4. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  5. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya

    2015-04-01

    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  6. Tilted Two-Dimensional Array Multifocus Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabumoto, Sohshi; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O

    2017-07-18

    A simple and efficient two-dimensional multifocus confocal Raman microspectroscopy featuring the tilted-array technique is demonstrated. Raman scattering from a 4 × 4 square foci array passing through a 4 × 4 confocal pinhole array is tilted with a periscope. The tilted array of Raman scattering signals is dispersed by an imaging spectrograph onto a CCD detector, giving 16 independent Raman spectra formed as 16 bands with different heights on the sensor. Use of a state-of-the-art imaging spectrograph enables high-precision wavenumber duplicability of the 16 spectra. This high duplicability makes the simultaneously obtained spectra endurable for multivariate spectral analyses, which is demonstrated by a singular value decomposition analysis for Raman spectra of liquid indene. Although the present implementation attains only 16 measurement points, the number of points can be extended to larger than 100 without any technical leaps. Limit of parallelization depends on the interval of measurement points as well as the performance of the optical system. Criteria for finding the maximum feasible number are discussed.

  7. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  8. Analyses of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: ixodidae) using neutron activation analysis (NAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, Simone M.; Oliveira, Daniella G.L.; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M., E-mail: daniellaoliveira@butantan.gov.b, E-mail: amchudzinki@butantan.gov.b [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zamboni, Cibele B., E-mail: czamboni@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis technique (INAA) was applied to determine the elemental composition of hemolymph from Amblyomma cajennense tick. This biological material came from Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) and it was investigated using the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (4MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP - Brazil. The concentration values for: Br (0.0032 {+-} 0.0005gL{sup -1}), Ca (0.104 {+-} 0.029gL{sup -1}), Cl (4.41 {+-} 0.25gL{sup -1}), I (76 {+-} 27{mu}gL{sup -1}), K (0.38 {+-} 0.09gL{sup -1}), Mg (0.038 {+-} 0.011gL{sup -1}), Na (4.30 {+-} 0.26gL{sup -1}) and S (1.35 {+-} 0.37gL{sup -1}) were determined for the first time. These data were compared with the concentration values established for Americanum and Anatolicum Excavatum tick species to clarify the ion balance in this biological material (hemolymph). This comparison suggests that Na concentration, majority in these species, has a similar behavior. These data also contribute to the understanding of hemolymph composition complementing its characterization as well as for the understanding of several physiological processes, especially those related to salivary secretion. (author)

  9. Comparison of neutron cross sections for selected fission products and isotopic composition analyses with burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Gil, C. S.; Kim, J. D.; Jang, J. H.; Lee, Y. D. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea)

    2003-10-01

    The neutron absorption cross sections for 18 fission products evaluated within the framework of the KAERI-BNL international collaboration have been compared with the ENDF/B-VI release 7. Also, the influence of the new evaluations on isotopic compositions of the fission products as a function of burnup has been analyzed through the OECD/NEA burnup credit criticality benchmarks (Phase 1B) and the LWR/Pu recycling benchmarks. These calculations were performed by WIMSD-5B with the 69 group libraries prepared from three evaluated nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.7, ENDF/B-VI.8 including new evaluations in resonance region covering thermal region, and ENDF/B-VII expected including those in upper resonance region up to 20 MeV. For Xe-131, the composition calculated with ENDF/B-VI.8 shows maximum difference of 4.78% compared to ENDF/B-VI.7. However, the isotopic compositions of all fission products calculated with ENDF/B-VII shows no differences compared to ENDF/B-VI.7.

  10. High-energy magnon dispersion and multimagnon continuum in the two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandvik, A W; Singh, R R

    2001-01-15

    We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations and numerical analytic continuation to study high-energy spin excitations in the two-dimensional S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet at low temperature. We present results for both the transverse (x) and longitudinal (z) dynamic spin structure factors Sx,z(q,omega) at q = (pi,0) and (pi/2, pi/2). Linear spin-wave theory predicts no dispersion on the line connecting these momenta. Our calculations show that in fact the magnon energy at (pi,0) is 10% lower than at (pi/2, pi/2). We also discuss the transverse and longitudinal multimagnon continua and their relevance to neutron scattering experiments.

  11. Neutron diffraction analyses of U-(6-10 wt.%)Mo alloy powders fabricated by centrifugal atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Man [Advanced Fuel Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ho Jin, E-mail: hjryu@kaeri.re.k [Advanced Fuel Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Don Bae; Lee, Yoon Sang [Advanced Fuel Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Soo; Seong, Baek Seok [Neutron Science Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Kyu [Advanced Fuel Technology Development Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Cornen, Marilyne [INSA de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 Sciences Chimiques de Rennes/Chimie-Metallurgie, 20 Avenue des Buttes de Coesmes, 35043 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2010-02-15

    Lattice parameters of U-(6-10 wt.%)Mo alloy powders fabricated by a centrifugal atomization technique were measured by neutron diffraction analyses. A micro-segregation of Mo at cell boundaries was observed in the centrifugally atomized U-Mo alloy powders with varying Mo content. Lattice parameters of gamma phases decrease linearly with the increasing Mo content. By separating the overlapped diffraction peaks from cell boundaries and cell interior, lattice parameters and Mo contents of each region were calculated. The Mo content at cell boundaries is about 2-5 at.% lower than that in the cell interior and the lattice parameters for the cell boundaries are higher than those for the cell interior of the atomized U-Mo powder.

  12. Neutron diffraction analyses of U-(6-10 wt.%)Mo alloy powders fabricated by centrifugal atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Don Bae; Lee, Yoon Sang; Lee, Jeong Soo; Seong, Baek Seok; Kim, Chang Kyu; Cornen, Marilyne

    2010-02-01

    Lattice parameters of U-(6-10 wt.%)Mo alloy powders fabricated by a centrifugal atomization technique were measured by neutron diffraction analyses. A micro-segregation of Mo at cell boundaries was observed in the centrifugally atomized U-Mo alloy powders with varying Mo content. Lattice parameters of gamma phases decrease linearly with the increasing Mo content. By separating the overlapped diffraction peaks from cell boundaries and cell interior, lattice parameters and Mo contents of each region were calculated. The Mo content at cell boundaries is about 2-5 at.% lower than that in the cell interior and the lattice parameters for the cell boundaries are higher than those for the cell interior of the atomized U-Mo powder.

  13. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  14. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  15. Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R

    2016-01-01

    We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.

  16. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  17. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  18. Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

  19. Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wen-Chao

    2004-01-01

    We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.

  20. A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji

    2012-02-05

    Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.

  1. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  2. RELAP5 analyses of two hypothetical flow reversal events for the advanced neutron source reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Wendel, M.W.; Yoder, G.L. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents RELAP5 results of two hypothetical, low flow transients analyzed as part of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor safety program. The reactor design features four independent coolant loops (three active and one in standby), each containing a main curculation pump (with battery powered pony motor), heat exchanger, an accumulator, and a check valve. The first transient assumes one of these pumps fails, and additionally, that the check valve in that loop remains stuck in the open position. This accident is considered extremely unlikely. Flow reverses in this loop, reducing the core flow because much of the coolant is diverted from the intact loops back through the failed loop. The second transient examines a 102-mm-diam instantaneous pipe break near the core inlet (the worst break location). A break is assumed to occur 90 s after a total loss-of-offsite power. Core flow reversal occurs because accumulator injection overpowers the diminishing pump flow. Safety margins are evaluated against four thermal limits: T{sub wall}=T{sub sat}, incipient boiling, onset of significant void, and critical heat flux. For the first transient, the results show that these limits are not exceeded (at a 95% non-exceedance probability level) if the pony motor battery lasts 30 minutes (the present design value). For the second transient, the results show that the closest approach of the fuel surface temperature to the local saturation temperature during core flow reversal is about 39{degrees}C. Therefore the fuel remains cool during this transient. Although this work is done specifically for the ANSR geometry and operating conditions, the general conclusions may be applicable to other highly subcooled reactor systems.

  3. Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...

  4. Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University

    1997-01-01

    Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...

  5. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan

    2002-05-01

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.

  7. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  8. Analyses of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously at mid-latitude and Antarctica high-altitude stations during quiet solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, G.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper are described a new neutron spectrometer which operate in the Concordia station (Antarctica, Dome C) since December 2015. This instrument complements a network including neutron spectrometers operating in the Pic-du-Midi and the Pico dos Dias. Thus, this work present an analysis of cosmic ray induced-neutron based on spectrometers operated simultaneously in the Pic-du-Midi and the Concordia stations during a quiet solar activity. The both high station platforms allow for investigating the long period dynamics to analyze the spectral variation and effects of local and seasonal changes, but also the short term dynamics during solar flare events. A first part is devoted to analyze the count rates, the spectrum and the neutron fluxes, implying cross-comparisons between data obtained in the both stations. In a second part, measurements analyses were reinforced by modeling based on simulations of atmospheric cascades according to primary spectra which only depend on the solar modulation potential.

  9. Observation of a pairing pseudogap in a two-dimensional Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, Michael; Fröhlich, Bernd; Vogt, Enrico; Koschorreck, Marco; Köhl, Michael

    2011-11-30

    Pairing of fermions is ubiquitous in nature, underlying many phenomena. Examples include superconductivity, superfluidity of (3)He, the anomalous rotation of neutron stars, and the crossover between Bose-Einstein condensation of dimers and the BCS (Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer) regime in strongly interacting Fermi gases. When confined to two dimensions, interacting many-body systems show even more subtle effects, many of which are not understood at a fundamental level. Most striking is the (as yet unexplained) phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity in copper oxides, which is intimately related to the two-dimensional geometry of the crystal structure. In particular, it is not understood how the many-body pairing is established at high temperature, and whether it precedes superconductivity. Here we report the observation of a many-body pairing gap above the superfluid transition temperature in a harmonically trapped, two-dimensional atomic Fermi gas in the regime of strong coupling. Our measurements of the spectral function of the gas are performed using momentum-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, analogous to angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in the solid state. Our observations mark a significant step in the emulation of layered two-dimensional strongly correlated superconductors using ultracold atomic gases.

  10. Image interpolation by two-dimensional parametric cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E

    2006-07-01

    Cubic convolution is a popular method for image interpolation. Traditionally, the piecewise-cubic kernel has been derived in one dimension with one parameter and applied to two-dimensional (2-D) images in a separable fashion. However, images typically are statistically nonseparable, which motivates this investigation of nonseparable cubic convolution. This paper derives two new nonseparable, 2-D cubic-convolution kernels. The first kernel, with three parameters (designated 2D-3PCC), is the most general 2-D, piecewise-cubic interpolator defined on [-2, 2] x [-2, 2] with constraints for biaxial symmetry, diagonal (or 90 degrees rotational) symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The second kernel, with five parameters (designated 2D-5PCC), relaxes the constraint of diagonal symmetry, based on the observation that many images have rotationally asymmetric statistical properties. This paper also develops a closed-form solution for determining the optimal parameter values for parametric cubic-convolution kernels with respect to ensembles of scenes characterized by autocorrelation (or power spectrum). This solution establishes a practical foundation for adaptive interpolation based on local autocorrelation estimates. Quantitative fidelity analyses and visual experiments indicate that these new methods can outperform several popular interpolation methods. An analysis of the error budgets for reconstruction error associated with blurring and aliasing illustrates that the methods improve interpolation fidelity for images with aliased components. For images with little or no aliasing, the methods yield results similar to other popular methods. Both 2D-3PCC and 2D-5PCC are low-order polynomials with small spatial support and so are easy to implement and efficient to apply.

  11. Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.

  12. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.

  13. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  14. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  15. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  16. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  17. Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.

  18. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  19. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  20. Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.

  1. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  2. Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.

  3. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  4. Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2008-06-01

    We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.

  5. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.

  6. Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.

  7. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...

  8. Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.

  9. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  10. Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Ortega, A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.

  11. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  12. A heuristic two-dimensional presentation of microsatellite-based data applied to dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foerster Martin

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methods based on genetic distance matrices usually lose information during the process of tree-building by converting a multi-dimensional matrix into a phylogenetic tree. We applied a heuristic method of two-dimensional presentation to achieve a better resolution of the relationship between breeds and individuals investigated. Four hundred and nine individuals from nine German dog breed populations and one free-living wolf population were analysed with a marker set of 23 microsatellites. The result of the two-dimensional presentation was partly comparable with and complemented a model-based analysis that uses genotype patterns. The assignment test and the neighbour-joining tree based on allele sharing estimate allocated 99% and 97% of the individuals according to their breed, respectively. The application of the two-dimensional presentation to distances on the basis of the proportion of shared alleles resulted in comparable and further complementary insight into inferred population structure by multilocus genotype data. We expect that the inference of population structure in domesticated species with complex breeding histories can be strongly supported by the two-dimensional presentation based on the described heuristic method.

