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Sample records for two-dimensional ising antiferromagnet

  1. Field-cooling induced unidirectional anisotropy in the two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet Rb sub 2 Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Co sub x F sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Kawecka-Magiera, B; Maksymowicz, A Z

    2000-01-01

    Small cluster approximation and Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm are applied to demonstrate that field cooling induces a unidirectional magnetic anisotropy of small clusters of Cu in Rb sub 2 Cu sub 1 sub - sub x Co sub x F sub 4. Within the Ising model, this anisotropy appears as a net magnetization at zero magnetic field. The effect is due to a coupling between the orbital ordering within clusters of Cu impurities and the antiferromagnetic ordering of Co matrix.

  2. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphous...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  3. Ising antiferromagnet with mobile, pinned, and quenched defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Selk

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent experiments on (Sr,Ca,La14Cu24O41, a two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnet with mobile, locally pinned and quenched defects is introduced and analyzed using mainly Monte Carlo techniques. The interplay between the arrangement of the defects and the magnetic ordering as well as the effect of an external field are studied.

  4. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...

  5. Eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, Rubem; Fratus, Keith R; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We study the onset of eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model (2D-TFIM) in the square lattice. We consider two nonequivalent Hamiltonians: the ferromagnetic 2D-TFIM and the antiferromagnetic 2D-TFIM in the presence of a uniform longitudinal field. We use full exact diagonalization to examine the behavior of quantum chaos indicators and of the diagonal matrix elements of operators of interest in the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. An analysis of finite size effects reveals that quantum chaos and eigenstate thermalization occur in those systems whenever the fields are nonvanishing and not too large.

  6. Excitations in a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgeneau, R. J.; Walker, L. R.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic excitations in the planar Heisenberg random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 at 7K are reported. Two well-defined bands of excitations are observed. A simple mean crystal model is found to predict accurately the measured dispersion relations using...... essentially the pure crystal parameters while the zone boundary energy widths are well-accounted for by an Ising cluster mode. Intensities, however, are not properly explained using these simple models....

  7. Neutron scattering investigation of static critical phenomena in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hironobu; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Hutchings, M.T.

    1979-01-01

    We have studied the critical behavior of the two-dimensional site-random antiferromagnet Rb 2 Co sub(c)Mg sub(1-c)F 4 using neutron elastic and quasi-elastic scattering techniques. The variation with temperature of the intensity of the magnetic Bragg reflections shows a considerable rounding of the transition. Assuming a Gaussian distribution of transition temperature, we have determined the average Neel temperature and the degree of distribution of Neel temperature σ, and the critical exponent β in a series of compounds with c = 1.0, 0.98, 0.97, 0.95, 0.89 and 0.82. The experimental data have been analysed to give the inverse correlation length and the susceptibility in the compounds with c = 1.0, 0.97 and 0.89 using the determined values of and σ. The resulting values of the critical exponents β, ν, γ and eta are found to coincide with the exact theoretical values for the two-dimensional Ising model within the experimental errors, and are independent of the concentration of nonmagnetic impurities. (author)

  8. Critical Behaviour of Pure and Site-Random Two Dimensional Antiferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birgenau, R. J.; Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T......Quasielastic neutron scattering studies of the static critical behavior in the two-dimensional antiferromagnets K2NiF4, K2MnF4, and Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 are reported. For T...

  9. Two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, Y.; Chen, K.; Deng, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kotecký, R.; Salas, J.; Sokal, Alan D.; Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, Č. 1 (2013), 12136-1-12136-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * two-dimensional lattices * q-state Potts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-two-dimensional potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q.pdf

  10. Dynamics of the two-dimensional directed Ising model in the paramagnetic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godrèche, C.; Pleimling, M.

    2014-05-01

    We consider the nonconserved dynamics of the Ising model on the two-dimensional square lattice, where each spin is influenced preferentially by its east and north neighbours. The single-spin flip rates are such that the stationary state is Gibbsian with respect to the usual ferromagnetic Ising Hamiltonian. We show the existence, in the paramagnetic phase, of a dynamical transition between two regimes of violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem in the nonequilibrium stationary state: a regime of weak violation where the stationary fluctuation-dissipation ratio is finite, when the asymmetry parameter is less than a threshold value, and a regime of strong violation where this ratio vanishes asymptotically above the threshold. This study suggests that this novel kind of dynamical transition in nonequilibrium stationary states, already found for the directed Ising chain and the spherical model with asymmetric dynamics, might be quite general. In contrast with the latter models, the equal-time correlation function for the two-dimensional directed Ising model depends on the asymmetry.

  11. Magnetic Phase Transitions in Quantum Ising Model with Annealed Antiferromagnetic Bond Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-pei; Tao, Rui-bao

    1990-06-01

    The effect of annealed antiferromagnetic bond randomness on the phase transitions of the Quantum Ising Model (QIM) is studied by using mean-field renormalization group method. It is argued that bond randomness drastically alters multicritical phase diagram via transverse field. Multicritical points and coexistence region of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic case exist only at weak transverse field, and are entirely eliminated at strong transverse field. The coexistence region diminishes in reducing the fluctuation interaction. This physical picture demonstrates that the competition between transverse field and exchange interaction and fluctuation interaction via bond randomness play an important role in generating multiphase structure. Another consequence of competition is that tricritical points of first-second order phase transitions are not entirely eliminated by bond randomness in two-dimensional QIM. The project supported by the Foundation of Doctoral Education.

  12. Spin polaron in two-dimensional antiferromagnetics - from local singlet to compound quasi-particle

    CERN Document Server

    Barabanov, A F; Belemuk, A M

    2002-01-01

    The basic theoretical concepts, related to the spin polaron scenario for the charge excitations in the two-dimensional antiferromagnetics, are presented. The distinctive peculiarity of the developed approach consists in consideration of the local polaron as the zero approximation for the quasi-particles. On the following stage this excitation is coated into the antiferromagnetic spin waves and the radius intermediate polaron is formed. The method makes it possible to continuously describe the transition from the zero temperatures to the finite ones and to consider the wide doping range. The above approach explains basic results of the ARPES-experiments in the CuO sub 2 plane

  13. Spin-orbit torque in two-dimensional antiferromagnetic topological insulators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit

    2017-01-24

    We investigate spin transport in two-dimensional ferromagnetic (FTI) and antiferromagnetic (AFTI) topological insulators. In the presence of an in-plane magnetization AFTI supports zero energy modes, which enables topologically protected edge conduction at low energy. We address the nature of current-driven spin torque in these structures and study the impact of spin-independent disorder. Interestingly, upon strong disorder the spin torque develops an antidamping component (i.e., even upon magnetization reversal) along the edges, which could enable current-driven manipulation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. This antidamping torque decreases when increasing the system size and when the system enters the trivial insulator regime.

  14. Universality class of the depinning transition in the two-dimensional Ising model with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, X. P.; Zheng, B.; Zhou, N. J.

    2012-03-01

    With Monte Carlo methods, we investigate the universality class of the depinning transition in the two-dimensional Ising model with quenched random fields. Based on the short-time dynamic approach, we accurately determine the depinning transition field and both static and dynamic critical exponents. The critical exponents vary significantly with the form and strength of the random fields, but exhibit independence of the updating schemes of the Monte Carlo algorithm. From the roughness exponents ζ, ζloc and ζs, one may judge that the depinning transition of the random-field Ising model belongs to the new dynamic universality class with ζ ≠ ζloc ≠ ζs and ζloc ≠ 1. The crossover from the second-order phase transition to the first-order one is observed for the uniform distribution of the random fields, but it is not present for the Gaussian distribution.

  15. Modeling of the financial market using the two-dimensional anisotropic Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, L. S.

    2017-09-01

    We have used the two-dimensional classical anisotropic Ising model in an external field and with an ion single anisotropy term as a mathematical model for the price dynamics of the financial market. The model presented allows us to test within the same framework the comparative explanatory power of rational agents versus irrational agents with respect to the facts of financial markets. We have obtained the mean price in terms of the strong of the site anisotropy term Δ which reinforces the sensitivity of the agent's sentiment to external news.

  16. Isotope effect in quasi-two-dimensional metal-organic antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, P. A.; Singleton, J.; Maitland, C.; Blundell, S. J.; Lancaster, T.; Baker, P. J.; McDonald, R. D.; Cox, S.; Sengupta, P.; Manson, J. L.; Funk, K. A.; Schlueter, J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Although the isotope effect in superconducting materials is well documented, changes in the magnetic properties of antiferromagnets due to isotopic substitution are seldom discussed and remain poorly understood. This is perhaps surprising given the possible link between the quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) antiferromagnetic and superconducting phases of the layered cuprates. Here we report the experimental observation of shifts in the Néel temperature and critical magnetic fields (ΔTN/TN≈4%;ΔBc/Bc≈4%) in a Q2D organic molecular antiferromagnet on substitution of hydrogen for deuterium. These compounds are characterized by strong hydrogen bonds through which the dominant superexchange is mediated. We evaluate how the in-plane and interplane exchange energies evolve as the atoms of hydrogen on different ligands are substituted, and suggest a possible mechanism for this effect in terms of the relative exchange efficiency of hydrogen and deuterium bonds.

