WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional multiple scattering

  1. A Two-Dimensional Helmholtz Equation Solution for the Multiple Cavity Scattering Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    present an efficient block Gauss– Seidel method , which may be written as follows: given ðuð0Þ1 ; ;u ð0Þ n Þ>, define ðuðkÞ1 ; . . . ;u ðkÞ n Þ>; k P...well-posed single cavity scattering problems (5.5)–(5.7) for the block Gauss– Seidel method at each iteration. 5.2. Transparent boundary condition... Seidel method for two consecutive approx- imations again the number of iterations for all three types of cavities. It can be seen from Fig. 10 that

  2. Multiple-scattering theory for out-of-plane propagation of elastic waves in two-dimensional phononic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Jun; Liu, Zhengyou; Qiu, Chunyin

    2005-06-29

    We extend the multiple-scattering theory (MST) to out-of-plane propagating elastic waves in 2D periodical composites by taking into account the full vector character. The formalism for both the band structure calculation and the reflection and transmission coefficient calculation for finite slabs is presented. The latter is based on a double-layer scheme, which obtains the reflection and transmission matrix elements for the multilayer slab from those of a single layer. Being more rapid in both the band structure and the transmission coefficient calculations for out-of-plane propagating elastic waves, our approach especially shows great advantages in handling the systems with mixed solid and fluid components, for which the conventional plane wave approach fails. As the applications of the formalism, we calculate the band structure as well as the transmission coefficients through finite slabs for systems with lead rods in an epoxy host, steel rods in a water host and water rods in a PMMA host.

  3. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  4. Elastic Wave Scattering by Two-Dimensional Periodical Array of Cylinders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    We extend the multiple-scattering theory (MST) for elastic wave scattering and propagating in two-dimensional composite. The formalism for the band structure calculation is presented by taking into account the full vector character of the elastic wave. As a demonstration of application of the formalism, we calculate the band structure of elastic wave propagating in a two-dimensional periodic arrangement of cylinders. The results manifest that the MST shows great promise in complementing the plane-wave (PW) approach for the study of elastic wave.

  5. Cryptography Using Multiple Two-Dimensional Chaotic Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim S. I. Abuhaiba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a symmetric key block cipher cryptosystem is proposed, involving multiple two-dimensional chaotic maps and using 128-bits external secret key. Computer simulations indicate that the cipher has good diffusion and confusion properties with respect to the plaintext and the key. Moreover, it produces ciphertext with random distribution. The computation time is much less than previous related works. Theoretic analysis verifies its superiority to previous cryptosystems against different types of attacks.

  6. Multiple Potts Models Coupled to Two-Dimensional Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Baillie, C F

    1992-01-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of {\\it multiple} $q=2,3,4$ state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the $c>1$ region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for $c>1$. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for $c>1$.

  7. Multiple Potts models coupled to two-dimensional quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, C. F.; Johnston, D. A.

    1992-07-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using the Wolff cluster algorithm of multiple q=2, 3, 4 state Potts models on dynamical phi-cubed graphs of spherical topology in order to investigate the c>1 region of two-dimensional quantum gravity. Contrary to naive expectation we find no obvious signs of pathological behaviour for c>1. We discuss the results in the light of suggestions that have been made for a modified DDK ansatz for c>1.

  8. Simulation of laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging about lambertian cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Li, Lang; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of laser bi-static scattering imaging about lambertian cylinders. Two-dimensional imaging of a target can reflect the shape of the target and material property on the surface of the target. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. Simulations results of laser bi-static two-dimensional scattering imaging of some cylinders are given. The laser bi-static scattering imaging of cylinder, whose surface material with diffuse lambertian reflectance, is given in this paper. The scattering direction of laser bi-static scattering imaging is arbitrary direction. The scattering direction of backward two-dimensional scattering imaging is at opposite direction of the incident direction of laser. The backward two-dimensional scattering imaging is special case of bi-static two dimensional scattering imaging. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained based on the laser radar equation. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the surface of cylinder. According to the incident direction of incident laser and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle can be calculated. According to the scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local angle of scattering can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get mathematical model of bi-static laser two dimensional scattering imaging about lambert cylinder. From the results given, one can see that the simulation results of laser bi-static scattering about lambert cylinder is correct.

  9. Two-dimensional temperature determination in sooting flames by filtered Rayleigh scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D.; Münch, K.-U.; Leipertz, A.

    1996-04-01

    We present what to our knowledge are the first filtered Rayleigh scattering temperature measurements and use them in sooting flame. This new technique for two-dimensional thermography in gas combustion overcomes some of the major disadvantages of the standard Rayleigh technique. It suppresses scattered background light from walls or windows and permits detection of two-dimensional Rayleigh intensity distributions of the gas phase in the presence of small particles by spectral filtering of the scattered light.

  10. Volumetric display containing multiple two-dimensional color motion pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, R.; Shiraki, A.; Nakayama, H.; Kakue, T.; Shimobaba, T.; Ito, T.

    2014-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm which can record multiple two-dimensional (2-D) gradated projection patterns in a single three-dimensional (3-D) object. Each recorded pattern has the individual projected direction and can only be seen from the direction. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of recorded patterns is theoretically infinite and no meaningful pattern can be seen outside of the projected directions. In this paper, we expanded the algorithm to record multiple 2-D projection patterns in color. There are two popular ways of color mixing: additive one and subtractive one. Additive color mixing used to mix light is based on RGB colors and subtractive color mixing used to mix inks is based on CMY colors. We made two coloring methods based on the additive mixing and subtractive mixing. We performed numerical simulations of the coloring methods, and confirmed their effectiveness. We also fabricated two types of volumetric display and applied the proposed algorithm to them. One is a cubic displays constructed by light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 8×8×8 array. Lighting patterns of LEDs are controlled by a microcomputer board. The other one is made of 7×7 array of threads. Each thread is illuminated by a projector connected with PC. As a result of the implementation, we succeeded in recording multiple 2-D color motion pictures in the volumetric displays. Our algorithm can be applied to digital signage, media art and so forth.

  11. Effect of anisotropic scattering on radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular media

    CERN Document Server

    Hao Jin Bo

    2003-01-01

    Effect of scattering on radiative heat transfer in two-dimensional rectangular media by the finite-volume method has been studied. Compared with the existing solutions, it shows that the result obtained by the finite-volume method is reliable. Furthermore, relative errors caused by the approximation that linear and nonlinear anisotropic scattering media is simplified to isotropic scattering media have been studied.

  12. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  13. Short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional scattering media by natural element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer (TRT) in two-dimensional semitransparent media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. The least-squares (LS) weighted residuals approach is employed to spatially discretize the transient radiative heat transfer equation. First, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LSNEM solutions to TRT are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Effects of the incident angle on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Afterward, the accuracy of this algorithm for the case of the refractive index mismatched boundary is studied. Finally, the LSNEM is extended to study the TRT in a two-dimensional semitransparent medium with refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. The effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness, scattering phase function, and refractive index on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated. Several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.

  14. Solution of two-dimensional scattering problem in piezoelectric/piezomagnetic media using a polarization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using a polarization method, the scattering problem for a two-dimensional inclusion embedded in infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic matrices is investigated. To achieve the purpose, the polarization method for a two-dimensional piezoelectric/piezo-magnetic "comparison body" is formulated. For simple harmonic motion, kernel of the polarization method reduces to a 2-D time-harmonic Green's function, which is ob-tained using the Radon transform. The expression is further simplified under condi-tions of low frequency of the incident wave and small diameter of the inclusion. Some analytical expressions are obtained. The analytical solutions for generalized piezoelec-tric/piezomagnetic anisotropic composites are given followed by simplified results for piezoelectric composites. Based on the latter results, two numerical results are provided for an elliptical cylindrical inclusion in a PZT-5H-matrix, showing the effect of different factors including size, shape, material properties, and piezoelectricity on the scattering cross-section.

  15. Scattering of Fexural Gravity Waves by a Two-Dimensional Thin Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna Banerjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate analysis based on standard perturbation technique together with an application of Green’s integral theorem is used in this paper to study the problem of scattering of water waves by a two dimensional thin plate submerged in deep ocean with ice cover. The reflection and transmission coefficients upto first order are obtained in terms of the shape function describing the plate and are studied graphically for different shapes of the plate.

  16. On t-local solvability of inverse scattering problems in two-dimensional layered media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baev, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    The solvability of two-dimensional inverse scattering problems for the Klein-Gordon equation and the Dirac system in a time-local formulation is analyzed in the framework of the Galerkin method. A necessary and sufficient condition for the unique solvability of these problems is obtained in the form of an energy conservation law. It is shown that the inverse problems are solvable only in the class of potentials for which the stationary Navier-Stokes equation is solvable.

  17. A Convergent Method of Auxiliary Sources for Two-Dimensional Impedance Scatterers With Edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2001-01-01

    A modification to the Method of Auxiliary Sources (MAS) is introduced which renders the method operational for two-dimensional impedance scatterers with edges. The modification consists in letting the auxiliary surface converge to the scatterer physical surface for increasing number of auxiliary...... sources, whereby MAS approaches a surface integral equation (IE) method. Hereby, a systematic procedure for selecting the number and locations of the auxiliary sources is provided, and convergence of numerical results is obtained. The new method resulting from this modification thus combines the desirable...

  18. Simultaneous two-color, two-dimensional angular optical scattering patterns from airborne particulates: Scattering results and exploratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Stephen; Fuerstenau, Stephen D.; Skelsey, Charles R.

    2016-07-01

    Light scattering from non-spherical particles and aggregates exhibits complex structure that is revealed only when observed in two angular dimensions (θ, ϕ). However, due to variations in shape, packing, and orientation of such aerosols, the structure of two-dimensional angular optical scattering (TAOS) patterns varies among particles. The spectral dependence of scattering contributes further to the observed complexity, but offers another facet to consider. By leveraging multispectral TAOS data from flowing aerosols, we have identified novel morphological descriptors that may be employed in multivariate statistical algorithms for "unknown" particle classification.

  19. A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna for millimeter-wave scattering in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idehara, T.; Tatsukawa, T. (Faculty of Engineering, Fukui University, Fukui 910, Japan (JP)); Brand, G.F.; Fekete, P.W.; Moore, K.J. (School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia))

    1990-06-01

    A two-dimensionally focusing, quasi-optical antenna having one elliptical reflector and one parabolic reflector has been built for use with a tunable gyrotron in order to carry out millimeter-wave scattering measurements on the TORTUS tokamak plasma at the University of Sydney. The advantages of this antenna are the following: (1) The elliptical reflector focuses the radiation beam in the toroidal direction, while the parabolic reflector focuses in the direction of major radius. This gives excellent two-dimensional focusing in the plasma region, and consequently excellent spatial resolution. (2) The focal point can be easily swept along the direction of major radius in the whole plasma region, simply by changing the angle of the parabolic reflector by a small amount. These features have been demonstrated experimentally using the tunable gyrotron source, GYROTRON III, and in computations of the radiated fields.

  20. Fiber-optic interferometric two-dimensional scattering-measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Giacomelli, Michael G; Wax, Adam

    2010-05-15

    We present a fiber-optic interferometric system for measuring depth-resolved scattering in two angular dimensions using Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry. The system is a unique hybrid of the Michelson and Sagnac interferometer topologies. The collection arm of the interferometer is scanned in two dimensions to detect angular scattering from the sample, which can then be analyzed to determine the structure of the scatterers. A key feature of the system is the full control of polarization of both the illumination and the collection fields, allowing for polarization-sensitive detection, which is essential for two-dimensional angular measurements. System performance is demonstrated using a double-layer microsphere phantom. Experimental data from samples with different sizes and acquired with different polarizations show excellent agreement with Mie theory, producing structural measurements with subwavelength accuracy.

  1. Image Reconstruction of Two-Dimensional Highly Scattering Inhomogeneous Medium Using MAP-Based Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Qi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A maximum a posteriori (MAP estimation based on Bayesian framework is applied to image reconstruction of two-dimensional highly scattering inhomogeneous medium. The finite difference method (FDM and conjugate gradient (CG algorithm serve as the forward and inverse solving models, respectively. The generalized Gaussian Markov random field model (GGMRF is treated as the regularization, and finally the influence of the measurement errors and initial distributions is investigated. Through the test cases, the MAP estimate algorithm is demonstrated to greatly improve the reconstruction results of the optical coefficients.

  2. Nonlinear kinetic modeling and simulations of Raman scattering in a two-dimensional geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénisti Didier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present our nonlinear kinetic modeling of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS by the means of envelope equations, whose coefficients have been derived using a mixture of perturbative and adiabatic calculations. First examples of the numerical resolution of these envelope equations in a two-dimensional homogeneous plasma are given, and the results are compared against those of particle-in-cell (PIC simulations. These preliminary comparisons are encouraging since our envelope code provides threshold intensities consistent with those of PIC simulations while requiring computational resources reduced by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude compared to full-kinetic codes.

  3. Retrieving the size of particles with rough and complex surfaces from two-dimensional scattering patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Greenaway, R.

    2012-12-01

    Scattered intensity measurement is a commonly used method for determining the size of small particles. However, it requires calibration and is subject to errors due to changes in incident irradiance or detector sensitivity. Analysis of two-dimensional scattering patterns offers an alternative approach. We test morphological image processing operations on patterns from a diverse range of particles with rough surfaces and/or complex structure, including mineral dust, spores, pollen, ice analogs and sphere clusters from 4 to 88 μm in size. It is found that the median surface area of intensity peaks is the most robust measure, and it is inversely proportional to particle size. The trend holds well for most particle types, as long as substantial roughness or complexity is present. One important application of this technique is the sizing of atmospheric particles, such as ice crystals.

  4. The Two-dimensional ElectromagneticScattering from Periodic Chiral Structures and Its Finite Element Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德悦; 马富明

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the electromagnetic scattering from periodic chiral structures. The structure is periodic in one direction and invariant in another direction. The electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium are governed by the Maxwell equations together with the Drude-Born-Fedorov equations. We simplify the problem to a two-dimensional scattering problem and we show that for all but possibly a discrete set of wave numbers, there is a unique quasi-periodic weak solution to the diffraction problem. The diffraction problem can be solved by finite element method. We also establish uniform error estimates for the finite element method and the error estimates when the truncation of the nonlocal transparent boundary operators takes place.

  5. |m| Partial wave treatment for two-dimensional Coulomb-scattering and Regge pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Jing; ZENG; Jinyan

    2004-01-01

    The symmetry and |m| partial-wave analysis for two-dimensional (2D) Coulomb-scattering is investigated. As a function of energy E, the |m| partial-wave scattering amplitude f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the negative E (complex k) plane, and it is found that the bound state energy eigenvalues (E<0) are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive imaginary k axis as is expected. In addition, as a function of |m|, f|m|(θ) is analytically continuated to the complex |m| plane, the bound state energy eigenvalues are just located at the poles of f|m|(θ) on the positive real |m| axis.

  6. Resonant scattering and mode coupling in two-dimensional textured planar waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, A R; Paddon, P; Pacradouni, V; Young, J F

    2001-05-01

    A heuristic formalism is developed for efficiently determining the specular reflectivity spectrum of two-dimensionally textured planar waveguides. The formalism is based on a Green's function approach wherein the electric fields are assumed to vary little over the thickness of the textured part of the waveguide. Its accuracy, when the thickness of the textured region is much smaller than the wavelength of relevant radiation, is verified by comparison with a much less efficient, exact finite difference solution of Maxwell's equations. In addition to its numerical efficiency, the formalism provides an intuitive explanation of Fano-like features evident in the specular reflectivity spectrum when the incident radiation is phase matched to excite leaky electromagnetic modes attached to the waveguide. By associating various Fourier components of the scattered field with bare slab modes, the dispersion, unique polarization properties, and lifetimes of these Fano-like features are explained in terms of photonic eigenmodes that reveal the renormalization of the slab modes due to interaction with the two-dimensional grating. An application of the formalism, in the analysis of polarization-insensitive notch filters, is also discussed.

  7. Cooperative resonances in light scattering from two-dimensional atomic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Shahmoon, Ephraim; Lukin, Mikhail D; Yelin, Susanne F

    2016-01-01

    We consider light scattering off a two-dimensional (2D) dipolar array and show how it can be tailored by properly choosing the lattice constant of the order of the incident wavelength. In particular, we demonstrate that such arrays can operate as nearly perfect mirrors for a wide range of incident angles and frequencies close to the individual atomic resonance. These results can be understood in terms of the cooperative resonances of the surface modes supported by the 2D array. Experimental realizations are discussed, using ultracold arrays of trapped atoms and excitons in 2D semiconductor materials, as well as potential applications ranging from atomically thin metasurfaces to single photon nonlinear optics and nanomechanics.

  8. RANDOM ATTRACTOR FOR A TWO-DIMENSIONAL INCOMPRESSIBLE NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID WITH MULTIPLICATIVE NOISE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Caidi; Li Yongsheng; Zhou Shengfan

    2011-01-01

    This article proves that the random dynamical system generated by a two- dimensional incompressible non-Newtonian fluid with multiplicative noise has a global random attractor, which is a random compact set absorbing any bounded nonrandom subset of the phase space.

  9. Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Wu, Juanxia; Zhu, Yiming; Dumcenco, Dumitru O; Hong, Jinhua; Mao, Nannan; Deng, Shibin; Chen, Yanfeng; Yang, Yanlian; Jin, Chuanhong; Chaki, Sunil H; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Zhang, Jin; Xie, Liming

    2014-07-22

    Two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys have attracted intense attention due to their tunable band gaps. In the present work, photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport properties of monolayer and few-layer molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys (Mo1-xWxSe2, 0 ≤ x ≤ 1) are systematically investigated. The strong photoluminescence emissions from Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers indicate composition-tunable direct band gaps (from 1.56 to 1.65 eV), while weak and broad emissions from the bilayers indicate indirect band gaps. The first-order Raman modes are assigned by polarized Raman spectroscopy. Second-order Raman modes are assigned according to its frequencies. As composition changes in Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers and few layers, the out-of-plane A1g mode showed one-mode behavior, while B2g(1) (only observed in few layers), in-plane E2g(1), and all observed second-order Raman modes showed two-mode behaviors. Electrical transport measurement revealed n-type semiconducting transport behavior with a high on/off ratio (>10(5)) for Mo1-xWxSe2 monolayers.

  10. Dosimetric Characteristics of a Two-Dimensional Diode Array Detector Irradiated with Passively Scattered Proton Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liengsawangwong, Praimakorn; Sahoo, Nanayan; Ding, Xiaoning; Lii, MingFwu; Gillin, Michale T.; Zhu, Xiaorong Ronald, E-mail: xrzhu@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric characteristics of a two-dimensional (2D) diode array detector irradiated with passively scattered proton beams. Materials and Methods: A diode array detector, MapCHECK (Model 1175, Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL, USA) was characterized in passive-scattered proton beams. The relative sensitivity of the diodes and absolute dose calibration were determined using a 250 MeV beam. The pristine Bragg curves (PBCs) measured by MapCHECK diodes were compared with those of an ion chamber using a range shift method. The water-equivalent thickness (WET) of the diode array detector’s intrinsic buildup also was determined. The inverse square dependence, linearity, and other proton dosimetric quantities measured by MapCHECK were also compared with those of the ion chambers. The change in the absolute dose response of the MapCHECK as a function of accumulated radiation dose was used as an indicator of radiation damage to the diodes. 2D dose distribution with and without the compensator were measured and compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) calculations. Results: The WET of the MapCHECK diode’s buildup was determined to be 1.7 cm. The MapCHECK-measured PBC were virtually identical to those measured by a parallel-plate ion chamber for 160, 180, and 250 MeV proton beams. The inverse square results of the MapCHECK were within ±0.4% of the ion chamber results. The linearity of MapCHECK results was within 1% of those from the ion chamber as measured in the range between 10 and 300 MU. All other dosimetric quantities were within 1.3% of the ion chamber results. The 2D dose distributions for non-clinical fields without compensator and the patient treatment fields with the compensator were consistent with the TPS results. The absolute dose response of the MapCHECK was changed by 7.4% after an accumulated dose increased by 170 Gy. Conclusions: The MapCHECK is a convenient and useful tool for 2D dose distribution measurements using passively

  11. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  12. Comparison of finite difference and finite element methods for simulating two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve

  13. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic soft X-ray scattering set-up for extreme sample environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Stefan; Mocuta, Cristian; Merlet, Frederic; Barbier, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The newly built MagSAXS (magnetic small-angle X-ray scattering) set-up dedicated to the direct two-dimensional measurement of magnetic scattering using polarized synchrotron radiation in extreme sample environments is presented. Pure optical transport of the image is used to record the magnetic scattering with a two-dimensional CCD visible-light camera. The set-up is able to probe magnetic correlation lengths from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. A detailed layout is presented along with preliminary results obtained at several beamlines at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The presented examples underline the wide range of possible applications spanning from correlation lengths determination to Fourier transform holography.

  14. Stochastic Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Easy Plane Ferromagnets: Multiplicative Versus Additive Noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamppeter, T.; Mertens, F.G.; Moro, E.; Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.

    1998-09-01

    We study how thermal fluctuations affect the dynamics of vortices in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model depending on their additive or multiplicative character. Using a collective coordinate theory, we analytically show that multiplicative noise, arising from fluctuations in the local field term of the Landau-Lifshitz equations, and Langevin-like additive noise have the same effect on vortex dynamics (within a very plausible assumption consistent with the collective coordinate approach). This is a highly non-trivial result as multiplicative and additive noises usually modify the dynamics in very different ways. We also carry out numerical simulations of both versions of the model finding that they indeed give rise to very similar vortex dynamics.

  15. Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects and Dimensional Crossover in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongHong; WANG YongGang; LIU Mei; WANG Jin

    2002-01-01

    Two kinds of spin-depcndcnt scattering effects (magnetic-iinpurity and spin-orbit scatterings) axe investi-gated theoretically in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system. By making use of the diagrammatictechniques in perturbation theory, we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localizationeffects, the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the charac-teristic times: elastic, inelastic, magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times. The relevant dimensional crossover behaviorfrom 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed, and the condition for the crossover is shown to bedependent on the aforementioned scattering times. At low temperature there exists a spin-dcpendent-scattering-induccddimensional crossover in this system.

  16. Multiple photoexcitation of two-dimensional electron systems: Bichromatic magnetoresistance oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñarrea, Jesús

    2011-04-01

    We analyze theoretically magnetoresistance of high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems being illuminated by multiple radiation sources. In particular, we study the influence on the striking effect of microwave-induced resistance oscillations. We consider moderate radiation intensities without reaching the zero-resistance states regime. We use the model of radiation-driven Larmor orbits extended to several light sources. First, we study the case of two different radiations polarized in the same direction with different or equal frequencies. For both cases, we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions. When the frequencies are different, we obtain a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. On the other hand, when the frequencies are the same, we find that the final result will depend on the phase difference between both radiation fields going from an enhanced response to a total collapse of oscillations, reaching an outcome similar to darkness. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case (three different frequencies) in which we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device for microwaves.

  17. A HSS Matrix-Inspired Butterfly-Based Direct Solver for Analyzing Scattering from Two-dimensional Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yang; Michielssen, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A butterfly-based fast direct integral equation solver for analyzing high-frequency scattering from two-dimensional objects is presented. The solver leverages a randomized butterfly scheme to compress blocks corresponding to near- and far-field interactions in the discretized forward and inverse electric field integral operators. The observed memory requirements and computational cost of the proposed solver scale as O(Nlog^2N) and O(N^1.5 logN), respectively. The solver is applied to the analysis of scattering from electrically large objects spanning over ten thousand of wavelengths and modeled in terms of five million unknowns.

  18. Three-dimensional volume containing multiple two-dimensional information patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shiraki, Atsushi; Hirayama, Ryuji; Masuda, Nobuyuki; Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2013-06-01

    We have developed an algorithm for recording multiple gradated two-dimensional projection patterns in a single three-dimensional object. When a single pattern is observed, information from the other patterns can be treated as background noise. The proposed algorithm has two important features: the number of patterns that can be recorded is theoretically infinite and no meaningful information can be seen outside of the projection directions. We confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by performing numerical simulations of two laser crystals: an octagonal prism that contained four patterns in four projection directions and a dodecahedron that contained six patterns in six directions. We also fabricated and demonstrated an actual prototype laser crystal from a glass cube engraved by a laser beam. This algorithm has applications in various fields, including media art, digital signage, and encryption technology.

  19. Polarimetric Scattering from Two-Dimensional Dielectric Rough Sea Surface with a Ship-Induced Kelvin Wake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengju Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the polarimetric scattering model of second-order small-slope approximation (SSA-II with tapered wave incidence for reducing the edge effect caused by limited surface size, monostatic and bistatic polarimetric scattering signatures of two-dimensional dielectric rough sea surface with a ship-induced Kelvin wake is investigated in detail by comparison with those of sea surface without ship wake. The emphasis of this paper is on an investigation of depolarized scattering and enhanced backscattering of sea surface with a ship wake that changes the sea surface geometric structure especially for low wind conditions. Numerical simulations show that in the plane of incidence rough sea surface scattering is dominated by copolarized scattering rather than cross-polarized scattering and that under low wind conditions a larger ship speed gives rise to stronger enhanced backscattering and enhanced depolarized scattering. For both monostatic and bistatic configuration, simulation results indicate that electromagnetic scattering signatures in the presence of a ship wake dramatically differ from those without ship wake, which may serve as a basis for the detection of ships in marine environment.

  20. Superradiant Forward Scattering in Multiple Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Chabe, Julien; Bienaime, Tom; Bachelard, Romain; Piovella, Nicola; Kaiser, Robin

    2012-01-01

    We report on an interference effect in multiple scattering by resonant scatterers resulting in enhanced forward scattering, violating Ohm's law for photons. The underlying mechanism of this wave effect is superradiance, which we have investigated using cold atoms as a toy model. We present numerical and experimental evidences for this superradiant forward scattering, which is robust against disorder and configuration averaging.

  1. Two-dimensional time-dependent quantum-mechanical scattering event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galbraith, I.; Ching, Y.S.; Abraham, E.

    1984-01-01

    Nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical scattering in two dimensions is studied numerically by integrating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. A partial-wave analysis is used to discuss the numerical results. A potential barrier, a square well and a single slit are considered as the scattering potentials.

  2. Cell growth characteristics from angle- and polarization-resolved light scattering: Prospects for two-dimensional correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herran Cuspinera, Roxana M.; Hore, Dennis K.

    2016-11-01

    We highlight the potential of generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis for the fingerprinting of cell growth in solution monitored by light scattering, where the synchronous and asynchronous responses serve as a sensitive marker for the effect of growth conditions on the distribution of cell morphologies. The polarization of the scattered light varies according to the cell size distribution, and so the changes in the polarization over time are an excellent indicator of the dynamic growth conditions. However, direct comparison of the polarization-, time-, and angle-resolved signals between different experiments is hindered by the subtle changes in the data, and the inability to easily adapt models to account for these differences. Using Mie scattering simulations of different growth conditions, and some preliminary experimental data for a single set of conditions, we illustrate that correlation analysis provides rapid and sensitive qualitative markers of growth characteristics.

  3. Bloch waves in an arbitrary two-dimensional lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers

    CERN Document Server

    Schnitzer, Ory

    2016-01-01

    We study waves governed by the planar Helmholtz equation, propagating in an infinite lattice of subwavelength Dirichlet scatterers, the periodicity being comparable to the wavelength. Applying the method of matched asymptotic expansions, the scatterers are effectively replaced by asymptotic point constraints. The resulting coarse-grained Bloch-wave dispersion problem is solved by a generalised Fourier series, whose singular asymptotics in the vicinities of scatterers yield the dispersion relation governing modes that are strongly perturbed from plane-wave solutions existing in the absence of the scatterers; there are also empty-lattice waves that are only weakly perturbed. Characterising the latter is useful in interpreting and potentially designing the dispersion diagrams of such lattices. The method presented, that simplifies and expands on Krynkin & McIver [Waves Random Complex, 19 347 2009], could be applied in the future to study more sophisticated designs entailing resonant subwavelength elements di...

  4. Bi-directional two-dimensional/three-dimensional convertible integral imaging using scattering polarizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Jiwoon; Hong, Jisoo; Park, Soon-gi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho

    2012-10-01

    A bi-directional 2D/3D convertible integral imaging system is proposed. Two optical modules composed of a scattering polarizer and a linear polarizer are adopted, and 2D or 3D mode operation is easily changed by converting polarization states of the projected images. In the 2D mode, the incident light is scattered at the scattering polarizer and the scattered light facing the lens-array is blocked, a 2D image is observable only at the same side as the projector. In the 3D mode, the incident light with the transmission polarization is directly projected onto a lens-array, and the 3D images are integrated. Our proposed system is able to display the 3D images as well as the 2D images for the observers who are placed in front and rear side of the system.

  5. Riemann–Hilbert problem approach for two-dimensional flow inverse scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agaltsov, A. D., E-mail: agalets@gmail.com [Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, R. G., E-mail: novikov@cmap.polytechnique.fr [CNRS (UMR 7641), Centre de Mathématiques Appliquées, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); IEPT RAS, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    We consider inverse scattering for the time-harmonic wave equation with first-order perturbation in two dimensions. This problem arises in particular in the acoustic tomography of moving fluid. We consider linearized and nonlinearized reconstruction algorithms for this problem of inverse scattering. Our nonlinearized reconstruction algorithm is based on the non-local Riemann–Hilbert problem approach. Comparisons with preceding results are given.

  6. When is high-dimensional scattering chaos essentially two dimensional? Measuring the product structure of singularities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drótos, G; Jung, C; Tél, T

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate how the area of the enveloping surface of the scattering singularities in a three-degrees-of-freedom (3-dof) system depends on a perturbation parameter controlling the distance from a reducible case. This dependence is monotonic and approximately linear. Therefore it serves as a measure for this distance, which can be extracted from an investigation of the fractal structure. These features are a consequence of the dynamics being governed by normally hyperbolic invariant manifolds. We conclude that typical n-dof chaotic scattering exhibits either structures developing out of a stack of chaotic structures of 2-dof type or hardly any chaotic effects.

  7. Electron-electron scattering in linear transport in two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Flensberg, Karsten

    1996-01-01

    We describe a method for numerically incorporating electron-electron scattering in quantum wells for small deviations of the distribution function from equilibrium, within the framework of the Boltzmann equation. For a given temperature T and density n, a symmetric matrix needs to be evaluated only...... once, and henceforth it can be used to describe electron-electron scattering in any Boltzmann equation linear-response calculation for that particular T and n. Using this method, we calculate the distribution function and mobility for electrons in a quantum well, including full finite...

  8. Numerical studies of the scattering of light from a two-dimensional randomly rough interface between two dielectric media

    CERN Document Server

    Hetland, Øyvind S; Nordam, Tor; Simonsen, Ingve

    2016-01-01

    The scattering of polarized light incident from one dielectric medium on its two-dimensional randomly rough interface with a second dielectric medium is studied. A reduced Rayleigh equation for the scattering amplitudes is derived for the case where p- or s-polarized light is incident on this interface, with no assumptions being made regarding the dielectric functions of the media. Rigorous, purely numerical, nonperturbative solutions of this equation are obtained. They are used to calculate the reflectivity and reflectance of the interface, the mean differential reflection coefficient, and the full angular distribution of the intensity of the scattered light. These results are obtained for both the case where the medium of incidence is the optically less dense medium, and in the case where it is the optically more dense medium. Optical analogues of the Yoneda peaks observed in the scattering of x-rays from metal surfaces are present in the results obtained in the latter case. Brewster scattering angles for d...

  9. Implementation of the matrix sparse decomposition technique to the scattering of two-dimensional homogeneous dielectric cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. W.; Song, Y. M.; Mei, K. K.

    2001-03-01

    In this paper, a novel matrix-thinning technique, matrix sparse decomposition (MSD) [Liu et al., 1998, 1999], has been implemented to solve the scattering of waves by two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous dielectric cylinders for the first time. The MSD technique is a further development of the integral equation formulation of the measured equation of invariance (MEI) (IE-MEI) [Rius et al., 1996a; Hirose et al., 1999a]. The MSD describes the local relationship between total currents and scattered fields rather than that between the scattered electric fields and the scattered magnetic fields in the IE-MEI. The MSD directly thins a dense matrix from singular integral equations, such as method of moments (MOM), into two sparse matrices. The IE-MEI method has difficulty in solving thin wire or thin plate structure problems. However, the MSD can do it without a hitch. Numerical examples for the scattering of 2-D homogeneous dielectric circular and rectangular cylinders under both transverse magnetic and transverse electric plane wave incidences show that the MSD is a simple and effective technique to thin the MOM dense matrix.

  10. Three disks in a row a two-dimensional scattering analog of the double-well problem

    CERN Document Server

    Wirzba, A; Wirzba, Andreas; Rosenqvist, Per E

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the scattering off three non-overlapping disks equidistantly spaced along a line in the two-dimensional plane with the radii of the outer disks equal and the radius of the inner disk varied. This system is a two-dimensional scattering analog to the double-well-potential (bound state) problem in one dimension. In both systems the symmetry-splittings between symmetric and anti-symmetric states or resonances, respectively, have to be traced back to tunneling effects, as semiclassically the geometrical periodic orbits have no contact with the vertical symmetry axis. We construct the leading semiclassical ``creeping'' orbits which are responsible for the symmetry-splitting of the resonances in this system. The collinear three-disk-system is not only one of the simplest but also one of the most effective systems for detecting creeping phenomena. While in symmetrically placed n-disk systems creeping corrections affect the sub-leading resonances, they here alone determine the symmetry splitting of the ...

  11. Two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors for small-angle neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhaney, S.A.; Vandermolen, R.I.

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, various detectors available for small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are discussed, along with some current developments being actively pursued. A section has been included to outline the various methodologies of position encoding/decoding with discussions on trends and limitations. Computer software/hardware vary greatly from institute and experiment and only a general discussion is given to this area. 85 refs., 33 figs.

  12. Two Dimensional Acoustic Propagation Through Oceanic Internal Solitary Waves: Weak Scattering Theory and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    sech2 wave form is used because the amplitude and horizontal displacement are solutions of the Korteweg de Vries ( KdV ) non linear wave equation which...a solution to the KDV wave equation . After making the frozen field approximation, the soliton can be represented by the following mathematical...scattering. 3. The Gaussian Soliton As discussed, the sech2 form of a soliton is chosen because it is an exact solution to the KDV wave equation . For

  13. Effect of polarization roughness scattering (PRS) on two-dimensional electron transport of MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Guo, Lixin; Song, Zhenjie; Yang, Yintang; Shang, Tao; Li, Jing; Huang, Feng; Zheng, Qinghong

    2013-12-01

    Quantum transport properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in undoped MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures with polarization charge effect have been investigated theoretically. Polarization roughness scattering (PRS) combining polarization charge and interface roughness scattering was proposed as a new scattering mechanism. It was found that the carriers confined in the heterostructures (HSs) would be scattered from polarization charges when they were moving along the in-plane and PRS played a very important role for the low-temperature electron mobility when the electron density Ns exceeded 1.0e11 cm-2, especially in a higher electron density region. With PRS, the experimental data on the density dependence of 2DEG mobility in the MgZnO/ZnO HSs under study can be well reproduced. The study indicates that the improved processing techniques providing a smooth interface and a good separation between the 2DEG electrons and the polarization charges should be significant for the quantum device’s performance.

