WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional network simulation

  1. Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.

  2. Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University

    1997-01-01

    Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...

  3. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  4. Two-Dimensional Heat Transfer in a Heterogeneous Fracture Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, V. R.; Roubinet, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Geothermal energy harvesting requires extraction and injection of geothermal fluid. Doing so in an optimal way requires a quantitative understanding of site-specific heat transfer between geothermal fluid and the ambient rock. We develop a heat transfer particle-tracking approach to model that interaction. Fracture-network models of heat transfer in fractured rock explicitly account for the presence of individual fractures, ambient rock matrix, and fracture-matrix interfaces. Computational domains of such models span the meter scale, whereas fracture apertures are on the millimeter scale. The computations needed to model these multi-scale phenomenon can be prohibitively expensive, even for methods using nonuniform meshes. Our approach appreciably decreases the computational costs. Current particle-tracking methods usually assume both infinite matrix and one-dimensional (1D) heat transfer in the matrix blocks. They rely on 1D analytical solutions for heat transfer in a single fracture, which can lead to large predictive errors. Our two-dimensional (2D) heat transfer simulation algorithm is mesh-free and takes into account both longitudinal and transversal heat conduction in the matrix. It uses a probabilistic model to transfer particle to the appropriate neighboring fracture unless it returns to the fracture of origin or remains in the matrix. We use this approach to look at the impact of a fracture-network topology (e.g. the importance of smaller scale fractures), as well as the matrix block distribution on the heat transport in heterogeneous fractured rocks.

  5. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  6. Two Dimensional Lattice Boltzmann Method for Cavity Flow Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjit MUSIK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simulation of incompressible viscous flow within a two-dimensional square cavity. The objective is to develop a method originated from Lattice Gas (cellular Automata (LGA, which utilises discrete lattice as well as discrete time and can be parallelised easily. Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM, known as discrete Lattice kinetics which provide an alternative for solving the Navier–Stokes equations and are generally used for fluid simulation, is chosen for the study. A specific two-dimensional nine-velocity square Lattice model (D2Q9 Model is used in the simulation with the velocity at the top of the cavity kept fixed. LBM is an efficient method for reproducing the dynamics of cavity flow and the results which are comparable to those of previous work.

  7. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Two-dimensional Nonlinear Sloshing Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-dimensional nonlinearsloshing problem is preceded by the finite element method. Two theories are used. One is fully nonlinear theory; the other is time domain second order theory. A liquid sloshing in a rectangular container subjected to a horizontal excitation is simulated using these two theories. Numerical results are obtained and comparisons are made. It is found that a good agreement is obtained for the case of small amplitude oscillation. For the situation of large amplitude excitation, although the differences between using the two theories are obvious the second order solution can still exhibit typical nonlinear features of nonlinear wave.

  9. Augmented reality simulator for training in two-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, M; Wick, C; Pieper, S; Quast, K J; Fox, T; Grunst, G; Redel, D A

    2000-02-01

    In two-dimensional echocardiography the sonographer must synthesize multiple tomographic slices into a mental three-dimensional (3D) model of the heart. Computer graphics and virtual reality environments are ideal to visualize complex 3D spatial relationships. In augmented reality (AR) applications, real and virtual image data are linked, to increase the information content. In the presented AR simulator a 3D surface model of the human heart is linked with echocardiographic volume data sets. The 3D echocardiographic data sets are registered with the heart model to establish spatial and temporal congruence. The heart model, together with an animated ultrasound sector represents a reference scenario, which displays the currently selected two-dimensional echocardiographic cutting plane calculated from the volume data set. Modifications of the cutting plane within the echocardiographic data are transferred and visualized simultaneously and in real time within the reference scenario. The trainee can interactively explore the 3D heart model and the registered 3D echocardiographic data sets by an animated ultrasound probe, whose position is controlled by an electromagnetic tracking system. The tracking system is attached to a dummy transducer and placed on a plastic puppet to give a realistic impression of a two-dimensional echocardiographic examination.

  10. Two Dimensional Connectivity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farivar, Masoud; Ashtiani, Farid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on two-dimensional connectivity in sparse vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this respect, we find thresholds for the arrival rates of vehicles at entrances of a block of streets such that the connectivity is guaranteed for any desired probability. To this end, we exploit a mobility model recently proposed for sparse VANETs, based on BCMP open queuing networks and solve the related traffic equations to find the traffic characteristics of each street and use the results to compute the exact probability of connectivity along these streets. Then, we use the results from percolation theory and the proposed fast algorithms for evaluation of bond percolation problem in a random graph corresponding to the block of the streets. We then find sufficiently accurate two dimensional connectivity-related parameters, such as the average number of intersections connected to each other and the size of the largest set of inter-connected intersections. We have also proposed lower bounds for the case ...

  11. Intensity Coding in Two-Dimensional Excitable Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Copelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental findings that gap junctions are essential for low level intensity detection in the sensory periphery, the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automaton is employed to model the response of a two-dimensional sensory network to external stimuli. We show that excitable elements (sensory neurons) that have a small dynamical range are shown to give rise to a collective large dynamical range. Therefore the network transfer (gain) function (which is Hill or Stevens law-like) is an emergent property generated from a pool of small dynamical range cells, providing a basis for a "neural psychophysics". The growth of the dynamical range with the system size is approximately logarithmic, suggesting a functional role for electrical coupling. For a fixed number of neurons, the dynamical range displays a maximum as a function of the refractory period, which suggests experimental tests for the model. A biological application to ephaptic interactions in olfactory nerve fascicles is proposed.

  12. Design of two-dimensional digital filters using neural networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaohua; He Yigang

    2005-01-01

    A new approach for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA) is provided. A compact expression for the transfer function of a 2-D linear phase FIR filter is derived based on its frequency response characteristic, and the NNA, based on minimizing the square-error in the frequency-domain, is established according to the compact expression. To illustrate the stability of the NNA, the convergence theorem is presented and proved. Design examples are also given, and the results show that the ripple is considerably small in passband and stopband, and the NNA-based method is of powerful stability and requires quite little amount of computations.

  13. Molecular-dynamics simulation of two-dimensional thermophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes; Idler; Hasmy; Castells; Botet

    2000-11-01

    A numerical technique is presented for the thermal force exerted on a solid particle by a gaseous medium between two flat plates at different temperatures, in the free molecular or transition flow. This is a two-dimensional molecular-dynamics simulation of hard disks in a inhomogeneous thermal environment. All steady-state features exhibited by the compressible hard-disk gas are shown to be consistent with the expected behaviors. Moreover the thermal force experienced by a large solid disk is investigated, and compared to the analytical case of cylinders moving perpendicularly to the constant temperature gradient for an infinite Knudsen number and in an infinite medium. We show precise examples of how this technique can be used simply to investigate more difficult practical problems, in particluar the influence of nonlinear gradients for large applied differences of temperature, of proximity of the walls, and of smaller Knudsen numbers.

  14. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  15. Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Busch, G.E. [KMS Fusion, Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    For laser intensities in the range of 10{sup 8}--10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, and pulse lengths of order 10 {micro}sec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing.

  16. Criticality in Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems: Tensor Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ran, Shi-Ju; Li, Wei; Lewenstein, Maciej; Su, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Determination and characterization of criticality in two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body systems belong to the most important challenges and problems of quantum physics. In this paper we propose an efficient scheme to solve this problem by utilizing the infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS), and tensor network (TN) representations. We show that the criticality of a 2D state is faithfully reproduced by the ground state (dubbed as boundary state) of a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian constructed from its iPEPS representation. We demonstrate that for a critical state the correlation length and the entanglement spectrum of the boundary state are essentially different from those of a gapped iPEPS. This provides a solid indicator that allows to identify the criticality of the 2D state. Our scheme is verified on the resonating valence bond (RVB) states on kagom\\'e and square lattices, where the boundary state of the honeycomb RVB is found to be described by a $c=1$ conformal field theory. We apply ...

  17. Molecular rattling in two-dimensional fluids: Simulations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variyar, Jayasankar E.; Kivelson, Daniel; Tarjus, Gilles; Talbot, Julian

    1992-01-01

    We have carried out molecular dynamic simulations over a range of densities for two-dimensional fluids consisting of hard, soft, and Lennard-Jones disks. For comparison we have also carried out simulations for the corresponding systems in which all but one particle are frozen in position. We have studied the velocity autocorrelation functions and the closely related velocity-sign autocorrelation functions, and have examined the probabilities per unit time that a particle will undergo a first velocity sign reversal after an elapsed time t measured alternately from the last velocity reversal or from a given arbitrary time. At all densities studied, the first of these probabilities per unit time is zero at t=0 and rises to a maximum at a later time, but as the hardness of the disks is increased, the maximum moves in toward t→0. This maximum can be correlated with the ``negative'' dip observed in the velocity correlation functions when plotted versus time. Our conclusion is that all these phenomena can be explained qualitatively on the basis of a model where memory does not extend back beyond the last velocity reversal. However, at high density, the velocity-sign-autocorrelation function not only shows a negative dip (which is explained by the model) but also a second ``oscillation'' which is not described, even qualitatively, by the model. We conclude that the first dip in the velocity and velocity-sign correlation functions can occur even if there are no correlated or coherent librations, but the existence of a ``second'' oscillation is a better indication of such correlations.

  18. Two-dimensional simulation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hum, B.; Li, X. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have fast startup, are highly energy efficient and have high power density, rendering them very suitable for use in zero-emission vehicles and on-site power cogeneration. Before the PEM fuel cell can reach widespread commercial use, the performance has to be improved regarding the minimization of all transport resistances. This can be done by considering the electrochemical reactions in the catalyst layers along with the physical transport of reactant gas flows, product and process water, heat and the charged particles in the individual cells and stacks. This paper presents the results of a two-dimensional numerical simulation of a steady, isothermal, fully humidified PEM fuel cell which was conducted to examine what happens in the catalyst layers. The finite volume method was used together with the alternating direction implicit algorithm. It was determined that the cathode catalyst layer has more pronounced changes in potential, reaction rate and current density generation compared to the anode catalyst layer. This is because of the large cathode activation overpotential and the low diffusion coefficient of oxygen. It was demonstrated that catalyst layers, by nature, are 2 dimensional, particularly in areas of low reactant concentrations. Maximum power density is limited by the depletion of one of the reactants in the catalyst layer. Both the fuel and oxidant supply must be managed simultaneously for optimal cell performance. It was concluded that cell performance is not greatly affected by flow direction. It was noted that this analysis can also be used for more complex cell design, such as cross flow between reactant streams and practical serpentine flow channel design. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Mechanism of the jamming transition in the two-dimensional traffic networks. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    The jamming transition in a two-dimensional traffic network is investigated based upon the cellular automaton simulations, where the update rule is deterministic, though the initial car configuration is randomly set. The lifetime of the system is defined as the time until when all cars in the system come to a stop, and it will increase with decreasing car density from a higher density side. The critical car density is defined as the car density, at which the corresponding lifetime diverges. The analytical expression for the critical car density is proposed.

  20. Two-dimensional networks of lanthanide cubane-shaped dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Didier; Lin, Po-Heng; Burchell, Tara J; Korobkov, Ilia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Murugesu, Muralee

    2009-12-21

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for three new lanthanide complexes, [Ln(III)(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mu(3)-O)(2)(cpt)(6)(MeOH)(6)(H(2)O)](2) (Ln = Dy (1.15MeOH), Ho (2.14MeOH), and Tb (3.18MeOH)), based on 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole ligand (Hcpt). The three complexes were confirmed to be isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of 1 reveals that the eight-coordinate metal centers are organized in two cubane-shaped moieties composed of four Dy(III) ions each. All metal centers in the cubane core are bridged by two mu(3)-oxide and two mu(3)-hydroxide asymmetrical units. Moreover, each cubane is linked to its neighbor by two externally coordinating ligands, forming the dumbbell {Dy(III)(4)}(2) moiety. Electrostatic interactions between the ligands of the triazole-bridged dimers form an extended supramolecular two-dimensional arrangement analogous to a metal-organic framework with quadrilateral spaces occupied by ligands from axial sheets and by four solvent molecules. The magnetic properties of the three compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 1, the static and dynamic data corroborate the fact that the {Dy(III)(4)} cubane-shaped core exhibits slow relaxation of its magnetization below 5 K associated with a single-molecule magnet behavior.

  1. Chaotic neural network applied to two-dimensional motion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Kurata, Shuhei; Li, Yongtao; Nara, Shigetoshi

    2010-03-01

    Chaotic dynamics generated in a chaotic neural network model are applied to 2-dimensional (2-D) motion control. The change of position of a moving object in each control time step is determined by a motion function which is calculated from the firing activity of the chaotic neural network. Prototype attractors which correspond to simple motions of the object toward four directions in 2-D space are embedded in the neural network model by designing synaptic connection strengths. Chaotic dynamics introduced by changing system parameters sample intermediate points in the high-dimensional state space between the embedded attractors, resulting in motion in various directions. By means of adaptive switching of the system parameters between a chaotic regime and an attractor regime, the object is able to reach a target in a 2-D maze. In computer experiments, the success rate of this method over many trials not only shows better performance than that of stochastic random pattern generators but also shows that chaotic dynamics can be useful for realizing robust, adaptive and complex control function with simple rules.

  2. Two-dimensional percolation threshold in confined Si nanoparticle networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laube, J., E-mail: laube@imtek.de; Gutsch, S.; Zacharias, M.; Hiller, D. [Laboratory for Nanotechnology, Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK), University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Wang, D.; Kübel, C. [Karlsruhe Nano and Micro Facility (KNMF) and Institute of Nanotechnology (INT), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology - KIT, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Non-percolating and percolating silicon quantum dot (QD) networks were investigated by plane-view energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EF-TEM). The Si QD networks were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on free standing 5 nm Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} membranes, followed by high temperature annealing. The percolation threshold from non-percolating to percolating networks is found to be in between a SiO{sub x} stoichiometry of SiO{sub 0.5} up to SiO{sub 0.7}. Using the EF-TEM images, key structural parameters of the Si QD ensemble were extracted and compared, i.e., their size distribution, nearest neighbor distance, and circularity. Increasing the silicon excess within the SiO{sub x} layer results in an ensemble of closer spaced, less size-controlled, and less circular Si QDs that give rise to coupling effects. Furthermore, the influence of the structural parameters on the optical and electrical Si QD ensemble properties is discussed.

  3. One-and Two-dimensional Integrated Simulation of Urban Storm Pipe Network and Surface Flow%城市雨水管网与地面流的一、二维集成模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐速

    2011-01-01

    Taking Beijing Yizhuang economic development area as example, the MIKE Flood integrated simulation model was used for one- and two-dimensional integrated simulation of storm pipe network and surface flow for the existing condition and constructed wetland built in the future in 1, 5, and 10 year storm return periods. The results show that under the existing condition, there are flooded areas in all 3 storm return periods, especially in more than 5 year return periods, the flooded area exceeds 10% of the total area. The constructed wetland built in the future can reduce about 20% flooded area,which locates at the upstream of the wetland, than the existing condition. The results can be utilized to do further research including risk assessment and comparison among emergency response plans to find an optimal way to reduce loss from storm.%采用MTKE n00d集成模型,以北京市亦庄经济技术开发区为案例,针对现状和未来建设人工湿地两种情景,对1年、5年、10年暴雨重现期下的淹没特性进行了雨水管网和地面流的一、二维集成模拟.模拟结果表明,在现状条件下,3种暴雨重现期都会产生淹没区域,尤其是在5年以上重现期时整个区域的10%都会被淹没;未来建设人工湿地可比现状减少20%左右的淹没面积,但其作用范围是人工湿地上游区域,对其他区域则没有明显作用.利用这些结果可进行暴雨危害的风险评估,并对各种工程方案进行比较分析,以寻找减轻暴雨淹没损失的最佳途径.

  4. Stochastic Simulation of Chemical Exchange in Two Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sanda, F; Sanda, Frantisek; Mukamel, Shaul

    2006-01-01

    The stochastic Liouville equations are employed to investigate the combined signatures of chemical exchange (two-state-jump) and spectral diffusion (coupling to an overdamped Brownian oscillator) in the coherent response of an anharmonic vibration to three femtosecond infrared pulses. Simulations reproduce the main features recently observed in the OD stretch of phenol in benzene.

  5. Size effect on brittle and ductile fracture of two-dimensional interlinked carbon nanotube network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuhang; Aluru, N. R.

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties of two-dimensional (2D) interlinked carbon nanotube (CNT) network are investigated using ab initio calculation and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with Reaxff force field. The simulation results show that bulk 2D interlinked CNT network has good mechanical properties along the axial direction which can be comparable to that of single-walled CNT and graphene, but has better ductility along the radial direction than single-walled CNT and graphene. In addition, the mechanical properties of 2D interlinked CNT network ribbon along the radial direction depend strongly on the size of the ribbon. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio decrease as the size increases while the fracture strain increases with the size increasing. By analyzing the atomic structural (both bond length and atomic von Mises stress) evolution of the ribbons, the mechanism of a brittle-to-ductile transition is revealed. The exploration of the mechanical properties of the 2D interlinked CNT network paves the way for application of the relevant devices that can benefit from the high Young's modulus, high tensile strength, and good ductility.

  6. TWO DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF WIND-DRIVEN CIRCULATION IN RESERVOIR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jie-ren; Khalil I. Othman

    2003-01-01

    The development of a simplified 2-D numerical model was described for wind-driven circulation in reservoir using standard k-ε turbulence model to specify eddy viscosity distribution.The governing equations are transformed and solved on variable vertical grids, which allows refinement at the surface and bottom boundaries.The results of the model simulation for flow are compared with analytical solutions for laminar and turbulent flows, experimental data in a wind-flume and wind wave tank.The sensitivity analysis results show that use of large number of depth layers increases the accuracy for the bottom counter-current flow.Prediction of surface drift was not very sensitive to surface grid refinement.The model was also applied to Baisha reservoir for an assumed wind condition and showed to be able to simulate the general features of surface drift and return flow under variable flow depth.The model can serve as alternative means of studying wind-driven flow beside experiments.It also reduced the problem complexity associated with 3-D circulation models while faithfully reproducing the drift and near bottom return currents.

  7. Surface-Induced Optimal Packing of Two-Dimensional Molecular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copie, Guillaume; Cleri, Fabrizio; Makoudi, Younes; Krzeminski, Christophe; Berthe, Maxime; Cherioux, Frédéric; Palmino, Frank; Grandidier, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    High-density packing in organic crystals is usually associated with an increase of the coordination between molecules. Such a concept is not necessarily extended to two-dimensional molecular networks self-assembled on a solid surface, for which we demonstrate the key role of the surface in inducing the optimal packing. By a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and multiscale computer simulations, we study the phase transition between two polymorphs. We find that, contrary to intuition, the structure with the lowest packing fraction corresponds to the highest molecular coordination number, due to the competition between surface and intermolecular forces. Having the lowest free energy, this structure spreads out as the most stable polymorph over a wide range of molecular concentrations.

  8. SAR IMAGING SIMULATION OF HORIZONTAL FULLY TWO-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Hui; HE Yi-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Based on the research of Lynett and Liu, a new horizontal fully two-dimensional internal wave propagation model with rotation effect was deduced, which can be used to simulate the characteristics of internal waves in a horizontal fully two-dimensional plane. By combining the imaging mechanism of Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR), a simulation procedure was fatherly acquired, which can simulate the propagation characteristics of oceanic internal waves into SAR images. In order to evaluate the validity of the proposed simulation procedure, case studies are performed in South China Sea and results from simulation procedure are analyzed in detail. A very good consistency was found between the simulation results and satellite images. The proposed simulation procedure will be a possible foundation for the quantitative interpretation of internal waves from fully two-dimensional satellite images.

  9. Two-dimensional ion trap lattice on a microchip for quantum simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, R C; Weidt, S; Lake, K; Srinivasan, P; Webster, S C; Kraft, M; Hensinger, W K

    2013-01-01

    Using a controllable quantum system it is possible to simulate other highly complex quantum systems efficiently overcoming an in-principle limitation of classical computing. Trapped ions constitute such a highly controllable quantum system. So far, no dedicated architectures for the simulation of two-dimensional spin lattices using trapped ions in radio-frequency ion traps have been produced, limiting the possibility of carrying out such quantum simulations on a large scale. We report the operation of a two-dimensional ion trap lattice integrated in a microchip capable of implementing quantum simulations of two-dimensional spin lattices. Our device provides a scalable microfabricated architecture for trapping such ion lattices with coupling strengths between neighbouring ions sufficient to provide a powerful platform for the implementation of quantum simulations. In order to realize this device we developed a specialist fabrication process that allows for the application of very large voltages. We fabricated ...

  10. GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.

  11. GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Li, S.; Esaki, T.

    2008-02-01

    This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.

  12. Simulation of laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging about lambertian cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Li, Lang; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of laser bi-static scattering imaging about lambertian cylinders. Two-dimensional imaging of a target can reflect the shape of the target and material property on the surface of the target. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. Simulations results of laser bi-static two-dimensional scattering imaging of some cylinders are given. The laser bi-static scattering imaging of cylinder, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. The scattering direction of laser bi-static scattering imaging is arbitrary direction. The scattering direction of backward two-dimensional scattering imaging is at opposite direction of the incident direction of laser. The backward two-dimensional scattering imaging is special case of bi-static two dimensional scattering imaging. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained based on the laser radar equation. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the surface of cylinder. According to the incident direction of incident laser and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle can be calculated. According to the scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local angle of scattering can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get mathematical model of bi-static laser two dimensional scattering imaging about lambert cylinder. From the results given, one can see that the simulation results of laser bi-static scattering about lambert cylinder is correct.

  13. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of two-dimensional neovascular network complexity: the surface fractal dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franceschini Barbara

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling the complex development and growth of tumor angiogenesis using mathematics and biological data is a burgeoning area of cancer research. Architectural complexity is the main feature of every anatomical system, including organs, tissues, cells and sub-cellular entities. The vascular system is a complex network whose geometrical characteristics cannot be properly defined using the principles of Euclidean geometry, which is only capable of interpreting regular and smooth objects that are almost impossible to find in Nature. However, fractal geometry is a more powerful means of quantifying the spatial complexity of real objects. Methods This paper introduces the surface fractal dimension (Ds as a numerical index of the two-dimensional (2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular networks, and their behavior during computer-simulated changes in vessel density and distribution. Results We show that Ds significantly depends on the number of vessels and their pattern of distribution. This demonstrates that the quantitative evaluation of the 2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular systems can be useful not only to measure its complex architecture, but also to model its development and growth. Conclusions Studying the fractal properties of neovascularity induces reflections upon the real significance of the complex form of branched anatomical structures, in an attempt to define more appropriate methods of describing them quantitatively. This knowledge can be used to predict the aggressiveness of malignant tumors and design compounds that can halt the process of angiogenesis and influence tumor growth.

  14. Hybrid simulation of whistler excitation by electron beams in two-dimensional non-periodic domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodroffe, J.R., E-mail: woodrofj@erau.edu; Streltsov, A.V., E-mail: streltsa@erau.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present a two-dimensional hybrid fluid-PIC scheme for the simulation of whistler wave excitation by relativistic electron beams. This scheme includes a number of features which are novel to simulations of this type, including non-periodic boundary conditions and fresh particle injection. Results from our model suggest that non-periodicity of the simulation domain results in the development of fundamentally different wave characteristics than are observed in periodic domains.

  15. Optimisation of interdigitated back contacts solar cells by two-dimensional numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichiporuk, O.; Kaminski, A.; Lemiti, M.; Fave, A. [Instituit National des Sciences Appliquees Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere; Skryshevsky, V. [National Taras Shevchenko Univ., Kiev (Ukraine). Radiophysics Dept.

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we present the results of the simulation of interdigitated back contacts solar cell on thin-film ({approx}{mu}m) silicon layer. The influence of several parameters (surface recombination rate, substrate thickness and type, diffusion length, device geometry, doping levels) on device characteristics are simulated using the accurate two-dimensional numerical simulator DESSIS that allows to optimise the cell design. (Author)

  16. Two Dimensional Electronic Correlation Spectroscopy of the npi* and pipi* Protein Backbone Transitions: A Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenyu; Abramavicius, Darius; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul

    2007-11-15

    The two dimensional (2D) photon echo spectrum of the amide ultraviolet (UV) bands of proteins are simulated. Two effective exciton Hamiltonian parameter sets developed by Woody and Hirst, which predict similar CD spectra, may be distinguished by their very different 2DUV spectra. These differences are enhanced in specific configurations of pulse polarizations which provide chirality-induced signals.

  17. Calculation of two-dimensional infrared spectra of ultrafast chemical exchange with numerical Langevin simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas la Cour; Knoester, Jasper

    2007-01-01

    We combine numerical Langevin simulations with numerical integration of the Schrodinger equation to calculate two-dimensional infrared spectra of ultrafast chemical exchange. This provides a tool to model and interpret such spectra of molecules undergoing chemical processes, such as isomerization an

  18. Two-Dimensional High-Lift Aerodynamic Optimization Using Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Roxana M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-lift performance of a multi-element airfoil was optimized by using neural-net predictions that were trained using a computational data set. The numerical data was generated using a two-dimensional, incompressible, Navier-Stokes algorithm with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Because it is difficult to predict maximum lift for high-lift systems, an empirically-based maximum lift criteria was used in this study to determine both the maximum lift and the angle at which it occurs. The 'pressure difference rule,' which states that the maximum lift condition corresponds to a certain pressure difference between the peak suction pressure and the pressure at the trailing edge of the element, was applied and verified with experimental observations for this configuration. Multiple input, single output networks were trained using the NASA Ames variation of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for each of the aerodynamic coefficients (lift, drag and moment). The artificial neural networks were integrated with a gradient-based optimizer. Using independent numerical simulations and experimental data for this high-lift configuration, it was shown that this design process successfully optimized flap deflection, gap, overlap, and angle of attack to maximize lift. Once the neural nets were trained and integrated with the optimizer, minimal additional computer resources were required to perform optimization runs with different initial conditions and parameters. Applying the neural networks within the high-lift rigging optimization process reduced the amount of computational time and resources by 44% compared with traditional gradient-based optimization procedures for multiple optimization runs.

  19. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  20. Cellular neural network analysis for two-dimensional bioheat transfer equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, J H; Wang, H Z; Zhang, H X; Yan, J Y; Zhu, Y S

    2001-09-01

    The cellular neural network (CNN) method is applied to solve the Pennes bioheat transfer equation, and its feasibility is demonstrated. Numerical solutions were obtained for a cellular neural network for a two-dimensional steady-state temperature field obtained from focused and unfocused ultrasound heat sources. Transient-state temperature fields were also studied and compared with experimental results obtained elsewhere. The cellular neural networks' key features of asynchronous parallel processing, continuous-time dynamics and local interaction enable real-time temperature field estimation for clinical hyperthermia.

  1. Functional scale-free networks in the two-dimensional Abelian sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepour, M.; Niry, M. D.; Valizadeh, A.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the similarity of the functional network of the brain and the Ising model was investigated by Chialvo [Nat. Phys. 6, 744 (2010), 10.1038/nphys1803]. This similarity supports the idea that the brain is a self-organized critical system. In this study we derive a functional network of the two-dimensional Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model as a self-organized critical model, and compare its characteristics with those of the functional network of the brain, obtained from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Monte Carlo simulation of thermodynamic properties for two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Canonical ensemble Monte Carlo simulations have been carried out to investigate the thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional fluids subjected to truncated Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential. The simulations of thermodynamic states sweep across liquid-vapor regime over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. Simulated isotherms behave van der Waals loop-like characteristics in the liquid-vapor phase-transition region. It suggests a continuous isothermal phase transition in the case of micro system, in which the system size prohibits phase separation. Two-dimensional dimensionless van der Waals equation of states has been obtained from theoretical analysis. By fitting simulated data to this equation, temperature-dependent parameters in the equation have been determined.

  3. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Electrospun Nanofibrous Structures: Connection of Experimental and Simulated Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panu Danwanichakul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrous mats were obtained from electrospinning Nylon-6 solutions with concentrations of 30 and 35 wt% and were tested for filtration of polystyrene particles in suspension. Some experimental results were compared with the simulated ones. In the simulation, the two-dimensional structures were constructed by randomly depositing a nanofiber, which was assumed as an ellipse with an aspect ratio of 100, one by one. The nanofiber size is assumed to be polydisperse. The results showed that simulated configurations resembled real nanofibers with polydisperse diameters. Fibers from higher solution concentration were larger, resulting in larger pore size, which was confirmed with simulations. Varying the size distribution around the same average value did not make any difference to the surface coverage but it affected 2D pore areas for the systems at low fiber density. In addition, the probability for a particle to pass through the porous structure was less when the fiber density was higher and the particle diameter was larger, which was consistent with the filtration test. Lastly, water flux measurement could yield the void volume fraction as well as the volume-averaged pore diameter, which was found to be greater than the averaged 2D pore diameter from SEM micrographs by the quantity related to the fiber size.

  4. Development of Particle-in-Cell Simulation in a Two Dimensional Trench Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Tai-Lu

    2016-01-01

    A two dimensional electrostatic Particle-in-Cell simulation code is developed to investigate anisotropy of ions in a trench geometry for plasma etching. The numerical simulation results suggest that if the trench width is larger than Debye length scale, anisotropy can be lost due to potential development across the trench. Furthermore, the effects of ion charge build up on the trench bottom is investigated, which can degrade the anisotropy.

  5. Design of two-dimensional recursive filters by using neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, V M; Mastorakis, N E

    2001-01-01

    A new design method for two-dimensional (2-D) recursive digital filters is investigated. The design of the 2-D filter is reduced to a constrained minimization problem the solution of which is achieved by the convergence of an appropriate neural network. The method is tested on a numerical example and compared with previously published methods when applied to the same example. Advantages of the proposed method over the existing ones are discussed as well.

  6. Mechanism of the jamming transition in the two-dimensional traffic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Yoshihiro; Fukui, Minoru

    2012-12-01

    The mechanism of the jamming transition in two-dimensional traffic networks is discussed on the basis of several models, where the update rule is deterministic, though the initial car configuration is random. It has turned out that the introduced concept of the occupation probability, which depends upon time and the site, is useful. The fluctuation in the local car density plays an important role to give rise to small initial clusters of the cars. To examine the growth of such clusters a time-dependent function C is introduced, which is the number of the neighboring car pairs, and C increases to a certain maximum value, correlated with the total jamming. The critical car density in the symmetric two-dimensional N×N/N×N system is found to be 0.22-0.23 for each of the east-bound (x) and the north-bound (y) cars.

  7. EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sule, N.; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...

  8. Numerical Simulation and Visualization of a Flowfield by Interaction of Two Parallel Two-Dimensional Freejets

    OpenAIRE

    TESHIMA, Koji; NAKATSUJI, Hiroyuki

    1987-01-01

    Flowfields resulted from interaction of two equivalent freejets issued from two parallel two-dimensional sonic nozzles at various nozzle distances and at various values of the stagnation to ambient pressure ratio are investigated numerically and by visualization. A strong shear flow region appears between the two jets, which is observed by visualization, is simulated well by the present calculation. Agreements of the parameters representing the whole structure of the flowfield, such as the lo...

  9. Two dimensional simulation of direct methanol fuel cell : a new (embedded) type of current collectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikovsky, A. A.; Divisek, J.; Kornyshev, Yu. M.

    2000-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical model of the direct methanol fuel cell with gas fuel is developed. Simulation of the cell with current collectors of conventional geometry reveal the formation of fuel-depleted, "shaded" regions in the cathode and anode catalyst layers. These regions are positioned in front of current collectors, farther from the gas channel windows. Another disadvantage of the conventional geometry is the concentration of electron current at the edges of current collectors. Based ...

  10. Simulation of vortex motion in underdamped two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobbert, P.A. (Department of Applied Physics, Delft University of Technology, Lorentweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands) Department of Physics and Division of Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States))

    1992-04-01

    We report numerical simulations of classical vortex motion in two-dimensional arrays of underdamped Josephson junctions. A very efficient algorithm was developed, using a piecewise linear approximation for the Josephson current. We find no indication for ballistic motion, in square arrays nor in triangular arrays. Instead, in the limit of very low damping, there appears to be an effective viscosity due to excitation of the lattice behind the moving vortex.

  11. Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of a two-dimensional Majorana lattice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata

    2017-07-01

    We study interacting Majorana fermions in two dimensions as a low-energy effective model of a vortex lattice in two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors. For that purpose, we implement ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation to the Majorana fermion system in which the path-integral measure is given by a semipositive Pfaffian. We discuss spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry at finite temperatures.

  12. Integration of neuroblasts into a two-dimensional small world neuronal network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Mizell, Casey; Zochowski, Michal; Sander, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    Neurogenesis in the adult brain has been suggested to be important for learning and functional robustness to the neuronal death. New neurons integrate themselves into existing neuronal networks by moving into a target destination, extending axonal and dendritic processes, and inducing synaptogenesis to connect to active neurons. We hypothesize that increased plasticity of the network to novel stimuli can arise from activity-dependent cell and process motility rules. In complement to a similar in vitro model, we investigate a computational model of a two-dimensional small world network of integrate and fire neurons. After steady-state activity is reached in the extant network, we introduce new neurons which move, stop, and connect themselves through rules governed by position and firing rate.

  13. Two-dimensional Green`s function Poisson solution appropriate for cylindrical-symmetry simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.E.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes the numerical procedure used to implement the Green`s function method for solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensional (r,z) cylindrical coordinates. The procedure can determine the solution to a problem with any or all of the applied voltage boundary conditions, dielectric media, floating (insulated) conducting media, dielectric surface charging, and volumetric space charge. The numerical solution is reasonably fast, and the dimension of the linear problem to be solved is that of the number of elements needed to represent the surfaces, not the whole computational volume. The method of solution is useful in the simulation of plasma particle motion in the vicinity of complex surface structures as found in microelectronics plasma processing applications. This report is a stand-alone supplement to the previous Sandia Technical Report SAND98-0537 presenting the two-dimensional Cartesian Poisson solver.

  14. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  15. Two-dimensional wood drying stress simulation using control-volume mixed finite element methods (CVFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salinas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  The work was aimed at simulating two-dimensional wood drying stress using the control-volume finite element method (CVFEM. Stress/strain was modeled by moisture content gradients regarding shrinkage and mechanical sorption in a cross-section of wood. CVFEM was implemented with triangular finite elements and lineal interpolation of the independent variable which were programmed in Fortran 90 language. The model was validated by contrasting results with similar ones available in the specialised literature. The present model’s results came from isothermal (20ºC drying of quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides: two-dimensional distribution of stress/strain and water content, 40, 80, 130, 190 and 260 hour drying time and evolution of normal stress (2.5 <σ͓ ͓ < 1.2, MPa, from the interior to the exterior of wood. 

  16. Two-Dimensional IIR Filter Design Using Simulated Annealing Based Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Dhabal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel hybrid algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO and simulated annealing (SA for the design of two-dimensional recursive digital filters. The proposed method, known as SA-PSO, integrates the global search ability of PSO with the local search ability of SA and offsets the weakness of each other. The acceptance criterion of Metropolis is included in the basic algorithm of PSO to increase the swarm’s diversity by accepting sometimes weaker solutions also. The experimental results reveal that the performance of the optimal filter designed by the proposed SA-PSO method is improved. Further, the convergence behavior as well as optimization accuracy of proposed method has been improved significantly and computational time is also reduced. In addition, the proposed SA-PSO method also produces the best optimal solution with lower mean and variance which indicates that the algorithm can be used more efficiently in realizing two-dimensional digital filters.

  17. Freely configurable quantum simulator based on a two-dimensional array of individually trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Mielenz, Manuel; Wittemer, Matthias; Hakelberg, Frederick; Schmied, Roman; Blain, Matthew; Maunz, Peter; Leibfried, Dietrich; Warring, Ulrich; Schaetz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    A custom-built and precisely controlled quantum system may offer access to a fundamental understanding of another, less accessible system of interest. A universal quantum computer is currently out of reach, but an analog quantum simulator that makes the relevant observables, interactions, and states of a quantum model accessible could permit experimental insight into complex quantum dynamics that are intractable on conventional computers. Several platforms have been suggested and proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted. Here we characterise two-dimensional arrays of three ions trapped by radio-frequency fields in individually controlled harmonic wells forming equilateral triangles with side lengths 40 and 80 micrometer. In our approach, which is scalable to arbitrary two dimensional lattices, we demonstrate individual control of the electronic and motional degrees of freedom, preparation of a fiducial initial state with ion motion close to the ground state, as well as tuning of crucial couplings be...

  18. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion for pyramidally textured silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Fa-Jun, E-mail: Fajun.Ma@nus.edu.sg; Duttagupta, Shubham [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, 117574 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore); Shetty, Kishan Devappa; Meng, Lei; Hoex, Bram; Peters, Ian Marius [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, 117574 (Singapore); Samudra, Ganesh S. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117576 (Singapore); Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore, 7 Engineering Drive 1, 117574 (Singapore)

    2014-11-14

    Multidimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion is of great relevance for the improvement of industrial n-type crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. However, surface passivation of boron diffused area is typically studied in one dimension on planar lifetime samples. This approach neglects the effects of the solar cell pyramidal texture on the boron doping process and resulting doping profile. In this work, we present a theoretical study using a two-dimensional surface morphology for pyramidally textured samples. The boron diffusivity and segregation coefficient between oxide and silicon in simulation are determined by reproducing measured one-dimensional boron depth profiles prepared using different boron diffusion recipes on planar samples. The established parameters are subsequently used to simulate the boron diffusion process on textured samples. The simulated junction depth is found to agree quantitatively well with electron beam induced current measurements. Finally, chemical passivation on planar and textured samples is compared in device simulation. Particularly, a two-dimensional approach is adopted for textured samples to evaluate chemical passivation. The intrinsic emitter saturation current density, which is only related to Auger and radiative recombination, is also simulated for both planar and textured samples. The differences between planar and textured samples are discussed.

  19. Thermal metal in network models of a disordered two-dimensional superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalker, J. T.; Read, N.; Kagalovsky, V.; Horovitz, B.; Avishai, Y.; Ludwig, A. W.

    2002-01-01

    We study the symmetry class for localization which arises from models of noninteracting quasiparticles in disordered superconductors that have neither time-reversal nor spin-rotation invariance. Two-dimensional systems in this category, which is known as class D, can display phases with three different types of quasiparticle dynamics: metallic, localized, or with a quantized (thermal) Hall conductance. Correspondingly, they can show a variety of delocalization transitions. We illustrate this behavior by investigating numerically the phase diagrams of network models with the appropriate symmetry and show the appearance of the metallic phase.

  20. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF A TWO-DIMENSIONAL SQUARE MOVING NEAR FREE SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The body moving near the free surface is a focus in fluid dynamicresearch. Many numerical methods were developed for the simulation of the induced flow field. In this paper, a two-dimensional square moving near the free surface was simulated by the volume of fluid method (VOF). The flow field and drag exerted on the square were studied. The drag would increase due to the presence of the free surface.The iteration factor of the pressure interpolation of surface cells was modified, and through this modification the iteration became more stable. The capability of dealing with the large deformation of the free surface was raised.

  1. FUZZY MODEL FOR TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIVER WATER QUALITY SIMULATION UNDER SUDDEN POLLUTANTS DISCHARGED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the fuzziness and impreciseness of water environmental system, the fuzzy arithmetic was used to simulate the fuzzy and imprecise relations in modeling river water quality. By defining the parameters of water quality model as symmetrical triangular fuzzy numbers, a two-dimensional fuzzy water quality model for sudden pollutant discharge is established. From the fuzzy model, the pollutant concentrations, corresponding to the specified confidence level of α, can be obtained by means of the α-cut technique and arithmetic operations of triangular fuzzy numbers. Study results reveal that it is feasible in theory and reliable on calculation applying triangular fuzzy numbers to the simulation of river water quality.