  13. Pasted type distributed two-dimensional fiber Bragg grating vibration sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianliang; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude; Wei, Qin

    2015-07-01

    A pasted type distributed two-dimensional fiber Bragg grating (FBG) vibration sensor has been proposed and studied in this paper. The optical fiber is directly considered as an elastomer. The two-dimensional vibration can be separated by subtraction/addition of two FBGs' center wavelength shift. The principle of the sensor as well as numerical simulation and experimental analyses are presented. Experimental results show that the resonant frequencies of the sensor x/y main vibration direction are separately 1300/20.51 Hz, which are consistent with the numerical simulation analysis result. The flat frequency range resides in 10-750 Hz and 3-12 Hz, respectively; dynamic range is 28.63 dB; in the x main vibration direction, the sensor's sensitivity is 32.84 pm/g, with linearity 3.91% in the range of 10-60 m/s(2), while in the y main vibration direction, the sensor's sensitivity is 451.3 pm/g, with linearity 1.92% in the range of 1.5-8 m/s(2). The cross sensitivity is 3.91%. Benefitting from the two dimensional sensing properties, it can be used in distributed two-dimensional vibration measurement.

  14. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  15. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  16. The gauging of two-dimensional bosonic sigma models on world-sheets with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gawedzki, Krzysztof; Waldorf, Konrad

    2013-01-01

    We extend our analysis of the gauging of rigid symmetries in bosonic two-dimensional sigma models with Wess-Zumino terms in the action to the case of world-sheets with defects. A structure that permits a non-anomalous coupling of such sigma models to world-sheet gauge fields of arbitrary topology is analysed, together with obstructions to its existence, and the classification of its inequivalent choices.

  17. Enhanced detergent extraction for analysis of membrane proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu Kimberly K; Lang John C; Butt R Hussain; Churchward Matthew A; Coorssen Jens R

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The analysis of hydrophobic membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has long been hampered by the concept of inherent difficulty due to solubility issues. We have optimized extraction protocols by varying the detergent composition of the solubilization buffer with a variety of commercially available non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents and detergent-like phospholipids. Results After initial analyses by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, quantitative two-dimensiona...

  18. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.

  19. Iron interference in arsenic absorption by different plant species, analysed by neutron activation, k{sub 0}-method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, George; Matos, Ludmila Vieira da Silva; Silva, Maria Aparecida da; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: george@cdtn.br, e-mail: menezes@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Natural arsenic contamination is a cause for concern in many countries of the world including Argentina, Bangladesh, Chile, China, India, Mexico, Thailand, United States of America and also in Brazil, specially in the Iron Quadrangle area, where mining activities have been contributing to aggravate natural contamination. Among other elements, iron is capable to interfere with the arsenic absorption by plants; iron ore has been proposed to remediate areas contaminated by the mentioned metalloid. In order to verify if iron can interfere with arsenic absorption by different taxa of plants, specimens of Brassicacea and Equisetaceae were kept in a 1/4 Murashige and Skoog basal salt solution (M and S), with 10 {mu}gL{sup -1} of arsenic acid. And varying concentrations of iron. The specimens were analysed by neutron activation analysis, k{sub 0}-method, a routine technique in CDTN, and also very appropriate for arsenic studies. The preliminary results were quite surprising, showing that iron can interfere with arsenic absorption by plants, but in different ways, according to the species studied. (author)

  20. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  1. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen

    1993-04-01

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.

  2. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1993-04-12

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity

  3. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko V.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.

  4. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  5. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  6. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  7. Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fel, Leonid G.

    2002-05-01

    The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).

  8. Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....

  9. Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K

    2011-01-01

    We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.

  10. Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.

  11. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  12. Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent

  13. Numerical blowup in two-dimensional Boussinesq equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a three-stage numerical relay to investigate the finite time singularity in the two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation equations. The initial asymmetric condition is the middle-stage output of a $2048^2$ run, the highest resolution in our study is $40960^2$, and some signals of numerical blowup are observed.

  14. Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay

    2013-02-08

    We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals.

  15. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  16. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  17. Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D

    1991-01-01

    This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.

  18. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Black-Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, Chiara R.; Pasquinucci, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    We explore the thermodynamics of a general class of two dimensional dilatonic black-holes. A simple prescription is given that allows us to compute the mass, entropy and thermodynamic potentials, with results in agreement with those obtained by other methods, when available.

  19. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...

  20. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  1. Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.

    1988-06-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.

  2. Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.

  3. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  4. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  5. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi

  6. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  7. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  8. Vibrations of Thin Piezoelectric Shallow Shells: Two-Dimensional Approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N Sabu

    2003-08-01

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  9. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  10. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  11. Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t

  12. Two Dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2016-01-01

    We study two-dimensional F(R) Horava-Lifshitz gravity from the Hamiltonian point of view. We determine constraints structure with emphasis on the careful separation of the second class constraints and global first class constraints. We determine number of physical degrees of freedom and also discuss gauge fixing of the global first class constraints.

  13. Localization of Tight Closure in Two-Dimensional Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamran Divaani-Aazar; Massoud Tousi

    2005-02-01

    It is shown that tight closure commutes with localization in any two-dimensional ring of prime characteristic if either is a Nagata ring or possesses a weak test element. Moreover, it is proved that tight closure commutes with localization at height one prime ideals in any ring of prime characteristic.

  14. Cryptanalysis of the Two-Dimensional Circulation Encryption Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Preneel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the security of the two-dimensional circulation encryption algorithm (TDCEA, recently published by Chen et al. in this journal. We show that there are several flaws in the algorithm and describe some attacks. We also address performance issues in current cryptographic designs.

  15. New directions in science and technology: two-dimensional crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A H Castro [Graphene Research Centre, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Novoselov, K, E-mail: phycastr@nus.edu.sg, E-mail: konstantin.novoselov@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    Graphene is possibly one of the largest and fastest growing fields in condensed matter research. However, graphene is only one example in a large class of two-dimensional crystals with unusual properties. In this paper we briefly review the properties of graphene and look at the exciting possibilities that lie ahead.

  16. Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess

  17. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  18. Dislocation climb in two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davoudi, K.M.; Nicola, L.; Vlassak, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, dislocation climb is incorporated in a two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics model. Calculations are carried out for polycrystalline thin films, passivated on one or both surfaces. Climb allows dislocations to escape from dislocation pile-ups and reduces the strain-hardening r

  19. SAR Processing Based On Two-Dimensional Transfer Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Jin, Michael Y.; Curlander, John C.

    1994-01-01

    Exact transfer function, ETF, is two-dimensional transfer function that constitutes basis of improved frequency-domain-convolution algorithm for processing synthetic-aperture-radar, SAR data. ETF incorporates terms that account for Doppler effect of motion of radar relative to scanned ground area and for antenna squint angle. Algorithm based on ETF outperforms others.

  20. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  1. Confined two-dimensional fermions at finite density

    CERN Document Server

    De Francia, M; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M; De Francia, M; Falomir, H; Loewe, M; Santangelo, E M

    1995-01-01

    We introduce the chemical potential in a system of two-dimensional massless fermions, confined to a finite region, by imposing twisted boundary conditions in the Euclidean time direction. We explore in this simple model the application of functional techniques which could be used in more complicated situations.

  2. Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059

  3. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  4. Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or

  5. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  6. Spontaneous emission in two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the radiation field in a two-dimensional photonic crystal with and without a microcavity introduced are investigated through the concept of the position-dependent photon density of states. The position-dependent rate of spontaneous radiative decay for a two-level atom with random...

  7. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  8. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  9. Two-dimensional manifold with point-like defects

    CERN Document Server

    Gani, Vakhid A; Rubin, Sergei G

    2014-01-01

    We study a class of two-dimensional extra spaces isomorphic to the $S^2$ sphere in the framework of the multidimensional gravitation. We show that there exists a family of stationary metrics that depend on the initial (boundary) conditions. All these geometries have a singular point. We also discuss the possibility for these deformed extra spaces to be considered as dark matter candidates.

  10. Instability of two-dimensional heterotic stringy black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Azreg-Ainou, M

    1999-01-01

    We solve the eigenvalue problem of general relativity for the case of charged black holes in two-dimensional heterotic string theory, derived by McGuigan et al. For the case of $m^{2}>q^{2}$, we find a physically acceptable time-dependent growing mode; thus the black hole is unstable. The extremal case $m^{2}=q^{2}$ is stable.

  11. Two Dimensional Tensor Product B-Spline Wavelet Scaling Functions for the Solution of Two-Dimensional Unsteady Diffusion Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Lei; LI haijiao; ZHANG Lewen

    2008-01-01

    The fourth-order B spline wavelet scaling functions are used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation. The calculations from a case history indicate that the method provides high accuracy and the computational efficiency is enhanced due to the small matrix derived from this method.The respective features of 3-spline wavelet scaling functions, 4-spline wavelet scaling functions and quasi-wavelet used to solve the two-dimensional unsteady diffusion equation are compared. The proposed method has potential applications in many fields including marine science.

  12. Enhanced detergent extraction for analysis of membrane proteomes by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Kimberly K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of hydrophobic membrane proteins by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has long been hampered by the concept of inherent difficulty due to solubility issues. We have optimized extraction protocols by varying the detergent composition of the solubilization buffer with a variety of commercially available non-ionic and zwitterionic detergents and detergent-like phospholipids. Results After initial analyses by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE, quantitative two-dimensional analyses of human erythrocyte membranes, mouse liver membranes, and mouse brain membranes, extracted with buffers that included the zwitterionic detergent MEGA 10 (decanoyl-N-methylglucamide and the zwitterionic lipid LPC (1-lauroyl lysophosphatidylcholine, showed selective improvement over extraction with the common 2-DE detergent CHAPS (3 [(3-cholamidopropyldimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. Mixtures of the three detergents showed additive improvements in spot number, density, and resolution. Substantial improvements in the analysis of a brain membrane proteome were observed. Conclusion This study demonstrates that an optimized detergent mix, coupled with rigorous sample handling and electrophoretic protocols, enables simple and effective analysis of membrane proteomes using two-dimensional electrophoresis.

  13. Phase diagram of a two-dimensional large- Q Potts model in an external field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shan-Ho; Landau, D. P.

    2009-04-01

    We use a two-dimensional Wang-Landau sampling algorithm to map out the phase diagram of a Q-state Potts model with Q⩽10 in an external field H that couples to one state. Finite-size scaling analyses show that for large Q the first-order phase transition point at H=0 is in fact a triple point at which three first-order phase transition lines meet. One such line is restricted to H=0; another line has H⩽0. The third line, which starts at the H=0 triple point, ends at a critical point (T,H) which needs to be located in a two-dimensional parameter space. The critical field H(Q) is positive and decreases with decreasing Q, which is in qualitative agreement with previous predictions.

  14. Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.

  15. The separation of whale myoglobins with two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, G S

    1988-10-01

    Five myoglobins (sperm whale, Sei whale, Hubbs' beaked whale, pilot whale, and Amazon River dolphin) were examined using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Previous reports indicated that none of these proteins could be separated by using denaturing (in the presence of 8-9 M urea) isoelectric focusing. This result is confirmed in the present study. However, all the proteins could be separated by using denaturing nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis in the first dimension. Additionally, all the myoglobins have characteristic mobilities in the second dimension (sodium dodecyl sulfate), but these mobilities do not correspond to the molecular weights of the proteins. We conclude that two-dimensional electrophoresis can be more sensitive to differences in primary protein structure than previous studies indicate and that the assessment seems to be incorrect that this technique can separate only proteins that have a unit charge difference.

  16. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2015-09-18

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.

  17. Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301

    2012-01-01

    The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...

  18. The Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter {\\Lambda} to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with a universal exponent {\\theta} = 3.1 \\pm 0.2.

  19. On Dirichlet eigenvectors for neutral two-dimensional Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Miclo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a general class of discrete, two-dimensional Markov chains modeling the dynamics of a population with two types, without mutation or immigration, and neutral in the sense that type has no influence on each individual's birth or death parameters. We prove that all the eigenvectors of the corresponding transition matrix or infinitesimal generator \\Pi\\ can be expressed as the product of "universal" polynomials of two variables, depending on each type's size but not on the specific transitions of the dynamics, and functions depending only on the total population size. These eigenvectors appear to be Dirichlet eigenvectors for \\Pi\\ on the complement of triangular subdomains, and as a consequence the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered in a specific way. As an application, we study the quasistationary behavior of finite, nearly neutral, two-dimensional Markov chains, absorbed in the sense that 0 is an absorbing state for each component of the process.

  20. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter's troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equi...

  1. Analysis of one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ban Xiaojun; Gao Xiaozhi; Huang Xianlin; Wu Tianbao

    2006-01-01

    The analytical structures and the corresponding mathematical properties of the one dimensional and two dimensional fuzzy controllers are first investigated in detail.The nature of these two kinds of fuzzy controllers is next probed from the perspective of control engineering. For the one dimensional fuzzy controller, it is concluded that this controller is a combination of a saturation element and a nonlinear proportional controller, and the system that employs the one dimensional fuzzy controller is the combination of an open-loop control system and a closedloop control system. For the latter case, it is concluded that it is a hybrid controller, which comprises the saturation part, zero-output part, nonlinear derivative part, nonlinear proportional part, as well as nonlinear proportional-derivative part, and the two dimensional fuzzy controller-based control system is a loop-varying system with varying number of control loops.

  2. Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjit MUSIK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.

  3. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  4. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  5. Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.