  14. Determination of the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface by the inversion of light scattering data in p-polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvi, J. B.; Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane, co-polarized scattering of p- polarized light from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface is used to invert scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Within phase perturbation theory this contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient possesses singularities (poles) when the polar scattering angle θs equals +/-θB= +/- tan-1√E, where E is the dielectric constant of the dielectric medium and θB is the Brewster angle. Nevertheless, we show in this paper that if the mean differential reflection coefficient is measured only in the angular range |θs| inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the scattering medium if it is not known in advance. The input data used in this minimization procedure consist of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, without and with the addition of multiplicative noise. The proposed inversion scheme is computationally efficient.

  15. Semi-phenomenological analysis of neutron scattering results for quasi-two dimensional quantum anti-ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Subhajit; Chaudhury, Ranjan; Paul, Samir K.

    2017-01-01

    The available results from the inelastic neutron scattering experiment performed on the quasi-two dimensional spin 1/2 anti-ferromagnetic material La2CuO4 have been analysed theoretically. The formalism of ours is based on a semi-classical like treatment involving a model of an ideal gas of mobile vortices and anti-vortices built on the background of the Néel state, using the bipartite classical spin configuration corresponding to an XY-anisotropic Heisenberg anti-ferromagnet on a square lattice. The results for the integrated intensities for our spin 1/2 model corresponding to different temperatures, show occurrence of vigorous unphysical oscillations, when convoluted with a realistic spectral window function. These results indicate failure of the conventional semi-classical theoretical model of ideal vortex/anti-vortex gas arising in the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless theory for the low spin magnetic systems. A full fledged quantum mechanical formalism and calculations seem crucial for the understanding of topological excitations in such low spin systems. Furthermore, a severe disagreement is found to occur at finite values of energy transfer between the integrated intensities obtained theoretically from the conventional formalism and those obtained experimentally. This further suggests strongly that the full quantum treatment should also incorporate the interaction between the fragile-magnons and the topological excitations. This is quite plausible in view of the recent work establishing such a process in XXZ quantum ferromagnet on 2D lattice. The high spin XXZ quasi-two dimensional antiferromagnet like MnPS3 however follows the conventional theory quite well.

  16. Degenerate ground states and multiple bifurcations in a two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model on the infinite square lattice by using the infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm. We show that the quantum fidelity, defined as an overlap measurement between an arbitrary reference state and the iPEPS ground state of the system, can detect q-fold degenerate ground states for the Z_{q} broken-symmetry phase. Accordingly, a multiple bifurcation of the quantum ground-state fidelity is shown to occur as the transverse magnetic field varies from the symmetry phase to the broken-symmetry phase, which means that a multiple-bifurcation point corresponds to a critical point. A (dis)continuous behavior of quantum fidelity at phase transition points characterizes a (dis)continuous phase transition. Similar to the characteristic behavior of the quantum fidelity, the magnetizations, as order parameters, obtained from the degenerate ground states exhibit multiple bifurcation at critical points. Each order parameter is also explicitly demonstrated to transform under the Z_{q} subgroup of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. We find that the q-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice undergoes a discontinuous (first-order) phase transition for q=3 and q=4 and a continuous phase transition for q=2 (the two-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model).

  17. Combining Multiple Electrode Arrays for Two-Dimensional Electrical Resistivity Imaging Using the Unsupervised Classification Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishola, K. S.; Nawawi, M. N. M.; Abdullah, K.

    2015-06-01

    This article describes the use of k-means clustering, an unsupervised image classification technique, to help interpret subsurface targets. The k-means algorithm is employed to combine and classify the two-dimensional (2D) inverse resistivity models obtained from three different electrode arrays. The algorithm is initialized through the selection of the number of clusters, number of iterations and other parameters such as stopping criteria. Automatically, it seeks to find groups of closely related resistivity values that belong to the same cluster and are more similar to each other than resistivity values belonging to other clusters. The approach is applied to both synthetic and field data. The 2D postinversions of the resistivity data were preprocessed by resampling and interpolating to the same coordinate. Following the preprocessing, the three images are combined into a single classified image. All the image preprocessing, manipulation and analysis are performed using the PCI Geomatics software package. The results of the clustering and classification are presented as classified images. An assessment of the performance of the individual and combined images for the synthetic models is carried out using an error matrix, mean absolute error and mean absolute percent error. The estimated errors show that images obtained from maximum values of the reconstructed resistivity for the different models give the best representation of the true models. Additionally, the overall accuracy and kappa values show good agreement between the combined classified images and true models. Depending on the model, the overall accuracy ranges from 86 to 99 %, while the kappa coefficient is in the range of 54-98 %. Classified images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.8 show strong agreement, while images with kappa coefficients greater than 0.5 but less than 0.8 give moderate agreement. For the field data, the k-mean classifier produces images that incorporate structural features of

  18. Two-Dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Spatial Light Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Wang; Jan Borglind; Smilja Becanovic; Stéphane Junique; Daniel (A)gren; Bertrand Noharet; Linda H(o)glund; Olof (O)berg; Erik Petrini; Jan Y. Andersson; Hedda Malm

    2003-01-01

    Multiple quantum well spatial light modulators with 128x128 array in 38μm pitch are fabricated using two pproaches, one with an attachment of an optical substrate and another one without. These two fabrication processes are described and compared.

  19. Multiplicity Fluctuations in One- and Two-Dimensional Angular Intervals Compared with Analytic QCD Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, P S; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Chikilev, O G; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicity fluctuations in rings around the jet axis and in off-axis cones have been measured by the DELPHI collaboration in $e^+e^-$ annihilations into hadrons at LEP energies. The measurements are compared with analytical perturbative QCD calculations for the corresponding multiparton system, using the concept of Local Parton Hadron Duality. Some qualitative features are confirmed by the data but substantial quantitative deviations are observed.

  20. Multiple scattering expansion with distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1980-12-01

    A multiple scattering description of elastic scattering is formulated in terms of impulsive scatterings from single target nucleons and pairs of target nucleons. In this description, distortion effects on the projectile from the residual medium are also described by multiple scattering in terms of the same single and pair amplitudes. At the level of single scattering, this procedure yields the first order optical potential result of Kerman, McManus, and Thaler. When scattering from both single nucleons and pairs of nucleons is included, the method leads to a one-body integral equation which requires the physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. This input is similar, but not exactly equivalent to that required by the spectator expansion for the optical potential truncated at second order. A principal advantage of the present formulation is that there need be no explicit dependence upon the projection operator Q which projects off the target ground state. This feature introduces a scaling which appears to be a direct extension of the first order Kerman, McManus, and Thaler type of scaling. We follow up suggestions arising in the foregoing to show that the exact optical potential to second order in the spectator expansion can also be cast into a form having no explicit dependence upon Q, and requiring physical projectile-nucleon and projectile-pair transition amplitudes as input. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Multiple scattering from single nucleons, pairs of nucleons in nucleus. Distortion from residual medium. Optical potential. spectator expansion.

  1. Reentrant resistance and giant Andreev back scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas coupled to superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Sander; Wees, B.J. van; Nazarov, Yu.V.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Borghs, G.

    1998-01-01

    We first present the bias-voltage dependence of the superconducting phase-dependent reduction in the differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to two superconductors. This reduction exhibits a reentrant behavior, since it first increases upon loweri

  2. Light Focusing and Two-Dimensional Imaging Through Scattering Media using the Photoacoustic Transmission-Matrix with an Ultrasound Array

    CERN Document Server

    Chaigne, Thomas; Katz, Ori; Bossy, Emmanuel; Gigan, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We implement the photoacoustic transmission-matrix approach on a two-dimensional photoacoustic imaging system, using a 15 MHz linear ultrasound array. Using a black leaf skeleton as a complex absorbing structure, we demonstrate that the photoacoustic transmission-matrix approach allows to reveal structural features that are invisible in conventional photoacoustic images, as well as to selectively control light focusing on absorbing targets, leading to a local enhancement of the photoacoustic signal.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with ultraviolet, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometric detection of triacylglycerols in corn oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klift, van der E.J.C.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Claassen, F.W.; Holthoon, van F.L.; Beek, van T.A.

    2008-01-01

    An improved comprehensive two-dimensional (LC × LC) HPLC system for the analysis of triacylglycerols was developed. In the first-dimension, a Ag(I)-coated cation exchanger (250 mm × 2.1 mm, 5 ¿m) was employed with a gradient from 100% MeOH to 6% MeCN in MeOH at 20 ¿L/min. Using a 10-way valve with t

  4. Bistatic scattering from a three-dimensional object above a two-dimensional randomly rough surface modeled with the parallel FDTD approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L-X; Li, J; Zeng, H

    2009-11-01

    We present an investigation of the electromagnetic scattering from a three-dimensional (3-D) object above a two-dimensional (2-D) randomly rough surface. A Message Passing Interface-based parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approach is used, and the uniaxial perfectly matched layer (UPML) medium is adopted for truncation of the FDTD lattices, in which the finite-difference equations can be used for the total computation domain by properly choosing the uniaxial parameters. This makes the parallel FDTD algorithm easier to implement. The parallel performance with different number of processors is illustrated for one rough surface realization and shows that the computation time of our parallel FDTD algorithm is dramatically reduced relative to a single-processor implementation. Finally, the composite scattering coefficients versus scattered and azimuthal angle are presented and analyzed for different conditions, including the surface roughness, the dielectric constants, the polarization, and the size of the 3-D object.

  5. Acoustic phonon-limited resistivity of spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas: the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti

    2013-01-23

    We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.

  6. Dynamics of a multimode system coupled to multiple heat baths probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2007-09-27

    Reduced equation of motion for a multimode system coupled to multiple heat baths is constructed by extending the quantum Fokker-Planck equation with low-temperature correction terms (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 2005, 74, 3131). Unlike such common approaches used to describe intramolecular multimode vibration as a Bloch-Redfield theory and a stochastic theory, the present formalism is defined by the molecular coordinates. To explore the correlation among different modes through baths, we consider two cases of system-bath couplings. One is a correlated case in which two modes are coupled to a single bath, and the other is an uncorrelated case in which each mode is coupled to a different bath. We further classify the correlated case into two cases, the plus- and minus-correlated cases, according to distinct correlation manners. For these, one-dimensional and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectra are calculated numerically by solving the equation of motion. It is demonstrated that 2D-IR spectroscopy has the ability to analyze the correlation of fluctuation-dissipation processes among different modes.

  7. Multiple-choice versus open-ended response formats of reading test items: A two-dimensional IRT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique P. Rauch

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The dimensionality of a reading comprehension assessment with non-stem equivalent multiple-choice (MC items and open-ended (OE items was analyzed with German test data of 8523 9th-graders. We found that a two-dimensional IRT model with within-item multidimensionality, where MC and OE items load on a general latent dimension and OE items additionally load on a nested latent dimension, had a superior fit compared to an unidimensional model (p ≤ .05. Correlations between general cognitive abilities, orthography and vocabulary and the general latent dimension were significantly higher than with the nested latent dimension (p ≤ .05. Drawing back on experimental studies on the effect of item format on reading processes, we suppose that the general latent dimension measures abilities necessary to master basic reading processes and the nested latent dimension captures abilities necessary to master higher reading processes. Including gender, language spoken at home, and school track as predictors in latent regression models showed that the well known advantage of girls and mother-tongue students is found only for the nested latent dimension.

  8. Determination of the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface by the inversion of light scattering data

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Ingve; Kryvi, Jacob B; Maradudin, Alexei A

    2015-01-01

    An expression is obtained on the basis of phase perturbation theory for the contribution to the mean differential reflection coefficient from the in-plane co-polarized component of the light scattered diffusely from a two-dimensional randomly rough dielectric surface when the latter is illuminated by s-polarized light. This result forms the basis for an approach to inverting experimental light scattering data to obtain the normalized surface height autocorrelation function of the surface. Several parametrized forms of this correlation function, and the minimization of a cost function with respect to the parameters defining these representations, are used in the inversion scheme. This approach also yields the rms height of the surface roughness, and the dielectric constant of the dielectric substrate if it is not known in advance. The input data used in validating this inversion consists of computer simulation results for surfaces defined by exponential and Gaussian surface height correlation functions, withou...

  9. Spatial photon correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, O.; Lagendijk, A.;

    2010-01-01

    We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations.......We present the first angle-resolved measurements of spatial photon correlations that are induced by multiple scattering of light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions and depends on incident photon fluctuations....

  10. Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering Imaging of Two-Dimensional Tungsten Disulfide with Optimized Tip Fabrication Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanwoo; Kim, Sung Tae; Jeong, Byeong Geun; Yun, Seok Joon; Song, Young Jae; Lee, Young Hee; Park, Doo Jae; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2017-01-01

    We successfully achieve the tip-enhanced nano Raman scattering images of a tungsten disulfide monolayer with optimizing a fabrication method of gold nanotip by controlling the concentration of etchant in an electrochemical etching process. By applying a square-wave voltage supplied from an arbitrary waveform generator to a gold wire, which is immersed in a hydrochloric acid solution diluted with ethanol at various ratios, we find that both the conical angle and radius of curvature of the tip apex can be varied by changing the ratio of hydrochloric acid and ethanol. We also suggest a model to explain the origin of these variations in the tip shape. From the systematic study, we find an optimal condition for achieving the yield of ~60% with the radius of ~34 nm and the cone angle of ~35°. Using representative tips fabricated under the optimal etching condition, we demonstrate the tip-enhanced Raman scattering experiment of tungsten disulfide monolayer grown by a chemical vapor deposition method with a spatial resolution of ~40 nm and a Raman enhancement factor of ~4,760.

  11. Moliere multiple scattering theory revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Tarasov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We have received the rigorous relations between the screening parameters of the Moliere multiple scattering theory, instead of the approximate one obtained in the original paper by Moliere. We also calculated the relative Coulomb corrections to the first Born screening angle in the range from Z=4 to Z=82, and showed that their maximum values comprise the order of 40 percent. Additionally, we evaluated absolute and relative accuracies of the Moliere theory in determining the screening angle and have concluded that for Z~80 they are about 20, and 34 percents, respectively.

  12. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = ½ systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Bech

    polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described bylinear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo......Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O and La_2_-_xSr_xCuO_4. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O...

  13. In situ analysis of size distribution of nano-particles in reactive plasmas using two dimensional laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamataki, K.; Morita, Y.; Shiratani, M.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Itagaki, N.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a simple in-situ method for measuring the size distribution (the mean size (mean diameter) and size dispersion) of nano-particles generated in reactive plasmas using the 2 dimensional laser light scattering (2DLLS) method. The principle of the method is based on thermal coagulation of the nano-particles, which occurs after the discharge is turned off, and the size and density of the nano-particles can then be deduced. We first determined the 2D spatial distribution of the density and size of the nano-particles in smaller particle size (a few nm) range than ones deduced from the conventional 2DLLS method. From this 2D dataset, we have for the first time been able to determine the size distribution of nano-particles generated in a reactive plasma without ex-situ measurements.

  14. Quantum Interference of Multiple Beams Induced by Multiple Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging.......We report on quantum interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium. We show that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering and that quantum interference survives disorder averaging....

  15. Multiple scattering Model in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Urbàn, L

    2002-01-01

    We present a new multiple scattering (MSC) model to simulate the multiple scattering of charged particles in matter. This model does not use the Moliere formalism, it is based on the more complete Lewis theory. The model simulates the scattering of the particle after a given step, computes the path length correction and the lateral displacement as well.

  16. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = 1/2 systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech Christensen, N

    2005-01-01

    Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO){sub 2}x4D{sub 2}O and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO){sub 2}4D{sub 2}O. Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Using polarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described by linear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the high temperature superconductors La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}Cu characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles that seen in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. The presence of dispersive excitations does not require superconductivity to exist. For La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}CuO{sub 4}, but not for La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}, the onset superconductivity gives rise to a spectral weight shift which displays qualitative and quantitative similarities to the resonance mode observed in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. (au)

  17. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  18. Sensitivity kernels for coda-wave interferometry and scattering tomography: theory and numerical evaluation in two-dimensional anisotropically scattering media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerin, Ludovic; Planès, Thomas; Mayor, Jessie; Calvet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Coda-wave interferometry is a technique which exploits tiny waveform changes in the coda to detect temporal variations of seismic properties in evolving media. Observed waveform changes are of two kinds: traveltime perturbations and distortion of seismograms. In the last 10 yr, various theories have been published to relate either background velocity changes to traveltime perturbations, or changes in the scattering properties of the medium to waveform decorrelation. These theories have been limited by assumptions pertaining to the scattering process itself-in particular isotropic scattering, or to the propagation regime-single-scattering and/or diffusion. In this manuscript, we unify and extend previous results from the literature using a radiative transfer approach. This theory allows us to incorporate the effect of anisotropic scattering and to cover a broad range of propagation regimes, including the contribution of coherent, singly scattered and multiply scattered waves. Using basic physical reasoning, we show that two different sensitivity kernels are required to describe traveltime perturbations and waveform decorrelation, respectively, a distinction which has not been well appreciated so far. Previous results from the literature are recovered as limiting cases of our general approach. To evaluate numerically the sensitivity functions, we introduce an improved version of a spectral technique known as the method of `rotated coordinate frames', which allows global evaluation of the Green's function of the radiative transfer equation in a finite domain. The method is validated through direct pointwise comparison with Green's functions obtained by the Monte Carlo method. To illustrate the theory, we consider a series of scattering media displaying increasing levels of scattering anisotropy and discuss the impact on the traveltime and decorrelation kernels. We also consider the related problem of imaging variations of scattering properties based on intensity

  19. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  20. Multiple-scattering corrections to the Beer-Lambert law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zardecki, A.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of multiple scattering on the validity of the Beer-Lambert law is discussed for a wide range of particle-size parameters and optical depths. To predict the amount of received radiant power, appropriate correction terms are introduced. For particles larger than or comparable to the wavelength of radiation, the small-angle approximation is adequate; whereas for small densely packed particles, the diffusion theory is advantageously employed. These two approaches are used in the context of the problem of laser-beam propagation in a dense aerosol medium. In addition, preliminary results obtained by using a two-dimensional finite-element discrete-ordinates transport code are described. Multiple-scattering effects for laser propagation in fog, cloud, rain, and aerosol cloud are modeled.

  1. Solution of two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problem by FDTD with optimal step size, based on a semi-norm analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsefi, Farid [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås, Sweden and School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, IDT, Mälardalen University, MDH Väs (Sweden); Carlsson, Linus; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås (Sweden); Rančić, Milica [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås, Sweden and Department of Theoretical Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University (Serbia); Otterskog, Magnus [School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, IDT, Mälardalen University, MDH Västerås (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    To solve the electromagnetic scattering problem in two dimensions, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is used. The order of convergence of the FDTD algorithm, solving the two-dimensional Maxwell’s curl equations, is estimated in two different computer implementations: with and without an obstacle in the numerical domain of the FDTD scheme. This constitutes an electromagnetic scattering problem where a lumped sinusoidal current source, as a source of electromagnetic radiation, is included inside the boundary. Confined within the boundary, a specific kind of Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) is chosen and the outside of the boundary is in form of a Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) surface. Inserted in the computer implementation, a semi-norm has been applied to compare different step sizes in the FDTD scheme. First, the domain of the problem is chosen to be the free-space without any obstacles. In the second part of the computer implementations, a PEC surface is included as the obstacle. The numerical instability of the algorithms can be rather easily avoided with respect to the Courant stability condition, which is frequently used in applying the general FDTD algorithm.

  2. An improved algorithm for cloud multiple scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guibin Yuan; Xiaogang Sun; Jingmin Dai

    2006-01-01

    @@ Clouds' radiation characteristics are very important in clouds scene simulation, weather forecasting, pattern recognition, and other fields. Radiation of a cloud mainly comes from its multiple scattering. A new algorithm to calculate multiple scattering, called build-up factor algorithm, is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, a modified gamma distribution is assumed to describe droplets distribution inside a cloud, then the radiation transport equation is calculated to get the solution of single scattering, and finally, a build-up factor is defined to estimate the multiple scattering contributions. This algorithm considers both single scattered radiance and multiple scattered radiance and needs shorter computing time. It can be used in real time simulations.

  3. Fate of biopolymers during rapeseed meal and wheat bran composting as studied by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in combination with multiple fluorescence labeling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Ping; Shen, Qi-Rong; Yu, Guang-Hui; Ran, Wei; Xu, Yang-Chun

    2012-02-01

    Detailed knowledge of the molecular events during composting is important in improving the efficiency of this process. By combining two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) correlation spectroscopy and multiple fluorescent labeling, it was possible to study the degradation of biopolymers during rapeseed meal and wheat bran composting. Two-dimensional FTIR correlation spectroscopy provided structural information and was used to deconvolute overlapping bands found in the compost FTIR spectra. The degradation of biopolymers in rapeseed meal and wheat bran composts followed the sequence: cellulose, heteropolysaccharides, and proteins. Fluorescent labeling suggested that cellulose formed an intact network-like structure and the other biopolymers were embedded in the core of this structure. The sequence of degradation of biopolymers during composting was related to their distribution patterns.

  4. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and classification method may be adapted into a real-time operation technique, capable of detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles.

  5. Operation in the turbulent jet field of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet (Variation of mean velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Shigetaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194 operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC, and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.

  6. Operation in the turbulent jet field of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet (Variation of mean velocity field)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Shigetaka; Harima, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s) was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194) operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC), and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.

  7. μ-diff: An open-source Matlab toolbox for computing multiple scattering problems by disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Bertrand; Antoine, Xavier; Chniti, Chokri; Alzubaidi, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a Matlab toolbox, called μ-diff, for modeling and numerically solving two-dimensional complex multiple scattering by a large collection of circular cylinders. The approximation methods in μ-diff are based on the Fourier series expansions of the four basic integral operators arising in scattering theory. Based on these expressions, an efficient spectrally accurate finite-dimensional solution of multiple scattering problems can be simply obtained for complex media even when many scatterers are considered as well as large frequencies. The solution of the global linear system to solve can use either direct solvers or preconditioned iterative Krylov subspace solvers for block Toeplitz matrices. Based on this approach, this paper explains how the code is built and organized. Some complete numerical examples of applications (direct and inverse scattering) are provided to show that μ-diff is a flexible, efficient and robust toolbox for solving some complex multiple scattering problems.

  8. Shear viscosity of a two-dimensional emulsion of drops using a multiple-relaxation-time-step lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I; Xu, X; Burgin, K

    2017-02-01

    An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990)EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992)PRPLCM0370-157310.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002)1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c, the variation of effective shear viscosity, η_{eff}=η_{1}[1+f(η_{1},η_{2})c], with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η_{1} (η_{2}) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]. Data obtained with our enhanced multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method, using average shear stress and hydrodynamic dissipation, agree well once appropriate corrections to Landau's volume average shear stress [L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1966)] are applied. Simulation results also confirm the expected form for f(η_{i},η_{2}), and they provide a reasonable estimate of its parameters. Most significantly, perhaps, the generality of our data supports the validity of Taylor's disputed simplification [G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 138, 133 (1932)1364-502110.1098/rspa.1932.0175] to reduce the effect of one hydrodynamic boundary condition (on the continuity of the normal contraction of stress) to an assumption that interfacial tension is sufficiently strong to maintain a spherical drop shape.

  9. Shear viscosity of a two-dimensional emulsion of drops using a multiple-relaxation-time-step lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, I.; Xu, X.; Burgin, K.

    2017-02-01

    An extended Benzi-Dellar lattice Boltzmann equation scheme [R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Europhys. Lett. 13, 727 (1990), 10.1209/0295-5075/13/8/010; R. Benzi, S. Succi, and M. Vergassola, Phys. Rep. 222, 145 (1992), 10.1016/0370-1573(92)90090-M; P. J. Dellar, Phys. Rev. E 65, 036309 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevE.65.036309] is developed and applied to the problem of confirming, at low Re and drop fluid concentration, c , the variation of effective shear viscosity, ηeff=η1[1 +f (η1,η2) c ] , with respect to c for a sheared, two-dimensional, initially crystalline emulsion [here η1 (η2) is the fluid (drop fluid) shear viscosity]. Data obtained with our enhanced multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method, using average shear stress and hydrodynamic dissipation, agree well once appropriate corrections to Landau's volume average shear stress [L. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1966)] are applied. Simulation results also confirm the expected form for f (ηi,η2) , and they provide a reasonable estimate of its parameters. Most significantly, perhaps, the generality of our data supports the validity of Taylor's disputed simplification [G. I. Taylor, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 138, 133 (1932), 10.1098/rspa.1932.0175] to reduce the effect of one hydrodynamic boundary condition (on the continuity of the normal contraction of stress) to an assumption that interfacial tension is sufficiently strong to maintain a spherical drop shape.

  10. Detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas-chromatography coupled to multiple detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraman, Hilal E; Dijkmans, Thomas; Djokic, Marko R; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2014-09-12

    The detailed compositional characterization of plastic waste pyrolysis oil was performed with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) coupled to four different detectors: a flame ionization detector (FID), a sulfur chemiluminescence detector (SCD), a nitrogen chemiluminescence detector (NCD) and a time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). The performances of different column combinations were assessed in normal i.e. apolar/mid-polar and reversed configurations for the GC×GC-NCD and GC×GC-SCD analyses. The information obtained from the four detectors and the use of internal standards, i.e. 3-chlorothiophene for the FID and the SCD and 2-chloropyridine for the NCD analysis, enabled the identification and quantification of the pyrolysis oil in terms of both group type and carbon number: hydrocarbon groups (n-paraffins, iso-paraffins, olefins and naphthenes, monoaromatics, naphthenoaromatics, diaromatics, naphthenodiaromatics, triaromatics, naphthenotriaromatics and tetra-aromatics), nitrogen (nitriles, pyridines, quinolines, indole, caprolactam, etc.), sulfur (thiols/sulfides, thiophenes/disulfides, benzothiophenes, dibenzothiophenes, etc.) and oxygen containing compounds (ketones, phenols, aldehydes, ethers, etc.). Quantification of trace impurities is illustrated for indole and caprolactam. The analyzed pyrolysis oil included a significant amount of nitrogen containing compounds (6.4wt%) and to a lesser extent sulfur containing compounds (0.6wt%). These nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds described approximately 80% of the total peak volume for respectively the NCD and SCD analysis. TOF-MS indicated the presence of the oxygen containing compounds. However only a part of the oxygen containing compounds (2.5wt%) was identified because of their low concentrations and possible overlap with the complex hydrocarbon matrix as no selective detector or preparative separation for oxygen compounds was used.

  11. Neutron scattering study of Rb2Cu1-xCoxF4: A two-dimensional randomly ferromagnet-antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schins, A.G.; Nielsen, M.; Arts, A.F.M.

    1992-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the magnetic order in the randomly mixed two-dimensional ferromagnet-antiferromagnet Rb2Cu1-xCoxF4 has been performed. For x = 0.037, 0.083, and 0.88, the system enters an oblique ferromagnetic phase, an axial ferromagnetic, and an axial antiferromagnetic phase...

  12. Multiple light scattering in porous gallium phosphide

    OpenAIRE

    Bret, Boris Paul Jean

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study on multiple light scattering, with the necessary introductions: theoretical background and sample preparation. The emphasis is put on the effects of the multiple scattering of waves, i.e., where interference effects exist and are significant, in the search for Anderson localization. In ensemble-averaged random media, there exists a cone of light, superimposed on the diffuse background, in the exact backscattering direction, due to the constructive in...

  13. Spectator expansion in multiple scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, E.R.; Thaler, R.M.

    1977-10-01

    A finite expansion for the scattering of a structureless projectile from a complex target of A particles is presented. This development is given as a spectator expansion, in the sense that the first term represents the scattering of the projectile from single target constitutent particles, with all other target particles playing a passive role (i.e., acting as spectators). Similarly, the second term represents the scattering from pairs of target particles with (A-2) spectators, and so on. It is demonstrated that such expansions, one of which has been obtained previously as a resummation of the multiple scattering series, are very general in nature and obtain under circumstances for which the standard multiple scattering treatment is not valid.

  14. Linearized inversion of multiple scattering seismic energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldawood, Ali; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Zuberi, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Internal multiples deteriorate the quality of the migrated image obtained conventionally by imaging single scattering energy. So, imaging seismic data with the single-scattering assumption does not locate multiple bounces events in their actual subsurface positions. However, imaging internal multiples properly has the potential to enhance the migrated image because they illuminate zones in the subsurface that are poorly illuminated by single scattering energy such as nearly vertical faults. Standard migration of these multiples provides subsurface reflectivity distributions with low spatial resolution and migration artifacts due to the limited recording aperture, coarse sources and receivers sampling, and the band-limited nature of the source wavelet. The resultant image obtained by the adjoint operator is a smoothed depiction of the true subsurface reflectivity model and is heavily masked by migration artifacts and the source wavelet fingerprint that needs to be properly deconvolved. Hence, we proposed a linearized least-square inversion scheme to mitigate the effect of the migration artifacts, enhance the spatial resolution, and provide more accurate amplitude information when imaging internal multiples. The proposed algorithm uses the least-square image based on single-scattering assumption as a constraint to invert for the part of the image that is illuminated by internal scattering energy. Then, we posed the problem of imaging double-scattering energy as a least-square minimization problem that requires solving the normal equation of the following form: GTGv = GTd, (1) where G is a linearized forward modeling operator that predicts double-scattered seismic data. Also, GT is a linearized adjoint operator that image double-scattered seismic data. Gradient-based optimization algorithms solve this linear system. Hence, we used a quasi-Newton optimization technique to find the least-square minimizer. In this approach, an estimate of the Hessian matrix that contains

  15. Multiple scattering effects on spaceborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David M.; Poole, Lamont R.

    1992-01-01

    A semianalytic Monte Carlo code originally developed for oceanographic calculations (Poole et al., 1981) has been modified for use in studying multiple scattering of space-based lidar. The approach is very similar to that described by Kunkel and Weinman (1976). The trajectory of each photon is followed from the transmitter through multiple scattering until the photon is either scattered backward out of the atmosphere, scattered forward into the ground and absorbed, or scattered out the sides of the cloud. The probability that the photon will return directly to the detector is computed and summed over all significant scattering events within the field of view of the detector. Multiple scattering of the lidar pulse causes an apparent increase in the transmittance of the medium. Multiple scattering effects for space-based lidar are more significant than for ground-based lidar due to the much larger beam diameter in the atmosphere. These larger diameters are due not only to the greater range between the lidar and the scattering volume, but also the need to maintain relatively large beam divergences to satisfy eye safety restrictions on the laser irradiance at the Earth's surface. The simulations presented here are for a wavelength of 1064 nm and the Deirmendjian C1 phase function, which yields an extinction coefficient of 17.259/km. We have looked at two cases: a space-based lidar at 296 km observing a C1 cloud 293 km from the lidar and, for comparison purposes, a ground-based lidar looking at a C1 cloud with a base height of either 2 km or 5 km. The C1 size distribution roughly approximates that of stratocumulus or altocumulus clouds (aufm Kampe and Weickmann, 1957).

  16. Multiple Scattering, Underlying Event, and Minimum Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Gustafson, Gosta

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I first discuss the experimental evidence for multiple scattering and the properties of the underlying event. The extensive analyses by Rick Field of data from CDF cannot be reconciled with traditional wisdom concerning multiple collisions and the AGK cutting rules. Data seem to imply some kind of color recombination or unexpectedly strong effects from pomeron vertices. I then discuss theoretical ideas concerning the relation between multiple collisions and unitarity: the AGK rules, IP loops, dipole cascade models and diffraction.

  17. Quantum optics in multiple scattering random media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    Quantum Optics in Multiple Scattering Random Media Peter Lodahl Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Coherent transport of light in a disordered random medium has attracted enormous attention both from a fundamental and application point of view. Coherent...... quantum optics in multiple scattering media and novel fundamental phenomena have been predicted when examining quantum fluctuations instead of merely the intensity of the light [1]. Here I will present the first experimental study of the propagation of quantum noise through an elastic, multiple scattering...... medium [2]. Two different types of quantum noise measurements have been carried out: total transmission and short-range frequency correlations. When comparing shot noise (quantum) to technical noise (classical) we observed markedly different behavior, c.f. Fig. 1. The experimental results are found...

  18. On the similarity of particle and photon tunneling and multiple internal reflections in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional photon tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhovsky, V. S.

    2014-05-01

    The formal mathematical analogy between time-dependent quantum equation for the nonrelativistic particles and time-dependent equation for the propagation of electromagnetic waves had been studied in [A. I. Akhiezer and V. B. Berestezki, Quantum Electrodynamics (FM, Moscow, 1959) [in Russian] and S. Schweber, An Introduction to Relativistic Quantum Field Theory, Chap. 5.3 (Row, Peterson & Co, Ill, 1961)]. Here, we deal with the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for nonrelativistic particles and with time-dependent Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves. Then, using this similarity, the tunneling and multiple internal reflections in one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) particle and photon tunneling are studied. Finally, some conclusions and future perspectives for further investigations are presented.

  19. Medium corrections within a multiple scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R.M.

    1993-04-01

    A systematic formalism to include the effects of the nuclear medium into a multiple scattering expansion is developed. Although the use of a free nucleon-nucleon (NN) t-matrix accounts in an impulse approximation for the short-range interaction between the projectile and a target nucleon, the influence of the interactions between this target nucleon on the rest of the nucleus is often ignored. In the first order Watson expansion such higher order effects arise from the difference between the free NN propagator and the propagator in the nuclear medium. A formal framework consistent with a multiple scattering expansion has been constructed to include these contributions by using a nuclear mean field potential. The application of this formalism to nucleon scattering from various nuclei employing different local and nonlocal Hartree-Fock mean field potentials will be discussed.