  2. Nonlinear kinetic modeling and simulations of Raman scattering in a two-dimensional geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénisti Didier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS by the means of envelope equations, whose coefficients have been derived using a mixture of perturbative and adiabatic calculations. First examples of the numerical resolution of these envelope equations in a two-dimensional homogeneous plasma are given, and the results are compared against those of particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. These preliminary comparisons are encouraging since our envelope code provides threshold intensities consistent with those of PIC simulations while requiring computational resources reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to full-kinetic codes.

  3. A two dimensional thermal network model for a photovoltaic solar wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehra, Himanshu [1-140 Avenue Windsor, Lachine, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-11-15

    A two dimensional thermal network model is proposed to predict the temperature distribution for a section of photovoltaic solar wall installed in an outdoor room laboratory in Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. The photovoltaic solar wall is constructed with a pair of glass coated photovoltaic modules and a polystyrene filled plywood board as back panel. The active solar ventilation through a photovoltaic solar wall is achieved with an exhaust fan fixed in the outdoor room laboratory. The steady state thermal network nodal equations are developed for conjugate heat exchange and heat transport for a section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The matrix solution procedure is adopted for formulation of conductance and heat source matrices for obtaining numerical solution of one dimensional heat conduction and heat transport equations by performing two dimensional thermal network analyses. The temperature distribution is predicted by the model with measurement data obtained from the section of a photovoltaic solar wall. The effect of conduction heat flow and multi-node radiation heat exchange between composite surfaces is useful for predicting a ventilation rate through a solar ventilation system. (author)

  4. Synchronizability of Small-World Networks Generated from a Two-Dimensional Kleinberg Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the synchronizability of small-world networks generated from a two-dimensional Kleinberg model, which is more general than NW small-world network. The three parameters of the Kleinberg model, namely, the distance of neighbors, the number of edge-adding, and the edge-adding probability, are analyzed for their impacts on its synchronizability and average path length. It can be deduced that the synchronizability becomes stronger as the edge-adding probability increases, and the increasing edge-adding probability could make the average path length of the Kleinberg small-world network go smaller. Moreover, larger distance among neighbors and more edges to be added could play positive roles in enhancing the synchronizability of the Kleinberg model. The lorentz oscillators are employed to verify the conclusions numerically.

  5. One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated reversing flow turbuulence models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.F. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1990-08-01

    The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year`s funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge.

  6. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.

  7. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around three-stranded rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wan, Rong; Huang, Liuyi; Zhao, Fenfang; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Three-stranded rope is widely used in fishing gear and mooring system. Results of numerical simulation are presented for flow around a three-stranded rope in uniform flow. The simulation was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pressure and velocity fields of steady incompressible laminar and turbulent wakes behind a three-stranded rope. A three-cylinder configuration and single circular cylinder configuration are used to model the three-stranded rope in the two-dimensional simulation. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes equations, are solved by using two-dimensional finite volume method. The turbulence flow is simulated using Standard κ-ɛ model and Shear-Stress Transport κ-ω (SST) model. The drag of the three-cylinder model and single cylinder model is calculated for different Reynolds numbers by using control volume analysis method. The pressure coefficient is also calculated for the turbulent model and laminar model based on the control surface method. From the comparison of the drag coefficient and the pressure of the single cylinder and three-cylinder models, it is found that the drag coefficients of the three-cylinder model are generally 1.3-1.5 times those of the single circular cylinder for different Reynolds numbers. Comparing the numerical results with water tank test data, the results of the three-cylinder model are closer to the experiment results than the single cylinder model results.

  8. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional spouted bed with draft plates by discrete element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhi ZHAO; Yi CHENG; Maoqiang JIANG; Yong JIN

    2008-01-01

    A discrete element method (DEM)-computa-tional fluid dynamics (CFD) two-way coupling method was employed to simulate the hydrodynamics in a two-dimensional spouted bed with draft plates. The motion of particles was modeled by the DEM and the gas flow was modeled by the Navier-Stokes equation. The interactions between gas and particles were considered using a two-way coupling method. The motion of particles in the spouted bed with complex geometry was solved by com-bining DEM and boundary element method (BEM). The minimal spouted velocity was obtained by the BEM-DEM-CFD simulation and the variation of the flow pat-tern in the bed with different superficial gas velocity was studied. The relationship between the pressure drop of the spouted bed and the superficial gas velocity was achieved from the simulations. The radial profile of the averaged vertical velocities of particles and the profile of the aver-aged void fraction in the spout and the annulus were stat-istically analyzed. The flow characteristics of the gas-solid system in the two-dimensional spouted bed were clearly described by the simulation results.

  9. Bifurcations of large networks of two-dimensional integrate and fire neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Wilten; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2013-08-01

    Recently, a class of two-dimensional integrate and fire models has been used to faithfully model spiking neurons. This class includes the Izhikevich model, the adaptive exponential integrate and fire model, and the quartic integrate and fire model. The bifurcation types for the individual neurons have been thoroughly analyzed by Touboul (SIAM J Appl Math 68(4):1045-1079, 2008). However, when the models are coupled together to form networks, the networks can display bifurcations that an uncoupled oscillator cannot. For example, the networks can transition from firing with a constant rate to burst firing. This paper introduces a technique to reduce a full network of this class of neurons to a mean field model, in the form of a system of switching ordinary differential equations. The reduction uses population density methods and a quasi-steady state approximation to arrive at the mean field system. Reduced models are derived for networks with different topologies and different model neurons with biologically derived parameters. The mean field equations are able to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the bifurcations that the full networks display. Extensions and higher order approximations are discussed.

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of inductively coupled plasma based on COMSOL and comparison with experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jia; Ji Linhong; Wang Kesheng; Han Chuankun; Shi Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A two-dimensional axisymmetric inductively coupled plasma (ICP) model,and its implementation in the COMSOL multiphysical software,is described.The simulations are compared with the experimental results of argon discharge from the gaseous electronics conference RF reference cell in the inductively coupled plasma mode.The general trends of the number density and temperature of electrons with radial scanning are approximately correct.Finally,we discuss the reasons why the comparisons are not in agreement,and then propose an improvement in the assumptions of the Maxwellian electron energy distribution function and reaction rate.

  11. Simulation of Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Vortex Systems in Random Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Dynamics in two-dimensional vortex systems with random pinning centres is investigated using molecular dy-namical simulations. The driving force and temperature dependences of vortex velocity are investigated. Below the critical depinning force Fc, a creep motion of vortex is found at low temperature. At forces slightly above Fc, a part of vortices flow in winding channels at zero temperature. In the vortex channel flow region, we ob-serve the abnormal behaviour of vortex dynamics: the velocity is roughly independent of temperature or even decreases with temperature at low temperatures. A phase diagram that describes different dynamics of vortices is presented.

  12. Substrate influence on two-dimensional solids and liquids: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vives, E.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1991-01-01

    A general model for two-dimensional solids and liquids on a substrate is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The results can be applied to the case of adsorbed atoms or molecules on surfaces as well as intercalated compounds. We have focused on the study of the melting of a commensurate...... square-root 3 X square-root 3 structure on a triangular lattice with 1/3 coverage. The evolution of the energy, order parameters, and structure factor has been followed in a wide range of temperatures and substrate-potential strengths. The phase diagram exhibits a broad transition region between...

  13. Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikasue, Y., E-mail: chikasue@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Furukawa, M., E-mail: furukawa@damp.tottori-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.

  14. Replica exchange molecular simulation of Lennard-Jones particles in a two-dimensional confined system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Hideo; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2017-05-01

    Confined systems exhibit interesting properties that are applied to the fields of lubrication, adhesion and nanotechnology. The replica exchange molecular simulation method was applied to calculate the phase equilibrium points of Lennard-Jones particles in a two-dimensional confined system. The liquid-solid phase equilibrium points and the solid structure with a dependency of the slit width were determined and the order parameter of the solid structure was analyzed. Such confined systems are shown to be favorable for manipulation of the phase equilibrium points.

  15. Suppressing sampling noise in linear and two-dimensional spectral simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruiger, Johannes F.; van der Vegte, Cornelis P.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2015-02-01

    We examine the problem of sampling noise encountered in time-domain simulations of linear and two-dimensional spectroscopies. A new adaptive apodization scheme based on physical arguments is devised for suppressing the noise in order to allow reducing the number of used disorder realisations, but introducing only a minimum of spectral aberrations and thus allowing a potential speed-up of these types of simulations. First, the method is demonstrated on an artificial dimer system, where the effect on slope analysis, typically used to study spectral dynamics, is analysed. It is, furthermore, tested on the simulated two-dimensional infrared spectra in the amide I region of the protein lysozyme. The cross polarisation component is investigated, particularly sensitive to sampling noise, because it relies on cancelling of the dominant diagonal spectral contributions. In all these cases, the adaptive apodization scheme is found to give more accurate results than the commonly used lifetime apodization scheme and in most cases better than the gaussian apodization scheme.

  16. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction are implemented in the stacked two-dimensional ring network model proposed by the present author. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator network, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the system exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterization by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes in the rings. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points ...

  17. INTERVAL FINITE VOLUME METHOD FOR UNCERTAINTY SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL RIVER WATER QUALITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Li; ZENG Guang-ming; HUANG Guo-he; LU Hong-wei

    2004-01-01

    Under the interval uncertainties, by incorporating the discretization form of finite volume method and interval algebra theory, an Interval Finite Volume Method (IFVM) was developed to solve water quality simulation issues for two-dimensional river when lacking effective data of flow velocity and flow quantity. The IFVM was practically applied to a segment of the Xiangjiang River because the Project of Hunan Inland Waterway Multipurpose must be started working after the environmental impact assessment for it. The simulation results suggest that there exist rather apparent pollution zones of BOD5 downstream the Dongqiaogang discharger and that of COD downstream Xiaoxiangjie discharger, but the pollution sources have no impact on the safety of the three water plants located in this river segment. Although the developed IFVM is to be perfected, it is still a powerful tool under interval uncertainties for water environmental impact assessment, risk analysis, and water quality planning, etc. besides water quality simulation studied in this paper.

  18. Robustness and breakup of the spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice network of neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The robustness and breakup of spiral wave in a two-dimensional lattice networks of neurons are investigated. The effect of small- world type connection is often simplified with local regular connection and the long-range connection with certain probability. The network effect on the development of spiral wave can be better described by local regular connection and changeable long-range connection probability than fixed long-range connection probability because the long-range probability could be changeable in realistic biological system. The effect from the changeable probability for long-range connection is simplified by multiplicative noise. At first, a stable rotating spiral wave is developed by using appropriate initial values, parameters and no-flux boundary conditions, and then the effect of networks is investigated. Extensive numerical studies show that spiral wave keeps its alive and robust when the intensity of multiplicative noise is below a certain threshold, otherwise, the breakup of spiral wave occurs. A statistical factor of synchronization in two-dimensional array is defined to study the phase transition of spiral wave by checking the membrane potentials of all neurons corresponding to the critical parameters(the intensity of noise or forcing current)in the curve for factor of synchronization. The Hindmarsh-Rose model is investigated, the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model in the presence of the channel noise is also studied to check the model independence of our conclusions. And it is found that breakup of spiral wave is easier to be induced by the multiplicative noise in presence of channel noise.

  19. Energy Efficiency Analysis of a Two Dimensional Cooperative Wireless Sensor Network with Relay Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kakitani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of non-cooperative and cooperative transmissions are investigated in a two-dimensional wireless sensor network, considering a target outage probability and the same end-to-end throughput for all transmission schemes. The impact of the relay selection method in the cooperative schemes is also analyzed. We show that under non line-of-sight conditions the relay selection method has a greater impact in the energy efficiency than the availability of a return channel. By its turn, under line-of-sight conditions a return channel is more valuable to the energy efficiency of cooperative transmission than the specific relay selection method. Finally, we demonstrate that the energy efficiency advantage of the cooperative over the non-cooperative transmission increases with the distance among nodes and with the nodes density.

  20. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Hydrogen Direct-Current Discharge Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jingye; ZHANG Ming

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of a weakly-ionized hydrogen direct-current (DC) discharge at low pressure is simulated. In the model, the metal electron overflow and secondary electron emission coefficient at the cathode spot axe introduced to represent the relationship between the electron and ion density, and the electron energy distribution function is expressed by kinetic theory. The electron current density and reaction constant reasonably set on the boundary are discussed. It is determined that 11 collision reactions play a major role in low pressure and weakly ionized hydrogen discharge. On this basis, the relationship between mobility, electrode spacing, and breakdown voltage is verified. Good agreement is achieved between the simulation curve and Paschen curve.

  1. Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in Two-Dimensional Cylindrical Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-01-01

    We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flow onto a black hole in a two dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian Total Variation Diminishing (LTVD) and remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. Inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any QPO-like activity developed. The steady state shocked solution in the inviscid, as well as, in the viscous regime, matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. Such oscillation of the inner part of disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-qua...

  2. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Luo, Zhengtang, E-mail: keztluo@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2016-04-21

    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and ∼2298 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  3. Aerodynamic effects of simulated ice shapes on two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alansatan, Sait

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of simulated glaze ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance characteristics of two-dimensional airfoils and a swept finite tail. The two dimensional tests involved two NACA 0011 airfoils with chords of 24 and 12 inches. Glaze ice shapes computed with the LEWICE code that were representative of 22.5-min and 45-min ice accretions were simulated with spoilers, which were sized to approximate the horn heights of the LEWICE ice shapes. Lift, drag, pitching moment, and surface pressure coefficients were obtained for a range of test conditions. Test variables included Reynolds number, geometric scaling, control deflection and the key glaze ice features, which were horn height, horn angle, and horn location. For the three-dimensional tests, a 25%-scale business jet empennage (BJE) with a T-tail configuration was used to study the effect of ice shapes on the aerodynamic performance of a swept horizontal tail. Simulated glaze ice shapes included the LEWICE and spoiler ice shapes to represent 9-min and 22.5-min ice accretions. Additional test variables included Reynolds number and elevator deflection. Lift, drag, hinge moment coefficients as well as boundary layer velocity profiles were obtained. The experimental results showed substantial degradation in aerodynamic performance of the airfoils and the swept horizontal tail due to the simulated ice shapes. For the two-dimensional airfoils, the largest aerodynamic penalties were obtained when the 3-in spoiler-ice, which was representative of 45-min glaze ice accretions, was set normal to the chord. Scale and Reynolds effects were not significant for lift and drag. However, pitching moments and pressure distributions showed great sensitivity to Reynolds number and geometric scaling. For the threedimensional study with the swept finite tail, the 22.5-min ice shapes resulted in greater aerodynamic performance degradation than the 9-min ice shapes. The addition of 24

  4. Simulation of two-dimensional adjustable liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Zichun; Wu, Xiang; Sun, Yunli; Du, Ying

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional liquid gradient refractive index (L-GRIN) microlens is designed which can be used in adjusting focusing direction and focal spot of light beam. Finite element method (FEM) is used to simulate the convection diffusion process happening in core inlet flow and cladding inlet flow. And the ray tracing method shows us the light beam focusing effect including the extrapolation of focal length and output beam spot size. When the flow rates of the core and cladding fluids are held the same between the internal and external, left and right, and upper and lower inlets, the focal length varied from 313 μm to 53.3 μm while the flow rate of liquids ranges from 500 pL/s to 10,000 pL/s. While the core flow rate is bigger than the cladding inlet flow rate, the light beam will focus on a light spot with a tunable size. By adjusting the ratio of cladding inlet flow rate including Qright/Qleft and Qup/Qdown, we get the adjustable two-dimensional focus direction rather than the one-dimensional focusing. In summary, by adjusting the flow rate of core inlet and cladding inlet, the focal length, output beam spot and focusing direction of the input light beam can be manipulated. We suppose this kind of flexible microlens can be used in integrated optics and lab-on-a-chip system.

  5. Variational tensor network renormalization in imaginary time: Two-dimensional quantum compass model at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnik, Piotr; Dziarmaga, Jacek; Oleś, Andrzej M.

    2016-05-01

    Progress in describing thermodynamic phase transitions in quantum systems is obtained by noticing that the Gibbs operator e-β H for a two-dimensional (2D) lattice system with a Hamiltonian H can be represented by a three-dimensional tensor network, the third dimension being the imaginary time (inverse temperature) β . Coarse graining the network along β results in a 2D projected entangled-pair operator (PEPO) with a finite bond dimension D . The coarse graining is performed by a tree tensor network of isometries. The isometries are optimized variationally, taking into account full tensor environment, to maximize the accuracy of the PEPO. The algorithm is applied to the isotropic quantum compass model on an infinite square lattice near a symmetry-breaking phase transition at finite temperature. From the linear susceptibility in the symmetric phase and the order parameter in the symmetry-broken phase, the critical temperature is estimated at Tc=0.0606 (4 ) J , where J is the isotropic coupling constant between S =1/2 pseudospins.

  6. CS²-Collector: A New Approach for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Two-Dimensional Compressive Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Zhuoshi; Zhang, Jianpei; Li, Feng; Wen, Hongkai; Shen, Yiran

    2016-08-19

    In this paper, we consider the problem of reconstructing the temporal and spatial profile of some physical phenomena monitored by large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an energy efficient manner. Compressive sensing is one of the popular choices to reduce the energy consumption of the data collection in WSNs. The existing solutions only consider sparsity of sensors' data from either temporal or spatial dimensions. In this paper, we propose a novel data collection strategy, CS²-collector, for WSNs based on the theory of Two Dimensional Compressive Sensing (2DCS). It exploits both temporal and spatial sparsity, i.e., 2D-sparsity of WSNs and achieves significant gain on the tradeoff between the compression ratio and reconstruction accuracy as the numerical simulations and evaluations on different types of sensors' data. More intuitively, with the same given energy budget, CS²-collector provides significantly more accurate reconstruction of the profile of the physical phenomena that are temporal-spatially sparse.

  7. Two-dimensional Green`s function Poisson solution appropriate for feature-scale microelectronics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.E.

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the numerical procedure used to implement the Green`s function method for solving the Poisson equation in two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates. The procedure can determine the solution to a problem with any or all of applied voltage boundary conditions, dielectric media, floating (insulated) conducting media, dielectric surface charging, periodic (reflective) boundary conditions, and volumetric space charge. The numerical solution is reasonably fast, and the dimension of the linear problem to be solved is that of the number of elements needed to represent the surfaces, not the whole computational volume. The method of solution is useful in the simulation of plasma particle motion in the vicinity of complex surface structures as found in microelectronics plasma processing applications. A FORTRAN implementation of this procedure is available from the author.

  8. Numerical simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability: a two-dimensional parametric study

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Using two-dimensional simulations, we numerically explore the dependences of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability upon various physical parameters, including viscosity, width of sheared layer, flow speed, and magnetic field strength. In most cases, a multi-vortex phase exists between the initial growth phase and final single-vortex phase. The parametric study shows that the evolutionary properties, such as phase duration and vortex dynamics, are generally sensitive to these parameters except in certain regimes. An interesting result is that for supersonic flows, the phase durations and saturation of velocity growth approach constant values asymptotically as the sonic Mach number increases. We confirm that the linear coupling between magnetic field and Kelvin-Helmholtz modes is negligible if the magnetic field is weak enough. The morphological behaviour suggests that the multi-vortex coalescence might be driven by the underlying wave-wave interaction. Based on these results, we make a preliminary discussion about seve...

  9. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional steady granular flows in rotating drum: On surface flow rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, M.; Bonamy, D.; Dubois, F.; Alart, P.

    2005-10-01

    The rheology of two-dimensional steady surface flow of cohesionless cylinders in a rotating drum is investigated through nonsmooth contact dynamics simulations. Profiles of volume fraction, translational and angular velocity, rms velocity, strain rate, and stress tensor are measured at the midpoint along the length of the surface-flowing layer, where the flow is generally considered as steady and homogeneous. Analysis of these data and their interrelations suggest the local inertial number—defined as the ratio between local inertial forces and local confinement forces—to be the relevant dimensionless parameter to describe the transition from the quasistatic part of the packing to the flowing part at the surface of the heap. Variations of the components of the stress tensor as well as the ones of rms velocity as a function of the inertial number are analyzed within both the quasistatic and the flowing phases. Their implications are discussed.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of the superconducting proximity in superconductor-semiconductor junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Victor; Vissers, Michael; Law, Stephanie A.; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Eckstein, James N.

    2015-03-01

    We simulate the consequences of the superconducting proximity effect on the DC current response of a semiconductor-superconductor proximity device within the quasiclassical formalism in the diffusively disordered limit. The device is modeled on in-situ fabricated NS junctions of superconducting Nb films on metallic doped InAs films, with electrical terminals placed in an N-S-N T-junction configuration. Due to the non-collinear configuration of this three terminal device, a theoretical model based on coupled two dimensional spectral and distributional Usadel equations was constructed and numerically solved using Finite-Elements methods. In the regime of high junction conductance, our numerical results demonstrate strong temperature and spatial dependencies of the proximity induced modifications to spectral and transport properties. Such characteristics deviate strongly from usual tunnel junction behavior and aspects of this have been observed in prior experiments[arXiv:1402.6055].

  11. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional O(3) model from dual lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2016-01-01

    We have simulated the asymptotically free two-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero chemical potential using the model's dual representation. We first demonstrate how the latter solves the sign (complex action) problem. The system displays a crossover at nonzero temperature, while at zero temperature it undergoes a quantum phase transition when mu reaches the particle mass (generated dynamically similar to QCD). The density follows a square root behavior universal for repulsive bosons in one spatial dimension. We have also measured the spin stiffness, known to be sensitive to the spatial correlation length, using different scaling trajectories to zero temperature and infinite size. It points to a dynamical critical exponent z=2. Comparisons to thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze are shown as well.

  12. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2009-10-29

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  13. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Energy Research Center, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.

  14. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheisari, R.; Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H.

    2014-01-01

    A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 × 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 ×105 cm-3s-1, respectively.

  15. Optimization of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells by two-dimensional numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Meijun; Das, Ujjwal; Bowden, Stuart; Hegedus, Steven; Birmire, Robert

    2009-06-09

    In this paper, two-dimensional (2D) simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cells is presented using Sentaurus Device, a software package of Synopsys TCAD. A model is established incorporating a distribution of trap states of amorphous-silicon material and thermionic emission across the amorphous-silicon / crystalline-silicon heterointerface. The 2D nature of IBC-SHJ device is evaluated and current density-voltage (J-V) curves are generated. Optimization of IBC-SHJ solar cells is then discussed through simulation. It is shown that the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC) of IBC-SHJ solar cells increase with decreasing front surface recombination velocity. The JSC improves further with the increase of relative coverage of p-type emitter contacts, which is explained by the simulated and measured position dependent laser beam induced current (LBIC) line scan. The S-shaped J-V curves with low fill factor (FF) observed in experiments are also simulated, and three methods to improve FF by modifying the intrinsic a-Si buffer layer are suggested: (i) decreased thickness, (ii) increased conductivity, and (iii) reduced band gap. With all these optimizations, an efficiency of 26% for IBC-SHJ solar cells is potentially achievable.

  16. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gheisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2. The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume equal to 6.79 × 106 cm−2s−1 and 2.20 ×105 cm−3s−1, respectively.

  17. A laterally averaged two-dimensional simulation of unsteady supersaturated total dissolved gas in deep reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Jing-jie; LI Ran; YANG Hui-xia; LI Jia

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of the Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) may be reached downstream of dams,leading to increased incidences of gas bubble diseases in fish.The supersaturated TDG dissipates and transports more slowly in reservoirs than in natural rivers because of the greater depth and the lower turbulence,which endangers the fish more seriously.With consideration of the topographical characteristics of a deep reservoir,a laterally averaged two-dimensional unsteady TDG model for deep reservoir is proposed.The dissipation process of the TDG inside the waterbody and the mass transfer through the free surface are separately modeled with different functions in the model.Hydrodynamics equations are solved coupling with those of water temperature and density.The TDG concentration is calculated based on the density current field.A good agreement is found in the simulation of the Dachaoshan Reservoir between the simulation results and the field data of the hydrodynamics parameters and the TDG distribution in the vertical direction and their unsteady evolution with time.The hydrodynamics parameters,the temperature and the TDG concentration are analyzed based on the simulation results.This study demonstrates that the model can be used to predict the evolutions of hydrodynamics parameters,the temperature and the TDG distribution in a deep reservoir with unsteady inflow and outflow.The results can be used in the study of the mitigation measures of the supersaturated TDG.

  18. Computer-based training in two-dimensional echocardiography using an echocardiography simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, Michael; Wild, Florentine; Scheer, Kathrin; Muth, Gerhard; Kreutter, Stefan; Grunst, Gernoth; Berlage, Thomas; Schneider, Peter

    2005-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is a user-dependent technique that poses some inherent problems to the beginner. The first problem for beginners is spatial orientation, especially the orientation of the scan plane in reference to the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the heart. The second problem for beginners is steering of the ultrasound probe. We have designed a simulator to teach these skills. On a computer screen a side-by-side presentation of a 3D virtual reality scene on the right side and a 2D echocardiographic view on the left side is given. The virtual scene consists of a 3D heart and an ultrasound probe with scan plane. The 2D echocardiographic image is calculated from 3D echocardiographic data sets that are registered with the heart model to achieve spatial and temporal congruency. The displayed 2D echocardiographic image is defined and controlled by the orientation of the virtual scan plane. To teach hand-eye coordination we equipped a dummy transducer with a 3D tracking system and placed it on a dummy torso. We have evaluated the usability of the simulator in an introductory course for final-year medical students. The simulator was graded realistic and easy to use. According to a subjective self-assessment by a standardized questionnaire the aforementioned skills were imparted effectively.

  19. A two-dimensional adaptive spectral element method for the direct simulation of incompressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chieh

    The spectral element method is a high order discretization scheme for the solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. The method draws its strengths from the finite element method for geometrical flexibility and spectral methods for high accuracy. Although the method is, in theory, very powerful for complex phenomena such as transitional flows, its practical implementation is limited by the arbitrary choice of domain discretization. For instance, it is hard to estimate the appropriate number of elements for a specific case. Selection of regions to be refined or coarsened is difficult especially as the flow becomes more complex and memory limits of the computer are stressed. We present an adaptive spectral element method in which the grid is automatically refined or coarsened in order to capture underresolved regions of the domain and to follow regions requiring high resolution as they develop in time. The objective is to provide the best and most efficient solution to a time-dependent nonlinear problem by continually optimizing resource allocation. The adaptivity is based on an error estimator which determines which regions need more resolution. The solution strategy is as follows: compute an initial solution with a suitable initial mesh, estimate errors in the solution locally in each element, modify the mesh according to the error estimators, interpolate old mesh solutions onto the new elements, and resume the numerical solution process. A two-dimensional adaptive spectral element method for the direct simulation of incompressible flows has been developed. The adaptive algorithm effectively diagnoses and refines regions of the flow where complexity of the solution requires increased resolution. The method has been demonstrated on two-dimensional examples in heat conduction, Stokes and Navier-Stokes flows.

  20. Phenol-benzene complexation dynamics: quantum chemistry calculation, molecular dynamics simulations, and two dimensional IR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwac, Kijeong; Lee, Chewook; Jung, Yousung; Han, Jaebeom; Kwak, Kyungwon; Zheng, Junrong; Fayer, M D; Cho, Minhaeng

    2006-12-28

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and quantum mechanical electronic structure calculations are used to investigate the nature and dynamics of the phenol-benzene complex in the mixed solvent, benzene/CCl4. Under thermal equilibrium conditions, the complexes are continuously dissociating and forming. The MD simulations are used to calculate the experimental observables related to the phenol hydroxyl stretching mode, i.e., the two dimensional infrared vibrational echo spectrum as a function of time, which directly displays the formation and dissociation of the complex through the growth of off-diagonal peaks, and the linear absorption spectrum, which displays two hydroxyl stretch peaks, one for the complex and one for the free phenol. The results of the simulations are compared to previously reported experimental data and are found to be in quite reasonable agreement. The electronic structure calculations show that the complex is T shaped. The classical potential used for the phenol-benzene interaction in the MD simulations is in good accord with the highest level of the electronic structure calculations. A variety of other features is extracted from the simulations including the relationship between the structure and the projection of the electric field on the hydroxyl group. The fluctuating electric field is used to determine the hydroxyl stretch frequency-frequency correlation function (FFCF). The simulations are also used to examine the number distribution of benzene and CCl4 molecules in the first solvent shell around the phenol. It is found that the distribution is not that of the solvent mole fraction of benzene. There are substantial probabilities of finding a phenol in either a pure benzene environment or a pure CCl4 environment. A conjecture is made that relates the FFCF to the local number of benzene molecules in phenol's first solvent shell.

  1. Simulations of Viscous Accretion Flow around Black Holes in a Two-dimensional Cylindrical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv; Hyung, Siek; Ryu, Dongsu

    2016-11-01

    We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flows onto a black hole in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian total variation diminishing plus remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)-like activity developed. The steady-state shocked solution in the inviscid as well as in the viscous regime matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large-amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. This oscillation of the inner part of the disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-quasars. Strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The jets also show the existence of shocks, which are produced as one shell hits the preceding one. The periodicities of the jets and shock oscillation are similar; the jets for the higher viscosity parameter appear to be stronger and faster.

  2. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional fluid flow with strong shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, P.; Colella, P.

    1984-04-01

    Results of an extensive comparison of numerical methods for simulating hydrodynamics are presented and discussed. This study focuses on the simulation of fluid flows with strong shocks in two dimensions. By ''strong shocks,'' we here refer to shocks in which there is substantial entropy production. For the case of shocks in air, we therefore refer to Mach numbers of three and greater. For flows containing such strong shocks we find that a careful treatment of flow discontinuities is of greatest importance in obtaining accurate numerical results. Three aproaches to treating discontinuities in the flow are discussed-artificial viscosity, blending of low- and high-order-accurate fluxes, and the use of nonlinear solutions to Riemann's problem. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are discussed and illustrated by computed results for three test problems. In this comparison we have focused our attention entirely upon the performance of schemes for differencing the hydrodynamic equations. We have regarded the nature of the grid upon which such differencing schemes are applied as an independent issue outside the scope of this work. Therefore we have restricted our study to the case of uniform, square computational zones in Cartesian coordinates. For simplicity we have further restricted our attention to two-dimensional difference schemes which are built out of symmetrized products of one-dimensional difference operators.

  3. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10/sup 8/ kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10/sup 16/ J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references.

  4. Two-dimensional simulations of explosive eruptions of Kick-em Jenny and other submarine volcanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gisler, Galen R.; Weaver, R. P. (Robert P.); Mader, Charles L.; Gittings, M. L. (Michael L.)

    2004-01-01

    Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy), but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailuluu in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by subaerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  5. TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF EXPLOSIVE ERUPTIONS OF KICK-EM JENNY AND OTHER SUBMARINE VOLCANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Gisler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Kick-em Jenny, in the Eastern Caribbean, is a submerged volcanic cone that has erupted a dozen or more times since its discovery in 1939. The most likely hazard posed by this volcano is to shipping in the immediate vicinity (through volcanic missiles or loss-of-buoyancy, but it is of interest to estimate upper limits on tsunamis that might be produced by a catastrophic explosive eruption. To this end, we have performed two-dimensional simulations of such an event in a geometry resembling that of Kick-em Jenny with our SAGE adaptive mesh Eulerian multifluid compressible hydrocode. We use realistic equations of state for air, water, and basalt, and follow the event from the initial explosive eruption, through the generation of a transient water cavity and the propagation of waves away from the site. We find that even for extremely catastrophic explosive eruptions, tsunamis from Kick-em Jenny are unlikely to pose significant danger to nearby islands. For comparison, we have also performed simulations of explosive eruptions at the much larger shield volcano Vailulu'u in the Samoan chain, where the greater energy available can produce a more impressive wave. In general, however, we conclude that explosive eruptions do not couple well to water waves. The waves that are produced from such events are turbulent and highly dissipative, and don't propagate well. This is consistent with what we have found previously in simulations of asteroid-impact generated tsunamis. Non-explosive events, however, such as landslides or gas hydrate releases, do couple well to waves, and our simulations of tsunamis generated by sub- aerial and sub-aqueous landslides demonstrate this.

  6. A two-dimensional global simulation study of inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiannan; Song, Paul

    2016-12-01

    We present the numerical methods and results of a global two-dimensional multifluid-collisional-Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation model of the ionosphere-thermosphere system, an extension of our one-dimensional three-fluid MHD model. The model solves, self-consistently, Maxwell's equations, continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple ion and neutral species incorporating photochemistry, collisions among the electron, ion and neutral species, and various heating sources in the energy equations. The inductive-dynamic approach (solving self-consistently Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the plasma momentum equations) used in the model retains all possible MHD waves, thus providing faithful physical explanation (not merely description) of the magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere (M-IT) coupling. In the present study, we simulate the dawn-dusk cross-polar cap dynamic responses of the ionosphere to imposed magnetospheric convection. It is shown that the convection velocity at the top boundary launches velocity, magnetic, and electric perturbations propagating with the Alfvén speed toward the bottom of the ionosphere. Within the system, the waves experience reflection, penetration, and rereflection because of the inhomogeneity of the plasma conditions. The reflection of the Alfvén waves may cause overshoot (stronger than the imposed magnetospheric convection) of the plasma velocity in some regions. The simulation demonstrates dynamic propagation of the field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric field carried by the Alfvén waves, as well as formation of closure horizontal currents (Pedersen currents in the E region), indicating that in the dynamic stage the M-I coupling is via the Alfvén waves instead of field-aligned currents or electric field mapping as described in convectional M-I coupling models.

  7. Simulated two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the eight-bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Shu-Hao [Department of Chemistry and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Kais, Sabre, E-mail: kais@purdue.edu [Department of Chemistry and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-21

    The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire conducting energy between the outer antenna system and the reaction center; it is an important photosynthetic system to study the transfer of excitonic energy. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in some of the FMO monomers. To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways: (1) it is directly involved in the first apo form pathway (6 → 3 → 1) by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) it facilitates an increase in the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 → 4,5 → 2 → 1) and thus increases the possible downward sampling routes across the BChls.

  8. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Mass Transfer in Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cells under Operation Mode Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional, single-phase, isothermal, multicomponent, transient model is built to investigate the transport phenomena in unitized regenerative fuel cells (URFCs under the condition of switching from the fuel cell (FC mode to the water electrolysis (WE mode. The model is coupled with an electrochemical reaction. The proton exchange membrane (PEM is selected as the solid electrolyte of the URFC. The work is motivated by the need to elucidate the complex mass transfer and electrochemical process under operation mode switching in order to improve the performance of PEM URFC. A set of governing equations, including conservation of mass, momentum, species, and charge, are considered. These equations are solved by the finite element method. The simulation results indicate the distributions of hydrogen, oxygen, water mass fraction, and electrolyte potential response to the transient phenomena via saltation under operation mode switching. The hydrogen mass fraction gradients are smaller than the oxygen mass fraction gradients. The average mass fractions of the reactants (oxygen and hydrogen and product (water exhibit evident differences between each layer in the steady state of the FC mode. By contrast, the average mass fractions of the reactant (water and products (oxygen and hydrogen exhibit only slight differences between each layer in the steady state of the WE mode. Under either the FC mode or the WE mode, the duration of the transient state is only approximately 0.2 s.

  9. Numerical Simulations of an atmospheric pressure discharge using a two dimensional fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad M.; Turner, Miles M.

    2008-10-01

    We present numerical simulations of a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge using a two-dimensional fluid model with symmetric boundary conditions in pure helium and He-N2 gases at atmospheric pressure. The periodic stationary pattern of electrons and molecular helium ions density is shown at different times during one breakdown pulse for the pure helium gas. The temporal behavior of the helium metastables and excimers species density is examined and their influences on the discharge characteristics are exhibited for an APD. The atmospheric pressure discharge modes (APGD and APTD) are affected with small N2 impurities and the discharge mode structures are described under different operating conditions. The uniform and filamentary behavior of the discharge is controlled with the variable relative permittivity of the dielectric barrier material. The influence of nitrogen impurities plays a major role for the production of the filaments in the after glow phase of He-N2 discharge and the filaments are clearly observed with the increased recombination coefficient of nitrogen ions. The creation and annihilation mechanism of filaments is described with the production and destruction of nitrogen ions at different applied voltages and driving frequencies for a complete cycle. The results of the fluid model are validated by comparison with the experimental atmospheric pressure discharge results in He-N2 plasma discharge.

  10. Electrostatics on the sphere with applications to Monte Carlo simulations of two dimensional polar fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillol, Jean-Michel, E-mail: Jean-Michel.Caillol@th.u-psud.fr [University of Paris-Sud, CNRS, LPT, UMR 8627, Orsay F-91405 (France)

    2015-04-21

    We present two methods for solving the electrostatics of point charges and multipoles on the surface of a sphere, i.e., in the space S{sub 2}, with applications to numerical simulations of two-dimensional (2D) polar fluids. In the first approach, point charges are associated with uniform neutralizing backgrounds to form neutral pseudo-charges, while in the second, one instead considers bi-charges, i.e., dumbells of antipodal point charges of opposite signs. We establish the expressions of the electric potentials of pseudo- and bi-charges as isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation in S{sub 2}. A multipolar expansion of pseudo- and bi-charge potentials leads to the electric potentials of mono- and bi-multipoles, respectively. These potentials constitute non-isotropic solutions of the Laplace-Beltrami equation, the general solution of which in spherical coordinates is recast under a new appealing form. We then focus on the case of mono- and bi-dipoles and build the theory of dielectric media in S{sub 2}. We notably obtain the expression of the static dielectric constant of a uniform isotropic polar fluid living in S{sub 2} in terms of the polarization fluctuations of subdomains of S{sub 2}. We also derive the long range behavior of the equilibrium pair correlation function under the assumption that it is governed by macroscopic electrostatics. These theoretical developments find their application in Monte Carlo simulations of the 2D fluid of dipolar hard spheres. Some preliminary numerical experiments are discussed with a special emphasis on finite size effects, a careful study of the thermodynamic limit, and a check of the theoretical predictions for the asymptotic behavior of the pair correlation function.

  11. Two-dimensional fully dynamic SEM simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, H.; Hirahara, K.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake cycle simulations have been performed to successfully reproduce the historical earthquake occurrences. Most of them are quasi-dynamic, where inertial effects are approximated using the radiation damping proposed by Rice [1993]. Lapusta et al. [2000, 2009] developed a methodology capable of the detailed description of seismic and aseismic slip and gradual process of earthquake nucleation in the entire earthquake cycle. Their fully dynamic simulations have produced earthquake cycles considerably different from quasi-dynamic ones. Those simulations have, however, never been performed for interplate earthquakes at subduction zones. Many studies showed that on dipping faults such as interplate earthquakes at subduction zones, normal stress is changed during faulting due to the interaction with Earth's free surface. This change in normal stress not only affects the earthquake rupture process, but also causes the residual stress variation that might affect the long-term histories of earthquake cycle. Accounting for such effects, we perform two-dimensional simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake cycle. Our model is in-plane and a laboratory derived rate and state friction acts on a dipping fault embedded on an elastic half-space that reaches the free surface. We extended the spectral element method (SEM) code [Ampuero, 2002] to incorporate a conforming mesh of triangles and quadrangles introduced in Komatitsch et al. [2001], which enables us to analyze the complex geometry with ease. The problem is solved by the methodology almost the same as Kaneko et al. [2011], which is the combined scheme switching in turn a fully dynamic SEM and a quasi-static SEM. The difference is the dip-slip thrust fault in our study in contrast to the vertical strike slip fault. With this method, we can analyze how the dynamic rupture with surface breakout interacting with the free surface affects the long-term earthquake cycle. We discuss the fully dynamic earthquake cycle results

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of red blood cell motion near a wall under a lateral force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariprasad, Daniel S.; Secomb, Timothy W.