  17. Neutron-scattering study of the two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet Rb2Cu0.12Co0.88F4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schins, A.G.; Nielsen, M.; Arts, A.F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering is performed on a single crystal of the two-dimensional antiferromagnet Rb2Cu0.12Co0.88F4, whose magnetic structure is frustrated by the admixture of ferromagnetic bonds. From the critical scattering, the in-plane inverse correlation length is found to decrease...... correlation remaining at T(N). The sublattice magnetization obeys the critical exponent beta = 0.16 +/- 0.04. The critical exponents found compare with the Ising values nu = 1, gamma = 7/4, and beta = 1/8. Another manifestation of the frustration is the failure to reach true equilibrium below T...

  18. Critical slowing down in the two-dimensional Ising model measured using ferromagnetic ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlavy, M. J.; Venus, D.

    2005-04-01

    Power-law scaling of the relaxation time τ associated with critical slowing down has been experimentally measured in the dynamics of the magnetization of a bilayer of iron grown on top of a W(110) substrate using the complex magnetic ac susceptibility χ(T) . The observed value of the critical exponent for the slowing down above the Curie transition of this two-dimensional Ising ferromagnetic system is zν=2.09±0.06 (95% confidence), in agreement with most contemporary theories and simulations. Further analysis reveals that dynamical effects cause χ(T) to deviate from power-law scaling as the temperature is decreased towards Tc , whereas the saturation of the correlation length due to finite-size effects (on the order of 500 lattice spaces) limits the divergence of τ .

  19. Ordering in the quenched two-dimensional axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassold, G.N.; Srolovitz, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of ordering in the two-dimensional axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model following a quench were performed using nonconserved dynamics for a wide range of frustration parameters, κ, and temperatures. It was found that in quenches from T>>T/sub c/ to T 1 2 kinetics. Similar results are found for quenches at κ≥1, where the ordered structure is striped. However, for 0 phase (i.e., striped phase). Quenches to higher temperatures show the presence of a finite glass-transition temperature. Discontinuous changes in the value of the frustration parameter from the ferromagnetic to the -phase region of the phase diagram at low temperature yields a phase change which occurs via classical nucleation and growth. A simple energetic or growth model is proposed which accounts for all of the temperatures at which the ordering kinetics undergoes transitions

  20. Exact Solutions for Correlations in the Kagomé Ising Antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, J. H.; Khatun, M.

    The kagomé Ising antiferromagnet is highly frustrated with its pair correlation decaying exponentially at large distance for all temperatures including absolute zero. Hence, the spin system does not support long-range orderings and is devoid of any phase transition. One proves, via local star-triangle and decoration-decimation transformations, that correlations in the kagomé Ising antiferromagnet at arbitrary temperatures can be represented as linear combinations of correlations in the honeycomb Ising ferromagnet at high temperatures (disordered region). Existent knowledge of all honeycomb Ising correlations upon a select (spatially compact) 10-site cluster is thus sufficient to determine all present kagomé Ising correlations upon an associated 9-site cluster. Examples of resulting exact solutions for pair and multisite correlations in the kagomé Ising antiferromagnet are presented at all temperatures. Applications include joint configuration probabilities, thermodynamic response functions such as the specific heat and the initial perpendicular susceptibility, and the inelastic neutron scattering function.

  1. Thermodynamic and critical properties of an antiferromagnetically stacked triangular Ising antiferromagnet in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M.; Borovský, M.; Bobák, A.

    2018-05-01

    We study a stacked triangular lattice Ising model with both intra- and inter-plane antiferromagnetic interactions in a field, by Monte Carlo simulation. We find only one phase transition from a paramagnetic to a partially disordered phase, which is of second order and 3D XY universality class. At low temperatures we identify two highly degenerate phases: at smaller (larger) fields the system shows long-range ordering in the stacking direction (within planes) but not in the planes (stacking direction). Nevertheless, crossovers to these phases do not have a character of conventional phase transitions but rather linear-chain-like excitations.

  2. Q-deformed Grassmann field and the two-dimensional Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrij, A.I.; Shadura, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we construct the exact representation of the Ising partition function in form of the SL q (2,R)-invariant functional integral for the lattice free q-fermion field theory (q=-1). It is shown that the proposed method of q-fermionization allows one to re-express the partition function of the eight vertex model in external field through the functional integral with four-fermion interaction. For the construction of these representation we define a lattice (l,q,s)-deformed Grassmann bi spinor field and extend the Berezin integration rules for this field. At q = - 1, l = s 1 we obtain the lattice q-fermion field which allows to fermionize the two-dimensional Ising model. We show that Gaussian integral over (q,s)-Grassmann variables is expressed through the (q,s)-deformed Pfaffian which is equal to square root of the determinant of some matrix at q = ± 1, s = ±1. (author). 39 refs

  3. Flocking with discrete symmetry: The two-dimensional active Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon, A P; Tailleur, J

    2015-10-01

    We study in detail the active Ising model, a stochastic lattice gas where collective motion emerges from the spontaneous breaking of a discrete symmetry. On a two-dimensional lattice, active particles undergo a diffusion biased in one of two possible directions (left and right) and align ferromagnetically their direction of motion, hence yielding a minimal flocking model with discrete rotational symmetry. We show that the transition to collective motion amounts in this model to a bona fide liquid-gas phase transition in the canonical ensemble. The phase diagram in the density-velocity parameter plane has a critical point at zero velocity which belongs to the Ising universality class. In the density-temperature "canonical" ensemble, the usual critical point of the equilibrium liquid-gas transition is sent to infinite density because the different symmetries between liquid and gas phases preclude a supercritical region. We build a continuum theory which reproduces qualitatively the behavior of the microscopic model. In particular, we predict analytically the shapes of the phase diagrams in the vicinity of the critical points, the binodal and spinodal densities at coexistence, and the speeds and shapes of the phase-separated profiles.

  4. Emergent criticality and Friedan scaling in a two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Peter P.; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Schmalian, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    We study a two-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the windmill lattice consisting of triangular and dual honeycomb lattice sites. In the classical ground state, the spins on different sublattices are decoupled, but quantum and thermal fluctuations drive the system into a coplanar state via an "order from disorder" mechanism. We obtain the finite temperature phase diagram using renormalization group approaches. In the coplanar regime, the relative U(1) phase between the spins on the two sublattices decouples from the remaining degrees of freedom, and is described by a six-state clock model with an emergent critical phase. At lower temperatures, the system enters a Z6 broken phase with long-range phase correlations. We derive these results by two distinct renormalization group approaches to two-dimensional magnetism: Wilson-Polyakov scaling and Friedan's geometric approach to nonlinear sigma models where the scaling of the spin stiffnesses is governed by the Ricci flow of a 4D metric tensor.

  5. Antiferromagnetic Ising model with transverse and longitudinal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kischinhevsky, M.

    1985-01-01

    We study the quantum hamiltonian version of the Ising Model in one spacial dimension under an external longitudinal (uniform) field at zero temperature. A phenomenological renormalization group procedure is used to obtain the phase diagram; the transverse and longitudinal zero field limits are studied and we verify the validity of universality at non zero transverse fields, where two-dimensional critical behaviour is obtained. To perform the numerical calculations we use the Lanczos scheme, which gives highly precise results with rather short processing times. We also analyse the possibility of using these techniques to extend the present work to the quantum hamiltonian version of the q-state Potts Model (q>2) in larger system. (author) [pt

  6. Test of quantum thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaß, Benjamin; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    We study the quantum relaxation of the two-dimensional transverse-field Ising model after global quenches with a real-time variational Monte Carlo method and address the question whether this non-integrable, two-dimensional system thermalizes or not. We consider both interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase and field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase and compare the time-averaged probability distributions of non-conserved quantities like magnetization and correlation functions to the thermal distributions according to the canonical Gibbs ensemble obtained with quantum Monte Carlo simulations at temperatures defined by the excess energy in the system. We find that the occurrence of thermalization crucially depends on the quench parameters: While after the interaction quenches in the paramagnetic phase thermalization can be observed, our results for the field quenches in the ferromagnetic phase show clear deviations from the thermal system. These deviations increase with the quench strength and become especially clear comparing the shape of the thermal and the time-averaged distributions, the latter ones indicating that the system does not completely lose the memory of its initial state even for strong quenches. We discuss our results with respect to a recently formulated theorem on generalized thermalization in quantum systems.

  7. Spin waves treatment of the antiferromagnetic ground state of two Ising-like systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegoke Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using Anderson's spin wave theory, we derive expressions for the ground state energy of two Ising-like systems. Antiferromagnetic long range order is predicted for one of the systems.