  6. Topological states in two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Ming; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the topological states of the two-dimensional hexagon lattice bilayer. The system exhibits a quantum valley Hall (QVH) state when the interlayer interaction t⊥ is smaller than the nearest neighbor hopping energy t, and then translates to a trivial band insulator state when t⊥ / t > 1. Interestingly, the system is found to be a single-edge QVH state with t⊥ / t = 1. The topological phase transition also can be presented via changing bias voltage and sublattice potential in the system. The QVH states have different edge modes carrying valley current but no net charge current. The bias voltage and external electric field can be tuned easily in experiments, so the present results will provide potential application in valleytronics based on the two-dimensional hexagon lattice.

  7. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetostriction under vector magnetic characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, D.; Enokizono, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional magnetostriction of electrical steel sheet under vector magnetic characteristic. In conventional measurement method using Single Sheet Tester, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field strength, and the magnetostriction have been measured in one direction. However, an angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector exists because the magnetic property is vector quantity. An angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the direction of maximum magnetostriction also exists. We developed a new measurement method, which enables measurement of these angles. The vector magnetic characteristic and the two-dimensional magnetostriction have been measured using the new measurement method. The BH and Bλ curves considering the angles are shown in this paper. The analyzed results considering the angles are also made clear.

  9. Phase separation under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwata, H

    2001-05-01

    The spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid under Poiseuille flow is studied by numerical simulation. We investigated time dependence of domain sizes in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow. In an effective region of the flow, the power-law growth of a characteristic length in the direction parallel to the flow changes from the diffusive regime with the growth exponent alpha=1/3 to a new regime. The scaling invariance of the growth in the perpendicular direction is destroyed after the diffusive regime. A recurrent prevalence of thick and thin domains which determines log-time periodic oscillations has not been observed in our model. The growth exponents in the infinite system under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow are obtained by the renormalization group.

  10. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  11. Enstrophy inertial range dynamics in generalized two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Takahiro; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2016-07-01

    We show that the transition to a k-1 spectrum in the enstrophy inertial range of generalized two-dimensional turbulence can be derived analytically using the eddy damped quasinormal Markovianized (EDQNM) closure. The governing equation for the generalized two-dimensional fluid system includes a nonlinear term with a real parameter α . This parameter controls the relationship between the stream function and generalized vorticity and the nonlocality of the dynamics. An asymptotic analysis accounting for the overwhelming dominance of nonlocal triads allows the k-1 spectrum to be derived based upon a scaling analysis. We thereby provide a detailed analytical explanation for the scaling transition that occurs in the enstrophy inertial range at α =2 in terms of the spectral dynamics of the EDQNM closure, which extends and enhances the usual phenomenological explanations.

  12. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  13. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  14. A benchmark-problem specification and calculation using SENSIBL, a one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code of the AARE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.W.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Davierwalla, D.M.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of suitable benchmark problems makes it difficult to test sensitivity codes with a covariance library. A benchmark problem has therefore been defined for one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainity analysis codes and code systems. The problem, representative of a fusion reactor blanket, has a simple, three-zone )tau)-z geometry containing a D-T fusion neutron source distributed in a central void region surrounded by a thick /sup 6/LiH annulus. The response of interest is the /sup 6/Li tritium production per source neutron, T/sub 6/. The calculation has been performed with SENSIBL using other codes from the AARE code system as a test of both SENSIBL and the linked, modular system. The caluclation was performed using the code system in the standard manner with a covariance data library in the COVFILS-2 format but modified to contain specifically tailored covariance data for H and /sup 6/Li (Path A). The calculation was also performed by a second method which uses specially perturbed H and Li cross sections (Path B). This method bypasses SENSIBL and allows a hand calculation of the benchmark T/sub 6/ uncertainties. The results of Path A and Path B were total uncertainties in T/sub 6/ of 0.21% and 0.19%, respectively. The closeness of the results for this challenging test gives confidence that SENSIBL and the AARE system will perform well for realistic sensitivity and uncertainty analyses

  15. Two-dimensional model of elastically coupled molecular motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Wei; Wen Shu-Tang; Chen Gai-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao; Cao Zhong-Xing; Li Wei

    2012-01-01

    A flashing ratchet model of a two-headed molecular motor in a two-dimensional potential is proposed to simulate the hand-over-hand motion of kinesins.Extensive Langevin simulations of the model are performed.We discuss the dependences of motion and efficiency on the model parameters,including the external force and the temperature.A good qualitative agreement with the expected behavior is observed.

  16. Conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding center plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1972-01-01

    The Kubo method is used to calculate the electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional, strongly magnetized plasma. The particles interact through (logarithmic) electrostatic potentials and move with their guiding center drift velocities (Taylor-McNamara model). The thermal equilibrium dc conductivity can be evaluated analytically, but the ac conductivity involves numerical solution of a differential equation. Both conductivities fall off as the inverse first power of the magnetic field strength.

  17. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  18. Cryptography Using Multiple Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetric key block cipher cryptosystem is proposed, involving multiple two-dimensional chaotic maps and using 128-bits external secret key. Computer simulations indicate that the cipher has good diffusion and confusion properties with respect to the plaintext and the key. Moreover, it produces ciphertext with random distribution. The computation time is much less than previous related works. Theoretic analysis verifies its superiority to previous cryptosystems against different types of attacks.

  19. A UNIVERSAL VARIATIONAL FORMULATION FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL FLUID MECHANICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何吉欢

    2001-01-01

    A universal variational formulation for two dimensional fluid mechanics is obtained, which is subject to the so-called parameter-constrained equations (the relationship between parameters in two governing equations). By eliminating the constraints, the generalized variational principle (GVPs) can be readily derived from the formulation. The formulation can be applied to any conditions in case the governing equations can be converted into conservative forms. Some illustrative examples are given to testify the effectiveness and simplicity of the method.

  20. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  1. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qing-Hai Wang

    2009-08-01

    Two-dimensional $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the $\\mathcal{PT}$ symmetry, the complex energy eigenvalues appear when level crossing happens between same parity eigenstates.

  2. Extraction of plant proteins for two-dimensional electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, Fabienne

    1988-01-01

    Three different extraction procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of plant proteins are compared: (i) extraction of soluble proteins with a nondenaturing Tris-buffer, (ii) denaturing extraction in presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate at elevated temperature allowing the solubilization of membrane proteins in addition to a recovery of soluble proteins, and (iii) a trichloroacetic acid-acetone procedure allowing the direct precipitation of total proteins.

  3. Lyapunov Computational Method for Two-Dimensional Boussinesq Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Mabrouk, Anouar Ben

    2010-01-01

    A numerical method is developed leading to Lyapunov operators to approximate the solution of two-dimensional Boussinesq equation. It consists of an order reduction method and a finite difference discretization. It is proved to be uniquely solvable and analyzed for local truncation error for consistency. The stability is checked by using Lyapunov criterion and the convergence is studied. Some numerical implementations are provided at the end of the paper to validate the theoretical results.

  4. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J S Virdi; F Chand; C N Kumar; S C Mishra

    2012-08-01

    Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex potentials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by $x = x_{1} + ip_{3}. y = x_{2} + ip_{4}, p_{x} = p_{1} + ix_{3}, p_{y} = p_{2} + ix_{4}$. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. THe obtained invariants may be useful for studying non-Hermitian Hamiltonian systems.

  5. Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  6. А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.

  7. Chronology Protection in Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mishima, T; Mishima, Takashi; Nakamichi, Akika

    1994-01-01

    The global structure of 1 + 1 dimensional compact Universe is studied in two-dimensional model of dilaton gravity. First we give a classical solution corresponding to the spacetime in which a closed time-like curve appears, and show the instability of this spacetime due to the existence of matters. We also observe quantum version of such a spacetime having closed timelike curves never reappear unless the parameters are fine-tuned.

  8. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  9. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175

    2009-01-01

    We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  10. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Krivonos, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756[hep-th], with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written it terms of the oscillator variables.

  11. Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F

    1992-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.

  12. Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-07-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.

  13. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  14. Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.

  15. Numerical Study of Two-Dimensional Viscous Flow over Dams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利兵; 刘宇陆; 涂敏杰

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of two-dimensional viscous flow over two dams were numerically investigated. The results show that the behavior of the vortices is closely related to the space between two dams, water depth, Fr number and Reynolds number. In addition, the flow properties behind each dam are different, and the changes over two dams are more complex than over one dam. Finally, the relevant turbulent characteristics were analyzed.

  16. Spirals and Skyrmions in two dimensional oxide heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Liu, W Vincent; Balents, Leon

    2014-02-14

    We construct the general free energy governing long-wavelength magnetism in two dimensional oxide heterostructures, which applies irrespective of the microscopic mechanism for magnetism. This leads, in the relevant regime of weak but non-negligible spin-orbit coupling, to a rich phase diagram containing in-plane ferromagnetic, spiral, cone, and Skyrmion lattice phases, as well as a nematic state stabilized by thermal fluctuations.

  17. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  18. Exact analytic flux distributions for two-dimensional solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraidenraich, Naum; Henrique de Oliveira Pedrosa Filho, Manoel; Vilela, Olga C; Gordon, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    A new approach for representing and evaluating the flux density distribution on the absorbers of two-dimensional imaging solar concentrators is presented. The formalism accommodates any realistic solar radiance and concentrator optical error distribution. The solutions obviate the need for raytracing, and are physically transparent. Examples illustrating the method's versatility are presented for parabolic trough mirrors with both planar and tubular absorbers, Fresnel reflectors with tubular absorbers, and V-trough mirrors with planar absorbers.

  19. Tricritical behavior in a two-dimensional field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamber, Herbert

    1980-05-01

    The critical behavior of a two-dimensional scalar Euclidean field theory with a potential term that allows for three minima is analyzed using an approximate position-space renormalization-group transformation on the equivalent quantum spin Hamiltonian. The global phase diagram shows a tricritical point separating a critical line from a line of first-order transitions. Other critical properties are examined, and good agreement is found with results on classical spin models belonging to the same universality class.

  20. Quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成志; 方卯发

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the quantum entanglement in a two-dimensional ion trap system. We discuss the quantum entanglement between the ion and phonons by using reduced entropy, and that between two degrees of freedom of the vibrational motion along x and y directions by using quantum relative entropy. We discuss also the influence of initial state of the system on the quantum entanglement and the relation between two entanglements in the trapped ion system.

  1. Coll Positioning systems: a two-dimensional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, J J

    2006-01-01

    The basic elements of Coll positioning systems (n clocks broadcasting electromagnetic signals in a n-dimensional space-time) are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows us to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these relativistic positioning systems. The positioning system defined in flat metric by two geodesic clocks is analyzed. The interest of the Coll systems in gravimetry is pointed out.

  2. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  3. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassic black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Levanony, Dana; 10.1103/PhysRevD.80.084008

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. The field equations admit two types of singularities, and their local asymptotic structure is investigated. One of these singularities is found to develop, as a spacelike singularity, inside the black hole. We then study the internal structure of the evaporating black hole from the horizon to the singularity.

  4. Towards a two dimensional model of surface piezoelectricity

    OpenAIRE

    Monge Víllora, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We want to understand the behaviour of flexoelectricity and surface piezoelectricity and distinguish them in order to go deep into the controversies of the filed. This motivate the construction of a model of continuum flexoelectric theory. The model proposed is a two-dimensional model that integrates the electromechanical equations that include the elastic, dielectric, piezoelectric and flexoelectric effect on a rectangular sample. As the flexoelectric and the surface piezoelectric effects ap...

  5. Velocity Statistics in the Two-Dimensional Granular Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Isobe, Masaharu

    2003-01-01

    We studied the macroscopic statistical properties on the freely evolving quasi-elastic hard disk (granular) system by performing a large-scale (up to a few million particles) event-driven molecular dynamics systematically and found that remarkably analogous to an enstrophy cascade process in the decaying two-dimensional fluid turbulence. There are four typical stages in the freely evolving inelastic hard disk system, which are homogeneous, shearing (vortex), clustering and final state. In the...

  6. Statistical study of approximations to two dimensional inviscid turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaz, H.M.

    1977-09-01

    A numerical technique is developed for studying the ergodic and mixing hypotheses for the dynamical systems arising from the truncated Fourier transformed two-dimensional inviscid Navier-Stokes equations. This method has the advantage of exactly conserving energy and entropy (i.e., total vorticity) in the inviscid case except for numerical error in solving the ordinary differential equations. The development of the mathematical model as an approximation to a real physical (turbulent) flow and the numerical results obtained are discussed.

  7. Static Structure of Two-Dimensional Granular Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Ping-Ping; LI Liang-Sheng; ZHENG Ning; SHI Qing-Fan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Static packing structures of two-dimensional granular chains are investigated experimentally.It is shown that the packing density approximates the saturation with the exponential law as the length of chain increases.The packing structures are globally disordered,while the local square crystallization is found by using the radial distribution function.This characteristic phase of chain packing is similar to a liquid crystal state,and has properties between a conventional liquid and solid crystal.

  8. THE DEGENERACY PROBLEM OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR RECURRING ARRAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The degeneracy degree and degeneracy position sets of a wo-dimensional linear recurrence relation set are characterized. The fact that a linear recurring array is essentially a doubly periodic array is shown. By using the Grbner base theory, a calculation formula for degeneracy degree is given and the existence of a special degeneracy position set is proved. In the present paper, the degeneracy problem of the two-dimensional linear recurring arrays is completely solved.