  20. Light organization of small particles by multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Zhi Hong

    Optical manipulation is of broad interest in physics, chemistry, and biology. In the literature, most of the studies are focused on the optical trapping on a single object. In this thesis, we investigated the light-induced interaction of a collection of particles. The light-induced interaction between small particles was studied by a hierarchy of methods including the dipole theory, the multiple scattering and Maxwell stress tensor formalism, and the finite-difference-time-domain method. We showed that the multiple scattering between small particles could induce a binding mechanism to stabilize optically organized structures, but at the same time induced an intrinsic unbinding mechanism. The stability of optically organized structure was studied and a concept of "optical density" was introduced to gauge the destabilizing effect. We found that light-induced forces could bind dielectric spheres into extended structures through two mechanisms, each with its own length scale which could be adjusted by the configuration of the external light source. By manipulating the commensurability of the two length scales, these two mechanisms cooperated to bind a large number of spheres. When the two length scales became incommensurate for some particular incident angle, the competition between the two mechanisms led to modulated structures and other complex phenomena such as re-entrant stability. We searched for the possibility for stabilizing larger clusters. For this purpose, we found that circularly polarized light bound dielectric spheres into large-scale two-dimensional hexagonal lattice and multiple scattering also induced a rotation of optically bound structures. We searched for configurations that could induce optical trapping by field enhancement. Enhanced transmission on perforated metallic film system was studied. Surface modes bound on multi perforated perfect metal plate system were analytical solved and related to different high transmittance modes. Near

  1. Multiple Scatters in Single Site Gamma Backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-09-16

    nEXO aims to reduce its gamma backgrounds by taking advantage of the fact that a large number of gammas that would otherwise be backgrounds will undergo multiple compton scattering in the TPC and produce spatially distinct signals. These multi-sited (MS) events can be excluded from the 0νββ search.

  2. Multiple Scattering of Quantum Optical States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, N. Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    fluctuations [3]. Only recently focus has reached the combination of quantum optics and multiple scattering, see e.g. references [4–7] and references therein. The experimental realization of strongly enhanced light-matter interaction in disordered photonic crystal waveguides, enabling cavity quantum...

  3. Enhanced trapping of colding lithium by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Kai; Gao, Tianyou; Peng, Shi-Guo; Jiang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Trapping lithium with a big number in a simplified experimental setup has difficulties and challenges today. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the enhancement of \\textsuperscript{6}Li trapping efficiency in a three-dimensional magneto-optical trap (3D MOT) by using the multiple-sideband cooling in a two-dimensional magneto-optical trap (2D MOT). To improve the number of trapped atoms, we broaden the cooling light spectrum to 102 MHz composed of seven frequency components and then trap atoms with a number of $6.0\\times10^8$ which is about 4 times compared to that in the single-frequency cooling. The capture velocity and dependence of atomic number on the laser detuning have been analyzed, where the experimental result has a good agreement with the theoretical prediction based on a simple two-level model. We also analyze the loss rate of alkali metals due to fine-structure exchanging collisions and find that the multiple-sideband cooling is special valid for lithium.

  4. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  5. Effect of shape of scatterers and plasma frequency on the complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T.; Bananej, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we analyze complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals with triangular and square lattices, composed of plasma rods with different geometrical shapes in the anisotropic tellurium background. Using the finite-difference time-domain method we discuss the maximization of the complete photonic band gap width as a function of plasma frequency and plasma rods parameters with different shapes and orientations. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed structures represent significantly wide complete photonic band gaps in comparison to previously studied dielectric-plasma photonic crystals.

  6. Theory of Multiple Coulomb Scattering from Extended Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. N.; Rainwater, J.

    1954-08-01

    Two independent methods are described for calculating the multiple scattering distribution for projected angle scattering resulting when very high energy charged particles traverse a thick scatterer. The results are compared with the theories of Moliere and Olbert.

  7. Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional near-infrared correlation study of time-dependent water absorption behavior of cellulose affected by pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Awa, Kimie; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2013-02-01

    Transient water absorption by cellulosic samples manufactured under varying pressure was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy to explore the absorption behavior affected by the pressure. A substantial level of variation of the spectral features was induced by the water absorption and changes in the pressure. The detail of the spectral changes was analyzed with a multiple-perturbation, two-dimensional (2D) correlation method to determine the underlying mechanism. The 2D correlation spectra indicated that the compression of the cellulose increased the packing density of the samples, preventing the penetration of water. In addition, the compression substantially disintegrated its crystalline structure and eventually resulted in the development of inter- and intrachain hydrogen-bonded structures arising from an interaction between the water and cellulose. Consequently, the cellulose samples essentially underwent an evolutionary change in the polymer structure as well as in the packing density during the compression. This structural change, in turn, led to the seemingly complicated absorption trends, depending on the pressure.

  8. A Multiple Scattering Theory for Proton Penetration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dai-Lun; WU Zhang-Wen; JIANG Steve-Bin; LUO Zheng-Ming

    2004-01-01

    @@ We extend the electron small-angle multiple scattering theory to proton penetration. After introducing the concept of narrow energy spectra, the proton energy loss process is included in the proton deep penetration theory. It precisely describes the whole process of proton penetration. Compared to the Monte Carlo method,this method maintains the comparable precision and possesses much higher computational efficiency. Thus, it shows the real feasibility of applying this algorithm to proton clinical radiation therapy.

  9. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  10. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  11. Experimental demonstration of spatial quantum correlations in multiple scattering media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam.......We demonstrate that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The correlation relates multiple scattered photons at different spatial positions, and is tunable by varying photon fluctuations of the illuminating beam....

  12. Lymphocyte profiles in multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: flow-cytometric characterization and analysis in a two-dimensional correlation biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Hove, L E; Meeus, P; Derom, A; Demuynck, H; Verhoef, G E; Vandenberghe, P; Boogaerts, M A

    1998-06-01

    The distribution of 27 T-, B-, and natural killer-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 40 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), ten patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 40 healthy donors was investigated by means of classical univariate statistics and advanced multivariate data-analytical techniques. The latter approach was used to describe, represent, and analyze lymphocyte subset distribution in a two-dimensional correlation biplot, allowing comparison of complex lymphocyte profiles (i.e., compound lymphocyte subset distributions) of individual subjects rather than isolated subset values of selected patient and/or donor groups. The correlation biplot revealed that, in accordance with the univariate statistics, the MM patients were characterized by marked shifts towards CD8+, CD57+, CD62L-, CD(16+56)+, and HLA-DR+ T cells, suggesting in vivo immune activation. The activation profile was most markedly observed in treated MM patients in the advanced disease stage category. The lymphocyte profiles of MGUS patients were heterogeneous, with approximately half of them located in the swarm of MM patients and the other half in the swarm of healthy donors. Although the univariate statistics revealed significant differences between MGUS patients and healthy donors only within the B-cell compartment, the correlation biplot revealed that two MGUS patients clearly had a typical T-cell activation profile similar to that of the MM patients. One MGUS patient with a T-cell activation profile progressed 13 months later to a stage IA MM and required chemotherapy. A marked lymphocyte profile shift in one MM patient was associated with terminal and aggressive disease transformation. Our study illustrates further the practical use of correlation biplots for the detection of aberrant lymphocyte profiles and/or profile shifts in individual patients.

  13. Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Thaler, R. M.

    1980-10-01

    The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+208Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 208Pb(p, p), E=0.8 GeV, Kerman, McManus, and Thaler, and Watson multiple scattering theories, Coulomb correction terms, high momentum transfer.

  14. Diffuse X-ray scattering near a two-dimensional solid-liquid phase transition at the n-hexane-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    According to experimental data on X-ray scattering and reflectometry with synchrotron radiation, a twodimensional crystallization phase transition in a monolayer of melissic acid at the n-hexane-water interface with a decrease in the temperature occurs after a wetting transition.

  15. Diffuse X-ray scattering near a two-dimensional solid–liquid phase transition at the n-hexane–water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhonov, A. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Moscow (Russian Federation). Kapitza Inst. for Physical Problems

    2016-09-01

    According to experimental data on X-ray scattering and reflectometry with synchrotron radiation, a twodimensional crystallization phase transition in a monolayer of melissic acid at the n-hexane–water interface with a decrease in the temperature occurs after a wetting transition.

  16. Effect of shape of scatterers and plasma frequency on the complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathollahi Khalkhali, T., E-mail: tfathollahi@aeoi.org.ir; Bananej, A.

    2016-12-16

    In this study, we analyze complete photonic band gap properties of two-dimensional dielectric-plasma photonic crystals with triangular and square lattices, composed of plasma rods with different geometrical shapes in the anisotropic tellurium background. Using the finite-difference time-domain method we discuss the maximization of the complete photonic band gap width as a function of plasma frequency and plasma rods parameters with different shapes and orientations. The numerical results demonstrate that our proposed structures represent significantly wide complete photonic band gaps in comparison to previously studied dielectric-plasma photonic crystals. - Highlights: • In this paper, we have investigated plasma photonic crystals. • Plasma is a kind of dispersive medium with its equivalent refractive index related to the frequency of an incident EM wave. • In this work, our simulations are performed using the Meep implementation of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. • For this study, the lattice structures investigated are triangular and square. • Extensive calculations reveal that almost all of these structures represent wide complete band gaps.

  17. The Two-dimensional Electromagnetic Scattering from Periodic Chiral Structures and Its Finite Element Approximation%周期手性介质中二维电磁散射问题及有限元逼近

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张德悦; 马富明

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the electromagnetic scattering from periodic chiral structures. The structure is periodic in one direction and invariant in another direction. The electromagnetic fields in the chiral medium are governed by the Maxwell equations together with the Drude-Born-Fedorov equations. We simplify the problem to a two-dimensional scattering problem and we show that for all but possibly a discrete set of wave numbers, there is a unique quasi-periodic weak solution to the diffraction problem. The diffraction problem can be solved by finite element method. We also establish uniform error estimates for the finite element method and the error estimates when the truncation of the nonlocal transparent boundary operators takes place.

  18. Scattering Induced Quantum Interference of Multiple Quantum Optical States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger;

    2011-01-01

    Using a discrete mode theory for propagation of quantum optical states, we investigate the consequences of multiple scattering on the degree of quadrature entanglement and quantum interference. We report that entangled states can be created by multiple-scattering. We furthermore show that quantum...... interference induced by the transmission of quantized light through a multiple-scattering medium will persist even after averaging over an ensemble of scattering samples....

  19. Investigation of multiple scattering effects in aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, A.

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of investigations on the various aspects of multiple scattering effects on visible and infrared laser beams transversing dense fog oil aerosols contained in a chamber (4' x 4' x 9'). The report briefly describes: (1) the experimental details and measurements; (2) analytical representation of the aerosol size distribution data by two analytical models (the regularized power law distribution and the inverse modified gamma distribution); (3) retrieval of aerosol size distributions from multispectral optical depth measurements by two methods (the two and three parameter fast table search methods and the nonlinear least squares method); (4) modeling of the effects of aerosol microphysical (coagulation and evaporation) and dynamical processes (gravitational settling) on the temporal behavior of aerosol size distribution, and hence on the extinction of four laser beams with wavelengths 0.44, 0.6328, 1.15, and 3.39 micrometers; and (5) the exact and approximate formulations for four methods for computing the effects of multiple scattering on the transmittance of laser beams in dense aerosols, all of which are based on the solution of the radiative transfer equation under the small angle approximation.

  20. NEXAFS multiple scattering calculations of KO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Pedio; Z.Y.Wu; M.Benfatto; A.Mascaraque; E.Michel; C.Crotti; M.Pel

    2001-01-01

    Since many years the oxidation of alkali metals has being attracted much interest due to the catalytic properties of metal promoters and the simple electronic structure of alkali atoms.The alkali-oxides phase diagram indicates that the interaction of oxygen with alkali metals can lead to the formation of different atomic O2 ions and molecular O2 and O22- ions.Potassium superoxide has been prepared in situ and high resolution O e-edge absorption NEXAFS spectra have been measured at the VUV beam-Line at ELETTRA facility.The experimental data have been analyzed by multiple scattering approach deriving many geometrical and electronic is of the KO2 type with an O-O distance of about 1.35A and that the transition involving singleπ molecular empty state of the superoxied O2 anion has a fine structure.Multiple Scattering self consistent calculation indicates that the bond between oxygen anion adn K atom is totally ionic and that the fine structure is essentially due to solid state effects.

  1. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  2. The multiple-scattering series in few-nucleon systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baru V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We discuss under which circumstances the resummation of the multiple-scattering series is justified from an EFT point of view. The application to πd and K̅d scattering is briefly discussed.

  3. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  4. Multiple Scattering Methods in Casimir Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2007-01-01

    Multiple scattering formulations have been recently rediscovered as a method of studying the quantum vacuum or Casimir interactions between distinct bodies. The methods are hardly new, but increased computing power and advances in understanding allow us to extract information efficiently. Here we review the method in the simple context of $\\delta$-function potentials, so-called semitransparent bodies. (In the limit of strong coupling, a semitransparent boundary becomes a Dirichlet one.) After applying the method to rederive the Casimir force between two semitransparent plates and the Casimir self-stress on a semitransparent sphere, we obtain expressions for the Casimir energies between disjoint parallel semitransparent cylinders and between disjoint semitransparent spheres. Simplifications occur for weak and strong coupling. In particular, after performing a power series expansion in the ratio of the radii of the objects to the separation between them, we are able to sum the weak-coupling expansions exactly t...

  5. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  6. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  7. Scattering behaviour of a two-dimensional electron gas induced by Al composition fluctuation in AlxGa1-xN barriers in AlxGa1-xN/GaN heterostructures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yan; Shen Bo; Xu Fu-Jun; Huang Sen; Miao Zhen-Lin; Lin Fang; Yang Zhi-Jian; Zhang Guo-Yi

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports that cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements have been done to study the alloy fluctuation of the Al0.3Ca0.7N layer in Al0.3Ca0.7N/GaN heterostructures. The CL images and linescanning results demonstrate the existcnce of compositional fluctuation of Al in the Al0.3Ga0.7N barrier. A model using a δ-shape perturbation Hamilton function has been proposed to simulate the scattering probability of the two dimensional electron gases (2DEG) induced by Al composition fluctuation. Two factors, including conduction band fluctuation and polarization electric field variation, induced by the Al composition fluctuation have been taken into account. The scattering relaxation time induced by both factors has been estimated to be 0.31 ns and 0.0078 us, respectively, indicating that the variation of the piezoelectric field is dominant in the scattering of the 2DEG induced by Al fluctuation.

  8. Influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanqing Xu; Hui Li; Yongping Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo algorithm and Stokes-Mueller formalism are used to simulate the propagation behavior of polarized light in turbid media. The influence of single scattering and multiple scattering on backscattered Mueller matrix in turbid media is discussed. Single and double scattering photons form the major part of backscattered polarization patterns, while multiple scattering photons present more likely as background. Further quantitative analyses show that single scattering approximation and double scattering approxima tion are quite accurate when discussing the polarization patterns near the incident point.

  9. Multiple small-angle neutron scattering studies of anisotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, A J; Long, G G; Ilavsky, J

    2002-01-01

    Building on previous work that considered spherical scatterers and randomly oriented spheroidal scatterers, we describe a multiple small-angle neutron scattering (MSANS) analysis for nonrandomly oriented spheroids. We illustrate this with studies of the multi-component void morphologies found in plasma-spray thermal barrier coatings. (orig.)

  10. Multiple magnetic scattering in small-angle neutron scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tetsuro; Saito, Kotaro; Yano, Masao; Ito, Masaaki; Shoji, Tetsuya; Sakuma, Noritsugu; Kato, Akira; Manabe, Akira; Hashimoto, Ai; Gilbert, Elliot P; Keiderling, Uwe; Ono, Kanta

    2016-06-20

    We have investigated the influence of multiple scattering on the magnetic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from a Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. We performed sample-thickness- and neutron-wavelength-dependent SANS measurements, and observed the scattering vector dependence of the multiple magnetic scattering. It is revealed that significant multiple scattering exists in the magnetic scattering rather than the nuclear scattering of Nd-Fe-B nanocrystalline magnet. It is considered that the mean free path of the neutrons for magnetic scattering is rather short in Nd-Fe-B magnets. We analysed the SANS data by the phenomenological magnetic correlation model considering the magnetic microstructures and obtained the microstructural parameters.

  11. Experimental study of multiple scattering in anisotropic titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baelde, Aurelien; Laurent, Jérôme; Coulette, Richard; Khalifa, Warida Ben; Duclos, Daniel; Jenson, Frédéric; Fink, Mathias; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic testing of jet engine titanium alloys is of high importance for the aircraft manufacturing industry. The quality of ultrasonic non-destructive testing is severely impacted by the titanium complex microstructure. These alloys have been extensively studied and single scattering models are now well known and implemented in ultrasonic propagation simulators. In addition, titanium billets and forged parts have been known to exhibit a highly anisotropic microstructure. We studied ultrasonic wave scattering in Ti17 forged disk, through statistical analysis of the backscattered noise generated by the microstructure. More specifically, we focused on the quantification of multiple scattering relative to single scattering in the backscattered wave. To that end, we used the full matrix capture acquisition with a linear transducer array. Two phenomena were used to quantify the proportion of single scattering with respect to multiple scattering. The first is the coherent backscattering effect, used as a binary indicator of multiple scattering. The second is a repurposed version of the multiple scattering filter, recently developed on random rod forest and applied on Inconel alloys. With these methods, significant level of multiple scattering was consistently measured in Ti17 forged disks, showing that ultrasonic testing could be enhanced by filtering the multiple scattering contribution.

  12. Multiple scattering of polarized light: influence of absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, A; Voit, F; Schäfer, J; Kienle, A

    2014-06-07

    This work continues previous research about multiple scattering of polarized light propagation in turbid media, putting emphasis on the imaginary part of the scatterers' complex refractive index. The whole angle-dependent Müller matrix is evaluated by comparing results of a polarization sensitive radiative transfer solution to Maxwell theory. Turbid media of defined scatterer concentrations are modelled in three dimensions by sphere ensembles kept inside a cubic or spherical simulation volume. This study addresses the impact of absorption on polarization characteristics for selected media from low to high absorption. Besides that, effects caused by multiple and dependent scattering are shown for increasing volume concentration. In this context some unique properties associated with multiple scattering and absorption are pointed out. Further, scattering results in two dimensions are compared for examples of infinite parallel cylinders of high absorption and perpendicularly incident plane waves.

  13. Meteor forward scattering at multiple frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Sasa

    2006-08-01

    Meteor forward scattering is a well known method of detecting meteors using a radio telescope to receive signals from distant transmitters scattered from a meteor trail. The traditional way of performing the meteor forward scattering is to tune the receiver to some particular frequency to match a distant transmitter and wait for reflected signals. In this paper I will show how new technologies can be used to make a simpler digital radio telescope capable of analyzing broadband spectra from 0 to 250 MHz. Such spectra contain information about several reflections on a single meteor, which can be enough to calculate the meteor's kinetic parameters.

  14. Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Thrane, L.; Andersen, Peter E.

    2005-01-01

    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where...... multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed...... Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects into account, we are able to explain previous measurements of depth...

  15. A model for multiple scattering in GEANT4

    CERN Document Server

    Urbán, László

    2006-01-01

    We present a model to simulate the multiple scattering of charged particles in matter. The model is based on Lewis theory; it does not use the Moliere formalism. It simulates the scattering of a charged particle after a given step, computes the path length correction and the lateral displacement as well. This model is used in GEANT4.

  16. Study of multiple scattering effects in heavy ion RBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Multiple scattering effect is normally neglected in conventional Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) analysis. The backscattered particle yield normally agrees well with the theory based on the single scattering model. However, when heavy incident ions are used such as in heavy ion Rutherford backscattering (HIRBS), or the incident ion energy is reduced, multiple scattering effect starts to play a role in the analysis. In this paper, the experimental data of 6MeV C ions backscattered from a Au target are presented. In measured time of flight spectrum a small step in front of the Au high energy edge is observed. The high energy edge of the step is about 3.4 ns ahead of the Au signal which corresponds to an energy {approx} 300 keV higher than the 135 degree single scattering energy. This value coincides with the double scattering energy of C ion undergoes two consecutive 67.5 degree scattering. Efforts made to investigate the origin of the high energy step observed lead to an Monte Carlo simulation aimed to reproduce the experimental spectrum on computer. As a large angle scattering event is a rare event, two consecutive large angle scattering is extremely hard to reproduce in a random simulation process. Thus, the simulation has not found a particle scattering into 130-140 deg with an energy higher than the single scattering energy. Obviously faster algorithms and a better physical model are necessary for a successful simulation. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Multiple Scattering: Dispersion, Temperature Dependence, and Annular Pistons

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Parashar, Prachi; Cavero-Pelaez, Ines; Brevik, Iver; Ellingsen, Simen A

    2010-01-01

    We review various applications of the multiple scattering approach to the calculation of Casimir forces between separate bodies, including dispersion, wedge geometries, annular pistons, and temperature dependence. Exact results are obtained in many cases.

  18. MULTIPLE SCATTERING IN THE EXAFS OF CALCIUM PHOSPHATES

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the EXAFS spectra of hydroxyapatite, brushite and monetite, recorded above the calcium K edge, requires the inclusion of multiple scattering by phosphorus atoms at 0.37 nm, from calcium. If multiple scattering is not included, some variable parameters acquire physically unreasonable values. Atomic radii never had to be varied by more than 0.01 nm from their values in the accepted crystal structures.

  19. Multiple scattering approach to X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the state of the art of the theoretical background needed for analyzing X-ray absorption spectra in the whole energy range. The multiple-scattering (MS) theory is presented in detail with some applications on real systems. We also describe recent progress in performing geometrical fitting of the XANES (X-ray absorption near-edge structure) energy region and beyond using a full multiple-scattering approach.

  20. Forward scattering of meteors at multiple frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, S.; Netterfield, C. B.

    2006-05-01

    Forward scattering of meteors is a method of meteor detection using a radio receiver to detect signals coming from the transmitters not in line-of-sight. When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere an ionized trail which can reflect radio waves is created. If the meteor, the transmitter and the receiver are in "good" geometrical alignment such that coherent scattering is possible, the receiver will be able to detect a signal reflected from the meteor. A digital radio spectrometer working between 50 and 150MHz and connected to a small wide-frequency, wide-beam antenna can be used as a detector. Its spectral resolution is better than 50kHz and able to resolve individual FM radio and TV stations. In this paper we shall give an overview of the apparatus used to detect meteors at FM frequencies. We will also explain how we can extract the kinetic parameters of the meteoroid. Some preliminary results will be presented.

  1. Method for measuring multiple scattering corrections between liquid scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, J. M.; Glenn, A. M.; Keefer, G. J.; Wurtz, R. E.

    2016-07-01

    A time-of-flight method is proposed to experimentally quantify the fractions of neutrons scattering between scintillators. An array of scintillators is characterized in terms of crosstalk with this method by measuring a californium source, for different neutron energy thresholds. The spectral information recorded by the scintillators can be used to estimate the fractions of neutrons multiple scattering. With the help of a correction to Feynman's point model theory to account for multiple scattering, these fractions can in turn improve the mass reconstruction of fissile materials under investigation.

  2. A new screening length for small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikegami, Seiji, E-mail: double1892@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    A new screening length formulation that incorporates the charge state of the projectile is applied to multiple scattering. The present screening length is derived from an interatomic potential that accounts for electron–electron, electron–nuclear, and nuclear–nuclear interactions using the Thomas–Fermi–Moliere potential. We examined the charge state effect on multiple scattering angular distributions. We successfully estimate the charge state effects and predict angular distributions. The present screening length is compared with many low energy ion scattering experiments and with O’Connor–Biersack prediction values.

  3. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  4. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  5. 基于激光二维散射原理在线测量表面粗糙度%On-line Measurement of Surface Roughness Based on Laser Two-dimensional Scattering Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋佳; 赵玉华; 韩冬; 余平; 刘明珠

    2011-01-01

    Referring to the complicated operating and bad field measuring of existing surface roughness, an on-line measurement method is presented based on laser two-dimensional scattering principle. The method proposed can not only measure the surface roughness parameters, but also figure out the surface topography. In this measurement, by using non-diffraction laser beam as light source and high accuracy CCD camera as displacement sensor, and applying the method of signal processing of surface roughness by Matlab, real-time measurement of surface roughness can be realized.This method is realized with modularized design, and has the advantages of simple structure, powerful real-time processing capability, high-precision measurement, visual display, and easy operation, etc.%针对现有零件表面粗糙度测量仪器操作复杂,现场测量能力差的问题,提出一种基于激光二维散射的在线测量方法,该方法不仅可以测量表面粗糙度的统计参数,而且可以反映出表面纹理的形貌特征.在测量中,用无衍射激光光束作光源,用高精度的CCD摄像机作位移传感器,利用Matlab进行表面粗糙度测量数据采集与处理,使表面粗糙度在线检测成为可能.该方法运用模块化设计,具有结构简单、实时处理能力强、测试精度高、显示结果直观、不会划伤被测件等优点.

  6. 周期子波在二维声辐射和声散射中的应用%On Reducing High Computational Cost with Periodic Wavelets in Solving Two-Dimensional Acoustic Radiation and Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文立华; 张京妹; 孙进才

    2001-01-01

    Traditional methods for solving acoustic problems in engineering often require the solution of non-symmetric full matrix, whose dimension may be even higher than 10 000 and thus computational cost becomes quite high. To overcome this serious shortcoming, we propose a new periodic wavelet approach for the Helmholtz integral-equation solution of two-dimensional acoustic radiation and scattering over curved computation domain. We expand the boundary quantities in terms of periodic and orthogonal wavelets and we obtain the algebraic equations needed for solving the acoustic problems with Dirichlet, Neumann and mixed conditions. We evaluate the coefficients with fast wavelet transform. The advantage of the new approach is a highly sparse matrix system. We compare the numerical results obtained with our new approach, boundary element method or analytical solutions; the numerical results, as given in Table 1, show that our new approach converges rapidly and is of good accuracy.%提出了一种新的求解二维Helmholtz积分方程的方法。它通过将边界量用周期子波展开,将Helmholtz积分方程化为一组代数方程求解。即可求解Dirichlet、Neumann问题,也可求解混合边值问题。方程的系数形成可用快速子波变换。用该方法形成的Helmholtz积分方程的系数矩阵是一稀疏矩阵。这样大大提高了计算效率。本文算例表明:该方法收敛快,精度高,相同的精度下,本文方法求解的未知量大大少于边界元所用未知量。

  7. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  8. Evaluation of radar multiple scattering effects in Cloudsat configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Battaglia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available MonteCarlo simulations have been performed to evaluate the importance of multiple scattering effects in co- and cross-polar radar returns for 94 GHz radars in Cloudsat and airborne configurations. Thousands of vertically structured profiles derived from some different cloud resolving models are used as a test-bed. Mie theory is used to derive the single scattering properties of the atmospheric hydrometeors. Multiple scattering effects in the co-polar channel (reflectivity enhancement are particularly elusive, especially in airborne configuration. They can be quite consistent in satellite configurations, like CloudSat, especially in regions of high attenuation and in the presence of highly forward scattering layers associated with snow and graupel particles. When the cross polar returns are analysed [but note that CloudSat does not measure any linear depolarization ratio (LDR hereafter], high LDR values appear both in space and in airborne configurations. The LDR signatures are footprints of multiple scattering effects; although depolarization values as high as −5 dB can be generated including non-spherical particles in single scattering modelling, multiple scattering computations can produce values close to complete depolarization (i.e. LDR=0 dB. Our simulated LDR profiles from an air-borne platform well reproduce, in a simple frame, some experimental observations collected during the Wakasa Bay experiment. Since LDR instrumental uncertainties were not positively accounted for during that experiment, more focused campaigns with air-borne polarimetric radar are recommended. Multiple scattering effects can be important for CloudSat applications like rainfall and snowfall retrievals since single scattering based algorithms will be otherwise burdened by positive biases.

  9. Markov chain solution of photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Northrop, William F; Li, Xuesong

    2016-11-14

    This work introduces a Markov Chain solution to model photon multiple scattering through turbid slabs via anisotropic scattering process, i.e., Mie scattering. Results show that the proposed Markov Chain model agree with commonly used Monte Carlo simulation for various mediums such as medium with non-uniform phase functions and absorbing medium. The proposed Markov Chain solution method successfully converts the complex multiple scattering problem with practical phase functions into a matrix form and solves transmitted/reflected photon angular distributions by matrix multiplications. Such characteristics would potentially allow practical inversions by matrix manipulation or stochastic algorithms where widely applied stochastic methods such as Monte Carlo simulations usually fail, and thus enable practical diagnostics reconstructions such as medical diagnosis, spray analysis, and atmosphere sciences.

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  11. Multiple scattering and energy loss in semi-inclusive deeply inelastic eA scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Xiaofeng

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the multiple scattering effect on single hadron production in semi-inclusive lepton-nucleus deeply inelastic scattering. We show that the quantum interference of multiple scattering amplitudes leads to suppression in hadron productions. At the leading power in medium length, the suppression can be approximately expressed in terms of a shift in $z$ of the fragmentation function $D(z)$, and could be therefore interpreted as the collisional energy loss. We compare our calculation with existing experimental data. We also discuss the effect of quark mass on the suppression. Our approach can be extended to other observables in hadronic collisions.

  12. Multiple heart-cutting and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry for the characterization of the antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra, Koen; Vanhoenacker, Gerd; Vandenheede, Isabel; Steenbeke, Mieke; Joseph, Maureen; Sandra, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates might be the magic bullets referred to by Paul Ehrlich over 100 years ago. Together with a huge therapeutic potential, these molecules come with a structural complexity that drives state-of-the-art chromatography and mass spectrometry to its limits. The use of multiple heart-cutting (mLC-LC) and comprehensive (LC×LC) multidimensional LC in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of the lysine conjugated antibody-drug conjugate ado-trastuzumab emtansine, commercialized as Kadcyla, is presented. By combining protein and peptide measurements, attributes such as drug loading, drug distribution and drug conjugation sites can be assessed in an elegant manner.

  13. About multiple scattering of high energy protons in crystal deflectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taratin, A.M., E-mail: alexander.taratin@cern.ch [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Scandale, W. [CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratoire de l’Accelerateur Lineaire (LAL), Universite Paris Sud Orsay, Orsay (France); INFN Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2015-07-15

    The process of multiple scattering of high energy protons in a silicon crystal at its amorphous orientation was studied by simulation of proton trajectories in the model of binary collisions and by a straight simulation of the sequences of proton collisions with atoms when their impact parameters are randomly and uniformly distributed on the symmetry cell for a given crystallography direction. The value of the RMS deflection of multiple scattering obtained by the simulation is in a good agreement with the experiment and more than 15% larger than it follows from the Moliere theory. The obtained RMS deflection used in the Gaussian approach of multiple scattering well describes dechanneling of protons in the frame of the planar potential model. Different number of proton collisions with atoms occurs along the same crystal length for different crystal orientations. However, the change of the collision number is compensated by the corresponding change of the mean square deflection in a single collision. Therefore, multiple scattering is the same for different crystal orientations. The generator of multiple scattering for amorphous crystal orientations was proposed.

  14. Approach for simultaneous measurement of two-dimensional angular distribution of charged particles. III. Fine focusing of wide-angle beams in multiple lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Daimon, Hiroshi; Tóth, László; Matsui, Fumihiko

    2007-04-01

    This paper provides a way of focusing wide-angle charged-particle beams in multiple lens systems. In previous papers [H. Matsuda , Phys. Rev. E 71, 066503 (2005); 74, 036501 (2006)], it was shown that an ellipsoidal mesh, combined with electrostatic lenses, enables correction of spherical aberration over wide acceptance angles up to ±60° . In this paper, practical situations where ordinary electron lenses are arranged behind the wide-angle electrostatic lenses are taken into account using ray tracing calculation. For practical realization of the wide-angle lens systems, the acceptance angle is set to ±50° . We note that the output beams of the wide-angle electrostatic lenses have somewhat large divergence angles which cause unacceptable or non-negligible spherical aberration in additional lenses. A solution to this problem is presented showing that lens combinations to cancel spherical aberration are available, whereby wide-angle charged-particle beams can be finely focused with considerably reduced divergence angles less than ±5° .

  15. Efficient light propagation for multiple anisotropic volume scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Realistic rendering of participating media like clouds requires multiple anisotropic light scattering. This paper presents a propagation approximation for light scattered into M direction bins, which reduces the ``ray effect`` problem in the traditional ``discrete ordinates`` method. For a volume of n{sup 3} elements, it takes O(M n{sup 3} log n + M{sup 2} n{sup 3}) time and O(M n{sup 3}) space.

  16. Numerical modelling of multiple scattering between two elastical particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1998-01-01

    in suspension have been studied extensively since Foldy's formulation of his theory for isotropic scattering by randomly distributed scatterers. However, a number of important problems related to multiple scattering are still far from finding their solutions. A particular, but still unsolved, problem...... is higher than 20 g/l of sand particles. This paper reports an attempt to illuminate and to solve the proximity threshold question, by an in-depth numerical study of the interaction of ultrasonic signals with two canonically shaped elastic particles. Introductory experimental results seem to create evidence...

  17. Dirichlet-to-Neumann boundary conditions for multiple scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Marcus J.; Kirsch, Christoph

    2004-12-01

    A Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) condition is derived for the numerical solution of time-harmonic multiple scattering problems, where the scatterer consists of several disjoint components. It is obtained by combining contributions from multiple purely outgoing wave fields. The DtN condition yields an exact non-reflecting boundary condition for the situation, where the computational domain and its exterior artificial boundary consist of several disjoint components. Because each sub-scatterer can be enclosed by a separate artificial boundary, the computational effort is greatly reduced and becomes independent of the relative distances between the different sub-domains. The DtN condition naturally fits into a variational formulation of the boundary-value problem for use with the finite element method. Moreover, it immediately yields as a by-product an exact formula for the far-field pattern of the scattered field. Numerical examples show that the DtN condition for multiple scattering is as accurate as the well-known DtN condition for single scattering problems [J. Comput. Phys. 82 (1989) 172; Numerical Methods for Problems in Infinite Domains, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1992], while being more efficient due to the reduced size of the computational domain.

  18. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  19. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  20. Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N

    2011-04-29

    Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.

  1. Monte Carlo simulations of multiple scattering effects in laser assisted free-free scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deharak, B. A.; Savich, J. L.; Roberts, H. M.; Brown, E. G.; McGill, M. R.; Kim, B. N.; Weaver, C. M.; Martin, N. L. S.

    2016-05-01

    We have conducted a series of Monte Carlo simulations of laser assisted free-free scattering experiments. The simulations make use of Kroll-Watson approximation to account for the effects of the laser field on the scattering process. The parameters for these simulations are believed to mimic the experimental conditions of the work reported by Wallbank and Holmes, particularly the target number density. The simulations account for the effects multiple scattering (i.e., the scattering of a single incident electron from multiple target atoms). We present a comparison of the results of these simulations to the experimental results of Wallbank and Holmes. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. PHY-0855040 (NLSM) and PHY-1402899 (BAd).

  2. An empirical correction for moderate multiple scattering in super-heterodyne light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botin, Denis; Mapa, Ludmila Marotta; Schweinfurth, Holger; Sieber, Bastian; Wittenberg, Christopher; Palberg, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Frequency domain super-heterodyne laser light scattering is utilized in a low angle integral measurement configuration to determine flow and diffusion in charged sphere suspensions showing moderate to strong multiple scattering. We introduce an empirical correction to subtract the multiple scattering background and isolate the singly scattered light. We demonstrate the excellent feasibility of this simple approach for turbid suspensions of transmittance T ≥ 0.4. We study the particle concentration dependence of the electro-kinetic mobility in low salt aqueous suspension over an extended concentration regime and observe a maximum at intermediate concentrations. We further use our scheme for measurements of the self-diffusion coefficients in the fluid samples in the absence or presence of shear, as well as in polycrystalline samples during crystallization and coarsening. We discuss the scope and limits of our approach as well as possible future applications.