  8. Correction to scaling in the response function of the two-dimensional kinetic Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corberi, Federico; Lippiello, Eugenio; Zannetti, Marco

    2005-11-01

    The aging part Rag(t,s) of the impulsive response function of the two-dimensional ferromagnetic Ising model, quenched below the critical point, is studied numerically employing an algorithm without the imposition of the external field. We find that the simple scaling form Rag(t,s)=s-(1+a)f(t/s) , which is usually believed to hold in the aging regime, is not obeyed. We analyze the data assuming the existence of a correction to scaling. We find a=0.273±0.006 , in agreement with previous numerical results obtained from the zero field cooled magnetization. We investigate in detail also the scaling function f(t/s) and we compare the results with the predictions of analytical theories. We make an ansatz for the correction to scaling, deriving an analytical expression for Rag(t,s) . This gives a satisfactory qualitative agreement with the numerical data for Rag(t,s) and for the integrated response functions. With the analytical model we explore the overall behavior, extrapolating beyond the time regime accessible with the simulations. We explain why the data for the zero field cooled susceptibility are not too sensitive to the existence of the correction to scaling in Rag(t,s) , making this quantity the most convenient for the study of the asymptotic scaling properties.

  9. Two-dimensional magnetism in the triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    At sufficiently low temperatures, electron spins in normal magnets generally order into some fashion, for instance, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. Geometrical frustration and/or reduced dimensionality can suppress such conventional orders, and occasionally induce unknown states of matter. This is the case for the two-dimensional (2D) triangular antiferromagnet Ni(Ga 2 S 4 , in which S=1 nickel spins do not order, instead show an exotic magnetism. We found (1) a resonant critical slowing down toward T*=8.5 K followed by a viscous spin liquid behavior, and (2) a spin-size dependent ground state. To elucidate (1), spin dynamics ranging from 10 -13 to 10 0 seconds were quantitatively explored through the experimental techniques such as inelastic neutron scattering, backscattering, neutron spin echo, ac and nonlinear susceptibilities. The finding of (2) is evidenced by impurity effects. Integer spins substituted systems such as zinc and iron ions retain a quadratic temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat as for the parent compound. However, substitutions of half-odd integer spins, cobalt and manganese ions, eventually induce a distinct behavior, indicating an importance of integer size of spins to stabilize the 2D magnetism realized in NiGa 2 S 4 . The article gives our experimental findings and as well as some relevant theoretical scenarios. (author)

  10. Engineered Two-Dimensional Ising Interactions on a Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulator with Hundreds of Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    this approach [6–14]. However, simulations of quantum magnetism allow- ing controlled, tunable interactions between spins localized on 2D and 3D ...antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interaction. The spin-liquid’s Figure 1. The Penning trap confines hundreds of spin-1/2 particles (qubits) on a two...simulations of quantum Ising and Heisenberg inter- actions with localized spins were done with neutral atoms in optical lattices [6, 11], atomic ions in Paul

  11. Broken discrete and continuous symmetries in two-dimensional spiral antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezio, A; Sposetti, C N; Manuel, L O; Trumper, A E

    2013-01-01

    We study the occurrence of symmetry breaking, at zero and finite temperatures, in the J 1 –J 3 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the square lattice using Schwinger boson mean field theory. For spin- 1/2 the ground state always breaks the SU(2) symmetry with a continuous quasi-critical transition at J 3 /J 1 ∼ 0.38, from Néel to spiral long range order, although local spin fluctuation considerations suggest an intermediate disordered regime around 0.35 ≲ J 3 /J 1 ≲ 0.5, in qualitative agreement with recent numerical results. At low temperatures we find a Z 2 broken symmetry region with short range spiral order characterized by an Ising-like nematic order parameter that compares qualitatively well with classical Monte Carlo results. At intermediate temperatures the phase diagram shows regions with collinear short range orders: for J 3 /J 1 3 /J 1 > 1 a novel phase consisting of four decoupled third neighbour sublattices with Néel (π,π) correlations in each one. We conclude that the effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations is to favour collinear correlations even in the strongly frustrated regime. (paper)

  12. Broken discrete and continuous symmetries in two-dimensional spiral antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezio, A.; Sposetti, C. N.; Manuel, L. O.; Trumper, A. E.

    2013-11-01

    We study the occurrence of symmetry breaking, at zero and finite temperatures, in the J1-J3 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the square lattice using Schwinger boson mean field theory. For spin-\\frac{1}{2} the ground state always breaks the SU(2) symmetry with a continuous quasi-critical transition at J3/J1 ˜ 0.38, from Néel to spiral long range order, although local spin fluctuation considerations suggest an intermediate disordered regime around 0.35 ≲ J3/J1 ≲ 0.5, in qualitative agreement with recent numerical results. At low temperatures we find a Z2 broken symmetry region with short range spiral order characterized by an Ising-like nematic order parameter that compares qualitatively well with classical Monte Carlo results. At intermediate temperatures the phase diagram shows regions with collinear short range orders: for J3/J1 1 a novel phase consisting of four decoupled third neighbour sublattices with Néel (π,π) correlations in each one. We conclude that the effect of quantum and thermal fluctuations is to favour collinear correlations even in the strongly frustrated regime.

  13. Dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model in an oscillating magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Keskin and Ertaş (2009) presented a study of the magnetic properties of a mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model within an oscillating magnetic field. They employed dynamic mean-field calculations to find the dynamic phase transition temperatures, the dynamic compensation points of the model and to present the dynamic phase diagrams. In this work, we extend the study and investigate the dynamic hysteresis behaviors for the two-dimensional (2D) mixed spin (2, 5/2) ferrimagnetic Ising model on a hexagonal lattice in an oscillating magnetic field within the framework of dynamic mean-field calculations. The dynamic hysteresis curves are obtained for both the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions and the effects of the Hamiltonian parameters on the dynamic hysteresis behaviors are discussed in detail. The thermal behaviors of the coercivity and remanent magnetizations are also investigated. The results are compared with some theoretical and experimental works and a qualitatively good agreement is found. Finally, the dynamic phase diagrams depending on the frequency of an oscillating magnetic field in the plane of the reduced temperature versus magnetic field amplitude is examined and it is found that the dynamic phase diagrams display richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than for lower values.

  14. Ground-state candidate for the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioar, I. A.; Rougemaille, N.; Canals, B.

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the low-temperature thermodynamic properties of the classical dipolar kagome Ising antiferromagnet using Monte Carlo simulations, in the quest for the ground-state manifold. In spite of the limitations of a single-spin-flip approach, we managed to identify certain ordering patterns in the low-temperature regime and we propose a candidate for this unknown state. This configuration presents some intriguing features and is fully compatible with the extrapolations of the at-equilibrium thermodynamic behavior sampled so far, making it a very likely choice for the dipolar long-range ordered state of the classical kagome Ising antiferromagnet.

  15. The Multisite Antiferromagnetic Ising Spin Model and Universality of Feigenbaum Constants

    OpenAIRE

    Ananikian, N. S.; Lusiniants, R. R.; Oganessyan, K. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Feigenbaum constants $\\alpha$ and $\\delta$ for the three-site antiferromagnetic Ising spin model on Husimi tree are calculated. It is shown that the numerical values of these constants for this real physical system coincide with the famous universal Feigenbaum constants with high accuracy. The quantitative description from ordering to chaos is also obtained.

  16. Critical behavior of magnetization in URhAl: Quasi-two-dimensional Ising system with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateiwa, Naoyuki; Pospíšil, Jiří; Haga, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Etsuji

    2018-02-01

    The critical behavior of dc magnetization in the uranium ferromagnet URhAl with the hexagonal ZrNiAl-type crystal structure has been studied around the ferromagnetic transition temperature TC. The critical exponent β for the temperature dependence of the spontaneous magnetization below TC,γ for the magnetic susceptibility, and δ for the magnetic isotherm at TC, have been obtained with a modified Arrott plot, a Kouvel-Fisher plot, the critical isotherm analysis, and the scaling analysis. We have determined the critical exponents as β =0.287 ±0.005 , γ =1.47 ±0.02 , and δ =6.08 ±0.04 by the scaling analysis and the critical isotherm analysis. These critical exponents satisfy the Widom scaling law δ =1 +γ /β . URhAl has strong uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, similar to its isostructural UCoAl that has been regarded as a three-dimensional (3D) Ising system in previous studies. However, the universality class of the critical phenomenon in URhAl does not belong to the 3D Ising model (β =0.325 , γ =1.241 , and δ =4.82 ) with short-range exchange interactions between magnetic moments. The determined exponents can be explained with the results of the renormalization group approach for a two-dimensional (2D) Ising system coupled with long-range interactions decaying as J (r ) ˜r-(d +σ ) with σ =1.44 . We suggest that the strong hybridization between the uranium 5 f and rhodium 4 d electrons in the U-RhI layer in the hexagonal crystal structure is a source of the low-dimensional magnetic property. The present result is contrary to current understandings of the physical properties in a series of isostructural UTX uranium ferromagnets (T: transition metals, X: p -block elements) based on the 3D Ising model.

  17. Universal critical behavior of the two-dimensional Ising spin glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, L. A.; Marinari, E.; Martin-Mayor, V.; Parisi, G.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J. J.

    2016-07-01

    We use finite size scaling to study Ising spin glasses in two spatial dimensions. The issue of universality is addressed by comparing discrete and continuous probability distributions for the quenched random couplings. The sophisticated temperature dependency of the scaling fields is identified as the major obstacle that has impeded a complete analysis. Once temperature is relinquished in favor of the correlation length as the basic variable, we obtain a reliable estimation of the anomalous dimension and of the thermal critical exponent. Universality among binary and Gaussian couplings is confirmed to a high numerical accuracy.