    2014-11-01

    The motion of a red blood cell suspended in a linear shear flow adjacent to a fixed boundary subject to an applied lateral force directed toward the boundary is simulated. A two-dimensional model is used that represents the viscous and elastic properties of normal red blood cells. Shear rates in the range of 100 to 600 s-1 are considered, and the suspending medium viscosity is 1 cP. In the absence of a lateral force, the cell executes a tumbling motion. With increasing lateral force, a transition from tumbling to tank-treading is predicted. The minimum force required to ensure tank-treading increases nonlinearly with the shear rate. Transient swinging motions occur when the force is slightly larger than the transition value. The applied lateral force is balanced by a hydrodynamic lift force resulting from the positive orientation of the long axis of the cell with respect to the wall. In the case of cyclic tumbling motions, the orientation angle takes positive values through most of the cycle, resulting in lift generation. These results are used to predict the motion of a cell close to the outer edge of the cell-rich core region that is generated when blood flows in a narrow tube. In this case, the lateral force is generated by shear-induced dispersion, resulting from cell-cell interactions in a region with a concentration gradient. This force is estimated using previous data on shear-induced dispersion. The cell is predicted to execute tank-treading motions at normal physiological hematocrit levels, with the possibility of tumbling at lower hematocrit levels.

  13. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Altay, H. Murat

    2010-03-17

    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor

  14. Two-dimensional FSI simulation of closing dynamics of a tilting disc mechanical heart valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V; Udaykumar, H S; Herbertson, L H; Deutsch, S; Manning, K B; Chandran, K B

    2010-03-01

    The fluid dynamics during valve closure resulting in high shear flows and large residence times of particles has been implicated in platelet activation and thrombus formation in mechanical heart valves. Our previous studies with bi-leaflet valves have shown that large shear stresses induced in the gap between the leaflet edge and the valve housing results in relatively high platelet activation levels whereas flow between the leaflets results in shed vortices not conducive to platelet damage. In this study we compare the result of closing dynamics of a tilting disc valve with that of a bi-leaflet valve. The two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction analysis of a tilting disc valve closure mechanics is performed with a fixed grid Cartesian mesh flow solver with local mesh refinement, and a Lagrangian particle dynamic analysis for computation of potential for platelet activation. Throughout the simulation the flow remains in the laminar regime and the flow through the gap width is marked by the development of a shear layer which separates from the leaflet downstream of the valve. Zones of re-circulation are observed in the gap between the leaflet edge and the valve housing on the major orifice region of the tilting disc valve and are seen to be migrating towards the minor orifice region. Jet flow is observed at the minor orifice region and a vortex is formed which sheds in the direction of fluid motion as observed in experiments using PIV measurements. The activation parameter computed for the tilting disc valve, at the time of closure was found to be 2.7 times greater than that of the bi-leaflet mechanical valve and was found to be in the vicinity of the minor orifice region mainly due to the migration of vortical structures from the major to the minor orifice region during the leaflet rebound of the closing phase.

  15. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  16. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  17. Ensemble Distribution for Immiscible Two-Phase Flow in Two-Dimensional Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Savani, Isha; Kjelstrup, Signe; Vassvik, Morten; Sinha, Santanu; Hansen, Alex

    2016-01-01

    An ensemble distribution has been constructed to describe steady immiscible two-phase flow of two incompressible fluids in a network. The system is ergodic. The distribution relates the time that a bubble of the non-wetting fluid spends in a link to the local volume flow. The properties of the ensemble distribution are tested by two-phase flow simulations at the pore-scale for capillary numbers ranging from 0.1 to 0.001. It is shown that the distribution follows the postulated dependence on the local flow for Ca = 0.01 and 0.001. The distribution is used to compute the global flow performance of the network. In particular, we find the expression for the overall mobility of the system using the ensemble distribution. The entropy production at the scale of the network is shown to give the expected product of the average flow and its driving force, obtained from a black-box description. The distribution can be used to obtain macroscopic variables from local network information, for a practical range of capillary...

  18. Full molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water and carbon tetrachloride for two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy in the frequency domain

    CERN Document Server

    Jo, Ju-Yeon; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-domain two-dimensional Raman signals, which are equivalent to coherent two-dimensional Raman scattering (COTRAS) signals, for liquid water and carbon tetrachloride were calculated using an equilibrium-nonequilibrium hybrid MD simulation algorithm. We elucidate mechanisms governing the 2D signal pro?les involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling and the nonlinearities of the polarizability for the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational modes. The predicted signal pro?les and intensities can be utilized to analyze recently developed single-beam 2D spectra, whose signals are generated from a coherently controlled pulse, allowing the single-beam measurement to be carried out more efficiently.

  19. A two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid produced by an atomic simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po, Hoi Chun; Zhou, Qi

    2015-08-13

    Bosons have a natural instinct to condense at zero temperature. It is a long-standing challenge to create a high-dimensional quantum liquid that does not exhibit long-range order at the ground state, as either extreme experimental parameters or sophisticated designs of microscopic Hamiltonians are required for suppressing the condensation. Here we show that synthetic gauge fields for ultracold atoms, using either the Raman scheme or shaken lattices, provide physicists a simple and practical scheme to produce a two-dimensional algebraic quantum liquid at the ground state. This quantum liquid arises at a critical Lifshitz point, where a two-dimensional quartic dispersion emerges in the momentum space, and many fundamental properties of two-dimensional bosons are changed in its proximity. Such an ideal simulator of the quantum Lifshitz model allows experimentalists to directly visualize and explore the deconfinement transition of topological excitations, an intriguing phenomenon that is difficult to access in other systems.

  20. A two-dimensional flow sensor with integrated micro thermal sensing elements and a back propagation neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Que, Ruiyi; Zhu, Rong

    2013-12-31

    This paper demonstrates a novel flow sensor with two-dimensional 360° direction sensitivity achieved with a simple structure and a novel data fusion algorithm. Four sensing elements with roundabout wires distributed in four quadrants of a circle compose the sensor probe, and work in constant temperature difference (CTD) mode as both Joule heaters and temperature detectors. The magnitude and direction of a fluid flow are measured by detecting flow-induced temperature differences among the four elements. The probe is made of Ti/Au thin-film with a diameter of 2 mm, and is fabricated using micromachining techniques. When a flow goes through the sensor, the flow-induced temperature differences are detected by the sensing elements that also serve as the heaters of the sensor. By measuring the temperature differences among the four sensing elements symmetrically distributed in the sensing area, a full 360° direction sensitivity can be obtained. By using a BP neural network to model the relationship between the readouts of the four sensor elements and flow parameters and execute data fusion, the magnitude and direction of the flow can be deduced. Validity of the sensor design was proven through both simulations and experiments. Wind tunnel experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the airflow speed reaches 0.72 m/s in the range of 3 m/s-30 m/s and the measurement accuracy of flow direction angle reaches 1.9° in the range of 360°.

  1. A Two-Dimensional Flow Sensor with Integrated Micro Thermal Sensing Elements and a Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyi Que

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates a novel flow sensor with two-dimensional 360° direction sensitivity achieved with a simple structure and a novel data fusion algorithm. Four sensing elements with roundabout wires distributed in four quadrants of a circle compose the sensor probe, and work in constant temperature difference (CTD mode as both Joule heaters and temperature detectors. The magnitude and direction of a fluid flow are measured by detecting flow-induced temperature differences among the four elements. The probe is made of Ti/Au thin-film with a diameter of 2 mm, and is fabricated using micromachining techniques. When a flow goes through the sensor, the flow-induced temperature differences are detected by the sensing elements that also serve as the heaters of the sensor. By measuring the temperature differences among the four sensing elements symmetrically distributed in the sensing area, a full 360° direction sensitivity can be obtained. By using a BP neural network to model the relationship between the readouts of the four sensor elements and flow parameters and execute data fusion, the magnitude and direction of the flow can be deduced. Validity of the sensor design was proven through both simulations and experiments. Wind tunnel experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the airflow speed reaches 0.72 m/s in the range of 3 m/s–30 m/s and the measurement accuracy of flow direction angle reaches 1.9° in the range of 360°.

  2. CS2-Collector: A New Approach for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Two-Dimensional Compressive Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yang, Zhuoshi; Zhang, Jianpei; Li, Feng; Wen, Hongkai; Shen, Yiran

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of reconstructing the temporal and spatial profile of some physical phenomena monitored by large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an energy efficient manner. Compressive sensing is one of the popular choices to reduce the energy consumption of the data collection in WSNs. The existing solutions only consider sparsity of sensors’ data from either temporal or spatial dimensions. In this paper, we propose a novel data collection strategy, CS2-collector, for WSNs based on the theory of Two Dimensional Compressive Sensing (2DCS). It exploits both temporal and spatial sparsity, i.e., 2D-sparsity of WSNs and achieves significant gain on the tradeoff between the compression ratio and reconstruction accuracy as the numerical simulations and evaluations on different types of sensors’ data. More intuitively, with the same given energy budget, CS2-collector provides significantly more accurate reconstruction of the profile of the physical phenomena that are temporal-spatially sparse. PMID:27548180

  3. Synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2017-02-01

    We study the effects of a synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network model. The model was introduced to simulate light propagation in the corresponding ring-resonator lattice, and is thus completely bosonic. Without these two items, the model exhibits Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases with topologically gapless and gapped band structures, respectively. The synthetic magnetic field implemented in the model results in a three-dimensional Hofstadter-butterfly-type spectrum in a photonic platform. The resulting gaps are characterized by the winding number of relevant S-matrices together with the Chern number of the bulk bands. The pseudospin-orbit interaction is defined as the mixing term between two pseudospin degrees of freedom in the rings, namely, the clockwise and counter-clockwise modes. It destroys the Floquet-topological-insulator phases, while the Floquet-Weyl phase with multiple Weyl points can be preserved by breaking the space-inversion symmetry. Implementing both the synthetic gauge field and pseudospin-orbit interaction requires a certain nonreciprocity.

  4. An Efficient N-3-Scaling Propagation Scheme for Simulating Two-Dimensional Infrared and Visible Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Chungwen; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a new approximate propagation scheme for calculating two-dimensional infrared and visible spectra. The new scheme scales one order more efficiently with the system size than the existing schemes. A Trotter type of approximation is used for the matrix exponent that

  5. Two-Dimensional Hydrous Silica : Nanosheets and Nanotubes Predicted from First-Principles Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrous silica sheets (HSSs) and hydrous silica nanotubes (HSNTs) have many unique properties and potential applications. Although preparation of 2D HSSs was patented already about half a century ago, very little is known about their structure and physical properties. He we pred

  6. Analysis of Multi-Channel and Slotted Random Multi-Access Protocol with Two-Dimensional Probability for Ad Hoc Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Ningyu; ZHAO Dongfeng; DING Hongwei

    2008-01-01

    A higher quality of service (QoS) is provided for ad hoc networks through a multi-channel and slotted random multi-access (MSRM) protocol with two-dimensional probability. For this protocol, the system time is slotted into a time slot with high channel utilization realized by the choice of two parameters p1 and p2, and the channel load equilibrium. The protocol analyzes the throughput of the MSRM protocol for a load equilibrium state and the throughput based on priority. Simulations agree with the theoretical analysis. The simulations also show that the slotted-time system is better than the continuous-time system.

  7. Convergent fabrication of a nanoporous two-dimensional carbon network from an aldol condensation on metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, John; Chérioux, Frédéric; De Santis, Maurizio; Bendiab, Nedjma; Lamare, Simon; Magaud, Laurence; Coraux, Johann

    2014-12-01

    We report a convergent surface polymerization reaction scheme on Au(111), based on a triple aldol condensation, yielding a carbon-rich, covalent nanoporous two-dimensional network. The reaction is not self-poisoning and proceeds up to a full surface coverage. The deposited precursor molecules 1, 3, 5-tri(4’-acetylphenyl) first form supramolecular assemblies that are converted to the porous covalent network upon heating. The formation and structure of the network and of the intermediate steps are studied with scanning tunneling microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic modeling of ferromagnetic materials by using a neural networks based hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. That approach aims to be coupled together with numerical treatments of magnetic hysteresis such as FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, allowing a complete computer simulation with acceptable run times. The proposed Hybrid Neural System consists of four inputs representing the magnetic induction and magnetic field components at each time step and it is trained by 2D and scalar measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the Hybrid Neural System returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. Within the Hybrid Neural System, a suitably trained neural network is used for predicting the hysteretic behavior of the material to be modeled. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for symmetric, non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  9. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Left-Handed Metamaterial Flat Lens Using Remcon XFDTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Reinert, Jason M.

    2006-01-01

    Remcom's XFDTD software was used to model the properties of a two-dimensional left-handed metamaterial (LHM) flat lens. The focusing capability and attenuation of the material were examined. The results showed strong agreement with experimental results and theoretical predictions of focusing effects and focal length. The inherent attenuation in the model corresponds well with the experimental results and implies that the code does a reasonably accurate job of modeling the actual metamaterial.

  10. Validation and application of a two-dimensional model to simulate soil salt transport under mulched drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Huiqing; Zhao, Chengyi; Sheng, Yu; Chen, Yan; Shi, Jianchu; Li, Baoguo

    2017-04-01

    Water shortage and soil salinization increasingly become the main constraints for sustainable development of agriculture in Southern Xinjiang, China. Mulched drip irrigation, as a high-efficient water-saving irrigation method, has been widely applied in Southern Xinjiang for cotton production. In order to analyze the reasonability of describing the three-dimensional soil water and salt transport processes under mulched drip irrigation with a relatively simple two-dimensional model, a field experiment was conducted from 2007 to 2015 at Aksu of Southern Xinjiang, and soil water and salt transport processes were simulated through the three-dimensional and two-dimensional models based on COMSOL. Obvious differences were found between three-dimensional and two-dimensional simulations for soil water flow within the early 12 h of irrigation event and for soil salt transport in the area within 15 cm away from drip tubes during the whole irrigation event. The soil water and salt contents simulated by the two-dimensional model, however, agreed well with the mean values between two adjacent emitters simulated by the three-dimensional model, and also coincided with the measurements as corresponding RMSE less than 0.037 cm3 cm-3 and 1.80 g kg-1, indicating that the two-dimensional model was reliable for field irrigation management. Subsequently, the two-dimensional model was applied to simulate the dynamics of soil salinity for five numerical situations and for a widely adopted irrigation pattern in Southern Xinjiang (about 350 mm through mulched drip irrigation during growing season of cotton and total 400 mm through flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting). The simulation results indicated that the contribution of transpiration to salt accumulation in root layer was about 75% under mulched drip irrigation. Moreover, flooding irrigations before sowing and after harvesting were of great importance for salt leaching of arable layer, especially in bare strip where

  11. Digital simulation of two-dimensional random fields with arbitrary power spectra and non-Gaussian probability distribution functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, Harold; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2012-01-01

    Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set with the......Methods for simulation of two-dimensional signals with arbitrary power spectral densities and signal amplitude probability density functions are disclosed. The method relies on initially transforming a white noise sample set of random Gaussian distributed numbers into a corresponding set...... with the desired spectral distribution, after which this colored Gaussian probability distribution is transformed via an inverse transform into the desired probability distribution. In most cases the method provides satisfactory results and can thus be considered an engineering approach. Several illustrative...

  12. Simulation study of scalings in scrape-off layer plasma by two-dimensional transport code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.-I.; Ueda, Noriaki; Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))

    1990-07-01

    Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma and divertor plasma in Tokamaks were numerically analyzed using a two-dimensional time-dependent transport code (UEDA code). Plasma transport in the SOL and the divertor region was studied for given particle and heat sources from the main plasma. A scaling study of the density, the temperature and their fall-off lengths was carried out for the JFT-2M Tokamak. The results show the inter-relations between the divertor plasma parameters and core plasma confinement. The operational conditions of the core necessary to guarantee the divertor performance are discussed. (author).

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Two-dimensional Partially Cavitating Hydrofoils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahri Celik; Yasemin Arikan Ozden; Sakir Bal

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, a new approach is applied to the cavity prediction for two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoils by the potential based boundary element method (BEM). The boundary element method is treated with the source and doublet distributions on the panel surface and cavity surface by the use of the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. An iterative solution approach is used to determine the cavity shape on partially cavitating hydrofoils. In the case of a specified cavitation number and cavity length, the iterative solution method proceeds by addition or subtraction of a displacement thickness on the cavity surface of the hydrofoil. The appropriate cavity shape is obtained by the dynamic boundary condition of the cavity surface and the kinematic boundary condition of the whole foil surface including the cavity. For a given cavitation number the cavity length of the 2D hydrofoil is determined according to the minimum error criterion among different cavity lengths, which satisfies the dynamic boundary condition on the cavity surface. The NACA 16006, NACA 16012 and NACA 16015 hydrofoil sections are investigated for two angles of attack. The results are compared with other potential based boundary element codes, the PCPAN and a commercial CFD code (FLUENT). Consequently, it has been shown that the results obtained from the two dimensional approach are consistent with those obtained from the others.

  14. Numerical simulation of the flow around two-dimensional partially cavitating hydrofoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Fahri; Ozden, Yasemin Arikan; Bal, Sakir

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, a new approach is applied to the cavity prediction for two-dimensional (2D) hydrofoils by the potential based boundary element method (BEM). The boundary element method is treated with the source and doublet distributions on the panel surface and cavity surface by the use of the Dirichlet type boundary conditions. An iterative solution approach is used to determine the cavity shape on partially cavitating hydrofoils. In the case of a specified cavitation number and cavity length, the iterative solution method proceeds by addition or subtraction of a displacement thickness on the cavity surface of the hydrofoil. The appropriate cavity shape is obtained by the dynamic boundary condition of the cavity surface and the kinematic boundary condition of the whole foil surface including the cavity. For a given cavitation number the cavity length of the 2D hydrofoil is determined according to the minimum error criterion among different cavity lengths, which satisfies the dynamic boundary condition on the cavity surface. The NACA 16006, NACA 16012 and NACA 16015 hydrofoil sections are investigated for two angles of attack. The results are compared with other potential based boundary element codes, the PCPAN and a commercial CFD code (FLUENT). Consequently, it has been shown that the results obtained from the two dimensional approach are consistent with those obtained from the others.

  15. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL DAM-BREAK FLOWS IN CURVED CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional transient dam-break flows in a river with bends were theoretically studied. The river was modeled as a curved channel with a constant width and a flat bottom. The water was assumed to be an incompressible and homogeneous fluid. A channel-fitted orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system was established and the corresponding two-dimensional shallow-water equations were derived for this system. The governing equations with well-posed initial and boundary conditions were numerically solved in a rectangular domain by use of the Godunov-type finite-difference scheme, which can capture the hydraulic jump of dam-break flows. The comparison between the obtained numerical results and the experimental data of Miller and Chaudry in a semicircle channel shows the validity of the present numerical scheme. The mathematical model and the numerical method were applied to the dam-break flows in channels with various curvatures. Based on the numerical results, the influence of river curvatures on the dam-break flows was analyzed in details.

  16. Tracer particles in two-dimensional elastic networks diffuse logarithmically slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, Ludvig; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Several experiments on tagged molecules or particles in living systems suggest that they move anomalously slow—their mean squared displacement (MSD) increase slower than linearly with time. Leading models aimed at understanding these experiments predict that the MSD grows as a power law with a growth exponent that is smaller than unity. However, in some experiments the growth is so slow (fitted exponent  ∼0.1–0.2) that they hint towards other mechanisms at play. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate how in-plane collective modes excited by thermal fluctuations in a two dimensional membrane lead to logarithmic time dependence for the the tracer particle’s MSD.

  17. Simulation of two-dimensional ISAR decoys on a moving platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi Pan; Wei Wang; Qixiang Fu; Dejun Feng; Guoyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    It is potential y useful to perform deception jamming using the digital image synthesizer (DIS) since it can form a two-dimensional (2D) decoy but suffers from multiple decoys ge-neration. Inspired by the intermittent sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ), the generation of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) decoys is addressed, associated with the DIS and the ISRJ. Radar pulses are sampled intermittently and modulated by the scatter-ing model of a false target by mounting the jammer on a moving platform, and then the jamming signals are retransmitted to the radar and a train of decoys are induced after ISAR imaging. A scattering model of Yak-42 is adopted as the false-target mo-dulation model to verify the effectiveness of the jamming method based on the standard ISAR motion compensation and image for-mation procedure.

  18. Two-Dimensional Variable Property Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation of Nanofluids in Microchannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramiar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laminar two-dimensional forced convective heat transfer of CuO-water and Al2O3-water nanofluids in a horizontal microchannel has been studied numerically, considering axial conduction effects in both solid and liquid regions and variable thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity. The results show that using nanoparticles with higher thermal conductivities will intensify enhancement of heat transfer characteristics and slightly increases shear stress on the wall. The obtained results show more steep changes in Nusselt number for lower diameters and also higher values of Nusselt number by decreasing the diameter of nanoparticles. Also, by utilizing conduction number as the criterion, it was concluded from the results that adding nanoparticles will intensify the axial conduction effect in the geometry considered.

  19. Computation and validation of two-dimensional PSF simulation based on physical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayabaly, K; Sironi, G; Canestrari, R; Lavagna, M; Pareschi, G

    2016-01-01

    The Point Spread Function (PSF) is a key figure of merit for specifying the angular resolution of optical systems and, as the demand for higher and higher angular resolution increases, the problem of surface finishing must be taken seriously even in optical telescopes. From the optical design of the instrument, reliable ray-tracing routines allow computing and display of the PSF based on geometrical optics. However, such an approach does not directly account for the scattering caused by surface microroughness, which is interferential in nature. Although the scattering effect can be separately modeled, its inclusion in the ray-tracing routine requires assumptions that are difficult to verify. In that context, a purely physical optics approach is more appropriate as it remains valid regardless of the shape and size of the defects appearing on the optical surface. Such a computation, when performed in two-dimensional consideration, is memory and time consuming because it requires one to process a surface map wit...

  20. CYCLIC HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALS WITH PENETRABLE GRAIN BOUNDARIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE DISLOCATION DYNAMICS SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuantao Hou; Zhenhuan Li; Minsheng Huang; Chaojun Ouyang

    2009-01-01

    A two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) technology by Giessen and Needleman (1995), which has been extended by integrating a dislocation-grain boundary interaction model, is used to computationally analyze the micro-cyclic plastic response of polycrystals containing micron-sized grains, with special attentions to significant influence of dislocationpenetrable grain boundaries (GBs) on the micro-plastic cyclic responses of polycrystals and underlying dislocation mechanism. Toward this end, a typical polycrystalline rectangular specimen under simple tension-compression loading is considered. Results show that, with the increase of cycle accumulative strain, continual dislocation accumulation and enhanced dislocation-dislocation interactions induce the cyclic hardening behavior; however, when a dynamic balance among dislocation nucleation, penetration through GB and dislocation annihilation is approximately established, cyclic stress gradually tends to saturate. In addition, other factors, including the grain size, cyclic strain amplitude and its history, also have considerable influences on the cyclic hardening and saturation.

  1. Numerical simulations of blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Y.; Homae, T.; Wakabayashi, K.; Matsumura, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    2017-01-01

    This paper numerically visualizes explosion phenomena in order to discuss blast wave characteristics with a two-dimensional axisymmetric room model. After the shock wave exits via an opening, the blast wave propagates into open space. In the present study, a parametric study was conducted to determine the blast wave characteristics from the room exit by changing the room shape and the mass of the high explosive. Our results show that the blast wave characteristics can be correctly estimated using a scaling factor proposed in the present paper that includes the above parameters. We conducted normalization of the peak overpressure curve using the shock overpressure at the exit and the length scale of the room volume. In the case where the scaling factor has the same value, the normalized peak overpressure curve does not depend on the calculation conditions, and the scaling factor describes the blast wave characteristics emerging from the current room model.

  2. Percolative behavior of an anisotropic two-dimensional network:Growth of tellurium onto an oriented polymer film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, T.; Martínez-Salazar, J.; Herrero, P.; Petermann, J.

    1997-01-01

    In situ transport measurements during the growth of a thin layer of thermally evaporated tellurium onto an oriented polymer film are presented. The system, which resembles the characteristics of a two-dimensional anisotropic network, is analyzed in terms of the current percolation theory. Parameters such as the percolation threshold and the critical exponents are calculated for the perpendicular and the parallel orientation. Within the limits of the experiments the values of t∥ and t⊥ are estimated to be 1.15 and 1.46, respectively.

  3. Fluid theory and kinetic simulation of two-dimensional electrostatic streaming instabilities in electron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, C.-S.; Hau, L.-N.

    2016-11-01

    Electrostatic streaming instabilities have been proposed as the generation mechanism for the electrostatic solitary waves observed in various space plasma environments. Past studies on the subject have been mostly based on the kinetic theory and particle simulations. In this paper, we extend our recent study based on one-dimensional fluid theory and particle simulations to two-dimensional regimes for both bi-streaming and bump-on-tail streaming instabilities in electron-ion plasmas. Both linear fluid theory and kinetic simulations show that for bi-streaming instability, the oblique unstable modes tend to be suppressed by the increasing background magnetic field, while for bump-on-tail instability, the growth rates of unstable oblique modes are increased with increasing background magnetic field. For both instabilities, the fluid theory gives rise to the linear growth rates and the wavelengths of unstable modes in good agreement with those obtained from the kinetic simulations. For unmagnetized and weakly magnetized systems, the formed electrostatic structures tend to diminish after the long evolution, while for relatively stronger magnetic field cases, the solitary waves may merge and evolve to steady one-dimensional structures. Comparisons between one and two-dimensional results are made and the effects of the ion-to-electron mass ratio are also examined based on the fluid theory and kinetic simulations. The study concludes that the fluid theory plays crucial seeding roles in the kinetic evolution of electrostatic streaming instabilities.

  4. Kinetic cascade beyond MHD of solar wind turbulence in two-dimensional hybrid simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Verscharen, Daniel; Motschmann, Uwe; Müller, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The nature of solar wind turbulence in the dissipation range at scales much smaller than the large MHD scales remains under debate. Here a two-dimensional model based on the hybrid code abbreviated as A.I.K.E.F. is presented, which treats massive ions as particles obeying the kinetic Vlasov equation and massless electrons as a neutralizing fluid. Up to a certain wavenumber in the MHD regime, the numerical system is initialized by assuming a superposition of isotropic Alfv\\'en waves with amplitudes that follow the empirically confirmed spectral law of Kolmogorov. Then turbulence develops and energy cascades into the dispersive spectral range, where also dissipative effects occur. Under typical solar wind conditions, weak turbulence develops as a superposition of normal modes in the kinetic regime. Spectral analysis in the direction parallel to the background magnetic field reveals a cascade of left-handed Alfv\\'en/ion-cyclotron waves up to wave vectors where their resonant absorption sets in, as well as a cont...

  5. Droplets pinned at chemically inhomogenous substrates: A simulation study of the two-dimensional Ising case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    As a simplified model of a liquid nanostripe adsorbed on a chemically structured substrate surface, a two-dimensional Ising system with two boundaries at which surface fields act is studied. At the upper boundary, the surface field is uniformly negative, while at the lower boundary (a distance L apart), the surface field is negative only outside a range of extension b , where a positive surface stabilizes a droplet of the phase with positive magnetization for temperatures T exceeding the critical temperature Tw of the wetting transition of this model. We investigate the local order parameter profiles across the droplet, both in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the substrate, varying both b and T . Also, precursor effects to droplet formation as T approaches Tw from below are studied. In accord with theoretical predictions, for T >Tw the droplet is found to have the shape of a semiellipse, where the width (distance of the interface from the substrate) scale is proportional to b (b1 /2). So, the area of the droplet is proportional to b3 /2, and the temperature dependence of the corresponding prefactor, which also involves the interfacial stiffness, is studied.

  6. A Vertical Two-Dimensional Model to Simulate Tidal Hydrodynamics in A Branched Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-Cheng; WU Chung-Hsing

    2005-01-01

    A vertical (laterally averaged) two-dimensional hydrodynamic model is developed for tides, tidal current, and salinity in a branched estuarine system. The governing equations are solved with the hydrostatic pressure distribution assumption and the Boussinesq approximation. An explicit scheme is employed to solve the continuity equations. The momentum and mass balance equations are solved implicitly in the Cartesian coordinate system. The tributaries are governed by the same dynamic equations. A control volume at the junctions is designed to conserve mass and volume transport in the finite difference schemes, based on the physical principle of continuum medium of fluid. Predictions by the developed model are compared with the analytic solutions of steady wind-driven circulatory flow and tidal flow. The model results for the velocities and water surface elevations coincide with analytic results. The model is then applied to the Tanshui River estuarine system. Detailed model calibration and verification have been conducted with measured water surface elevations,tidal current, and salinity distributions. The overall performance of the model is in qualitative agreement with the available field data. The calibrated and verified numerical model has been used to quantify the tidal prism and flushing rate in the Tanshui River-Tahan Stream, Hsintien Stream, and Keelung River.

  7. Two-dimensional simulation of a direct-current microhollow cathode discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothnur, Prashanth S.; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2005-02-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges (MHCD's) are miniature direct-current discharges that operate at elevated pressures (several tens to hundreds of Torr) with electrode dimensions in the 10-100-μm range. MHCD's have been proposed for a number of applications based on their unique characteristics such as presence of intense excimer radiation and significant gas heating within the submillimeter discharge volume. A two-dimensional, self-consistent fluid model of a helium MHCD in the high-pressure (several hundreds of Torr), high-current (˜1mA) operating regime is presented in this study. Results indicate that the MHCD operates in an abnormal glow discharge mode with charged and excited metastable species with densities of ˜1020m-3, electron temperatures of approximately tens of eV, and gas temperatures of hundreds of Kelvin above room temperature. Significant discharge activity exists outside of the hollow region. The discharge volume and intensity increases with increasing current and becomes more confined with increasing pressures. Most predictions presented in this paper are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data for MHCD's under similar conditions.

  8. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  9. Information Transmission and Anderson Localization in two-dimensional networks of firing-rate neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Joseph; Hentschel, George

    Firing-rate networks offer a coarse model of signal propagation in the brain. Here we analyze sparse, 2D planar firing-rate networks with no synapses beyond a certain cutoff distance. Additionally, we impose Dale's Principle to ensure that each neuron makes only or inhibitory outgoing connections. Using spectral methods, we find that the number of neurons participating in excitations of the network becomes insignificant whenever the connectivity cutoff is tuned to a value near or below the average interneuron separation. Further, neural activations exceeding a certain threshold stay confined to a small region of space. This behavior is an instance of Anderson localization, a disorder-induced phase transition by which an information channel is rendered unable to transmit signals. We discuss several potential implications of localization for both local and long-range computation in the brain. This work was supported in part by Grants JSMF/ 220020321 and NSF/IOS/1208126.

  10. A new family of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal code for OCDMA networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxi Yin; Wei Liang; Le Ma; Liqiao Qin

    2009-01-01

    A new generation algorithm of two-dimensional triple-codeweight asymmetric optical orthogonal codes for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) networks is proposed. The code cardinality is obtained and the error-probability performance for corresponding OCDMA system is analyzed. The codes with two constraints (i.e., auto- and cross-correlation properties) being unequal are taken into account. On the premise of fixed system resources, the code cardinality can be significantly improved. By analysis of the error-probability performance, it is shown that the codes with different parameters have different performances. Therefore, this type of codes can be applied to support diverse quality of service (QoS) and satisfy the quality requirement of different multimedia or distinct users, and simultaneously make the better use of bandwidth resources in optical networks.

  11. Single-particle detection of virus simulants under microfluidic flow with two-dimensional photonic crystals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Baker, James E.; Sriram, Rashmi

    2017-05-01

    Because of their compatibility with standard CMOS fabrication, small footprint, and exceptional sensitivity, Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals (2D PhCs) have been posited as attractive components for the development of real-time integrated photonic virus sensors. While detection of single virus-sized particles by 2D PhCs has been demonstrated, specific recognition of a virus simulant under conditions relevant to sensor use (including aqueous solution and microfluidic flow) has remained an unsolved challenge. This talk will describe the design and testing of a W1 waveguide-coupled 2D PhC in the context of addressing that challenge.

  12. Curvature-induced cross-hatched order in two-dimensional semiflexible polymer networks

    CERN Document Server

    Vrusch, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    A recurring motif in the organization of biological tissues are networks of long, fibrillar protein strands effectively confined to cylindrical surfaces. Often, the fibers in such curved, quasi-2D geometries adopt a characteristic order: the fibers wrap around the central axis at an angle which varies with radius and, in several cases, is strongly bimodally distributed. In this Letter, we investigate the general problem of a 2D crosslinked network of semiflexible fibers confined to a cylindrical substrate, and demonstrate that in such systems the trade-off between bending and stretching energies, very generically, gives rise to cross-hatched order. We discuss its general dependency on the radius of the confining cylinder, and present an intuitive model that illustrates the basic physical principle of curvature-induced order. Our findings shed new light on the potential origin of some curiously universal fiber orientational distributions in tissue biology, and suggests novel ways in which synthetic polymeric s...

  13. Facial Expression Classification Based on Multi Artificial Neural Network and Two Dimensional Principal Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Thai; Tran, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression classification is a kind of image classification and it has received much attention, in recent years. There are many approaches to solve these problems with aiming to increase efficient classification. One of famous suggestions is described as first step, project image to different spaces; second step, in each of these spaces, images are classified into responsive class and the last step, combine the above classified results into the final result. The advantages of this approach are to reflect fulfill and multiform of image classified. In this paper, we use 2D-PCA and its variants to project the pattern or image into different spaces with different grouping strategies. Then we develop a model which combines many Neural Networks applied for the last step. This model evaluates the reliability of each space and gives the final classification conclusion. Our model links many Neural Networks together, so we call it Multi Artificial Neural Network (MANN). We apply our proposal model for 6 basic fa...

  14. A Study on Group Key Agreement in Sensor Network Environments Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Seog Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available These days, with the emergence of the concept of ubiquitous computing, sensor networks that collect, analyze and process all the information through the sensors have become of huge interest. However, sensor network technology fundamentally has wireless communication infrastructure as its foundation and thus has security weakness and limitations such as low computing capacity, power supply limitations and price. In this paper, and considering the characteristics of the sensor network environment, we propose a group key agreement method using a keyset pre-distribution of two-dimension arrays that should minimize the exposure of key and personal information. The key collision problems are resolved by utilizing a polygonal shape’s center of gravity. The method shows that calculating a polygonal shape’s center of gravity only requires a very small amount of calculations from the users. The simple calculation not only increases the group key generation efficiency, but also enhances the sense of security by protecting information between nodes.

  15. Two-dimensional finite element simulation of fracture and fatigue behaviours of alumina microstructures for hip prosthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyungmok; Géringer, Jean; 10.1177/0954411911422843

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulation for fracture and fatigue behaviours of pure alumina microstructures such as those found at hip prostheses. Finite element models are developed using actual Al2O3 microstructures and a bilinear cohesive zone law. Simulation conditions are similar to those found at a slip zone in a dry contact between a femoral head and an acetabular cup of hip prosthesis. Contact stresses are imposed to generate cracks in the models. Magnitudes of imposed stresses are higher than those found at the microscopic scale. Effects of microstructures and contact stresses are investigated in terms of crack formation. In addition, fatigue behaviour of the microstructure is determined by performing simulations under cyclic loading conditions. It is shown that crack density observed in a microstructure increases with increasing magnitude of applied contact stress. Moreover, crack density increases linearly with respect to the number of fatigue cycles within a given con...

  16. BIFURCATION IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL WITH DELAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Jun-jie; ZHANG Chun-rui; LI Xiu-ling

    2005-01-01

    A kind of 2-dimensional neural network model with delay is considered. By analyzing the distribution of the roots of the characteristic equation associated with the model, a bifurcation diagram was drawn in an appropriate parameter plane. It is found that a line is a pitchfork bifurcation curve. Further more, the stability of each fixed point and existence of Hopf bifurcation were obtained. Finally, the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of the bifurcating periodic solutions were determined by using the normal form method and centre manifold theory.

  17. Application of approximate pattern matching in two dimensional spaces to grid layout for biochemical network maps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Inoue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For visualizing large-scale biochemical network maps, it is important to calculate the coordinates of molecular nodes quickly and to enhance the understanding or traceability of them. The grid layout is effective in drawing compact, orderly, balanced network maps with node label spaces, but existing grid layout algorithms often require a high computational cost because they have to consider complicated positional constraints through the entire optimization process. RESULTS: We propose a hybrid grid layout algorithm that consists of a non-grid, fast layout (preprocessor algorithm and an approximate pattern matching algorithm that distributes the resultant preprocessed nodes on square grid points. To demonstrate the feasibility of the hybrid layout algorithm, it is characterized in terms of the calculation time, numbers of edge-edge and node-edge crossings, relative edge lengths, and F-measures. The proposed algorithm achieves outstanding performances compared with other existing grid layouts. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an approximate pattern matching algorithm quickly redistributes the laid-out nodes by fast, non-grid algorithms on the square grid points, while preserving the topological relationships among the nodes. The proposed algorithm is a novel use of the pattern matching, thereby providing a breakthrough for grid layout. This application program can be freely downloaded from http://www.cadlive.jp/hybridlayout/hybridlayout.html.

  18. Two-dimensional simulation research of secondary electron emission avalanche discharge on vacuum insulator surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui

    2015-01-01

    Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.

  19. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  20. Stable low-resolution simulations of two-dimensional vesicle suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabacaoglu, Gokberk; Quaife, Bryan; Biros, George

    2016-11-01

    Vesicles, which resist bending and are locally inextensible, serve as experimental and numerical proxies for red blood cells. Vesicle flows, which are governed by hydrodynamic and elastic forces, refer to flow of vesicles that are filled with and suspended in a Stokesian fluid. In this work we present algorithms for stable and accurate low-resolution simulations of the vesicle flows in two-dimensions. We use an integral equation formulation of the Stokes equation coupled to the interface mass continuity and force balance. The problem poses numerical difficulties such as long-range hydrodynamic interactions, strong nonlinearities and stiff governing equations. These difficulties make simulations with long time horizons challenging, especially at low resolutions. We develop algorithms to control aliasing errors, correct errors in vesicle's area and arc-length, and avoid collision of vesicles. Additionally, we discuss several error measures to study the accuracy of the simulations. Then we closely look at how accurate the low-resolution simulations can capture true physics of the vesicle flows.

  1. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  2. Simulation of Two Dimensional Electrophoresis and Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Teaching Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda; Sekera, Emily; Payne, Jill; Craig, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In proteomics, complex mixtures of proteins are separated (usually by chromatography or electrophoresis) and identified by mass spectrometry. We have created 2DE Tandem MS, a computer program designed for use in the biochemistry, proteomics, or bioinformatics classroom. It contains two simulations--2D electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry.…

  3. Simulations of interference effects in gated two-dimensional ballistic electron systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Pichugin, K.N.; Sadreev, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    We present detailed simulations addressing recent electronic interference experiments,where a metallic gate is used to locally modify the Fermi wavelength of the charge carriers. Our numerical calculations are based on a solution of the one-particle Schrodinger equation for a realistic model of t...

  4. Effect of solvent evaporation temperature on the structure of two-dimensional melamine networks on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Arifumi; Nakata, Yohei; Minou, Kosuke; Yoshimura, Masamichi; Kadono, Kohei

    2016-12-01

    By scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we investigated two-dimensional (2D) structures of melamine formed on Au(111) surfaces by solvent evaporation. By increasing the evaporation temperature, the well-known ordered honeycomb 2D molecular phase, in which all molecules are linked by hydrogen bonding, changes to four coexisting phases, i.e., a 2D network consisting of linear segments, 1D molecular rows, and hexagonal and distorted hexagonal structures. The first two phases are sometimes observed in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) on metallic substrates other than Au. The last two phases have lattice parameters close to those of the well-known honeycomb structure. The structural change observed in this study is attributed to local temperature and concentration distributions of the solution and substrate surface during solvent evaporation. From the results, we found that the molecular nanostructures can be tailored by the solvent evaporation method with small changes in temperature.

  5. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy g ap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  6. Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Tetsuyuki

    2016-10-01

    We show the presence of Floquet-Weyl and Floquet-topological-insulator phases in a stacked two-dimensional ring-network lattice. The Weyl points in the three-dimensional Brillouin zone and Fermi-arc surface states are clearly demonstrated in the quasienergy spectrum of the system in the Floquet-Weyl phase. In addition, chiral surface states coexist in this phase. The Floquet-topological-insulator phase is characterized by the winding number of two in the reflection matrices of the semi-infinite system and resulting two gapless surface states in the quasienergy gap of the bulk. The phase diagram of the system is derived in the two-parameter space of hopping S-matrices among the rings. We also discuss a possible optical realization of the system together with the introduction of synthetic gauge fields.