  3. Quantum interferences induced by multiple scattering paths of the electron prior to emission in large molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agueny, H.; Makhoute, A.; Tökési, K.; Dubois, A.; Hansen, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    We theoretically investigate electron emission process from a dimer generated by swift highly charged ions. The process under consideration is dealt with a non-perturbative approach by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation on a two-dimensional spatial grid. Numerical calculations show rich structures related to the multiple scattering paths of the electron prior to emission. This manifests by the emergence of additional oscillations with high-frequency superimposed on the Young-type oscillatory structure in the observed electron-ejected spectrum. This is not the case when calculations are performed based on the superposition principle, in which the final wave function is just a coherent sum of component wave functions described the electron emission from two-independent atoms. Within this assumption, only a direct electron emission process is taken into account. We find that contributions arising from these multiple scattering paths modify the dynamic electron emission process, and therefore, show the incorrect applicability of the above-mentioned principle, in concordance with the recent findings based on a simple three-slit interference experiment, reported in Sawant et al. (2014).

  4. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  5. Quantum Interference and Entanglement Induced by Multiple Scattering of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Mortensen, Asger; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We report on the effects of quantum interference induced by the transmission of an arbitrary number of optical quantum states through a multiple-scattering medium. We identify the role of quantum interference on the photon correlations and the degree of continuous variable entanglement between tw...

  6. Multiple photon effects in $pp$ scattering at SSC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Delaney, D B; Shio, C; Siopsis, G; Ward, B F L

    1992-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program SSCYFS2 is used in conjunction with available parton distribution functions to calculate the effects of multiple photon radiation on pp scattering at SSC energies. Effects relevant to precision SSC physics such as Higgs discovery and exploration are illustrated.

  7. Quantum noise memory effect of multiple scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Lodahl, P

    2005-01-01

    We investigate frequency correlations in multiple scattered light that are present in the quantum fluctuations. The memory effect for quantum and classical noise is compared, and found to have markedly different frequency scaling, which was confirmed in a recent experiment. Furthermore, novel mesoscopic correlations are predicted that depend on the photon statistics of the incoming light.

  8. Multiple scattering of polarized light in a turbid medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorodnichev, E. E.; Kuzovlev, A. I.; Rogozkin, D. B.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that multiple scattering of polarized light in a turbid medium can be represented as independent propagation of three basic modes: intensity and linearly and circularly polarized modes. Weak interaction between the basic modes can be described by perturbation theory and gives rise to "ov

  9. Geant4 models for simulation of multiple scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanchenko, V N; Maire, M; Urban, L

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress in development of single and multiple scattering models within the Geant4 toolkit is presented. Different options available to users are discussed. The comparisons with the data are shown. The trade of precision versus CPU performance is discussed with the focus on LHC detectors simulation

  10. Improved Monte Carlo model for multiple scattering calculations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei Cai; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    The coupling between the Monte Carlo (MC) method and geometrical optics to improve accuracy is investigated.The results obtained show improved agreement with previous experimental data,demonstrating that the MC method,when coupled with simple geometrical optics,can simulate multiple scattering with enhanced fidelity.

  11. Quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Propagating quadrature squeezed light through a multiple scattering random medium is found to induce pronounced spatial quantum correlations that have no classical analogue. The correlations are revealed in the number of photons transported through the sample that can be measured from the intensity...

  12. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  13. Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.

  14. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  15. Fourier domain multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas E; Giacomelli, Michael G; Brown, William J; Wax, Adam

    2013-12-01

    We have implemented multispectral multiple scattering low coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) with Fourier domain data collection. The ms2/LCI system is designed to localize features with spectroscopic contrast with millimeter resolution up to 1 cm deep in scattering samples by using photons that have undergone multiple low-angle (forward) scattering events. Fourier domain detection both increases the data acquisition speed of the system and gives access to rich spectroscopic information, compared to the previous single channel, time-domain implementation. Separate delivery and detection angular apertures reduce collection of the diffuse background signal in order to isolate localized spectral features from deeper in scattering samples than would be possible with traditional spectroscopic optical coherence tomography. Light from a supercontinuum source is used to acquire absorption spectra of chromophores in the visible range within a tissue-like scattering phantom. An intensity modulation and digital lock-in detection scheme is implemented to mitigate relative intensity and spectral noise inherent in supercontinuum sources. The technical parameters of the system and comparative analysis are presented.

  16. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Timothy R; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Park, YongKeun; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2013-01-01

    Optical transmission through complex media such as biological tissue is fundamentally limited by multiple light scattering. Precise control of the optical wavefield potentially holds the key to advancing a broad range of light-based techniques and applications for imaging or optical delivery. We present a simple and robust digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) implementation for suppressing multiple light scattering. Utilizing wavefront shaping via a spatial light modulator (SLM), we demonstrate its turbidity-suppression capability by reconstructing the image of a complex two-dimensional wide-field target through a highly scattering medium. Employing an interferometer with a Sagnac-like ring design, we successfully overcome the challenging alignment and wavefront-matching constraints in DOPC, reflecting the requirement that the forward- and reverse-propagation paths through the turbid medium be identical. By measuring the output response to digital distortion of the SLM write pattern, we validate the sub-wavelength sensitivity of the system.

  17. Evaluation of Influence of Multiple Scattering Effect in Light-Scattering-Based Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Sheng-Hua; SUN Zhi-Wei

    2007-01-01

    The extinction cross sections of a system containing two particles are calculated by the T-matrix method, and the results are compared with those of two single particles with single-scattering approximation. The necessity of the correction of the refractive indices of water and polystyrene for different incident wavelengths is particularly addressed in the calculation. By this means, the volume fractions allowed for certain accuracy requirements of single-scattering approximation in the light scattering experiment can be evaluated. The volume fractions calculated with corrected refractive indices are compared with those obtained with fixed refractive indices which have been rather commonly used, showing that fixed refractive indices may cause significant error in evaluating multiple scattering effect. The results also give a simple criterion for selecting the incident wavelength and particle size to avoid the 'blind zone' in the turbidity measurement, where the turbidity change is insensitive to aggregation of two particles.

  18. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  19. Charged Particle Multiplicities in Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, S; Andreev, V; Andrieu, B; Appuhn, R D; Babaev, A; Ban, Y; Baranov, P S; Barrelet, E; Barschke, R; Bartel, Wulfrin; Barth, Monique; Bassler, U; Beck, H P; Behrend, H J; Belousov, A; Berger, C; Bernardi, G; Bertrand-Coremans, G H; Besançon, M; Beyer, R; Biddulph, P; Bispham, P; Bizot, J C; Blobel, Volker; Borras, K; Botterweck, F; Boudry, V; Braemer, A; Braunschweig, W; Brisson, V; Bruel, P; Bruncko, Dusan; Brune, C R; Buchholz, R; Buniatian, A Yu; Burke, S; Burton, M; Bähr, J; Büngener, L; Bürger, J; Büsser, F W; Calvet, D; Campbell, A J; Carli, T; Charlet, M; Chechelnitskii, S; Chernyshov, V; Clarke, D; Clegg, A B; Clerbaux, B; Cocks, S P; Contreras, J G; Cormack, C; Coughlan, J A; Courau, A; Cousinou, M C; Cozzika, G; Criegee, L; Cussans, D G; Cvach, J; Dagoret, S; Dainton, J B; Dau, W D; Daum, K; David, M; Davis, C L; De Wolf, E A; Delcourt, B; Di Nezza, P; Dirkmann, M; Dixon, P; Dlugosz, W; Dollfus, C; Dowell, John D; Dreis, H B; Droutskoi, A; Duhm, H; Dünger, O; Ebert, J; Ebert, T R; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eichler, R; Eisele, Franz; Eisenhandler, Eric F; Ellison, R J; Elsen, E E; Erdmann, M; Erdmann, W; Evrard, E; Fahr, A B; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Feeken, D; Felst, R; Feltesse, Joel; Ferencei, J; Ferrarotto, F; Flamm, K; Fleischer, M; Flieser, M; Flügge, G; Fomenko, A; Fominykh, B A; Formánek, J; Foster, J M; Franke, G; Fretwurst, E; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabathuler, K; Gaede, F; Garvey, J; Gayler, J; Gebauer, M; Genzel, H; Gerhards, R; Glazov, A; Goerlach, U; Gogitidze, N; Goldberg, M; Goldner, D; Golec-Biernat, Krzysztof J; González-Pineiro, B; Gorelov, I V; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T J; Griffiths, R K; Grindhammer, G; Gruber, A; Gruber, C; Grässler, Herbert; Grässler, R; Görlich, L; Haack, J; Hadig, T; Haidt, Dieter; Hajduk, L; Hampel, M; Haynes, W J; Heinzelmann, G; Henderson, R C W; Henschel, H; Herynek, I; Hess, M F; Hewitt, K; Hildesheim, W; Hiller, K H; Hilton, C D; Hladky, J; Hoeger, K C; Hoffmann, D; Holtom, T; Hoppner, M; Horisberger, R P; Hudgson, V L; Hufnagel, H; Hütte, M; Ibbotson, M; Itterbeck, H; Jacholkowska, A; Jacobsson, C; Jaffré, M; Janoth, J; Jansen, T; Johnson, D P; Jung, H; Jönsson, L B; Kalmus, Peter I P; Kander, M; Kant, D; Kaschowitz, R; Kathage, U; Katzy, J M; Kaufmann, H H; Kaufmann, O; Kazarian, S; Kenyon, Ian Richard; Kermiche, S; Keuker, C; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Knies, G; Kolanski, H; Kole, F; Kolya, S D; Korbel, V; Korn, M; Kostka, P; Kotelnikov, S K; Krasny, M W; Krehbiel, H; Krämerkämper, T; Krücker, D; Kuhlen, M; Kurca, T; Kurzhofer, J; Köhler, T; Köhne, J H; Küster, H; Lacour, D; Laforge, B; Lander, R; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Langenegger, U; Laporte, J F; Lebedev, A; Lehner, F; Levonian, S; Lindström, G; Lindstrøm, M; Link, J; Linsel, F; Lipinski, J; List, B; Lobo, G; Loch, P; Lomas, J W; Lubimov, V; Lüke, D; López, G C; Magnussen, N; Malinovskii, E I; Mani, S; Maracek, R; Marage, P; Marks, J; Marshall, R; Martens, J; Martin, G; Martin, R D; Martyn, H U; Martyniak, J; Mavroidis, A; Maxfield, S J; McMahon, S J; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meyer, A; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Meyer, P O; Migliori, A; Mikocki, S; Milstead, D; Moeck, J; Moreau, F; Morris, J V; Mroczko, E; Murín, P; Müller, G; Müller, K; Nagovitsin, V; Nahnhauer, R; Naroska, Beate; Naumann, T; Negri, I; Newman, P R; Newton, D; Neyret, D; Nguyen, H K; Nicholls, T C; Niebergall, F; Niebuhr, C B; Niedzballa, C; Niggli, H; Nisius, R; Nowak, G; Noyes, G W; Nyberg-Werther, M; Oakden, M N; Oberlack, H; Olsson, J E; Ozerov, D; Palmen, P; Panaro, E; Panitch, A; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pawletta, H; Peppel, E; Phillips, J P; Pieuchot, A; Pitzl, D; Pope, G; Prell, S; Pérez, E; Rabbertz, K; Reimer, P; Reinshagen, S; Rick, Hartmut; Riech, V; Riedlberger, J; Riepenhausen, F; Riess, S; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S M; Robmann, P; Roloff, H E; Roosen, R; Rosenbauer, K; Rostovtsev, A A; Rouse, F; Royon, C; Rusakov, S V; Rybicki, K; Rädel, G; Rüter, K; Sankey, D P C; Schacht, P; Schiek, S; Schleif, S; Schleper, P; Schmidt, D; Schmidt, G; Schröder, V; Schuhmann, E; Schwab, B; Schöning, A; Sefkow, F; Seidel, M; Sell, R; Semenov, A A; Shekelian, V I; Shevyakov, I; Shtarkov, L N; Siegmon, G; Siewert, U; Sirois, Y; Skillicorn, Ian O; Smirnov, P; Smith, J R; Solochenko, V; Soloviev, Yu V; Specka, A E; Spiekermann, J; Spielman, S; Spitzer, H; Squinabol, F; Starosta, R; Steenbock, M; Steffen, P; Steinberg, R; Steiner, H; Steinhart, J; Stella, B; Stellberger, A; Stier, J; Stiewe, J; Stolze, K; Straumann, U; Struczinski, W; Stösslein, U; Sutton, J P; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tasevsky, M; Theissen, J; Thiebaux, C; Thompson, G; Truöl, P; Tsipolitis, G; Turnau, J; Tutas, J; Uelkes, P; Usik, A; Valkár, S; Valkárová, A; Vallée, C; Van Esch, P; Van Mechelen, P; Van den Plas, D; Vazdik, Ya A; Verrecchia, P; Villet, G; Wacker, K; Wagener, A; Wagener, M; Walther, A; Waugh, B; Weber, G; Weber, M; Wegener, D; Wegner, A; Wengler, T; Werner, M; West, L R; Wiesand, S; Wilksen, T; Willard, S; Winde, M; Winter, G G; Wittek, C; Wobisch, M; Wünsch, E; Zarbock, D; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A S; Zini, P; Zomer, F; Zsembery, J; Zuber, K; Zur Nedden, M; Zácek, J; de Roeck, A; von Schlippe, W

    1996-01-01

    Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic ep scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with $W$ and $Q^2$ of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, $e^+e^-$ annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the Negative Binomial and Lognormal distributions are presented.

  20. Diffusion and multiple anisotropic scattering for global illumination in clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N L; Schussman, G; Miyazaki, R; Iwasaki, K; Nishita, T

    2003-10-14

    The diffusion method is a good approximation inside the dense core of a cloud, but not at the more tenuous boundary regions. Also, it breaks down in regions where the density of scattering droplets is zero. We have enhanced it by using hardware cell projection volume rendering at cloud border voxels to account for the straight line light transport across these empty regions. We have also used this hardware volume rendering at key voxels in the low-density boundary regions to account for the multiple anisotropic scattering of the environment.

  1. Correction to the Moliere's formula for multiple scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, R N

    2008-01-01

    The quasiclassical correction to the Moliere's formula for multiple scattering is derived. The consideration is based on the scattering amplitude, obtained with the first quasiclassical correction taken into account for arbitrary localized but not spherically symmetric potential. Unlike the leading term, the correction to the Moliere's formula contains the target density $n$ and thickness $L$ not only in the combination $nL$ (areal density). Therefore, this correction can be reffered to as the bulk density correction. It turns out that the bulk density correction is small even for high density. This result explains the wide region of applicability of the Moliere's formula.

  2. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  3. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  4. Multiple scattering and N-body approaches to nuclear reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.

    1983-02-01

    The relationship between conventional multiple scattering approaches and the recently developed N-body approaches to nuclear reactions is considered with a view towards elastic scattering applications. Connectivity expansions in the N-body approach and multiple scattering expansions in the Watson approach are developed by a common technique so that a comparison of the physical content of each can be made. In the N-body case this leads to a new derivation of the equations of Bencze, Redish, and Sloan in both particle-labelled and partition-labelled form and this yields new insight into minimal dimensionality of these equations and into the role of channel coupling schemes within this formulation. The relative simplicity and generality with which these results are obtained is designed to be easily understood by those unfamiliar with N-body formalisms. The two approaches are contrasted first for the three-particle problem and subsequently for the many-body problem. We argue that a strict adherence to the connected-kernel property which is advantageous for the three-particle problem may not be so advantageous for the many-body elastic scattering problem. Undesirable physical characteristics of the connectivity expansion for elastic scattering are identified and their rectification is discussed. The off-shell transformation associated with the N-body approach is examined critically. The origin of the multiplicity of N-body coupling schemes is elucidated. It is shown that a modified concept of connectivity, called inclusive connectivity, can be introduced to guide expansions which can be truncated in a physically meaningful way. The inclusive connectivity expansion is seen to be identical to the spectator expansion for an elementary projectile but differs in the case of a composite projectile.

  5. A New Three-Dimensional Track Fit with Multiple Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Schöning, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long range correlations can be ignored, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significant better performance than a single helix fit. The tri...

  6. Electronic states of doped semiconductors: A multiple scattering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A.; Serre, J.

    1983-03-01

    The electronic structure of doped (and compensated) semiconductors is studied by using the Klauder's best multiple-scattering approximation. Electron correlations are also included. It is shown that as the impurity concentration is decreased, the band tail gradually splits off from the main band giving an impurity band. The domains of existence of extended states and localized states have been recognized by analyzing the shape of spectral densities. Lastly, our results are confronted with various experiments.

  7. Multiple-scattering theory. New developments and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Arthur

    2007-12-04

    Multiple-scattering theory (MST) is a very efficient technique for calculating the electronic properties of an assembly of atoms. It provides explicitly the Green function, which can be used in many applications such as magnetism, transport and spectroscopy. This work gives an overview on recent developments of multiple-scattering theory. One of the important innovations is the multiple scattering implementation of the self-interaction correction approach, which enables realistic electronic structure calculations of systems with localized electrons. Combined with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), this method can be applied for studying the electronic structure of alloys and as well as pseudo-alloys representing charge and spin disorder. This formalism is extended to finite temperatures which allows to investigate phase transitions and thermal fluctuations in correlated materials. Another novel development is the implementation of the self-consistent non-local CPA approach, which takes into account charge correlations around the CPA average and chemical short range order. This formalism is generalized to the relativistic treatment of magnetically ordered systems. Furthermore, several improvements are implemented to optimize the computational performance and to increase the accuracy of the KKR Green function method. The versatility of the approach is illustrated in numerous applications. (orig.)

  8. Few-Photon Scattering in Dispersive Waveguides with Multiple Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Kocabaş, Şükrü Ekin

    2016-01-01

    We extend the Krylov subspace based time dependent numerical simulation technique for a qubit interacting with photons in a waveguide to the multiple qubit case. We analyze photon scattering from two qubits analytically and derive expressions for the bound states in the continuum (BIC). We show how the BIC can be excited. We use the BIC in a recent Pauli Z gate proposal involving decoherence free subspaces and obtain the gate fidelity as a function of the gate parameters. The techniques presented in the paper are useful for investigating the time evolution of quantum gates and other many-body systems with multiple quenches in the Hamiltonian.

  9. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  10. Application of multiple scattering theory to lower-energy elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R.; Elster, C.; Thaler, R.M.; Weppner, S.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States) Institute of Nuclear Particle Physics, and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States) Physics Department, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1995-03-01

    The optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at 65 meV are calculated for [sup 12]C, [sup 16]O, [sup 28]Si, [sup 40]Ca, [sup 56]Fe, [sup 90]Zr, and [sup 208]Pb in first-order multiple scattering theory, following the prescription of the spectator expansion, where the only inputs are the free nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials, the nuclear densities, and the nuclear mean field as derived from microscopic nuclear structure calculations. These potentials are used to predict differential cross sections, analyzing powers, and spin rotation functions for neutron and proton scattering at 65 MeV projectile energy and compared with available experimental data. The theoretical curves are in very good agreement with the data. The modification of the propagator due to the coupling of the struck nucleon to the residual nucleus is seen to be significant at this energy and invariably improves the congruence of theoretical prediction and measurement.

  11. Application of multiple scattering theory to lower-energy elastic nucleon-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1995-03-01

    The optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at 65 meV are calculated for 12C, 16O, 28Si, 40Ca, 56Fe, 90Zr, and 208Pb in first-order multiple scattering theory, following the prescription of the spectator expansion, where the only inputs are the free nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials, the nuclear densities, and the nuclear mean field as derived from microscopic nuclear structure calculations. These potentials are used to predict differential cross sections, analyzing powers, and spin rotation functions for neutron and proton scattering at 65 MeV projectile energy and compared with available experimental data. The theoretical curves are in very good agreement with the data. The modification of the propagator due to the coupling of the struck nucleon to the residual nucleus is seen to be significant at this energy and invariably improves the congruence of theoretical prediction and measurement.

  12. Multiple Scattering of Waves in 3D Crystals (Natural or Photonic) Formed by Anisotropically Scattering Centers

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, V G

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the refraction and diffraction of waves in three-dimensional crystals formed by anisotropically scattering centers. The partial wave expansion method is used to consider the effect of multiple rescattering of waves by centers composing a crystal. The expression for the refractive index of a crystal is derived. It is shown that instead of the diagonal elements of the scattering matrix $\\mathbf{T}$, appearing in the expression for the refractive index of a chaotic medium, the derived expression includes the diagonal elements of the reaction matrix $\\mathbf{K}$. This fact is taken into account in writing the equations describing the dynamical diffraction of waves in a crystal. The results can be of interest for research into, e.g., diffraction of cold neutrons and photons in crystals, nanocrystalline materials, as well as for the description of parametric and diffraction radiation in electromagnetic crystals formed by anisotropically scattering centers.

  13. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  14. Coupling of Dirichlet-to-Neumann boundary condition and finite difference methods in curvilinear coordinates for multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Sebastian; Villamizar, Vianey

    2010-08-01

    The applicability of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann technique coupled with finite difference methods is enhanced by extending it to multiple scattering from obstacles of arbitrary shape. The original boundary value problem (BVP) for the multiple scattering problem is reformulated as an interface BVP. A heterogenous medium with variable physical properties in the vicinity of the obstacles is considered. A rigorous proof of the equivalence between these two problems for smooth interfaces in two and three dimensions for any finite number of obstacles is given. The problem is written in terms of generalized curvilinear coordinates inside the computational region. Then, novel elliptic grids conforming to complex geometrical configurations of several two-dimensional obstacles are constructed and approximations of the scattered field supported by them are obtained. The numerical method developed is validated by comparing the approximate and exact far-field patterns for the scattering from two circular obstacles. In this case, for a second order finite difference scheme, a second order convergence of the numerical solution to the exact solution is easily verified.

  15. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  16. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  17. Imperfect two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, William G.; Fischetti, Massimo V.

    2017-01-01

    To overcome the challenge of using two-dimensional materials for nanoelectronic devices, we propose two-dimensional topological insulator field-effect transistors that switch based on the modulation of scattering. We model transistors made of two-dimensional topological insulator ribbons accounting for scattering with phonons and imperfections. In the on-state, the Fermi level lies in the bulk bandgap and the electrons travel ballistically through the topologically protected edge states even in the presence of imperfections. In the off-state the Fermi level moves into the bandgap and electrons suffer from severe back-scattering. An off-current more than two-orders below the on-current is demonstrated and a high on-current is maintained even in the presence of imperfections. At low drain-source bias, the output characteristics are like those of conventional field-effect transistors, at large drain-source bias negative differential resistance is revealed. Complementary n- and p-type devices can be made enabling high-performance and low-power electronic circuits using imperfect two-dimensional topological insulators. PMID:28106059

  18. Simulation of two-dimensional ISAR decoys on a moving platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi Pan; Wei Wang; Qixiang Fu; Dejun Feng; Guoyu Wang

    2015-01-01

    It is potential y useful to perform deception jamming using the digital image synthesizer (DIS) since it can form a two-dimensional (2D) decoy but suffers from multiple decoys ge-neration. Inspired by the intermittent sampling repeater jamming (ISRJ), the generation of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) decoys is addressed, associated with the DIS and the ISRJ. Radar pulses are sampled intermittently and modulated by the scatter-ing model of a false target by mounting the jammer on a moving platform, and then the jamming signals are retransmitted to the radar and a train of decoys are induced after ISAR imaging. A scattering model of Yak-42 is adopted as the false-target mo-dulation model to verify the effectiveness of the jamming method based on the standard ISAR motion compensation and image for-mation procedure.

  19. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  20. On-surface radiation condition for multiple scattering of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The formulation of the on-surface radiation condition (OSRC) is extended to handle wave scattering problems in the presence of multiple obstacles. The new multiple-OSRC simultaneously accounts for the outgoing behavior of the wave fields, as well as, the multiple wave reflections between the obstacles. Like boundary integral equations (BIE), this method leads to a reduction in dimensionality (from volume to surface) of the discretization region. However, as opposed to BIE, the proposed technique leads to boundary integrals with smooth kernels. In addition, under appropriate conditions, this approach leads to approximate explicit (up to numerical integration) formulas for the solution, avoiding the need to invert any operator or matrix. As a result, the computational effort is significantly reduced. This approach may serve as a fast method to explore parameter-spaces or as an inexpensive pre-conditioner for Krylov iterative solutions of BIE.

  1. Multiple scattering of ultrasound in weakly inhomogeneous media: application to human soft tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Waves scattered by a weakly inhomogeneous random medium contain a predominant single scattering contribution as well as a multiple scattering contribution which is usually neglected, especially for imaging purposes. We propose a method, based on random matrix theory, in order to separate the single and multiple scattering contributions. The experimental set up uses an array of programmable sources/receivers placed in front of the medium. The impulse responses between every couple of transducers are measured and form a matrix. Single-scattering contributions are shown to exhibit a deterministic coherence along the antidiagonals of the array response matrix, whatever the distribution of inhomogeneities. This property is taken advantage of to discriminate single from multiple-scattered waves. This allows one to evaluate the absorption losses and the scattering losses separately, by comparing the multiple scattering intensity with a radiative transfer model. Moreover, the relative contribution of multiple scatter...

  2. Independent scattering model and velocity dispersion in trabecular bone: comparison with a multiple scattering model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haïat, G; Naili, S

    2011-02-01

    Speed of sound measurements are used clinically to assess bone strength. Trabecular bone is an attenuating composite material in which negative values of velocity dispersion have been measured; this behavior remaining poorly explained physically. The aim of this work is to describe the ultrasonic propagation in trabecular bone modeled by infinite cylinders immersed in a saturating matrix and to derive the physical determinants of velocity dispersion. An original homogenization model accounting for the coupling of independent scattering and absorption phenomena allows the computation of phase velocity and of dispersion while varying bone properties. The first step of the model consists in the computation of the attenuation coefficient at all frequencies. The second step of the model corresponds to the application of the general Kramers-Krönig relationship to derive the frequency dependence of phase velocity. The model predicts negative values of velocity dispersion in agreement with experimental results obtained in phantoms mimicking trabecular bone. In trabecular bone, only negative values of velocity dispersion are predicted by the model, which span within the range of values measured experimentally. However, the comparison of the present results with results obtained in Haiat et al. (J Acoust Soc Am 124:4047-4058, 2008) assuming multiple scattering indicates that accounting for multiple scattering phenomena leads to a better prediction of velocity dispersion in trabecular bone.

  3. Influence of Multiple Scattering on Two-Pion Correlation Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Gui-Xin; ZHANG Wei-Ning; LIU Yi-Ming; HUO Lei; ZHANG Jing-Bo

    2004-01-01

    @@ Using the relativistic quantum molecular dynamics model, we study the influence of multiple scattering on the result of two-pion correlation measurements. The scales of pion spatial distribution are larger at thermal freezeout than at chemical freeze-out. By varying the value of the parameter of cross section from 0 to 90mb, we find that the sizes of pion source measured by two-particle correlation functions are almost independent of the parameter of cross section. However, λ parameters are sensitive to the parameter of cross section.

  4. Multiple scattering of light in three-dimensional photonic quasicrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Alexandra; Wiersma, Diederik S; Wegener, Martin; von Freymann, Georg

    2009-02-01

    Recent experiments on three-dimensional icosahedral dielectric photonic quasicrystals have shown several unexpected features: transmitted femtosecond pulses developed a trailing "diffusive" exponential tail and the sum of (zeroth-order) transmittance and reflectance was well below unity. These experimental findings have previously been ascribed to sample imperfections. Here, we analyze these findings by using 3D periodic approximants of the ideal photonic quasicrystals. We show that the experimental observations can be explained in terms of multiple scattering of light within these structures, i.e., in terms of intrinsic rather than purely extrinsic quasicrystal properties.

  5. Proton radiography, nuclear cross sections and multiple Coulomb scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjue, Sky K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-04

    The principles behind proton radiography including multiple Coulomb scattering are discussed for a purely imaginary square well nucleus in the eikonal approximation. It is found that a very crude model can reproduce the angular dependence of the cross sections measured at 24 GeV/c. The largest differences are ~3% for the 4.56 mrad data, and ~4% for the 6.68 mrad data. The prospect of understanding how to model deterministically high-energy proton radiography over a very large range of energies is promising, but it should be tested more thoroughly.

  6. New electron multiple scattering distributions for Monte Carlo transport simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chibani, Omar (Haut Commissariat a la Recherche (C.R.S.), 2 Boulevard Franz Fanon, Alger B.P. 1017, Alger-Gare (Algeria)); Patau, Jean Paul (Laboratoire de Biophysique et Biomathematiques, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, Universite Paul Sabatier, 35 Chemin des Maraichers, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France))

    1994-10-01

    New forms of electron (positron) multiple scattering distributions are proposed. The first is intended for use in the conditions of validity of the Moliere theory. The second distribution takes place when the electron path is so short that only few elastic collisions occur. These distributions are adjustable formulas. The introduction of some parameters allows impositions of the correct value of the first moment. Only positive and analytic functions were used in constructing the present expressions. This makes sampling procedures easier. Systematic tests are presented and some Monte Carlo simulations, as benchmarks, are carried out. ((orig.))

  7. Scattering optical elements: stand-alone optical elements exploiting multiple light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jongchan; Park, Chunghyun; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Heon; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Optical design and fabrication techniques are crucial for making optical elements. From conventional lenses to diffractive optical elements, and to recent metasurfaces, various types of optical elements have been proposed to manipulate light where optical materials are fabricated into desired structures. Here, we propose a scattering optical element (SOE) which exploits multiple light scattering and wavefront shaping. Instead of fabricating optical materials, the SOE consists of a disordered medium and a photopolymer-based wavefront recorder, with shapes the wavefront of impinging light on demand. With the proposed stand-alone SOEs, we experimentally demonstrate control of various properties of light, including intensity, polarisation, spectral frequency and near field. Due to the tremendous freedom brought about by disordered media, the proposed approach will provide unexplored routes to manipulate arbitrary optical fields in stand-alone optical elements.

  8. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  9. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  10. Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Biagio, Claudia; Formenti, Paola; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Pangui, Edouard; Marchand, Nicolas; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-08-01

    In this study we provide a first estimate of the Aethalometer multiple scattering correction Cref for mineral dust aerosols. Cref is an empirical constant used to correct the aerosol absorption coefficient measurements for the multiple scattering artefact of the Aethalometer; i.e. the filter fibres on which aerosols are deposited scatter light and this is miscounted as absorption. The Cref at 450 and 660 nm was obtained from the direct comparison of Aethalometer data (Magee Sci. AE31) with (i) the absorption coefficient calculated as the difference between the extinction and scattering coefficients measured by a Cavity Attenuated Phase Shift Extinction analyser (CAPS PMex) and a nephelometer respectively at 450 nm and (ii) the absorption coefficient from a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) at 660 nm. Measurements were performed on seven dust aerosol samples generated in the laboratory by the mechanical shaking of natural parent soils issued from different source regions worldwide. The single scattering albedo (SSA) at 450 and 660 nm and the size distribution of the aerosols were also measured. Cref for mineral dust varies between 1.81 and 2.56 for a SSA of 0.85-0.96 at 450 nm and between 1.75 and 2.28 for a SSA of 0.98-0.99 at 660 nm. The calculated mean for dust is 2.09 (±0.22) at 450 nm and 1.92 (±0.17) at 660 nm. With this new Cref the dust absorption coefficient by the Aethalometer is about 2 % (450 nm) and 11 % (660 nm) higher than that obtained by using Cref = 2.14 at both 450 and 660 nm, as usually assumed in the literature. This difference induces a change of up to 3 % in the dust SSA at 660 nm. The Cref seems to be independent of the fine and coarse particle size fractions, and so the obtained Cref can be applied to dust both close to sources and following transport. Additional experiments performed with pure kaolinite minerals and polluted ambient aerosols indicate Cref of 2.49 (±0.02) and 2.32 (±0.01) at 450 and 660 nm (SSA = 0.96-0.97) for

  11. Two-dimensional position sensitive ionization chamber with GEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Noritaka; Noro, Tetsuo; Sakaguchi, Satoshi; Takao, Hideaki; Nishio, Yasutaka

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a multi-anode ionization chamber for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at Kyushu University. Furthermore, we are planning to construct a neutron detector with high position resolution by combining the chamber with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a neutron converter. One of purposes is the measurement of p-> , pn knockout reaction from unstable nuclei. The multi-anode ionization chamber is composed of subdivided multiple anodes, a cathode to produce an uniform electric field, and a Frisch grid. The chamber must have position sensitivity because obtaining a beam profile is required for AMS measurements, where counting loss should be avoided. Also in the case of the neutron detector, it is necessary to measure the position to deduce the scattering angles. We have recently established a two-dimensional position readout system by the following methods: the measurement of horizontal position is enabled by trimming some anodes into wedge-like shape, and vertical position can be determined by the ratio of induced charge on the grid to the total charge on anodes. In addition, improvement of S/N ratio is important for isotope separation and position resolution. We installed a rectangular-shaped GEM and tried improving S/N ratio by electron amplification.

  12. Fining of Red Wine Monitored by Multiple Light Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrentino, Giovanna; Ramezani, Mohsen; Morozova, Ksenia; Hafner, Daniela; Pedri, Ulrich; Pixner, Konrad; Scampicchio, Matteo

    2017-07-12

    This work describes a new approach based on multiple light scattering to study red wine clarification processes. The whole spectral signal (1933 backscattering points along the length of each sample vial) were fitted by a multivariate kinetic model that was built with a three-step mechanism, implying (1) adsorption of wine colloids to fining agents, (2) aggregation into larger particles, and (3) sedimentation. Each step is characterized by a reaction rate constant. According to the first reaction, the results showed that gelatin was the most efficient fining agent, concerning the main objective, which was the clarification of the wine, and consequently the increase in its limpidity. Such a trend was also discussed in relation to the results achieved by nephelometry, total phenols, ζ-potential, color, sensory, and electronic nose analyses. Also, higher concentrations of the fining agent (from 5 to 30 g/100 L) or higher temperatures (from 10 to 20 °C) sped up the process. Finally, the advantage of using the whole spectral signal vs classical univariate approaches was demonstrated by comparing the uncertainty associated with the rate constants of the proposed kinetic model. Overall, multiple light scattering technique showed a great potential for studying fining processes compared to classical univariate approaches.