  18. Eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model. II. Off-diagonal matrix elements of observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondaini, Rubem; Rigol, Marcos

    2017-07-01

    We study the matrix elements of few-body observables, focusing on the off-diagonal ones, in the eigenstates of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model. By resolving all symmetries, we relate the onset of quantum chaos to the structure of the matrix elements. In particular, we show that a general result of the theory of random matrices, namely, the value 2 of the ratio of variances (diagonal to off-diagonal) of the matrix elements of Hermitian operators, occurs in the quantum chaotic regime. Furthermore, we explore the behavior of the off-diagonal matrix elements of observables as a function of the eigenstate energy differences and show that it is in accordance with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis ansatz.

  19. Domain-wall excitations in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshbakht, Hamid; Weigel, Martin

    2018-02-01

    The Ising spin glass in two dimensions exhibits rich behavior with subtle differences in the scaling for different coupling distributions. We use recently developed mappings to graph-theoretic problems together with highly efficient implementations of combinatorial optimization algorithms to determine exact ground states for systems on square lattices with up to 10 000 ×10 000 spins. While these mappings only work for planar graphs, for example for systems with periodic boundary conditions in at most one direction, we suggest here an iterative windowing technique that allows one to determine ground states for fully periodic samples up to sizes similar to those for the open-periodic case. Based on these techniques, a large number of disorder samples are used together with a careful finite-size scaling analysis to determine the stiffness exponents and domain-wall fractal dimensions with unprecedented accuracy, our best estimates being θ =-0.2793 (3 ) and df=1.273 19 (9 ) for Gaussian couplings. For bimodal disorder, a new uniform sampling algorithm allows us to study the domain-wall fractal dimension, finding df=1.279 (2 ) . Additionally, we also investigate the distributions of ground-state energies, of domain-wall energies, and domain-wall lengths.

  20. GPU-Accelerated Population Annealing Algorithm: Frustrated Ising Antiferromagnet on the Stacked Triangular Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borovský Michal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The population annealing algorithm is a novel approach to study systems with rough free-energy landscapes, such as spin glasses. It combines the power of simulated annealing, Boltzmann weighted differential reproduction and sequential Monte Carlo process to bring the population of replicas to the equilibrium even in the low-temperature region. Moreover, it provides a very good estimate of the free energy. The fact that population annealing algorithm is performed over a large number of replicas with many spin updates, makes it a good candidate for massive parallelism. We chose the GPU programming using a CUDA implementation to create a highly optimized simulation. It has been previously shown for the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet on the stacked triangular lattice with a ferromagnetic interlayer coupling, that standard Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations fail to equilibrate at low temperatures due to the effect of kinetic freezing of the ferromagnetically ordered chains. We applied the population annealing to study the case with the isotropic intra- and interlayer antiferromagnetic coupling (J2/|J1| = −1. The reached ground states correspond to non-magnetic degenerate states, where chains are antiferromagnetically ordered, but there is no long-range ordering between them, which is analogical with Wannier phase of the 2D triangular Ising antiferromagnet.

  1. Spin Dynamics and Critical Fluctuations in a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive elastic- and inelastic-neutron-scattering study of the binary mixed antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 has been carried out. The pure materials, Rb2MnF4 and Rb2NiF4 are [2d] near-Heisenberg antiferromagnets of the K2NiF4 type. Elastic-scattering experiments demonstrate that the Mn...... like the sublattice magnetization while the excitations at larger wave vectors remain well defined through TN and only slightly renormalized from their T=0 energies. Critical scattering measurements of the staggered susceptibility and the correlation length have been carried out between 69 and 120 K...

  2. Phase transitions in two-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY models. I. antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.E.; Uimin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A most popular model in the family of two-dimensional uniformly-frustrated XY models is the antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice (AF XY(t) model). Its ground state is both continuously and twofold discretely degenerated. Different phase transitions possible in such systems are investigated. Relevant topological excitations are analyzed and a new class of such (vortices with a fractional number of circulation quanta) is discovered. Their role in determining the properties of the system proves itself essential. The characteristics of phase transitions related to breaking of discrete and continuous symmetries change. The phase diagram of the ''generalized'' AF XY(t) model is constructed. The results obtained are rederived in the representation of the Coulomb gas with half-interger charges, equivalent to the AF XY(t) model with the Berezinskii-Villain interaction

  3. Magnetic Raman Scattering in Two-Dimensional Spin-1/2 Heisenberg Antiferromagnets: Explanation of the Spectral Shape Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, F.; Merlin, R.; Haas, S.; Sandvick, A.; Dagotto, E.

    1996-03-01

    We calculate(F. Nori, R.Merlin, S. Haas, A.W. Sandvik, and E. Dagotto, Physical Review Letters) 75, 553 (1995). the Raman spectrum of the two-dimensional (2D) spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet by exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo techniques on clusters of up to 144 sites. On a 16-site cluster, we consider the phonon-magnon interaction which leads to random fluctuations of the exchange integral. Results are in good agreement with experiments on various high-Tc precursors, such as La_2CuO4 and YBa_2Cu_3O_6.2. In particular, our calculations reproduce the broad lineshape of the two-magnon peak, the asymmetry about its maximum, the existence of spectral weight at high energies, and the observation of nominally forbidden A_1g scattering.

  4. Raman Scattering from Higgs Mode Oscillations in the Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnet Ca_{2}RuO_{4}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliou, Sofia-Michaela; Chaloupka, Jiří; Khaliullin, Giniyat; Ryu, Gihun; Jain, Anil; Kim, B J; Le Tacon, Matthieu; Keimer, Bernhard

    2017-08-11

    We present and analyze Raman spectra of the Mott insulator Ca_{2}RuO_{4}, whose quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic order has been described as a condensate of low-lying spin-orbit excitons with angular momentum J_{eff}=1. In the A_{g} polarization geometry, the amplitude (Higgs) mode of the spin-orbit condensate is directly probed in the scalar channel, thus avoiding infrared-singular magnon contributions. In the B_{1g} geometry, we observe a single-magnon peak as well as two-magnon and two-Higgs excitations. Model calculations using exact diagonalization quantitatively agree with the observations. Together with recent neutron scattering data, our study provides strong evidence for excitonic magnetism in Ca_{2}RuO_{4} and points out new perspectives for research on the Higgs mode in two dimensions.

  5. Correction induced by irrelevant operators in the correlators of the two-dimensional Ising model in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caselle, M.; Grinza, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica dell' Universita di Torino and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy)]. E-mails: caselle@to.infn.it; grinza@to.infn.it; Magnoli, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy)]. E-mail: magnoli@ge.infn.it

    2001-10-26

    We investigate the presence of irrelevant operators in the two-dimensional Ising model perturbed by a magnetic field, by studying the corrections induced by these operators in the spin-spin correlator of the model. To this end we perform a set of high-precision simulations for the correlator both along the axes and along the diagonal of the lattice. By comparing the numerical results with the predictions of a perturbative expansion around the critical point we find unambiguous evidence of the presence of such irrelevant operators. It turns out that among the irrelevant operators the one which gives the largest correction is the spin-4 operator T{sup 2}+T-bar{sup 2}, which accounts for the breaking of the rotational invariance due to the lattice. This result agrees with what was already known for the correlator evaluated exactly at the critical point and also with recent results obtained in the case of the thermal perturbation of the model. (author)

  6. Room temperature exchange bias in multiferroic BiFeO3 nano- and microcrystals with antiferromagnetic core and two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnetic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Wang, Shou Yu; Liu, Wei Fang; Xu, Xun Ling; Li, Xiu; Zhang, Hong; Gao, Ju; Li, De Jun

    2017-05-01

    Exchange bias (EB) of multiferroics presents many potential opportunities for magnetic devices. However, instead of using low-temperature field cooling in the hysteresis loop measurement, which usually shows an effective approach to obtain obvious EB phenomenon, there are few room temperature EB. In this article, extensive studies on room temperature EB without field cooling were observed in BiFeO3 nano- and microcrystals. Moreover, with increasing size the hysteresis loops shift from horizontal negative exchange bias (NEB) to positive exchange bias (PEB). In order to explain the tunable EB behaviors with size dependence, a phenomenological qualitative model based on the framework of antiferromagnetic (AFM) core-two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet in a field (2D-DAFF) shell structure was proposed. The training effect (TE) ascertained the validity of model and the presence of unstable magnetic structure using Binek's model. Experimental results show that the tunable EB effect can be explained by the competition of ferromagnetic (FM) exchange coupling and AFM exchange coupling interaction between AFM core and 2D-DAFF shell. Additionally, the local distortion of lattice fringes was observed in hexagonal-shaped BiFeO3 nanocrystals with well-dispersed behavior. The electrical conduction properties agreed well with the space charge-limited conduction mechanism.