  7. PHYSALIS: a new method for particle simulation. Part II: two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow around cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, S.; Og˜uz, H. N.; Zhang, Z.; Prosperetti, A.

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the direct numerical simulation of particle flows. The basic idea is to use a local analytic representation valid near the particle to "transfer" the no-slip condition from the particle surface to the adjacent grid nodes. In this way the geometric complexity arising from the irregular relation between the particle boundary and the underlying mesh is avoided and fast solvers can be used. The results suggest that the computational effort increases very slowly with the number of particles so that the method is efficient for large-scale simulations. The focus here is on the two-dimensional case (cylindrical particles), but the same procedure, to be developed in forthcoming papers, applies to three dimensions (spherical particles). Several extensions are briefly discussed.

  8. Nonlinear incompressible finite element for simulating loading of cardiac tissue--Part I: Two dimensional formulation for thin myocardial strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, A; Sheinman, I; Lanir, Y; Perl, M; Sideman, S

    1988-02-01

    A two-dimensional incompressible plane-stress finite element is formulated for the simulation of the passive-state mechanics of thin myocardial strips. The formulation employs a total Lagrangian and materially nonlinear approach, being based on a recently proposed structural material law, which is derived from the histological composition of the tissue. The ensuing finite element allows to demonstrate the mechanical properties of a single myocardial layer containing uniformly directed fibers by simulating various loading cases such as tension, compression and shear. The results of these cases show that the fiber direction is considerably stiffer than the cross-fiber direction, that there is significant coupling between these two directions, and that the shear stiffness of the tissue is lower than its tensile and compressive stiffness.

  9. Numerical simulation of two dimensional sine-Gordon solitons using modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method (MCB-DQM is employed for the numerical simulation of two-space dimensional nonlinear sine-Gordon equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The modified cubic B-spline works as a basis function in the differential quadrature method to compute the weighting coefficients. Accordingly, two dimensional sine-Gordon equation is transformed into a system of second order ordinary differential equations (ODEs. The resultant system of ODEs is solved by employing an optimal five stage and fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge–Kutta scheme (SSP-RK54. Numerical simulation is discussed for both damped and undamped cases. Computational results are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution and other numerical results available in the literature.

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Two-dimensional pixel image lag simulation and optimization in a 4-T CMOS image sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junting, Yu; Binqiao, Li; Pingping, Yu; Jiangtao, Xu; Cun, Mou

    2010-09-01

    Pixel image lag in a 4-T CMOS image sensor is analyzed and simulated in a two-dimensional model. Strategies of reducing image lag are discussed from transfer gate channel threshold voltage doping adjustment, PPD N-type doping dose/implant tilt adjustment and transfer gate operation voltage adjustment for signal electron transfer. With the computer analysis tool ISE-TCAD, simulation results show that minimum image lag can be obtained at a pinned photodiode n-type doping dose of 7.0 × 1012 cm-2, an implant tilt of -2°, a transfer gate channel doping dose of 3.0 × 1012 cm-2 and an operation voltage of 3.4 V. The conclusions of this theoretical analysis can be a guideline for pixel design to improve the performance of 4-T CMOS image sensors.

  11. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of a continuous needle-like argon electron-beam plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaoyan; Chen, Chen; Li, Hong; Liu, Wandong

    2017-05-01

    The fluid-Poisson equations coupled with the Monte Carlo method were used to simulate the spatio-temporal behavior of a needle-like argon electron-beam plasma. Based on the Monte Carlo simulation, three coupled parameters characterizing the electron beam propagation for initial energies above several keV were expressed using a universal dimensionless shape function given in terms of the beam range multiplied by a normalized coefficient. Therefore, a single run of the Monte Carlo code was sufficient for the simulations over a wide range of conditions. The spatial potential as a function of space and time was studied from the fluid-Poisson equations. The results indicate that the time evolution of the spatial potential was influenced by the presence of the slowed-down electrons and the flying beam electrons, whereas the potential in quasi-equilibrium was mainly determined from the spatial distribution of the secondary electron. The potential in quasi-equilibrium was positive near the beam entrance and most negative along the tip of the beam range, which was a result of ambipolar diffusion. When the enclosing boundary surfaces were moved within the beam range, the potential was nearly positive everywhere. The calculation on the diffusion-drift flux indicated that the net current of the secondary electrons flowing back to the incident plane in quasi-equilibrium balanced the incident beam current, which was the so-called return current in the three-dimensional space.

  12. The core helium flash revisited: I. One and two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Mocak, M; Weiss, A; Kifonidis, K

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of the core helium flash near its peak. Past research concerned with the dynamics of this event is inconclusive. However, the most recent multidimensional hydrodynamic studies suggest a quiescent behavior and seem to rule out an explosive scenario. Previous work indicated, that depending on initial conditions, employed turbulence models, grid resolution, and dimensionality of the simulation, the core helium flash leads either to the disruption of a low-mass star or to a quiescent quasi-hydrostatic evolution. We try to clarify this issue by simulating the evolution with advanced numerical methods and detailed microphysics. Assuming spherical or axial symmetry, we simulate the evolution of the helium core of a $1.25 M_{\\odot}$ star with a metallicity Z=0.02 during the core helium flash at its peak with a grid-based hydrodynamics code. We find that the core helium flash neither rips the star apart, nor that it significantly alters its structure, as convection plays a crucial role...

  13. Two-dimensional simulation and modeling for dynamic sheath expansion during plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, S.; Zhou, Y.; Chan, C. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) has been utilized as a low cost, low energy doping method for large area targets with applications to semiconductor manufacturing. They include doping, shallow junction formation, hydrogenation for poly-Si thin film transistors, and SIMOX (Separated by IMplant of OXygen) structure formation. The characteristics of the dynamic sheath expansion during PIII process is very important for the optimum PIII configuration design and process control in order to obtain more accurate doping results such as the implant dose and impurity profile. For example, the sheath thickness is critical to chamber design and monoenergetic ion implant for a more accurate control of as-implanted impurity profile of shallow junction and SIMOX structures. A PDP2 simulation code has been used to simulate PIII process which will aid in understanding the physics of PIII processes and obtain the optimum process parameters. This model was verified by comparing with the PDP2 computer simulations and the experimental results of the PIII doping processes.

  14. Two-dimensional shape classification using generalized Fourier representation and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Artur; Gustavsson, Tomas; Mattsson, Ulf

    2000-04-01

    A shape-based classification method is developed based upon the Generalized Fourier Representation (GFR). GFR can be regarded as an extension of traditional polar Fourier descriptors, suitable for description of closed objects, both convex and concave, with or without holes. Explicit relations of GFR coefficients to regular moments, moment invariants and affine moment invariants are given in the paper. The dual linear relation between GFR coefficients and regular moments was used to compare shape features derive from GFR descriptors and Hu's moment invariants. the GFR was then applied to a clinical problem within oral medicine and used to represent the contours of the lesions in the oral cavity. The lesions studied were leukoplakia and different forms of lichenoid reactions. Shape features were extracted from GFR coefficients in order to classify potentially cancerous oral lesions. Alternative classifiers were investigated based on a multilayer perceptron with different architectures and extensions. The overall classification accuracy for recognition of potentially cancerous oral lesions when using neural network classifier was 85%, while the classification between leukoplakia and reticular lichenoid reactions gave 96% (5-fold cross-validated) recognition rate.

  15. Two-dimensional surrogate contact modeling for computationally efficient dynamic simulation of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chung; Haftka, Raphael T; Queipo, Nestor V; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2009-04-01

    Computational speed is a major limiting factor for performing design sensitivity and optimization studies of total knee replacements. Much of this limitation arises from extensive geometry calculations required by contact analyses. This study presents a novel surrogate contact modeling approach to address this limitation. The approach involves fitting contact forces from a computationally expensive contact model (e.g., a finite element model) as a function of the relative pose between the contacting bodies. Because contact forces are much more sensitive to displacements in some directions than others, standard surrogate sampling and modeling techniques do not work well, necessitating the development of special techniques for contact problems. We present a computational evaluation and practical application of the approach using dynamic wear simulation of a total knee replacement constrained to planar motion in a Stanmore machine. The sample points needed for surrogate model fitting were generated by an elastic foundation (EF) contact model. For the computational evaluation, we performed nine different dynamic wear simulations with both the surrogate contact model and the EF contact model. In all cases, the surrogate contact model accurately reproduced the contact force, motion, and wear volume results from the EF model, with computation time being reduced from 13 min to 13 s. For the practical application, we performed a series of Monte Carlo analyses to determine the sensitivity of predicted wear volume to Stanmore machine setup issues. Wear volume was highly sensitive to small variations in motion and load inputs, especially femoral flexion angle, but not to small variations in component placements. Computational speed was reduced from an estimated 230 h to 4 h per analysis. Surrogate contact modeling can significantly improve the computational speed of dynamic contact and wear simulations of total knee replacements and is appropriate for use in design sensitivity

  16. Two-dimensional streamflow simulations of the Jordan River, Midvale and West Jordan, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Terry A.; Freeman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The Jordan River in Midvale and West Jordan, Utah, flows adjacent to two U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Superfund sites: Midvale Slag and Sharon Steel. At both sites, geotechnical caps extend to the east bank of the river. The final remediation tasks for these sites included the replacement of a historic sheet-pile dam and the stabilization of the river banks adjacent to the Superfund sites. To assist with these tasks, two hydraulic modeling codes contained in the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System (MD_SWMS), System for Transport and River Modeling (SToRM) and Flow and Sediment Transport and Morphological Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH), were used to provide predicted water-surface elevations, velocities, and boundary shear-stress values throughout the study reach of the Jordan River. A SToRM model of a 0.7 mile subreach containing the sheet-pile dam was used to compare water-surface elevations and velocities associated with the sheet-pile dam and a proposed replacement structure. Maps showing water-surface elevation and velocity differences computed from simulations of the historic sheet-pile dam and the proposed replacement structure topographies for streamflows of 500 and 1,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were created. These difference maps indicated that the velocities associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were less than or equal to those associated with the historic sheet-pile dam. Similarly, water-surface elevations associated with the proposed replacement structure topographies were all either greater than or equal to water-surface elevations associated with the sheet-pile dam. A FaSTMECH model was developed for the 2.5-mile study reach to aid engineers in bank stabilization designs. Predicted water-surface elevations, velocities and shear-stress values were mapped on an aerial photograph of the study reach to place these parameters in a spatial context. Profile plots of predicted

  17. AQMAN; linear and quadratic programming matrix generator using two-dimensional ground-water flow simulation for aquifer management modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkoff, L.J.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    A FORTRAN-77 computer program code that helps solve a variety of aquifer management problems involving the control of groundwater hydraulics. It is intended for use with any standard mathematical programming package that uses Mathematical Programming System input format. The computer program creates the input files to be used by the optimization program. These files contain all the hydrologic information and management objectives needed to solve the management problem. Used in conjunction with a mathematical programming code, the computer program identifies the pumping or recharge strategy that achieves a user 's management objective while maintaining groundwater hydraulic conditions within desired limits. The objective may be linear or quadratic, and may involve the minimization of pumping and recharge rates or of variable pumping costs. The problem may contain constraints on groundwater heads, gradients, and velocities for a complex, transient hydrologic system. Linear superposition of solutions to the transient, two-dimensional groundwater flow equation is used by the computer program in conjunction with the response matrix optimization method. A unit stress is applied at each decision well and transient responses at all control locations are computed using a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey two dimensional aquifer simulation model. The program also computes discounted cost coefficients for the objective function and accounts for transient aquifer conditions. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Two Dimensional Simulations of Plastic-Shell, Direct-Drive Implosions on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radha, P B; Goncharov, V N; Collins, T B; Delettrez, J A; Elbaz, Y; Glebov, V Y; Keck, R L; Keller, D E; Knauer, J P; Marozas, J A; Marshall, F J; McKenty, P W; Meyerhofer, D D; Regan, S P; Sangster, T C; Shvarts, D; Skupsky, S; Srebro, Y; Town, R J; Stoeckl, C

    2004-09-27

    Multidimensional hydrodynamic properties of high-adiabat direct-drive plastic-shell implosions on the OMEGA laser system [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] are investigated using the multidimensional hydrodynamic code, DRACO. Multimode simulations including the effects of nonuniform illumination and target roughness indicate that shell stability during the acceleration phase plays a critical role in determining target performance. For thick shells that remain integral during the acceleration phase, target yields are significantly reduced by the combination of the long-wavelength ({ell} < 10) modes due to surface roughness and beam imbalance and the intermediate modes (20 {le} {ell} {le} 50) due to single-beam nonuniformities. The neutron-production rate for these thick shells truncates relative to one-dimensional (1-D) predictions. The yield degradation in the thin shells is mainly due to shell breakup at short wavelengths ({lambda} {approx} {Delta}, where {Delta} is the in-flight shell thickness). The neutron-rate curves for the thinner shells have significantly lower amplitudes and a fall-off that is less steep than 1-D rates. DRACO simulation results are consistent with experimental observations.

  19. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OVERTOPPING AGAINST SEAWALLS ARMORED WITH ARTIFICIAL UNITS IN REGULAR WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yong-jin; LIU Hua; WU Wei; ZHANG Jiu-shan

    2007-01-01

    A new mathematical model for the overtopping against seawalls armored with artificial units in regular waves was established. The 2-D numerical wave flume, based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and the standard k-ε turbulence model, was developed to simulate the turbulent flows with the free surface, in which the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used to handle the large deformation of the free surface and the relaxation approach of combined wave generation and absorbing was implemented. In order to consider the effects of energy dissipation due to the armors on a slope seawall, a porous media model was proposed and implemented in the numerical wave flume. A series of physical model experiments were carried out in the same condition of the numerical simulation to determine the drag coefficient in the porous media model in terms of the overtopping discharge. Compared the computational value of overtopping over the seawall with the experimental data, the values of the effective drag coefficient was calibrated for the layers of blocks at different locations along the seawalls.

  20. A two-dimensional simulation model for the molded underfill process in flip chip packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xue Ru; Young, Wen Bin [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The flip chip process involves the deposition of solder bumps on the chip surface and their subsequent direct attachment and connection to a substrate. Underfilling traditional flip chip packaging is typically performed following a two-step approach. The first step uses capillary force to fill the gap between the chip and the substrate, and the second step uses epoxy molding compound (EMC) to overmold the package. Unlike traditional flip chip packaging, the molded underfill (MUF) concept uses a single-step approach to simultaneously achieve both underfill and overmold. MUF is a simpler and faster process. In this study, a 2D numerical model is developed to simulate the front movement of EMC flow and the void formation for different geometric parameters. The 2D model simplifies the procedures of geometric modeling and reduces the modeling time for the MUF simulation. Experiments are conducted to verify the prediction results of the model. The effect on void formation for different geometric parameters is investigated using a 2D model.

  1. Improved non-local electron thermal transport model for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory [University of Wisconsin—Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Delettrez, Jacques [Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.

  2. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional corner flows in a circulating water channel with guide vanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Y.; Nishimoto, H.; Tamashima, M.; Yamazaki, R. [West Japan Fluid Engineering Co. Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan); Wang, G.

    1998-09-04

    A Navier-Stokes procedure is developed based on the Finite Volume Method to simulate the 2-D comer flows in a CWC. The staggered grid is adopted and a new method is presented to coupling the velocities and the pressure when the grid lines change direction by 90deg. The turbulince is approximated using {kappa} - {epsilon} model and a transfinite algebraic method is used to generate the body fitted coordinates. After validation of the computer code, the corner flows in a CWC was calculated and the effect of guide vanes was investigated. For laminar flows, the guide vanes may restrain the separations on the inner side but not so effective on the outside; for turbulent flows, separations on the inner side disappeared even without guide vanes but still remained on the outside. By incorporating guide vanes, the separation can be effectively controlled. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Two-dimensional Hybrid Simulations of Kinetic Plasma Turbulence: Current and Vorticity vs Proton Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Franci, Luca; Matteini, Lorenzo; Verdini, Andrea; Landi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.

  4. Experimental apparatus for quantum simulation with two-dimensional 9Be + Coulomb crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, Karsten; Ball, Harrison; McRae, Terry; Edmunds, Claire; Lee, Michael W.; Henderson, Samuel; Biercuk, Michael J.; Quantum Control Lab Team

    2015-03-01

    We report on the development of a new experimental setup designed for Quantum Simulation studies at a computationally relevant scale using laser-cooled 9Be + ion-crystals in a Penning trap. The trap geometry is optimized using numerical calculations for trapping large ion crystals with enhanced optical access and reduced anharmonic perturbations. Separate loading and spectroscopy zones prevent long term drifts of the trapping parameters due to contamination of the trap electrodes with Be deposits. Our customized superconducting magnet provides a homogenous (dB/B telecom wavelength fiber laser systems in the IR via nonlinear conversion. Our new approach employs high-efficiency telecom modulators and mode-selecting cavities to generate multiple beamlines from a single Sum-frequency-Generation step. Ultimately, this newly developed setup will allow for studies of many-body spin systems with tuneable interaction strength from infinite-range to nearest-neighbour type interaction.

  5. Two Dimensional Wake Vortex Simulations in the Atmosphere: Preliminary Sensitivity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, F. H.; Hinton, D. A.; Han, J.; Schowalter, D. G.; Lin, Y.-L.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical large-eddy simulation model is currently being used to quantify aircraft wake vortex behavior with meteorological observables. The model, having a meteorological framework, permits the interaction of wake vortices with environments characterized by crosswind shear, stratification, and humidity. The addition of grid-scale turbulence as an initial condition appeared to have little consequence. Results show that conventional nondimensionalizations work very well for vortex pairs embedded in stably stratified flows. However, this result is based on simple environments with constant Brunt-Vaisala frequency. Results presented here also show that crosswind profiles exert important and complex interactions on the trajectories of wake vortices. Nonlinear crosswind profiles tended to arrest the descent of wake vortex pairs. The member of the vortex pair with vorticity of same sign as the vertical change in the ambient along-track vorticity may be deflected upwards.

  6. A two-dimensional global simulation study of inductive-dynamic magnetosphere-ionosphere/thermosphere coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, J.; Song, P.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a new numerical simulation model of the ionosphere/thermosphere by using an inductive-dynamic approach (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in ion momentum equations), that is, based on magnetic field B and plasma velocity v (B, v paradigm), which is distinctive from the conventional modeling based on electric field E and current j. The model solves self-consistently time-dependent continuity, momentum, and energy equations for multiple species of ions and neutrals including photochemistry, and Maxwell's equations. The governing equations solved in the model are a set of multifluid-collisional-Hall MHD equations which are one of unique features of our ionosphere/thermosphere model. With such an inductive-dynamic approach, not only sound wave mode but also all possible MHD wave modes are retained in the solutions of the governing equations so that the dynamic coupling between the magnetosphere and ionosphere and among different regions of the ionosphere can be self-consistently investigated. In the present study, we demonstrate dynamic propagation of field-aligned currents and ionospheric electric field carried by Alfven waves, as well as formation of closure horizontal currents (Pedersen currents in the E-region), indicating that the M-I coupling is via the Alfven waves instead of the field-aligned currents or electric field mapping. The simulation results also show that the Poynting flux and strongest energy dissipation in the ionosphere/thermosphere is in the regions of the largest ion velocities and not necessarily in the auroral oval where the field-aligned currents reside. The frictional heating increases plasma temperature and thus drives ion upflows. The frictional heating also increase neutral temperature and produces neutral upflows but in a much longer time scale. Furthermore, the coupling of high-to-low latitude ionosphere is investigated in terms of propagation of fast MHD waves.

  7. A two-dimensional particle simulation of the magnetopause current layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berchem, J.; Okuda, H.

    1988-11-01

    We have developed a 2/1/2/-D (x, y, v/sub x/, v/sub y/, v/sub z/) electromagnetic code to study the formation and the stability of the magnetopause current layer. This code computes the trajectories of ion and electron particles in their self-consistently generated electromagnetic field and an externally imposed 2-D vacuum dipolar magnetic field. The results presented here are obtained for the simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the subsolar region of the equatorial plane. We observe the self-consistent establishment of a current layer resulting from both diamagnetic drift and E /times/ B drift due to the charge separation. The simulation results show that during the establishment of the current layer, its thickness is of the order of the hybrid gyroradius /rho//sub H/ = ..sqrt../rho//sub i//rho//sub e/ predicted by the Ferraro-Rosenbluth model. However, diagnostics indicate that the current sheet is subject to an instability which broadens the width of the current layer. Ripples with amplitudes of the order of the ion gyroradius appear at the interface between the field and the particles. These pertubations are observed both on the electrostatic field and on the compressional component of the magnetic field. This instability has a frequency of the order of the local ion cyclotron frequency. However, the modulation propagates in the same direction as the electron diamagnetic drift which indicates that the instability is not a classical gradient-driven instability, such as the lower hybrid or ion drift cyclotron instabilities. The nonlinear phase of the instability is characterized by the filamentation of the current layer which causes anomalous diffusion inside the central current sheet. 79 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Estimates of the statistical two-dimensional spatial structure in rain over a small network of disdrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, A. R.; Larsen, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    Microphysical understanding of the variability in rain requires a statistical characterization of different drop sizes both in time and in all dimensions of space. Temporally, there have been several statistical characterizations of raindrop counts. However, temporal and spatial structures are neither equivalent nor readily translatable. While there are recent reports of the one-dimensional spatial correlation functions in rain, they can only be assumed to represent the two-dimensional (2D) correlation function under the assumption of spatial isotropy. To date, however, there are no actual observations of the (2D) spatial correlation function in rain over areas. Two reasons for this deficiency are the fiscal and the physical impossibilities of assembling a dense network of instruments over even hundreds of meters much less over kilometers. Consequently, all measurements over areas will necessarily be sparsely sampled. A dense network of data must then be estimated using interpolations from the available observations. In this work, a network of 19 optical disdrometers over a 100 m by 71 m area yield observations of drop spectra every minute. These are then interpolated to a 1 m resolution grid. Fourier techniques then yield estimates of the 2D spatial correlation functions. Preliminary examples using this technique found that steadier, light rain decorrelates spatially faster than does the convective rain, but in both cases the 2D spatial correlation functions are anisotropic, reflecting an asymmetry in the physical processes influencing the rain reaching the ground not accounted for in numerical microphysical models.

  9. Latencies in action potential stimulation in a two-dimensional bidomain: A numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barach, John Paul

    1991-05-01

    A numerical simulation is performed in which a uniform planar slab of idealized cardiac tissue is stimulated at the center. The cardiac slab is modeled as an anisotropic bidomain; within each domain current flow is determined by a forced diffusion equation in which the transmembrane current connecting the domains provides the forcing term. An action potential (AP) propagates outward after a time latency dependent upon the stimulus size and the physiological variables. Its isochrones are elliptical with an asymmetry that is a small fraction of the imposed asymmetry in resistivity. External voltages resemble the first derivative of those in the internal domain and tests with continuing stimuli exhibit a relaxation time of about 3 ms and space constants that agree with other work. The AP latency increases very strongly near threshold stimulus and decreases as the log (stimulus) for large stimuli in the ``virtual cathode'' range. Latencies in the longitudinal, transverse, and diagonal directions are found to be the same over a wide range of stimulus size and type.

  10. Numerical simulation of shallow-water flooding using a two-dimensional finite volume model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Bing; SUN Jian; YUAN De-kui; TAO Jian-hua

    2013-01-01

    A 2-D Finite Volume Model (FVM) is developed for shallow water flows over a complex topography with wetting and drying processes.The numerical fluxes are computed using the Harten,Lax,and van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver.Second-order accuracy is achieved by employing the MUSCL reconstruction method with a slope limiter in space and an explicit two-stage Runge-Kutta method for time integration.A simple and efficient method is introduced to deal with the wetting and drying processes without any correction of the numerical flux term or the source term.In this new method,a switch of alternative schemes is used to compute the water depths at the cell interface to obtain the numerical flux.The model is verified against benchmark tests with analytical solutions and laboratory experimental data.The numerical results show that the model can simulate different types of flood waves from the ideal flood wave to cases over complex terrains.The satisfactory performance indicates an extensive application prospect of the present model in view of its simplicity and effectiveness.

  11. Two-dimensional finite volume method for dam-break flow simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.ALIPARAST

    2009-01-01

    A numerical model based upon a second-order upwind cell-center finite volume method on unstructured triangular grids is developed for solving shallow water equations.The assumption of a small depth downstream instead of a dry bed situation changes the wave structure and the propagation speed of the front which leads to incorrect results.The use of Harten-Lax-vau Leer (HLL) allows handling of wet/dry treatment.By usage of the HLL approximate Riemann solver,also it make possible to handle discontinuous solutions.As the assumption of a very small depth downstream of the dam can change the nature of the dam break flow problem which leads to incorrect results,the HLL approximate Riemann solver is used for the computation of inviscid flux functions,which makes it possible to handle discontinuous solutions.A multidimensional slope-limiting technique is applied to achieve second-order spatial accuracy and to prevent spurious oscillations.To alleviate the problems associated with numerical instabilities due to small water depths near a wet/dry boundary,the friction source terms are treated in a fully implicit way.A third-order Runge-Kutta method is used for the time integration of semi-discrete equations.The developed numerical model has been applied to several test cases as well as to real flows.The tests are tested in two cases:oblique hydraulic jump and experimental dam break in converging-diverging flume.Numerical tests proved the robustness and accuracy of the model.The model has been applied for simulation of dam break analysis of Torogh in Irun.And finally the results have been used in preparing EAP (Emergency Action Plan).

  12. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  13. A two-dimensional simulation of tritium transport in the vadose zone at the Nevada Test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.C.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    The site of a 0.75-kiloton underground nuclear explosion, the Cambric event, was selected for the study of radionuclide transport in the hydrologic environment. Water samples from RNM-2S, a well located 91 m from Cambric, have been analyzed for tritium and other radionuclides since the initiation of pumping. Water from RNM-2S flows to Frenchman Lake via an unlined canal. Flume data indicate canal transmission losses of approximately 2m{sup 3}/day/meter of canal. To determine if infiltrating canal water might be recirculated by RNM-2S, and therefore provide an additional radionuclide input to water samples collected at RNM-2S, a two-dimensional variably saturated solute transport computer model (SATURN, Huyakorn et al., 1983) was used to simulate the movement of tritium from the canal to the water table. Results indicate that recirculated canal water has not had a significant effect on the breakthrough of tritium at RNM-2S.

  14. Study on two-dimensional equilibrium structure of magnetized complex plasmas based on a Langevin dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Yang, Fang; Liu, Songfen; Shi, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin dynamics simulation method is used to study the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium structure of complex plasmas while considering an external magnetic field. The traditional Yukawa potential and a modified Yukawa potential according to Shukla et al. [Phys. Lett. A 291, 413 (2001); Shukla and Mendonca, Phys. Scr. T113 82 (2004)] and Salimullah et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3047 (2003)] respectively, are employed to account for the interaction of the charged dust particles. It is found that the collisions between neutral gas and charged dust particles have minor effects on the 2D equilibrium structure of the system. Based on the modified Yukawa potential, studies on the 2D equilibrium structure show that the traditional Yukawa potential is still suitable for describing the magnetized complex plasmas, even if the shielding distance of charged dust particles is affected by the strong external magnetic field.

  15. Deformation of Two-Dimensional Nonuniform-Membrane Red Blood Cells Simulated by a Lattice Boltzmann Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hua-Bing; JIN Li; QIU Bing

    2008-01-01

    To study two-dimensional red blood cells deforming in a shear flow with the membrane nonuniform on the rigidity and mass, the membrane is discretized into equilength segments. The fluid inside and outside the red blood cell is simulated by the D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model and the hydrodynamic forces exerted on the membrane from the inner and outer of the red blood cell are calculated by a stress-integration method. Through the global deviation from the curvature of uniform-membrane, we find that when the membrane is nonuniform on the rigidity, the deviation first decreases with the time increases and implies that the terminal profile of the red blood cell is static. To a red blood cell with the mass nonuniform on the membrane, the deviation becomes more large, and the mass distribution affects the profile of the two sides of the flattened red blood cell in a shear flow.

  16. Development of simulation approach for two-dimensional chiral molecular self-assembly driven by hydrogen bond at the liquid/solid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan; Yao, Man; Hao, Ce; Wan, Lijun; Wang, Yunhe; Chen, Ting; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Yonggang

    2017-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) chiral self-assembly system of 5-(benzyloxy)-isophthalic acid derivative/(S)-(+)-2-octanol/highly oriented pyrolytic graphite was studied. A combined density functional theory/molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics (DFT/MM/MD) approach for system of 2D chiral molecular self-assembly driven by hydrogen bond at the liquid/solid interface was thus proposed. Structural models of the chiral assembly were built on the basis of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images and simplified for DFT geometry optimization. Merck Molecular Force Field (MMFF) was singled out as the suitable force field by comparing the optimized configurations of MM and DFT. MM and MD simulations for hexagonal unit model which better represented the 2D assemble network were then preformed with MMFF. The adhesion energy, evolution of self-assembly process and characteristic parameters of hydrogen bond were obtained and analyzed. According to the above simulation, the stabilities of the clockwise and counterclockwise enantiomorphous networks were evaluated. The calculational results were supported by STM observations and the feasibility of the simulation method was confirmed by two other systems in the presence of chiral co-absorbers (R)-(-)-2-octanol and achiral co-absorbers 1-octanol. This theoretical simulation method assesses the stability trend of 2D enantiomorphous assemblies with atomic scale and can be applied to the similar hydrogen bond driven 2D chirality of molecular self-assembly system.

  17. Development of an aerosol microphysical module: Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Matsui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations, size distributions, and mixing states of aerosols are essential parameters for accurate estimation of aerosol direct and indirect effects. In this study, we develop an aerosol module, designated Aerosol Two-dimensional bin module for foRmation and Aging Simulation (ATRAS, that can represent these parameters explicitly by considering new particle formation (NPF, black carbon (BC aging, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA processes. A two-dimensional bin representation is used for particles with dry diameters from 40 nm to 10 μm to resolve both aerosol size (12 bins and BC mixing state (10 bins for a total of 120 bins. The particles with diameters from 1 to 40 nm are resolved using an additional 8 size bins to calculate NPF. The ATRAS module is implemented in the WRF-chem model and applied to examine the sensitivity of simulated mass, number, size distributions, and optical and radiative parameters of aerosols to NPF, BC aging and SOA processes over East Asia during the spring of 2009. BC absorption enhancement by coating materials is about 50% over East Asia during the spring, and the contribution of SOA processes to the absorption enhancement is estimated to be 10–20% over northern East Asia and 20–35% over southern East Asia. A clear north-south contrast is also found between the impacts of NPF and SOA processes on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations: NPF increases CCN concentrations at higher supersaturations (smaller particles over northern East Asia, whereas SOA increases CCN concentrations at lower supersaturations (larger particles over southern East Asia. Application of ATRAS to East Asia also shows that the impact of each process on each optical and radiative parameter depends strongly on the process and the parameter in question. The module can be used in the future as a benchmark model to evaluate the accuracy of simpler aerosol models and examine interactions between NPF, BC aging, and SOA

  18. Conduction in rectangular quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional random resistor networks away from the percolation threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Thomas; Villanueva, Guillermo; Brugger, Jürgen

    2009-08-01

    In this study we investigate electrical conduction in finite rectangular random resistor networks in quasione and two dimensions far away from the percolation threshold p(c) by the use of a bond percolation model. Various topologies such as parallel linear chains in one dimension, as well as square and triangular lattices in two dimensions, are compared as a function of the geometrical aspect ratio. In particular we propose a linear approximation for conduction in two-dimensional systems far from p(c), which is useful for engineering purposes. We find that the same scaling function, which can be used for finite-size scaling of percolation thresholds, also applies to describe conduction away from p(c). This is in contrast to the quasi-one-dimensional case, which is highly nonlinear. The qualitative analysis of the range within which the linear approximation is legitimate is given. A brief link to real applications is made by taking into account a statistical distribution of the resistors in the network. Our results are of potential interest in fields such as nanostructured or composite materials and sensing applications.

  19. Estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of a two-dimensional fracture network using effective medium theory and power-law averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; Leung, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through generated stochastically two-dimensional fracture networks. The centers and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow a lognormal distribution. The aperture of each fracture is correlated with its length, either through direct proportionality, or through a nonlinear relationship. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this value by starting with the individual fracture conductances, and using various upscaling methods. Kirkpatrick’s effective medium approximation, which works well for pore networks on a core scale, generally underestimates the conductivity of the fracture networks. We attribute this to the fact that the conductances of individual fracture segments (between adjacent intersections with other fractures) are correlated with each other, whereas Kirkpatrick’s approximation assumes no correlation. The power-law averaging approach proposed by Desbarats for porous media is able to match the numerical value, using power-law exponents that generally lie between 0 (geometric mean) and 1 (harmonic mean). The appropriate exponent can be correlated with statistical parameters that characterize the fracture density.

  20. Experimental Validation of Two-dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating Constitutive Response of Polycrystals During High Temperature Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sumit; Briant, Clyde L.; Krajewski, Paul E.; Bower, Allan F.; Taleff, Eric M.

    2007-04-01

    A finite element method was recently designed to model the mechanisms that cause superplastic deformation (A.F. Bower and E. Wininger, A Two-Dimensional Finite Element Method for Simulating the Constitutive Response and Microstructure of Polycrystals during High-Temperature Plastic Deformation, J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2004, 52, p 1289-1317). The computations idealize the solid as a collection of two-dimensional grains, separated by sharp grain boundaries. The grains may deform plastically by thermally activated dislocation motion, which is modeled using a conventional crystal plasticity law. The solid may also deform by sliding on the grain boundaries, or by stress-driven diffusion of atoms along grain boundaries. The governing equations are solved using a finite element method, which includes a front-tracking procedure to monitor the evolution of the grain boundaries and surfaces in the solid. The goal of this article is to validate these computations by systematically comparing numerical predictions to experimental measurements of the elevated-temperature response of aluminum alloy AA5083 (M.-A. Kulas, W.P. Green, E.M. Taleff, P.E. Krajewski, and T.R. McNelley, Deformation Mechanisms in Superplastic AA5083 materials. Metall. Mater. Trans. A, 2005, 36(5), p 1249-1261). The experimental work revealed that a transition occurs from grain-boundary sliding to dislocation (solute-drag) creep at approximately 0.001/s for temperatures between 425 and 500 °C. In addition, increasing the grain size from 7 to 10 μm decreased the transition to significantly lower strain rates. Predictions from the finite element method accurately predict the effect of grain size on the transition in deformation mechanisms.

  1. The Effect of Buoyancy Force in Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of a Two-Dimensional Continuous Ohmic Heating Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzubier A. Salih

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Earlier research on ohmic heating technique focused on viscous food and foods containing solid particles. In this study, use of ohmic heating on sterilization of guava juice is carried out. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model and simulate the system. Investigate the buoyancy effect on the CFD simulation of continuous ohmic heating systems of fluid foods. Approach: A two-dimensional model describing the flow, temperature and electric field distribution of non-Newtonian power law guava juice fluid in a cylindrical continuous ohmic heating cell was developed. The electrical conductivity, thermo physical and rheological properties of the fluid was temperature dependent. Numerical simulation was carried out using FLUENT 6.1 software package. A user defined functions available in FLUENT 6.1 was employed for the electric field equation. The heating cell used consisted of a cylindrical tube of diameter 0.05 m, height 0.50 m and having three collinear electrodes of 0.02 m width separated by a distance of 0.22 m. The sample was subjected to zero voltage at the top and bottom of electrodes while electrical potential of 90 volts (AC 50-60 Hz was set at the middle electrode. The inlet velocity is 0.003 m sec-1 and the temperature is in the range of 30-90°C. Results: Simulation was carried with and without buoyancy driven force effect. The ohmic heating was successfully simulated using CFD and the results showed that the buoyancy had a strong effect in temperature profiles and flow pattern of the collinear electrodes configuration ohmic heating. A more uniform velocity and temperature profiles were obtained with the buoyancy effect included. Conclusion: For accurate results, the inclusion of buoyancy effect into the CFD simulation is important.

  2. Trigonometrical sums connected with the chiral Potts model, Verlinde dimension formula, two-dimensional resistor network, and number theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chair, Noureddine, E-mail: n.chair@ju.edu.jo

    2014-02-15

    We have recently developed methods for obtaining exact two-point resistance of the complete graph minus N edges. We use these methods to obtain closed formulas of certain trigonometrical sums that arise in connection with one-dimensional lattice, in proving Scott’s conjecture on permanent of Cauchy matrix, and in the perturbative chiral Potts model. The generalized trigonometrical sums of the chiral Potts model are shown to satisfy recursion formulas that are transparent and direct, and differ from those of Gervois and Mehta. By making a change of variables in these recursion formulas, the dimension of the space of conformal blocks of SU(2) and SO(3) WZW models may be computed recursively. Our methods are then extended to compute the corner-to-corner resistance, and the Kirchhoff index of the first non-trivial two-dimensional resistor network, 2×N. Finally, we obtain new closed formulas for variant of trigonometrical sums, some of which appear in connection with number theory. -- Highlights: • Alternative derivation of certain trigonometrical sums of the chiral Potts model are given. • Generalization of these trigonometrical sums satisfy recursion formulas. • The dimension of the space of conformal blocks may be computed from these recursions. • Exact corner-to-corner resistance, the Kirchhoff index of 2×N are given.

  3. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Benzene, Phenol, and Their Dimer: An Efficient First-Principles Simulation Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, Artur; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco; Rivalta, Ivan

    2015-08-11

    First-principles simulations of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region (2DUV) require computationally demanding multiconfigurational approaches that can resolve doubly excited and charge transfer states, the spectroscopic fingerprints of coupled UV-active chromophores. Here, we propose an efficient approach to reduce the computational cost of accurate simulations of 2DUV spectra of benzene, phenol, and their dimer (i.e., the minimal models for studying electronic coupling of UV-chromophores in proteins). We first establish the multiconfigurational recipe with the highest accuracy by comparison with experimental data, providing reference gas-phase transition energies and dipole moments that can be used to construct exciton Hamiltonians involving high-lying excited states. We show that by reducing the active spaces and the number of configuration state functions within restricted active space schemes, the computational cost can be significantly decreased without loss of accuracy in predicting 2DUV spectra. The proposed recipe has been successfully tested on a realistic model proteic system in water. Accounting for line broadening due to thermal and solvent-induced fluctuations allows for direct comparison with experiments.

  4. Global Structure of Three Distinct Accretion Flows and Outflows around Black Holes through Two-Dimensional Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Ohsuga, Ken

    2011-01-01

    We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, rho_0, we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A with the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of the mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ~22L_E (where L_E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B with a moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ~7R_S (where R_S is the S...

  5. Numerical Simulation of Particle Flow Motion in a Two-Dimensional Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor with Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular pebble-bed nuclear reactor (MPBNR technology is promising due to its attractive features such as high fuel performance and inherent safety. Particle motion of fuel and graphite pebbles is highly associated with the performance of pebbled-bed modular nuclear reactor. To understand the mechanism of pebble’s motion in the reactor, we numerically studied the influence of number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles, funnel angle of the reactor, height of guide ring on the distribution of pebble position, and velocity by means of discrete element method (DEM in a two-dimensional MPBNR. Velocity distributions at different areas of the reactor as well as mixing characteristics of fuel and graphite pebbles were investigated. Both fuel and graphite pebbles moved downward, and a uniform motion was formed in the column zone, while pebbles motion in the cone zone was accelerated due to the decrease of the cross sectional flow area. The number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles and the height of guide ring had a minor influence on the velocity distribution of pebbles, while the variation of funnel angle had an obvious impact on the velocity distribution. Simulated results agreed well with the work in the literature.