  9. Two-Dimensional Identification of Fetal Tooth Germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Mariana; Vaz, Paula; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana; Felino, António

    2017-03-01

      To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of two-dimensional ultrasonography in the identification of tooth germs and in the assessment of potential pathology.   Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.   Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho-Empresa Pública in Portugal.   A total of 157 white pregnant women (median age, 32 years; range, 14 to 47 years) undergoing routine ultrasound exams.   Description of the fetal tooth germs, as visualized by two-dimensional ultrasonography, including results from prior fetal biometry and detailed screening for malformations.   In the first trimester group, ultrasonography identified 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 10 tooth germs in the mandible in all fetuses except for one who presented eight maxillary tooth germs. This case was associated with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 13) with a bilateral cleft palate. In the second and third trimesters group, ultrasonography identified a larger range of tooth germs: 81.2% of fetuses showed 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 85.0% of fetuses had 10 tooth germs in the mandible. Hypodontia was more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, which led us to use qualitative two-dimensional ultrasonography to analyze the possible association between hypodontia and other variables such as fetal pathology, markers, head, nuchal, face, and spine.   We recommend using this method as the first exam to evaluate fetal morphology and also to help establish accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in pregnancy.

  10. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  11. a First Cryptosystem for Security of Two-Dimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. C.; Sharma, Himani; Sharma, R. K.; Kumar, Naveen

    In this paper, we present a novel technique for security of two-dimensional data with the help of cryptography and steganography. The presented approach provides multilayered security of two-dimensional data. First layer security was developed by cryptography and second layer by steganography. The advantage of steganography is that the intended secret message does not attract attention to itself as an object of scrutiny. This paper proposes a novel approach for encryption and decryption of information in the form of Word Data (.doc file), PDF document (.pdf file), Text document, Gray-scale images, and RGB images, etc. by using Vigenere Cipher (VC) associated with Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and then hiding the data behind the RGB image (i.e. steganography). Earlier developed techniques provide security of either PDF data, doc data, text data or image data, but not for all types of two-dimensional data and existing techniques used either cryptography or steganography for security. But proposed approach is suitable for all types of data and designed for security of information by cryptography and steganography. The experimental results for Word Data, PDF document, Text document, Gray-scale images and RGB images support the robustness and appropriateness for secure transmission of these data. The security analysis shows that the presented technique is immune from cryptanalytic. This technique further provides security while decryption as a check on behind which RGB color the information is hidden.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis using tangentially connected capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Eskil

    2007-06-22

    A novel type of fused silica capillary system is described where channels with circular cross-sections are tangentially in contact with each other and connected through a small opening at the contact area. Since the channels are not crossing each other in the same plane, the capillaries can easily be filled with different solutions, i.e. different solutions will be in contact with each other at the contact point. The system has been used to perform different types of two-dimensional separations and the complete system is fully automated where a high voltage switch is used to control the location of the high voltage in the system. Using two model compounds it is demonstrated that a type of two-dimensional separation can be performed using capillary zone electrophoresis at two different pH values. It is also shown that a compound with acid/base properties can be concentrated using a dynamic pH junction mechanism when transferred from the first separation to the second separation. In addition, the system has been used to perform a comprehensive two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis separation of tryptic digest of bovine serum albumin using capillary zone electrophoresis followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  13. A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-05-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

  14. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  15. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  16. Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S

    2015-06-23

    Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems.

  17. Augmented reality simulator for training in two-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, M; Wick, C; Pieper, S; Quast, K J; Fox, T; Grunst, G; Redel, D A

    2000-02-01

    In two-dimensional echocardiography the sonographer must synthesize multiple tomographic slices into a mental three-dimensional (3D) model of the heart. Computer graphics and virtual reality environments are ideal to visualize complex 3D spatial relationships. In augmented reality (AR) applications, real and virtual image data are linked, to increase the information content. In the presented AR simulator a 3D surface model of the human heart is linked with echocardiographic volume data sets. The 3D echocardiographic data sets are registered with the heart model to establish spatial and temporal congruence. The heart model, together with an animated ultrasound sector represents a reference scenario, which displays the currently selected two-dimensional echocardiographic cutting plane calculated from the volume data set. Modifications of the cutting plane within the echocardiographic data are transferred and visualized simultaneously and in real time within the reference scenario. The trainee can interactively explore the 3D heart model and the registered 3D echocardiographic data sets by an animated ultrasound probe, whose position is controlled by an electromagnetic tracking system. The tracking system is attached to a dummy transducer and placed on a plastic puppet to give a realistic impression of a two-dimensional echocardiographic examination.

  18. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp(2) hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.

  19. Two-dimensional oxides: multifunctional materials for advanced technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2012-08-13

    The last decade has seen spectacular progress in the design, preparation, and characterization down to the atomic scale of oxide ultrathin films of few nanometers thickness grown on a different material. This has paved the way towards several sophisticated applications in advanced technologies. By playing around with the low-dimensionality of the oxide layer, which sometimes leads to truly two-dimensional systems, one can exploit new properties and functionalities that are not present in the corresponding bulk materials or thick films. In this review we provide some clues about the most recent advances in the design of these systems based on modern electronic structure theory and on their preparation and characterization with specifically developed growth techniques and analytical methods. We show how two-dimensional oxides can be used in mature technologies by providing added value to existing materials, or in new technologies based on completely new paradigms. The fields in which two-dimensional oxides are used are classified based on the properties that are exploited, chemical or physical. With respect to chemical properties we discuss use of oxide ultrathin films in catalysis, solid oxide fuel cells, gas sensors, corrosion protection, and biocompatible materials; regarding the physical properties we discuss metal-oxide field effect transistors and memristors, spintronic devices, ferroelectrics and thermoelectrics, and solar energy materials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  1. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-08-01

    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  2. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM (Lithium Blanket Module) experiments at LOTUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li/sub 2/O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from /sup 1/H, /sup 6/Li, /sup 7/Li, /sup 9/Be, /sup nat/C, /sup 14/N, /sup 16/O, /sup 23/Na, /sup 27/Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Two-Dimensional Breather Lattice Solutions and Compact-Like Discrete Breathers and Their Stability in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic β-FPU Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We restrict our attention to the discrete two-dimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice. We look for twodimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers by using trying method and analyze their stability by using Aubry's linearly stable theory. We obtain the conditions of existence and stability of two-dimensional breather lattice solutions and two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in the discrete twodimensional monatomic β-FPU lattice.

  4. Development and application of neutron transport methods and uncertainty analyses for reactor core calculations. Technical report; Entwicklung und Einsatz von Neutronentransportmethoden und Unsicherheitsanalysen fuer Reaktorkernberechnungen. Technischer Bericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwermann, W.; Aures, A.; Bernnat, W.; and others

    2013-06-15

    This report documents the status of the research and development goals reached within the reactor safety research project RS1503 ''Development and Application of Neutron Transport Methods and Uncertainty Analyses for Reactor Core Calculations'' as of the 1{sup st} quarter of 2013. The superordinate goal of the project is the development, validation, and application of neutron transport methods and uncertainty analyses for reactor core calculations. These calculation methods will mainly be applied to problems related to the core behaviour of light water reactors and innovative reactor concepts. The contributions of this project towards achieving this goal are the further development, validation, and application of deterministic and stochastic calculation programmes and of methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, as well as the assessment of artificial neutral networks, for providing a complete nuclear calculation chain. This comprises processing nuclear basis data, creating multi-group data for diffusion and transport codes, obtaining reference solutions for stationary states with Monte Carlo codes, performing coupled 3D full core analyses in diffusion approximation and with other deterministic and also Monte Carlo transport codes, and implementing uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with the aim of propagating uncertainties through the whole calculation chain from fuel assembly, spectral and depletion calculations to coupled transient analyses. This calculation chain shall be applicable to light water reactors and also to innovative reactor concepts, and therefore has to be extensively validated with the help of benchmarks and critical experiments.

  5. The characters of nonlinear vibration in the two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2005-01-01

    The two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice is analyzed. Taking nearest-neighbor interaction into account, the characters of the nonlinear vibration in two-dimensional discrete monoatomic lattice are described by the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation. Considering the quartic nonlinear potential, the two-dimensional discrete-soliton trains and the solutions perturbed by the neck mode are presented.

  6. Criticality prompt gamma and neutron dose equations validated by Monte Carlo analyses and compared to known criticality accident doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhalter, Eugene

    The United States (US) Department of Energy [DOE] and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission [NRC] have provided the nuclear industry with requirements, goals, and objectives for the preparation of safety analysis and the finalization of that safety analysis in the form of a documented safety analysis (DSA) and technical safety requirements (TSRs). The deterministic guidance provided by the NRC in Regulatory Guide (RG) 3.33 for calculating the prompt gamma and neutron doses from a criticality has a number of potential issues associated with the semi-empirical equations, which make these equations potentially out dated. The NRC guidance for estimating the prompt gamma and neutron doses to a facility worker due to an accidental criticality was withdrawn without newer deterministic guidance being issued. This research project determined the original basis for the RG prompt gamma and neutron equations, evaluated the potential issues associated with the RG 3.33 prompt gamma and neutron equations, and modified the RG 3.33 point source prompt gamma and neutron equations to calculate the doses for the selected set of criticality accidents. The criticality accidents addressed by this dissertation include: 1. U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 point source criticality, 2. U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241 sphere source criticality, 3. Uranyl nitrate and plutonium nitrate solutions in a cylindrical process vessel and 4. Low level waste in 55-gallon and 30-gallon drums. The prompt gamma and neutron equation doses (RG 3.33/3.34/3.35) are compared to actual nuclear industry criticality accident worker doses to assess the conservatism of the RG equations. Finally, the RG 3.33 prompt gamma and neutron dose equations are compared to MCNP5 results to investigate consistency with respect to the modified prompt gamma and neutron dose equations and the representative dose estimates for each of the criticality configurations (point source, spherical source, and cylindrical source). Knowledge and accurate

  7. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in two-dimensional ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for the nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear effects tend to flatten and broaden the absorption versus frequency curve, in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Moreover, the effect of the gas nonlinearity increases with increasing sound frequency, whereas the effect of the material nonlinearity decreases with increasing sound frequency.

  8. Two-dimensional dispersive shock waves in dissipative optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2013-01-01

    We study generation of two-dimensional dispersive shock waves and oblique dark solitons upon interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects embedded into defocusing material with linear gain and two-photon absorption. Different evolution regimes are encountered including the formation of well-localized disturbances for input tilts below critical one, and generation of extended shock waves containing multiple intensity oscillations in the "upstream" region and gradually vanishing oblique dark solitons in "downstream" region for input tilts exceeding critical one. The generation of stable dispersive shock waves is possible only below certain critical defect strength.

  9. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Savran, Mona M; Konge, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is widely used, and results in accelerated patient recovery time and hospital stay were compared with laparotomy. However, laparoscopic surgery is more challenging compared with open surgery, in part because surgeons must operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...

  10. The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...

  11. Magnetic reconnection in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Dmitruk, P

    2009-03-20

    Systematic analysis of numerical simulations of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence reveals the presence of a large number of X-type neutral points where magnetic reconnection occurs. We examine the statistical properties of this ensemble of reconnection events that are spontaneously generated by turbulence. The associated reconnection rates are distributed over a wide range of values and scales with the geometry of the diffusion region. Locally, these events can be described through a variant of the Sweet-Parker model, in which the parameters are externally controlled by turbulence. This new perspective on reconnection is relevant in space and astrophysical contexts, where plasma is generally in a fully turbulent regime.

  12. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  13. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  14. Two-Dimensionally Confined Topological Edge States in Photonic Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Barik, Sabyasachi; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters.

  15. Theories on Frustrated Electrons in Two-Dimensional Organic Solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisa Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional quarter-filled organic solids are a promising class of materials to realize the strongly correlated insulating states called dimer Mott insulator and charge order. In their conducting layer, the molecules form anisotropic triangular lattices, harboring geometrical frustration effect, which could give rise to many interesting states of matter in the two insulators and in the metals adjacent to them. This review is concerned with the theoretical studies on such issue over the past ten years, and provides the systematic understanding on exotic metals, dielectrics, and spin liquids, which are the consequences of the competing correlation and fluctuation under frustration.

  16. Wake-induced bending of two-dimensional plasma crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Röcker, T. B., E-mail: tbr@mpe.mpg.de; Ivlev, A. V., E-mail: ivlev@mpe.mpg.de; Zhdanov, S. K.; Morfill, G. E. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, 85741 Garching (Germany); Couëdel, L. [CNRS, Aix-Marseille-Université, Laboratoire de Physique des Interactions Ioniques et Moléculaires, UMR 7345, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2014-07-15

    It is shown that the wake-mediated interactions between microparticles in a two-dimensional plasma crystal affect the shape of the monolayer, making it non-flat. The equilibrium shape is calculated for various distributions of the particle number density in the monolayer. For typical experimental conditions, the levitation height of particles in the center of the crystal can be noticeably smaller than at the periphery. It is suggested that the effect of wake-induced bending can be utilized in experiments, to deduce important characteristics of the interparticle interaction.