  7. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-03-07

    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](BF 4 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](PF 6 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (2) (salen 2- = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6 2- = C 6 H 12 (COO) 2 2- ), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H 2 O)]X (X - = BF 4 - and PF 6 - ) and C 6 H 12 (CO 2 - ) 2 (C6 2- ) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ 4 -type C6 2- ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C 6 H 12 linkers of C6 2- moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF 4 - and PF 6 - , respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF 4 - is smaller than that of PF 6 - , intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn III out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn III ion, the [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of T N = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  8. Magnon specific heat in quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic materials: application to YBa2Cu3O6 and La2CuO4 oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Barrie, S.B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the magnon specific heat by using the quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg model and Zubarev's double time temperature dependent Green's function. We used the equation of motion method and the Callen decoupling method to evaluate the double time temperature dependent Green's functions. In antiferromagnetic materials, it is found that there is some axis along which the magnetic moment tends to align with lower energy due to the presence of anisotropic antiferromagnetic correlation coupling. We study the role of anisotropic antiferromagnetic coupling on the magnon specific heat. Using our theory, we have calculated the contribution of the magnon specific heat in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 high-temperature superconducting compounds in the antiferromagnetic phase. The role of interlayer coupling between CuO layers has also been studied. (orig.)

  9. Frustrated spin-1/2 Ising antiferromagnet on a square lattice in a transverse field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobák, A.; Jurčišinová, E.; Jurčišin, M.; Žukovič, M.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phase transitions and tricritical behaviors of the frustrated Ising antiferromagnet with first- (J1<0 ) and second- (J2<0 ) nearest-neighbor interactions in a transverse field Ω on the square lattice using an effective-field theory with correlations based on a single-spin approximation. We have proposed a functional for the free energy to obtain the phase diagram in the T -R (R =J2/|J1| ) or T -Ω planes. It is shown that due to the transverse field the phase transition between ordered and disordered phases changes in the tricritical point (TCP) from the second order to the first order. The longitudinal and transverse magnetizations are also studied for selected values of R and Ω . In particular, the variation of TCP at the ground state in the three-dimensional space is constructed. For some special cases, values of the critical temperature and the critical transverse field have been determined analytically.

  10. Singular ferromagnetic susceptibility of the transverse-field Ising antiferromagnet on the triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sounak; Damle, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    A transverse magnetic field Γ is known to induce antiferromagnetic three-sublattice order of the Ising spins σz in the triangular lattice Ising antiferromagnet at low enough temperature. This low-temperature order is known to melt on heating in a two-step manner, with a power-law ordered intermediate temperature phase characterized by power-law correlations at the three-sublattice wave vector Q : ˜cos(Q .R ⃗) /|R⃗| η (T ) with the temperature-dependent power-law exponent η (T )∈(1 /9 ,1 /4 ) . Here, we use a quantum cluster algorithm to study the ferromagnetic easy-axis susceptibility χu(L ) of an L ×L sample in this power-law ordered phase. Our numerical results are consistent with a recent prediction of a singular L dependence χu(L ) ˜L2 -9 η when η (T ) is in the range (1 /9 ,2 /9 ) . This finite-size result implies, via standard scaling arguments, that the ferromagnetic susceptibility χu(B ) to a uniform field B along the easy axis is singular at intermediate temperatures in the small B limit, χu(B ) ˜|B| -4/-18 η 4 -9 η for η (T )∈(1 /9 ,2 /9 ) , although there is no ferromagnetic long-range order in the low temperature state. Additionally we establish similar two-step melting behavior (via a study of the order parameter susceptibility χQ) in the case of the ferrimagnetic three-sublattice ordered phase which is stabilized by ferromagnetic next-neighbor couplings (J2) and confirm that the ferromagnetic susceptibility obeys the predicted singular form in the associated power-law ordered phase.

  11. Magnetic ground state of the Ising-like antiferromagnet DyScO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L. S.; Nikitin, S. E.; Frontzek, M.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Ehlers, G.; Lumsden, M. D.; Shaykhutdinov, K. A.; Guo, E.-J.; Savici, A. T.; Gai, Z.; Sefat, A. S.; Podlesnyak, A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on the low-temperature magnetic properties of the DyScO3 perovskite, which were characterized by means of single crystal and powder neutron scattering, and by magnetization measurements. Below TN=3.15 K, Dy3 + moments form an antiferromagnetic structure with an easy axis of magnetization lying in the a b plane. The magnetic moments are inclined at an angle of ˜±28∘ to the b axis. We show that the ground-state Kramers doublet of Dy3 + is made up of primarily |±15 /2 〉 eigenvectors and well separated by a crystal field from the first excited state at E1=24.9 meV. This leads to an extreme Ising single-ion anisotropy, M⊥/M∥˜0.05 . The transverse magnetic fluctuations, which are proportional to M⊥2/M∥2 , are suppressed, and only moment fluctuations along the local Ising direction are allowed. We also found that the Dy-Dy dipolar interactions along the crystallographic c axis are two to four times larger than in-plane interactions.

  12. Critical behavior of an anisotropic Ising antiferromagnet in both external longitudinal and transverse fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Denise A. do, E-mail: denise.a.n@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J., E-mail: jsousa@edu.ufam.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Pacobahyba, Josefa T., E-mail: jtmpacobahyba@dfis.ufrr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we study the critical behavior of a two-sublattice Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse ({Omega}) fields by using the effective-field theory. The model consists of ferromagnetic interaction J{sub x} in the x direction and antiferromagnetic interaction J{sub y} in the y direction in the presence of the H and {Omega} fields. We obtain the phase diagrams in the H-T and {Omega}-T planes changing values of the {Omega} and H parameters, respectively for fixed value at {lambda}=J{sub x}/J{sub y}=1. At null temperature, the ground state phase diagram in the {Omega}-H plane for several values of {lambda} parameter is analyzed. In the particular case of {lambda}=1 we compare our results with mean-field theory (MFT) and was not observed reentrant behavior around of the critical field H{sub c}/J{sub y}=2.0 for {Omega}=0 by using EFT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the last decade there has been a great interest in physics of the quantum phase transition in system at low dimensional. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the transverse Ising model has been studied by a variety of approximate methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the context of quantum phase transition and critical phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First time, is presented a study of the superantiferromagnetic transverse Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have obtained finite temperature and ground state phase diagrams.

  13. Mapping of the Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld sandpile model on a two-dimensional Ising-correlated percolation lattice to the two-dimensional self-avoiding random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghalizadeh, J.; Najafi, M. N.; Dashti-Naserabadi, H.; Mohammadzadeh, H.

    2017-11-01

    The self-organized criticality on the random fractal networks has many motivations, like the movement pattern of fluid in the porous media. In addition to the randomness, introducing correlation between the neighboring portions of the porous media has some nontrivial effects. In this paper, we consider the Ising-like interactions between the active sites as the simplest method to bring correlations in the porous media, and we investigate the statistics of the BTW model in it. These correlations are controlled by the artificial "temperature" T and the sign of the Ising coupling. Based on our numerical results, we propose that at the Ising critical temperature Tc the model is compatible with the universality class of two-dimensional (2D) self-avoiding walk (SAW). Especially the fractal dimension of the loops, which are defined as the external frontier of the avalanches, is very close to DfSAW=4/3 . Also, the corresponding open curves has conformal invariance with the root-mean-square distance Rrms˜t3 /4 (t being the parametrization of the curve) in accordance with the 2D SAW. In the finite-size study, we observe that at T =Tc the model has some aspects compatible with the 2D BTW model (e.g., the 1 /log(L ) -dependence of the exponents of the distribution functions) and some in accordance with the Ising model (e.g., the 1 /L -dependence of the fractal dimensions). The finite-size scaling theory is tested and shown to be fulfilled for all statistical observables in T =Tc . In the off-critical temperatures in the close vicinity of Tc the exponents show some additional power-law behaviors in terms of T -Tc with some exponents that are reported in the text. The spanning cluster probability at the critical temperature also scales with L1/2, which is different from the regular 2D BTW model.

  14. Ising and Bloch domain walls in a two-dimensional parametrically driven Ginzburg-Landau equation model with nonlinearity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2008-01-01

    We study a parametrically driven Ginzburg-Landau equation model with nonlinear management. The system is made of laterally coupled long active waveguides placed along a circumference. Stationary solutions of three kinds are found: periodic Ising states and two types of Bloch states, staggered and...

  15. High temperature series expansions for the susceptibility of Ising model on the Kagome lattice with nearest neighber interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Jalali mola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The Ising model is one of the simplest models describing the interacting particles. In this work, we calculate the high temperature series expansions of zero field susceptibility of ising model with ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interactions on two dimensional kagome lattice. Using the Pade´ approximation, we calculate the susceptibility of critical exponent of ferromagnetic ising model γ ≈ 1.75, which is consistent with universality hypothesis. However, antiferromagnetic and one antiferromagnetic interaction ising model doesn’t show any transition at finite temperature because of the effect of magnetic frustration.

  16. Linear perturbation renormalization group for the two-dimensional Ising model with nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions in a field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd, J.

    2016-12-01

    The linear perturbation renormalization group (LPRG) is used to study the phase transition of the weakly coupled Ising chains with intrachain (J ) and interchain nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions forming the triangular and rectangular lattices in a field. The phase diagrams with the frustration point at J2=-J1/2 for a rectangular lattice and J2=-J1 for a triangular lattice have been found. The LPRG calculations support the idea that the phase transition is always continuous except for the frustration point and is accompanied by a divergence of the specific heat. For the antiferromagnetic chains, the external field does not change substantially the shape of the phase diagram. The critical temperature is suppressed to zero according to the power law when approaching the frustration point with an exponent dependent on the value of the field.