  6. Disentangling Peptide Configurations via Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy: Ab Initio Simulations Beyond the Frenkel Exciton Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenov, Artur; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco

    2014-02-20

    Two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy techniques based on ultrashort laser pulses have been recently extended to the optical domain in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. UV-active aromatic side chains can thus be used as local highly specific markers for tracking dynamics and structural rearrangements of proteins. Here we demonstrate that 2D electronic spectra of a model proteic system, a tetrapeptide with two aromatic side chains, contain enough structural information to distinguish between two different configurations with distant and vicinal side chains. For accurate simulations of the 2DUV spectra in solution, we combine a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach based on wave function methods, accounting for interchromophores coupling and environmental effects, with nonlinear response theory. The proposed methodology reveals effects, such as charge transfer between vicinal aromatic residues that remain concealed in conventional exciton Hamiltonian approaches. Possible experimental setups are discussed, including multicolor experiments and signal manipulation techniques for limiting undesired background contributions and enhancing 2DUV signatures of specific electronic couplings.

  7. Probing the Role of the Eighth Bacteriochlorophyll in holo-FMO Complex by Simulated Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Shu-Hao

    2014-01-01

    The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire between the outer antenna system and the reaction center (RC); it is an important model system to study the excitonic energy transfer. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a). To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the difference between the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways, these being: (1) directly involve in the first pathway 6 $\\rightarrow$ 3 $\\rightarrow$ 1 of the apo form model by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) increase the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 $\\rightarrow$ 4,5 $\\rightarrow$ 2 $\\rightarrow$ ...

  8. Direct reconstruction in CT-analogous pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography: two-dimensional simulative and experimental validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2016-04-01

    We present a generalized strategy for direct reconstruction in pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) with CT-analogous scanning mode, which can accomplish one-step reconstruction of the indocyanine-green pharmacokinetic-rate images within in vivo small animals by incorporating the compartmental kinetic model into an adaptive extended Kalman filtering scheme and using an instantaneous sampling dataset. This scheme, compared with the established indirect and direct methods, eliminates the interim error of the DFT inversion and relaxes the expensive requirement of the instrument for obtaining highly time-resolved date-sets of complete 360 deg projections. The scheme is validated by two-dimensional simulations for the two-compartment model and pilot phantom experiments for the one-compartment model, suggesting that the proposed method can estimate the compartmental concentrations and the pharmacokinetic-rates simultaneously with a fair quantitative and localization accuracy, and is well suitable for cost-effective and dense-sampling instrumentation based on the highly-sensitive photon counting technique.

  9. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  10. Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment. Part 1: Two-dimensional simulations of sea-breeze and mountain effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong; Turco, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the southern California coastal region, observations of the vertical distributions of pollutants show that maximum concentrations can occur within temperature inversion layers well above the surface. A mesoscale model is used to study the dynamical phenomena that cause such layers, including sea breezes and mountain flows, and to study the characteristics of air pollutant transport in a coastal environment capped by a temperature inversion. The mathematical and physical structure of the model is described. Two-dimensional simulations corresponding to four configurations of coastal plains and mountains are discussed. The simulations reveal that pollutant transport over a coastal plain is strongly influenced by the topographic configuration, including the height of coastal mountains and their distance from the coastline. Sea breezes induced by land-sea thermal contrasts, as well as upslope winds induced along mountain flanks, both create vertical transport that can lead to the formation of elevated pollution layers. The sea-breeze circulation generates pollution layers by undercutting the mixed layer and lofting pollutants into the stable layer. Heating of mountain slopes acts to vent pollutants above the mountain ridge during the day; during the evening, pollutants can be injected directly into the inversion layer from the decaying upslope flows. In a land-sea configuration with mountains close to the coastline, the sea breeze and heated-mountain flow are strongly coupled. In the afternoon, this interaction can produce upslope flow from which polluted air is detrained into the inversion layer as a return circulation. When the mountains lie farther inland, however, pollutants may be trapped aloft when the mixed layer stabilizes in the late afternoon. As the nocturnal boundary layer forms over the coast in the evening, polluted mixed-layer air is effectively left behind in the inversion layer. In the Los Angeles Basin, the formation mechanism for elevated

  11. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SHOCKS IN AND ABOVE POST-FLARE LOOPS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION AND A SIMPLIFIED MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasao, Shinsuke; Nakamura, Naoki; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607-8471 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takuma, E-mail: takasao@kwasan.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    Solar flares are an explosive phenomenon where super-sonic flows and shocks are expected in and above the post-flare loops. To understand the dynamics of post-flare loops, a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (2D MHD) simulation of a solar flare has been carried out. We found new shock structures in and above the post-flare loops, which were not resolved in the previous work by Yokoyama and Shibata. To study the dynamics of flows along the reconnected magnetic field, the kinematics and energetics of the plasma are investigated along selected field lines. It is found that shocks are crucial to determine the thermal and flow structures in the post-flare loops. On the basis of the 2D MHD simulation, we developed a new post-flare loop model, which we defined as the pseudo-2D MHD model. The model is based on the one-dimensional (1D) MHD equations, where all variables depend on one space dimension, and all the three components of the magnetic and velocity fields are considered. Our pseudo-2D model includes many features of the multi-dimensional MHD processes related to magnetic reconnection (particularly MHD shocks), which the previous 1D hydrodynamic models are not able to include. We compared the shock formation and energetics of a specific field line in the 2D calculation with those in our pseudo-2D MHD model, and found that they give similar results. This model will allow us to study the evolution of the post-flare loops in a wide parameter space without expensive computational cost or neglecting important physics associated with magnetic reconnection.

  12. Stochastic simulation tools and continuum models for describing two-dimensional collective cell spreading with universal growth functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wang; Penington, Catherine J.; McCue, Scott W.; Simpson, Matthew J.

    2016-10-01

    Two-dimensional collective cell migration assays are used to study cancer and tissue repair. These assays involve combined cell migration and cell proliferation processes, both of which are modulated by cell-to-cell crowding. Previous discrete models of collective cell migration assays involve a nearest-neighbour proliferation mechanism where crowding effects are incorporated by aborting potential proliferation events if the randomly chosen target site is occupied. There are two limitations of this traditional approach: (i) it seems unreasonable to abort a potential proliferation event based on the occupancy of a single, randomly chosen target site; and, (ii) the continuum limit description of this mechanism leads to the standard logistic growth function, but some experimental evidence suggests that cells do not always proliferate logistically. Motivated by these observations, we introduce a generalised proliferation mechanism which allows non-nearest neighbour proliferation events to take place over a template of r≥slant 1 concentric rings of lattice sites. Further, the decision to abort potential proliferation events is made using a crowding function, f(C), which accounts for the density of agents within a group of sites rather than dealing with the occupancy of a single randomly chosen site. Analysing the continuum limit description of the stochastic model shows that the standard logistic source term, λ C(1-C), where λ is the proliferation rate, is generalised to a universal growth function, λ C f(C). Comparing the solution of the continuum description with averaged simulation data indicates that the continuum model performs well for many choices of f(C) and r. For nonlinear f(C), the quality of the continuum-discrete match increases with r.

  13. Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Joseph W; Sawyer, Brian C; Keith, Adam C; Wang, C-C Joseph; Freericks, James K; Uys, Hermann; Biercuk, Michael J; Bollinger, John J

    2012-04-25

    The presence of long-range quantum spin correlations underlies a variety of physical phenomena in condensed-matter systems, potentially including high-temperature superconductivity. However, many properties of exotic, strongly correlated spin systems, such as spin liquids, have proved difficult to study, in part because calculations involving N-body entanglement become intractable for as few as N ≈ 30 particles. Feynman predicted that a quantum simulator--a special-purpose 'analogue' processor built using quantum bits (qubits)--would be inherently suited to solving such problems. In the context of quantum magnetism, a number of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach, but simulations allowing controlled, tunable interactions between spins localized on two- or three-dimensional lattices of more than a few tens of qubits have yet to be demonstrated, in part because of the technical challenge of realizing large-scale qubit arrays. Here we demonstrate a variable-range Ising-type spin-spin interaction, J(i,j), on a naturally occurring, two-dimensional triangular crystal lattice of hundreds of spin-half particles (beryllium ions stored in a Penning trap). This is a computationally relevant scale more than an order of magnitude larger than previous experiments. We show that a spin-dependent optical dipole force can produce an antiferromagnetic interaction J(i,j) proportional variant d(-a)(i,j), where 0 ≤ a ≤ 3 and d(i,j) is the distance between spin pairs. These power laws correspond physically to infinite-range (a = 0), Coulomb-like (a = 1), monopole-dipole (a = 2) and dipole-dipole (a = 3) couplings. Experimentally, we demonstrate excellent agreement with a theory for 0.05 ≲ a ≲ 1.4. This demonstration, coupled with the high spin count, excellent quantum control and low technical complexity of the Penning trap, brings within reach the simulation of otherwise computationally intractable problems in quantum magnetism.

  14. Coupled One and Two Dimensional Model for River Network Flow and Sediment Transport%一二维耦合河网水沙模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕文丽; 张旭

    2011-01-01

    Based on previous research, a new one and two-dimensional coupled model of river water and sediment was proposed.With reference to the three-level solution for one-dimensional river network water mode, the two-dimensional river section will be generalized to river section within the river network.One and two dimensional coupled river network sediment model will be established with the balance of flow amount and sediment transport.The model sets up the chasing relationship between variables of water level and sediment content at the end and first section to further establish matrix equations of the whole one and two-dimensional river network node water level and sediment content.Though the verification and calculation for generalized river network from Datong to Zhenjiang in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, it is found that the model is of great practical value.%借鉴河网水流的三级解法,将二维河段概化为河网内部河段,通过河网节点流量和输沙量的平衡,建立一二维耦合河网水沙模型.模型采用全隐式方法建立二维河段以首末断面的水位和含沙量为中间变量的矩阵追赶关系,进而建立整个一二维河网的节点水位及含沙量的矩阵方程组.对方程组的求解,可实现一二维水沙模型的耦合求解.通过对长江下游大通至镇江概化河网的验证计算,表明模型具有很好的实用价值.

  15. Hidden zero-temperature bicritical point in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model: Monte Carlo simulations and proper finite-size scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chenggang; Landau, D. P.; Schulthess, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    By considering the appropriate finite-size effect, we explain the connection between Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a field and the early renormalization group calculation for the bicritical point in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We found that the long length scale physics of the Monte Carlo simulations is indeed captured by the anisotropic nonlinear $\\sigma$ model. Our Monte Carlo data and analysis confirm that the bicritical point in two dime...

  16. Hydrologic Analysis and Two-Dimensional Simulation of Flow at State Highway 17 crossing the Gasconade River near Waynesville, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Missouri Department of Transportation, the U.S. Geological Survey determined hydrologic and hydraulic parameters for the Gasconade River at the site of a proposed bridge replacement and highway realignment of State Highway 17 near Waynesville, Missouri. Information from a discontinued streamflow-gaging station on the Gasconade River near Waynesville was used to determine streamflow statistics for analysis of the 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year floods at the site. Analysis of the streamflow-gaging stations on the Gasconade River upstream and downstream from Waynesville indicate that flood peaks attenuate between the upstream gaging station near Hazelgreen and the Waynesville gaging station, such that the peak discharge observed on the Gasconade River near Waynesville will be equal to or only slightly greater (7 percent or less) than that observed near Hazelgreen. A flood event occurred on the Gasconade River in March 2008, and a flood measurement was obtained near the peak at State Highway 17. The elevation of high-water marks from that event indicated it was the highest measured flood on record with a measured discharge of 95,400 cubic feet per second, and a water-surface elevation of 766.18 feet near the location of the Waynesville gaging station. The measurements obtained for the March flood resulted in a shift of the original stage-discharge relation for the Waynesville gaging station, and the streamflow statistics were modified based on the new data. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Gasconade River in the vicinity of State Highway 17. A model was developed that represents existing (2008) conditions on State Highway 17 (the 'model of existing conditions'), and was calibrated to the floods of March 20, 2008, December 4, 1982, and April 14, 1945. Modifications were made to the model of existing conditions to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Gasconade

  17. Mesh network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Ping; YURY N. PETRENKO

    2015-01-01

    A Mesh network simulation framework which provides a powerful and concise modeling chain for a network structure will be introduce in this report. Mesh networks has a special topologic structure. The paper investigates a message transfer in wireless mesh network simulation and how does it works in cellular network simulation. Finally the experimental result gave us the information that mesh networks have different principle in transmission way with cellular networks in transmission, and multi...

  18. Three- and two-dimensional simulations of counter-propagating shear experiments at high energy densities at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ping; Zhou, Ye, E-mail: yezhou@llnl.gov; MacLaren, Stephan A.; Huntington, Channing M.; Raman, Kumar S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Doss, Forrest W.; Flippo, Kirk A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Three- and two-dimensional numerical studies have been carried out to simulate recent counter-propagating shear flow experiments on the National Ignition Facility. A multi-physics three-dimensional, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulation code is used. Using a Reynolds Averaging Navier-Stokes model, we show that the evolution of the mixing layer width obtained from the simulations agrees well with that measured from the experiments. A sensitivity study is conducted to illustrate a 3D geometrical effect that could confuse the measurement at late times, if the energy drives from the two ends of the shock tube are asymmetric. Implications for future experiments are discussed.

  19. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  20. Verification of high performance two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of low-temperature plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggate, Huw; Turner, Miles

    2016-09-01

    We discuss a two-dimensional implementation of the particle-in-cell algorithm with Monte Carlo collisions. This implementation is designed for multiprocessor environments in which each processor is assumed to offer vector capabilities and multiple execution threads. An appropriate implementation therefore combines OpenMP to exploit multithreading with MPI to coupled computing nodes. This approach promises to achieve accelerations of a least a factor of several hundred, relative to to a simple serial implementation. However, the complexity involved also offers many opportunities for error, and makes correctness demonstrations especially desirable. In this presentation we discuss the characteristics of this parallel implementation, and we describe a suite of verification tests that collectively create a strong presumption that the code is correct. Work supported by the EUROfusion consortium.

  1. PHYSALIS: a new method for particle flow simulation. Part III: convergence analysis of two-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaxiong; Takagi, Shu

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, we study the convergence property of PHYSALIS when it is applied to incompressible particle flows in two-dimensional space. PHYSALIS is a recently proposed iterative method which computes the solution without imposing the boundary conditions on the particle surfaces directly. Instead, a consistency equation based on the local (near particle) representation of the solution is used as the boundary conditions. One of the important issues needs to be addressed is the convergence properties of the iterative procedure. In this paper, we present the convergence analysis using Laplace and biharmonic equations as two model problems. It is shown that convergence of the method can be achieved but the rate of convergence depends on the relative locations of the cages. The results are directly related to potential and Stokes flows. However, they are also relevant to Navier-Stokes flows, heat conduction in composite media, and other problems.

  2. Packet Tracer network simulator

    CERN Document Server

    Jesin, A

    2014-01-01

    A practical, fast-paced guide that gives you all the information you need to successfully create networks and simulate them using Packet Tracer.Packet Tracer Network Simulator is aimed at students, instructors, and network administrators who wish to use this simulator to learn how to perform networking instead of investing in expensive, specialized hardware. This book assumes that you have a good amount of Cisco networking knowledge, and it will focus more on Packet Tracer rather than networking.

  3. Synthesis, Structure and Characterization of Two-dimensional Network Copper Complex [ Cu3 (nta) 2(azpy) 2(H2O)2]· 6H2O

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI,Bao-Long(李宝龙); XU,Yan(徐艳); LIU,Qi(刘琦); WANG,Hua-Qin(王化勤); XU,Zheng(徐正)

    2002-01-01

    The copper(Ⅱ) complex [Cu3(nta)2(azpy)2(H2O)2] @6H2O(nta= nitrilotriacetate, azpy= 4,4'-azobispyridine) has been synthesized and characterized. The X-ray analysis reveals that there are two kinds of copper(Ⅱ) coordination environments.Cu(1) has a distorted square plane symmetry and Cu(2) has a distorted octahedral symmetry. Cu(1)is linked to Cu(2)through nta and bound to Cu(1C) by azpy, and Cu(2) islinked to Cu(2A) through azpy, which extends to two-dimensional network with large rhombus 1.2 nm× 1.7 nm.

  4. Two-dimensional Network Crown Ether Complex. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 18-Crown-6 Complex: [K(18-C-6) ]2[Cd-(mnt)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG,Da-Qi(王大奇); YU,Qing-Jiang(于清江); DOU,Jian-Min(窦建民)

    2002-01-01

    The novel complex [K(18-C-6)]2[Cd(mnt)2] [18-C-6=18-crown-6, mnt= 1, 2-dicyanoethen-1, 2-dithiolate, C2S2-(CN)2- 2] was synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis,IR spectrum and X-ray diffraction analysis. The complex displays two-dimensional network structure of [ K(18-C-6)] complex segments and [Cd(mnt)2] complex segment bridged by S-K-S, S-K-N and N-K-N interactions between adjacent [K(18-C-6)] and [Cd(mnt)2] units.

  5. 基于侧抑制网络的二维Otsu阈值分割算法%Two-dimensional Otsu Threshold Segmentation Algorithm Based on Lateral Inhibition Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董悫; 王江晴; 孙阳光

    2015-01-01

    The traditional two-dimensional Otsu thresholding segmentation algorithms do not think about human vision characteristics and the result of segmentation can not match up to the visual perception of human eye. In order to solve this problem,an algorithm based on the two-dimensional Otsu algorithm and the lateral inhibition network is proposed. In this algorithm, the lateral inhibition network of human visual system that has the features of enhancing center and inhibiting surroundings is fully used. The lateral inhibition network is utilized to process the original picture and obtains the lateral inhibition picture. A two-dimensional histogram based on the gray information and lateral inhibition information of pixels is established. The maximum between-cluster variance is chosen as the criterion to select the optimal threshold. Experimental results show that this algorithm not only is well adapted to the contrast and illumination intensity, but also has the capacity for fitting the breaks compared with the traditional Otsu algorithm and two-dimensional Otsu algorithm. It improves the robustness to image noise and obtains more perfect segmentation results.%传统二维Otsu阈值分割算法未考虑人类视觉特性,分割结果不符合人眼视觉感受。为此,提出一种二维Otsu算法与侧抑制网络相结合的分割算法。该算法从基于人类视觉系统的侧抑制网络出发,利用侧抑制网络增强中心,抑制周围的特性,通过侧抑制网络处理原始图像,得到侧抑制图像,构建基于像素的灰度信息和侧抑制信息的二维直方图,并采用类间最大方差作为最佳阈值的选取准则。实验结果表明,与传统的Otsu算法和二维Otsu算法等相比,该算法具有较好的对比度、光照强度适应性和间断拟合能力,并能提高对图像噪声的鲁棒性,获得更理想的分割结果。

  6. Exciton delocalization and transport in photosystem I of cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongates: simulation study of coherent two-dimensional optical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramavicius, Darius; Mukamel, Shaul

    2009-04-30

    Electronic excitations and the optical properties of the photosynthetic complex PSI are analyzed using an effective exciton model developed by Vaitekonis et al. [Photosynth. Res. 2005, 86, 185]. States of the reaction center, the linker states, the highly delocalized antenna states and the red states are identified and assigned in absorption and circular dichroism spectra by taking into account the spectral distribution of density of exciton states, exciton delocalization length, and participation ratio in the reaction center. Signatures of exciton cooperative dynamics in nonchiral and chirality-induced two-dimensional (2D) photon-echo signals are identified. Nonchiral signals show resonances associated with the red, the reaction center, and the bulk antenna states as well as transport between them. Spectrally overlapping contributions of the linker and the delocalized antenna states are clearly resolved in the chirality-induced signals. Strong correlations are observed between the delocalized antenna states, the linker states, and the RC states. The active space of the complex covering the RC, the linker, and the delocalized antenna states is common to PSI complexes in bacteria and plants.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF UNSTEADY TURBULENT FLOW INDUCED BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL ELEVATOR CAR AND COUNTER WEIGHT SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of unsteady turbulent flow induced by high-speed elevator system was established in the present study. The research was focused on the instantaneous variation of the aerodynamic force on the car structure during traversing motion of the counter weight in the hoistway. A dynamic meshing method was employed to treat the multi-body motion system to avoid poor distortion of meshes. A comprehensive understanding of this significant aspect was obtained by varying the horizontal gap (δ=0.1m, 0.2m, and 0.3m) between the elevator car and the counter weight, and the moving speed (U0=2m/s, 6m/s, and 10m/s) of the elevator system. A pulsed intensification of the aerodynamic force on the elevator car and subsequent appearance of large valley with negative aerodynamic force were clearly observed in the numerical results. In parameters studied (δ=0.1m, U0=2m/s, 6m/s, 10m/s), the peaked horizontal and vertical forces are respectively 7-11 and 4.3-5.65 times of that when the counter weight is far from the car. These results demonstrated the prominent influence of the traversing counter weight on aerodynamic force on the elevator car, which is of great significance to designers of high-speed elevator system.

  8. GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for the simulation of two-dimensional classical spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    We present the GPU calculation with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm of two-dimensional classical spin systems. We adjust the two connected component labeling algorithms recently proposed with CUDA for the assignment of the cluster in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. Starting with the q-state Potts model, we extend our implementation to the system of vector spins, the q-state clock model, with the idea of embedded cluster. We test the performance, and the calculation time on GTX580 is obtained as 2.51 nano sec per a spin flip for the q=2 Potts model (Ising model) and 2.42 nano sec per a spin flip for the q=6 clock model with the linear size L=4096 at the critical temperature, respectively. The computational speed for the q=2 Potts model on GTX580 is 12.4 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core. That for the q=6 clock model on GTX580 is 35.6 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core.

  9. Two-dimensional NiCo2O4 nanosheet-coated three-dimensional graphene networks for high-rate, long-cycle-life supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiang; Huang, Ying; Cao, Xiehong; Ouyang, Bo; Sun, Wenping; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Qinglang; Liang, Shuquan; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-04-01

    We report the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) NiCo2O4 nanosheet-coated three-dimensional graphene network (3DGN), which is then used as an electrode for high-rate, long-cycle-life supercapacitors. Using the 3DGN and nanoporous nanosheets, an ultrahigh specific capacitance (2173 F g-1 at 6 A g-1), excellent rate capability (954 F g-1 at 200 A g-1) and superior long-term cycling performance (94% capacitance retention after 14 000 cycles at 100 A g-1) are achieved.We report the synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) NiCo2O4 nanosheet-coated three-dimensional graphene network (3DGN), which is then used as an electrode for high-rate, long-cycle-life supercapacitors. Using the 3DGN and nanoporous nanosheets, an ultrahigh specific capacitance (2173 F g-1 at 6 A g-1), excellent rate capability (954 F g-1 at 200 A g-1) and superior long-term cycling performance (94% capacitance retention after 14 000 cycles at 100 A g-1) are achieved. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S9, and Table S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06527a

  10. Ultra-trace electrochemical impedance determination of bovine serum albumin by a two dimensional silica network citrate-capped gold nanoparticles modified gold electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, Abdollah; Saeidikhah, Marzieh

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a gold electrode (GE) was modified by coating with two dimensional silica network/citrate capped gold nanoparticles-poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA) for ultra-sensitive determination of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). After covalently binding of a silica network (in two-dimensional form) on the surface of a gold electrode, via twice in situ hydrolysis of 3-mercaptopropyl-tri-ethoxysilane, citrate capped gold nanoparticles (CGNP) were chemically adsorbed on the silica cage. Subsequently, PDDA was bonded to CGNP via electrostatic interaction of positively charged polymer and negatively charged stabilizer of CGNP. Analytical properties of GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA were studied by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The detection limit for measured BSA was found to be 8.4×10(-13) mol L(-1) and the measuring linear concentration range of the proposed sensor was 9.9×10(-12)-1.6×10(-10) mol L(-1) of BSA. In addition, GE-TDSN-CGNP-PDDA exhibited good stability with high selectivity and was applied for determination of BSA in some samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  12. Targeted energy transfers and passive acoustic wave redirection in a two-dimensional granular network under periodic excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yijing, E-mail: yzhng123@illinois.edu; Moore, Keegan J.; Vakakis, Alexander F. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); McFarland, D. Michael [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    We study passive pulse redirection and nonlinear targeted energy transfer in a granular network composed of two semi-infinite, ordered homogeneous granular chains mounted on linear elastic foundations and coupled by weak linear stiffnesses. Periodic excitation in the form of repetitive half-sine pulses is applied to one of the chains, designated as the “excited chain,” whereas the other chain is initially at rest and is regarded as the “absorbing chain.” We show that passive pulse redirection and targeted energy transfer from the excited to the absorbing chain can be achieved by macro-scale realization of the spatial analog of the Landau-Zener quantum tunneling effect. This is realized by finite stratification of the elastic foundation of the excited chain and depends on the system parameters (e.g., the percentage of stratification) and on the parameters of the periodic excitation. Utilizing empirical mode decomposition and numerical Hilbert transforms, we detect the existence of two distinct nonlinear phenomena in the periodically forced network; namely, (i) energy localization in the absorbing chain due to sustained 1:1 resonance capture leading to irreversible pulse redirection from the excited chain, and (ii) continuous energy exchanges in the form of nonlinear beats between the two chains in the absence of resonance capture. Our results extend previous findings of transient passive energy redirection in impulsively excited granular networks and demonstrate that steady state passive pulse redirection in these networks can be robustly achieved under periodic excitation.

  13. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors-abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity but MoA classification in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity mode of action using a recently published dataset contain...

  14. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently pu...

  15. Network simulation experiments manual

    CERN Document Server

    Aboelela, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Network Simulation Experiments Manual, Third Edition, contains simulation-based experiments to help students and professionals learn about key concepts in computer networking. The simulation approach provides a virtual environment for a wide range of desirable features, such as modeling a network based on specified criteria and analyzing its performance under different scenarios. The experiments include the basics of using OPNET IT Guru Academic Edition; operation of the Ethernet network; partitioning of a physical network into separate logical networks using virtual local area networks (V

  16. Cancellation exponent and multifractal structure in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics: direct numerical simulations and Lagrangian averaged modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jonathan Pietarila; Mininni, Pablo D; Pouquet, Annick

    2005-10-01

    We present direct numerical simulations and Lagrangian averaged (also known as alpha model) simulations of forced and free decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in two dimensions. The statistics of sign cancellations of the current at small scales is studied using both the cancellation exponent and the fractal dimension of the structures. The alpha model is found to have the same scaling behavior between positive and negative contributions as the direct numerical simulations. The alpha model is also able to reproduce the time evolution of these quantities in free decaying turbulence. At large Reynolds numbers, an independence of the cancellation exponent with the Reynolds numbers is observed.

  17. Two Dimensional Verification of the Dose Distribution of Gamma Knife Model C using Monte Carlo Simulation with a Virtual Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Dong Geon; Choi, Joonbum; Jang, Jae Yeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Gamma Knife model C contains 201 {sup 60}Co sources located on a spherical surface, so that each beam is concentrated on the center of the sphere. In the last work, we simulated the Gamma Knife model C through Monte Carlo simulation code using Geant4. Instead of 201 multi-collimation system, we made one single collimation system that collects source parameter passing through the collimator helmet. Using the virtual source, we drastically reduced the simulation time to transport 201 gamma circle beams to the target. Gamma index has been widely used to compare two dose distributions in cancer radiotherapy. Gamma index pass rates were compared in two calculated results using the virtual source method and the original method and measured results obtained using radiocrhomic films. A virtual source method significantly reduces simulation time of a Gamma Knife Model C and provides equivalent absorbed dose distributions as that of the original method showing Gamma Index pass rate close to 100% under 1mm/3% criteria. On the other hand, it gives a little narrow dose distribution compared to the film measurement showing Gamma Index pass rate of 94%. More accurate and sophisticated examination on the accuracy of the simulation and film measurement is necessary.

  18. Intercomparison of ion beam analysis software for the simulation of backscattering spectra from two-dimensional structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Malinský, P.; Schiettekatte, F.; Zolnai, Z.

    2016-10-01

    The codes RBS-MAST, STRUCTNRA, F95-Rough and CORTEO are simulation codes for ion beam analysis spectra from two- or three-dimensional sample structures. The codes were intercompared in a code-code comparison using an idealized grating structure and by comparison to experimental data from a silicon grating on tantalum interlayer. All codes are in excellent agreement at higher incident energies and not too large energy losses. At lower incident energies, grazing angles of incidence and/or larger energy losses plural scattering effects play an increasing role. Simulation codes with plural scattering capabilities offer higher accuracy and better agreement to experimental results in this regime.

  19. Testing a one-dimensional prescription of dynamical shear mixing with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, P. V. F.; Röpke, F. K.; Hirschi, R.; Georgy, C.; Jones, S.

    2017-07-01

    Context. The treatment of mixing processes is still one of the major uncertainties in 1D stellar evolution models. This is mostly due to the need to parametrize and approximate aspects of hydrodynamics in hydrostatic codes. In particular, the effect of hydrodynamic instabilities in rotating stars, for example, dynamical shear instability, evades consistent description. Aims: We intend to study the accuracy of the diffusion approximation to dynamical shear in hydrostatic stellar evolution models by comparing 1D models to a first-principle hydrodynamics simulation starting from the same initial conditions. Methods: We chose an initial model calculated with the stellar evolution code GENEC that is just at the onset of a dynamical shear instability but does not show any other instabilities (e.g., convection). This was mapped to the hydrodynamics code SLH to perform a 2D simulation in the equatorial plane. We compare the resulting profiles in the two codes and compute an effective diffusion coefficient for the hydro simulation. Results: Shear instabilities develop in the 2D simulation in the regions predicted by linear theory to become unstable in the 1D stellar evolution model. Angular velocity and chemical composition is redistributed in the unstable region, thereby creating new unstable regions. After a period of time, the system settles in a symmetric, steady state, which is Richardson stable everywhere in the 2D simulation, whereas the instability remains for longer in the 1D model due to the limitations of the current implementation in the 1D code. A spatially resolved diffusion coefficient is extracted by comparing the initial and final profiles of mean atomic mass. Conclusions: The presented simulation gives a first insight on hydrodynamics of shear instabilities in a real stellar environment and even allows us to directly extract an effective diffusion coefficient. We see evidence for a critical Richardson number of 0.25 as regions above this threshold remain

  20. PHYSALIS: a new method for particle simulation: Part II: two-dimensional Navier–Stokes flow around cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takagi, S.; Oguz, H.N.; Zhang, Z.; Prosperetti, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the direct numerical simulation of particle flows. The basic idea is to use a local analytic representation valid near the particle to “transfer” the no-slip condition from the particle surface to the adjacent grid nodes. In this way the geometric complexity ari

  1. Three- and Two- Dimensional Simulations of Re-shock Experiments at High Energy Densities at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Stephan; Huntington, Channing; Nagel, Sabrina

    2016-10-01

    We present simulations of recent high-energy-density (HED) re-shock experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The experiments study the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability growth that occurs after successive shocks transit a sinusoidally-perturbed interface between materials of different densities. The shock tube is driven at one or both ends using indirect-drive laser cavities or hohlraums. X-ray area-backlit imaging is used to visualize the growth at different times. Our simulations are done with the three-dimensional, radiation hydrodynamics code ARES, developed at LLNL. We show the instabilitygrowth rate, inferred from the experimental radiographs, agrees well with our 2D and 3D simulations. We also discuss some 3D geometrical effects, suggested by our simulations, which could deteriorate the images at late times, unless properly accounted for in the experiment design. Work supported by U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE- AC52-06NA27279. LLNL-ABS-680789.

  2. Numerical Simulation for Two-Phase Water Hammer Flows in Pipe by Quasi-Two-Dimensional Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Uk Jang; Yuebin Wu; Ying Xu; Qiang Sun

    2016-01-01

    The features of a quasi⁃two⁃dimensional ( quasi⁃2D) model for simulating two⁃phase water hammer flows with vaporous cavity in a pipe are investigated. The quasi⁃2D model with discrete vaporous cavity in the pipe is proposed in this paper. This model uses the quasi⁃2D model for pure liquid zone and one⁃dimensional ( 1D ) discrete vapor cavity model for vaporous cavity zone. The quasi⁃2D model solves two⁃dimensional equations for both axial and radial velocities and 1D equations for both pressure head and discharge by the method of characteristics. The 1D discrete vapor cavity model is used to simulate the vaporous cavity occurred when the pressure in the local pipe is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid. The proposed model is used to simulate two⁃phase water flows caused by the rapid downstream valve closure in a reservoir⁃pipe⁃valve system. The results obtained by the proposed model are compared with those by the corresponding 1D model and the experimental ones provided by the literature, respectively. The comparison shows that the maximum pressure heads simulated by the proposed model are more accurate than those by the corresponding 1D model.

  3. Application of numerical simulation on optimum design of two-dimensional sedimentation tanks in the wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The paper establishes the relationship between the settling efficiency and the sizes of the sedimentation tank through the process of numerical simulation, which is taken as one of the constraints to set up a simple optimum designing model of sedimentation tank. The feasibility and advantages of this model based on numerical calculation are verified through the application of practical case.

  4. Two-Dimensional Cysteine and Cystine Cluster Networks on Au(111) Disclosed by Voltammetry and in Situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin; Nielsen, Jens Ulrik;

    2000-01-01

    Microscopic structures for molecular monolayers of L-cysteine and L-cystine assembled on Au(111) have been disclosed by employing electrochemistry and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). HighresolutionSTMimages show that the adlayers of both cyteine and cystine exhibit highly......-ordered networklike clusters with (3x3 6)R30° structure. By combining the surface coverage estimated from voltammetric data, each cluster is demonstrated to include six individual cysteine molecules or three cystine molecules. As a comparison, no cluster structure is observed for the 1-butanethiol adlayer prepared...... and examined under the same conditions as those for cysteine and cystine. This suggests that intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonds among adsorbed cysteine or cystine molecules could be responsible for the origin of the cluster-network structures for the adlayers. Several models are proposed and used...

  5. Connecting the Sun and the Solar Wind: The First Two-Dimensional Self-consistent MHD Simulation under the Alfv\\'en Wave Scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Takuma

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of the first two-dimensional self-consistent simulations directly covering from the photosphere to the interplanetary space. We carefully set up grid points with spherical coordinate to treat Alfv\\'enic waves in the atmosphere with the huge density contrast, and successfully simulate hot coronal wind streaming out as a result of surface convective motion. Footpoint motion excites upwardly propagating Alfv\\'enic waves along an open magnetic flux tube. These waves, traveling in non-uniform medium, suffer reflection, nonlinear mode conversion to compressive modes, and turbulent cascade. Combination of these mechanisms, the Alfv\\'enic waves eventually dissipate to accelerate the solar wind. While the shock heating by the dissipation of the compressive wave plays a primary role in the coronal heating, both turbulent cascade and shock heating contribute to drive the solar wind.

  6. Two-Dimensional Variational Analysis of Near-Surface Moisture from Simulated Radar Refractivity-Related Phase Change Observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ken-ichi SHIMOSE; Ming XUE; Robert D.PALMER; Jidong GAO; Boon Leng CHEONG; David J.BODINE

    2013-01-01

    Because they are most sensitive to atmospheric moisture content,radar refractivity observations can provide high-resolution information about the highly variable low-level moisture field.In this study,simulated radar refractivity-related phase-change data were created using a radar simulator from realistic high-resolution model simulation data for a dryline case.These data were analyzed using the 2DVAR system developed specifically for the phase-change data.Two sets of experiments with the simulated observations were performed,one assuming a uniform target spacing of 250 m and one assuming nonuniform spacing between 250 m to 4 km.Several sources of observation error were considered,and their impacts were examined.They included errors due to ground target position uncertainty,typical random errors associated with radar measurements,and gross error due to phase wrapping.Without any additional information,the 2DVAR system was incapable of dealing with phase-wrapped data directly.When there was no phase wrapping in the data,the 2DVAR produced excellent analyses,even in the presence of both position uncertainty and random radar measurement errors.When a separate pre-processing step was applied to unwrap the phase-wrapped data,quality moisture analyses were again obtained,although the analyses were smoother due to the reduced effective resolution of the observations by interpolation and smoothing involved in the unwrapping procedure.The unwrapping procedure was effective even when significant differences existed between the analyzed state and the state at a reference time.The results affirm the promise of using radar refractivity phase-change measurements for near-surface moisture analysis.

  7. Research about two-dimensional IP numerical simulation%激电二维数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永凌; 蒋首进; 谢丹

    2014-01-01

    从点源二维地电问题出发,采用有限单元法进行了地电场进行数值模拟,采用自适应三角剖分来实现起伏地表的模拟,针对双边三极装置,实现了多种模型的正演研究;通过多种模型的正反演,总结异常产生的规律,为激电法的分析提供了有效的信息。%In this paper,starting from the question of point source and dimensional geoelectric field,we use finite element method to simulate geoelectric field,triangle subdivision algorithm to rolling surface,and various models to complete forward simulation according to the characteristic of bilateral three-pole device.By means of forward simulation and Inversion of various models,we have summarized some features about abnormity to offer some useful information for analysis of Induced polariza-tion.

  8. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures from their sequences is still one of the open grand challenges of computational biology. Some approaches to protein structure prediction, especially ab initio ones, rely to some extent on the prediction of residue contact maps. Residue contact map predictions have been assessed at the CASP competition for several years now. Although it has been shown that exact contact maps generally yield correct three-dimensional structures, this is true only at a relatively low resolution (3–4 Å from the native structure. Another known weakness of contact maps is that they are generally predicted ab initio, that is not exploiting information about potential homologues of known structure. Results We introduce a new class of distance restraints for protein structures: multi-class distance maps. We show that Cα trace reconstructions based on 4-class native maps are significantly better than those from residue contact maps. We then build two predictors of 4-class maps based on recursive neural networks: one ab initio, or relying on the sequence and on evolutionary information; one template-based, or in which homology information to known structures is provided as a further input. We show that virtually any level of sequence similarity to structural templates (down to less than 10% yields more accurate 4-class maps than the ab initio predictor. We show that template-based predictions by recursive neural networks are consistently better than the best template and than a number of combinations of the best available templates. We also extract binary residue contact maps at an 8 Å threshold (as per CASP assessment from the 4-class predictors and show that the template-based version is also more accurate than the best template and consistently better than the ab initio one, down to very low levels of sequence identity to structural templates. Furthermore, we test both ab-initio and template-based 8

  9. Two-dimensional simulation of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flows in binary fluids with Soret effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flows in binary fluids with Soret effect are directly simulated by a mixed finite element method.A temperature perturbation is used as an initial disturbed source for the basic parallel flows.The whole spatio-temporal evolution of the binary fluid flows is exhibited:initially only the disturbed mode with the wavenumber k=π is amplified while others are damped.and continuously the amplified mode grows further and the nonlinear effect becomes important;after a nonlinear evolution transition the flow system evolves finally into a periodic right traveling wave.

  10. Periodic ordering of clusters and stripes in a two-dimensional lattice model. II. Results of Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarza, N G; Pȩkalski, J; Ciach, A

    2014-04-28

    The triangular lattice model with nearest-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion, introduced by Pȩkalski, Ciach, and Almarza [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 114701 (2014)] is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Introduction of appropriate order parameters allowed us to construct a phase diagram, where different phases with patterns made of clusters, bubbles or stripes are thermodynamically stable. We observe, in particular, two distinct lamellar phases-the less ordered one with global orientational order and the more ordered one with both orientational and translational order. Our results concern spontaneous pattern formation on solid surfaces, fluid interfaces or membranes that is driven by competing interactions between adsorbing particles or molecules.

  11. Particle-in-Cell simulation of two-dimensional electron velocity shear driven instability in relativistic domain

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Patel, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    We carry out Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On other hand, in strong relativistic case the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behaviour. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.