  17. Wake-induced bending of two-dimensional plasma crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Röcker, T B; Zhdanov, S K; Couëdel, L; Morfill, G E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that the wake-mediated interactions between microparticles in a two-dimensional plasma crystal affect the shape of the monolayer, making it non-flat. The equilibrium shape is calculated for various distributions of the particle number density in the monolayer. For typical experimental conditions, the levitation height of particles in the center of the crystal can be noticeably smaller than at the periphery. It is suggested that the effect of wake-induced bending can be utilized in experiments, to deduce important characteristics of the interparticle interaction.

  18. Corner wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam

    1998-07-01

    We study the interfacial behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model at the corner of weakened bonds. Monte Carlo simulations results show that the interface is pinned to the corner at a lower temperature than a certain temperature Tcw at which it undergoes a corner wetting transition. The temperature Tcw is substantially lower than the temperature of the ordinary wetting transition with a line of weakened bonds. A solid-on-solid-like model is proposed, which provides a supplementary description of the corner wetting transition.

  19. Dynamic Multiscaling in Two-dimensional Fluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Perlekar, Prasad; Pandit, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We obtain, by extensive direct numerical simulations, time-dependent and equal-time structure functions for the vorticity, in both quasi-Lagrangian and Eulerian frames, for the direct-cascade regime in two-dimensional fluid turbulence with air-drag-induced friction. We show that different ways of extracting time scales from these time-dependent structure functions lead to different dynamic-multiscaling exponents, which are related to equal-time multiscaling exponents by different classes of bridge relations; for a representative value of the friction we verify that, given our error bars, these bridge relations hold.

  20. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)

    2003-01-01

    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  1. Kinetic analysis of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Ding [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-08-15

    The dispersion relation of two dimensional metallic grating Cerenkov maser has been given by using kinetic analysis, in which the influence of electron movement is directly considered without using an equivalent dielectric medium assumption. The effects of structural parameters and beam state on the interaction gain and synchronous frequency have also been investigated in detail by numerical calculations. To an illustrative case, the quantitative relations produced from varying the gap distance between electron beam and metallic grating, beam current, electron transverse to axial velocity ratio, and electron axial velocity spread have been obtained. The developed method can be used to predict the real interaction system performances.

  2. Mean flow generation in rotating anelastic two-dimensional convection

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the processes that lead to the generation of mean flows in two-dimensional anelastic convection. The simple model consists of a plane layer that is rotating about an axis inclined to gravity. The results are two-fold: firstly we numerically investigate the onset of convection in three-dimensions, paying particular attention to the role of stratification and highlight a curious symmetry. Secondly, we investigate the mechanisms that drive both zonal and meridional flows in two dimensions. We find that, in general, non-trivial Reynolds stresses can lead to systematic flows and, using statistical measures, we quantify the role of stratification in modifying the coherence of these flows.

  3. Duality, Monodromy and Integrability of Two Dimensional String Effective Action

    CERN Document Server

    Das, A; Melikyan, A; Das, Ashok

    2002-01-01

    The monodromy matrix, ${\\hat{\\cal M}}$, is constructed for two dimensional tree level string effective action. The pole structure of ${\\hat{\\cal M}}$ is derived using its factorizability property. It is found that the monodromy matrix transforms non-trivially under the non-compact T-duality group, which leaves the effective action invariant and this can be used to construct the monodromy matrix for more complicated backgrounds starting from simpler ones. We construct, explicitly, ${\\hat{\\cal M}}$ for the exactly solvable Nappi-Witten model, both when B=0 and $B\

  4. Electronic Transmission Properties of Two-Dimensional Quasi-Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志林; 傅秀军; 刘有延

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the tight binding model, the electronic transmission properties of two-dimensional Penrose lattices with free boundary conditions are studied using the generalized eigenfunction method (Phys. Rev. B 60(1999)13444). The electronic transmission coefficients for Penrose lattices with different sizes and widths are calculated, and the result shows strong energy dependence because of the quasiperiodic structure and quantum coherent effect. Around the Fermi level E = 0, there is an energy region with zero transmission amplitudes,which suggests that the studied systems are insulating. The spatial distributions of several typical electronic states with different transmission coefficients are plotted to display the propagation process.

  5. Two-dimensional conformal field theory and the butterfly effect

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    We study chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional conformal field theory through out-of-time order thermal correlators of the form $\\langle W(t)VW(t)V\\rangle$. We reproduce bulk calculations similar to those of [1], by studying the large $c$ Virasoro identity block. The contribution of this block to the above correlation function begins to decrease exponentially after a delay of $\\sim t_* - \\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log \\beta^2E_w E_v$, where $t_*$ is the scrambling time $\\frac{\\beta}{2\\pi}\\log c$, and $E_w,E_v$ are the energy scales of the $W,V$ operators.

  6. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis: A Reference Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia-Cereda, Veronica M; Aquino, Adriano; Guest, Paul C; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) has been a mainstay of proteomic techniques for more than four decades. It was even in use for several years before the term proteomics was actually coined in the early 1990s. Over this time, it has been used in the study of many diseases including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and psychiatric disorders through the proteomic analysis of body fluids and tissues. This chapter presents a general protocol which can be applied in the study of biological samples such as blood serum or plasma and multiple tissues including the brain.

  7. Basics and recent advances of two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Gel- based proteomics is one of the most versatile methods for fractionating protein complexes. Among these methods, two dimensional- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) represents a mainstay orthogonal approach, which is popularly used to simultaneously fractionate, identify, and quantify proteins when coupled with mass spectrometric identification or other immunological tests. Although 2-DE was first introduced more than three decades ago, several challenges and limitations to its utility still exist. This review discusses the principles of 2-DE as well as both recent methodological advances and new applications. PMID:24735559

  8. Size-dispersity effects in two-dimensional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Satoshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of size dispersity on two-dimensional melting transitions, hard-disk systems with equimolar bidispersity are studied by means of particle dynamics simulations. From the nonequilibrium relaxation behaviors of bond-orientational order parameters, we find that (i) there is a critical dispersity at which the melting transition of the hexagonal solid vanishes and (ii) the quadratic structure is metastable in a certain region of the dispersity-density parameter space. These results suggest that the dispersity not only destroys order but produces new structures under certain specific conditions.

  9. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  10. The XY model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-09-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, c, carries over to the XY model, which has c=1.

  11. Two-dimensional chiral topological superconductivity in Shiba lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Neupert, Titus; Wang, Zhijun; MacDonald, A. H.; Yazdani, A.; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The chiral p-wave superconductor is the archetypal example of a state of matter that supports non-Abelian anyons, a highly desired type of exotic quasiparticle. With this, it is foundational for the distant goal of building a topological quantum computer. While some candidate materials for bulk chiral superconductors exist, they are subject of an ongoing debate about their actual paring state. Here we propose an alternative route to chiral superconductivity, consisting of the surface of an ordinary superconductor decorated with a two-dimensional lattice of magnetic impurities. We furthermore identify a promising experimental platform to realize this proposal.

  12. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  13. Field analysis of two-dimensional integrated optical gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A rigorous technique to determine the field scattered by a two-dimensional rectangular grating made up of many corrugations was developed. In this method, the grating was deemed as a sequence of two types of waveguide sections, alternatingly connected by step discontinuities. A matrix was derived that described the entire rectangular grating by integrating the separate steps and waveguide sections. With the proposed technique, several configuration were analyzed. The obtained results showed good consistency with the consequences of previous studies. Furthermore, to examine the numerical stability of the proposed method, the length of the grating was increased and obtained results for a grating with 100 periods.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Two-dimensional Nonlinear Sloshing Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-dimensional nonlinearsloshing problem is preceded by the finite element method. Two theories are used. One is fully nonlinear theory; the other is time domain second order theory. A liquid sloshing in a rectangular container subjected to a horizontal excitation is simulated using these two theories. Numerical results are obtained and comparisons are made. It is found that a good agreement is obtained for the case of small amplitude oscillation. For the situation of large amplitude excitation, although the differences between using the two theories are obvious the second order solution can still exhibit typical nonlinear features of nonlinear wave.

  15. Finite Element Analysis to Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Sloshing Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严承华; 王赤忠; 程尔升

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear sloshing problem is analyzed by means of the fully nonlinear theory and time domainsecond order theory of water waves. Liquid sloshing in a rectangular container subjected to a horizontal excitation is sim-ulated by the finite element method. Comparisons between the two theories are made based on their numerical results. Itis found that good agreement is obtained for the case of small amplitude oscillation and obvious differences occur forlarge amplitude excitation. Even though, the second order solution can still exhibit typical nonlinear features ofnonlinear wave and can be used instead of the fully nonlinear theory.

  16. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  17. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  18. AN APPROACH IN MODELING TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTIALLY CAVITATING FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An approach of modeling viscosity, unsteady partially cavitating flows around lifting bodies is presented. By employing an one-fluid Navier-Stokers solver, the algorithm is proved to be able to handle two-dimensional laminar cavitating flows at moderate Reynolds number. Based on the state equation of water-vapor mixture, the constructive relations of densities and pressures are established. To numerically simulate the cavity wall, different pseudo transition of density models are presumed. The finite-volume method is adopted and the algorithm can be extended to three-dimensional cavitating flows.

  19. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  20. Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin

    2012-01-01

    We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S =1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation.The edge states of the graphene nano sheets axe used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation.We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots.It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation.The corresponding gate operations are also proposed.

  1. Complex Saddles in Two-dimensional Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Buividovich, P V; Valgushev, S N

    2015-01-01

    We study numerically the saddle point structure of two-dimensional (2D) lattice gauge theory, represented by the Gross-Witten-Wadia unitary matrix model. The saddle points are in general complex-valued, even though the original integration variables and action are real. We confirm the trans-series/instanton gas structure in the weak-coupling phase, and identify a new complex-saddle interpretation of non-perturbative effects in the strong-coupling phase. In both phases, eigenvalue tunneling refers to eigenvalues moving off the real interval, into the complex plane, and the weak-to-strong coupling phase transition is driven by saddle condensation.

  2. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhang, S B

    2016-01-01

    Band alignment in two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures is fundamentally different from three-dimensional (3D), as Schottky barrier height is at the Schottky-Mott limit and band offset is at the Anderson limit, regardless interfacial conditions. This robustness arises because, in the asymptotic limit, effect of interfacial dipole vanishes. First-principles calculations of graphene/h-BN and MoS2/WS2 show that 2D junction width W is typically an order of magnitude longer than 3D. Therefore, heterostructures with dimension less than W can also be made, leading to tunable band alignment.

  3. Topological Quantum Optics in Two-Dimensional Atomic Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perczel, J.; Borregaard, J.; Chang, D. E.; Pichler, H.; Yelin, S. F.; Zoller, P.; Lukin, M. D.

    2017-07-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional atomic emitter arrays with subwavelength spacing constitute topologically protected quantum optical systems where the photon propagation is robust against large imperfections while losses associated with free space emission are strongly suppressed. Breaking time-reversal symmetry with a magnetic field results in gapped photonic bands with nontrivial Chern numbers and topologically protected, long-lived edge states. Due to the inherent nonlinearity of constituent emitters, such systems provide a platform for exploring quantum optical analogs of interacting topological systems.

  4. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  5. On two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches for the calculation of the rate of quasi-stationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform anomalous resistivity are considered in the framework of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In the first, 'global' equations approach, the MHD equations are approximately solved for a whole reconnection layer, including the upstream and downstream regions and the layer center. In the second, 'local' equations approach, the equations are solved across the reconnection layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. Both approaches give the same approximate answer for the reconnection rate. Our theoretical model is in agreement with the results of recent simulations of reconnection with spatially nonuniform resistivity.

  6. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Monclús

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  7. Local kinetic effects in two-dimensional plasma turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Valentini, F; Califano, F; Veltri, P

    2012-01-27

    Using direct numerical simulations of a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell model, kinetic processes are investigated in a two-dimensional turbulent plasma. In the turbulent regime, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion distribution function. These patterns of non-Maxwellian features are concentrated in space nearby regions of strong magnetic activity: the distribution function is modulated by the magnetic topology, and can elongate along or across the local magnetic field. These results open a new path on the study of kinetic processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature anisotropy, commonly observed in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  8. Drift modes of a quasi-two-dimensional current sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Malova, Kh. V.; Popov, V. Yu.; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Stability of a plasma configuration consisting of a thin one-dimensional current sheet embedded into a two-dimensional background current sheet is studied. Drift modes developing in plasma as unstable waves along the current direction are considered. Dispersion relations for kink and sausage perturbation modes are obtained depending on the ratio of parameters of thin and background current sheets. It is shown that the existence of the background sheet results in a decrease in the instability growth rates and a significant increase in the perturbation wavelengths. The role of drift modes in the excitation of oscillations observed in the current sheet of the Earth's magnetotail is discussed.