  17. Non-degenerated Ground States and Low-degenerated Excited States in the Antiferromagnetic Ising Model on Triangulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We study the unexpected asymptotic behavior of the degeneracy of the first few energy levels in the antiferromagnetic Ising model on triangulations of closed Riemann surfaces. There are strong mathematical and physical reasons to expect that the number of ground states (i.e., degeneracy) of the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangulations of a fixed closed Riemann surface is exponential in the number of vertices. In the set of plane triangulations, the degeneracy equals the number of perfect matchings of the geometric duals, and thus it is exponential by a recent result of Chudnovsky and Seymour. From the physics point of view, antiferromagnetic triangulations are geometrically frustrated systems, and in such systems exponential degeneracy is predicted. We present results that contradict these predictions. We prove that for each closed Riemann surface S of positive genus, there are sequences of triangulations of S with exactly one ground state. One possible explanation of this phenomenon is that exponential degeneracy would be found in the excited states with energy close to the ground state energy. However, as our second result, we show the existence of a sequence of triangulations of a closed Riemann surface of genus 10 with exactly one ground state such that the degeneracy of each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th excited energy levels belongs to O( n), O( n 2), O( n 3) and O( n 4), respectively.

  18. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = ½ systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Bech

    Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O and La_2_-_xSr_xCuO_4. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO)_2_·_4D_2O....... Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Usingpolarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally...... computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the hightemperature superconductors La_1_._9_0Sr_0_._1_0CuO_4 and La_1_._8_4Sr_0_._1_6CuO_4 are characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles...

  19. Neutron scattering studies of two-dimensional antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in insulating and superconducting S = 1/2 systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bech Christensen, N

    2005-01-01

    Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO){sub 2}x4D{sub 2}O and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO){sub 2}4D{sub 2}O. Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Using polarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described by linear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the high temperature superconductors La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}Cu characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles that seen in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. The presence of dispersive excitations does not require superconductivity to exist. For La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}CuO{sub 4}, but not for La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}, the onset superconductivity gives rise to a spectral weight shift which displays qualitative and quantitative similarities to the resonance mode observed in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. (au)

  20. Quantum corrections to the spin-correlation function and the spin-stiffness constant in a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet at zero temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, J.; Watabe, A.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum corrections to the longitudinal spin-correlation function and the spin-stiffness constant are calculated up to 1/(2S) 2 in a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet at zero temperature by using the Holstein-Primakoff transformation. The equal-time longitudinal spin-correlation function is found to compensate almost entirely the reduction caused by the second-order correction in the transverse spin-correlation function, making the spherically averaged correlation function very close to the value given by linear spin-wave theory. In the spin-stiffness constant, a partial cancellation is found between the ''paramagnetic'' and ''diamagnetic'' terms, leading to a small second-order correction

  1. Magnetic phase diagram of the randomized two dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet (QuinH)2CuCl4xBr4 (1 - x) . 2 H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fan; Williams, Rob; Lancaster, Tom; Landee, Christopher; Turnbull, Mark

    A family of randomized two-dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DQHAF) (QuinH)2CuCl4xBr4 (1 - x) . 2 H2O (QuinH=quinolinium) have been synthesized and characterized. In such systems, the original interaction in the square lattice parent compound (x = 0) is partially replaced by a different exchange strength. Zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF μ+SR) experiments have revealed that the magnetic long range ordering can be strongly suppressed by the introduction of the second interaction and the ordering temperature TN drops sharply as x increases. No 3D long range ordered state was observed in the compounds with x > 0 . 25 and the system stays disordered down to the lowest accessible temperature. The structure, magnetic properties and the TN - x phase diagram of the family will be presented.

  2. Dynamic magnetic behavior of the mixed spin (2, 5/2) Ising system with antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic interactions on a bilayer square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertaş Mehmet; Keskin Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Using the mean-field theory and Glauber-type stochastic dynamics, we study the dynamic magnetic properties of the mixed spin (2, 5/2) Ising system for the antiferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic (AFM/AFM) interactions on the bilayer square lattice under a time varying (sinusoidal) magnetic field. The time dependence of average magnetizations and the thermal variation of the dynamic magnetizations are examined to calculate the dynamic phase diagrams. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in the reduced temperature and magnetic field amplitude plane and the effects of interlayer coupling interaction on the critical behavior of the system are investigated. We also investigate the influence of the frequency and find that the system displays richer dynamic critical behavior for higher values of frequency than that of the lower values of it. We perform a comparison with the ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/FM) and AFM/FM interactions in order to see the effects of AFM/AFM interaction and observe that the system displays richer and more interesting dynamic critical behaviors for the AFM/AFM interaction than those for the FM/FM and AFM/FM interactions. (general)

  3. Spinon confinement in the quasi-1D Ising-like antiferromagnet SrCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Schmidt, Michael; Loidl, Alois; Deisenhofer, Joachim [Experimental Physics V, Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany); Bera, Anup Kumar [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Lake, Bella [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Using THz transmission spectroscopy in magnetic field, we have investigated low-energy magnetic excitations in the quasi-one-dimensional Ising-like XXZ antiferromagnet SrCo{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}. Spinon-pair excitations on the antiferromagnetic ground state have been observed in the XXZ antiferromagnet. Spinon-pair bound states with entangled spin-orbit moment S = 1 are determined unambiguously. The hierarchy of the spinon-pair boundstates can be described by a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a linear confinement potential imposed by the interchain interaction.

  4. The effect of uniaxial crystal-field anisotropy on magnetic properties of the superexchange antiferromagnetic Ising model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Canová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Fisher super-exchange antiferromagnetic model with uniaxial crystal-field anisotropy is exactly investigated using an extended mapping technique. An exact relation between partition function of the studied system and that of the standard zero-field spin-1/2 Ising model on the corresponding lattice is obtained applying the decoration-iteration transformation. Consequently, exact results for all physical quantities are derived for arbitrary spin values S of decorating atoms. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of the effect of crystal-field anisotropy and external longitudinal magnetic field on magnetic properties of the system under investigation. The most interesting numerical results for ground-state and finite-temperature phase diagrams, thermal dependences of the sublattice magnetization and other thermodynamic quantities are discussed.

  5. Magnetization process and magnetocaloric effect in geometrically frustrated Ising antiferromagnet and spin ice models on a 'Star of David' nanocluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, M.; Semjan, M.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic Ising (IA) and ferromagnetic spin ice (SI) models on a nanocluster with a 'Star of David' topology, including next-nearest-neighbor (NNN) interactions, are studied by an exact enumeration. In an external field applied in characteristic directions of the respective models, depending on the NNN interaction sign and magnitude, the ground state magnetization of the IA model is found to display up to three intermediate plateaus at fractional values of the saturation magnetization, while the SI model shows only one zero-magnetization plateau and only for the antiferromagnetic NNN coupling. A giant magnetocaloric effect is revealed in the IA model with the NNN interaction either absent or equal to the nearest-neighbor coupling. The latter is characterized by abrupt isothermal entropy changes at low temperatures and infinitely fast adiabatic temperature variations for specific entropy values in the processes when the magnetic field either vanishes or tends to the critical values related to the magnetization jumps.

  6. Zigzag antiferromagnetic ground state with anisotropic correlation lengths in the quasi-two-dimensional honeycomb lattice compound N a2C o2Te O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit; Ritter, C.

    2017-03-01

    The crystal structure, magnetic ground state, and the temperature-dependent microscopic spin-spin correlations of the frustrated honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet N a2C o2Te O6 have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. A long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering has been found below TN˜24.8 K . The magnetic ground state, determined to be zigzag antiferromagnetic and characterized by a propagation vector k =(1 /2 0 0 ) , occurs due to the competing exchange interactions up to third-nearest neighbors within the honeycomb lattice. The exceptional existence of a limited magnetic correlation length along the c axis (perpendicular to the honeycomb layers in the a b planes) has been found even at 1.8 K, well below the TN˜24.8 K . The observed limited correlation along the c axis is explained by the disorder distribution of the Na ions within the intermediate layers between honeycomb planes. The reduced ordered moments mCo (1 )=2.77 (3 ) μB/C o2 + and mCo (2 )=2.45 (2 ) μB/C o2 + at 1.8 K reflect the persistence of spin fluctuations in the ordered state. Above TN˜24.8 K , the presence of short-range magnetic correlations, manifested by broad diffuse magnetic peaks in the diffraction patterns, has been found. Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the experimental diffuse magnetic scattering data reveals that the spin correlations are mainly confined within the two-dimensional honeycomb layers (a b plane) with a correlation length of ˜12 Å at 25 K. The nature of the spin arrangements is found to be similar in both the short-range and long-range ordered magnetic states. This implies that the short-range correlation grows with decreasing temperature and leads to the zigzag AFM ordering at T ≤TN . The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the magnetic correlations over the temperature range above and below the TN and their relation to the crystal structure. The role of intermediate soft Na layers on the magnetic coupling between honeycomb planes is

  7. Antiphase phenomena in 2d ising square lattice | Sitamtze | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monte Carlo simulations of the two dimensional Ising model were carried out to determine the impact of Antiphase Boundaries (APBs) in some thermodynamic functions of the system. We considered several lattice sizes and sometimes both Ferromagnetic (FM) and Antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions for the same lattice.