  12. Large-scale prediction of disulphide bridges using kernel methods, two-dimensional recursive neural networks, and weighted graph matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianlin; Saigo, Hiroto; Baldi, Pierre

    2006-03-15

    The formation of disulphide bridges between cysteines plays an important role in protein folding, structure, function, and evolution. Here, we develop new methods for predicting disulphide bridges in proteins. We first build a large curated data set of proteins containing disulphide bridges to extract relevant statistics. We then use kernel methods to predict whether a given protein chain contains intrachain disulphide bridges or not, and recursive neural networks to predict the bonding probabilities of each pair of cysteines in the chain. These probabilities in turn lead to an accurate estimation of the total number of disulphide bridges and to a weighted graph matching problem that can be addressed efficiently to infer the global disulphide bridge connectivity pattern. This approach can be applied both in situations where the bonded state of each cysteine is known, or in ab initio mode where the state is unknown. Furthermore, it can easily cope with chains containing an arbitrary number of disulphide bridges, overcoming one of the major limitations of previous approaches. It can classify individual cysteine residues as bonded or nonbonded with 87% specificity and 89% sensitivity. The estimate for the total number of bridges in each chain is correct 71% of the times, and within one from the true value over 94% of the times. The prediction of the overall disulphide connectivity pattern is exact in about 51% of the chains. In addition to using profiles in the input to leverage evolutionary information, including true (but not predicted) secondary structure and solvent accessibility information yields small but noticeable improvements. Finally, once the system is trained, predictions can be computed rapidly on a proteomic or protein-engineering scale. The disulphide bridge prediction server (DIpro), software, and datasets are available through www.igb.uci.edu/servers/psss.html.

  13. Local membrane length conservation in two-dimensional vesicle simulation using a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I; Lishchuk, S V; Spencer, T J; Pontrelli, G; Evans, P C

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for applying a class of velocity-dependent forces within a multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulation that is designed to recover continuum regime incompressible hydrodynamics. This method is applied to the problem, in two dimensions, of constraining to uniformity the tangential velocity of a vesicle membrane implemented within a recent multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation method, which avoids the use of Lagrangian boundary tracers. The constraint of uniform tangential velocity is carried by an additional contribution to an immersed boundary force, which we derive here from physical arguments. The result of this enhanced immersed boundary force is to apply a physically appropriate boundary condition at the interface between separated lattice fluids, defined as that region over which the phase-field varies most rapidly. Data from this enhanced vesicle boundary method are in agreement with other data obtained using related methods [e.g., T. Krüger, S. Frijters, F. Günther, B. Kaoui, and J. Harting, Eur. Phys. J. 222, 177 (2013)10.1140/epjst/e2013-01834-y] and underscore the importance of a correct vesicle membrane condition.

  14. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djouder, M., E-mail: djouder-madjid@ummto.dz; Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O. [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri Tizi-Ouzou, BP 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2016-01-15

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  15. Particle-in-cell simulation of two-dimensional electron velocity shear driven instability in relativistic domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik

    2016-08-01

    We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.

  16. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Core-Collapse Supernova Simulations with Spectral Neutrino Transport II. Models for Different Progenitor Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, R; Rampp, M; Kifonidis, K

    2005-01-01

    1D and 2D supernova simulations for stars between 11 and 25 solar masses are presented, making use of the Prometheus/Vertex neutrino-hydrodynamics code, which employs a full spectral treatment of the neutrino transport. Multi-dimensional transport aspects are treated by the ``ray-by-ray plus'' approximation described in Paper I. Our set of models includes a 2D calculation for a 15 solar mass star whose iron core is assumed to rotate rigidly with an angular frequency of 0.5 rad/s before collapse. No important differences were found depending on whether random seed perturbations for triggering convection are included already during core collapse, or whether they are imposed on a 1D collapse model shortly after bounce. Convection below the neutrinosphere sets in about 40 ms p.b. at a density above 10**12 g/cm^3 in all 2D models, and encompasses a layer of growing mass as time goes on. It leads to a more extended proto-neutron star structure with accelerated lepton number and energy loss and significantly higher ...

  17. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  18. Hydraulic validation of two-dimensional simulations of braided river flow with spatially continuous aDcp data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. D.; Brasington, J.; Hicks, M.; Measures, R.; Rennie, C. D.; Vericat, D.

    2013-09-01

    Gravel-bed braided rivers are characterized by shallow, branching flow across low relief, complex, and mobile bed topography. These conditions present a major challenge for the application of higher dimensional hydraulic models, the predictions of which are nevertheless vital to inform flood risk and ecosystem management. This paper demonstrates how high-resolution topographic survey and hydraulic monitoring at a density commensurate with model discretization can be used to advance hydrodynamic simulations in braided rivers. Specifically, we detail applications of the shallow water model, Delft3d, to the Rees River, New Zealand, at two nested scales: a 300 m braid bar unit and a 2.5 km reach. In each case, terrestrial laser scanning was used to parameterize the topographic boundary condition at hitherto unprecedented resolution and accuracy. Dense observations of depth and velocity acquired from a mobile acoustic Doppler current profiler (aDcp), along with low-altitude aerial photography, were then used to create a data-rich framework for model calibration and testing at a range of discharges. Calibration focused on the estimation of spatially uniform roughness and horizontal eddy viscosity, νH, through comparison of predictions with distributed hydraulic data. Results revealed strong sensitivity to νH, which influenced cross-channel velocity and localization of high shear zones. The high-resolution bed topography partially accounts for form resistance, and the recovered roughness was found to scale by 1.2-1.4 D84 grain diameter. Model performance was good for a range of flows, with minimal bias and tight error distributions, suggesting that acceptable predictions can be achieved with spatially uniform roughness and νH.

  19. Coordination and metalation bifunctionality of Cu with 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin: toward a mixed-valence two-dimensional coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xiao, Jie; Shubina, Tatyana E; Chen, Min; Shi, Ziliang; Schmid, Martin; Steinrück, Hans-Peter; Gottfried, J Michael; Lin, Nian

    2012-04-11

    We investigated the coordination self-assembly and metalation reaction of Cu with 5,10,15,20-tetra(4-pyridyl)porphyrin (2HTPyP) on a Au(111) surface by means of scanning tunneling microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations. 2HTPyP was found to interact with Cu through both the peripheral pyridyl groups and the porphyrin core. Pairs of pyridyl groups from neighboring molecules coordinate Cu(0) atoms, which leads to the formation of a supramolecular metal-organic coordination network. The network formation occurs at room temperature; annealing at 450 K enhances the process. The interaction of Cu with the porphyrin core is more complex. At room temperature, formation of an initial complex Cu(0)-2HTPyP is observed. Annealing at 450 K activates an intramolecular redox reaction, by which the coordinated Cu(0) is oxidized to Cu(II) and the complex Cu(II)TPyP is formed. The coordination network consists then of Cu(II) complexes linked by Cu(0) atoms; that is, it represents a mixed-valence two-dimensional coordination network consisting of an ordered array of Cu(II) and Cu(0) centers. Above 520 K, the network degrades and the Cu atoms in the linking positions diffuse into the substrate, while the Cu(II)TPyP complexes form a close-packed structure that is stabilized by weak intermolecular interactions. Density functional theory investigations show that the reaction with Cu(0) proceeds via formation of an initial complex between metal atom and porphyrin followed by formation of Cu(II) porphyrin within the course of the reaction. The activation barrier of the rate limiting step was found to be 24-37 kcal mol(-1) depending on the method used. In addition, linear coordination of a Cu atom by two CuTPyP molecules is favorable according to gas-phase calculations. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  20. Algorithm of Two-dimensional Acoustic Source Simulating GPS%二维表面声源模拟G PS实验算法的讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚赫明; 苗明川; Saddam Foad(胡森)

    2013-01-01

    对实验的数据处理的方法进行讨论,将多种非线性方程组的数值解法应用于最终定位点的求解,给出不同算法结果的比较。%Simulated GPS experiment is the source system based on two-dimensional surface,in order to improve the accuracy,the data receiver,the positioning requirements of the remaining data by non-linear least squares method,with multiple sets of data to reduce the positioning errors.The numerical solution of nonlinear equations obtained to meet the requirements of optimal positioning point.This paper discusses the experimental data processing,a variety of numerical solution of nonlinear equations used in solving the final positioning point,given the results of different algorithms comparison.

  1. S2DS: Physics-based compact model for circuit simulation of two-dimensional semiconductor devices including non-idealities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Saurabh V.; Pop, Eric

    2016-12-01

    We present a physics-based compact model for two-dimensional (2D) field-effect transistors (FETs) based on monolayer semiconductors such as MoS2. A semi-classical transport approach is appropriate for the 2D channel, enabling simplified analytical expressions for the drain current. In addition to intrinsic FET behavior, the model includes contact resistance, traps and impurities, quantum capacitance, fringing fields, high-field velocity saturation, and self-heating, the latter being found to play an important role. The model is calibrated with state-of-the-art experimental data for n- and p-type 2D-FETs, and it can be used to analyze device properties for sub-100 nm gate lengths. Using the experimental fit, we demonstrate the feasibility of circuit simulations using properly scaled devices. The complete model is implemented in SPICE-compatible Verilog-A, and a downloadable version is freely available at the nanoHUB.org.

  2. Two-dimensional thermal simulations of aluminum and carbon ion strippers for experiments at SPIRAL2 using the highest beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahir, N.A., E-mail: n.tahir@gsi.de [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Kim, V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Lamour, E. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universite, CNRS-UMR 7588, 75252 Paris (France); Lomonosov, I.V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Piriz, A.R. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rozet, J.P. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universite, CNRS-UMR 7588, 75252 Paris (France); Stoehlker, Th. [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Helmholz-Institut Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); Sultanov, V. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation); Vernhet, D. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, UPMC-Sorbonne Universite, CNRS-UMR 7588, 75252 Paris (France)

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we report on two-dimensional numerical simulations of heating of a rotating, wheel shaped target impacted by the full intensity of the ion beam that will be delivered by the SPIRAL2 facility at Caen, France. The purpose of this work is to study heating of solid targets that will be used to strip the fast ions of SPIRAL2 to the required high charge state for the FISIC (Fast Ion-Slow Ion Collision) experiments. Strippers of aluminum with different emissivities and of carbon are exposed to high beam current of different ion species as oxygen, neon and argon. These studies show that carbon, due to its much higher sublimation temperature and much higher emissivity, is more favorable compared to aluminum. For the highest beam intensities, an aluminum stripper does not survive. However, problem of the induced thermal stresses and long term material fatigue needs to be investigated before a final conclusion can be drawn.

  3. Multi-GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for the simulation of two-dimensional q-state Potts model

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro

    2012-01-01

    We present the multiple GPU computing with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm of two-dimensional (2D) q-state Potts model. Extending our algorithm for single GPU computing [Comp. Phys. Comm. 183 (2012) 1155], we realize the GPU computation of the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for multiple GPUs. We implement our code on the large-scale open science supercomputer TSUBAME 2.0, and test the performance and the scalability of the simulation of the 2D Potts model. The performance on Tesla M2050 using 256 GPUs is obtained as 37.3 spin flips per a nano second for the q=2 Potts model (Ising model) at the critical temperature with the linear system size L=65536.

  4. Two-dimensional simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells having overlapped p/i and n/i a-Si:H layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noge, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimihiko; Sato, Aiko; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Kondo, Michio

    2015-08-01

    The performance of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells having overlapped p/i and n/i a-Si:H layers on the back has been investigated by two-dimensional simulation in comparison with the conventional cell structure having a gap between p/i and n/i layers. The results show that narrower overlap width leads to higher short circuit current and conversion efficiency, especially for poor heterojunction interface and thinner silicon substrate of the cells in addition to narrower uncovered width of p/i layer by a metal electrode. This is similar to the gap width dependence in the conventional cells, since both overlap and gap act as dead area for diffused excess carriers in the back contacts.

  5. Two-Dimensional MHD Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection Triggered by A Supernova Shock in Interstellar Medium, Generation of X-Ray Gas in Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...

  6. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  7. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  8. 二维映射神经元网络同步%Synchronization of Neuronal Networks Using Two-dimensional Map

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results have confirmed that the electric activity of individual neuron has a steady state,a spike state and a spiking-bursting state.The synchronization of neuron is investi-gated in the regular network by a simple two-dimensional map model.The influence of coupling strength on the synchronization of neuronal networks is discussed by computing factor of syn-chronization.%实验研究发现神经元的电活动有静息态、激发态以及簇发态的特征。利用简单的二维映射神经元模型构造规则网络来研究神经元网络放电的同步机制。通过计算同步因子探讨神经元网络同步,分析了耦合强度对神经元网络同步的影响。

  9. The role of vascular actors in two dimensional dialogue of human bone marrow stromal cell and endothelial cell for inducing self-assembled network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Li

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is very important for vascularized tissue engineering. In this study, we found that a two-dimensional co-culture of human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC and human umbical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC is able to stimulate the migration of co-cultured HUVEC and induce self-assembled network formation. During this process, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF₁₆₅ was upregulated in co-cultured HBMSC. Meanwhile, VEGF₁₆₅-receptor2 (KDR and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA were upregulated in co-cultured HUVEC. Functional studies show that neutralization of VEGF₁₆₅ blocked the migration and the rearrangement of the cells and downregulated the expression of uPA and its receptor. Blocking of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad did not affect the migration of co-cultured HUVEC but suppressed the self-assembled network formation. In conclusion, co-cultures upregulated the expression of VEGF₁₆₅ in co-cultured HBMSC; VEGF₁₆₅ then activated uPA in co-cultured HUVEC, which might be responsible for initiating the migration and the self-assembled network formation with the participation of VE-cad. All of these results indicated that only the direct contact of HBMSC and HUVEC and their respective dialogue are sufficient to stimulate secretion of soluble factors and to activate molecules that are critical for self-assembled network formation which show a great application potential for vascularization in tissue engineering.

  10. Simulating signatures of two-dimensional electronic spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex: By using a numerical path integral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xian-Ting

    2014-07-28

    A framework for simulating electronic spectra from photon-echo experiments is constructed by using a numerical path integral technique. This method is non-Markovian and nonperturbative and, more importantly, is not limited by a fixed form of the spectral density functions of the environment. Next, a two-dimensional (2D) third-order electronic spectrum of a dimer system is simulated. The spectrum is in agreement with the experimental and theoretical results previously reported [for example, M. Khalil, N. Demirdöven, and A. Tokmakoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 047401 (2003)]. Finally, a 2D third-order electronic spectrum of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex is simulated by using the Debye, Ohmic, and Adolphs and Renger spectral density functions. It is shown that this method can clearly produce the spectral signatures of the FMO complex by using only the Adolphs and Renger spectral density function. Plots of the evolution of the diagonal and cross-peaks show that they are oscillating with the population time.

  11. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu, E-mail: amalen@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2015-01-28

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.

  12. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water.

  13. A stock market forecasting model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis and radial basis function neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiqiang; Wang, Huaiqing; Yang, Jie; Miller, David J

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D)2PCA) and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN) to forecast stock market behavior. First, 36 stock market technical variables are selected as the input features, and a sliding window is used to obtain the input data of the model. Next, (2D)2PCA is utilized to reduce the dimension of the data and extract its intrinsic features. Finally, an RBFNN accepts the data processed by (2D)2PCA to forecast the next day's stock price or movement. The proposed model is used on the Shanghai stock market index, and the experiments show that the model achieves a good level of fitness. The proposed model is then compared with one that uses the traditional dimension reduction method principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). The empirical results show that the proposed model outperforms the PCA-based model, as well as alternative models based on ICA and on the multilayer perceptron.

  14. A stock market forecasting model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis and radial basis function neural network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Guo

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose and implement a hybrid model combining two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis ((2D2PCA and a Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN to forecast stock market behavior. First, 36 stock market technical variables are selected as the input features, and a sliding window is used to obtain the input data of the model. Next, (2D2PCA is utilized to reduce the dimension of the data and extract its intrinsic features. Finally, an RBFNN accepts the data processed by (2D2PCA to forecast the next day's stock price or movement. The proposed model is used on the Shanghai stock market index, and the experiments show that the model achieves a good level of fitness. The proposed model is then compared with one that uses the traditional dimension reduction method principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA. The empirical results show that the proposed model outperforms the PCA-based model, as well as alternative models based on ICA and on the multilayer perceptron.

  15. The ATLA$^{\\rm{3D}}$ project - XXV: Two-dimensional kinematic analysis of simulated galaxies and the cosmological origin of fast and slow rotators

    CERN Document Server

    Naab, T; Emsellem, E; Cappellari, M; Krajnovic, D; McDermid, R M; Alatalo, K; Bayet, E; Blitz, L; Bois, M; Bournaud, F; Bureau, M; Crocker, A; Davies, R L; Davis, T A; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, P -A; Hirschmann, M; Johansson, P H; Khochfar, S; Kuntschner, H; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T; Sarzi, M; Scott, N; Serra, P; van de Ven, G; Weijmans, A; Young, L M

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed two-dimensional stellar dynamical analysis of a sample of 44 cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of individual central galaxies and their satellites. Kinematic maps of the stellar line-of-sight velocity, velocity dispersion, and higher-order Gauss-Hermite moments $h_3$ and $h_4$ are constructed for each central galaxy and for the most massive satellites. The amount of rotation is quantified using the $\\lambda_{\\mathrm{R}}$-parameter. The velocity, velocity dispersion, $h_3$, and $h_4$ fields of the simulated galaxies show a diversity similar to observed kinematic maps of early-type galaxies in the ATLAS$^{\\rm{3D}}$ survey. This includes fast (regular), slow, and misaligned rotation, hot spheroids with embedded cold disk components as well as galaxies with counter-rotating cores or central depressions in the velocity dispersion. We link the present day kinematic properties to the individual cosmological formation histories of the galaxies. In general, major galaxy mergers have a signi...

  16. Dynamics and microinstabilities at perpendicular collisionless shock: A comparison of large-scale two-dimensional full particle simulations with different ion to electron mass ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Umeda, Takayuki; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (M_A ~ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. T...

  17. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  18. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of one-dimensional and two-dimensional traffic flows: Comparison of two look-ahead rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Timofeyev, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    We employ an efficient list-based kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) method to study traffic flow models on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) lattices based on the exclusion principle and Arrhenius microscopic dynamics. This model implements stochastic rules for cars' movements based on the configuration of the traffic ahead of each car. In particular, we compare two different look-ahead rules: one is based on the distance from the car under consideration to the car in front of it, and the other one is based on the density of cars ahead. The 1D numerical results of these two rules suggest different coarse-grained macroscopic limits in the form of integro-differential Burgers equations. The 2D results of both rules exhibit a sharp phase transition from freely flowing to fully jammed, as a function of the initial density of cars. However, the look-ahead rule based on the density of the traffic produces more realistic results. The KMC simulations reported in this paper are compared with those from other well-known traffic flow models and the corresponding empirical results from real traffic.

  19. Wake effect and stopping power for a charged ion moving in magnetized two-component plasmas: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2010-08-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is proposed to study the wake field and stopping power induced by a nonrelativistic charged particle moving perpendicular to the external magnetic field in two-component plasmas. The effects of the magnetic field on the wake potential and the stopping due to the polarization of both the plasma ions and electrons are discussed. The velocity fields of plasma ions and electrons are investigated, respectively, in the weak and strong magnetic field cases. Our simulation results show that in the case of weak magnetic field and high ion velocity, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures and the opening cone angles decrease with the increasing ion velocity. As the magnetic field becomes strong, the wakes lose their typical V-shaped structures and become highly asymmetrical. Similar results can be obtained in the case of low ion velocity and strong magnetic field. In addition, stopping power is calculated and compared with previous one-dimensional and full three-dimensional PIC results.

  20. Numerical simulation of nematic liquid crystalline flow in two-dimensional L-shaped channels; Nijigen L gata ryuro ni okeru nematic ekisho no nagare no suchi simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chono, S.; Tsuji, T. [Fukui University, Fukui (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-05-25

    Finite difference solutions to the Leslie-Ericksen equations were obtained for flows in two-dimensional L-shaped channels with various contraction ratios of the upstream to downstream channel width. A streamline shift toward the outer wall occurs upstream of the reentrant corner. Such behavior is similar to that of viscoelastic fluids. With increasing contraction ratio, the streamline shift occurs further upstream. The effect of the wall anchoring angle for the director is remarkable; for example, when the anchoring angle along the downstream walls is set to be opposite to the main flow direction, a distortion of streamlines is produced in the corner region and the director moves to the downstream region upside down. At small Ericksen numbers, the orientation angle for the director is varied over a wide area so as to suppress its local deformation. In contrast, when the Ericksen number is large, the director profile in the upstream region is retained close to the corner region where the director turns rapidly to the downstream direction. 7 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Flow and Evaluation of Bridge Scour at Structure A-1700 on Interstate 155 over the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of scour at bridges throughout the State of Missouri has been ongoing since 1991, and most of these evaluations have used one-dimensional hydraulic analysis and application of conventional scour depth prediction equations. Occasionally, the complex conditions of a site dictate a more thorough assessment of the stream hydraulics beyond a one-dimensional model. This was the case for structure A-1700, the Interstate 155 bridge crossing the Mississippi River near Caruthersville, Missouri. To assess the complex hydraulics at this site, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow model was used to simulate flow conditions on the Mississippi River in the vicinity of the Interstate 155 structure A-1700. The model was used to simulate flow conditions for three discharges: a flood that occurred on April 4, 1975 (the calibration flood), which had a discharge of 1,658,000 cubic feet per second; the 100-year flood, which has a discharge of 1,960,000 cubic feet per second; and the project design flood, which has a discharge of 1,974,000 cubic feet per second. The project design flood was essentially equivalent to the flood that would cause impending overtopping of the mainline levees along the Mississippi River in the vicinity of structure A-1700. Discharge and river-stage readings from the flood of April 4, 1975, were used to calibrate the flow model. The model was then used to simulate the 100-year and project design floods. Hydraulic flow parameters obtained from the three flow simulations were applied to scour depth prediction equations to determine contraction, local pier, and abutment scour depths at structure A-1700. Contraction scour and local pier scour depths computed for the project design discharge generally were the greatest, whereas the depths computed for the calibration flood were the least. The maximum predicted total scour depth (contraction and local pier scour) for the calibration flood was 66.1 feet; for the 100-year flood, the maximum predicted total

  2. PBX炸药细观结构冲击点火的二维数值模拟%Two-dimensional Mesoscale Simulation of Shock Ignition in PBX Explosives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘群; 陈朗; 伍俊英; 王晨

    2011-01-01

    为了研究冲击加载下非均质炸药的点火机理,对PBX炸药细观结构在冲击加载下的响应过程进行了二维数值模拟.首先对炸药颗粒的压制过程进行数值模拟,获得PBX炸药的细观结构模型.然后对炸药冲击点火进行数值模拟计算,考虑了热力耦合作用和炸药自热反应,分析了炸药颗粒尺寸、密度和黏结剂对炸药冲击点火的影响.结果表明,冲击作用下PBX炸药点火点出现在炸药颗粒与黏结剂界面处;炸药颗粒尺寸较小时,PBX炸药点火的临界压力较大;随着PBX炸药密度的增加,临界点火压力逐渐增大;黏结剂能够衰减冲击波对炸药颗粒的压缩作用,黏结剂增多,PBX炸药的临界点火压力提高.%To investigate the mechanism of shock ignition in heterogeneous explosives, two-dimensional mesoscale simulation of PBX explosives under shock loading was conducted. Through simulation of explosive particles press-ing,the mesoscale structure of PBX was obtained. Then the shock ignition of PBX explosives was calculated,and the coupled thermo-mechanics and self-heating reaction were considered, and the influence of explosive density, particle size and binder content on shock ignition were analyzed. The results show that hot spots focus on the interface be-tween explosive particles and binder. The critical pressure to ignite explosives in small particle size is higher than that in large particle size. The critical pressure to ignite explosives in low density is higher than that of explosives in high density. In addition,binders play an important role in attenuating shock intensity on explosive particles,and PBX ex-plosives in more binder content are more insensitive than those in less binder content.

  3. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  4. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  5. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  6. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;

    1996-01-01

    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...

  7. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  8. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  9. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  10. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  11. A novel two-dimensional CuSCN network templated by 2,2'-dimethyl-1,1'-(butane-1,4-diyl)bis(1H-imidazol-3-ium) cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan-Shan; Yuan, Shuai; Lu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Meng-Zhen; Sun, Di

    2013-06-01

    The cation-templated self-assembly of 1,4-bis(2-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl)butane (bmimb) with CuSCN gives rise to a novel two-dimensional network, namely catena-poly[2,2'-dimethyl-1,1'-(butane-1,4-diyl)bis(1H-imidazol-3-ium) [tetra-μ2-thiocyanato-κ(4)S:S;κ(4)S:N-dicopper(I)

  12. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  13. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  14. A depth-averaged two-dimensional sediment transport model for environmental studies in the Scheldt Estuary and tidal river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgue, O.; Baeyens, W.; Chen, M. S.; de Brauwere, A.; de Brye, B.; Deleersnijder, E.; Elskens, M.; Legat, V.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the sediment module designed for the two-dimensional depth-averaged and one-dimensional section-averaged components of the finite-element model SLIM (Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model) in the framework of its application to the tidal part of the Scheldt Basin. This sediment transport module focuses on fine-grained, cohesive sediments. It is a necessary tool to undertake environmental biogeochemical studies, in which fine sediment dynamics play a crucial role.

  15. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  16. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  17. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional granular shearing flows and the friction force of a moving slab on the granular media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Qing-Dong; Chen Shi-Yi; Sheng Xiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies some interesting features of two-dimensional granular shearing flow by using molecular dynamic approach for a specific granular system. The obtained results show that the probability distribution function of velocities of particles is Gaussian at the central part, but diverts from Gaussian distribution nearby the wall. The macroscopic stress along the vertical direction has large fluctuation around a constant value, the non-zero average velocity occurs mainly near the moving wall, which forms a shearing zone. . In the shearing movement, the volume of the granular material behaves in a random manner. The equivalent friction coefficient between moving slab and granular material correlates with the moving speed at low velocity, and approaches constant as the velocity is large enough.

  18. Two novel lead(II) complexes of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine: a threefold diamondoid supramolecular network based on Pb4O4 cores and a two-dimensional (4,4) network based on Pb2O2 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Pan, Yu-Peng; Wang, Suna; Dou, Jian-Min

    2013-04-01

    Reactions of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (Hhmp) with PbCl2 and Pb(NO3)2 at room temperature led to the formation of two novel compounds, namely tetrakis[μ3-(pyridin-2-yl)methanolato]-tetrahedro-tetrakis[chloridolead(II)], [Pb4(C6H6NO)4Cl4], (I), and poly[(μ2-nitrato)[μ2-(pyridin-2-yl)methanolato]lead(II)], [Pb(C6H6NO)(NO3)]n, (II). Compound (I) exhibits a tetranuclear Pb4O4 cubane structure, which is connected through π-π stacking interactions between the pyridine groups of the (pyridin-2-yl)methanolate (hmp(-)) ligands and through C-H···Cl interactions to form an interesting threefold diamondoid network. Compound (II) possesses two-dimensional (4,4)-sql topology based on a Pb2O2 unit, which is further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular network through π-π stacking interactions between adjacent pyridine rings and through C-H···O interactions between the pyridine C atoms of the hmp(-) ligands and the nitrate anions.

  19. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  20. Significantly Dense Two-Dimensional Hydrogen-Bond Network in a Layered Zirconium Phosphate Leading to High Proton Conductivities in Both Water-Assisted Low-Temperature and Anhydrous Intermediate-Temperature Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Daxiang; Zheng, Tao; Xie, Jian; Cai, Yawen; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

    2016-12-19

    A highly stable layered zirconium phosphate, (NH4)2[ZrF2(HPO4)2] (ZrP-1), was synthesized by an ionothermal method and contains an extremely dense two-dimensional hydrogen-bond network that is thermally stable up to 573 K, leading to combined ultrahigh water-assisted proton conductivities of 1.45 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 363 K/95% relative humidity and sustainable anhydrous proton conductivity of 1.1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 503 K.

  1. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  2. Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Ultrasound in Liquids with Gas Bubble Agglomerates: Examples of Bubbly-Liquid-Type Acoustic Metamaterials (BLAMMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhille, Christian

    2017-01-17

    This work deals with a theoretical analysis about the possibility of using linear and nonlinear acoustic properties to modify ultrasound by adding gas bubbles of determined sizes in a liquid. We use a two-dimensional numerical model to evaluate the effect that one and several monodisperse bubble populations confined in restricted areas of a liquid have on ultrasound by calculating their nonlinear interaction. The filtering of an input ultrasonic pulse performed by a net of bubbly-liquid cells is analyzed. The generation of a low-frequency component from a single cell impinged by a two-frequency harmonic wave is also studied. These effects rely on the particular dispersive character of attenuation and nonlinearity of such bubbly fluids, which can be extremely high near bubble resonance. They allow us to observe how gas bubbles can change acoustic signals. Variations of the bubbly medium parameters induce alterations of the effects undergone by ultrasound. Results suggest that acoustic signals can be manipulated by bubbles. This capacity to achieve the modification and control of sound with oscillating gas bubbles introduces the concept of bubbly-liquid-based acoustic metamaterials (BLAMMs).

  3. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  4. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  5. Synthesis, property and crystal structure of a novel two-dimensional network organic-inorganic hybrid compound based on the neodymium III center and Keggin-type heteropolyanion of [α-BW 12O 40] 5-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jingyang; Zhao, Junwei; Wang, Jingping; Ma, Pengtao

    2004-08-01

    A novel two-dimensional infinite network organic-inorganic hybrid neodymium(III)-centered compound of formula (dmaH) 2[Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)][α-BW 12O 40]·H 2O ( 1) [dma=dimethylamine and dmf= N, N-dimethylformamide] is obtained by the conventional self-assembly reaction of neodymium oxide, N, N-dimethylformamide and borotungstic acid (α-H 5BW 12O 40·30H 2O) in the mixed solvent of acetonitrile and water, and characterized by IR, UV-visible spectra and X-ray single crystal diffraction. Structural analysis indicates that every [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanion interconnects with three adjacent [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ subunits by means of W-O-Nd bridges, meanwhile, every [Nd(dmf) 4(H 2O)] 3+ building block is surrounded by three neighboring [α-BW 12O 40] 5- polyanions by making use of which an unprecedented two-dimensional extended network structure can be constructed. Interestingly, this structure pattern may act as useful model for the design and assembly of functional molecule-based compounds, especially in the field of molecular sieve materials.

  6. GNS3 network simulation guide

    CERN Document Server

    Welsh, Chris

    2013-01-01

    GNS3 Network Simulation Guide is an easy-to-follow yet comprehensive guide which is written in a tutorial format helping you grasp all the things you need for accomplishing your certification or simulation goal. If you are a networking professional who wants to learn how to simulate networks using GNS3, this book is ideal for you. The introductory examples within the book only require minimal networking knowledge, but as the book progresses onto more advanced topics, users will require knowledge of TCP/IP and routing.

  7. Effect of alkali cations on two-dimensional networks of two new quaternary thioarsenates (III) prepared by a facile surfactant-thermal method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Dongming [School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Hou, Peipei; Liu, Chang [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chai, Wenxiang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Zheng, Xuerong [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Luodong [School of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhi, Mingjia; Zhou, Chunmei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Yi, E-mail: liuyimse@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Two new quaternary thioarsenates(III) NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) with high yields have been successfully prepared through a facile surfactant-thermal method. It is interesting that 2 can only be obtained with the aid of ethanediamine (en), which indicates that weak basicity of solvent is beneficial to the growth of 2 compared with 1. Both 1 and 2 feature the similar two-dimensional (2D) layer structures. However, the distortion of the primary honeycomb-like nets in 2 is more severe than that of 1, which demonstrates that Na{sup +} and K{sup +} cations have different structure directing effects on these two thioarsenates(III). Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors with band gaps in the visible region. Our success in preparing these two quaternary thioarsenates(III) proves that surfactant-thermal technique is a powerful yet facile synthetic method to explore new complex chalcogenides. - Graphical abstract: Two new quaternary thioarsenates(III) NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}·H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) with high yields have been successfully prepared through a facile surfactant-thermal method. X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses demonstrate that Na{sup +} and K{sup +} cations have different structure directing effects on these two thioarsenates(III). Both experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors with band gaps in the visible region. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3}⋅H{sub 2}O (1) and KAg{sub 2}AsS{sub 3} (2) were prepared through surfactant-thermal method. • Crystal structures show Na{sup ±} and K{sup ±} have different structure directing effects. • The weak basicity of solvent is benefit to the growth of 2 compared with 1. • Experimental and theoretical studies confirm 1 and 2 are semiconductors.

  8. Simulating three-dimensional seismograms in 2.5-dimensional structures by combining two-dimensional finite difference modelling and ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksat, J.; Müller, T. M.; Wenzel, F.

    2008-07-01

    Finite difference (FD) simulation of elastic wave propagation is an important tool in geophysical research. As large-scale 3-D simulations are only feasible on supercomputers or clusters, and even then the simulations are limited to long periods compared to the model size, 2-D FD simulations are widespread. Whereas in generally 3-D heterogeneous structures it is not possible to infer the correct amplitude and waveform from 2-D simulations, in 2.5-D heterogeneous structures some inferences are possible. In particular, Vidale & Helmberger developed an approach that simulates 3-D waveforms using 2-D FD experiments only. However, their method requires a special FD source implementation technique that is based on a source definition which is not any longer used in nowadays FD codes. In this paper, we derive a conversion between 2-D and 3-D Green tensors that allows us to simulate 3-D displacement seismograms using 2-D FD simulations and the actual ray path determined in the geometrical optic limit. We give the conversion for a source of a certain seismic moment that is implemented by incrementing the components of the stress tensor. Therefore, we present a hybrid modelling procedure involving 2-D FD and kinematic ray-tracing techniques. The applicability is demonstrated by numerical experiments of elastic wave propagation for models of different complexity.

  9. Two-dimensional fluid simulation on transient behavior and plasma uniformity in pulsed RF CCP sustained in SiH4 /N2/O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wen-Zhu; Wang, Xi-Feng; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-04-01

    Improving plasma uniformity during plasma processing in the microelectronics industry is of critical importance to the quality of etching or deposition. Compared to continuous wave (CW) plasmas, pulsed plasmas have drawn much attention with the introduction of additional pulse parameters, which would be helpful to improve the plasma properties. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to investigate a pulsed radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) sustained in SiH4/N2/O2 mixture at fixed operating conditions of 70V rf power, 300 mTorr (40 Pa) gas pressure and an SiH4/N2/O2 gas ratio of 2.5/92.5/5. First, we study the temporal dynamics of densities of the electron, positive ion and negative ion, at different positions in the pulsed CCP. Under the operation conditions, charged particles, instead of neutral particles, may basically respond to the applied modulated power. The electron density in the bulk could approach a quasi-steady value by the end of the activeglow. However, the achievement of a quasi-steady state of plasma like that in the CW condition not only depends on enough activeglow time of the pulse discharge but also relies on the observed position in the discharge. In addition, we investigate the impact of pulse parameters on plasma characteristics, showing that the radial inhomogeneity of plasma caused by the edge effect can be effectively suppressed by controlling the duty cycle (DC) rather than the pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Improvement of the plasma uniformity in pulsed discharge is due to the competition between the edge effects during the activeglow and diffusion of charged species during the afterglow. Moreover, the electron density undergoes a local minimum value in the temporal profile before it rises sharply beyond that of CW discharge, since production of electrons is less than loss by the spatial movement at the very beginning of one pulse. Also, there appears to be a peak value of ion bombardment energy at

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  12. Two-dimensional Radiative Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Partial Ionization in the Chromosphere. II. Dynamics and Energetics of the Low Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo H.; Nóbrega-Siverio, Daniel; Gudiksen, Boris V.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the effects of interactions between ions and neutrals on the chromosphere and overlying corona using 2.5D radiative MHD simulations with the Bifrost code. We have extended the code capabilities implementing ion–neutral interaction effects using the generalized Ohm’s law, i.e., we include the Hall term and the ambipolar diffusion (Pedersen dissipation) in the induction equation. Our models span from the upper convection zone to the corona, with the photosphere, chromosphere, and transition region partially ionized. Our simulations reveal that the interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles have important consequences for the magnetothermodynamics of these modeled layers: (1) ambipolar diffusion increases the temperature in the chromosphere; (2) sporadically the horizontal magnetic field in the photosphere is diffused into the chromosphere, due to the large ambipolar diffusion; (3) ambipolar diffusion concentrates electrical currents, leading to more violent jets and reconnection processes, resulting in (3a) the formation of longer and faster spicules, (3b) heating of plasma during the spicule evolution, and (3c) decoupling of the plasma and magnetic field in spicules. Our results indicate that ambipolar diffusion is a critical ingredient for understanding the magnetothermodynamic properties in the chromosphere and transition region. The numerical simulations have been made publicly available, similar to previous Bifrost simulations. This will allow the community to study realistic numerical simulations with a wider range of magnetic field configurations and physics modules than previously possible.

  13. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  14. Simulating high Reynolds number flow in two-dimensional lid-driven cavity by multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Zhen-Hua; Shi Bao-Chang; Zheng Lin

    2006-01-01

    By coupling the non-equilibrium extrapolation scheme for boundary condition with the multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method, this paper finds that the stability of the multi-relaxation-time model can be improved greatly, especially on simulating high Reynolds number (Re) flow. As a discovery, the super-stability analysed by Lallemand and Luo is verified and the complex structure of the cavity flow is also exhibited in our numerical simulation when Re is high enough. To the best knowledge of the authors, the maximum of Re which has been investigated by direct numerical simulation is only around 50 000 in the literature; however, this paper can readily extend the maximum to 1000 000 with the above combination.

  15. MPLS network simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Škaper, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with the MPLS protocol, which represents an important upgrade of an IP network. An IP network which uses MPLS protocol is called an MPLS network. The main idea behind the MPLS protocol is the connection-oriented principle which is brought into a connectionless-oriented IP network, which means that a path is established between two end nodes before IP-packets are transferred. This improves the speed and reliability of IP-packet transmission. An important feature of MPLS protoc...

  16. Toward Extrapolating Two-Dimensional High-intensity Laser-Plasma Ion Acceleration Particle-in-Cell Simulations to Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, D. J.; Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Guo, F.

    2016-10-01

    A PIC study of laser-ion acceleration via relativistic induced transparency points to how 2D-S (laser polarization in the simulation plane) and -P (out-of-plane) simulations may capture different physics characterizing these systems, visible in their entirety in (often cost-prohibitive) 3D simulations. The electron momentum anisotropy induced in the target by the laser pulse is dramatically different in the two 2D cases, manifesting in differences in polarization shift, electric field strength, density threshold for onset of relativistic induced transparency, and target expansion timescales. In particular, a trajectory analysis of individual electrons and ions may allow one to delineate the role of the fields and modes responsible for ion acceleration. With this information, we consider how 2D simulations might be used to develop, in some respects, a fully 3D understanding of the system. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Los Alamos National Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program.

  17. Numerical modeling of two-dimensional heat-transfer and temperature-based calibration using simulated annealing optimization method: Application to gas metal arc welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Mišo B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation models of welding processes allow us to predict influence of welding parameters on the temperature field during welding and by means of temperature field and the influence to the weld geometry and microstructure. This article presents a numerical, finite-difference based model of heat transfer during welding of thin sheets. Unfortunately, accuracy of the model depends on many parameters, which cannot be accurately prescribed. In order to solve this problem, we have used simulated annealing optimization method in combination with presented numerical model. This way, we were able to determine uncertain values of heat source parameters, arc efficiency, emissivity and enhanced conductivity. The calibration procedure was made using thermocouple measurements of temperatures during welding for P355GH steel. The obtained results were used as input for simulation run. The results of simulation showed that represented calibration procedure could significantly improve reliability of heat transfer model. [National CEEPUS Office of Czech Republic (project CIII-HR-0108-07-1314 and to the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (project TR37020

  18. Network Simulation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    well, then a Euclidean distance would be appropriate. The quadratic assignment procedure ( QAP ) (Krackhardt, 1987) could be used to compare the...Networks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(1): 50-55. Krackhardt, D. (1987). QAP Partialling as a Test of Spuriousness. Social Networks, 9, 171-186

  19. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic core-collapse supernova simulations with spectral neutrino transport. I. Numerical method and results for a 15 M_sun star

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, R; Janka, H T; Kifonidis, K

    2005-01-01

    Supernova models with a full spectral treatment of the neutrino transport are presented, employing the Prometheus/Vertex neutrino-hydrodynamics code with a ``ray-by-ray plus'' approximation for treating two- (or three-) dimensional problems. The method is described in detail and critically assessed with respect to its capabilities, limitations, and inaccuracies in the context of supernova simulations. In this first paper of a series, 1D and 2D core-collapse calculations for a (nonrotating) 15 M_sun star are discussed, uncertainties in the treatment of the equation of state -- numerical and physical -- are tested, Newtonian results are compared with simulations using a general relativistic potential, bremsstrahlung and interactions of neutrinos of different flavors are investigated, and the standard approximation in neutrino-nucleon interactions with zero energy transfer is replaced by rates that include corrections due to nucleon recoil, thermal motions, weak magnetism, and nucleon correlations. Models with t...