  13. A new three-dimensional track fit with multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Niklaus; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kiehn, Moritz; Schöning, André

    2017-02-01

    Modern semiconductor detectors allow for charged particle tracking with ever increasing position resolution. Due to the reduction of the spatial hit uncertainties, multiple Coulomb scattering in the detector layers becomes the dominant source for tracking uncertainties. In this case long distance effects can be ignored for the momentum measurement, and the track fit can consequently be formulated as a sum of independent fits to hit triplets. In this paper we present an analytical solution for a three-dimensional triplet(s) fit in a homogeneous magnetic field based on a multiple scattering model. Track fitting of hit triplets is performed using a linearization ansatz. The momentum resolution is discussed for a typical spectrometer setup. Furthermore the track fit is compared with other track fits for two different pixel detector geometries, namely the Mu3e experiment at PSI and a typical high-energy collider experiment. For a large momentum range the triplets fit provides a significantly better performance than a single helix fit. The triplets fit is fast and can easily be parallelized, which makes it ideal for the implementation on parallel computing architectures.

  14. Muon energy estimate through multiple scattering with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Candela, A; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cassese, F; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Deo, M; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Dincecco, M; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lindozzi, M; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Tatananni, E; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    Muon energy measurement represents an important issue for any experiment addressing neutrino-induced up-going muon studies. Since the neutrino oscillation probability depends on the neutrino energy, a measurement of the muon energy adds an important piece of information concerning the neutrino system. We show in this paper how the MACRO limited streamer tube system can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTPs, an electronics designed for magnetic monopole search. An improvement of the space resolution is obtained, through an analysis of the multiple scattering of muon tracks as they pass through our detector. This information can be used further to obtain an estimate of the energy of muons crossing the detector. Here we present the results of two dedicated tests, performed at CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beam lines, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of such a multiple scattering analysis. We show that by using a neural network approach, we are able to r...

  15. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  16. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  17. 扩展2维环境中的移动机器人多人体目标跟踪%Multiple people tracking for mobile robots in extended two-dimensional environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄严; 王健; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    The autonomous human-target identification and tracking is a key issue in service robotics. Human body is a special type of non-rigid target for which there are many environmental factors constraining the application of target tracking. Based on the monocular vision and laser scanning, we develop a practical technique to incorporate the extended two-dimensional environment description with the indoor environment modeling of a mobile robot, constituting the basis for human target identification. In order to adapt this model to the target rotation, shielding and overlapping, a method based on the target color distribution model and Kalman filter is used to improve the multiple people tracking, in which the target initialization is implemented by a real-time laser scanning data processing algorithm. A series of experiment results with a further experiment data analysis show the validity and practicability of this method; it also meets the requirements of target rotation, partial shielding and overlapping in practical application.%移动机器人如何自主实现人体目标的检测与跟踪是服务机器人研究领域中的关键问题之一.在深入分析单目视觉和激光测距特性的基础上.文章首先针对室内场景进行扩展2维环境建模研究,并提出在该环境下的人体目标分段模型构建与自主辨识方法.为了有效实现对多个人体目标的同时跟踪,本文提出了一种基于非恒速运动模型和卡尔曼滤波对多人体目标进行有效匹配与跟踪的方法.实验表明本文所提方法能有效的克服目标旋转、部分遮挡和重叠以及光线明暗变化给人体目标跟踪带来的影响,具有较好的鲁棒性和实用性.

  18. Depolarization Ratio of Clouds Measured by Multiple-Field of view Multiple Scattering Polarization Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori; Makino, Toshiyuki; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Jin, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    We have developed the Multiple Field of view Multiple Scattering Polarization Lidar (MFMSPL) system for the study of optically thick low-level clouds. It has 8 telescopes; 4 telescopes for parallel channels and another 4 for perpendicular channels. The MFMSPL is the first lidar system that can measure depolarization ratio for optically thick clouds where multiple scattering is dominant. Field of view of each channel was 10mrad and was mounted with different angles ranging from 0 mrad (vertical) to 30mrad. And footprint size from the total FOV was achieved to be close to that of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar at the altitude of 1km in order to reproduce similar degree of multiple scattering effects as observed from space. The MFMSPL has started observations since June 2014 and has been continuously operated at National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Tsukuba, Japan. Observations proved expected performance such that measured depolarization ratio was comparable to the one observed by CALIPSO lidar.

  19. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  20. Multiple scattering of proton via stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kia, M.R.; Noshad, Houshyar, E-mail: hnoshad@aut.ac.ir

    2015-08-01

    Multiple scattering of protons through a target is explained by a set of coupled stochastic differential equations. The motion of protons in matter is calculated by analytical random sampling from Moliere and Landau probability density functions (PDF). To satisfy the Vavilov theory, the moments for energy distribution of a 49.1 MeV proton beam in aluminum target are obtained. The skewness for the PDF of energy demonstrates that the energy distribution of protons in thin thickness becomes a Landau function, whereas, by increasing the thickness of the target it does not follow a Gaussian function completely. Afterwards, the depth-dose distributions are calculated for a 60 MeV proton beam traversing soft tissue and for a 160 MeV proton beam travelling through water. The results prove that when elastic scattering is taken into account, the Bragg-peak position is decreased, while the dose deposited in the Bragg region is increased. The results obtained in this article are benchmarked by comparison of our results with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  1. Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brida, D; Tomadin, A; Manzoni, C; Kim, Y J; Lombardo, A; Milana, S; Nair, R R; Novoselov, K S; Ferrari, A C; Cerullo, G; Polini, M

    2013-01-01

    Graphene is emerging as a viable alternative to conventional optoelectronic, plasmonic and nanophotonic materials. The interaction of light with charge carriers creates an out-of-equilibrium distribution, which relaxes on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution, that subsequently cools emitting phonons. Although the slower relaxation mechanisms have been extensively investigated, the initial stages still pose a challenge. Experimentally, they defy the resolution of most pump-probe setups, due to the extremely fast sub-100 fs carrier dynamics. Theoretically, massless Dirac fermions represent a novel many-body problem, fundamentally different from Schrödinger fermions. Here we combine pump-probe spectroscopy with a microscopic theory to investigate electron-electron interactions during the early stages of relaxation. We identify the mechanisms controlling the ultrafast dynamics, in particular the role of collinear scattering. This gives rise to Auger processes, including charge multiplication, which is key in photovoltage generation and photodetectors.

  2. Gamma-ray Explosion in Multiple Compton Scattering Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Z; Shou, Y R; Qiao, B; Bulanov, S V; Esirkepov, T Zh; Bulanov, S S; Chen, C E; He, X T; Yan, X Q

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray explosion from near critical density (NCD) target irradiated by four symmetrical imploding laser pulses is numerically investigated. With peak intensities about $10^{23}$ W/cm$^2$, the laser pulses boost electron energy through direct laser acceleration, while pushing them inward with the ponderomotive force. After backscattering with counter-propagating laser, the accelerated electron will be trapped in the optical lattice or the electromagnetic standing waves (SW) created by the coherent overlapping of the laser pulses, and meanwhile emit gamma-ray photon in Multiple Compton Scattering regime, where electron acts as a medium to transfer energy from laser to gamma-ray. The energy conversion rate from laser pulses to gamma-ray can be as high as around 50\\%. It may become one of the most efficient gamma-ray sources in laboratory.

  3. The effect of multiple scattering on the aspect sensitivity and polarization of radio auroral echoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E.F.; Moorcroft, D.R. (Western Ontario, University, London (Canada))

    1992-04-01

    A Monte Carlo model of radio wave scattering in the auroral electrojet has been developed to investigate multiple scattering of radio auroral echoes. Using this model, predictions of the aspect angle behavior of first-, second-, and third-order scattered power have been made. The results indicate that multiple scattering may be an important effect for VHF radars which observe the auroral E region at large magnetic aspect angles. The model shows that linearly polarized radio waves can become depolarized because of multiple scattering if the radio transmitter is horizontally polarized but not if the radio transmitter is vertically polarized. 52 refs.

  4. Multiplicity moments in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Stanek, R; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Sartorelli, G; Zichichi, A; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Brock, I; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Kind, O; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Brook, N H; Cole, J E; Foster, B; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Robins, S A; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Wing, M; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Helbich, M; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K H; Olkiewicz, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, T; Mindur, B; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Chiochia, V; Crittenden, James Arthur; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Geiser, A; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hebbel, K; Hillert, S; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labes, H; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Martens, J; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Petrucci, M C; Polini, A; Savin, A A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Stonjek, S; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Coppola, N; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bell, M; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Glasman, C; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, Ian O; Bodmann, B; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Yildirim, A; Ziegler, A; Carli, T; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Lohrmann, E; Foudas, C; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Metlica, F; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Ishii, T; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Vázquez, M E; Barbi, M S; Corriveau, F; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, P; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Shcheglova, L M; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Botje, M; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P M; Schagen, S; Van Sighem, A; Tassi, E; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Vossebeld, Joost Herman; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Rigby, M; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Bertolin, A; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Parenti, A; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Epperson, D E; Heusch, C A; Sadrozinski, H F W; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Park, I H; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Gabareen, A; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Kohno, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Matsuzawa, K; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Mirea, A; Sabetfakhri, A; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Plucinsky, P P; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Adamus, M; Sztuk, J; Deppe, O; Eisenberg, Y; Gladilin, L K; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Breitweg, J; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Kcira, D; Lammers, S; Reeder, D D; Smith, W H; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Straub, V W; Hughes, P B; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Frisken, W R; Hall-Wilton, R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2001-01-01

    Multiplicity moments of charged particles in deep inelastic E+P scattering have been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 38.4 pb^{-1}$. The moments for Q^2 > 1000 GeV^2 were studied in the current region of the Breit frame. The evolution of the moments was investigated as a function of restricted regions in polar angle and, for the first time, both in the transverse momentum and in absolute momentum of final-state particles. Analytic perturbative QCD predictions in conjunction with the hypothesis of Local Parton-Hadron Duality (LPHD) reproduce the trends of the moments in polar-angle regions, although some discrepancies are observed. For the moments restricted either in transverse or absolute momentum, the analytic results combined with the LPHD hypothesis show considerable deviations from the measurements. The study indicates a large influence of the hadronisation stage on the multiplicity distributions in the restricted phase-space regions studied here, which is inconsi...

  5. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  6. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  7. Multiple exchange and high-energy fixed-angle scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Halliday, I G; Orzalesi, C A; Tau, M

    1975-01-01

    The application of the eikonal ansatz to fermion fermion elastic scattering with Abelian vector gluon exchanges is discussed. The behaviours of the elastic scattering amplitude and the elastic form factor are considered and an important mechanism for fixed angle high energy elastic scattering is identified. (6 refs).

  8. Light propagation in finite-sized photonic crystals: multiple scattering using an electric field integral equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Lodahl, Peter; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present an accurate, stable, and efficient solution to the Lippmann–Schwinger equation for electromagnetic scattering in two dimensions. The method is well suited for multiple scattering problems and may be applied to problems with scatterers of arbitrary shape or non-homogenous background mat...

  9. Comparing natural and artificial carious lesions in human crowns by means of conventional hard x-ray micro-tomography and two-dimensional x-ray scattering with synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Lea Maria; White, Shane N.; Deyhle, Hans; Dziadowiec, Iwona; Schulz, Georg; Thalmann, Peter; Müller, Bert

    2016-10-01

    Dental caries, one of the most prevalent infectious bacterial diseases in the world, is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria. Caries is a disease continuum resulting from the earliest loss of ions from apatite crystals through gross cavitation. Enamel dissolution starts when the pH-value drops below 5.5. Neutralizing the pH-value in the oral cavity opposes the process of demineralization, and so caries lesions occur in a dynamic cyclic de-mineralizing/remineralizing environment. Unfortunately, biomimetic regeneration of cavitated enamel is not yet possible, although remineralization of small carious lesions occurs under optimal conditions. Therefore, the development of methods that can regenerate carious lesions, and subsequently recover and retain teeth, is highly desirable. For the present proceedings we analyzed one naturally occurring sub-surface and one artificially produced lesion. For the characterization of artificial and natural lesions micro computed tomography is the method of choice when looking to determine three-dimensional mineral distribution and to quantify the degree of mineralization. In this pilot study we elucidate that the de-mineralized enamel in natural and artificially induced lesions shows comparable X-ray attenuation behavior, thereby implying that the study protocol employed herein seems to be appropriate. Once we know that the lesions are comparable, a series of well-reproducible in vitro experiments on enamel regeneration could be performed. In order to quantify further lesion morphology, the anisotropy of the enamel's nanostructure can be characterized by using spatially resolved, small-angle X-ray scattering. We wanted to demonstrate that the artificially induced defect fittingly resembles the natural carious lesion.

  10. 基于Android的生物特征信息二维码读写设备开发%The Two-dimensional Code Reading Software for Decoding Multiple Biological Characteristics on Android Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐任弘; 曾武

    2016-01-01

    随着移动通信技术的发展,基于移动终端的自动识别技术已经成为研究热点。二维码技术是一种信息存储,传递和识别防伪技术,已经融入到了人们的日常应用中。本文研究了基于Android平台的生物特征信息及其二维码的生成识别应用技术的开发技术,并将二维码和移动终端结合,该系统开发研究对身份信息防伪及存储方面有重要意义。%With the develop of mobile communication technology, the technology of identification based on the mobile terminal has become a frontier subject, as a new information storage, transmission and identification technology, the two-dimensional code has been integrated into the social life. In this paper, an identification and security system is designed and developed based on the Android platform of mobile terminal. Combined the mobile terminal and two-dimensional, the research of this system has important significance in the security and storage of identity information.

  11. Multiple scattering and $p_t$-broadening at RHIC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Fái, G; Lévai, Peter; Zhang, Y

    2002-01-01

    In ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions, in the 2 GeV$multiple scattering of the incoming nucleons in the nuclear medium results in the broadening of the expected hadronic (e.g. pion) $p_\\perp$ spectra relative to proton-proton ($pp$) collisions. Thus, higher transverse-momentum regions are populated than in $pp$ collisions. In a perturbative QCD based calculation we include the intrinsic transverse momentum ($k_\\perp$) of the partons in the nucleon (determined from $pp$ collisions), augmented by the extra broadening obtained via a systematic analysis of proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions in the energy range 17$<\\sqrt{s}<$ 39 AGeV. The original polynomial spectra are modified, and a nearly exponential spectrum appears in the region 2$\\lesssim p_\\perp\\lesssim 3.5$ GeV. At present RHIC energies ($\\sqrt{s}=$130 AGeV), the slope of the calculated spectra is reminiscent of that of fluid-dynamical descriptions, but lacks any thermal ori...

  12. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  13. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle

    2014-09-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  14. Air bubbles in water: a strongly multiple scattering medium for acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafesaki, M; Penciu, R S; Economou, E N

    2000-06-26

    Using a newly developed multiple scattering scheme, we calculate band structure and transmission properties for acoustic waves propagating in bubbly water. We prove that the multiple scattering effects are responsible for the creation of wide gaps in the transmission even in the presence of strong positional and size disorder.

  15. Numerical simulations of multiple scattering of the $f-$mode by flux tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We use numerial simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients with the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact...

  16. Real-space multiple-scattering theory of XMCD including spin-orbit interaction in scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Akihiro; Niki, Kaori; Sakai, Seiji; Fujikawa, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the spin-orbit interaction on surrounding atoms for XMCD spectra are studied by a real-space multiple-scattering theory. The present numerical calculation for Fe K-edge XMCD spectra from BCC iron demonstrates the importance of the spin-orbit interaction on scattering atoms, which has been disregarded in previous works. These effects will be inevitable for K-edge XMCD analyses of light elements surrounded by heavy magnetic atoms.

  17. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  18. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  19. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  20. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  1. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  2. Field analysis of two-dimensional integrated optical gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A rigorous technique to determine the field scattered by a two-dimensional rectangular grating made up of many corrugations was developed. In this method, the grating was deemed as a sequence of two types of waveguide sections, alternatingly connected by step discontinuities. A matrix was derived that described the entire rectangular grating by integrating the separate steps and waveguide sections. With the proposed technique, several configuration were analyzed. The obtained results showed good consistency with the consequences of previous studies. Furthermore, to examine the numerical stability of the proposed method, the length of the grating was increased and obtained results for a grating with 100 periods.

  3. Robustness of the fractal regime for the multiple-scattering structure factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Nisha; Botet, Robert; Puri, Sanjay

    2016-08-01

    In the single-scattering theory of electromagnetic radiation, the fractal regime is a definite range in the photon momentum-transfer q, which is characterized by the scaling-law behavior of the structure factor: S(q) ∝ 1 /q df. This allows a straightforward estimation of the fractal dimension df of aggregates in Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments. However, this behavior is not commonly studied in optical scattering experiments because of the lack of information on its domain of validity. In the present work, we propose a definition of the multiple-scattering structure factor, which naturally generalizes the single-scattering function S(q). We show that the mean-field theory of electromagnetic scattering provides an explicit condition to interpret the significance of multiple scattering. In this paper, we investigate and discuss electromagnetic scattering by three classes of fractal aggregates. The results obtained from the TMatrix method show that the fractal scaling range is divided into two domains: (1) a genuine fractal regime, which is robust; (2) a possible anomalous scaling regime, S(q) ∝ 1 /qδ, with exponent δ independent of df, and related to the way the scattering mechanism uses the local morphology of the scatterer. The recognition, and an analysis, of the latter domain is of importance because it may result in significant reduction of the fractal regime, and brings into question the proper mechanism in the build-up of multiple-scattering.

  4. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  5. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  6. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  7. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  8. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  10. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  11. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  12. A Study of Multiple Scattering in BGO and LYSO Single Crystal Scintillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipong Seingsanoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The angular distribution of multiple Compton scatterings from BGO and LYSO single crystal scintillators was studied at various scattering angles. Gamma photons with 662 keV energy, acquired from a 137Cs source, were used. The scattered photons were detected by a 51mm × 51mm NaI(Tl scintillation detector. The overall energy correlated to the total number of scattered incidents was analytically reconstructed. The research found that the multiply scattered incidents had the same energy as received from the singly scattered distribution, as the attribution of multiply scattered incidents near the 90° scattering angle revealed. The research results were in agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  13. Multiple-scattering formalism beyond the quasistatic approximation: Analyzing resonances in plasmonic chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiple-scattering formalism for simulating scattering of electromagnetic waves on spherical inhomogeneities in 3D. The formalism is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and the electromagnetic Green's tensor and applies an expansion of the electric field on spherical wavefuncti......We present a multiple-scattering formalism for simulating scattering of electromagnetic waves on spherical inhomogeneities in 3D. The formalism is based on the Lippmann-Schwinger equation and the electromagnetic Green's tensor and applies an expansion of the electric field on spherical...

  14. A New Glauber Theory based on Multiple Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Yahiro, Masanobu; Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kawai, Mitsuji

    2008-01-01

    Glauber theory for nucleus-nucleus scattering at high incident energies is reformulated so as to become applicable also for the scattering at intermediate energies. We test validity of the eikonal and adiabatic approximations used in the formulation, and discuss the relation between the present theory and the conventional Glauber calculations with either the empirical nucleon-nucleon profile function or the modified one including the in-medium effect.

  15. Low-Frequency Scattering from Two-Dimensional Perfect Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    jkr ! G(f, f’)K.(f’)ds’, f E S (2.6) where the bar on the integral sign indicates that the singularity at f = f’ is excluded. From the small...2.17) is O~n’ 𔃼 7 The bar on the integral sign indicates that this is a Cauchy principal value integration. To determine the low-frequency expansion

  16. Electron Scattering in Two-Dimensional Disordered Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    8217Departamento de Fisica de Materiales , Universidad Complutense, E-20840 Madrid, Spain 2Departamento de Ffsica, Universidad Cat6lica del Norte, Casilla...ICM P99-135-F and Cdtedra Presidencial de Ciencias for financial support. REFERENCES 1. U. Penner, H. Raicker, and I. N. Yassievich, Semicond. Sci

  17. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2013-01-01

    of split ring resonators and provide a quantitative comparison of measured and calculated transmission spectra at normal incidence as a function of lattice density, showing excellent agreement. We further show angle-dependent transmission calculations for circularly polarized light and compare...

  18. An iterative fullwave simulation approach to multiple scattering in media with randomly distributed microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Aditya; Lindsey, Brooks; Dayton, Paul; Pinton, Gianmarco; Muller, Marie

    2017-03-07

    - Ultrasound contrast agents (UCA), such as microbubbles, enhance the scattering properties of blood, which is otherwise hypoechoic. The multiple scattering interactions of the acoustic field with UCA's are poorly understood due to the complexity of the multiple scattering theories and the nonlinear microbubble response. The majority of bubble models describe the behavior of UCA's as single, isolated microbubbles suspended in infinite medium. Multiple scattering models such as the Independent Scattering Approximation can approximate phase velocity and attenuation for low scatterer volume fraction. However, all current models and simulations approach only describe multiple scattering and nonlinear bubble dynamics separately. Here we present an approach that combines two existing models: 1) a full-wave model that describes nonlinear propagation and scattering interactions in a heterogeneous attenuating medium and 2) a Paul-Sarkar model that describes the nonlinear interactions between an acoustic field and microbubbles. These two models were solved numerically and combined with an iterative approach. The convergence of this combined model was explored in silico for 0.5%, 1% and 2% bubble concentration by volume. The backscattering predicted by our modeling approach was verified experimentally with water tank measurements performed with a 128-element linear array transducer. An excellent agreement in terms of the fundamental and harmonic acoustic fields is shown. Additionally, our model correctly predicts the phase velocity and attenuation measured using through transmission and predicted by the Independent Scattering Approximation.

  19. An SVD Investigation of Modeling Scatter in Multiple Energy Windows for Improved SPECT Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadrmas, Dan J; Frey, Eric C; Tsui, Benjamin M W

    1996-08-01

    In this work singular value decomposition (SVD) techniques are used to investigate how the use of low energy photons and multiple energy windows affects the noise properties of Tc-99m SPECT imaging. We have previously shown that, when modeling scatter in the projector and backprojector of iterative reconstruction algorithms, simultaneous reconstruction from multiple energy window data can result in very different noise characteristics. Further, the properties depend upon the width and number of energy windows used. To investigate this further, we have generated photon transport matrices using models for scatter, an elliptical phantom containing cold rods of various sizes, and a number of multiple energy window acquisition schemes. Transfer matrices were also generated for the cases of perfect scatter rejection and ideal scatter subtraction. The matrices were decomposed using SVD, and signal power and projection space variance spectra were computed using the basis formed by the left singular vectors. Results indicate very different noise levels for the various energy window combinations. The perfect scatter rejection case resulted in the lowest variance spectrum, and reconstruction-based scatter compensation performed better than the scatter subtraction case. When including lower energy photons in reconstruction-based scatter compensation, using a series of multiple energy windows outperformed a single large energy window. One multiple window combination is presented which achieves a lower variance spectrum than the standard 20% energy window, indicating the potential for using low energy photons to improve the noise characteristics of SPECT images.

  20. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, S; Huck, A; Andersen, U L; Lagendijk, A; Lodahl, P

    2009-05-15

    We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing the full quantum model of multiple scattering.

  1. Light scattering by a spherical particle with multiple densely packed inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Xian-Ming; Wang Hai-Hua; Liu Wan-Qiang; Shen Ji

    2009-01-01

    This paper calculates light scattering by a spherical water particle containing densely packed inclusions at a visible wavelength 0.55 μm by a combination of ray-tracing and Monte Carlo techniques. While the individual reflection and refraction events at the outer boundary of a sphere particle are considered by a ray-tracing program, the Monte Carlo routine simulates internal scattering processes. The main advantage of this method is that the shape of the particle can be arbitrary, and multiple scattering can be considered in the internal scattering processes. A dense-medium light-scattering theory based on the introduction of the static structure factor is used to calculate the phase function and asymmetry parameters for densely packed inclusions. Numerical results of the single scattering characteristics for a sphere containing multiple densely packed inclusions are given.

  2. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  3. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  4. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  5. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  6. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  7. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  8. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  9. Numerical simulations of multiple scattering of the $f-$mode by flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Felipe, T; Birch, A C

    2013-01-01

    We use numerial simulations to study the absorption and phase shift of surface-gravity waves caused by groups of magnetic flux tubes. The dependence of the scattering coefficients with the distance between the tubes and their positions is analyzed for several cases with two or three flux tubes embedded in a quiet Sun atmosphere. The results are compared with those obtained neglecting completely or partially multiple scattering effects. We show that multiple scattering has a significant impact on the absorption measurements and tends to reduce the phase shift. We also consider more general cases of ensembles of randomly distributed flux tubes, and we have evaluated the effects on the scattering measurements of changing the number of tubes included in the bundle and the average distance between flux tubes. We find that for the longest wavelength incoming waves multiple scattering enhances the absorption, and its efficiency increases with the number of flux tubes and the reduction of the distance between them.

  10. Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Imaging Using Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Cosmic Muons

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic ray muons passing through matter lose energy from inelastic collisions with electrons and are deflected from nuclei due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The strong dependence of scattering on atomic number Z and the recent developments on position sensitive muon detectors indicate that multiple Coulomb scattering could be an excellent candidate for spent nuclear fuel imaging. Muons present significant advantages over existing monitoring and imaging techniques and can play a central role in monitoring nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel stored in dense well shielded containers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of multiple Coulomb scattering for imaging of spent nuclear fuel dry casks stored within vertical and horizontal commercial storage dry casks. Calculations of muon scattering were performed for various scenarios, including vertical and horizontal fully loaded dry casks, half loaded dry casks, dry casks with one row of fuel assemblies missing, dry casks with one fu...

  11. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  12. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  13. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  14. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  15. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Localization of a small change in a multiple scattering environment without modeling of the actual medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakotonarivo, S T; Walker, S C; Kuperman, W A; Roux, P

    2011-12-01

    A method to actively localize a small perturbation in a multiple scattering medium using a collection of remote acoustic sensors is presented. The approach requires only minimal modeling and no knowledge of the scatterer distribution and properties of the scattering medium and the perturbation. The medium is ensonified before and after a perturbation is introduced. The coherent difference between the measured signals then reveals all field components that have interacted with the perturbation. A simple single scatter filter (that ignores the presence of the medium scatterers) is matched to the earliest change of the coherent difference to localize the perturbation. Using a multi-source/receiver laboratory setup in air, the technique has been successfully tested with experimental data at frequencies varying from 30 to 60 kHz (wavelength ranging from 0.5 to 1 cm) for cm-scale scatterers in a scattering medium with a size two to five times bigger than its transport mean free path.

  17. Study of multiple scattering in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Daniel M

    2011-01-01

    Muon cooling for a neutrino factory or muon collider can be achieved using low-Z absorbers in strong focusing fields. Proposed cooling lattices place absorbers in solenoidal fields ranging up to 30 to 40T. The cooling performance of these lattices is determined by the interplay of ionization energy loss and Moliere scattering, but Bethe's classic treatment of Moliere scattering ignores the helical motion of charged particles in solenoidal fields. When this motion is taken into account, the performance of these lattices can be better than predicted by simulations using the standard treatment.

  18. Two-nucleon scattering in multiple partial waves

    CERN Document Server

    Nicholson, Amy; Rinaldi, Enrico; Vranas, Pavlos; Kurth, Thorsten; Joo, Balint; Strother, Mark; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2015-01-01

    We determine scattering phase shifts for S,P,D, and F partial wave channels in two-nucleon systems using lattice QCD methods. We use a generalization of Luscher's finite volume method to determine infinite volume phase shifts from a set of finite volume ground- and excited-state energy levels on two volumes, V=(3.4 fm)^3 and V=(4.5 fm)^3. The calculations are performed in the SU(3)-flavor limit, corresponding to a pion mass of approximately 800 MeV. From the energy dependence of the phase shifts we are able to extract scattering parameters corresponding to an effective range expansion.

  19. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  20. Effects of Multiple Photon Scattering in Deciduous Tree Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    SCATTERING IN DECIDUOUS TREE CANOPIES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62204F 6. AUTHOR(S...where mh 18= , 16132.0 −= mLm , and 85.0=hzm . Note that the value for mL corresponds to our own experimental results, as will be described in Section 4

  1. The simulation of multiple scattering and its effect on the detection limit of HIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, M.M.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle University, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1998-06-01

    With the development of heavy ion backscattering spectrometry (HIBS) for the detection of trace impurities, it is necessary to quantify the multiple scattering contributions to the spectral background. In the present work, the Monte Carlo computer simulation program TRIM has been used to study the backscattering spectrum and the multiple scattering features for heavy ions C, Ne, Si, Ar and Kr impinging on four types of targets: a very thin layer Au with thickness of 10 Angstroms, a 10 Angstroms Au thin layer covering a 50 Angstroms Si thick layer, a 10 Angstroms Au thin layer covering on Si substrate (10000 Angstroms), and a thick target of pure Si with thickness of 10000 Angstroms. By fitting the simulation results we have derived the ratio of signal from the thin Au layer to the background due to multiple scattering. From the simulation results, we found that the Si substrate plays a role in generating the low energy background tail due to ion`s multiple scattering in the substrate. Such a background is generated neither by the thin Au layer nor by the pure Si substrate independently. The corresponding mechanism of multiple scattering in the target can be explained as one large-angle scattering event in Au layer and subsequently several small angle scattering events in the substrate. (authors). 4 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  2. Augmented reality simulator for training in two-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, M; Wick, C; Pieper, S; Quast, K J; Fox, T; Grunst, G; Redel, D A

    2000-02-01

    In two-dimensional echocardiography the sonographer must synthesize multiple tomographic slices into a mental three-dimensional (3D) model of the heart. Computer graphics and virtual reality environments are ideal to visualize complex 3D spatial relationships. In augmented reality (AR) applications, real and virtual image data are linked, to increase the information content. In the presented AR simulator a 3D surface model of the human heart is linked with echocardiographic volume data sets. The 3D echocardiographic data sets are registered with the heart model to establish spatial and temporal congruence. The heart model, together with an animated ultrasound sector represents a reference scenario, which displays the currently selected two-dimensional echocardiographic cutting plane calculated from the volume data set. Modifications of the cutting plane within the echocardiographic data are transferred and visualized simultaneously and in real time within the reference scenario. The trainee can interactively explore the 3D heart model and the registered 3D echocardiographic data sets by an animated ultrasound probe, whose position is controlled by an electromagnetic tracking system. The tracking system is attached to a dummy transducer and placed on a plastic puppet to give a realistic impression of a two-dimensional echocardiographic examination.

  3. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-12-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ω-ψ, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of those final states, is merely a sufficient but not necessary condition; moreover, it is not proper to use it as the definition. It is found that the method through the value of the effective area S covered by the scatter ω-ψ plot, initially suggested by Read, Rhines, and White ["Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics," J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 3226 (1986)] is more general and suitable for the definition. Based on this concept, a definition is presented, which covers all existing results in late states of decaying 2D flows (including some previous unexplainable weird double-valued ω-ψ scatter plots). The remaining part of the paper is trying to further study 2D decaying turbulence with the assistance of this definition. Some numerical results, leading to "bar" final states and further verifying the predictive ability of statistical mechanics [Yin, Montgomery, and Clercx, "Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of patches and points," Phys. Fluids 15, 1937 (2003)], are reported. It is realized that some simulations with narrow-band energy spectral initial conditions result in some final states that cannot be very well interpreted by the statistical theory (meanwhile, those final states are still in the scope of the definition).

  4. [Multiple scattering of visible and infrared light by sea fog over wind driving rough sea surface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian-Ming; Wang, Hai-Hua; Lei, Cheng-Xin; Shen, Jin

    2013-08-01

    The present paper is concerned with computing the multiple scattering characteristics of a sea fog-sea surface couple system within this context. The single scattering characteristics of sea fog were studied by Mie theory, and the multiple scattering of sunlight by single sea fog layer was studied by radiative transfer theory. The reflection function of a statistically rough ocean surface was obtained using the standard Kirchhoff formulation, with shadowing effects taken into account. The reflection properties of the combined sea fog and ocean surface were obtained employing the adding method, and the results indicated that the reflected light intensity of sea fog increased with the sea background.

  5. Optimal control of light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of noise

    CERN Document Server

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Mosk, Allard P

    2013-01-01

    We study the control of coherent light propagation through multiple-scattering media in the presence of measurement noise. In our experiments, we use a two-step optimization procedure to find the optimal incident wavefront. We conclude that the degree of optimal control of coherent light propagation through a multiple-scattering medium is only determined by the number of photoelectrons detected per single speckle spot. The prediction of our model agrees well with the experimental results. Our results offer opportunities for imaging applications through scattering media such as biological tissue in the shot noise limit.

  6. Effects Of Aerosol And Multiple Scattering On The Polarization Of The Twilight Sky

    CERN Document Server

    Ugolnikov, O S; Maslov, I A

    2003-01-01

    The paper contains the review of a number of wide-angle polarization CCD-measurements of the twilight sky in V and R color bands with effective wavelengths equal to 550 and 700 nm. The basic factors effecting (usually decreasing) on the polarization of the twilight sky are the atmospheric aerosol scattering and multiple scattering. The method of multiple scattering separation is being considered. The results are compared with the data of numerical simulation of radiation transfer in the atmosphere for different aerosol models. The whole twilight period is divided on the different stages with different mechanisms forming the twilight sky polarization properties.

  7. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Ryan; Tiesinga, Eite; Wade, Andrew C J; Blakie, P Blair; Deb, Amita B; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90 degree angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic $\\rm^{40}K$ atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no $90^\\circ$ yield. Above this threshold effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for $\\rm^{40}K$ facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomen...

  8. On the theory and simulation of multiple Coulomb scattering of heavy-charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striganov, S I

    2005-01-01

    The Moliere theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is modified to take into account the difference between processes of scattering off atomic nuclei and electrons. A simple analytical expression for angular distribution of charged particles passing through a thick absorber is found. It does not assume any special form for a differential scattering cross section and has a wider range of applicability than a gaussian approximation. A well-known method to simulate multiple Coulomb scatterings is based on treating 'soft' and 'hard' collisions differently. An angular deflection in a large number of 'soft' collisions is sampled using the proposed distribution function, a small number of 'hard' collision are simulated directly. A boundary between 'hard' and 'soft' collisions is defined, providing a precise sampling of a scattering angle (1% level) and a small number of 'hard' collisions. A corresponding simulating module takes into account projectile and nucleus charged distributions and exact kinematics of a projectile-electron interaction.

  9. Critical Behaviour of Pure and Site-Random Two Dimensional Antiferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgenau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T......Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T...