  9. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials for beyond graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehao; Eichfeld, Sarah; Leach, Jacob; Metzger, Bob; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Evans, Keith; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present an overview of the currently employed techniques to synthesize two-dimensional materials, focusing on MoS2 and WSe2, and summarize the progress reported to-date. Here we discuss the importance of controlling reactor geometries to improve film uniformity and quality for MoS2 through a combination of modeling and experimental design. In addition, development of processes scalable to provide wafer scale uniformity is explored using synthesis of WSe2 via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Finally, we discuss the impact of each of these processes for TMD synthesis on epitaxial graphene.

  10. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  11. Mass/Count Variation: A Mereological, Two-Dimensional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sutton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that two types of context are central to grounding the semantics for the mass/count distinction. We combine and develop the accounts of Rothstein (2010 and Landman (2011, which emphasize (non-overlap at a context. We also adopt some parts of Chierchia’s (2010 account which uses precisifying contexts. We unite these strands in a two-dimensional semantics that covers a wide range of the puzzling variation data in mass/count lexicalization. Most importantly, it predicts where we should expect to find such variation for some classes of nouns but not for others, and also explains why.

  12. A two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, B; Morales, J A; Coll, Bartolom\\'{e}; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allow to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out.

  13. Dynamical matrix of two-dimensional electron crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, R.; Lemonde, M.-A.; Doiron, C. B.; Ettouhami, A. M.

    2008-03-01

    In a quantizing magnetic field, the two-dimensional electron gas has a rich phase diagram with broken translational symmetry phases such as Wigner, bubble, and stripe crystals. In this paper, we derive a method to obtain the dynamical matrix of these crystals from a calculation of the density response function performed in the generalized random-phase approximation (GRPA). We discuss the validity of our method by comparing the dynamical matrix calculated from the GRPA with that obtained from standard elasticity theory with the elastic coefficients obtained from a calculation of the deformation energy of the crystal.

  14. Two-dimensional transport study of scrape off layer plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Nobuyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1999-09-01

    Two-dimensional transport code is developed to analyzed the heat pulse propagation in the scrape-off layer plasma. The classical and anomalous transport models are considered as a thermal diffusivity perpendicular to the magnetic field. On the other hand, the classical transport model is chosen as a thermal diffusivity parallel to the magnetic field. The heat deposition profiles are evaluated for various kinds of transport models. It is found that the heat pulse which arrives at the divertor plate due to the classical transport is largest compared with other models. The steady state temperate profiles of the electron and ion are also discussed. (author)

  15. Consistent theory of turbulent transport in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-jin

    2006-03-03

    A theory of turbulent transport is presented in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics with background shear and magnetic fields. We provide theoretical predictions for the transport of magnetic flux, momentum, and particles and turbulent intensities, which show stronger reduction compared with the hydrodynamic case, with different dependences on shearing rate, magnetic field, and values of viscosity, Ohmic diffusion, and particle diffusivity. In particular, particle transport is more severely suppressed than momentum transport, effectively leading to a more efficient momentum transport. The role of magnetic fields in quenching transport without altering the amplitude of flow velocity and in inhibiting the generation of shear flows is elucidated. Implications of the results are discussed.

  16. Deformable two-dimensional photonic crystal slab for cavity optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Briant, T; Cohadon, P -F; Heidmann, A; Braive, R; Beveratos, A; Abram, I; Gatiet, L Le; Sagnes, I; Robert-Philip, I

    2011-01-01

    We have designed photonic crystal suspended membranes with optimized optical and mechanical properties for cavity optomechanics. Such resonators sustain vibration modes in the megahertz range with quality factors of a few thousand. Thanks to a two-dimensional square lattice of holes, their reflectivity at normal incidence at 1064 nm reaches values as high as 95%. These two features, combined with the very low mass of the membrane, open the way to the use of such periodic structures as deformable end-mirrors in Fabry-Perot cavities for the investigation of cavity optomechanical effects

  17. Magnetization of two-dimensional superconductors with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kashurnikov, V A; Zyubin, M V

    2002-01-01

    The new method for modeling the layered high-temperature superconductors magnetization with defects, based on the Monte-Carlo algorithm, is developed. Minimization of the free energy functional of the vortex two-dimensional system made it possible to obtain the equilibrium vortex density configurations and calculate the magnetization of the superconductor with the arbitrary defects distribution in the wide range of temperatures. The magnetic induction profiles and magnetic flux distribution inside the superconductor, proving the applicability of the Bean model, are calculated

  18. The XY Model Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F; 10.1016/0370-2693(92)91037-A

    2009-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, $c$, carries over to the XY model, which has $c=1$.

  19. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Method for Two-dimensional Stefan Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Tarwidi, Dede

    2016-01-01

    Smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is developed for modelling of melting and solidification. Enthalpy method is used to solve heat conduction equations which involved moving interface between phases. At first, we study the melting of floating ice in the water for two-dimensional system. The ice objects are assumed as solid particles floating in fluid particles. The fluid and solid motion are governed by Navier-Stokes equation and basic rigid dynamics equation, respectively. We also propose a strategy to separate solid particles due to melting and solidification. Numerical results are obtained and plotted for several initial conditions.

  20. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  1. Two-Dimensional Change Detection Methods Remote Sensing Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ilsever, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Change detection using remotely sensed images has many applications, such as urban monitoring, land-cover change analysis, and disaster management. This work investigates two-dimensional change detection methods. The existing methods in the literature are grouped into four categories: pixel-based, transformation-based, texture analysis-based, and structure-based. In addition to testing existing methods, four new change detection methods are introduced: fuzzy logic-based, shadow detection-based, local feature-based, and bipartite graph matching-based. The latter two methods form the basis for a

  2. Attempt to unravel the composition of toxaphene by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with selective detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Stee, van L.L.P.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Boer, de J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) coupled with micro electron-capture and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection has been used to analyse technical toxaphene. An HP-1xHT-8 column combination yielded highly structured chromatograms and revealed a complex mixture o

  3. Evidence of molecular hydrogen trapped in two-dimensional layered titanium carbide-based MXene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Gogotsi, Yury; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Mamontov, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) are one of the largest and fastest growing families of materials. The presence of molecular hydrogen at ambient conditions in a MXene (T i3C2Tx , where Tx represents a surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) material is revealed here by inelastic and elastic neutron scatterings. The inelastic neutron-scattering spectrum measured at 5 K shows a peak at 14.6 meV, presenting a clear indication of the presence of parahydrogen in the MXene synthesized using 48 % hydrofluoric acid and annealed at 110 ∘C in vacuum prior to the measurement. An increase in the measurement temperature gradually reduces the peak intensity and increases the peak width due to the mobility of the molecular hydrogen in confinement. The presence of molecular hydrogen is confirmed further from the observed elastic intensity drop in a fixed energy-window scan of elastic intensity measurements in the temperature range of 10-35 K. Using milder etching conditions, ion intercalation, or an increase in the annealing temperature all result in the absence of the trapped hydrogen molecules in MXene. The results of this paper can guide the development of MXene materials with desired properties and improve our understanding of the behavior of MXenes in applications ranging from supercapacitors to hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis and hydrogen storage.

  4. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-09-09

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O'Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry1975, 250, 4007-4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O'Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.

  5. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low-frequency bur......In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...... to the mean component of the flow. Bursting can also result from the quasi-linear modification of the linear instability drive which is the mean pressure gradient. For each bursting process the relevant zero-dimensional model equations are given. These are finally coupled in a minimal model of convection...

  6. The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.

  7. Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.

  8. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  9. Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Morozov, S V; Jiang, D; Katsnelson, M I; Grigorieva, I V; Dubonos, S V; Firsov, A A

    2005-11-10

    Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.

  10. Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A Sobral

    Full Text Available The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.

  11. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  12. Two-dimensional echocardiographic assessment of dextrocardia: a segmental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhta, J C; Hagler, D J; Seward, J B; Tajik, A J; Julsrud, P R; Ritter, D G

    1982-12-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography was used in the prospective evaluation of 40 patients with the clinical diagnosis of dextrocardia. A segmental analysis of the situs, connections, ventricular anatomy, and chamber positions was utilized for a complete diagnostic assessment. An adequate examination was possible in 33 of these patients; the findings were confirmed by cardiac catheterization and angiography in 31 patients and at operation in 26. Use of the location of the liver and the drainage of the hepatic veins and inferior vena cava allowed atrial visceral situs to be defined in 33 patients (solitus 21, inversus 9, and ambiguous 3). Pulmonary venous connections were correctly identified in 27. In 33 patients, atrioventricular (AV) and ventriculoarterial connections and ventricular anatomy were correctly predicted. Twenty patients had 2 separate well-developed ventricles. Ventriculoarterial connections were determined correctly in all 20 patients: concordant in 5, discordant in 6, double-outlet right ventricle in 5, and single-outlet right ventricle (pulmonary atresia) in 4. In 16 patients a ventricular septal defect was correctly identified. In the remainder the ventricular septum was intact. Thirteen patients had univentricular heart: 8 had 2 AV valves (double-inlet ventricle) 3 had common AV inlet, and 2 had atresia of 1 AV connection. Two-dimensional echocardiography allowed the accurate assessment of complex congenital heart defects associated with dextrocardia. Utilizing a segmental approach, one can correctly predict atrial-visceral situs, ventricular morphology and situs, and AV and ventriculoarterial connections.

  13. Commensurability oscillations in a two-dimensional lateral superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John; Long, Andrew; Grant, David; Chowdhury, Suja

    2000-03-01

    We have calculated and measured conduction in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a weak two-dimensional periodic potential and a normal magnetic field. Simulations with a potential Vx \\cos(2π x/a) + Vy \\cos(2π y/a) show the usual commensurability oscillations in ρ_xx(B) with Vx alone. The introduction of Vy suppresses these oscillations, rather than introducing the additional oscillations in ρ_yy(B) expected from previous perturbation theories. We explain this in terms of drift of the guiding center of cyclotron motion along contours of an effective potential: open orbits of the guiding center contribute to conduction but closed orbits do not. All orbits are closed in a symmetric superlattice with |V_x| = |V_y| and commensurability oscillations are therefore quenched. Experiments on etched superlattices confirm this picture. Conventional lattice-matched samples give a symmetric potential and weak oscillations; the symmetry is broken by the piezoelectric effect in stressed samples, leading to strong oscillations. Periodic modulation of the magnetic field can be treated in the same way, which explains previous experimental results.

  14. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Khoukaz, Alfons; Grieser, Silke; Hergemöller, Ann-Katrin; Köhler, Esperanza; Täschner, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCP) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This inf...

  15. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Murphy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021. The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins.

  16. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers.

  17. Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Thiago A; Gomes, Marcelo A F; Machado, Núbia R; Brito, Valdemiro P

    2015-01-01

    The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.

  18. Configuration of Shock Waves in Two-Dimensional Overexpanded Jets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masashi Kashitani; Yutaka Yamaguchi; Yoshiaki Miyazato; Mitsuharu Masuda; Kazuyasu Matsuo

    2003-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study has been carried out to obtain the clear understanding of a shock wave transition associated with a steady two-dimensional overexpanded flow. Two-dimensional inviscid theory with respect to a shock wave reflection is used in the present study on the characteristic of shock waves. The results obtained from the flow analysis are compared with those obtained from flow visualizations. It is shown that in the region of regular reflection, the angle of an incident shock wave becomes lower than that calculated by two shock theory with an increment in the ratio pe/pb of the nozzle exit pressure pe to the back pressure pb. It is indicated that the configuration of shock waves in overexpanded jets is influenced by the divergent angle at the nozzle exit. Also it is shown from the flow visualization that a series of shock waves move into the nozzle inside with a decrease in pressure ratio pe/pb, even if the pe/pb is under overexpanded conditions.

  19. Two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2016-08-01

    We use a two-dimensional laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to measure the coupled absorption and emission properties of atomic species in plasmas produced via laser ablation of solid aluminum targets at atmospheric pressure. Emission spectra from the Al I 394.4 nm and Al I 396.15 nm transitions are measured while a frequency-doubled, continuous-wave, Ti:Sapphire laser is tuned across the Al I 396.15 nm transition. The resulting two-dimensional spectra show the energy coupling between the two transitions via increased emission intensity for both transitions during resonant absorption of the continuous-wave laser at one transition. Time-delayed and gated detection of the emission spectrum is used to isolate the resonantly-excited fluorescence emission from the thermally-excited emission from the plasma. In addition, the tunable continuous-wave laser measures the absorption spectrum of the Al transition with ultra-high resolution after the plasma has cooled, resulting in narrower spectral linewidths than observed in emission spectra. Our results highlight that fluorescence spectroscopy employing continuous-wave laser re-excitation after pulsed laser ablation combines benefits of both traditional emission and absorption spectroscopic methods.

  20. Two-Dimensional turbulence in the inverse cascade range

    CERN Document Server

    Yakhot, V

    1999-01-01

    A theory of two-dimensional turbulence in the inverse energy cascade range is presented. Strong time-dependence of the large-scale features of the flow ($\\bar{u^{2}}\\propto t$) results in decoupling of the large-scale dynamics from statistically steady-state small-scale random processes. This time-dependence is also a reason for the localness of the pressure-gradient terms in the equations governing the small-scale velocity difference PDF's. The derived expressions for the pressure gradient contributions lead to a gaussian statistics of transverse velocity differences. The solution for the PDF of longitudinal velocity differences is based on a smallness of the energy flux in two-dimensional turbulence. The theory makes a few quantitative predictions which can be tested experimentally. One of the most surprising results, derived in this paper, is that the small-scale transverse velocity differences are governed by a linear Langevin-like equation, strirred by a non-local universal gaussian random force. This ex...