  20. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  1. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  2. Poly[bis(N,N-dimethylformamidetris(μ4-trans-stilbene-4,4′-dicarboxylatotricadmium(II]: a two-dimensional network with an unusual 36 topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyungse Park

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Cd3(C16H10O43(C3H7NO2]n or [Cd3(SDA3(DMF2]n (H2SDA is trans-stilbene-4,4′-dicarboxylic acid and DMF is dimethylformamide, the linear dicarboxylate ligand forms a two-dimensionally layered metal–organic network with the relatively uncommon 36 topology. The structure reveals trinuclear secondary building units and has an octahedral geometry at a central metal ion (occupying a overline{3} symmetry site and tetrahedral geometries at two surrounding symmetrically equivalent metal ions lying on a threefold axis. The six-connected planar trinuclear CdII centers, Cd3(O2CR6, play a role as potential nodes in generation of the relatively uncommon 36 topology. The coordinated DMF unit is disordered around the threefold axis.

  3. 基于二维云模型同步发电机PID励磁系统仿真%Simulation research on PID excitation system of synchronous generator based on two-dimensional cloud model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宗泽; 史成军

    2016-01-01

    The cloud model is a powerful tool to achieve qualitative and quantitative uncertainty transforming. It integrates the fuzziness and randomness of objective things and solves the problem of nonlinear and uncertainties. For the nonlinearity, time-variability and uncertainty of excitation system in ship power system, the cloud model is applied to synchronous generator excitation control and two dimensional cloud model of PID excitation is designed. The forward cloud model is utilized to represent the voltage difference of synchronous generator and rate of voltage difference change concepts. Then the backward cloud generator is employed to generate the three parameters of PID concepts. Thus the cloud reasoning rule of double condition multi-rules of two dimensional cloud model is formulated and PID parameters of excitation controller are self-tuned. Through the establishment of models of synchronous generator controllable phase compound brushless excitation system and the two dimensional cloud model PID excitation system, the result of simulation shows that the two dimensional cloud model PID excitation controllable system model has better robustness and better adaptive ability.%云模型可以实现定性概念与定量之间的转换,集成了概念的模糊性与随机性,可以解决非线性与不确定性问题。针对船舶电力系统中励磁系统非线性、时变性、不确定性的特点,将云模型应用到同步发电机励磁控制中,设计出二维云模型PID励磁控制器。其过程是将同步发电机端电压差及其变化率进行概念表示,形成前件二维云模型,然后根据PID三个参数信息构造成后件云模型,并制定出二维云模型双条件多规则的映射语言形式,实现对PID参数的模糊推理自整定。与可控相复励无刷励磁系统进行对比,仿真实验结果表明了二维云模型PID励磁控制系统模型具有更好的鲁棒性和自适应能力。

  4. SIMULACIÓN BIDIMENSIONAL DE UN SISTEMA DE COMBUSTIÓN INESTABLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF AN UNSTABLE COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Achury Varila

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available La inestabilidad en la combustión es una condición indeseada en algunos sistemas de combustión como en turbinas de gas por ejemplo. Se refiere a la presencia autogenerada de oscilaciones en la presión que pueden afectar a la cámara de combustión y de paso llegar a generar ruido. Una reciente tendencia generalizada en los procesos de combustión apunta al uso de mezclas pobres para la reducción de contaminantes, no obstante que este tipo de mezclas son más susceptibles a la inestabilidad en la combustión. Las complicadas relaciones que gobiernan el fenómeno se pueden resumir como el acoplamiento entre la llama y la acústica del sistema. En el presente trabajo se presenta un planteamiento numérico que permite aproximarse al fenómeno a través de la solución de un modelo de combustión básico implementado computacionalmente. En este modelo se simula una autoexcitación del sistema a través de oscilaciones en la entrada de flujos de reactantes. Finalmente, se comparan los resultados de la simulación numérica con otras simulaciones y datos experimentales.The Combustion instability is an undesirable condition reached in some combustion systems, as during the operation of gas turbines. It refers to self-excited oscillations of pressure that may affect the combustion chamber and generate noise. A recent generalized tendency in combustion processes aims to the use of lean combustion (low fuel/air ratios for pollutants reduction, nevertheless this sort of mixtures are more susceptible to combustion instabilities. The complex relationship that generates the phenomenon can be summarized as the coupling between flame and acoustics. In this paper it is outlined a numerical approach to this phenomenon by solving a basic computational combustion model (by Direct Numerical Simulation. In this model a self-excited system is simulated through imposed oscillations in reactants flows. Finally, results for this numerical simulation are compared

  5. Two-dimensional, Time-dependent, Multi-group, Multi-angle Radiation Hydrodynamics Test Simulation in the Core-Collapse Supernova Context

    CERN Document Server

    Livne, E; Walder, R; Lichtenstadt, I; Thompson, T A; Livne, Eli; Burrows, Adam; Walder, Rolf; Lichtenstadt, Itamar; Thompson, Todd A.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a time-dependent, multi-energy-group, and multi-angle (S$_n$) Boltzmann transport scheme for radiation hydrodynamics simulations, in one and two spatial dimensions. The implicit transport is coupled to both 1D (spherically-symmetric) and 2D (axially-symmetric) versions of the explicit Newtonian hydrodynamics code VULCAN. The 2D variant, VULCAN/2D, can be operated in general structured or unstructured grids and though the code can address many problems in astrophysics it was constructed specifically to study the core-collapse supernova problem. Furthermore, VULCAN/2D can simulate the radiation/hydrodynamic evolution of differentially rotating bodies. We summarize the equations solved and methods incorporated into the algorithm and present results of a time-dependent 2D test calculation. A more complete description of the algorithm is postponed to another paper. We highlight a 2D test run that follows for 22 milliseconds the immediate post-bounce evolution of a collapsed core. We present the r...

  6. Antiferromagnetic three-dimensional order induced by carboxylate bridges in a two-dimensional network of [Cu3(dcp)2(H2O)4] trimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Philippa; Clérac, Rodolphe; Anson, Christopher E; Coulon, Claude; Powell, Annie K

    2003-06-01

    A new Cu(II) complex, [Cu(3)(dcp)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](n), with the ligand 3,5-pyrazoledicarboxylic acid monohydrate (H(3)dcp) has been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and it crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 11.633(2) A, b = 9.6005(14) A, c = 6.9230(17) A, beta = 106.01(2) degrees, and Z = 2. In the solid state structure of [Cu(3)(dcp)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](n), trinuclear [Cu(3)(dcp)(2)(H(2)O)(4)] repeating units in which two dcp(3-) ligands chelate the three Cu(II) ions with the central Cu(II) ion, Cu(1) (on an inversion center), link to form infinite 2D sheets via syn-anti equatorial-equatorial carboxylate bridges between Cu(2) atoms in adjacent trimers. These layers are further linked by syn-anti axial-equatorial carboxylate bridging between Cu(1) atoms in adjacent sheets resulting in the formation of a crystallographic 3D network. A detailed analysis of the magnetic properties of [Cu(3)(dcp)(2)(H(2)O)(4)](n) reveals that the dcp(3-) ligand acts to link Cu(II) centers in three different ways with coupling constants orders of magnitude apart in value. In the high temperature region above 50 K, the dominant interaction is strongly antiferromagnetic (J/k(B) = -32 K) within the trimer units mediated by the pyrazolate bridges. Below 20 K, the trimer motif can be modeled as an S = 1/2 unit. These units are coupled to their neighbors by a ferromagnetic interaction mediated by the syn-anti equatorial-equatorial carboxylate bridge. This interaction has been estimated at J(2D)/k(B) = +2.8 K on the basis of a 2D square lattice Heisenberg model. Finally, below 3.2 K a weak antiferromagnetic coupling (J(3D)/k(B) = -0.1 K) which is mediated by the syn-anti axial-equatorial carboxylate bridges between the 2D layers becomes relevant to describe the magnetic (T, H) phase diagram of this material.

  7. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  8. Network generation enhances interpretation of proteomics data sets by a combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wu, Gelin; Sun, Wenjun; Yan, Guangli

    2012-10-21

    Recent advances in proteomic technologies have enabled us to create detailed protein-protein interaction maps in diseases. As the size of the interaction dataset increases, powerful computational methods are required in order to effectively interpret network models from large scale interactome data. In this study, we carried out comparative proteomics to construct and identify the proteins networks associated with hepatic injury (HI) which are largely unknown, as a case study. All proteins expressed were separated and identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). Protein-interacting networks and pathways were mapped using STRING analysis program. We have performed for the first time a comprehensive profiling of changes in protein expression of HI rats, to uncover the networks altered by treated with CCl(4). Identification of fifteen spots (seven over-expressed and eight under-expressed) were established by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. These proteins were subjected to functional pathway analysis using STRING software for better understanding of the biological context of the identified proteins. It suggested that modulation of multiple vital physiological pathways including DNA repair process, cell apoptosis, oxidation reduction, signal transduction, metabolic process, intracellular signaling cascade, regulation of biological processes, cell communication, regulation of cellular process, and molecular transport. In summary, the present study provides the first protein-interacting network maps and novel insights into the biological responses and potential pathways of HI. The generation of protein interaction networks clearly enhances the interpretation of proteomic data, particularly in respect of understanding molecular mechanisms of panel protein biomarkers.

  9. Examples of numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsaturated flow with VS2DI code using different interblock conductivity averaging schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymkiewicz Adam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Flow in unsaturated porous media is commonly described by the Richards equation. This equation is strongly nonlinear due to interrelationships between water pressure head (negative in unsaturated conditions, water content and hydraulic conductivity. The accuracy of numerical solution of the Richards equation often depends on the method used to estimate average hydraulic conductivity between neighbouring nodes or cells of the numerical grid. The present paper discusses application of the computer simulation code VS2DI to three test problems concerning infiltration into an initially dry medium, using various methods for inter-cell conductivity calculation (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and upstream weighting. It is shown that the influence of the averaging method can be very large for coarse grid, but that it diminishes as cell size decreases. Overall, the arithmetic average produced the most reliable results for coarse grids. Moreover, the difference between results obtained with various methods is a convenient indicator of the adequacy of grid refinement.

  10. Examples of numerical simulations of two-dimensional unsaturated flow with VS2DI code using different interblock conductivity averaging schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymkiewicz, Adam; Tisler, Witold; Burzyński, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Flow in unsaturated porous media is commonly described by the Richards equation. This equation is strongly nonlinear due to interrelationships between water pressure head (negative in unsaturated conditions), water content and hydraulic conductivity. The accuracy of numerical solution of the Richards equation often depends on the method used to estimate average hydraulic conductivity between neighbouring nodes or cells of the numerical grid. The present paper discusses application of the computer simulation code VS2DI to three test problems concerning infiltration into an initially dry medium, using various methods for inter-cell conductivity calculation (arithmetic mean, geometric mean and upstream weighting). It is shown that the influence of the averaging method can be very large for coarse grid, but that it diminishes as cell size decreases. Overall, the arithmetic average produced the most reliable results for coarse grids. Moreover, the difference between results obtained with various methods is a convenient indicator of the adequacy of grid refinement.

  11. Feasibility study, software design, layout and simulation of a two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform machine for use in optical array interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriakoff, Valentin

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was the feasibility study of a particular architecture of a digital signal processing machine operating in real time which could do in a pipeline fashion the computation of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of a time-domain sampled complex digital data stream. The particular architecture makes use of simple identical processors (called inner product processors) in a linear organization called a systolic array. Through computer simulation the new architecture to compute the FFT with systolic arrays was proved to be viable, and computed the FFT correctly and with the predicted particulars of operation. Integrated circuits to compute the operations expected of the vital node of the systolic architecture were proven feasible, and even with a 2 micron VLSI technology can execute the required operations in the required time. Actual construction of the integrated circuits was successful in one variant (fixed point) and unsuccessful in the other (floating point).

  12. 二维超音速喷管型线设计仿真研究%Design and Numerical Simulation on the Two-Dimensional Supersonic Nozzle Profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东; 高丽敏; 李永增

    2014-01-01

    采用计算软件FLUENT,对四种经典收缩段型线下的流场特性进行数值模拟,为选择超声速风洞收缩段的型线提供依据。基于特征线理论,利用解析法完成超音速喷管膨胀段型线设计,通过分析总压恢复系数及均匀度等流场参数,确定型线膨胀角角度及喷管长度。结果表明,收缩段型线选用双三次曲线,膨胀角度3.5°的情况下,超音速喷管出口达到了设计要求马赫数,并获得了较好的气流品质。%In this paper, the research results about numerical simulation on the flow field of four classic convergent curves are gained by computational software FLUENT, which provides basis for selecting a kind of optimal curve to design the supersonic nozzle convergent profile. Based on the theory of characteristics line, the curve of supersonic nozzle expansion is designed with analytical method. Finally, comparing total pressure recovery coefficient and uniformity of flow field parameters, the angle of expansion curve and nozzle length are confirmed. The results show that exit velocity of the supersonic nozzle achieves the design requirements for Mach number and uniformity when Bipartite Cubic is the method of the contraction profile and the angle of expansion profile is 3.5°.

  13. Two-dimensional simulation by regularization of free surface viscoplastic flows with Drucker-Prager yield stress and application to granular collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusso, Christelle; Ern, Alexandre; Bouchut, François; Mangeney, Anne; Farin, Maxime; Roche, Olivier

    2017-03-01

    This work is devoted to numerical modeling and simulation of granular flows relevant to geophysical flows such as avalanches and debris flows. We consider an incompressible viscoplastic fluid, described by a rheology with pressure-dependent yield stress, in a 2D setting with a free surface. We implement a regularization method to deal with the singularity of the rheological law, using a mixed finite element approximation of the momentum and incompressibility equations, and an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation for the displacement of the domain. The free surface is evolved by taking care of its deposition onto the bottom and of preventing it from folding over itself. Several tests are performed to assess the efficiency of our method. The first test is dedicated to verify its accuracy and cost on a one-dimensional simple shear plug flow. On this configuration we setup rules for the choice of the numerical parameters. The second test aims to compare the results of our numerical method to those predicted by an augmented Lagrangian formulation in the case of the collapse and spreading of a granular column over a horizontal rigid bed. Finally we show the reliability of our method by comparing numerical predictions to data from experiments of granular collapse of both trapezoidal and rectangular columns over horizontal rigid or erodible granular bed made of the same material. We compare the evolution of the free surface, the velocity profiles, and the static-flowing interface. The results show the ability of our method to deal numerically with the front behavior of granular collapses over an erodible bed.

  14. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  15. Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the DC Glow Discharge in the Normal Mode and with Einstein's Relation of Electron Diffusivity%Two-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the DC Glow Discharge in the Normal Mode and with Einstein's Relation of Electron Diffusivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. BOUCHIKHI

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of a DC glow discharge at low pressure in the normal mode and with Einstein's relation of electron diffusivity. Two-dimensional distributions in Cartesian geometry are presented in the stationary state, including electric potential, electron and ion densities, longitudinal and transverse electrics fields as well as electron temperature. Our results are compared with those obtained in existing literature. The model used in this work is based on the first three moments of Boltzmann's equation. They serve as the continuity equation, the momentum transfer and the energy equations. The set of equations for charged particles presented in monatomic argon gas are coupled in a self-consistent way with Poisson's equation. A parametric study varying the cathode voltage, gas pressure, and secondary electron emission coefficient predicts many of the well-known features of DC discharges.

  16. Estudo de orientação de partículas em aglomerados gerados por modelos bidimensionais A study of particle orientation in agglomerates simulated by two-dimensional models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderley de Vasconcelos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Na formação de aglomerados, partículas pequenas tendem a se agregar, reduzindo a energia livre total do sistema. Mesmo quando as partículas primárias têm forma esférica e tamanhos uniformes, dependendo do tipo do processamento e das forças envolvidas, os aglomerados podem apresentar orientações preferenciais de partículas. Este trabalho utiliza técnica de processamento digital de imagens para a obtenção das distribuições de orientação de partículas em aglomerados bidimensionais simulados. As simulações foram realizadas em um ambiente de computação gráfica com recursos de modelagem de sólidos. A escolha de modelos bidimensionais para representar casos tridimensionais é um artifício muito empregado para reduzir os altos tempos de processamento computacional envolvidos no estudo de processos complexos.Apesar de simples, em príncipio, muitas conclusões importante podem ser extraídas dos modelos bidimensionais e muitos de seus resultados aplicados diretamente aos casos reais.In the formation of agglomerates, small particles tend to aggregate in order to reduce the total free energy of the system. Even when the individual particles can be treated as spheres of uniform size, depending on the process and involved forces the agglomerates can show some kind of particle orientation. This paper uses digital image processing techniques for obtaining particle orientation distribution of two-dimensional simulated agglomerates. These simulations were carried out using a computer graphics environment with solid modeling extension. The use of two-dimensional models instead of three-dimensional ones is an alternative to reduce the long computacional times involved in the analysis of complex real systems. Despite being simple, in principle, very important information can be obtained from two-dimensional systems and directly applied to real three-dimensional cases.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Two-Dimensional Chloride Diffusion in Saturated and Cracked Concrete%饱和开裂混凝土氯离子二维扩散的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申志超; 别社安; 刘欣; 倪敏; 王胜年

    2016-01-01

    对饱和状态下开裂混凝土裂缝附近区域氯离子的二维扩散进行了数值模拟.以Fick第二扩散定律(FSDL)修正模型及二维氯离子扩散理论模型为基础,建立了开裂混凝土氯离子扩散有限差分数值模型,并编制了计算程序.通过与试验结果的对比,证明了模型的有效性.利用建立的模型分析了裂缝、水胶比、衰减系数和时间因素对氯离子扩散的影响,提出了裂缝影响区的概念.在裂缝影响区内,氯离子呈二维扩散,在其外,氯离子呈一维扩散;在时间上,氯离子扩散存在快速期、过渡期与缓慢期;从长期来看,裂缝深度对氯离子的扩散影响显著,而裂缝宽度几乎对其无影响.%Numerical simulation of two-dimensional chloride diffusion is carried out in the crack area of saturated and cracked concrete. Based on correction model of Fick's second law and two-dimensional model of chloride diffusion, a finite differential model for chloride diffusion in cracked concrete is established. A calculation program is codedand turns out to be effective through the comparison with experimental results. The effect of crack,water-binder ratio, attenuation coefficient and time on chloride diffusion is analyzed through the established numerical model. The con-cept of crack-affected zone is put forward,within which,chloride diffuses in two-dimensional way,and beyond which,chloride diffuses in one-dimensional way. There are three stages in chloride diffusion,including rapid diffu-sion period,transitional period and slow diffusion period. The simulation results show that crack depth has significant effect on chloride diffusion in the long-term situation,while crack width nearly makes no difference.

  18. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  19. Spin network quantum simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzuoli, Annalisa; Rasetti, Mario

    2002-12-30

    We propose a general setting for a universal representation of the quantum structure on which quantum information stands, whose dynamical evolution (information manipulation) is based on angular momentum recoupling theory. Such scheme complies with the notion of 'quantum simulator' in the sense of Feynman, and is shown to be related with the topological quantum field theoretical approach to quantum computation.

  20. Parallel network simulations with NEURON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliore, M; Cannia, C; Lytton, W W; Markram, Henry; Hines, M L

    2006-10-01

    The NEURON simulation environment has been extended to support parallel network simulations. Each processor integrates the equations for its subnet over an interval equal to the minimum (interprocessor) presynaptic spike generation to postsynaptic spike delivery connection delay. The performance of three published network models with very different spike patterns exhibits superlinear speedup on Beowulf clusters and demonstrates that spike communication overhead is often less than the benefit of an increased fraction of the entire problem fitting into high speed cache. On the EPFL IBM Blue Gene, almost linear speedup was obtained up to 100 processors. Increasing one model from 500 to 40,000 realistic cells exhibited almost linear speedup on 2,000 processors, with an integration time of 9.8 seconds and communication time of 1.3 seconds. The potential for speed-ups of several orders of magnitude makes practical the running of large network simulations that could otherwise not be explored.

  1. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  2. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  3. Car-Parrinello simulation of the vibrational spectrum of a medium strong hydrogen bond by two-dimensional quantization of the nuclear motion: application to 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brela, Mateusz; Stare, Jernej; Pirc, Gordana; Sollner-Dolenc, Marija; Boczar, Marek; Wójcik, Marek J; Mavri, Janez

    2012-04-19

    The nature of medium strong intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding in 2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzamide in the crystal phase was examined by infrared spectroscopy and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulation. The focal point of our study was the part of the infrared spectra associated with the O-H and N-H stretching modes that are very sensitive to the strength of hydrogen bonding. For spectra calculations we used an isolated dimer and the fully periodic crystal environment. We calculated the spectra by using harmonic approximation, the time course of the dipole moment function as obtained from the Car-Parrinello simulation, and the quantization of the nuclear motion of the proton for an instantaneous snapshot of the structures in one and two dimensions. Although quantitative assessment of the agreement between the computed and experimental band contour is difficult due to the fact that the experimental band is very broad, we feel that the most reasonable qualitative agreement with the experiment is obtained from snapshot structures and two-dimensional quantization of the proton motion. We have also critically examined the methods of constructing the one-dimensional proton potential. Perspectives are given for the treatment of nuclear quantum effects in biocatalysis.

  4. Impact of pickup ions on the shock front nonstationarity and energy dissipation of the heliospheric termination shock: Two-dimensional full particle simulations and comparison with Voyager 2 observations

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Zhongwei; Richardson, John D; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The transition between the supersonic solar wind and the subsonic heliosheath, the termination shock (TS), was observed by Voyager 2 (V2) on 2007 August 31-September 1 at a distance of 84 AU from the Sun. The data reveal multiple crossings of a complex, quasi-perpendicular supercritical shock. These experimental data are the starting point for a more sophisticated analysis that includes computer modeling of a shock in the presence of pickup ions (PUIs). here, we present two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the TS including PUIs self-consistently. We also report the ion velocity distribution across the TS using the Faraday cup data from V2. A relatively complete plasma and magnetic field data set from V2 gives us the opportunity to do a full comparison between the experimental data and PIC simulation results. Our results show that: (1) The nonstationarity of the shock front is mainly caused by the ripples along the shock front and these ripples from even if the percentage of PUIs is high...

  5. Boundary conditions and phase transitions in neural networks. Simulation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Sené, Sylvain

    2008-09-01

    This paper gives new simulation results on the asymptotic behaviour of theoretical neural networks on Z and Z(2) following an extended Hopfield law. It specifically focuses on the influence of fixed boundary conditions on such networks. First, we will generalise the theoretical results already obtained for attractive networks in one dimension to more complicated neural networks. Then, we will focus on two-dimensional neural networks. Theoretical results have already been found for the nearest neighbours Ising model in 2D with translation-invariant local isotropic interactions. We will detail what happens for this kind of interaction in neural networks and we will also focus on more complicated interactions, i.e., interactions that are not local, neither isotropic, nor translation-invariant. For all these kinds of interactions, we will show that fixed boundary conditions have significant impacts on the asymptotic behaviour of such networks. These impacts result in the emergence of phase transitions whose geometric shape will be numerically characterised.

  6. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  7. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  8. 轴对称二维氢氧爆轰驱动激波管的模拟%Simulation of Axisymmetric Two-dimensional Shock Tube Driven by Hydrogen Oxygen Detonation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏伟

    2002-01-01

    对由前向爆轰产生驱动气体并具有局部锥形收缩截面的轴对称激波管利用两相常比热完全气体的欧拉方程组和有限体积TVD格式在局部正交的网格上进行了二维数值模拟.将消除两种介质界面处数值振荡的新方法成功地推广到二维情况.分析了该激波管的力学特性.%The numerical simulation of axisymmetric two-dimensional shock tube is studied,which has a conical convergent section,and its driving gas is the hot product of hydrogen oxygen detonation.Finite volume TVD scheme is adopted and the mesh is local orthogonal.The primitive equations are Euler's equations of multi-component flow.The new method of eliminating numerical oscillation at the interface of two materials is extended to two dimensions (2D).The mechanical character of this shock tube is analyzed.

  9. Analysis of volatile organic compounds released from the decay of surrogate human models simulating victims of collapsed buildings by thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; McGregor, L; Spiliopoulou, C; Statheropoulos, M

    2015-07-01

    Field experiments were devised to mimic the entrapment conditions under the rubble of collapsed buildings aiming to investigate the evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the early dead body decomposition stage. Three pig carcasses were placed inside concrete tunnels of a search and rescue (SAR) operational field terrain for simulating the entrapment environment after a building collapse. The experimental campaign employed both laboratory and on-site analytical methods running in parallel. The current work focuses only on the results of the laboratory method using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOF MS). The flow-modulated TD-GC×GC-TOF MS provided enhanced separation of the VOC profile and served as a reference method for the evaluation of the on-site analytical methods in the current experimental campaign. Bespoke software was used to deconvolve the VOC profile to extract as much information as possible into peak lists. In total, 288 unique VOCs were identified (i.e., not found in blank samples). The majority were aliphatics (172), aromatics (25) and nitrogen compounds (19), followed by ketones (17), esters (13), alcohols (12), aldehydes (11), sulfur (9), miscellaneous (8) and acid compounds (2). The TD-GC×GC-TOF MS proved to be a sensitive and powerful system for resolving the chemical puzzle of above-ground "scent of death".

  10. 蜂窝状催化剂反应器中氢气/空气燃烧的二维模拟%Two-dimensional Simulation for Hydrogen/Air Combustion in a Monolith Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪若瑜; 丁剑敏; Vlachos D G

    2005-01-01

    Recent studies on hydrogen combustion were reviewed briefly. The laminar flow and combustion of premixed hydrogen/air mixture in a cylindrical channel of a monolith reactor with and without catalytic wall was numerically modeled by solving two-dimensional (2-D) Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, energy equation, and species equations. Eight gas species and twenty reversible gas reactions were considered. The control volume technique and the SIMPLE algorithm were used to solve the partial differential equations. The streamlines of the flow field, temperature contours, the entrance length, and the concentration fields were computed. It is found that the entrance zone plays an important role on flow and temperature as well as species distribution. Therefore, the flow cannot be assumed either as fully developed or as plug flow. There is a small but strong thermal expansion zone between the wall and the entrance. Both diffusion and convection affect the heat and mass transfer processes in the expansion zone. Thus the equations of momentum, energy and species conservations should be used to describe hydrogen/air combustion in the monolith reactor. The hot-spot location and concentration field of the homogeneous combustion is strongly influenced by the inlet velocity and temperature, and the equivalence ratio. The catalytic combustion of premixed hydrogen/air mixture over platinum catalyst-coated wall in a cylindrical channel was also simulated.

  11. Simulations of a Microearthquake Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, O.; Uski, M.; Korja, A.; Tiira, T.; Kortström, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sites of vulnerable facilities, such as power plants, are required to be evaluated and monitored for possible earthquakes. Seismic networks having a recording capability for microearthquakes are well suited for acquiring more detailed information on local seismicity. When a dense, local seismic network is set up, numerous microearthquakes are expected to be recorded within a relatively short time period. Thus seismotectonic interpretation and seismic hazard evaluation of the area can be improved with the accurately locatable earthquakes recorded by the microearthquake network. This study gives an example of simulations of a local microearthquake network centred around a future power plant -site. The site area is characterised by low intraplate seismicity, with earthquake magnitudes rarely exceeding 4.0. The network is required to fulfil the preconditions of azimuthal coverage better than 180° and automatic event location capability down to ML~0 within the study area. Automatic event detection capability is simulated based on a relationship derived between event magnitude and maximum observation distance. The azimuthal coverage and the threshold magnitude are then computed for different station configurations and the results are presented as contour maps. An optimal configuration of ten seismograph stations is proposed for further on-site research. The threshold magnitude within the study area and the annual number of earthquakes detected by the network are estimated. Also the automatic earthquake location accuracy for horizontal coordinates and depth is approximated. Location accuracy can be further improved by the application of local velocity models and relative location schemes. Modifications to the optimal configuration are expected in the deployment phase, because the area is surrounded by industrial noise sources.

  12. Simulation in water of a two-dimensional model of existing turbulences while a ladle is poured; Simulacao em agua com modelo bidimensional de turbulencias existentes durante o vazamento de uma panela de aco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida Cunha Ferreira, Marcelo de [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Jacobi, Hatto; Wuennenberg, Klaus [Mannesmann-Forschungsinstitut GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    1992-12-31

    It is described a two dimensional model made to study how different geometries influence existing current and turbulences while a ladle equipped with sliding gates is poured. (author). 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Structural and Spectral Studies on the Ni(Ⅱ) Complexes of 1,5-Diazacyclooctane (DACO) Bearing Heterocyclic Pendants: Formation of a Two-dimensional Network Via Hydrogen Bonds and π-π Stacking Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU,Miao(杜淼); DU,Miao; XU,Qiang(徐强); XU,Qiang; GUO,Ya-Mei (郭亚梅); GUO,Ya-Mei; WENG,Lin-Hong(翁林红); WENG,Lin-Hong; BU,Xian-He (卜显和); BU,Xian-He

    2001-01-01

    A penta-coordinated Ni(II) complex with a 1,5-diazacyclooctane (DACO) ligand functionazed by two imidazole donor pendants, [NiiL1Cl] (ClO4)'HH2O (1) (where L1 = 1,5-bis (imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-1,S-diazacyclooctane) has been synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectra, elemental analyses, conductance, thermal analyses and UV-Vis techniques. Complex 1 crystallizes in triclinic crystal system, P-1 space group with a = 0.74782(7), b = 1.15082(10), c = 1.237s1(11) nm, a=82.090(2), β=73.011(2), γ=83.462(2)°, V= 1.00603(16) nn3, Mr = 486.00, Z=2,Dc=1.604 g/cm3, final R=0.0435, and wR=0.1244. The structures of 1 and its related complexes show that in all the three mononuclear complexes, each Ni(Ⅱ) center is penta-coordinated with a near regular square pyranid (RSP) to distorted square-pyramidal (DSP) coordination environment due to the boat/chair configuration of DACO ring in these complexes, and the degree of distortion increases with the augment of the size of the heterocyclic pendants. In addition, the most striking feature of complex 1 resides in the formation of a two-dimensional network structure through hydrogen bonds and stabilized by π-π stacking. The solution behaviors of the Ni(ⅡI) complexes are also discussed in detail.

  14. Discrete element method simulation on the force chains in the two-dimensional granular system under gravity%重力作用下颗粒介质应力链的离散元模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宜晨虹; 慕青松; 苗天德

    2009-01-01

    The discrete element method is used to research the distribution of forces within the two-dimensional granular system under gravity. The force chains among the particles are generated according to the magnitudes of the forces. Then the simulation results are compared with the well-known q-model, a-model and experimental results obtained through the photoelastic test under the same conditions. According to the computational solution, we conclude that the simulation results are similar to the experimental results are some what different from the two probability models. In addition, we also obtained that the probability distribution of the force is very uneven. The probability of the large force decays exponentially and the distribution of the force chains takes on a fraetal character.%用离散元的方法模拟了仅有重力作用的二维颗粒系统内部力的分布情况,并根据力的大小得到颗粒之间的应力链.模拟结果与颗粒介质研究中的两个著名模型q模型和a模型作了对比,并与光弹实验的结果作了比较.对比结果表明,模拟结果与实验相似,而与两个概率模型有一定的差异.另外计算结果还表明,颗粒介质中力大小的概率分布极为不均匀,较大的力概率呈指数衰减,应力链的分布具有分形特征.

  15. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  16. Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2008-06-01

    We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.

  17. Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.

  18. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  19. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  20. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  1. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  2. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  3. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  4. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  5. Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

    2017-04-01

    Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.

  6. 大粒子数二维硬核玻色子系统的量子蒙特卡罗模拟%Simulation of two-dimensional many-particle hardcore bosons by using the quantum Monte Carlo method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许莹; 李晋斌

    2012-01-01

    采用随机级数展开的量子蒙特卡罗方法研究二维硬核的玻色-赫伯德模型的热力学性质.首先通过算符变换将模型映射成为二维反铁磁准海森伯模型.变换后的模型比通常的海森伯模型多一项,该项正比于系统的格点总数N,对于大粒子数的系统,该项使模拟耗时指数增加,所以难以计算大粒子数系统.采用非局域操作循环更新后,这个困难可以得到很好的解决,可使粒子数总数增大到几千个.研究结果表明,粒子数密度在0—0.5范围内增大时,能量呈递减趋势,并趋于某一定值,随着正方晶格系统尺度增大,能量也随之增大;正方晶格系统尺度一定时,能量和磁化强度随着温度的升高而增大,化学势的变化对能量和磁化强度没有影响,能量随着正方晶格系统尺度增大而增大,磁化强度却随之减小;正方晶格系统尺度一定时,化学势的增大对比热没有影响,随着温度的升高比热出现先增大后减小的趋势,最后趋于某个值,达到平衡,而正方晶格系统尺度越大,比热曲线增大部分的趋势越大,减小部分的趋势也更明显,参照朗道超流理论,本文模拟的能量和比热曲线趋势与朗道二流体模型下HeⅡ的理论研究一致;不同正方晶格系统尺度的影响不大,均匀磁化率倒数在0—0.5(J/k_B)的低温范围内有很小的波动,J为耦合能,k_B为玻尔兹曼常数,温度在0.5—2(J/k_B)的范围内,均匀磁化率的倒数随着温度的升高而增大,且曲线的趋势显示了一种类似近藤行为.%In this paper,the stochastic series expansion quantum Monte Carlo method is employed to investigate the thermodynamic properties of hardcore Bose-Hubbard model in two-dimensional space.The two-dimensional hardcore Bose-Hubbard model can be mapped into the two-dimensional antiferromagnetic quasi-Heisenberg model under transform of bosonic operators.There is an additional term which is proportional

  7. Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Yang, Gelan; Jin, Huixia; Noonan, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Chaos maps and chaotic systems have been proved to be useful and effective for cryptography. In our study, the two-dimensional logistic map with complicated basin structures and attractors are first used for image encryption. The proposed method adopts the classic framework of the permutation-substitution network in cryptography and thus ensures both confusion and diffusion properties for a secure cipher. The proposed method is able to encrypt an intelligible image into a random-like one from the statistical point of view and the human visual system point of view. Extensive simulation results using test images from the USC-SIPI image database demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Security analysis results of using both the conventional and the most recent tests show that the encryption quality of the proposed method reaches or excels the current state-of-the-art methods. Similar encryption ideas can be applied to digital data in other formats (e.g., digital audio and video). We also publish the cipher MATLAB open-source-code under the web page https://sites.google.com/site/tuftsyuewu/source-code.

  8. Two-dimensional model of elastically coupled molecular motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hong-Wei; Wen Shu-Tang; Chen Gai-Rong; Li Yu-Xiao; Cao Zhong-Xing; Li Wei

    2012-01-01

    A flashing ratchet model of a two-headed molecular motor in a two-dimensional potential is proposed to simulate the hand-over-hand motion of kinesins.Extensive Langevin simulations of the model are performed.We discuss the dependences of motion and efficiency on the model parameters,including the external force and the temperature.A good qualitative agreement with the expected behavior is observed.

  9. Introduction to Network Simulator NS2

    CERN Document Server

    Issariyakul, Teerawat

    2008-01-01

    A beginners' guide for network simulator NS2, an open-source discrete event simulator designed mainly for networking research. It presents two fundamental NS2 concepts: how objects are assembled to create a network and how a packet flows from one object to another

  10. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  11. Two-dimensional Thrust Vectoring Nozzle Design and Numerical Simulation Based on Single Secondary Injection%基于单缝射流的二元推力矢量喷管设计及数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 宋文艳; 罗飞腾; 李宁

    2011-01-01

    喷管是发动机产生推力的主要部件,其气动性能对发动机的性能具有决定性的影响。本文利用简化特征线法设计二元收敛-扩张(2DCD)推力矢量喷管模型;采用RNGk-ε湍流模型和非平衡壁面函数对单缝二次流喷射后的喷管流场进行数值模拟,分析了射流位置、主流落压比(NPR)、二次流与主流总压比(SPR)等参数对矢量喷管气动性能的影响。计算结果表明:二次射流位置对激波强度及推力矢量角有较大影响,开缝位置越接近喷管出口,推力矢量越大;喷射位置固定,激波强度和推力矢量角主要受SPR影响;SPR相同,随着NPR的增加,存在着一个最大推力矢量角。%Nozzle is the main component of an engine,which produces thrust.Its aerodynamic performance is of a decisive influence to engine performance.A Two-Dimensional Convergent-Divergent(2DCD) thrust vectoring nozzle model with fixed length is designed by the simplified method of characteristics in this paper.The full flow-field of the 2DCD thrust vectoring nozzle with single secondary injection are numerically simulated by CFD method,with the RNG turbulence model and non-equilibrium wall functions employed.The influence of secondary injection locations,Nozzle Pressure Ratio(NPR) and Secondary Pressure Ratio(SPR) on aerodynamic performance of thrust vectoring nozzle are examined.The numerical results indicate that:the secondary injection location is of significant effect on shock intensity and thrust vectoring angle,the thrust vectoring angle gradually increase when secondary injection location is transferred toward the nozzle;at the same secondary injection location,the shock intensity and thrust vectoring angle are mainly affected by SPR;at the same of SPR,there exists a maximum thrust vectoring angle as NPR increasing.

  12. A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-05-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

  13. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  14. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  15. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  16. Flow Simulation of Urban Sewer Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘云童; 茅泽育

    2003-01-01

    Flow in an urban drainage network is usually unsteady with backwater near junctions. The routing of hydrographs through a network is an important aspect of the design and analysis of urban drainage networks. Various numerical methods to analyze flow in urban drainage networks were compared and a new hybrid interpolation scheme was developed which combined time-line reachback interpolation, implicit interpolation and space-line interpolation. Numerical simulations show that the improved method more accurately models flows in urban drainage networks.

  17. Introduction to Network Simulator NS2

    CERN Document Server

    Issariyakul, Teerawat

    2012-01-01

    "Introduction to Network Simulator NS2" is a primer providing materials for NS2 beginners, whether students, professors, or researchers for understanding the architecture of Network Simulator 2 (NS2) and for incorporating simulation modules into NS2. The authors discuss the simulation architecture and the key components of NS2 including simulation-related objects, network objects, packet-related objects, and helper objects. The NS2 modules included within are nodes, links, SimpleLink objects, packets, agents, and applications. Further, the book covers three helper modules: timers, ra

  18. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  19. Cryptography Using Multiple Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetric key block cipher cryptosystem is proposed, involving multiple two-dimensional chaotic maps and using 128-bits external secret key. Computer simulations indicate that the cipher has good diffusion and confusion properties with respect to the plaintext and the key. Moreover, it produces ciphertext with random distribution. The computation time is much less than previous related works. Theoretic analysis verifies its superiority to previous cryptosystems against different types of attacks.

  20. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  1. Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F

    1992-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.

  2. Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-07-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.

  3. Thermal diode from two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Baowen

    2011-06-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetrical Ising models consisting of two weakly coupled dissimilar segments, coupled to heat baths with different temperatures at the two ends, are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The heat rectifying effect, namely asymmetric heat conduction, is clearly observed. The underlying mechanisms are the different temperature dependencies of thermal conductivity κ at two dissimilar segments and the match (mismatch) of flipping frequencies of the interface spins.