  8. First-order and tricritical wetting transitions in the two-dimensional Ising model caused by interfacial pinning at a defect line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V; Binder, Kurt

    2014-08-01

    We present a study of the critical behavior of the Blume-Capel model with three spin states (S=±1,0) confined between parallel walls separated by a distance L where competitive surface magnetic fields act. By properly choosing the crystal field (D), which regulates the density of nonmagnetic species (S=0), such that those impurities are excluded from the bulk (where D=-∞) except in the middle of the sample [where D(M)(L/2)≠-∞], we are able to control the presence of a defect line in the middle of the sample and study its influence on the interface between domains of different spin orientations. So essentially we study an Ising model with a defect line but, unlike previous work where defect lines in Ising models were defined via weakened bonds, in the present case the defect line is due to mobile vacancies and hence involves additional entropy. In this way, by drawing phase diagrams, i.e., plots of the wetting critical temperature (T(w)) versus the magnitude of the crystal field at the middle of the sample (D(M)), we observe curves of (first-) second-order wetting transitions for (small) high values of D(M). Theses lines meet in tricritical wetting points, i.e., (T(w)(tc),D(M)(tc)), which also depend on the magnitude of the surface magnetic fields. It is found that second-order wetting transitions satisfy the scaling theory for short-range interactions, while first-order ones do not exhibit hysteresis, provided that small samples are used, since fluctuations wash out hysteretic effects. Since hysteresis is observed in large samples, we performed extensive thermodynamic integrations in order to accurately locate the first-order transition points, and a rather good agreement is found by comparing such results with those obtained just by observing the jump of the order parameter in small samples.

  9. Frustrated ground state in the metallic Ising antiferromagnet Nd2Ni2In

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, G.; Mašková, S.; Stone, M. B.

    2017-10-01

    We use inelastic neutron scattering measurements to examine the inter-metallic Ising anti-ferromagnet \\NNI. The dynamical structure factor displays a spectrum with multiple crystal field excitations. These crystal field excitations consist of a set of four transitions covering a range of energies between $4$ and $80$ meV. The analysis of the crystalline electric field scheme confirms the Ising nature of the spins and their orientation as proposed by previous studies. We characterize \\NNI~as a large moment intermetallic antiferromagnet with the potential to support a geometrically frustrated Shastry-Sutherland lattice.

  10. Heterogeneous nucleation of a droplet pinned at a chemically inhomogeneous substrate: A simulation study of the two-dimensional Ising case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2018-03-01

    Heterogeneous nucleation is studied by Monte Carlo simulations and phenomenological theory, using the two-dimensional lattice gas model with suitable boundary fields. A chemical inhomogeneity of length b at one boundary favors the liquid phase, while elsewhere the vapor is favored. Switching on the bulk field Hb favoring the liquid, nucleation and growth of the liquid phase starting from the region of the chemical inhomogeneity are analyzed. Three regimes occur: for small fields, HbHbHb*, such droplets fit inside the inhomogeneity and are indeed found in simulations with large enough observation times, but these droplets remain pinned to the chemical inhomogeneity when their baseline has grown to the length b. Assuming that these pinned droplets have a circle cut shape and effective contact angles θeff in the regime θc Hb>Hb*), the droplets nucleated at the chemical inhomogeneity grow to the full system size. While the relaxation time for the growth scales as τG∝Hb-1, the nucleation time τN scales as ln τN∝Hb-1. However, the prefactor in the latter relation, as evaluated for our simulations results, is not in accord with an extension of the Volmer-Turnbull theory to two-dimensions, when the theoretical contact angle θc is used.

  11. Two-dimensional J.sub.eff./sub.=1/2 antiferromagnetic insulator unraveled from interlayer exchange coupling in artificial perovskite iridate superlattices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hao, L.; Meyers, D.; Frederick, C.; Fabbris, G.; Yang, J.; Traynor, N.; Horák, L.; Kriegner, Dominik; Choi, Y.; Kim, J.-W.; Haskel, D.; Ryan, P.J.; Dean, M.P.M.; Liu, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 027204. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G; GA MŠk EF16_013/0001405 Grant - others:OP VVV - LNSM(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001405 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Heisenberg-antiferromagnet * optical-properties * Sr 2 IrO 4 * lattice * oxides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  12. Antiferromagnetism of two-dimensional electronic gas on light-irradiated SrTiO3 and at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.

    2015-06-01

    To gain an insight into the origin of tunable two-dimensional (2D) electronic liquid at the interfaces of transition-metal oxides, we address properties of a conducting layer on the light-irradiated surfaces of SrTiO3; the energy spectrum of the latter is known and consists of the titanium dxz/dyz and dxy bands. Recently, Santander-Syro et al (2014 Nature Mater. 13 1085) revealed that the dxy bands actually comprise two chiral branches with the Kramers degeneracy at the zone center lifted in the absence of a magnetic moment. We suggest that interacting electrons on the irradiated SrTiO3 go over into a magnetic phase as the result of one of the instabilities of the 2D Fermi liquid with exchange interactions, and point out the concrete antiferromagnetic order parameter. Large energy scales of the order of Fermi energy ∼0.1 eV inherent in this mechanism warrant stability of the magnetic ground state against ever-present effects of disorder. Arguments are given that electrons at the irradiated SrTiO3 surface and at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces undergo a kind of first-order transformation into one and the same phase of the 2D electronic Fermi liquid with reduced magnetic symmetry.

  13. Stabilization of Long-Range Order by Additional Anisotropic Spins in Two-Dimensional Isotropic Heisenberg Antiferromagnets —A Possible Model of an Organic Compound with Magnetic Anions—

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2014-11-01

    We examine a two-dimensional (2D) coupled antiferromagnetic (AF) Heisenberg model that consists of two subsystems: an isotropic S = 1/2 spin subsystem with strong AF exchange interactions (main system), and a uniaxial S = 5/2 spin subsystem with weak exchange interactions. This model is an example in which additional semiclassical degrees of freedom affect a quantum system; it also describes a possible stabilization mechanism of AF long-range order (LRO) in the 2D organic compound λ-(BETS)2FeCl4, where BETS stands for bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. Previous experimental studies have revealed that 3d spins on FeCl4 anions passively follow the AF LRO of the π-electron system in the BETS layers, although the AF LRO is stabilized by the 3d spins themselves. To explain this paradoxical behavior, we examine a scenario in which the uniaxial anisotropy of the 3d spins stabilizes the AF LRO on an isotropic 2D π-spin system. We extend Green's function theory, called the Tyablikov approximation, to the present system, which describes spin-wave excitations and is consistent with the Mermin-Wagner theorem. It is shown that even extremely weak interactions with the uniaxial subsystem efficiently stabilize the AF LRO in the main system, even in the absence of AF exchange interactions in the uniaxial subsystem. The AF LRO is triggered by the uniaxial subsystem, but the sublattice magnetization remains smaller than that of the main system in the high-temperature region. These results are consistent with experimental data for λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 and λ-(BETS)2GaCl4; the latter does not have the 3d spins and does not exhibit the AF LRO.

  14. Successive magnetic phase transitions and multiferroicity in quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnets Ba3CoNb2O9 and Ba3MnNb2O9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M.; Hwang, J.; Choi, E. S.; Ma, J.; Dela Cruz, C. R.; Zhu, M.; Ke, X.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.

    2014-03-01

    We have measured magnetic, dielectric and thermodynamic properties of quasi-two-dimensional triangular lattice antiferromagnet (TLAF), Ba3CoNb2O9 (S = 1/2) and Ba3MnNb2O9 (S = 3/2). At zero magnetic field, Ba3CoNb2O9 undergoes a two-step transition at 1.36 K and 1.10 K and enters a 120 degree ordered state. By applying magnetic fields, a series of magnetic phases with fractional saturation magnetization (1/3, 1/2, 2/3 (or √{ 3}/3Ms) are observed. The collinear spin phase with 1/3 Ms becomes more robust at lower temperatures due to quantum fluctuations. For Ba3MnNb2O9, the 120 degree ordered state is stabilized below 3.10 K at zero field. Under the magnetic field, successive magnetic phase transitions are observed with fractional magnetization 1/3 and 1/2 Ms. The 1/3 Ms phase becomes more stable at higher temperatures due to thermal fluctuations. The ferroelectricity emerges in all spin states in both compounds regardless of the spin chirality. Therefore, Ba3CoNb2O9andBa3MnNb2O9 are unique TLAFs exhibiting not only a series of magnetic phase transitions but also multiferroicity. NHMFL is supported by NSF, the State of Florida and US DOE. ORNL HFIR was sponsored by U.S. DOE.

  15. Quasi-two-dimensional spin correlations in the triangular lattice bilayer spin glass LuCoGaO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, K.; Ross, K. A.; Granroth, G. E.; Ehlers, G.; Noad, H. M. L.; Dabkowska, H. A.; Gaulin, B. D.