  1. Online comprehensive two-dimensional ion chromatography × capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Leila; Gaudry, Adam J; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A

    2015-09-01

    A comprehensively coupled online two-dimensional ion chromatography-capillary electrophoresis (IC × CE) system for quantitative analysis of inorganic anions and organic acids in water is introduced. The system employs an in-house built sequential injection-capillary electrophoresis instrument and a nonfocusing modulation interface comprising a tee-piece and a six-port two-position injection valve that allows comprehensive sampling of the IC effluent. High field strength (+2 kV/cm) enables rapid second-dimension separations in which each peak eluted from the first-dimension separation column is analyzed at least three times in the second dimension. The IC × CE approach has been successfully used to resolve a suite of haloacetic acids, dalapon, and common inorganic anions. Two-dimensional peak capacity for IC × CE was 498 with a peak production rate of 9 peaks/min. Linear calibration curves were obtained for all analytes from 5 to 225 ng/mL (except dibromoacetic acid (10-225 ng/mL) and tribromoacetic acid (25-225 ng/mL)). The developed approach was used to analyze a spiked tap water sample, with good measured recoveries (69-119%).

  2. Two Dimensional Connectivity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farivar, Masoud; Ashtiani, Farid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on two-dimensional connectivity in sparse vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this respect, we find thresholds for the arrival rates of vehicles at entrances of a block of streets such that the connectivity is guaranteed for any desired probability. To this end, we exploit a mobility model recently proposed for sparse VANETs, based on BCMP open queuing networks and solve the related traffic equations to find the traffic characteristics of each street and use the results to compute the exact probability of connectivity along these streets. Then, we use the results from percolation theory and the proposed fast algorithms for evaluation of bond percolation problem in a random graph corresponding to the block of the streets. We then find sufficiently accurate two dimensional connectivity-related parameters, such as the average number of intersections connected to each other and the size of the largest set of inter-connected intersections. We have also proposed lower bounds for the case ...

  3. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  4. SCAPS, a two-dimensional ion detector for mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-05-01

    Faraday Cup (FC) and electron multiplier (EM) are of the most popular ion detector for mass spectrometer. FC is used for high-count-rate ion measurements and EM can detect from single ion. However, FC is difficult to detect lower intensities less than kilo-cps, and EM loses ion counts higher than Mega-cps. Thus, FC and EM are used complementary each other, but they both belong to zero-dimensional detector. On the other hand, micro channel plate (MCP) is a popular ion signal amplifier with two-dimensional capability, but additional detection system must be attached to detect the amplified signals. Two-dimensional readout for the MCP signals, however, have not achieve the level of FC and EM systems. A stacked CMOS active pixel sensor (SCAPS) has been developed to detect two-dimensional ion variations for a spatial area using semiconductor technology [1-8]. The SCAPS is an integrated type multi-detector, which is different from EM and FC, and is composed of more than 500×500 pixels (micro-detectors) for imaging of cm-area with a pixel of less than 20 µm in square. The SCAPS can be detected from single ion to 100 kilo-count ions per one pixel. Thus, SCAPS can be accumulated up to several giga-count ions for total pixels, i.e. for total imaging area. The SCAPS has been applied to stigmatic ion optics of secondary ion mass spectrometer, as a detector of isotope microscope [9]. The isotope microscope has capabilities of quantitative isotope images of hundred-micrometer area on a sample with sub-micrometer resolution and permil precision, and of two-dimensional mass spectrum on cm-scale of mass dispersion plane of a sector magnet with ten-micrometer resolution. The performance has been applied to two-dimensional isotope spatial distribution for mainly hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen of natural (extra-terrestrial and terrestrial) samples and samples simulated natural processes [e.g. 10-17]. References: [1] Matsumoto, K., et al. (1993) IEEE Trans. Electron Dev. 40

  5. How two-dimensional brick layer J-aggregates differ from linear ones: excitonic properties and line broadening mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkstra, Arend G; Knoester, Jasper; Nelson, Keith A; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-01-01

    We study the excitonic coupling and homogeneous spectral line width of brick layer J-aggregate films. We begin by analysing the structural information revealed by the two-exciton states probed in two-dimensional spectra. Our first main result is that the relation between the excitonic couplings and the spectral shift in a two-dimensional structure is different (larger shift for the same nearest neighbour coupling) from that in a one-dimensional structure, which leads to an estimation of dipolar coupling in two-dimensional lattices. We next investigate the mechanisms of homogeneous broadening - population relaxation and pure dephasing - and evaluate their relative importance in linear and two-dimensional aggregates. Our second main result is that pure dephasing dominates the line width in two-dimensional systems up to a crossover temperature, which explains the linear temperature dependence of the homogeneous line width. This is directly related to the decreased density of states at the band edge when compared...

  6. Validating two-dimensional leadership models on three-dimensionally structured fish schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Máté; Holbrook, Robert I.; Biro, Dora; Burt de Perera, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Identifying leader–follower interactions is crucial for understanding how a group decides where or when to move, and how this information is transferred between members. Although many animal groups have a three-dimensional structure, previous studies investigating leader–follower interactions have often ignored vertical information. This raises the question of whether commonly used two-dimensional leader–follower analyses can be used justifiably on groups that interact in three dimensions. To address this, we quantified the individual movements of banded tetra fish (Astyanax mexicanus) within shoals by computing the three-dimensional trajectories of all individuals using a stereo-camera technique. We used these data firstly to identify and compare leader–follower interactions in two and three dimensions, and secondly to analyse leadership with respect to an individual's spatial position in three dimensions. We show that for 95% of all pairwise interactions leadership identified through two-dimensional analysis matches that identified through three-dimensional analysis, and we reveal that fish attend to the same shoalmates for vertical information as they do for horizontal information. Our results therefore highlight that three-dimensional analyses are not always required to identify leader–follower relationships in species that move freely in three dimensions. We discuss our results in terms of the importance of taking species' sensory capacities into account when studying interaction networks within groups.

  7. Excitations in a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Walker, L. R.; Guggenheim, H. J.;

    1975-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic excitations in the planar Heisenberg random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 at 7K are reported. Two well-defined bands of excitations are observed. A simple mean crystal model is found to predict accurately the measured dispersion relations using...

  8. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toppozini Laura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  9. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  10. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  11. Hemoglobin redux: combining neutron and X-ray diffraction with mass spectrometry to analyse the quaternary state of oxidized hemoglobins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueser, Timothy C., E-mail: timothy.mueser@utoledo.edu; Griffith, Wendell P. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Kovalevsky, Andrey Y. [Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Guo, Jingshu; Seaver, Sean [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Langan, Paul [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Bioscience Division, MS M888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    X-ray and neutron diffraction studies of cyanomethemoglobin are being used to evaluate the structural waters within the dimer–dimer interface involved in quaternary-state transitions. Improvements in neutron diffraction instrumentation are affording the opportunity to re-examine the structures of vertebrate hemoglobins and to interrogate proton and solvent position changes between the different quaternary states of the protein. For hemoglobins of unknown primary sequence, structural studies of cyanomethemoglobin (CNmetHb) are being used to help to resolve sequence ambiguity in the mass spectra. These studies have also provided additional structural evidence for the involvement of oxidized hemoglobin in the process of erythrocyte senescence. X-ray crystal studies of Tibetan snow leopard CNmetHb have shown that this protein crystallizes in the B state, a structure with a more open dyad, which possibly has relevance to RBC band 3 protein binding and erythrocyte senescence. R-state equine CNmetHb crystal studies elaborate the solvent differences in the switch and hinge region compared with a human deoxyhemoglobin T-state neutron structure. Lastly, comparison of histidine protonation between the T and R state should enumerate the Bohr-effect protons.

  12. Nonlinear transport in a two dimensional holographic superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hua Bi; Tian, Yu; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2016-06-01

    The problem of nonlinear transport in a two-dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both the near- and nonequilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near-equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting nonequilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Increasing the amplitude of the applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium nonsuperconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In the lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of the superconducting gap, which results in a nonmonotonic field-dependent nonlinear conductivity.

  13. Discrete Holomorphicity at Two-Dimensional Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardy, John

    2009-12-01

    After a brief review of the historical role of analyticity in the study of critical phenomena, an account is given of recent discoveries of discretely holomorphic observables in critical two-dimensional lattice models. These are objects whose correlation functions satisfy a discrete version of the Cauchy-Riemann relations. Their existence appears to have a deep relation with the integrability of the model, and they are presumably the lattice versions of the truly holomorphic observables appearing in the conformal field theory (CFT) describing the continuum limit. This hypothesis sheds light on the connection between CFT and integrability, and, if verified, can also be used to prove that the scaling limit of certain discrete curves in these models is described by Schramm-Loewner evolution (SLE).

  14. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  15. Finite amplitude waves in two-dimensional lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniform expansion is obtained for nonlinear wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material consisting of a porous sheet followed by honeycomb cavities and backed by the impervious wall of the duct. The waves in the duct are coupled with those in the porous sheet and the cavities. An analytical expression is obtained for the absorption coefficient in terms of the sound frequency, the physical properties of the porous sheet, and the geometrical parameters of the flow configuration. The results show that the nonlinearity flattens and broadens the absorption vs. frequency curve, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions or the porous material acoustic properties, in agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Flat Chern band in a two-dimensional organometallic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a "romance of flatland" could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  17. Epi-two-dimensional flow and generalized enstrophy

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of the enstrophy ($L^2$ norm of the vorticity $\\omega$) plays an essential role in the physics and mathematics of two-dimensional (2D) Euler fluids. Generalizing to compressible ideal (inviscid and barotropic) fluids, the generalized enstrophy $\\int_{\\Sigma(t)} f(\\omega/\\rho)\\rho\\, d^2 x$, ($f$ an arbitrary smooth function, $\\rho$ the density, and $\\Sigma(t)$ an arbitrary 2D domain co-moving with the fluid) is a constant of motion, and plays the same role. On the other hand, for the three-dimensional (3D) ideal fluid, the helicity $\\int_{M} {V}\\cdot\\omega\\,d^3x$, ($V$ the flow velocity, $\\omega=\

  18. Fermionic boundary modes in two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samokhin, K. V.; Mukherjee, S. P.

    2016-09-01

    We calculate the spectrum of the Andreev boundary modes in a two-dimensional superconductor formed at an interface between two different nonsuperconducting materials, e.g., insulating oxides. Inversion symmetry is absent in this system, and both the electron band structure and the superconducting pairing are strongly affected by the spin-orbit coupling of the Rashba type. We consider isotropic s -wave pairing states, both with and without time-reversal symmetry breaking, as well as various d -wave states. In all cases, there exist subgap Andreev boundary states, whose properties, in particular, the number and location of the zero-energy modes, qualitatively depend on the gap symmetry and the spin-orbit coupling strength.

  19. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kuldip Singh; Dinesh Kumar Madan; Anita Goel; Nat Ram Garg

    2005-08-01

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular case of a normal line-load acting inside an orthotropic elastic half-space has been considered in detail and closed form expressions for the displacements and stresses are obtained. Further, the results for the displacements for a transversely isotropic as well as for an isotropic medium have also been derived in the closed form. The use of matrix notation is straightforward and avoids unwieldy mathematical expressions. To examine the effect of anisotropy, variations of dimensionless displacements for an orthotropic, transversely isotropic and isotropic elastic medium have been compared numerically and it is found that anisotropy affects the deformation significantly.

  20. Jamming patterns in a two-dimensional hopper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiwing To

    2005-06-01

    We report experimental studies of jamming phenomenon of monodisperse metal disks falling through a two-dimensional hopper when the hopper opening is larger than three times the size of the disks. For each jamming event, the configuration of the arch formed at the hopper opening is studied. The cumulative distribution functions () for hoppers of opening size d are measured. (Here is the horizontal component of the arch vector, which is defined as the displacement vector from the center of the first disk to the center of the last disk in the arch.) We found that the distribution of () can be collasped into a master curve () = ()() that decays exponentially for > 4. The scaling factor () is a decreasing function of d and is approximately proportional to the jamming probability.

  1. Acoustic resonances in two dimensional radial sonic crystals shells

    CERN Document Server

    Torrent, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction. They have been recently introduced and are only possible thanks to the anisotropy of specially designed acoustic metamaterials [see Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 103} 064301 (2009)]. We present here a comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional RSC shells, which consist of a cavity defect centered at the origin of the crystal and a finite thickness crystal shell surrounded by a fluidlike background. We develop analytic expressions demonstrating that, like for other type of crystals (photonic or phononic) with defects, these shells contain Fabry-Perot like resonances and strongly localized modes. The results are completely general and can be extended to three dimensional acoustic structures and to their photonic counterparts, the radial photonic crystals.