  4. Acoustic Bloch oscillations in a two-dimensional phononic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaojian; Peng, Shasha; Cai, Feiyan; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of acoustic Bloch oscillations at megahertz frequency in a two-dimensional phononic crystal. By creating periodically arrayed cavities with a decreasing gradient in width along one direction in the phononic crystal, acoustic Wannier-Stark ladders are created in the frequency domain. The oscillatory motion of an incident Gaussian pulse inside the sample is demonstrated by both simulation and experiment.

  5. Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Albi, Giacomo

    2015-09-15

    We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.

  6. A NEW FAMILY OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODES FOR MASSIVE OPTICAL CDMA NETWORKS%一种新的大容量的二维光正交码(英)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉建华; 范戈

    2002-01-01

    A new one-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(1-D OOC) named extended hyperbolic line congruence codes(EHLC) is constructed,and its performance is analyzed.Compared with extended quadratic congruence codes(EQC),EHLC has large code cardinality,but has a little poor performances of auto-correlation and cross-correlation.Then,using EHLC for time spreading and prime sequence(PC) for wavelength hopping,a new two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes(2-D OOC)named EHLC/PC is constructed.Because the code weight of EHLC equals(p-1) and the code weight of PC equals p,selection function f(i) should be used to pick out(p-1)wavelengths from each prime sequence.At last,the performance of EHLC/PC is analyzed,and is also compared with EQC/PC.Because each wavelength within a code is different,auto-correlation of EHLC/PC equals zero.When examining the cross-correlation of EHLC/PC,authors should consider four different modes:same time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern(different sk),same time spreading pattern/different wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/same wavelength hopping pattern,different time spreading pattern/different wavelenght hopping pattern.By using difference function and wavelength hopping pattern,it is not difficult to get the cross-correlation performances of EHLC/PC.It is shown that the cross-correlation performance of EHLC/PC is a little worse than EQC/PC,but EHLC/PC has much larger code cardinality.Moreover,EHLC/PC has shorter code length and smaller code weight,which can enhance user data rate and also can reduce the complexity of optical encoders/decoders.Therefore,EHLC/PC is suitable for massive optical code-division multiple-access(OCDMA) networks.%构造了一种扩展的双曲线性同余码(EHLC)并分析了其码字性能.用该码作为时间扩频伪随机序列和以素数码(PC)作为波长跳频伪随机序列,再构成一种新的二维光正交码EHLC/PC.然后分析了EHLC/PC码字的性能,并与EQC/PC

  7. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  9. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  10. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  11. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  12. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  13. The two-dimensional Godunov scheme and what it means for macroscopic pedestrian flow models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wageningen-Kessels, F.L.M.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient simulation method for two-dimensional continuum pedestrian flow models is introduced. It is a two-dimensional and multi-class extension of the Go-dunov scheme for one-dimensional road traffic flow models introduced in the mid 1990’s. The method can be applied to continuum pedestrian flo

  14. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF SOLUTE TRANSPORTSIN TWO DIMENSIONAL VIRTUAL SOIL%二维虚拟土壤中溶质迁移行为的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亚奇; 蒋新; 卞永荣; 杨兴伦; 王芳

    2009-01-01

    Virtual soils, rich in macropore, but different in level, were constructed with the aid of the Voronoi tesselation algorithm on two dimensional lattices and transport behaviors of solute particles therein numerically simulated using random walk models. It was found that the solute diffusion was anomalous and its mean square of displacement was positively correlated with time, being <(r→)~2(t)>∝t~K. Values of K depended on the types of soils and the types of random walk models. With biased random walk models, the values increased with the time, which means the particles diffused faster with the time went on. The first passage time of solute transport satisfied the logarithmic normal distribution. Non-fick effect of the diffusion was obvious with the continuous time random walk theory. And it was found that soils different in por structure would have different corresponding fitting parameters with the random walk models, that is to say, they also affected the transport behaviors of solute particles. The findings of the study are found to be helpful to researchers in understanding and predicting behaviors of water and solutes in macroporous soil, and hence in helping protect the underground water environment.%利用Voronoi图逐级碎裂方法,在二维正方网格上构造出不同等级的虚拟土壤来仿真具有丰富孔隙结构的真实土壤,并借助于随机行走模型,数值模拟了溶质粒子在该虚拟土壤中的迁移行为.结果表明,溶质粒子表现出反常扩散行为.对有偏倚的随机行走模型,其均方位移与时间呈正比关系<r~2(t)>∝t~K,即扩散系数D=K-1,长时间的K值更大,溶质粒子扩散更快;首次穿越时间满足正态对数分布,说明溶质粒子迁移是一阶随机过程;由连续时间随机行走理论,发现溶质粒子扩散非费克现象明显.同时发现不同的土壤孔隙结构及随机行走类型所对应的拟合参数不同,即它们也影响溶质粒子的迁移行为.该

  15. A two-dimensional analytical model of petroleum vapor intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Verginelli, Iason; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present an analytical solution of a two-dimensional petroleum vapor intrusion model, which incorporates a steady-state diffusion-dominated vapor transport in a homogeneous soil and piecewise first-order aerobic biodegradation limited by oxygen availability. This new model can help practitioners to easily generate two-dimensional soil gas concentration profiles for both hydrocarbons and oxygen and estimate hydrocarbon indoor air concentrations as a function of site-specific conditions such as source strength and depth, reaction rate constant, soil characteristics and building features. The soil gas concentration profiles generated by this new model are shown in good agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations and two-dimensional measured soil gas data from a field study. This implies that for cases involving diffusion dominated soil gas transport, steady state conditions and homogenous source and soil, this analytical model can be used as a fast and easy-to-use risk screening tool by replicating the results of 3-D numerical simulations but with much less computational effort.

  16. Stress Wave Propagation in Two-dimensional Buckyball Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Zheng, Bowen

    2016-11-01

    Orderly arrayed granular crystals exhibit extraordinary capability to tune stress wave propagation. Granular system of higher dimension renders many more stress wave patterns, showing its great potential for physical and engineering applications. At nanoscale, one-dimensionally arranged buckyball (C60) system has shown the ability to support solitary wave. In this paper, stress wave behaviors of two-dimensional buckyball (C60) lattice are investigated based on square close packing and hexagonal close packing. We show that the square close packed system supports highly directional Nesterenko solitary waves along initially excited chains and hexagonal close packed system tends to distribute the impulse and dissipates impact exponentially. Results of numerical calculations based on a two-dimensional nonlinear spring model are in a good agreement with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. This work enhances the understanding of wave properties and allows manipulations of nanoscale lattice and novel design of shock mitigation and nanoscale energy harvesting devices.

  17. The Persistence Problem in Two-Dimensional Fluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Perlekar, Prasad; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    We present a natural framework for studying the persistence problem in two-dimensional fluid turbulence by using the Okubo-Weiss parameter {\\Lambda} to distinguish between vortical and extensional regions. We then use a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the two-dimensional, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation with Ekman friction to study probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the persistence times of vortical and extensional regions by employing both Eulerian and Lagrangian measurements. We find that, in the Eulerian case, the persistence-time PDFs have exponential tails; by contrast, this PDF for Lagrangian particles, in vortical regions, has a power-law tail with a universal exponent {\\theta} = 3.1 \\pm 0.2.

  18. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  19. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  20. Phase separation under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwata, H

    2001-05-01

    The spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid under Poiseuille flow is studied by numerical simulation. We investigated time dependence of domain sizes in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow. In an effective region of the flow, the power-law growth of a characteristic length in the direction parallel to the flow changes from the diffusive regime with the growth exponent alpha=1/3 to a new regime. The scaling invariance of the growth in the perpendicular direction is destroyed after the diffusive regime. A recurrent prevalence of thick and thin domains which determines log-time periodic oscillations has not been observed in our model. The growth exponents in the infinite system under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow are obtained by the renormalization group.

  1. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.

    2016-12-01

    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  2. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  3. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  4. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  5. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  6. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  7. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  8. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. OH-asterisk (7-5) Meinel band dayglow and nightglow measured by the SME limb scanning near infrared spectrometer - Comparison of the observed seasonal variability with two-dimensional model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Texier, H.; Solomon, S.; Thomas, R. J.; Garcia, R. R.

    1989-01-01

    Seasonal variations of the OH-asterisk (7-5) mesospheric hydroxyl emission at 1.89 microns observed by the SME near-IR spectrometer are compared with the theoretical predictions of a two-dimensional dynamical/chemical model. The good agreement found at low latitudes for both dayglow and nightglow provides support for the model assumption that breaking gravity waves induce seasonal and latitudinal variations in diffusion. The seasonal behavior of atomic hydrogen in the upper mesosphere (related to vertical transport) and/or uncertainties in the OH Meinel band parameters are proposed as possible explanations for the discrepancy noted between model and observational data for the middle latitudes.

  10. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  11. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  12. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  13. Splitting Strategy for Simulating Genetic Regulatory Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong You

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The splitting approach is developed for the numerical simulation of genetic regulatory networks with a stable steady-state structure. The numerical results of the simulation of a one-gene network, a two-gene network, and a p53-mdm2 network show that the new splitting methods constructed in this paper are remarkably more effective and more suitable for long-term computation with large steps than the traditional general-purpose Runge-Kutta methods. The new methods have no restriction on the choice of stepsize due to their infinitely large stability regions.

  14. Experimental realization of two-dimensional boron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Baojie; Zhang, Jin; Zhong, Qing; Li, Wenbin; Li, Shuai; Li, Hui; Cheng, Peng; Meng, Sheng; Chen, Lan; Wu, Kehui

    2016-06-01

    A variety of two-dimensional materials have been reported in recent years, yet single-element systems such as graphene and black phosphorus have remained rare. Boron analogues have been predicted, as boron atoms possess a short covalent radius and the flexibility to adopt sp(2) hybridization, features that favour the formation of two-dimensional allotropes, and one example of such a borophene material has been reported recently. Here, we present a parallel experimental work showing that two-dimensional boron sheets can be grown epitaxially on a Ag(111) substrate. Two types of boron sheet, a β12 sheet and a χ3 sheet, both exhibiting a triangular lattice but with different arrangements of periodic holes, are observed by scanning tunnelling microscopy. Density functional theory simulations agree well with experiments, and indicate that both sheets are planar without obvious vertical undulations. The boron sheets are quite inert to oxidization and interact only weakly with their substrate. We envisage that such boron sheets may find applications in electronic devices in the future.

  15. Hierarchical Network Design Using Simulated Annealing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomadsen, Tommy; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    The hierarchical network problem is the problem of finding the least cost network, with nodes divided into groups, edges connecting nodes in each groups and groups ordered in a hierarchy. The idea of hierarchical networks comes from telecommunication networks where hierarchies exist. Hierarchical...... networks are described and a mathematical model is proposed for a two level version of the hierarchical network problem. The problem is to determine which edges should connect nodes, and how demand is routed in the network. The problem is solved heuristically using simulated annealing which as a sub......-algorithm uses a construction algorithm to determine edges and route the demand. Performance for different versions of the algorithm are reported in terms of runtime and quality of the solutions. The algorithm is able to find solutions of reasonable quality in approximately 1 hour for networks with 100 nodes....

  16. Network Modeling and Simulation A Practical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Guizani, Mohsen; Khan, Bilal

    2010-01-01

    Network Modeling and Simulation is a practical guide to using modeling and simulation to solve real-life problems. The authors give a comprehensive exposition of the core concepts in modeling and simulation, and then systematically address the many practical considerations faced by developers in modeling complex large-scale systems. The authors provide examples from computer and telecommunication networks and use these to illustrate the process of mapping generic simulation concepts to domain-specific problems in different industries and disciplines. Key features: Provides the tools and strate

  17. Second-order phase transition in two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow containing road sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qiu; Wu, Yi-Qi; Li, Hong; Zhong, Rui

    2007-11-01

    Two-dimensional cellular automaton model has been broadly researched for traffic flow, as it reveals the main characteristics of the traffic networks in cities. Based on the BML models, a first-order phase transition occurs between the low-density moving phase in which all cars move at maximal speed and the high-density jammed phase in which all cars are stopped. However, it is not a physical result of a realistic system. We propose a new traffic rule in a two-dimensional traffic flow model containing road sections, which reflects that a car cannot enter into a road crossing if the road section in front of the crossing is occupied by another car. The simulation results reveal a second-order phase transition that separates the free flow phase from the jammed phase. In this way the system will not be entirely jammed (“don’t block the box” as in New York City).

  18. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  19. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  20. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  1. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  2. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  3. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  4. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  5. The ferroelectric field effect on the two-dimensional electron gas at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001) interface: Insights from first principle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Qiang; Li, Pan; Wang, Nan; Xing, Hui; Chen, Chang-Le

    2016-06-01

    We perform first-principles calculations to explore the possibility of tuning the two-dimensional electron gas at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001) interface through BaTiO3 substrate. A metal-to-insulator transition is found at the interface as the polarization of BaTiO3 reverses. Through the potential analysis of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3/BaTiO3 superstructure, we find that the intrinsic electric field of LaAlO3 is significantly suppressed as the polarization points away from the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, while it is enhanced with the polarization pointing to the interface. The ferroelectric field control of the intrinsic electric field, and therefore the electronic reconstructions at the interface, originating from the screening of polarization charges, opens the way to the development of novel nanoscale electronic devices.

  6. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  7. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  8. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  9. Magnetic reconnection in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Dmitruk, P

    2009-03-20

    Systematic analysis of numerical simulations of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence reveals the presence of a large number of X-type neutral points where magnetic reconnection occurs. We examine the statistical properties of this ensemble of reconnection events that are spontaneously generated by turbulence. The associated reconnection rates are distributed over a wide range of values and scales with the geometry of the diffusion region. Locally, these events can be described through a variant of the Sweet-Parker model, in which the parameters are externally controlled by turbulence. This new perspective on reconnection is relevant in space and astrophysical contexts, where plasma is generally in a fully turbulent regime.

  10. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  11. Corner wetting transition in the two-dimensional Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam

    1998-07-01

    We study the interfacial behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model at the corner of weakened bonds. Monte Carlo simulations results show that the interface is pinned to the corner at a lower temperature than a certain temperature Tcw at which it undergoes a corner wetting transition. The temperature Tcw is substantially lower than the temperature of the ordinary wetting transition with a line of weakened bonds. A solid-on-solid-like model is proposed, which provides a supplementary description of the corner wetting transition.

  12. Dynamic Multiscaling in Two-dimensional Fluid Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Perlekar, Prasad; Pandit, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    We obtain, by extensive direct numerical simulations, time-dependent and equal-time structure functions for the vorticity, in both quasi-Lagrangian and Eulerian frames, for the direct-cascade regime in two-dimensional fluid turbulence with air-drag-induced friction. We show that different ways of extracting time scales from these time-dependent structure functions lead to different dynamic-multiscaling exponents, which are related to equal-time multiscaling exponents by different classes of bridge relations; for a representative value of the friction we verify that, given our error bars, these bridge relations hold.

  13. Size-dispersity effects in two-dimensional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Satoshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of size dispersity on two-dimensional melting transitions, hard-disk systems with equimolar bidispersity are studied by means of particle dynamics simulations. From the nonequilibrium relaxation behaviors of bond-orientational order parameters, we find that (i) there is a critical dispersity at which the melting transition of the hexagonal solid vanishes and (ii) the quadratic structure is metastable in a certain region of the dispersity-density parameter space. These results suggest that the dispersity not only destroys order but produces new structures under certain specific conditions.

  14. The XY model coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-09-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, c, carries over to the XY model, which has c=1.

  15. Finite Element Analysis to Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Sloshing Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严承华; 王赤忠; 程尔升

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear sloshing problem is analyzed by means of the fully nonlinear theory and time domainsecond order theory of water waves. Liquid sloshing in a rectangular container subjected to a horizontal excitation is sim-ulated by the finite element method. Comparisons between the two theories are made based on their numerical results. Itis found that good agreement is obtained for the case of small amplitude oscillation and obvious differences occur forlarge amplitude excitation. Even though, the second order solution can still exhibit typical nonlinear features ofnonlinear wave and can be used instead of the fully nonlinear theory.

  16. AN APPROACH IN MODELING TWO-DIMENSIONAL PARTIALLY CAVITATING FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An approach of modeling viscosity, unsteady partially cavitating flows around lifting bodies is presented. By employing an one-fluid Navier-Stokers solver, the algorithm is proved to be able to handle two-dimensional laminar cavitating flows at moderate Reynolds number. Based on the state equation of water-vapor mixture, the constructive relations of densities and pressures are established. To numerically simulate the cavity wall, different pseudo transition of density models are presumed. The finite-volume method is adopted and the algorithm can be extended to three-dimensional cavitating flows.

  17. On two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches for the calculation of the rate of quasi-stationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform anomalous resistivity are considered in the framework of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In the first, 'global' equations approach, the MHD equations are approximately solved for a whole reconnection layer, including the upstream and downstream regions and the layer center. In the second, 'local' equations approach, the equations are solved across the reconnection layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. Both approaches give the same approximate answer for the reconnection rate. Our theoretical model is in agreement with the results of recent simulations of reconnection with spatially nonuniform resistivity.

  18. Local kinetic effects in two-dimensional plasma turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Valentini, F; Califano, F; Veltri, P

    2012-01-27

    Using direct numerical simulations of a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell model, kinetic processes are investigated in a two-dimensional turbulent plasma. In the turbulent regime, kinetic effects manifest through a deformation of the ion distribution function. These patterns of non-Maxwellian features are concentrated in space nearby regions of strong magnetic activity: the distribution function is modulated by the magnetic topology, and can elongate along or across the local magnetic field. These results open a new path on the study of kinetic processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature anisotropy, commonly observed in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  19. The XY Model Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F; 10.1016/0370-2693(92)91037-A

    2009-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of the XY model on both fixed and dynamical phi-cubed graphs (i.e. without and with coupling to two-dimensional quantum gravity). We compare the numerical results with the theoretical expectation that the phase transition remains of KT type when the XY model is coupled to gravity. We also examine whether the universality we discovered in our earlier work on various Potts models with the same value of the central charge, $c$, carries over to the XY model, which has $c=1$.

  20. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  1. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  2. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  3. A TCAM-based Two-dimensional Prefix Packet Classification Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志恒; 刘刚; 白英彩

    2004-01-01

    Packet classification (PC) has become the main method to support the quality of service and security of network application. And two-dimensional prefix packet classification (PPC) is the popular one. This paper analyzes the problem of ruler conflict, and then presents a TCAMbased two-dimensional PPC algorithm. This algorithm makes use of the parallelism of TCAM to lookup the longest prefix in one instruction cycle. Then it uses a memory image and associated data structures to eliminate the conflicts between rulers, and performs a fast two-dimensional PPC.Compared with other algorithms, this algorithm has the least time complexity and less space complexity.

  4. Simulation of Droplet Trains in Microfluidic Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Behzad, Mehran Djalali; Ejtehadi, Mohammad Reza

    2009-01-01

    In this work we show that in a microfluidic network and in low Reynolds numbers a system can be irreversible because of hysteresis effects.The network, which is employed in our simulations, is taken from recent experiments. The network consists of one loop connected to input and output pipes. A train of droplets enter the system at a uniform rate, but they may leave it in different patterns, e.g. periodic or even chaotic. The out put pattern depends on the time interval among the incoming droplets as well as the network geometry and for some parameters the system is not reversible.

  5. Spin from defects in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We build two-dimensional quantum field theories on spin surfaces starting from theories on oriented surfaces with networks of topological defect lines and junctions. The construction uses a combinatorial description of the spin structure in terms of a triangulation equipped with extra data. The amplitude for the spin surfaces is defined to be the amplitude for the underlying oriented surface together with a defect network dual to the triangulation. Independence of the triangulation and of the other choices follows if the line defect and junctions are obtained from a Delta-separable Frobenius algebra with involutive Nakayama automorphism in the monoidal category of topological defects. For rational conformal field theory we can give a more explicit description of the defect category, and we work out two examples related to free fermions in detail: the Ising model and the so(n) WZW model at level 1.

  6. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  7. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  8. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  9. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  10. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  11. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  12. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  13. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  14. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  15. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  16. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  17. Counterintuitive behavior of simulated network's conductance analogous to the Braess paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Sébastien; Logoteta, Demetrio; Pala, Marco; Bayot, Vincent; Hackens, Benoit

    Suppressing a channel from a two-terminal mesoscopic network defined in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) can paradoxically increase its conductance. This counterintuitive behavior analogous to the Braess paradox is evidenced in by simulating the network's conductance (G) when progressively depleting one of its channels with a biased local probe. By means of 3D self-consistent Poisson-Schrödinger simulations based on the NEGF formalism we investigate the occurrence circumstances of this transport anomaly under the influence of a scanning tip. By simulating the current density and local density of states within the network in the coherent and ballistic transport regime, we can follow the modification of the electron flow when the anomaly occurs. This allows to get insights about the role of a simulated disordered potential within the 2DES and permit to evaluate the tip influence on the 2DES potential landscape. Interference phenomena between different network paths can be modified by simulating G under a magnetic field orthogonal to the 2DES. Different geometries and network congestion are also discussed. S.T. acknowledges support from the Belgian FRS-FNRS (FRIA).

  18. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  19. Implementation of quantum key distribution network simulation module in the network simulator NS-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Miralem; Maurhart, Oliver; Rass, Stefan; Voznak, Miroslav

    2017-10-01

    As the research in quantum key distribution (QKD) technology grows larger and becomes more complex, the need for highly accurate and scalable simulation technologies becomes important to assess the practical feasibility and foresee difficulties in the practical implementation of theoretical achievements. Due to the specificity of the QKD link which requires optical and Internet connection between the network nodes, to deploy a complete testbed containing multiple network hosts and links to validate and verify a certain network algorithm or protocol would be very costly. Network simulators in these circumstances save vast amounts of money and time in accomplishing such a task. The simulation environment offers the creation of complex network topologies, a high degree of control and repeatable experiments, which in turn allows researchers to conduct experiments and confirm their results. In this paper, we described the design of the QKD network simulation module which was developed in the network simulator of version 3 (NS-3). The module supports simulation of the QKD network in an overlay mode or in a single TCP/IP mode. Therefore, it can be used to simulate other network technologies regardless of QKD.

  20. Network Modeling and Simulation (NEMSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Emulator (CORE) modules, hardware components, wireless cards with links modifiable using Radio Frequency (RF) cabling and variable attenuators, and GNU ...universal Network Interface Card (NIC) cards - Cardbus, PCI, or miniPCI. o GNU radio : Free & open-source software development toolkit that provides...Layer Emulator (FPLE), GNU Radio , CORE & EMANE, Tech Warrior, CASCON (CAS Connectivity), and Rate Adaptive Video Coding (RAVC). Also described is the

  1. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zazo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference, radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power, hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  2. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  3. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  4. Two-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Melt-wave Erosion in Solid Armatures%固体电枢熔化波烧蚀的二维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩飞; 翁春生

    2012-01-01

    为了准确地反映电磁轨道炮内电枢烧蚀的特性,建立了二维固体电枢熔化波烧蚀的计算模型.采用有限差分的交替方向隐式法进行耦合计算,得到了熔化波烧蚀的变化特性.计算结果表明,烧蚀的驱动机制为速度趋肤效应,电流集中在电枢与导轨接触面的尾部边缘,使电枢焦耳热剧增导致出现烧蚀.熔化波从电枢尾部向头部推进,当传至电枢头部时,可能引发电枢转捩.%In order to reflect Armature erosion characteristics in railguns exactly, a computational model of melt-wave erosion in two-dimensional solid armatures is developed. The variation characteristics of melt-wave erosion are obtained adopting coupling calculations by using the Peaceman-Rachford(P-R) format of the finite difference method. The calculation results show that; the driving mechanism of erosion is the velocity skin effect,a concentration of current is at the rear edge of the rail-armature interface, and the erosion occurs due to the joule heating. The melt-wave moves from the back to the front of the armature. It is possible to cause an armature transition when the melt-wave reaches the front of the armature.

  5. 短套管二元引射喷管设计及气动与红外特性数值研究%Numerical Simulation of Two-dimensional Ejector Nozzle with Short Shroud

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘福城; 吉洪湖; 斯仁; 刘常春

    2013-01-01

    The thrust characteristics of two-dimensional ejector nozzle with short shroud are studied with variational geometry parameter. The best parameters are selected. Then the infrared radiation characteristics in the waveband of 3-5μm are studied, and compared with axisymmetric nozzle, 2D nozzle and 2D ejector nozzle with long shroud. The flow field of the exhaust jet was calculated with commercial software. The infrared radiation characteristics were calculated with an IR analysis software(NUAA-IR)developed by our research group. The results show that the 2D ejector nozzle with short shroud is better than the 2D ejector nozzle with long shroud on the thrust characteristics and infrared radiation characteristics.%数值模拟的方法研究了短套管二元引射喷管几何参数(LW、LN和间距比)变化对推力特性的影响,优选出了短套管二元引射喷管几何参数的选取范围,并计算了优选结构下短套管二元引射喷管在3~5μm波段的红外辐射特性,且与轴对称喷管、二元喷管和长套管二元引射喷管进行了对比。排气系统的流场采用了商用软件计算,红外辐射特征采用了自主开发的软件(NUAA-IR)进行计算。结果表明:短套管二元引射喷管相对长套管二元引射喷管具有更好的推力特性和红外抑制效果。

  6. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  7. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  8. Dynamic simulation of regulatory networks using SQUAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xenarios Ioannis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ambition of most molecular biologists is the understanding of the intricate network of molecular interactions that control biological systems. As scientists uncover the components and the connectivity of these networks, it becomes possible to study their dynamical behavior as a whole and discover what is the specific role of each of their components. Since the behavior of a network is by no means intuitive, it becomes necessary to use computational models to understand its behavior and to be able to make predictions about it. Unfortunately, most current computational models describe small networks due to the scarcity of kinetic data available. To overcome this problem, we previously published a methodology to convert a signaling network into a dynamical system, even in the total absence of kinetic information. In this paper we present a software implementation of such methodology. Results We developed SQUAD, a software for the dynamic simulation of signaling networks using the standardized qualitative dynamical systems approach. SQUAD converts the network into a discrete dynamical system, and it uses a binary decision diagram algorithm to identify all the steady states of the system. Then, the software creates a continuous dynamical system and localizes its steady states which are located near the steady states of the discrete system. The software permits to make simulations on the continuous system, allowing for the modification of several parameters. Importantly, SQUAD includes a framework for perturbing networks in a manner similar to what is performed in experimental laboratory protocols, for example by activating receptors or knocking out molecular components. Using this software we have been able to successfully reproduce the behavior of the regulatory network implicated in T-helper cell differentiation. Conclusion The simulation of regulatory networks aims at predicting the behavior of a whole system when subject

  9. Improving cosmic string network simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Tenkanen, Tuomas V. I.; Weir, David J.

    2014-08-01

    In real-time lattice simulations of cosmic strings in the Abelian Higgs model, the broken translational invariance introduces lattice artifacts; relativistic strings therefore decelerate and radiate. We introduce two different methods to construct a moving string on the lattice, and study in detail the lattice effects on moving strings. We find that there are two types of lattice artifact: there is an effective maximum speed with which a moving string can be placed on the lattice, and a moving string also slows down, with the deceleration approximately proportional to the exponential of the velocity. To mitigate this, we introduce and study an improved discretization, based on the tree-level Lüscher-Weisz action, which is found to reduce the deceleration by an order of magnitude, and to increase the string speed limit by an amount equivalent to halving the lattice spacing. The improved algorithm is expected to be very useful for 3D simulations of cosmic strings in the early Universe, where one wishes to simulate as large a volume as possible.

  10. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  11. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl

    2014-05-01

    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  12. Classification of wheat varieties: Use of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for varieties that can not be classified by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and an artificial neural network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Susanne; Nesic, Ljiljana; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2001-01-01

    Analyzing a gliadin extract by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI- TOF-MS) combined with an artificial neural network (ANN) is a suitable method for identification of wheat varieties. However, the ANN can not distinguish between all different wheat...

  13. Retention modelling of polychlorinated biphenyls in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Archivio, Angelo Antonio; Incani, Angela; Ruggieri, Fabrizio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) method to predict the retention times of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). We analyse the GC×GC retention data taken from the literature by comparing predictive capability of different regression methods. The various models are generated using 70 out of 209 PCB congeners in the calibration stage, while their predictive performance is evaluated on the remaining 139 compounds. The two-dimensional chromatogram is initially estimated by separately modelling retention times of PCBs in the first and in the second column ((1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively). In particular, multilinear regression (MLR) combined with genetic algorithm (GA) variable selection is performed to extract two small subsets of predictors for (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) from a large set of theoretical molecular descriptors provided by the popular software Dragon, which after removal of highly correlated or almost constant variables consists of 237 structure-related quantities. Based on GA-MLR analysis, a four-dimensional and a five-dimensional relationship modelling (1) t (R) and (2) t (R), respectively, are identified. Single-response partial least square (PLS-1) regression is alternatively applied to independently model (1) t (R) and (2) t (R) without the need for preliminary GA variable selection. Further, we explore the possibility of predicting the two-dimensional chromatogram of PCBs in a single calibration procedure by using a two-response PLS (PLS-2) model or a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) with two output neurons. In the first case, regression is carried out on the full set of 237 descriptors, while the variables previously selected by GA-MLR are initially considered as ANN inputs and subjected to a sensitivity analysis to remove the redundant ones. Results show PLS-1 regression exhibits a noticeably better descriptive and predictive

  14. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  15. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  16. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  17. Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-12-01

    The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.

  18. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  19. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  2. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  3. Improving cosmic string network simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark; Tenkanen, Tuomas V I; Weir, David J

    2014-01-01

    In real-time lattice simulations of cosmic strings in the Abelian Higgs model, the broken translational invariance introduces lattice artefacts; relativistic strings therefore decelerate and radiate. We introduce two different methods to construct a moving string on the lattice, and study in detail the lattice effects on moving strings. We find that there are two types of lattice artefact: there is an effective maximum speed with which a moving string can be placed on the lattice, and a moving string also slows down, with the deceleration approximately proportional to the exponential of the velocity. To mitigate this, we introduce and study an improved discretisation, based on the tree-level L\\"{u}scher-Weisz action, which is found to reduce the deceleration by an order of magnitude, and to increase the string speed limit by an amount equivalent to halving the lattice spacing. The improved algorithm is expected to be very useful for 3D simulations of cosmic strings in the early universe, where one wishes to s...

  4. Commensurability oscillations in a two-dimensional lateral superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John; Long, Andrew; Grant, David; Chowdhury, Suja

    2000-03-01

    We have calculated and measured conduction in a two-dimensional electron gas subject to a weak two-dimensional periodic potential and a normal magnetic field. Simulations with a potential Vx \\cos(2π x/a) + Vy \\cos(2π y/a) show the usual commensurability oscillations in ρ_xx(B) with Vx alone. The introduction of Vy suppresses these oscillations, rather than introducing the additional oscillations in ρ_yy(B) expected from previous perturbation theories. We explain this in terms of drift of the guiding center of cyclotron motion along contours of an effective potential: open orbits of the guiding center contribute to conduction but closed orbits do not. All orbits are closed in a symmetric superlattice with |V_x| = |V_y| and commensurability oscillations are therefore quenched. Experiments on etched superlattices confirm this picture. Conventional lattice-matched samples give a symmetric potential and weak oscillations; the symmetry is broken by the piezoelectric effect in stressed samples, leading to strong oscillations. Periodic modulation of the magnetic field can be treated in the same way, which explains previous experimental results.

  5. Compact triplexer in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Ren; Jianping Ma; Hao Wen; Yali Qin; Zhefu Wu; Weisheng Hu; Chun Jiang; Yaohui Jin

    2011-01-01

    We design a contpact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs). A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides. Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained. The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finites-difference time-domain method. The footprint of the triplexer is about 12× 9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -4O dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device ii future fiber-to-the-home networks.%@@ We design a compact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs).A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides.Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained.The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.The footprint of the triplexer is about 12×9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -40 dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device in future fiber-to-the-home networks.

  6. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  7. Parameter estimation in channel network flow simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Longxi

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of water flow in channel networks require estimated values of roughness for all the individual channel segments that make up a network. When the number of individual channel segments is large, the parameter calibration workload is substantial and a high level of uncertainty in estimated roughness cannot be avoided. In this study, all the individual channel segments are graded according to the factors determining the value of roughness. It is assumed that channel segments with the same grade have the same value of roughness. Based on observed hydrological data, an optimal model for roughness estimation is built. The procedure of solving the optimal problem using the optimal model is described. In a test of its efficacy, this estimation method was applied successfully in the simulation of tidal water flow in a large complicated channel network in the lower reach of the Yangtze River in China.

  8. LANES - LOCAL AREA NETWORK EXTENSIBLE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Local Area Network Extensible Simulator (LANES) provides a method for simulating the performance of high speed local area network (LAN) technology. LANES was developed as a design and analysis tool for networking on board the Space Station. The load, network, link and physical layers of a layered network architecture are all modeled. LANES models to different lower-layer protocols, the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the Star*Bus. The load and network layers are included in the model as a means of introducing upper-layer processing delays associated with message transmission; they do not model any particular protocols. FDDI is an American National Standard and an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) draft standard for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic token ring. Specifications for the LANES model of FDDI are taken from the Draft Proposed American National Standard FDDI Token Ring Media Access Control (MAC), document number X3T9.5/83-16 Rev. 10, February 28, 1986. This is a mature document describing the FDDI media-access-control protocol. Star*Bus, also known as the Fiber Optic Demonstration System, is a protocol for a 100 megabit-per-second fiber-optic star-topology LAN. This protocol, along with a hardware prototype, was developed by Sperry Corporation under contract to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center as a candidate LAN protocol for the Space Station. LANES can be used to analyze performance of a networking system based on either FDDI or Star*Bus under a variety of loading conditions. Delays due to upper-layer processing can easily be nullified, allowing analysis of FDDI or Star*Bus as stand-alone protocols. LANES is a parameter-driven simulation; it provides considerable flexibility in specifying both protocol an run-time parameters. Code has been optimized for fast execution and detailed tracing facilities have been included. LANES was written in FORTRAN 77 for implementation on a DEC VAX under VMS 4.6. It consists of two

  9. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  10. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  11. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  12. Simulating Autonomous Telecommunication Networks for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, most interplanetary telecommunication systems require human intervention for command and control. However, considering the range from near Earth to deep space missions, combined with the increase in the number of nodes and advancements in processing capabilities, the benefits from communication autonomy will be immense. Likewise, greater mission science autonomy brings the need for unscheduled, unpredictable communication and network routing. While the terrestrial Internet protocols are highly developed their suitability for space exploration has been questioned. JPL has developed the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to help characterize network designs and protocols. The results will allow future mission planners to better understand the trade offs of communication protocols. This paper discusses various issues with interplanetary network and simulation results of interplanetary networking protocols.

  13. Simulating Autonomous Telecommunication Networks for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, most interplanetary telecommunication systems require human intervention for command and control. However, considering the range from near Earth to deep space missions, combined with the increase in the number of nodes and advancements in processing capabilities, the benefits from communication autonomy will be immense. Likewise, greater mission science autonomy brings the need for unscheduled, unpredictable communication and network routing. While the terrestrial Internet protocols are highly developed their suitability for space exploration has been questioned. JPL has developed the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to help characterize network designs and protocols. The results will allow future mission planners to better understand the trade offs of communication protocols. This paper discusses various issues with interplanetary network and simulation results of interplanetary networking protocols.

  14. Hybrid simulation models of production networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kouikoglou, Vassilis S

    2001-01-01

    This book is concerned with a most important area of industrial production, that of analysis and optimization of production lines and networks using discrete-event models and simulation. The book introduces a novel approach that combines analytic models and discrete-event simulation. Unlike conventional piece-by-piece simulation, this method observes a reduced number of events between which the evolution of the system is tracked analytically. Using this hybrid approach, several models are developed for the analysis of production lines and networks. The hybrid approach combines speed and accuracy for exceptional analysis of most practical situations. A number of optimization problems, involving buffer design, workforce planning, and production control, are solved through the use of hybrid models.

  15. Integrating botnet simulations with network centric warfare simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2010-04-01

    "Botnets," or "bot armies," are large groups of remotely controlled malicious software designed and operated in order to conduct attacks against government and civilian targets. Bot armies are one of the most serious security threats to networks and computer systems in operation today. Botnets are remotely operated by botmasters who can launch large-scale malicious network activity. While bot army activity has, to date, been largely limited to fraud, blackmail, and other criminal activity, their potential for causing large-scale damage to the entire internet and launching large-scale, coordinated attacks on government computers, networks, and data gathering operations has been underestimated. This paper will not discuss how to build bots but instead discuss ways to use simulation to address the threats they pose. This paper suggests means for addressing the need to provide botnet defense training based upon existing simulation environments and discusses the capabilities needed for training systems for botnet activities. In this paper we discuss botnet technologies and review the capabilities that underlie this threat to network, information, and computer security. The second section of the paper contains background information about bot armies and their foundational technologies. The third section contains a discussion of the techniques we developed for estimating botnet bandwidth consumption and our approach for simulating botnet activities. The fourth section contains a summary and suggestions for additional research.

  16. Fabrication of two-dimensional micro patterns for adaptive optics by using laser interference lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinghui; Cai, Yindi; Aihara, Ryo; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a fabrication method of two-dimensional micro patterns for adaptive optics with a micrometric or sub-micrometric period to be used for fabrication of micro lens array or two-dimensional diffraction gratings. A multibeam two-axis Lloyd's mirror interferometer is employed to carry out laser interference lithography for the fabrication of two-dimensional grating structures. In the proposed instrument, the optical setup consists of a light source providing a laser beam, a multi-beam generator, two plane mirrors to generate a two-dimensional XY interference pattern and a substrate on which the XY interference pattern is to be exposed. In this paper, pattern exposure tests are carried out by the developed optical configuration optimized by computer simulations. Some experimental results of the XY pattern fabrication will be reported.

  17. Two Dimensional Mathematical Model of Tumor Angiogenesis: Coupling of Avascular Growth and Vascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction As a tumor grows, the demand for oxygen and nutrients increases and it grows further if acquires the ability to induce angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to present a two-dimensional continuous mathematical model for avascular tumor growth, coupled with a discrete model of angiogenesis. Materials and Methods In the avascular growth model, tumor is considered as a single mass, which uptakes oxygen through diffusion and invades the extracellular matrix (ECM. After the tumor reaches its maximum size in the avascular growth phase, tumor cells may be in three different states (proliferative, quiescent and apoptotic, depending on oxygen availability. Quiescent cells are assumed to secrete tumor angiogenic factors, which diffuse into the surrounding tissue until reaching endothelial cells. The mathematical model for tumor angiogenesis is consisted of a five-point finite difference scheme to simulate the progression of endothelial cells in ECM and their penetration into the tumor. Results The morphology of produced networks was investigated, based on various ECM degradation patterns. The generated capillary networks involved the rules of microvascular branching and anastomosis. Model predictions were in qualitative agreement with experimental observations and might have implications as a supplementary model to facilitate mathematical analyses for anti-cancer therapies. Conclusion Our numerical simulations could facilitate the qualitative comparison between three layers of tumor cells, their TAF-producing abilities and subsequent penetration of micro-vessels in order to determine the dynamics of microvascular branching and anastomosis in ECM and three different parts of the tumor.

  18. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  19. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  20. Cooperation in two-dimensional mixed-games

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, Marco A; Wardil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a common framework to study the evolution of cooperation, where it is usually assumed that the same game is played in all interactions. Here, we investigate a model where the game that is played by two individuals is uniformly drawn from a sample of two different games. Using the master equation approach we show that the random mixture of two games is equivalent to play the average game when (i) the strategies are statistically independent of the game distribution and (ii) the transition rates are linear functions of the payoffs. We also use Monte-Carlo simulations in a two dimensional lattice and mean-field techniques to investigate the scenario when the two above conditions do not hold. We find that even outside of such conditions, several quantities characterizing the mixed-games are still the same as the ones obtained in the average game when the two games are not very different.