  10. Calculation of multiple-scattering angular distributions of electrons and positrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negreanu, C. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Laussane (Switzerland); Llovet, X. [Serveis Cientifico-Tecnics, Universitat de Barcelona, Societat Catalana de Fisica (IEC), Lluis Sole i Sabaris 1-3, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), CH-1015 Laussane (Switzerland); Salvat, F. [Facultat de Fisica (ECM), Universitat de Barcelona, Societat Catalana de Fisica (IEC), Diagonal 647, ES-08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: cesc@ecm.ub.es

    2005-12-15

    A robust numerical algorithm for the calculation of multiple-scattering angular distributions of high-energy electrons and positrons is described. This algorithm implements the multiple-scattering theories of Goudsmit-Saunderson, which disregards energy losses, and of Lewis, which accounts for energy losses within the continuous slowing down approximation. We have used partial-wave elastic scattering differential cross sections, generated with a recently developed program ELSEPA, in the calculations. The contribution of inelastic collisions to multiple-scattering angular distributions is treated in detail using inelastic scattering angular differential cross sections obtained from the Sternheimer-Liljequist generalised oscillator strength model. The stopping powers adopted in the calculations are consistent with the values recommended in the ICRU 37 report. The coefficients in the Legendre expansion of the single-scattering distribution are calculated by using the N-point Gauss-Legendre integration formula, coded in such a way that it allows the generation of a large number of expansion coefficients simultaneously. A computer program has been written to calculate angular multiple-scattering distributions for given path lengths, which can be readily adopted for class I Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. The DtN nonreflecting boundary condition for multiple scattering problems in the half-plane

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Malone, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multiple-Dirichlet-to-Neumann (multiple-DtN) non-reflecting boundary condition is adapted to acoustic scattering from obstacles embedded in the half-plane. The multiple-DtN map is coupled with the method of images as an alternative model for multiple acoustic scattering in the presence of acoustically soft and hard plane boundaries. As opposed to the current practice of enclosing all obstacles with a large semicircular artificial boundary that contains portion of the plane boundary, the proposed technique uses small artificial circular boundaries that only enclose the immediate vicinity of each obstacle in the half-plane. The adapted multiple-DtN condition is simultaneously imposed in each of the artificial circular boundaries. As a result the computational effort is significantly reduced. A computationally advantageous boundary value problem is numerically solved with a finite difference method supported on boundary-fitted grids. Approximate solutions to problems involving two scatterers of arbitrary geo...

  12. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  13. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  14. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  15. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  16. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  17. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  18. JT-60U Thomson scattering system with multiple ruby laser and high spatial resolution for high electron temperature plasma measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Hidetoshi; Naito, Osamu; Yamashita, Osamu; Kitamura, Shigeru; Hatae, Takaki; Nagashima, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-11-01

    This article describes the design and operation of a 60 spatial channel Thomson scattering system as of 1996 with multiple ruby lasers to measure the electron temperature T{sub e} and density n{sub e} profiles of the JT-60U plasmas. The wide spectral range (403-683 nm) of the spectrometer and newly developed two-dimensional detector (high repetition photodiode array) has enabled this system to measure the high electron temperature plasma (5 keV or more) formed at the plasma core during negative magnetic shear discharge with high precision and reliability. The high spatial resolution (8 mm) have provided the precise measurement of steep electron temperature and density gradients formed at the plasma edge and in the scrape-off layer during H-mode discharge. The multilaser operation with the minimum time interval of 2 ms has provided an essential tool for the transient phenomenon measurement like the formation process of edge transport barrier during L- to H-mode transition and internal transport barrier during discharge with negative magnetic shear, the relaxation process of pellet injected plasma and so on. Measurement examples of recent JT-60U T{sub e} and n{sub e} profiles are also presented. (author)

  19. Detection and imaging in a random medium: a matrix method to overcome multiple scattering and aberration

    CERN Document Server

    Aubry, Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    We present an imaging technique particularly suited to the detection of a target embedded in a strongly scattering medium. Classical imaging techniques based on the Born approximation fail in this kind of configuration because of multiply scattered echoes and aberration distorsions. The experimental set up we consider uses an array of programmable transmitters/receivers. A target is placed behind a scattering medium. The impulse responses between all array elements are measured and form a matrix. The core of the method is to separate the single-scattered echo of the target from the multiple scattering background. This is possible because of a deterministic coherence along the antidiagonals of the array response matrix, which is typical of single scattering. Once this operation is performed, target detection is achieved by applying the DORT method (French acronym for decomposition of the time reversal operator). Experimental results are presented in the case of wide-band ultrasonic waves around 3 MHz. A 125-el...

  20. Multiple scattering of arbitrarily incident Bessel beams by random discrete particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Han, Yiping; Ai, Xia

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we introduce an efficient numerical method to characterize the multiple scattering by random discrete particles illuminated by Bessel beams with arbitrary incidence. Specifically, the vector expressions of Bessel beams that perfectly satisfy Maxwell's equations in combination with rotation Euler angles are used to represent the arbitrarily incident Bessel beams. A hybrid vector finite element-boundary integral-characteristic-basis function method is utilized to formulate the scattering problems involving multiple discrete particles with a random distribution. Due to the flexibility of the finite element method, the adopted method can conveniently deal with the problems of multiple scattering by randomly distributed homogeneous particles, inhomogeneous particles, and anisotropic particles. Some numerical results are included to illustrate the validity and capability of the proposed method and to show the scattering behaviors of random discrete particles when they are illuminated by Bessel beams.

  1. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in two-dimensional ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for the nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a two-dimensional duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear effects tend to flatten and broaden the absorption versus frequency curve, in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Moreover, the effect of the gas nonlinearity increases with increasing sound frequency, whereas the effect of the material nonlinearity decreases with increasing sound frequency.

  2. Two-dimensional dispersive shock waves in dissipative optical media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2013-01-01

    We study generation of two-dimensional dispersive shock waves and oblique dark solitons upon interaction of tilted plane waves with negative refractive index defects embedded into defocusing material with linear gain and two-photon absorption. Different evolution regimes are encountered including the formation of well-localized disturbances for input tilts below critical one, and generation of extended shock waves containing multiple intensity oscillations in the "upstream" region and gradually vanishing oblique dark solitons in "downstream" region for input tilts exceeding critical one. The generation of stable dispersive shock waves is possible only below certain critical defect strength.

  3. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis: A Reference Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia-Cereda, Veronica M; Aquino, Adriano; Guest, Paul C; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) has been a mainstay of proteomic techniques for more than four decades. It was even in use for several years before the term proteomics was actually coined in the early 1990s. Over this time, it has been used in the study of many diseases including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and psychiatric disorders through the proteomic analysis of body fluids and tissues. This chapter presents a general protocol which can be applied in the study of biological samples such as blood serum or plasma and multiple tissues including the brain.

  4. Multiple quark scattering and the changing slope of d sigma /dt in the small mod t mod region (for pp scattering)

    CERN Document Server

    Klenk, K F

    1973-01-01

    The changing slope of d sigma /dt at small mod t mod observed in the CERN-ISR p-p scattering data can be reproduced in the Glauber multiple quark scattering model by a quark-quark scattering amplitude that is an undamped rapidly oscillating function of momentum transferred to the quark. (9 refs).

  5. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  6. Multiple gold-dimer detection from large scattering background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Jin, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Gold nanoparticles exhibit unique plasmonic optical properties in visible to near infrared band. Especially the coupling effect existing at the gap between a closely linked particle pair can make the local field strongly enhanced. These properties make gold particles more attractive to be employed as molecular probes in biomedical related fundamental and clinical researches. However in the bio-system exist many large molecules or groups, whose optical signals can strongly depress the gold particles without detectable. In this paper, we proposed a method to extract the targets which are labelled by gold dimer pairs from large scattering background.

  7. Scaling up Echo-State Networks with multiple light scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Jonathan; Krzakala, Florent; Wainrib, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Echo-State Networks and Reservoir Computing have been studied for more than a decade. As they provide an elegant yet powerful alternative to traditional computing, researchers have tried to implement them using physical systems, in particular non-linear optical elements, achieving high bandwidth and low power consumption. Here we present a completely different optical implementation of Echo-State Networks using light-scattering materials. As a proof of concept, binary networks have been successfully trained to perform non-linear operations on time series and memory of such networks has been evaluated. This new method is fast, power efficient and easily scalable to very large networks.

  8. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  9. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  10. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  11. Analysis of multiple scattering and multiphonon contributions in inelastic neutron scattering experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Dawidowski, J; Koza, M M; Blostein, J J; Aurelio, G; Fernández-Guillermet, A; Donato, P G

    2002-01-01

    We present a method of analysis of inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments aiming at obtaining the density of phonon states in an absolute scale, as well as a reliable value of the mean-square displacement of the atoms. This method requires the measurement of the neutron total cross section of the sample as a function of energy, which provides a normalization condition for the INS experiment, as well as a value of the mean-square displacement. The method is applied in the case of an incoherent neutron scattering system, viz. the Ti-52wt.% Zr alloy. The applicability of this method to the study of metal alloys and other systems is discussed.

  12. Angle-resolved photon-coincidence measurements in a multiple-scattering medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Muskens, Otto L.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2011-01-01

    We present angle-resolved correlation measurements between photons after propagation through a three-dimensional disordered medium. The multiple-scattering process induces photon correlations that are directly measured for light sources with different photon statistics. We find that multiple...

  13. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  14. Coherent two-dimensional spectroscopy of a Fano model

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, Felipe; Pullerits, Tõnu; Hansen, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    The Fano lineshape arises from the interference of two excitation pathways to reach a continuum. Its generality has resulted in a tremendous success in explaining the lineshapes of many one-dimensional spectroscopies - absorption, emission, scattering, conductance, photofragmentation - applied to very varied systems - atoms, molecules, semiconductors and metals. Unravelling a spectroscopy into a second dimension reveals the relationship between states in addition to decongesting the spectra. Femtosecond-resolved two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is a four-wave mixing technique that measures the time-evolution of the populations, and coherences of excited states. It has been applied extensively to the dynamics of photosynthetic units, and more recently to materials with extended band-structures. In this letter, we solve the full time-dependent third-order response, measured in 2DES, of a Fano model and give the new system parameters that become accessible.

  15. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  16. Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S

    2013-01-01

    Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.

  17. Ultra-fast hybrid CPU-GPU multiple scatter simulation for 3-D PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Sang; Son, Young Don; Cho, Zang Hee; Ra, Jong Beom; Ye, Jong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Scatter correction is very important in 3-D PET reconstruction due to a large scatter contribution in measurements. Currently, one of the most popular methods is the so-called single scatter simulation (SSS), which considers single Compton scattering contributions from many randomly distributed scatter points. The SSS enables a fast calculation of scattering with a relatively high accuracy; however, the accuracy of SSS is dependent on the accuracy of tail fitting to find a correct scaling factor, which is often difficult in low photon count measurements. To overcome this drawback as well as to improve accuracy of scatter estimation by incorporating multiple scattering contribution, we propose a multiple scatter simulation (MSS) based on a simplified Monte Carlo (MC) simulation that considers photon migration and interactions due to photoelectric absorption and Compton scattering. Unlike the SSS, the MSS calculates a scaling factor by comparing simulated prompt data with the measured data in the whole volume, which enables a more robust estimation of a scaling factor. Even though the proposed MSS is based on MC, a significant acceleration of the computational time is possible by using a virtual detector array with a larger pitch by exploiting that the scatter distribution varies slowly in spatial domain. Furthermore, our MSS implementation is nicely fit to a parallel implementation using graphic processor unit (GPU). In particular, we exploit a hybrid CPU-GPU technique using the open multiprocessing and the compute unified device architecture, which results in 128.3 times faster than using a single CPU. Overall, the computational time of MSS is 9.4 s for a high-resolution research tomograph (HRRT) system. The performance of the proposed MSS is validated through actual experiments using an HRRT.

  18. Multiple magnetic impurities on surfaces: Scattering and quasiparticle interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchell, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study systems of multiple interacting quantum impurities deposited on a metallic surface in a three-dimensional host. For the real-space two-impurity problem, using numerical renormalization group calculations, a rich range of behavior is shown to arise due to the interplay between Kondo physics

  19. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  20. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  1. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  2. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  3. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  4. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  5. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  6. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  7. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  8. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  10. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  11. On the Theory and Simulation of Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Heavy Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Striganov, S I

    2004-01-01

    The Moliere theory of multiple Coulomb scattering is modified to take into account difference between scattering off atomic nuclei and electron. A simple analytical expression for angular distribution of charged particles passing through a thick absorber is found. It does not assume any special form for a differential cross section and has wider range of applicability than a Gaussian approximation. A well-known method to simulate multiple Coulomb scattering is based on the different treatment of soft and hard collisions. An angular deflection in a large number of soft collisions is sampled using the proposed distribution function, a small number of hard collisions are simulated directly. A boundary between hard and soft collisions is defined providing a precise sampling of scattering angle (1% level) and small number of hard collisions. A corresponding simulation module takes into account projectile and nucleus charge distributions and exact kinematics of a projectile-electron interaction.

  12. Effects of multiple scattering on light pulses reflected by turbid atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Multiple scattering contributions to lidar returns from turbid atmospheres are derived by means of an analytical theory. It is assumed that scattering takes place mainly at small angles except for one event that scatters the light backward. The phase functions are approximated by the sum of Gaussian functions of the scattering angle in both the forward and backward directions. The three-dimensional radiative transfer equation is transformed to a one-dimensional problem by means of Fourier transforms. Neumann solutions to the transformed equation of radiative transfer are then found. A number of examples are presented for cloud, fog and haze models. The results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with results obtained from the Monte Carlo analysis of Kunkel (1974) and the theory of light pulses doubly scattered by turbid atmospheres which was developed by Eloranta (1972).

  13. 2D numerical modeling of ultrasonic wave propagation in concrete: A parameterization study in a multiple-scattering medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ting; Chaix, Jean-François; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Garnier, Vincent; Audibert, Lorenzo; Henault, Jean-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Multiple scattering is important when ultrasounds propagate in a heterogeneous medium such as concrete, the scatterer size of which is in the order of the wavelength. The aim of this work is to build a 2D numerical model of ultrasonic wave propagation integrating the multiple scattering phenomena in SPECFEM software. The coherent field of multiple scattering could be obtained by averaging numerical wave fields, and it is used to determine the effective phase velocity and attenuation corresponding to an equivalent homogeneous medium. After the creation of numerical model under several assumptions, its validation is completed in a case of scattering by one cylinder through the comparison with analytical solution. Two cases of multiple scattering by a set of cylinders at different concentrations are simulated to perform a parametric study (of frequency, scatterer concentration, scatterer size). The effective properties are compared with the predictions of Waterman-Truell model as well, to verify its validity.

  14. Diffusive and localization behavior of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the transport phenomena of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random system which is composed of arrays of electrical dipoles, following the model presented earlier by Erdogan et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 391 (1993)]. A set of self-consistent equations is presented, accounting for the multiple scattering in the system, and is then solved numerically. A strong localization regime is discovered in the frequency domain. The transport properties within, near the edge of, and nearly outside the localization regime are investigated for different parameters such as filling factor and system size. The results show that within the localization regime, waves are trapped near the transmitting source. Meanwhile, the diffusive waves follow an intuitive but expected picture. That is, they increase with traveling path as more and more random scattering incurs, followed by a saturation, then start to decay exponentially when the travelling path is large enough, signifying the localization effect. For the cases where the frequencies are near the boundary of or outside the localization regime, the results of diffusive waves are compared with the diffusion approximation, showing less encouraging agreement as in other systems [Asatryan et al., Phys. Rev. E 67, 036605 (2003)].

  15. Application of Multiple Scattering Theory to Lower Energy Elastic Nucleon-Nucleus Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.; Weppner, S. P.

    1994-01-01

    The optical model potentials for nucleon-nucleus elastic scattering at $65$~MeV are calculated for $^{12}$C, $^{16}$O, $^{28}$Si, $^{40}$Ca, $^{56}$Fe, $^{90}$Zr and $^{208}$Pb in first order multiple scattering theory, following the prescription of the spectator expansion, where the only inputs are the free NN potentials, the nuclear densities and the nuclear mean field as derived from microscopic nuclear structure calculations. These potentials are used to predict differential cross section...

  16. Multiple Scattering Expansion of the Self-Energy at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, S; Jeon, Sangyong; Ellis, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    An often used rule that the thermal correction to the self-energy is the thermal phase-space times the forward scattering amplitude from target particles is shown to be the leading term in an exact multiple scattering expansion. Starting from imaginary-time finite-temperature field theory, a rigorous expansion for the retarded self-energy is derived. The relationship to the thermodynamic potential is briefly discussed.

  17. A novel sampling method for multiple multiscale targets from scattering amplitudes at a fixed frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-08-01

    A sampling method by using scattering amplitude is proposed for shape and location reconstruction in inverse acoustic scattering problems. Only matrix multiplication is involved in the computation, thus the novel sampling method is very easy and simple to implement. With the help of the factorization of the far field operator, we establish an inf-criterion for characterization of underlying scatterers. This result is then used to give a lower bound of the proposed indicator functional for sampling points inside the scatterers. While for the sampling points outside the scatterers, we show that the indicator functional decays like the bessel functions as the sampling point goes away from the boundary of the scatterers. We also show that the proposed indicator functional continuously depends on the scattering amplitude, this further implies that the novel sampling method is extremely stable with respect to errors in the data. Different to the classical sampling method such as the linear sampling method or the factorization method, from the numerical point of view, the novel indicator takes its maximum near the boundary of the underlying target and decays like the bessel functions as the sampling points go away from the boundary. The numerical simulations also show that the proposed sampling method can deal with multiple multiscale case, even the different components are close to each other.

  18. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  19. Supersymmetric and Kaluza-Klein Particles Multiple Scattering in the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Ivone; Klein, Spencer

    2009-05-19

    Neutrino telescopes with cubic kilometer volume have the potential to discover new particles. Among them are next to lightest supersymmetric (NLSPs) and next to lightest Kaluza-Klein (NLKPs) particles. Two NLSPs or NLKPs will transverse the detector simultaneously producing parallel charged tracks. The track separation inside the detector can be a few hundred meters. As these particles might propagate a few thousand kilometers before reaching the detector, multiple scattering could enhance the pair separation at the detector. We find that the multiple scattering will alter the separation distribution enough to increase the number of NLKP pairs separated by more than 100 meters (a reasonable experimental cut) by up to 46% depending on the NLKP mass. Vertical upcoming NLSPs will have their separation increased by 24% due to multiple scattering.

  20. Multiple Scattering and Visco-Thermal Effects on 2D Phononic Crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Duclos, Aroune; Pagneux, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the transition between regimes here either visco-thermal or multiple scattering effects dominate for the propagation of acoustic waves through a 2D regular square array of rigid cylinders embedded in air. An extension of the numerical method using Schl\\"omilch series is performed in order to account for visco-thermal losses. Comparison withexperimental data and results from classical homogenization theory allows to study the transition between a low frequency limit (where viscous and thermal effects dominate) and a high frequency regime (where multiple scattering effects become predominant). For this particular geometry, a large frequency domain where visco-thermal and multiple scattering effects coexist is found.

  1. Gesture Recognition Using Character Recognition Techniques on Two-dimensional Eigenspace

    OpenAIRE

    大野, 宏; 山本, 正信; Ohno, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method for gesture recognition using character recognition techniques on two-dimensional eigenspace. An image-based approach can capture human body poses in 3D motion from multiple image sequences. The sequence of poses can be reduced into a trajectory on the two-dimensional eigenspace with preserving the main features in gesture, so that the gesture recognition equals the character recognition. Experiments for the gesture recognition using some character recognit...

  2. Multiple Scattering Using Parallel Volume Integral Equation Method: Interaction of SH Waves with Multiple Multilayered Anisotropic Elliptical Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungki Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The parallel volume integral equation method (PVIEM is applied for the analysis of elastic wave scattering problems in an unbounded isotropic solid containing multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions. This recently developed numerical method does not require the use of Green’s function for the multilayered anisotropic inclusions; only Green’s function for the unbounded isotropic matrix is needed. This method can also be applied to solve general two- and three-dimensional elastodynamic problems involving inhomogeneous and/or multilayered anisotropic inclusions whose shape and number are arbitrary. A detailed analysis of the SH wave scattering is presented for multiple triple-layered orthotropic elliptical inclusions. Numerical results are presented for the displacement fields at the interfaces for square and hexagonal packing arrays of triple-layered elliptical inclusions in a broad frequency range of practical interest. It is necessary to use standard parallel programming, such as MPI (message passing interface, to speed up computation in the volume integral equation method (VIEM. Parallel volume integral equation method as a pioneer of numerical analysis enables us to investigate the effects of single/multiple scattering, fiber packing type, fiber volume fraction, single/multiple layer(s, multilayer’s shape and geometry, isotropy/anisotropy, and softness/hardness of the multiple multilayered anisotropic elliptical inclusions on displacements at the interfaces of the inclusions.

  3. A fast calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T.; Elmore, Brannon; Schmidt, Jaclyn; Matchefts, Elizabeth; Burley, Jarred L.

    2016-05-01

    Properly accounting for multiple scattering effects can have important implications for remote sensing and possibly directed energy applications. For example, increasing path radiance can affect signal noise. This study describes the implementation of a fast-calculating two-stream-like multiple scattering algorithm that captures azimuthal and elevation variations into the Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) atmospheric characterization and radiative transfer code. The multiple scattering algorithm fully solves for molecular, aerosol, cloud, and precipitation single-scatter layer effects with a Mie algorithm at every calculation point/layer rather than an interpolated value from a pre-calculated look-up-table. This top-down cumulative diffusivity method first considers the incident solar radiance contribution to a given layer accounting for solid angle and elevation, and it then measures the contribution of diffused energy from previous layers based on the transmission of the current level to produce a cumulative radiance that is reflected from a surface and measured at the aperture at the observer. Then a unique set of asymmetry and backscattering phase function parameter calculations are made which account for the radiance loss due to the molecular and aerosol constituent reflectivity within a level and allows for a more accurate characterization of diffuse layers that contribute to multiple scattered radiances in inhomogeneous atmospheres. The code logic is valid for spectral bands between 200 nm and radio wavelengths, and the accuracy is demonstrated by comparing the results from LEEDR to observed sky radiance data.

  4. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  5. Resonant Rayleigh scattering of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malpuech, Guillaume; Kavokin, Alexey; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner;

    2000-01-01

    A theoretical concept of resonant Rayleigh scattering (RRS) of exciton-polaritons in multiple quantum wells (QWs) is presented. The optical coupling between excitons in different QWs can strongly affect the RRS dynamics, giving rise to characteristic temporal oscillations on a picosecond scale....... Bragg and anti-Bragg arranged QW structures with the same excitonic parameters are predicted to have drastically different RRS spectra. Experimental data on the RRS from multiple QWs show the predicted strong temporal oscillations at small scattering angles, which are well explained by the presented...

  6. Tilted Two-Dimensional Array Multifocus Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabumoto, Sohshi; Hamaguchi, Hiro-O

    2017-07-18

    A simple and efficient two-dimensional multifocus confocal Raman microspectroscopy featuring the tilted-array technique is demonstrated. Raman scattering from a 4 × 4 square foci array passing through a 4 × 4 confocal pinhole array is tilted with a periscope. The tilted array of Raman scattering signals is dispersed by an imaging spectrograph onto a CCD detector, giving 16 independent Raman spectra formed as 16 bands with different heights on the sensor. Use of a state-of-the-art imaging spectrograph enables high-precision wavenumber duplicability of the 16 spectra. This high duplicability makes the simultaneously obtained spectra endurable for multivariate spectral analyses, which is demonstrated by a singular value decomposition analysis for Raman spectra of liquid indene. Although the present implementation attains only 16 measurement points, the number of points can be extended to larger than 100 without any technical leaps. Limit of parallelization depends on the interval of measurement points as well as the performance of the optical system. Criteria for finding the maximum feasible number are discussed.

  7. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  8. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  9. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  10. Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-12-01

    The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.

  11. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  12. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  13. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  16. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  17. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-07-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  18. Scattering of SH-wave by multiple circular cavities in half space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国庆; 刘殿魁

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, an analytic method is developed to address steady SH-wave scattering and perform dynamic analysisof multiple circular cavities in half space. The scattered wave function used for scattering of SH-waves by multiple circularcavities, which automatically satisfies the stress-free condition at the horizontal surface, is constructed by applying thesymmetry of the SH-wave scattering and the method of multi-polar coordinates system. Applying this scattered wave functionand method of moving coordinates, the original problem can be transformed to the problem of SH-wave scattering by multiplecircular cavities in the full space. Finally, the solution of the problem can be reduced to a series of algebraic equations andsolved numerically by truncating the infinite algebraic equations to the finite ones. Numerical examples are provided for casewith two cavities to show the effect of wave number, and the distances between the centers of the cavities and from the centersto the ground surface on the dynamic stress concentration around the cavity impacted by incident steady SH-wave.

  19. Multiple point scattering to determine the effective wavenumber and effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, William J.; Abrahams, I. David

    2010-11-01

    In this article we attempt to clarify various notions regarding multiple point scattering. We consider several predictions for the effective material properties of an inhomogeneous slab region which can be derived from classical multiple scattering theories. In particular we are interested in the point scattering limit when wavelengths λ0 ≫ l ∼ a where l is the characteristic length-scale of the distance between inclusions and a is the characteristic length-scale of inclusions. In this limit we are able to derive effective properties which are physically valid for any volume fraction φ, except in the sound-soft scatterer case where there is a condition on the size of φ. We shall confine attention to random distributions of inclusions and employ the Quasi-Crystalline Approximation to yield results. In particular we discuss the different scenarios of acoustics and antiplane elasticity and stress the reciprocity between these two problems which means that they can be solved simultaneously. We make various statements regarding the efficacy of the various multiple scattering theories in the prediction of effective material properties in the quasi-static limit.

  20. Quantum magnetotransport in a modulated two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae-ik; Gumbs, Godfrey

    1997-09-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations of the magnetotransport coefficients of a modulated two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field are presented using the Kubo method. The model modulation potential used is such that the effect of the steepness of the potential and its strength on the band part of the longitudinal resistivity ρxxand the Hall resistivity ρxycould be studied. In the extreme limit of a very steep potential, a two-dimensional square array of antidots is simulated. Impurity scattering is included in the self-consistent t-matrix approximation. The results show that for a strong lateral superlattice potential, ρxyis quenched in the low magnetic field regime and as the magnetic field increases there is a large negative Hall resistivity. The intensity of this negative peak is suppressed as the strength of the modulation potential is decreased. It is also shown that the height of the negative peak depends on the steepness of the potential. The longitudinal resistivity also has some interesting features. There are Aharonov-Bohm oscillations and a double peak structure which depends on both the strength of the modulation potential as well as its slope. The numerical results show that the position and intensity of the lower peak is not very sensitive to a change in the strength of the lattice potential or its steepness. However, the upper peak is greatly reduced when the lattice potential is diminished in strength. The double peak feature in ρxxand the negative peak and quenching of the Hall effect at low magnetic fields have been observed experimentally for antidots in both the quasiclassical and quantum regimes.

  1. Scattering at oblique incidence by multiple cylinders in front of a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Siu-Chun

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a theoretical solution for scattering by multiple parallel infinite cylinders located on top of a dielectric substrate. The incident plane wave is arbitrarily polarized and propagates in a general direction inclined from the axis of the cylinders. The scattered waves become depolarized at oblique incidence, which are reflected from the surface of the substrate to become incident waves at the cylinders. An exact solution of Maxwell's equations is developed that rigorously treats the depolarization of scattered waves and the angular spectrum of reflected and transmitted waves from the surface. Numerical results are presented for different configurations of perfectly conducting and coated cylinders at perpendicular and oblique incidence to illustrate plasmonic resonances in the near-field and scattering characteristics in the far-field.

  2. Simulation of multiple scattering of seismic waves by spatially distributed inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恩儒; QUEEN; John; H; 张中杰; 陈东

    2000-01-01

    A 2D elastodynamic boundary element method (BEM) is used to solve multiple scattering of elastic waves. The method is based on the integral representation of an elastic wave-field by assuming a fictitious source distribution on the scattering objects or inclusions, i.e. a mathematical description of Huygens’ principle, and the fictitious source distribution can be found by matching appropriate boundary conditions at the boundary of the inclusions. Numerical studies show that in the presence of cracks, spatial and scale-length distributions are important and different spatial arrangements of the same scatters lead to profound differences in scattering characteristics, in particular the frequency contents of the transmitted wave-fields. The frequency characteristics, such as the frequency of peak attenuation , can be related to spatial size parameters of the model.

  3. Simulation of multiple scattering of seismic waves by spatially distributed inclusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A 2D elastodynamic boundary element method (BEM) is used to solve multiple scattering of elastic waves. The method is based on the integral representation of an elastic wave-field by assuming a fictitious source distribution on the scattering objects or inclusions, i.e. a mathematical description of Huygens' principle, and the fictitious source distribution can be found by matching appropriate boundary conditions at the boundary of the inclusions. Numerical studies show that in the presence of cracks, spatial and scale-length distributions are important and different spatial arrangements of the same scatters lead to profound differences in scattering characteristics, in particular the frequency contents of the transmitted wave-fields. The frequency characteristics, such as the frequency of peak attenuation, can be related to spatial size parameters of the model.

  4. Multiple and dependent scattering by densely packed discrete spheres: Comparison of radiative transfer and Maxwell theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L. X.; Tan, J. Y.; Zhao, J. M.; Wang, F. Q.; Wang, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation (RTE) has been widely used to deal with multiple scattering of light by sparsely and randomly distributed discrete particles. However, for densely packed particles, the RTE becomes questionable due to strong dependent scattering effects. This paper examines the accuracy of RTE by comparing with the exact electromagnetic theory. For an imaginary spherical volume filled with randomly distributed, densely packed spheres, the RTE is solved by the Monte Carlo method combined with the Percus-Yevick hard model to consider the dependent scattering effect, while the electromagnetic calculation is based on the multi-sphere superposition T-matrix method. The Mueller matrix elements of the system with different size parameters and volume fractions of spheres are obtained using both methods. The results verify that the RTE fails to deal with the systems with a high-volume fraction due to the dependent scattering effects. Apart from the effects of forward interference scattering and coherent backscattering, the Percus-Yevick hard sphere model shows good accuracy in accounting for the far-field interference effects for medium or smaller size parameters (up to 6.964 in this study). For densely packed discrete spheres with large size parameters (equals 13.928 in this study), the improvement of dependent scattering correction tends to deteriorate. The observations indicate that caution must be taken when using RTE in dealing with the radiative transfer in dense discrete random media even though the dependent scattering correction is applied.

  5. ON SOURCE ANALYSIS BY WAVE SPLITTING WITH APPLICATIONS IN INVERSE SCATTERING OF MULTIPLE OBSTACLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fahmi ben Hassen; Jijun Liu; Roland Potthast

    2007-01-01

    We study wave splitting procedures for acoustic or electromagnetic scattering problems. The idea of these procedures is to split some scattered field into a sum of fields coming from different spatial regions such that this information can be used either for inversion algorithms or for active noise control. Splitting algorithms can be based on general boundary layer potential representation or Green's representation formula. We will prove the unique decomposition of scattered wave outside the specified reference domain G and the unique decomposition of far-field pattern with respect to different reference domain G. Further, we employ the splitting technique for field reconstruction for a scatterer with two or more separate components, by combining it with the point source method for wave recovery. Using the decomposition of scattered wave as well as its far-field pattern, the wave splitting procedure proposed in this paper gives an efficient way to the computation of scattered wave near the obstacle, from which the multiple obstacles which cause the far-field pattern can be reconstructed separately. This considerably extends the range of the decomposition methods in the area of inverse scattering. Finally, we will provide numerical examples to demonstrate the feasibility of the splitting method.

  6. Defect Characterization Using Two-Dimensional Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2011-06-01

    2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. In this paper a quantitative comparison of 2D arrays with different element layouts is performed. A technique for extracting the scattering matrix of a defect from the raw 2D array data is also presented. The method is tested on experimental data for characterization of various volumetric defects.

  7. Bipartite entanglement entropy in massive two-dimensional quantum field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2009-01-23

    Recently, Cardy, Castro Alvaredo, and the author obtained the first exponential correction to saturation of the bipartite entanglement entropy at large region lengths in massive two-dimensional integrable quantum field theory. It depends only on the particle content of the model, and not on the way particles scatter. Based on general analyticity arguments for form factors, we propose that this result is universal, and holds for any massive two-dimensional model (also out of integrability). We suggest a link of this result with counting pair creations far in the past.

  8. From spin flip excitations to the spin susceptibility enhancement of a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F; Aku-leh, C; Richards, D; Jusserand, B; Smith, L C; Wolverson, D; Karczewski, G

    2007-07-13

    The g-factor enhancement of the spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas was measured directly over a wide range of spin polarizations, using spin flip resonant Raman scattering spectroscopy on two-dimensional electron gases embedded in Cd(1-x)Mn(x)Te semimagnetic quantum wells. At zero Raman transferred momentum, the single-particle spin flip excitation, energy Z*, coexists in the Raman spectrum with the spin flip wave of energy Z, the bare giant Zeeman splitting. We compare the measured g-factor enhancement with recent spin-susceptibility enhancement theories and deduce the spin-polarization dependence of the mass renormalization.

  9. Group-fitted ab initiosingle- and multiple-scattering EXAFS Debye-Waller factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimakis, Nicholas; Bunker, Grant

    2002-05-01

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy is one of the few direct probes of the structure of metalloprotein binding that is equally applicable to proteins in crystals, solutions, and membranes. Despite considerable progress in the calculation of the photoelectron scattering aspects of XAFS, calculation of the vibrational aspects has lagged because of the difficulty of the calculations. We report here initial results that express single- and multiple-scattering Debye-Waller factors as polynomial functions of first shell radial distance for metal-peptide complexes, enabling quantitatively accurate full multiple-scattering XAFS data analysis of active sites of unknown structure at arbitrary temperatures without the use of ad hoc assumptions.

  10. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  11. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  12. Solution of a multiple-scattering inverse problem: electron diffraction from surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldin, D K; Seubert, A; Heinz, K

    2002-03-18

    We present a solution to the multiple-scattering inverse problem for low-energy electron diffraction that enables the determination of the three-dimensional atomic structure of an entire surface unit cell directly from measured data. The solution requires a knowledge of the structure of the underlying bulk crystal and is implemented by a maximum entropy algorithm.

  13. Multiple Scattering Casimir Force Calculations: Layered and Corrugated Materials, Wedges, and Casimir-Polder Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Wagner, Jef; Cavero-Pelaez, Ines

    2009-01-01

    Various applications of the multiple scattering technique to calculating Casimir energy are described. These include the interaction between dilute bodies of various sizes and shapes, temperature dependence, interactions with multilayered and corrugated bodies, and new examples of exactly solvable separable bodies.

  14. Multiple scattering in electron fluid and energy loss in multi-ionic targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, C., E-mail: claude.deutsch@u-psud.fr [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tahir, N.A. [GSI, 1Planck Str., 64291-Darmstadt (Germany); Barriga-Carrasco, M. [ETSII, UCastilla-la-Mancha, 13071 Ciudad-Real (Spain); Ceban, V. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Fromy, P. [CRI, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Gilles, D. [CEA/Saclay/DSM/IRFU/SAP, 91191-Gif-s-Yvette (France); Leger, D. [Laboratoire Monthouy, UValenciennes-Hainaut Cambresis (France); Maynard, G. [LPGP, UParis-Sud, 91405-Orsay (France); Tashev, B. [Department of Physics, KazNu, Tole Bi82, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Volpe, L. [Department of Physics, UMilano-Bicocca, Milano 20126 (Italy)

    2014-01-01

    Extensions of the standard stopping model (SSM) for ion projectiles interacting with dense targets of timely concern for ICF and WDM are reviewed. They include multiple scattering on partially degenerate electrons, low velocity ion slowing down in demixing H–He mixtures within Jovian planets core or multiionic target such as Kapton.