  2. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2010-07-01

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sánchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  3. Cooperation in two-dimensional mixed-games

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, Marco A; Wardil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a common framework to study the evolution of cooperation, where it is usually assumed that the same game is played in all interactions. Here, we investigate a model where the game that is played by two individuals is uniformly drawn from a sample of two different games. Using the master equation approach we show that the random mixture of two games is equivalent to play the average game when (i) the strategies are statistically independent of the game distribution and (ii) the transition rates are linear functions of the payoffs. We also use Monte-Carlo simulations in a two dimensional lattice and mean-field techniques to investigate the scenario when the two above conditions do not hold. We find that even outside of such conditions, several quantities characterizing the mixed-games are still the same as the ones obtained in the average game when the two games are not very different.

  4. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... the methods developed in the literature specifically for matching protein spot patterns, the focus is on a method based on neighbourhood relations. These methods are applied to a range of 2DGE protein spot data in a comparative study. The point pattern matching requires segmentation of the gel images...... and since the correct image segmentation can be difficult, a new alternative approach, exploiting prior knowledge from a reference gel about the protein locations to segment an incoming gel image, is proposed....

  5. Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl

    2014-03-01

    We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.

  6. Nonlinear Transport in a Two Dimensional Holographic Superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Zeng, Hua Bi; Fan, Zhe Yong; Chen, Chiang-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The problem of nonlinear transport in a two dimensional superconductor with an applied oscillating electric field is solved by the holographic method. The complex conductivity can be computed from the dynamics of the current for both near- and non-equilibrium regimes. The limit of weak electric field corresponds to the near equilibrium superconducting regime, where the charge response is linear and the conductivity develops a gap determined by the condensate. A larger electric field drives the system into a superconducting non-equilibrium steady state, where the nonlinear conductivity is quadratic with respect to the electric field. Keeping increasing the amplitude of applied electric field results in a far-from-equilibrium non-superconducting steady state with a universal linear conductivity of one. In lower temperature regime we also find chaotic behavior of superconducting gap, which results in a non-monotonic field dependent nonlinear conductivity.

  7. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  8. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  9. Symmetry breaking of solitons in two-dimensional complex potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jianke

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry breaking is reported for continuous families of solitons in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with a two-dimensional complex potential. This symmetry-breaking bifurcation is forbidden in generic complex potentials. However, for a special class of partially parity-time-symmetric potentials, such symmetry breaking is allowed. At the bifurcation point, two branches of asymmetric solitons bifurcate out from the base branch of symmetry-unbroken solitons. Stability of these solitons near the bifurcation point are also studied, and two novel stability properties for the bifurcated asymmetric solitons are revealed. One is that at the bifurcation point, zero and simple imaginary linear-stability eigenvalues of asymmetric solitons can move directly into the complex plane and create oscillatory instability. The other is that the two bifurcated asymmetric solitons, even though having identical powers and being related to each other by spatial mirror reflection, can possess different types of unstable eigenval...

  10. Extension of the approximate two-dimensional electron gas formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, R. F.

    1985-07-01

    The functional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formalism employed in the analysis of modulation-doped field-effect transistors is extended to properly account for the bulk charge and to more accurately model sub- and near-threshold behavior. The implemented changes basically transform the functional formulation from an above-threshold formalism for lightly doped structures to one of additional utility which automatically approaches expected limits under widely divergent conditions. Sample computations of the surface carrier concentration, relevant energy level positionings, and the semiconductor depletion width as a function of surface potential and doping are also presented and examined. These computations exhibit the general utility of the extended theory and provide an indirect evaluation of the standard two-level 2DEG theory.

  11. Band structure of absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lem, Han; Tip, Adriaan; Moroz, Alexander

    2003-06-01

    The band structure for an absorptive two-dimensional photonic crystal made from cylinders consisting of a Drude material is calculated. Absorption causes the spectrum to become complex and form islands in the negative complex half-plane. The boundaries of these islands are not always formed by the eigenvalues calculated for Bloch vectors on the characteristic path, and we find a hole in the spectrum. For realistic parameter values, the real part of the spectrum is hardly influenced by absorption, typically less than 0.25%. The employed method uses a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker procedure together with analytical continuation. This results in an efficient approach that allows these band-structure calculations to be done on a Pentium III personal computer.

  12. Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Josiah

    2011-01-01

    We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or under-fill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2d lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles.

  13. Approaches to verification of two-dimensional water quality models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, S.R. (Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (USA). Water Quality Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    The verification of a water quality model is the one procedure most needed by decision making evaluating a model predictions, but is often not adequate or done at all. The results of a properly conducted verification provide the decision makers with an estimate of the uncertainty associated with model predictions. Several statistical tests are available for quantifying of the performance of a model. Six methods of verification were evaluated using an application of the BETTER two-dimensional water quality model for Chickamauga reservoir. Model predictions for ten state variables were compared to observed conditions from 1989. Spatial distributions of the verification measures showed the model predictions were generally adequate, except at a few specific locations in the reservoir. The most useful statistics were the mean standard error of the residuals. Quantifiable measures of model performance should be calculated during calibration and verification of future applications of the BETTER model. 25 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2014-09-16

    We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.

  15. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merano, Michele

    2016-01-01

    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  16. Two dimensional fractional projectile motion in a resisting medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Juan; Guía, Manuel; Gómez, Francisco; Aguilar, Flor; Martínez, Juan

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we propose a fractional differential equation describing the behavior of a two dimensional projectile in a resisting medium. In order to maintain the dimensionality of the physical quantities in the system, an auxiliary parameter k was introduced in the derivative operator. This parameter has a dimension of inverse of seconds (sec)-1 and characterizes the existence of fractional time components in the given system. It will be shown that the trajectories of the projectile at different values of γ and different fixed values of velocity v 0 and angle θ, in the fractional approach, are always less than the classical one, unlike the results obtained in other studies. All the results obtained in the ordinary case may be obtained from the fractional case when γ = 1.

  17. Oriented Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Cage Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shan; Song, Qilei; Massey, Alan; Chong, Samantha Y; Chen, Linjiang; Sun, Shijing; Hasell, Tom; Raval, Rasmita; Sivaniah, Easan; Cheetham, Anthony K; Cooper, Andrew I

    2017-08-01

    The formation of two-dimensional (2D) oriented porous organic cage crystals (consisting of imine-based tetrahedral molecules) on various substrates (such as silicon wafers and glass) by solution-processing is reported. Insight into the crystallinity, preferred orientation, and cage crystal growth was obtained by experimental and computational techniques. For the first time, structural defects in porous molecular materials were observed directly and the defect concentration could be correlated with crystal growth rate. These oriented crystals suggest potential for future applications, such as solution-processable molecular crystalline 2D membranes for molecular separations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Mechanically driven growth of quasi-two dimensional microbial colonies

    CERN Document Server

    Farrell, F D C; Marenduzzo, D; Waclaw, B

    2013-01-01

    We study colonies of non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria growing on solid substrates. In our model, bacteria interact purely mechanically, by pushing each other away as they grow, and consume a diffusing nutrient. We show that mechanical interactions control the velocity and shape of the advancing front, which leads to features that cannot be captured by established Fisher-Kolmogorov models. In particular, we find that the velocity depends on the elastic modulus of bacteria or their stickiness to the surface. Interestingly, we predict that the radius of an incompressible, strictly two-dimensional colony cannot grow linearly in time. Importantly, mechanical interactions can also account for the nonequilibrium transition between circular and branching colonies, often observed in the lab.

  19. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2016-10-20

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C1-xNx alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  20. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  1. Fluid dynamics of two-dimensional pollination in Ruppia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Pell, Fischer; Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily. We observed two mechanisms by which the pollen released from male inflorescences of Ruppia maritima is adsorbed on a water surface: (i) inflorescences rise above the surface and after they mature their pollen mass falls onto the surface as clumps and disperses on the surface; (ii) inflorescences remain below the surface and produce air bubbles which carry their pollen mass to the surface where it disperses. In both cases dispersed pollen masses combined under the action of capillary forces to form pollen rafts. This increases the probability of pollination since the capillary force on a pollen raft towards a stigma is much larger than on a single pollen grain. The presence of a trace amount of surfactant can disrupt the pollination process so that the pollen is not transported or captured on the water surface. National Science Foundation.

  2. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  3. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  4. Spin from defects in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We build two-dimensional quantum field theories on spin surfaces starting from theories on oriented surfaces with networks of topological defect lines and junctions. The construction uses a combinatorial description of the spin structure in terms of a triangulation equipped with extra data. The amplitude for the spin surfaces is defined to be the amplitude for the underlying oriented surface together with a defect network dual to the triangulation. Independence of the triangulation and of the other choices follows if the line defect and junctions are obtained from a Delta-separable Frobenius algebra with involutive Nakayama automorphism in the monoidal category of topological defects. For rational conformal field theory we can give a more explicit description of the defect category, and we work out two examples related to free fermions in detail: the Ising model and the so(n) WZW model at level 1.

  5. Coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy of a Fano model

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, Felipe; Pullerits, Tõnu; Hansen, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The Fano lineshape arises from the interference of two excitation pathways to reach a continuum. Its generality has resulted in a tremendous success in explaining the lineshapes of many one-dimensional spectroscopies - absorption, emission, scattering, conductance, photofragmentation - applied to very varied systems - atoms, molecules, semiconductors and metals. Unravelling a spectroscopy into a second dimension reveals the relationship between states in addition to decongesting the spectra. Femtosecond-resolved two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is a four-wave mixing technique that measures the time-evolution of the populations, and coherences of excited states. It has been applied extensively to the dynamics of photosynthetic units, and more recently to materials with extended band-structures. In this letter, we solve the full time-dependent third-order response, measured in 2DES, of a Fano model and give the new system parameters that become accessible.

  6. Molecular-dynamics simulation of two-dimensional thermophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes; Idler; Hasmy; Castells; Botet

    2000-11-01

    A numerical technique is presented for the thermal force exerted on a solid particle by a gaseous medium between two flat plates at different temperatures, in the free molecular or transition flow. This is a two-dimensional molecular-dynamics simulation of hard disks in a inhomogeneous thermal environment. All steady-state features exhibited by the compressible hard-disk gas are shown to be consistent with the expected behaviors. Moreover the thermal force experienced by a large solid disk is investigated, and compared to the analytical case of cylinders moving perpendicularly to the constant temperature gradient for an infinite Knudsen number and in an infinite medium. We show precise examples of how this technique can be used simply to investigate more difficult practical problems, in particluar the influence of nonlinear gradients for large applied differences of temperature, of proximity of the walls, and of smaller Knudsen numbers.

  7. Oscillation of Two-Dimensional Neutral Delay Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of nonlinear two-dimensional dynamic systems of the neutral type (x(t-a(tx(τ1(tΔ=p(tf1(y(t, yΔ(t=-q(tf2(x(τ2(t. We obtain sufficient conditions for all solutions of the system to be oscillatory. Our oscillation results when a(t=0 improve the oscillation results for dynamic systems on time scales that have been established by Fu and Lin (2010, since our results do not restrict to the case where f(u=u. Also, as a special case when =ℝ, our results do not require an to be a positive real sequence. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  8. Swimming of Vorticella in two-dimensional confinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Luz; Park, Young-Gil; Jung, Sunghwan; Ryu, Sangjin

    2015-03-01

    Vorticellais a ciliate observed in the stalked sessile form (trophont), which consists of an inverted bell-shaped cell body (zooid) and a slender stalk attaching the zooid to a substrate. Having circular cilia bands around the oral part, the stalkless zooid of Vorticella can serve as a model system for microorganism swimming. Here we present how the stalkess trophont zooid of Vorticella swims in two-dimensional confined geometries which are similar to the Hele-Shaw cell. Having harvested stalkless Vorticella zooids, we observed their swimming in water between two glass surfaces using video microscopy. Based on measured swimming trajectories and distributions of zooid orientation and swimming velocity, we analyzed how Vorticella's swimming mobility was influenced by the geometry constraints. Supported by First Award grant from Nebraska EPSCoR.

  9. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  10. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-08-01

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  11. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  12. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  13. Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Rubio, Angel; Le Lay, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.

  14. Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States

    2017-07-17

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.

  15. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorić, G; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A

    2015-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D \\textit{% soliton-based nano-antenna}, which should be stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  16. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  17. Isolated structures in two-dimensional optical superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xin-Hao; Yang, Bao-Guo; Xu, Xia; Tang, Peng-Ju; Zhou, Xiao-Ji

    2017-10-01

    Overlaying commensurate optical lattices with various configurations called superlattices can lead to exotic lattice topologies and, in turn, a discovery of novel physics. In this study, by overlapping the maxima of lattices, a new isolated structure is created, while the interference of minima can generate various "sublattice" patterns. Three different kinds of primitive lattices are used to demonstrate isolated square, triangular, and hexagonal "sublattice" structures in a two-dimensional optical superlattice, the patterns of which can be manipulated dynamically by tuning the polarization, frequency, and intensity of laser beams. In addition, we propose the method of altering the relative phase to adjust the tunneling amplitudes in "sublattices". Our configurations provide unique opportunities to study particle entanglement in "lattices" formed by intersecting wells and to implement special quantum logic gates in exotic lattice geometries.

  18. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195

  19. Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S

    2013-01-01

    Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.

  20. The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya

    2013-01-01

    In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...