  15. A Path Loss Model for Non-Line-of-Sight Ultraviolet Multiple Scattering Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    relevant model parameters. 2.3. Elementary Events for Photon RandomMigration. Gener- ally, it is impossible to predict with certainty the trajectory of a...Witt, “Multiple scattering in reflection nebulae—I: a Monte Carlo approach,” The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, vol. 35, pp. 1–6, 1977. [22] D

  16. Coulomb Correction to the Screening Angle of the Moliere Multiple Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraev, E A; Tarasov, A V

    2012-01-01

    Coulomb correction to the screening angular parameter of the Moliere multiple scattering theory is found. Numerical calculations are presented in the range of nuclear charge from Z=4 to Z=82. Comparison with the approximate Moliere result for the screening angle reveals up to 30% deviation from it for sufficiently heavy elements of the target material.

  17. Neutrino energy estimates from multiple Coulomb scattering of upthroughgoing muons in MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Bakari, D; Giorgini, M; Spurio, M

    2002-01-01

    Summary form only given. Estimates of the energies of neutrino induced muons in MACRO were made by measuring the multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the rock absorbers in the lower part of the MACRO detector. The deflections of muons inside the detector depend on the muon energy. (1 refs).

  18. Path length distribution of multiple-scattered photons by low coherence Doppler interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petoukhova, Anna; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Mul, F.F.M.; Tuchin, V.V.; Izatt, J.A.; Fujimoto, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We report results of measurements by low coherence Doppler interferometry of the path length distribution of photons undergoing multiple scattering in a highly turbid medium. We use a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with multimode graded index fibers and a superluminescent diode as light source. The pat

  19. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...

  20. Multiple scattering and accidental coincidences in the J-PET detector simulated using GATE package

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalski, P; Wiślicki, W; Raczyński, L; Bednarski, T; Białas, P; Bułka, J; Czerwiński, E; Gajos, A; Gruntowski, A; Kamińska, D; Kapłon, Ł; Kochanowski, A; Korcyl, G; Kowal, J; Kozik, T; Krzemień, W; Kubicz, E; Niedźwiecki, Sz; Pałka, M; Rudy, Z; Salabura, P; Sharma, N G; Silarski, M; Słomski, A; Smyrski, J; Strzelecki, A; Wieczorek, A; Wochlik, I; Zieliński, M; Zoń, N

    2015-01-01

    Novel Positron Emission Tomography system, based on plastic scintillators, is developed by the J-PET collaboration. In order to optimize geometrical configuration of built device, advanced computer simulations are performed. Detailed study is presented of background given by accidental coincidences and multiple scattering of gamma quanta.

  1. Analysis of Spent Nuclear Fuel Imaging Using Multiple Coulomb Scattering of Cosmic Muons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidakis, Stylianos; Choi, Chan K.; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2016-12-01

    Cosmic ray muons passing through matter lose energy from inelastic collisions with electrons and are deflected from nuclei due to multiple Coulomb scattering. The strong dependence of scattering on atomic number Z and the recent developments on position sensitive muon detectors indicate that multiple Coulomb scattering could be an excellent candidate for spent nuclear fuel imaging. Muons present significant advantages over existing monitoring and imaging techniques and can play a central role in monitoring nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel stored in dense well shielded containers. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the applicability of multiple Coulomb scattering for imaging of spent nuclear fuel dry casks stored within vertical and horizontal commercial storage dry casks. Calculations of muon scattering were performed for various scenarios, including vertical and horizontal fully loaded dry casks, half loaded dry casks, dry casks with one row of fuel assemblies missing, dry casks with one fuel assembly missing and empty dry casks. Various detector sizes (1.2 m ×1.2 m, 2.4 m ×2.4 m and 3.6 m ×3.6 m) and number of muons (105, 5 · 105, 106 and 107) were used to assess the effect on image resolution. The Point-of-Closest-Approach (PoCA) algorithm was used for the reconstruction of the stored contents. The results demonstrate that multiple Coulomb scattering can be used to successfully reconstruct the dry cask contents and allow identification of all scenarios with the exception of one fuel assembly missing. In this case, an indication exists that a fuel assembly is not present; however, the resolution of the imaging algorithm was not enough to identify exact location.

  2. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  3. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195

  4. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire......This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...

  5. Large scale instabilities in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta; Celani; Prandi

    2000-04-01

    The stability of a sheared magnetic field is analyzed in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics with resistive and viscous dissipation. Using a multiple-scale analysis, it is shown that at large enough Reynolds numbers the basic state describing a motionless fluid and a layered magnetic field, becomes unstable with respect to large scale perturbations. The exact expressions for eddy-viscosity and eddy-resistivity are derived in the nearby of the critical point where the instability sets in. In this marginally unstable case the nonlinear phase of perturbation growth obeys to a Cahn-Hilliard-like dynamics characterized by coalescence of magnetic islands leading to a final new equilibrium state. High resolution numerical simulations confirm quantitatively the predictions of multiscale analysis.

  6. Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.

    2016-08-01

    A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.

  7. Development of a multiple-field-of-view multiple-scattering polarization lidar: comparison with cloud radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hajime; Sato, Kaori; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Makino, Toshiyuki; Jin, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Atsushi; Takano, Toshiaki; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    2016-12-26

    We developed a multiple-field-of-view multiple-scattering polarization lidar (MFMSPL) to study the microphysics of optically thick clouds. Designed to measure enhanced backscattering and depolarization ratio comparable to space-borne lidar, the system consists of four sets of parallel and perpendicular channels mounted with different zenith angles. Depolarization ratios from water clouds were large as observed by MFMSPL compared to those observed by conventional lidar. Cloud top heights and depolarization ratios tended to be larger for outer MFMSPL channels than for vertically pointing channels. Co-located 95 GHz cloud radar and MFMSPL observations showed reasonable agreement at the observed cloud top height.

  8. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  9. Exact two-body solutions and quantum defect theory of two-dimensional dipolar quantum gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Jianwen; Qi, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we provide the two-body exact solutions of the two-dimensional (2D) Schrödinger equation with isotropic +/- 1/{r}3 interactions. An analytic quantum defect theory is constructed based on these solutions and it is applied to investigate the scattering properties as well as two-body bound states of an ultracold polar molecules confined in a quasi-2D geometry. Interestingly, we find that for the attractive case, the scattering resonance happens simultaneously in all partial waves, which has not been observed in other systems. The effect of this feature on the scattering phase shift across such resonances is also illustrated.

  10. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  11. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  12. Multiple scattering from Chebyshev particles: Monte Carlo simulations for backscattering in lidar geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoni, A; Flesia, C; Bruscaglioni, P; Ismaelli, A

    1996-12-20

    Lidar measurements are often interpreted on the basis of two fundamental assumptions: absence of multiple scattering and sphericity of the particles that make up the diffusing medium. There are situations in which neither holds true. We focus our interest on multiply-scattered returns from homogeneous layers of monodisperse, randomly oriented, axisymmetric nonspherical particles. T(2) Chebyshev particles have been chosen and their single-scattering properties have been reviewed. A Monte Carlo procedure has been employed to calculate the backscattered signal for several fields of view. Comparisons with the case of scattering from equivalent (equal-volume) spheres have been carried out (narrow polydispersions have been used to smooth the phase functions' oscillations). Our numerical effort highlights a considerable variability in the intensity of the multiply-scattered signal, which is a consequence of the strong dependence of the backscattering cross section on deformation of the particles. Even more striking effects have been noted for depolarization; peculiar behavior was observed at moderate optical depths when particles characterized by a large backscattering depolarization ratio were employed in our simulations. The sensitivity of depolarization to even small departures from sphericity, in spite of random orientation of the particles, has been confirmed. The results obtained with the Monte Carlo codes have been successfully checked with an analytical formula for double scattering.

  13. Evaluation of a multiple scattering filter to enhance defect detection in heterogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahan, Sharfine; Rupin, Fabienne; Aubry, Alexandre; Derode, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic evaluation of coarse-grain materials generates multiple scattering at high frequency and large depth. Recent academic experiments with array probes showed the ability of a random matrix method [multiple scattering filter (MSF)] to reduce multiple scattering, hence improving detection. Here, MSF is applied to an industrial nickel-based alloy with coarse-grain structure. Two samples with average grain sizes 90 ± 60 μm and 750 ± 400 μm are inspected with wide-band 64-element arrays at central frequencies 2, 3, and 5 MHz. They contain cylindrical through-holes (1-mm radius) at various depths. The array transfer matrix is recorded and post-processed both in the flawless area and for eleven positions above each defect, which allows for a statistical analysis. MSF is compared with two conventional imaging techniques: the total focusing method (TFM) and the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT). Several parameters to assess the performance of detection techniques are proposed and discussed. The results show the benefit of MSF, especially at high frequencies and for deep defects: at 5 MHz and 70 mm depth, i.e., more than three scattering mean-free paths, the detection rate for MSF ranges between 55% and 100% while it is found to be 0% both for TFM and DORT.

  14. Multiple scattering effects with cyclical terms in active remote sensing of vegetated surface using vector radiative transfer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy transport in a vegetated (corn) surface layer is examined by solving the vector radiative transfer equation using a numerical iterative approach. This approach allows a higher order that includes the multiple scattering effects. Multiple scattering effects are important when the optical t...

  15. Disorder, fluctuations and electron interactions in doped semiconductors: A multiple-scattering approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, A.; Serre, J.

    1985-02-01

    Using a multiple-scattering method, we estimate the relative importance of both scattering and concentration-fluctuation effects on the band tailing and on interband optical absorption spectra. In addition, we show that as the impurity concentration decreases, the band tail gradually splits off from the main band, forming an impurity band. Spectral-density analysis allows one to distinguish between quasi-atomic and extended states. It is found that even when no gap appears, a significant part of electrons in the tail has a quasi-atomic character. Compensation effects have also been analyzed. Finally, our results are discussed and compared with various experiments.

  16. The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.

  17. Interactions between lasers and two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junpeng; Liu, Hongwei; Tok, Eng Soon; Sow, Chorng-Haur

    2016-05-03

    The recent increasing research interest in two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has led to an explosion of in the discovery of novel physical and chemical phenomena in these materials. Among the 2D family, group-VI transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as represented by MoS2 and WSe2, are remarkable semiconductors with sizable energy band gaps, which make the TMDs promising building blocks for new generation optoelectronics. On the other hand, the specificity and tunability of the band gaps can generate particularly strong light-matter interactions between TMD crystals and specific photons, which can trigger complex and interesting phenomena such as photo-scattering, photo-excitation, photo-destruction, photo-physical modification, photochemical reaction and photo-oxidation. Herein, we provide an overview of the phenomena explained by various interactions between lasers and the 2D TMDs. Characterizations of the optical fundamentals of the TMDs via laser spectroscopies are reviewed. Subsequently, photoelectric conversion devices enabled by laser excitation and the functionality extension and performance improvement of the TMDs materials via laser modification are comprehensively summarized. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing the prospects for further development in this research area.

  18. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  19. Momentum-space treatment of Coulomb distortions in a multiple-scattering expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (USA)); Elster, C. (Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio (USA)); Thaler, R.M. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (USA) Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (USA))

    1991-10-01

    The momentum-space treatment of the Coulomb interaction within the framework of the Watson multiple-scattering expansion is derived and tested numerically. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations and higher-order terms, the lowest-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is shown to be the sum of the convolutions of a two-body nucleon-nucleon {ital t} matrix with the nuclear density and the point Coulomb interaction with the nuclear charge density. The calculation of the optical potential, as well as the treatment of the Coulomb interaction, is performed entirely in momentum space in an exact and numerically stable procedure. Elastic-scattering observables are presented for {sup 16}O, {sup 40}Ca, and {sup 208}Pb at energies up to 500 MeV. Comparisons are made with approximate treatments of the Coulomb interaction. The interference of nonlocality effects in the nuclear optical potential with different treatments of the Coulomb interaction is investigated.

  20. Momentum-space treatment of Coulomb distortions in a multiple-scattering expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.

    1991-10-01

    The momentum-space treatment of the Coulomb interaction within the framework of the Watson multiple-scattering expansion is derived and tested numerically. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations and higher-order terms, the lowest-order optical potential for proton-nucleus scattering is shown to be the sum of the convolutions of a two-body nucleon-nucleon t matrix with the nuclear density and the point Coulomb interaction with the nuclear charge density. The calculation of the optical potential, as well as the treatment of the Coulomb interaction, is performed entirely in momentum space in an exact and numerically stable procedure. Elastic-scattering observables are presented for 16O, 40Ca, and 208Pb at energies up to 500 MeV. Comparisons are made with approximate treatments of the Coulomb interaction. The interference of nonlocality effects in the nuclear optical potential with different treatments of the Coulomb interaction is investigated.

  1. Multiple scattering of light in cold atomic clouds with a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sigwarth, Olivier; Delande, Dominique; Miniatura, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from a microscopic theory for atomic scatterers, we describe the scattering of light by a single atom and study the coherent propagation of light in a cold atomic cloud in the presence of a magnetic field B in the mesoscopic regime. Non-pertubative expressions in B are given for the magneto-optical effects and optical anisotropy. We then consider the multiple scattering regime and address the fate of the coherent backscattering (CBS) effect. We show that, for atoms with nonzero spin in their ground state, the CBS interference contrast can be increased compared to its value when B=0, a result at variance with classical samples. We validate our theoretical results by a quantitative comparison with experimental data.

  2. Optical extinction, refractive index, and multiple scattering for suspensions of interacting colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parola, Alberto; Piazza, Roberto; Degiorgio, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    We provide a general microscopic theory of the scattering cross-section and of the refractive index for a system of interacting colloidal particles, exact at second order in the molecular polarizabilities. In particular: (a) we show that the structural features of the suspension are encoded into the forward scattered field by multiple scattering effects, whose contribution is essential for the so-called "optical theorem" to hold in the presence of interactions; (b) we investigate the role of radiation reaction on light extinction; (c) we discuss our results in the framework of effective medium theories, presenting a general result for the effective refractive index valid, whatever the structural properties of the suspension, in the limit of particles much larger than the wavelength; (d) by discussing strongly-interacting suspensions, we unravel subtle anomalous dispersion effects for the suspension refractive index.

  3. Implications of multiple scattering on the assessment of black carbon aerosol radiative forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vijayakumar S.; Suresh Babu, S.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Satheesh, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    The effects of radiative coupling between scattering and absorbing aerosols, in an external mixture, on the aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) due to black carbon (BC), its sensitivity to the composite aerosol loading and composition, and surface reflectance are investigated using radiative transfer model simulations. The ARF due to BC is found to depend significantly on the optical properties of the ‘neighboring’ (non-BC) aerosol species. The scattering due to these species significantly increases the top of the atmospheric warming due to black carbon aerosols, and significant changes in the radiative forcing efficiency of BC. This is especially significant over dark surfaces (such as oceans), despite the ARF due to BC being higher over snow and land-surfaces. The spatial heterogeneity of this effect (coupling or multiple scattering by neighboring aerosol species) imposes large uncertainty in the estimation ARF due to BC aerosols, especially over the oceans.

  4. Density of states in a two-dimensional electron gas: Impurity bands and band tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, A.; Serre, J.; Ghazali, A.

    1988-03-01

    We calculate the density of states of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of charged impurities within Klauder's best multiple-scattering approach. The silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) system with impurities at the interface is studied in detail. The finite extension of the electron wave function into the bulk is included as well as various dependences of the density of states on the electron, the depletion, and the impurity densities. The transition from an impurity band at low impurity concentration to a band tail at high impurity concentration is found to take place at a certain impurity concentration. If the screening parameter of the electron gas is decreased, the impurity band shifts to lower energy. For low impurity density we find excited impurity bands. Our theory at least qualitatively explains conductivity and infrared-absorption experiments on impurity bands in sodium-doped MOS systems and deep band tails in the gap observed for high doping levels in these systems.

  5. A method based on iterative morphological filtering and multiple scattering for detecting layer boundaries and extinction coefficients with LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Jiang, Li-Hui; Xiong, Xing-Long; Ma, Yu-Zhao; Liu, Jie-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Layer boundaries detection with LIDAR is of great significance for the meteorological and environmental research. Apart from the background noise, multiple scattering can also seriously affect the detection results in LIDAR signal processing. To alleviate these issues, a novel approach was proposed based upon morphological filtering and multiple scattering correction with multiple iterations, which essentially acts as a weighted algorithm with multiple scattering factors in different filtering scales, and applies integral extinction coefficients as media to perform correction. Simulations on artificial signals and real LIDAR signals support this approach.

  6. Magnetotransport of multiple-band nearly antiferromagnetic metals due to hot-spot scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Multiple-band electronic structure and proximity to antiferromagnetic (AF) instability are the key properties of iron-based superconductors. We explore the influence of scattering by the AF spin fluctuations on transport of multiple-band metals above the magnetic transition. A salient feature of scattering on the AF fluctuations is that it is strongly enhanced at the Fermi surface locations where the nesting is perfect ("hot spots" or "hot lines"). We review derivation of the collision integral for the Boltzmann equation due to AF-fluctuations scattering. In the paramagnetic state, the enhanced scattering rate near the hot lines leads to anomalous behavior of electronic transport in magnetic field. We explore this behavior by analytically solving the Boltzmann transport equation with approximate transition rates. This approach accounts for return scattering events and is more accurate than the relaxation-time approximation. The magnetic-field dependences are characterized by two very different field scales: the lower scale is set by the hot-spot width and the higher scale is set by the total scattering amplitude. A conventional magnetotransport behavior is limited to magnetic fields below the lower scale. In the wide range in-between these two scales, the longitudinal conductivity has linear dependence on the magnetic field and the Hall conductivity has quadratic dependence. The linear dependence of the diagonal component reflects growth of the Fermi-surface area affected by the hot spots proportional to the magnetic field. We discuss applicability of this theoretical framework for describing of anomalous magnetotransport properties in different iron pnictides and chalcogenides in the paramagnetic state.

  7. PROMSAR: a multiple scattering atmospheric model for the analysis of DOAS remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, E.; Premuda, M.; Petritoli, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Kostadinov, I.; Ravegnani, F.; Bortoli, D.

    A correct interpretation of diffuse solar radiation measurements made by DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) remote sensors, requires the use of radiative transfer models of the atmosphere. The simplest models, the geometrical ones, consider radiation scattering in the atmosphere as a single scattering process. This means that the photons collected by the receiver have changed their direction from the sun only once. More realistic atmospheric models are those which consider multiple scattering: their application is useful and essential for the analysis of zenith and off-axis measurements regarding the lowest layers of the atmosphere, characterized by the highest values of air density and quantities of particles and aerosols acting as scattering nuclei. A new atmospheric model, called PROMSAR (PROcessing of Multi-Scattered Atmospheric Radiation), including multiple Rayleigh and Mie scattering, has recently been developed at the ISAC-CNR institute. It is based on a backward Monte Carlo technique, very suitable for studying the various interactions taking place in a complex and non-homogeneous system like the terrestrial atmosphere. PROMSAR code calculates the mean path of the radiation within each layer into which the atmosphere is sub-divided, taking into account the large variety of processes which solar radiation undergoes during propagation through the atmosphere. This quantity is then employed to work out the Air Mass Factor (AMF) of several trace gases, to simulate, both in zenith and off-axis configurations, their slant column amounts and to calculate the weighting functions from which information about the gas vertical distribution is obtained using inversion methods. Results from the model, simulations and comparisons with slant column measurements are presented and discussed.

  8. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred.

  9. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, C.; Aghasyan, M.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexeev, M. G.; Alexeev, G. D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anfimov, N. V.; Anosov, V.; Augsten, K.; Augustyniak, W.; Austregesilo, A.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Badełek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, M.; Barth, J.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E. R.; Birsa, R.; Bodlak, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Büchele, M.; Capozza, L.; Chang, W.-C.; Chatterjee, C.; Chiosso, M.; Choi, I.; Chung, S.-U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M. L.; Curiel, Q.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O. Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S. V.; Doshita, N.; Dreisbach, Ch.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P. D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J. M.; Frolov, V.; Fuchey, E.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O. P.; Gerassimov, S.; Giordano, F.; Gnesi, I.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmüller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grosse Perdekamp, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hahne, D.; Hamar, G.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F. H.; Heitz, R.; Herrmann, F.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Hsieh, C.-Y.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jary, V.; Joosten, R.; Jörg, P.; Kabuß, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G. V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J. H.; Kolosov, V. N.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V. F.; Kotzinian, A. M.; Kouznetsov, O. M.; Krämer, M.; Kremser, P.; Krinner, F.; Kroumchtein, Z. V.; Kulinich, Y.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R. P.; Lednev, A. A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lian, Y.-S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Longo, R.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makins, N.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G. K.; Marianski, B.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matoušek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G. V.; Meyer, M.; Meyer, W.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Mikhasenko, M.; Mitrofanov, E.; Mitrofanov, N.; Miyachi, Y.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nerling, F.; Neyret, D.; Nový, J.; Nowak, W.-D.; Nukazuka, G.; Nunes, A. S.; Olshevsky, A. G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Peng, J.-C.; Pereira, F.; Pešek, M.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Pierre, N.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V. A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Riedl, C.; Roskot, M.; Rossiyskaya, N. S.; Ryabchikov, D. I.; Rybnikov, A.; Rychter, A.; Salac, R.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, C.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I. A.; Sawada, T.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schönning, K.; Seder, E.; Selyunin, A.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Smolik, J.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steffen, D.; Stolarski, M.; Subrt, O.; Sulc, M.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Thiel, A.; Tosello, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Veloso, J.; Virius, M.; Vondra, J.; Wallner, S.; Weisrock, T.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; ter Wolbeek, J.; Zaremba, K.; Zavada, P.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhuravlev, N.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2017-04-01

    Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1(GeV / c) 2 5 GeV /c2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K- multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  10. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Adolph

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1(GeV/c25 GeV/c2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K− multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  11. Multiplicities of charged kaons from deep-inelastic muon scattering off an isoscalar target

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.

    2017-01-01

    Precise measurements of charged-kaon multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering were performed. The results are presented in three-dimensional bins of the Bjorken scaling variable x, the relative virtual-photon energy y, and the fraction z of the virtual-photon energy carried by the produced hadron. The data were obtained by the COMPASS Collaboration by scattering 160 GeV muons off an isoscalar 6 LiD target. They cover the kinematic domain 1 (GeV/c)2 5 GeV/c^2 in the invariant mass of the hadronic system. The results from the sum of the z-integrated K+ and K- multiplicities at high x point to a value of the non-strange quark fragmentation function larger than obtained by the earlier DSS fit.

  12. Soliton pulse propagation in the presence of disorder-induced multiple scattering in photonic crystal waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Nishan

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new coupled mode theory to model nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations for contra-propagating Bloch modes that include disorder-induced multiple scattering effects on nonlinear soliton propagation in photonic crystal waveguides. We also derive sub unit-cell coupling coefficients and use these to introduce a generalized length scale associated with each coupling effect. In particular, we define a multiple-scattering length scale that quantifies the spatial extent of a disorder-induced cavity mode. Our numerical simulations of nonlinear pulse propagation are in excellent qualitative agreement with recent experiments and provide insight into how disorder inhibits soliton propagation and other nonlinear propagation effects in photonic crystal waveguides.

  13. Multiple scattering calculation of the middle ultraviolet reaching the ground. [SST effects on ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shettle, E. P.; Green, A. E. S.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation is conducted regarding the increase in the UV radiation as a function of wavelength due to changes in the amounts of ozone and various other parameters affecting the radiation in the atmosphere. Attention is given to the methods that can be used to solve the problem of the transfer of radiation through an absorbing and scattering atmosphere which includes aerosols. The multiple channel solution reported by Mudgett and Richards' (1971) is extended to vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres.

  14. Coulomb Corrections to the Parameters of the Moliere Multiple Scattering Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraev, Eduard; Tarasov, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    High-energy Coulomb corrections to the parameters of the Moliere multiple scattering theory are obtained. Numerical calculations are presented in the range of the nuclear charge number of the target atom 4

  15. Photon Radiation Induced by Multiple Parton Rescattering in Deeply Inelastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张本威; 王恩科

    2003-01-01

    Photon radiation induced by multiple parton rescattering and corresponding parton energy loss in eA deeply inelastic scattering are investigated by using the generalized factorization of higher twist parton distributions beyond the helicity amplitude approximation. It turns out that the behaviour of the nuclear size dependence of the parton energy loss is different in the photon and gluon radiation cases. The parton energy loss due to photon radiation depends linearly, instead of quadratically, on nuclear size due to gluon radiation.

  16. Atmospheric neutrino oscillations from upward throughgoing muon multiple scattering in MACRO

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Mikheyev, S P; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00806-2

    2003-01-01

    The energy of atmospheric neutrinos detected by MACRO was estimated using multiple coulomb scattering of upward throughgoing muons. This analysis allows a test of atmospheric neutrino oscillations, relying on the distortion of the muon energy distribution. These results have been combined with those coming from the upward throughgoing muon angular distribution only. Both analyses are independent of the neutrino flux normalization and provide strong evidence, above the 4 sigma level, in favour of neutrino oscillations.

  17. Treatment of multiple scattering with the generalized Riemann sphere track fit

    CERN Document Server

    Strandlie, A; Frühwirth, R

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalization of the Riemann sphere track fitting method. This generalization makes it possible to efficiently include multiple scattering effects in the estimation procedure. We also show that the Riemann fit can be formulated in an alternative way through a mapping to a paraboloid. This yields results equivalent to the standard formulation, but with the added advantage that measurements with errors both in RPhi as well as in the radial direction can be handled in a straightforward manner.

  18. Multiple-scattering corrections in diluted magnetic semiconductors: A plane-wave expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalbert, D.; Ghazali, A.; Benoit à la Guillaume, C.

    1993-12-01

    Energy levels of band edges in diluted magnetic semiconductors are calculated in the effective-mass approximation, retaining off-diagonal terms in the exchange interaction and using a plane-wave expansion. This model accounts qualitatively for the observed asymmetry in the splitting of the A exciton in a magnetic field in Cd1-xMnxS for which multiple-scattering corrections are expected to be important.

  19. Monte Carlo Simulation of X-rays Multiple Refractive Scattering from Fine Structure Objects imaged with the DEI Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Khromova, A N; Arfelli, F; Menk, R H; Besch, H J; Plothow-Besch, H; 10.1109/NSSMIC.2004.1466758

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present a novel 3D Monte Carlo photon transport program for simulation of multiple refractive scattering based on the refractive properties of X-rays in highly scattering media, like lung tissue. Multiple scattering reduces not only the quality of the image, but contains also information on the internal structure of the object. This information can be exploited utilizing image modalities such as Diffraction Enhanced Imaging (DEI). To study the effect of multiple scattering a Monte Carlo program was developed that simulates multiple refractive scattering of X-ray photons on monodisperse PMMA (poly-methyl-methacrylate) microspheres representing alveoli in lung tissue. Eventually, the results of the Monte Carlo program were compared to the measurements taken at the SYRMEP beamline at Elettra (Trieste, Italy) on special phantoms showing a good agreement between both data.

  20. Hexagonal boron nitride: Ubiquitous layered dielectric for two-dimensional electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nikhil

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layer-structured dielectric with very similar crystalline lattice to that of graphene, has been studied as a ubiquitous dielectric for two-dimensional electronics. While 2D materials may lead to future platform for electronics, traditional thin-film dielectrics (e.g., various oxides) make highly invasive interface with graphene. Multiple key roles of h-BN in graphene electronics are explored in this thesis. 2D graphene/h-BN heterostructures are designed and implemented in diverse configurations in which h-BN is evaluated as a supporting substrate, a gate dielectric, a passivation layer, or an interposing barrier in "3D graphene" superlattice. First, CVD-grown graphene on h-BN substrate shows improved conductivity and resilience to thermally induced breakdown, as compared with graphene on SiO2, potentially useful for high-speed graphene devices and on-chip interconnects. h-BN is also explored as a gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistor with 2D heterostructure design. The dielectric strength and tunneling behavior of h-BN are investigated, confirming its robust nature. Next, h-BN is studied as a passivation layer for graphene electronics. In addition to significant improvement in current density and breakdown threshold, fully encapsulated graphene exhibits minimal environmental sensitivity, a key benefit to 2D materials which have only surfaces. Lastly, reduction in interlayer carrier scattering is observed in a double-layered graphene setup with ultrathin h-BN multilayer as an interposing layer. The DFT simulation and Raman spectral analysis indicate reduction in interlayer scattering. The decoupling of the two graphene monolayers is further confirmed by electrical characterization, as compared with other referencing mono- and multilayer configurations. The heterostructure serves as the building element in "3D graphene", a versatile platform for future electronics.

  1. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in bubbly liquids: Multiple scattering, softening and hardening phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doc, Jean-Baptiste; Conoir, Jean-Marc; Marchiano, Régis; Fuster, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The weakly nonlinear propagation of acoustic waves in monodisperse bubbly liquids is investigated numerically. A hydrodynamic model based on the averaged two-phase fluid equations is coupled with the Rayleigh-Plesset equation to model the dynamics of bubbles at the local scale. The present model is validated in the linear regime by comparing with the Foldy approximation. The analysis of the pressure signals in the linear regime highlights two resonance frequencies: the Minnaert frequency and a multiple scattering resonance that strongly depends on the bubble concentration. For weakly nonlinear regimes, the generation of higher harmonics is observed only for the Minnaert frequency. Linear combinations between the Minnaert harmonics and the multiple scattering resonance are also observed. However, the most significant effect observed is the appearance of softening-hardening effects that share some similarities with those observed for sandstones or cracked materials. These effects are related to the multiple scattering resonance. Downward or upward resonance frequency shifts can be observed depending on the characteristic of the incident wave when increasing the excitation amplitude. It is shown that the frequency shift can be explained assuming that the acoustic wave velocity depends on a law different from those usually encountered for sandstones or cracked materials.

  2. Exploiting azimuthal variance of scatterers for multiple-look SAR recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanu, Bir; Jones, Grinnell, III

    2002-08-01

    The focus of this paper is optimizing the recognition of vehicles in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery using multiple SAR recognizers at different look angles. The variance of SAR scattering center locations with target azimuth leads to recognition system results at different azimuths that are independent, even for small azimuth deltas. Extensive experimental recognition results are presented in terms of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to show the effects of multiple look angles on recognition performance for MSTAR vehicle targets with configuration variants, articulation, and occlusion.

  3. Design and experimental study of a two-dimensional position sensitive X-ray detector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A prototype of a two-dimensional position sensitive X-ray detector was designed and constructed for small angle X-ray scattering experiments at BSFR (Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility). The detector is based on MWPC with cathode strip readout, and has a sensitive area of 200 mmx200 mm. The spatial resolution (FWHM) of about 210 μm along the anode wire direction was obtained from the 55Fe X-ray test of the detector.

  4. Two dimensional estimates from ocean SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Le Caillec

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of the ocean yield a lot of information on the sea-state surface providing that the mapping process between the surface and the image is clearly defined. However it is well known that SAR images exhibit non-gaussian statistics and that the motion of the scatterers on the surface, while the image is being formed, may yield to nonlinearities. The detection and quantification of these nonlinearities are made possible by using Higher Order Spectra (HOS methods and more specifically, bispectrum estimation. The development of the latter method allowed us to find phase relations between different parts of the image and to recognise their level of coupling, i.e. if and how waves of different wavelengths interacted nonlinearly. This information is quite important as the usual models assume strong nonlinearities when the waves are propagating in the azimuthal direction (i.e. along the satellite track and almost no nonlinearities when propagating in the range direction. In this paper, the mapping of the ocean surface to the SAR image is reinterpreted and a specific model (i.e. a Second Order Volterra Model is introduced. The nonlinearities are thus explained as either produced by a nonlinear system or due to waves propagating into selected directions (azimuth or range and interacting during image formation. It is shown that quadratic nonlinearities occur for waves propagating near the range direction while for those travelling in the azimuthal direction the nonlinearities, when present, are mostly due to wave interactions but are almost completely removed by the filtering effect coming from the surface motion itself (azimuth cut-off. An inherent quadratic interaction filtering (azimuth high pass filter is also present. But some other effects, apparently nonlinear, are not detected with the methods described here, meaning that either the usual relation developed for the Ocean-to-SAR transform is somewhat incomplete

  5. The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.

  6. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  7. Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.

  8. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  9. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  10. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  11. The distinctions between the electrical conductivities under non-contact and contact current excitation in spin–split two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopeliovich, A.I. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering, NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine); Pyshkin, P.V., E-mail: pavel.pyshkin@gmail.com [Ikerbasque, Basque Foundation for Science 48011, Bilbao (Spain); Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, The Basque Country University (EHU/UPV), PO Box 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kalinenko, A.N.; Yanovsky, A.V. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics & Engineering, NAS of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    It is shown that the normal electron–electron scattering is a source of electrical resistance on non-contact current excitation in two-dimensional spin–split electron systems. In contrast to the contact current injection, non-contact current excitation causes spatially inhomogeneous polarization in a two-dimensional conductor leading to new resistivity mechanisms.

  12. Applying Clustering to Statistical Analysis of Student Reasoning about Two-Dimensional Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springuel, R. Padraic; Wittman, Michael C.; Thompson, John R.

    2007-01-01

    We use clustering, an analysis method not presently common to the physics education research community, to group and characterize student responses to written questions about two-dimensional kinematics. Previously, clustering has been used to analyze multiple-choice data; we analyze free-response data that includes both sketches of vectors and…

  13. Disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in photonic crystal waveguides: Bloch mode reshaping, multiple scattering, and breakdown of the Beer-Lambert law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M.; Hughes, S.; Schulz, S.; Beggs, D. M.; White, T. P.; O'Faolain, L.; Krauss, T. F.

    2009-11-01

    Through a combined theoretical and experimental study of disorder-induced incoherent scattering losses in slow-light photonic crystal slab waveguides, we show the importance of Bloch mode reshaping and multiple scattering. We describe a convenient and fully three-dimensional theoretical treatment of disorder-induced extrinsic scattering, including the calculation of backscatter and out-of-plane losses per unit cell, and the extrapolation of the unit-cell loss to the loss for an entire disordered waveguide. The theoretical predictions, which are also compared with recent measurements on dispersion engineered silicon waveguides, demonstrate the failure of the Beer-Lambert law due to multiple scattering. We also explain why the previously assumed group velocity scalings of disorder-induced loss break down in general.

  14. A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2017-05-13

    The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does not satisfy the restricted isometry property, a damping parameter is added to the diagonal entries of the matrix to make the CoSaMP work. The damping factor can be selected based on the level of noise in the measurements. Numerical experiments, which demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed algorithm, are presented.

  15. Block copolymer micelle coronas as quasi-two-dimensional dilute or semidilute polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svaneborg, C.; Pedersen, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Chain-chain interactions in a corona of polymers tethered to a spherical core under good solvent conditions are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. The total scattering function of the corona as well as different partial contributions are sampled. By combining the different contributions...... in a self-consistent approach, it is demonstrated that the corona can be regarded as a quasi-two-dimensional polymer solution, with a concentration dependence analogous to that of an ordinary polymer solution. Scattering due to the corona profile and density fluctuation correlations are separated...

  16. Bessel-Modal Method for Finite-Height Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jun-Feng; HUANG Sheng-Ye; WANG Dong-Sheng

    2005-01-01

    @@ By applying the dyadic Green function, the dispersion relation of two-dimensional photonic crystal can be ex pressed as the cylindrical wave expansions of eigenmodes. With the aid of Green's theorem, the plane-wavecoefficients of eigenmodes are reconstructed and employed to formulate the scattering matrix of finite-height twodimensional photonic crystal. These operations make the convergence rate very rapid, and reduce the dimension of the scattering matrix. As a demonstration, we present the transmission and electromagnetic field distributions for an InGaAsIn photonic crystal, and investigate their convergence.

  17. Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots

    CERN Document Server

    Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K

    2001-01-01

    The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations

  18. The multiple scattering and N-body approaches to nuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.

    1983-02-01

    The relationship between conventional multiple scattering approaches and the recently developed N-body approaches to nuclear reactions is considered with a view towards elastic scattering applications. Connectivity expansions in the N-body approach and multiple scattering expansions in the Watson approach are developed by a common technique so that a comparison of the physical content of each can be made. In the N-body case this leads to a new derivation of the equations of Bencze, Redish, and Sloan in both particle-labelled and partition-labelled form and this yields new insight into the minimal dimensionality of these equations and into the role of channel coupling schemes within this formulation. The relative simplicity and generality with which these results are obtained is designed to be easily understood by those unfamiliar with N-body formalisms. The two approaches are contrasted first for the three-particle problem and subsequently for the many-body problem. We argue that a strict adherence to the connected-kernel property which is advantageous for the three-particle problem may not be so advantageous for the many-body elastic scattering problem. Undesirable physical characteristics of the connectivity expansion for elastic scattering are identified and their rectification is discussed. The off-shell transformation associated with the N-body approach is examined critically. The origin of the multiplicity of N-body coupling schemes is elucidated. It is shown that a modified concept of connectivity, called inclusive connectivity, can be introduced to guide expansions which can be truncated in a physically meaningful way. The inclusive connectivity expansion is seen to be identical to the spectator expansion for an elementary projectile but differs in the case of a composite projectile. Extant elastic scattering optical potential formulations based on the two concepts of connectivity are compared and contrasted. We show that connected kernel integral equations

  19. The two dimensional electron system as a nanoantenna in the microwave and terahertz bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñarrea, Jesús

    2011-12-01

    We study the magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems under several radiation sources of different frequencies for moderate power. We use the model of radiation-driven electron orbits extended to this regime. First, we consider the case of two different radiations and we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions, i.e., a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case where we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device or ultrasensitive detector for the microwave and terahertz bands. Thus, these results could be of special interest in nanophotonics and nanoelectronics.

  20. Two dimensional NMR of liquids and oriented molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gochin, M.

    1987-02-01

    Chapter 1 discusses the quantum mechanical formalism used for describing the interaction between magnetic dipoles that dictates the appearance of a spectrum. The NMR characteristics of liquids and liquid crystals are stressed. Chapter 2 reviews the theory of multiple quantum and two dimensional NMR. Properties of typical spectra and phase cycling procedures are discussed. Chapter 3 describes a specific application of heteronuclear double quantum coherence to the removal of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids. Pulse sequences have been devised which cancel out any contribution from this inhomogeneity to the final spectrum. An interpretation of various pulse sequences for the case of /sup 13/C and /sup 1/H is given, together with methods of spectral editing by removal or retention of the homo- or heteronuclear J coupling. The technique is applied to a demonstration of high resolution in both frequency and spatial dimensions with a surface coil. In Chapter 4, multiple quantum filtered 2-D spectroscopy is demonstrated as an effective means of studying randomly deuterated molecules dissolved in a nematic liquid crystal. Magnitudes of dipole coupling constants have been determined for benzene and hexane, and their signs and assignments found from high order multiple quantum spectra. For the first time, a realistic impression of the conformation of hexane can be estimated from these results. Chapter 5 is a technical description of the MDB DCHIB-DR11W parallel interface which has been set up to transfer data between the Data General Nova 820 minicomputer, interfaced to the 360 MHz spectrometer, and the Vax 11/730. It covers operation of the boards, physical specifications and installation, and programs for testing and running the interface.

  1. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  2. Nonlinear two-dimensional terahertz photon echo and rotational spectroscopy in the gas phase

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Jian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Fleischer, Sharly; Nelson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast two-dimensional spectroscopy utilizes correlated multiple light-matter interactions for retrieving dynamic features that may otherwise be hidden under the linear spectrum. Its extension to the terahertz regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, where a rich variety of material degrees of freedom reside, remains an experimental challenge. Here we report ultrafast two-dimensional terahertz spectroscopy of gas-phase molecular rotors at room temperature. Using time-delayed terahertz pulse pairs, we observe photon echoes and other nonlinear signals resulting from molecular dipole orientation induced by three terahertz field-dipole interactions. The nonlinear time-domain orientation signals are mapped into the frequency domain in two-dimensional rotational spectra which reveal J-state-resolved nonlinear rotational dynamics. The approach enables direct observation of correlated rotational transitions and may reveal rotational coupling and relaxation pathways in the ground electronic and vibrational state.

  3. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.

  4. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  5. Measurement of density and water content of soil using photon multiple scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertek, C.; Haselberger, N.

    1984-11-01

    A quantitative measure of density and of water content in soil was determined by photon multiple scattering following sample irradiation by a 0.7 mCi 137Cs source. Counting was effected using a stabilized single channel scintillation detector and counter system in the differential mode. Scattered photons of 80 keV energy were measured using a 20 keV window. The moving source method was applied to find the density of soil and count rate ratios of dry soil to wet soil. Independent calibrations were applied for the moisture measurements. Four curves were obtained for the soil density range of 0.5-1.5 g/cm 3 by using soil standards of 2.6, 7.0, 10.6 and 16.1 wt.% water content. Direct influence of photons was measured by blocking the direct path of photons to the detector by shielding both the Cs source and the detector.

  6. Comparison of Geant4 multiple Coulomb scattering models with theory for radiotherapy protons

    CERN Document Server

    Makarova, Anastasia; Sauerwein, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Usually, Monte Carlo models are validated against experimental data. However, models of multiple Coulomb scattering (MCS) in the Gaussian approximation are exceptional in that we have theories which are probably more accurate than the experiments which have, so far, been done to test them. In problems directly sensitive to the distribution of angles leaving the target, the relevant theory is the Moliere/Fano/Hanson variant of Moliere theory. For transverse spreading of the beam in the target itself, the theory of Preston and Koehler holds. Therefore, in this paper we compare Geant4 simulations, using the Urban and Wentzel models of MCS, with theory rather than experiment, revealing trends which would otherwise be obscured by experimental scatter. For medium-energy (radiotherapy) protons, and low-Z (water-like) target materials, Wentzel appears to be better than Urban in simulating the distribution of outgoing angles. For beam spreading in the target itself, the two models are essentially equal.

  7. A Multiple Scattering Polarized Radiative Transfer Model: Application to HD 189733b

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Zhang, Xi; Swain, Mark R; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-01-01

    We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model which produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet's atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partial...

  8. Multiple scattering of polarized light in disordered media exhibiting short-range structural correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynck, Kevin; Pierrat, Romain; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-09-01

    We develop a model based on a multiple scattering theory to describe the diffusion of polarized light in disordered media exhibiting short-range structural correlations. Starting from exact expressions of the average field and the field spatial correlation function, we derive a radiative transfer equation for the polarization-resolved specific intensity that is valid for weak disorder and we solve it analytically in the diffusion limit. A decomposition of the specific intensity in terms of polarization eigenmodes reveals how structural correlations, represented via the standard anisotropic scattering parameter g , affect the diffusion of polarized light. More specifically, we find that propagation through each polarization eigenchannel is described by its own transport mean free path that depends on g in a specific and nontrivial way.

  9. Multiple scattering of polarized light in disordered media exhibiting short-range structural correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Vynck, Kevin; Carminati, Rémi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a model based on a multiple scattering theory to describe the diffusion of polarized light in disordered media exhibiting short-range structural correlations. Starting from exact expressions of the average field and the field spatial correlation function, we derive a radiative transfer equation for the polarization-resolved specific intensity that is valid for weak disorder and we solve it analytically in the diffusion limit. A decomposition of the specific intensity in terms of polarization eigenmodes reveals how structural correlations, represented via the standard anisotropic scattering parameter $g$, affect the diffusion of polarized light. More specifically, we find that propagation through each polarization eigenchannel is described by its own transport mean free path that depends on $g$ in a specific and non-trivial way.

  10. Multiple scattering of elastic waves: a numerical method for computing the effective wavenumbers

    CERN Document Server

    Chekroun, Mathieu; Lombard, Bruno; Piraux, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Elastic wave propagation is studied in a heterogeneous 2-D medium consisting of an elastic matrix containing randomly distributed circular elastic inclusions. The aim of this study is to determine the effective wavenumbers when the incident wavelength is similar to the radius of the inclusions. A purely numerical methodology is presented, with which the limitations usually associated with low scatterer concentrations can be avoided. The elastodynamic equations are integrated by a fourth-order time-domain numerical scheme. An immersed interface method is used to accurately discretize the interfaces on a Cartesian grid. The effective field is extracted from the simulated data, and signal-processing tools are used to obtain the complex effective wavenumbers. The numerical reference solution thus-obtained can be used to check the validity of multiple scattering analytical models. The method is applied to the case of concrete. A parametric study is performed on longitudinal and transverse incident plane waves at v...

  11. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  12. RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang

    2006-01-01

    The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.

  13. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  14. Full-potential multiple scattering theory with space-filling cells for bound and continuum states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Kuniko; Benfatto, Maurizio; Natoli, Calogero R

    2010-05-12

    We present a rigorous derivation of a real-space full-potential multiple scattering theory (FP-MST) that is free from the drawbacks that up to now have impaired its development (in particular the need to expand cell shape functions in spherical harmonics and rectangular matrices), valid both for continuum and bound states, under conditions for space partitioning that are not excessively restrictive and easily implemented. In this connection we give a new scheme to generate local basis functions for the truncated potential cells that is simple, fast, efficient, valid for any shape of the cell and reduces to the minimum the number of spherical harmonics in the expansion of the scattering wavefunction. The method also avoids the need for saturating 'internal sums' due to the re-expansion of the spherical Hankel functions around another point in space (usually another cell center). Thus this approach provides a straightforward extension of MST in the muffin-tin (MT) approximation, with only one truncation parameter given by the classical relation l(max) = kR(b), where k is the electron wavevector (either in the excited or ground state of the system under consideration) and R(b) is the radius of the bounding sphere of the scattering cell. Moreover, the scattering path operator of the theory can be found in terms of an absolutely convergent procedure in the l(max) --> ∞ limit. Consequently, this feature provides a firm ground for the use of FP-MST as a viable method for electronic structure calculations and makes possible the computation of x-ray spectroscopies, notably photo-electron diffraction, absorption and anomalous scattering among others, with the ease and versatility of the corresponding MT theory. Some numerical applications of the theory are presented, both for continuum and bound states.

  15. Measured Two-Dimensional Ice-Wedge Polygon Thermal Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, William; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Busey, Robert

    2016-04-01

    necessarily found in areas of higher MAGT. Active layer thickness does not appear to be correlated to mean annual air temperature but rather is a function of summer air temperature or thawing degree-days. While the refreezing of the active layer initiated at nearly the same time for all locations and polygons, we find differences in the proportion of top-down versus bottom-up freezing and the length of time required to complete the refreezing process. Examination of the daily temperature dynamics using interpolated two-dimensional temperature fields reveal that during the summer, the predominate temperature gradient is vertical while the isotherms tend to follow the topography. However, as the active layer begins to refreeze and snow accumulates, the thermal regime diverges. The fall shows an increased temperature gradient horizontally with landscape positions containing higher soil moisture and/or snow depth (low centers and troughs) cooling more slowly than the adjacent ground (rims and high centers). This two-dimensional effect is greatest as the active layer refreezes and persists until mid-winter, by which time the temperature gradients are again mostly vertical and the isotherms follow the topography. Our findings demonstrate the complexity and two-dimensionality of the temperature dynamics in these landscapes.

  16. Absorption and scattering coefficients estimation in two-dimensional participating media using the generalized maximum entropy and Levenberg-Marquardt methods; Estimacion del coeficiente de absorcion y dispersion en medios participantes bidimensionales utilizando el metodo de maxima entropia generalizada y el metodo Levenberg-Marquardt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrocal T, Mariella J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]|[Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru); Roberty, Nilson C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Silva Neto, Antonio J. [Universidade do Estado, Nova Friburgo, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Politecnico. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e Energia]|[Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The solution of inverse problems in participating media where there is emission, absorption and dispersion of the radiation possesses several applications in engineering and medicine. The objective of this work is to estimative the coefficients of absorption and dispersion in two-dimensional heterogeneous participating media, using in independent form the Generalized Maximum Entropy and Levenberg Marquardt methods. Both methods are based on the solution of the direct problem that is modeled by the Boltzmann equation in cartesian geometry. Some cases testes are presented. (author)

  17. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  18. UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.

  19. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  20. Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R

    2016-01-01

    We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.

  1. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  2. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  3. Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

  4. Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wen-Chao

    2004-01-01

    We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.

  5. A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji

    2012-02-05

    Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.

  6. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  7. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    and reflectance. Utilizing frequency-resolved quantum noise measurements, we observe that the strength of the spatial quantum correlation function can be controlled by changing the quantum state of an incident bright squeezed-light source. Our results are found to be in excellent agreement with the developed......We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance...

  8. Open problems in the optics of crystals: the role of multiple scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, S; Oldano, C

    2003-03-01

    The thickness b of the transition boundary layer, always present in crystals and giving still unsolved problems for the boundary conditions, is shown to be essentially determined by the multiple scattering of light, due to the inhomogeneity of any periodic structure. The parameter b depends on the orientation theta of the boundary plane with respect to the crystal lattice, and diverges for some critical orientations where strong macroscopic effects are found, which cannot be interpreted by any macroscopic model based on bulk and boundary equations. Our analysis exhaustively defines the limits of validity of macroscopic models for periodic nanoscale structures and solid crystals.

  9. Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...

  10. Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University

    1997-01-01

    Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...

  11. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

  12. Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan

    2002-05-01

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.

  13. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  14. Multiple scattering of light in a spherical cometary atmosphere with an axisymmetric dust jet. II - Image simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chick, Kenneth M.; Gombosi, Tamas I.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical solution for the multiple light scattering in spherical axisymmetric geometry is applied to the simulation of images of a coma as it would appear to a near-flying satellite such as Giotto. The appearance of symmetric comas and dust jets is examined in detail; the nucleus visibility is studied; the effect of forward scattering is considered; and single and multiple scattering effects are quantified. Attention is given to simulated images of a coma with a hollow cone of dust, as predicted by dust-gas hydrodynamic modeling. The cone's appearance is very similar to the northern area of activity on Comet Halley, observed by the Giotto HMC.

  15. Multiple and double scattering contributions to depth resolution and low energy background in hydrogen elastic recoil detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielunski, L.S. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    The sensitivity of hydrogen elastic recoil detection ( ERD ) is usually limited by the low energy background in the ERD spectrum. A number of 4.5 MeV He{sup ++} hydrogen ERD spectra from different hydrogen implanted samples are compared. The samples are chosen with different atomic numbers from low Z (carbon) to high Z (tungsten carbide) to observe the effects of multiple scattering and double scattering within the sample material. The experimental depth resolution and levels of the low energy background in ERD spectra are compared with theoretical predictions from multiple and double scattering. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  16. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  17. Coulomb interaction in multiple scattering theory. [Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, L.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Thaler, R.M.

    1980-10-01

    The treatment of the Coulomb interaction in the multiple scattering theories of Kerman-McManus-Thaler and Watson is examined in detail. By neglecting virtual Coulomb excitations, the lowest order Coulomb term in the Watson optical potential is shown to be a convolution of the point Coulomb interaction with the distributed nuclear charge, while the equivalent Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is obtained from an averaged, single-particle Coulombic T matrix. The Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb potential is expressed as the Watson Coulomb term plus additional Coulomb-nuclear and Coulomb-Coulomb cross terms, and the omission of the extra terms in usual Kerman-McManus-Thaler applications leads to negative infinite total reaction cross section predictions and incorrect pure Coulomb scattering limits. Approximations are presented which eliminate these anomalies. Using the two-potential formula, the full projectile-nucleus T matrix is separated into two terms, one resulting from the distributed nuclear charge and the other being a Coulomb distorted nuclear T matrix. It is shown that the error resulting from the omission of the Kerman-McManus-Thaler Coulomb terms is effectively removed when the pure Coulomb T matrix in Kerman-McManus-Thaler is replaced by the analogous quantity in the Watson approach. Using the various approximations, theoretical angular distributions are obtained for 800 MeV p+/sup 208/Pb elastic scattering and compared with experimental data.

  18. Neural Network Emulation of the Integral Equation Model with Multiple Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pulvirenti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Integral Equation Model with multiple scattering (IEMM represents a well-established method that provides a theoretical framework for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from rough surfaces. A critical aspect is the long computational time required to run such a complex model. To deal with this problem, a neural network technique is proposed in this work. In particular, we have adopted neural networks to reproduce the backscattering coefficients predicted by IEMM at L- and C-bands, thus making reference to presently operative satellite radar sensors, i.e., that aboard ERS-2, ASAR on board ENVISAT (C-band, and PALSAR aboard ALOS (L-band. The neural network-based model has been designed for radar observations of both flat and tilted surfaces, in order to make it applicable for hilly terrains too. The assessment of the proposed approach has been carried out by comparing neural network-derived backscattering coefficients with IEMM-derived ones. Different databases with respect to those employed to train the networks have been used for this purpose. The outcomes seem to prove the feasibility of relying on a neural network approach to efficiently and reliably approximate an electromagnetic model of surface scattering.

  19. A MULTIPLE SCATTERING POLARIZED RADIATIVE TRANSFER MODEL: APPLICATION TO HD 189733b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopparla, Pushkar; Yung, Yuk L. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Natraj, Vijay; Swain, Mark R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory (NASA-JPL), Pasadena, CA (United States); Zhang, Xi [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., E-mail: pkk@gps.caltech.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We present a multiple scattering vector radiative transfer model that produces disk integrated, full phase polarized light curves for reflected light from an exoplanetary atmosphere. We validate our model against results from published analytical and computational models and discuss a small number of cases relevant to the existing and possible near-future observations of the exoplanet HD 189733b. HD 189733b is arguably the most well observed exoplanet to date and the only exoplanet to be observed in polarized light, yet it is debated if the planet’s atmosphere is cloudy or clear. We model reflected light from clear atmospheres with Rayleigh scattering, and cloudy or hazy atmospheres with Mie and fractal aggregate particles. We show that clear and cloudy atmospheres have large differences in polarized light as compared to simple flux measurements, though existing observations are insufficient to make this distinction. Futhermore, we show that atmospheres that are spatially inhomogeneous, such as being partially covered by clouds or hazes, exhibit larger contrasts in polarized light when compared to clear atmospheres. This effect can potentially be used to identify patchy clouds in exoplanets. Given a set of full phase polarimetric measurements, this model can constrain the geometric albedo, properties of scattering particles in the atmosphere, and the longitude of the ascending node of the orbit. The model is used to interpret new polarimetric observations of HD 189733b in a companion paper.

  20. Redistribution of light frequency by multiple scattering in a resonant atomic vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, J C de A; Oriá, M; Chevrollier, M; de Silans, T Passerat

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of light in a resonant atomic vapor can \\textit{a priori} be thought of as a multiple scattering process, in which each scattering event redistributes both the direction and the frequency of the photons. Particularly, the frequency redistribution may result in L\\'evy flights of photons, directly affecting the transport properties of light in a resonant atomic vapor and turning this propagation into a superdifusion process. Here, we report on a Monte-Carlo simulation developed to study the evolution of the spectrum of the light in a resonant thermal vapor. We observe the gradual change of the spectrum and its convergence towards a regime of Complete Frequency Redistribution as the number of scattering events increases. We also analyse the probability density function of the step length of photons between emissions and reabsorptions in the vapor, which governs the statistics of the light diffusion. We observe two different regime in the light transport: superdiffusive when the vapor is excited n...

  1. High-definition projection screen based on multiple light scattering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiromasa; Okumura, Takamitsu; Tagaya, Akihiro; Higuchi, Eizaburo; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2004-05-01

    A novel rear projection screen (Blue Ocean screen, Nitto Jyushi Kogyo, Co., Ltd.) has been developed. Blue Ocean screen is a single polymer plate requiring no lens element. The projected image is formed on the screen surface by the multiple light scattering. An image light is multiply scattered and is converted into homogeneous light distribution efficiently due to the internal particles of micron order dispersed in the acrylic polymer matrix. An ambient light is reduced by the dye molecules doped in the polymer and the anti-reflective coating on the screen surface. The condition of the particles and the concentration of the dye molecules have been optimized by the ray tracing simulation program based on Mie scattering theory using a Monte Carlo method. The screen containing the particles of optimum condition exhibits the wide viewing angle, the well-controlled color balance, and the high sharpness level at the same time. The contrast level of the projected image in ambient light is improved by controlling the concentration of the dye molecules. This paper describes the optimization obtained theoretically and experimentally, and demonstrates the advantage of Blue Ocean screen.

  2. Energy dependence of the charged multiplicity in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2008-03-15

    The charged multiplicity distributions and the mean charged multiplicity have been investigated in inclusive neutral current deep inelastic ep scattering with the ZEUS detector at HERA, using an integrated luminosity of 38.6 pb{sup -1}. The measurements were performed in the current region of the Breit frame, as well as in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The KNO-scaling properties of the data were investigated and the energy dependence was studied using different energy scales. The data are compared to results obtained in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and to previous DIS measurements as well as to leading-logarithm parton-shower Monte Carlo predictions. (orig.)

  3. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyse, W.E. [Advanced Software Resources, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  4. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  5. A triple axis double crystal multiple reflection camera for ultra small angle X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambard, Jacques; Lesieur, Pierre; Zemb, Thomas

    1992-06-01

    To extend the domain of small angle X-ray scattering requires multiple reflection crystals to collimate the beam. A double crystal, triple axis X-ray camera using multiple reflection channel cut crystals is described. Procedures for measuring the desmeared scattering cross-section on absolute scale are described as well as the measurement from several typical samples : fibrils of collagen, 0.3 μm diameter silica spheres, 0.16 μm diameter interacting latex spheres, porous lignite coal, liquid crystals in a surfactant-water system, colloidal crystal of 0.32 μm diameter silica spheres. L'extension du domaine de diffusion des rayons-X vers les petits angles demande l'emploi de cristaux à réflexions multiples pour collimater le faisceau. Nous décrivons une caméra à rayons-X à trois axes où les réflexions multiples sont réalisées dans deux cristaux à gorge. Nous donnons ensuite les procédures de déconvolution pour obtenir la section efficace de diffusion en échelle absolue, ainsi que les résultats des mesures effectuées avec plusieurs échantillons typiques : fibres de collagène, sphères de silice de 0,3 μm de diamètre, sphères de latex de 0,16 μm de diamètre en interaction, charbon lignite poreux, cristaux liquides formés dans un système eau-tensioactif, solution colloïdale de sphères de silice de 0,32 μm de diamètre.

  6. Green's function multiple-scattering theory with a truncated basis set: An augmented-KKR formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Aftab; Khan, Suffian N.; Smirnov, A. V.; Nicholson, D. M.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2014-11-01

    The Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function, multiple-scattering theory is an efficient site-centered, electronic-structure technique for addressing an assembly of N scatterers. Wave functions are expanded in a spherical-wave basis on each scattering center and indexed up to a maximum orbital and azimuthal number Lmax=(l,mmax), while scattering matrices, which determine spectral properties, are truncated at Lt r=(l,mt r) where phase shifts δl >ltr are negligible. Historically, Lmax is set equal to Lt r, which is correct for large enough Lmax but not computationally expedient; a better procedure retains higher-order (free-electron and single-site) contributions for Lmax>Lt r with δl >ltr set to zero [X.-G. Zhang and W. H. Butler, Phys. Rev. B 46, 7433 (1992), 10.1103/PhysRevB.46.7433]. We present a numerically efficient and accurate augmented-KKR Green's function formalism that solves the KKR equations by exact matrix inversion [R3 process with rank N (ltr+1 ) 2 ] and includes higher-L contributions via linear algebra [R2 process with rank N (lmax+1) 2 ]. The augmented-KKR approach yields properly normalized wave functions, numerically cheaper basis-set convergence, and a total charge density and electron count that agrees with Lloyd's formula. We apply our formalism to fcc Cu, bcc Fe, and L 1 0 CoPt and present the numerical results for accuracy and for the convergence of the total energies, Fermi energies, and magnetic moments versus Lmax for a given Lt r.

  7. The Over-Barrier Resonant States and Multi-Channel Scattering in Multiple Quantum Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Polupanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an explicit numerical method for accurate calculation of the scattering matrix and its poles, and apply this method to describe the multi-channel scattering in the multiple quantum-wells structures. The S-matrix is continued analytically to the unphysical region of complex energy values. Results of calculations show that there exist one or more S-matrix poles, corresponding to the over-barrier resonant states critical for the effect of the absolute reflection of holes in the energy range where only the heavy ones may propagate over barriers in a structure. Light- and heavy-hole states are described by the Luttinger Hamiltonian matrix. In contrast to the single quantum-well case, at some parameters of a multiple quantum-wells structure the number of S-matrix poles may exceed that of the absolute reflection peaks, and at different values of parameters the absolute reflection peak corresponds to different resonant states. The imaginary parts of the S-matrix poles and hence the lifetimes of resonant states as well as the widths of resonant peaks of absolute reflection depend drastically on the quantum-well potential depth. In the case of shallow quantum wells there is in fact a long-living over-barrier resonant hole state.

  8. Two-dimensional silicon: the advent of silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazianetti, Carlo; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Molle, Alessandro

    2016-03-01

    Silicene is sometimes thought of as the Si alter ego of graphene. However, experimental evidence indicates that silicene is substantially different from graphene in terms of its stability, atomic structure, electronic properties, and device process issues. Some of these aspects hamper the feasibility of silicene for practical application, but at the same time they may offer routes to engineer or functionalize silicene as a complementary material to graphene if a good control of the material can be achieved. As such, the research on silicene runs along the cutting edge between unsurmountable limitation and pioneering opportunities. In the present review, we examine the issues that are representative of this dual edge and try to make a preliminary balance of the state-of-the-art features of this material. Each relevant topic will be explored in a dedicated section. We start with the introduction of ‘experimental’ silicene in the so-called ’flatland’ from the point of view of technology drivers and of its conceptual precursor, freestanding silicene. We then explore the following: specific aspects of the silicene on substrates; the tendency of silicene to have multiple structural forms (what we call the polymorphic nature of silicene) the role of the strong hybridization with the substrate in the electronic band structure of silicene; the Raman spectrum of silicene, and silicene processing and integration into a transistor. Finally we conclude by proposing an investigation into silicene’s emerging contemporaries in the realm of elementary two-dimensional materials. Mindful of ongoing discussions and current issues, we try to go to the heart of the problems by treating each topic objectively and scientifically and we then provide our personal views in the discussion.

  9. The Fast Electromagnetic Analysis and RCS Reducing of Two Dimensional Complex Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-xing

    2005-01-01

    @@ Radar scattering characteristic of the aircraft is an important factor for its survivability. Wings are one of the important scattering sources on the aircraft. In order to reduce their RCS, the intense and powerful electromagnetic analysis is needed. For reducing the complexity, the wings can be viewed as a two dimensional large electric objects consisting of both conductors and inhomogeneous dielectrics. In this dissertation, we aim at a precision and efficiency method for numerical computing of two dimension objects. Moded wings and the RCS of the wings can be calculated in turn. The RCS results of different wing are compared and examined, and the stealth technology of wing is found out. Scattering mechanism are explained, which can give strong predictive power for stealth technology of aircraft.

  10. Brewster Angle Microscope Investigations of Two Dimensional Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Adam William

    The liquid-liquid interface is investigated by microscopic and thermodynamic means to image and measure interfacial properties when the system undergoes a two-dimensional (2D) phase transition of a Gibbs monolayer by varying the sample temperature. An in-house Brewster angle microscope (BAM) is constructed to visualize the interface during this transition while a quasi-elastic light scattering technique is used to determine the interfacial tension. These results complement x-ray investigations of the same systems. Evidence of interfacial micro-separated structure, microphases, comes from observations across a hexane-water interface with the inclusion of a long-chain fluorinated alcohol surfactant into the bulk hexane. Microphases take the form of spatially modulated structure to the density of the surfactant as it spans laterally across the interface. The surfactant monolayer exhibits microphase morphology over a range of a couple degrees as the temperature of the system is scanned through the 2D gas-solid phase transition. Microphase structure was observed for heating and cooling the hexane-water system and structural comparisons are given when the temperature step and quench depth of the cooling process is varied. A complete sequence of morphological structure was observed from 2D gas to cluster to labyrinthine stripe to a 2D solid mosaic pattern. Two characteristic length scales emerge giving rise to speculation of an elastic contribution to the standard repulsive and attractive competitive forces stabilizing the microphase. The benefit of BAM to laterally image very thin films across the surface of an interface on the micrometer length scale nicely complements x-ray reflectivity methods that average structural data transverse to the liquid interface on a molecular scale. To properly analyze x-ray reflectivity data, the interface is required to be laterally homogeneous. BAM can sufficiently characterize the interface for this purpose as is done for a Langmuir

  11. Direct observation of strong localization of quasi-two-dimensional light waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Scattering of surface plasmon polaritons on rough metal surfaces is investigated by using scanning near-field optical microscopy. Different scattering regimes, i.e. single, double and multiple scattering, are observed and related to the spatial Fourier spectra of the corresponding near......-field optical images. For the regime of strong multiple scattering, the near-field optical images exhibit spatially localized (within 150-250 nm) intensity enhancement by 10-50 times. This feature is attributed to strong localization of surface polaritons due to interference effects in multiple scattering...... caused by surface roughness. Similar bright light spots are observed with light scattering by silver colloid clusters deposited on glass substrates. Differences and similarities in these scattering phenomena are discussed....

  12. Intrinsic acoustical cross sections in the multiple scattering by a pair of rigid cylindrical particles in 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2017-08-01

    The multiple scattering effects occurring between two scatterers are described based upon the multipole expansion formalism as well as the addition theorem of cylindrical wave functions. An original approach is presented in which an effective incident acoustic field on a particular object, which includes both the primary and re-scattered waves from the other particle is determined first, and then used with the scattered field to derive closed-form analytical expressions for the inherent (i.e. intrinsic) cross-sections based on the far-field scattering. This method does not introduce any approximation in the calculation of the intrinsic cross-sections since the procedure is reduced to the one-body problem. The mathematical expressions for the intrinsic cross-sections are formulated in partial-wave series expansions (PWSEs) in cylindrical coordinates involving the angle of incidence, the addition theorem for the cylindrical wave functions, and the expansion coefficients of the scatterers. Numerical examples illustrate the analysis for two rigid circular cylindrical cross-sections with different radii immersed in a non-viscous fluid. Computations for the dimensionless extrinsic and intrinsic extinction cross-section factors are evaluated with particular emphasis on varying the angle of incidence, the interparticle distance, as well as the sizes of the particles. A symmetric behavior is observed for the dimensionless extrinsic extinction cross-section, while asymmetry arises for the intrinsic extinction cross-section of each particle with respect to the angle of incidence. The present analysis provides a complete analytical and computational method for the prediction of the intrinsic (local) scattering, absorption and extinction cross-sections in the multiple acoustic scatterings of plane progressive waves of arbitrary incidence by a pair of scatterers. The results and computational analyses can be used as a priori information for future applications to guide the

  13. Spectrometer for Particle Characterization With a New Multiple-Scattering Theory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There are two major commercial types of light-scattering particle size analyzers: Static Light Scattering and Dynamic Light Scattering. They are expensive, delicate,...

  14. Electromagnetic scattering by multiple dielectric particles under the illumination of unpolarized high-order Bessel vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei Ping; Han, Yi Ping; Cui, Zhi Wei; Chen, An Tao

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the electromagnetic scattering of a high-order Bessel vortex beam by multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape based on the surface integral equation (SIE) method. In Cartesian coordinates, the mathematical formulas are given for characterizing the electromagnetic field components of an arbitrarily incident high-order Bessel vortex beam. By using the SIE, a numerical scheme is formulated to find solutions for characterizing the electromagnetic scattering by multiple homogeneous particles of arbitrary shape and a home-made FORTRAN program is written. The presented theoretical derivations as well as the home-made program are validated by comparing to the scattering results of a Zero-Order Bessel Beam by the Generalized Lorenz-Mie theory. From our simulations, the beam's order, half-cone angles, and the ways of particles' arrangement have a great influence upon the differential scattering cross section (DSCS) for multiple particles. Furthermore, for a better understanding of the scattering characteristic in three dimension (3-D) space, the 3-D distribution of the DSCS for different cases is presented. It is anticipated that these results can be helpful to understand the scattering mechanisms of a high-order Bessel vortex beam on multiple dielectric particles of arbitrary shape.

  15. Track reconstruction for the Mu3e experiment based on a novel Multiple Scattering fit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlinskiy Alexandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mu3e experiment is designed to search for the lepton flavor violating decay μ+ → e+e+e−. The aim of the experiment is to reach a branching ratio sensitivity of 10−16. In a first phase the experiment will be performed at an existing beam line at the Paul-Scherrer Institute (Switzerland providing 108 muons per second, which will allow to reach a sensitivity of 2 · 10−15. The muons with a momentum of about 28 MeV/c are stopped and decay at rest on a target. The decay products (positrons and electrons with energies below 53MeV are measured by a tracking detector consisting of two double layers of 50 μm thin silicon pixel sensors. The high granularity of the pixel detector with a pixel size of 80 μm × 80 μm allows for a precise track reconstruction in the high multiplicity environment of the Mu3e experiment, reaching 100 tracks per reconstruction frame of 50 ns in the final phase of the experiment. To deal with such high rates and combinatorics, the Mu3e track reconstruction uses a novel fit algorithm that in the simplest case takes into account only the multiple scattering, which allows for a fast online tracking on a GPU based filter farm. An implementation of the 3-dimensional multiple scattering fit based on hit triplets is described. The extension of the fit that takes into account energy losses and pixel size is used for offline track reconstruction. The algorithm and performance of the offline track reconstruction based on a full Geant4 simulation of the Mu3e detector are presented.

  16. Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.

  17. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.

  18. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  19. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  20. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...