    2017-09-01

    We present a single-crystal time-of-flight neutron scattering study of the static and dynamic spin correlations in LuCoGaO4, a quasi-two-dimensional dilute triangular lattice antiferromagnetic spin-glass material. This system is based on Co2 + ions that are randomly distributed on triangular bilayers within the YbFe2O4 -type, hexagonal crystal structure. Antiferromagnetic short-range two-dimensional correlations at wave vectors Q =(" close=")1 /3 ,1 /3 ,L )">1 /3 ,1 /3 ,L develop within the bilayers at temperatures as high as | ΘCW|˜100 K and extend over roughly five unit cells at temperatures below Tg=19 K. These two-dimensional static correlations are observed as diffuse rods of neutron scattering intensity along c* and display a continuous spin freezing process in their energy dependence. Aside from exhibiting these typical spin-glass characteristics, this insulating material reveals a novel gapped magnetic resonant spin excitation at Δ E ˜12 meV localized around Q. The temperature dependence of the spin gap associated with this two-dimensional excitation correlates with the evolution of the static correlations into the spin-glass state ground state. We associate it with the effect of the staggered exchange field acting on the Seff=1 /2 Ising-like doublet of the Co2 + moments.

  16. Partition function of nearest neighbour Ising models: Some new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    While the formula- tion of the partition function pertaining to one- dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models is pedagogical and straight-forward,. 4 the same is not true for the two-dimensional Ising models. The cele- brated solution of Onsager. 5 for the two-dimensional. Ising model at H = 0 led to the detailed analysis of.

  17. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  18. Integrable two dimensional supersystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, K.C.; Tripathy, L.K.

    1988-08-01

    The integrability of two dimensional time-dependent classical systems is examined in N=2 superspace using Dirac's second class constraints. The invariants involving quadratic powers in velocities for super harmonic oscillator and super Kepler potentials have been derived. (author). 5 refs

  19. Quantum phase transitions and dimensional reduction in antiferromagnets with interlayer frustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, Oliver; Vojta, Matthias

    2007-11-01

    For magnets with a fully frustrated interlayer interaction, we argue that the quantum phase transitions from a paramagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state, driven by pressure or magnetic field, are asymptotically three dimensional, due to interaction-generated nonfrustrated interlayer couplings. However, the relevant crossover scale is tiny, such that two-dimensional behavior occurs in an experimentally relevant low-temperature regime. In the pressure-driven case the phase transition may split, in which case an Ising symmetry related to interlayer bond order is broken before magnetism occurs. We discuss the relation of our results to recent experiments on BaCuSi2O6 .

  20. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  1. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Reduction of two-dimensional dilute Ising spin glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Hartmann, Alexander K.

    2005-07-01

    The recently proposed reduction method is applied to the Edwards-Anderson model on bond-diluted square lattices. In combination with a graph-theoretical matching algorithm, this allows us to calculate numerically exact ground states of large systems. Low-temperature domain-wall excitations are studied to determine the stiffness exponent y2 . A value of y2=-0.281(3) is found, consistent with previous results obtained on undiluted lattices. This comparison demonstrates the validity of the reduction method for bond-diluted spin systems and provides strong support for similar studies proclaiming accurate results for stiffness exponents in dimensions d=3,…,7 .

  3. Two-dimensional Ising physics in quantum Hall ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.; Rezayi, E. H.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 12, - (2002), s. 1-7 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754; GA MŠk OC 514.10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : quantum Hall ferromagnets * higher Landau levels * domain walls Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.107, year: 2002

  4. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    y; J and H are assumed to be positive quantities. For a square lattice of 16 sites, our tour de force consists in deducing the partition function by systematically enumerating all the 65,536 configurations; this task is accomplished by employing Visual Basic programming in conjunction with the Excel software. The energies.

  5. Frustrated lattices of Ising chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudasov, Yurii B; Korshunov, Aleksei S; Pavlov, V N; Maslov, Dmitrii A

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic structure and magnetization dynamics of systems of plane frustrated Ising chain lattices are reviewed for three groups of compounds: Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 , CsCoCl 3 , and Sr 5 Rh 4 O 12 . The available experimental data are analyzed and compared in detail. It is shown that a high-temperature magnetic phase on a triangle lattice is normally and universally a partially disordered antiferromagnetic (PDA) structure. The diversity of low-temperature phases results from weak interactions that lift the degeneracy of a 2D antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangle lattice. Mean-field models, Monte Carlo simulation results on the static magnetization curve, and results on slow magnetization dynamics obtained with Glauber's theory are discussed in detail. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  7. Geometrically frustrated Cairo pentagonal lattice stripe with Ising and Heisenberg exchange interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, F. C.; de Souza, S. M.; Rojas, Onofre

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the recent discoveries of some compounds such as the Bi2Fe4O9 which crystallizes in an orthorhombic crystal structure with the Fe3+ ions, and iron-based oxyfluoride Bi4Fe5O13 F compounds following the pattern of Cairo pentagonal structure, among some other compounds. We propose a model for one stripe of the Cairo pentagonal Ising-Heisenberg lattice, one of the edges of a pentagon is different, and this edge will be associated with a Heisenberg exchange interaction, while the Ising exchange interactions will associate the other edges. We study the phase transition at zero temperature, illustrating five phases: a ferromagnetic phase (FM), a dimer antiferromagnetic (DAF), a plaquette antiferromagnetic (PAF), a typical antiferromagnetic (AFM) and a peculiar frustrated phase (FRU) where two types of frustrated states with the same energy coexist. To obtain the partition function of this model, we use the transfer matrix approach and following the eight vertex model notation. Using this result we discuss the specific heat, internal energy and entropy as a function of the temperature, and we can observe some unexpected behavior in the low-temperature limit, such as anomalous double peak in specific heat due to the existence of three phase (FRU, PAF(AFM) and FM) transitions occurring in a close region to each other. Consequently, the low-lying energy thermal excitation generates this double anomalous peak, and we also discuss the internal energy at the low temperature limit, where this double peak curve occurs. Some properties of our result were compared with two dimensional Cairo pentagonal lattices, as well as orthogonal dimer plaquette Ising-Heisenberg chain.

  8. Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.

  9. Tricriticality in crossed Ising chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, T.; Singh, R. R. P.; Scalettar, R. T.

    2017-10-01

    We explore the phase diagram of Ising spins on one-dimensional chains that criss-cross in two perpendicular directions and that are connected by interchain couplings. This system is of interest as a simpler, classical analog of a quantum Hamiltonian that has been proposed as a model of magnetic behavior in Nb12O29 and also, conceptually, as a geometry that is intermediate between one and two dimensions. Using mean-field theory as well as Metropolis Monte Carlo and Wang-Landau simulations, we locate quantitatively the boundaries of four ordered phases. Each becomes an effective Ising model with unique effective couplings at large interchain coupling. Away from this limit, we demonstrate nontrivial critical behavior, including tricritical points that separate first- and second-order phase transitions. Finally, we present evidence that this model belongs to the two-dimensional Ising universality class.

  10. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  11. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  12. Two dimensional plasma simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazak, G.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, Sh.; Oreg, J.

    1977-03-01

    An electrostatic two-dimensional particle code for plasma simulation is described. Boundary conditions which take into account the finiteness of the system are presented. An analytic solution for the case of crossed fields plasma acceleration is derived. This solution serves as a check on a computer test run

  13. Comparative study of the geometric quantum discord in the transverse Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jia-Min; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Ya-Ting

    2015-10-01

    We investigate geometric quantum discords (GQDs) in the two- and three-spin transverse Ising model at both zero and finite temperature. We showed that GQDs measured by the trace distance and the Hellinger distance can be enhanced greatly by the applied transverse magnetic field. For the three-spin isotropic Ising model, the ferromagnetic interaction is more advantageous than that of the antiferromagnetic interaction on creating GQDs. Moreover, the two GQDs can be further increased by the nonuniform Ising interaction between neighbors. In particular, the adjustable antiferromagnetic Ising interaction between two spins is advantageous for enhancing GQDs between them, while the opposite case happens for the other pairs of spins.

  14. Two dimensional image correlation processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kai

    1992-06-01

    Two dimensional images are converted into a very long 1-dimensional data stream by means of raster scan. It is shown that the 1-dimensional correlation function of such long data streams is equivalent to the raster scan converted data of 2-dimensional correlation function of images. Real time correlation of high resolution two-dimensional images has been demonstrated using commercially available components. The advantages of this approach includes programmable electronics reference images, easy interface to objects of interest using conventional image collection optics, real time operation with high resolution images using off-the shelf components, and usefulness in the form of either black and white or full colored images. Such system would be versatile enough for robotics vision, optical inspection, and other pattern recognition and identification applications.

  15. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  16. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  17. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltz, V.; Manchon, A.; Tsoi, M.; Moriyama, T.; Ono, T.; Tserkovnyak, Y.

    2018-01-01

    Antiferromagnetic materials could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics, and are capable of generating large magnetotransport effects. Intense research efforts over the past decade have been invested in unraveling spin transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges currently being addressed. Antiferromagnetic spintronics started out with studies on spin transfer and has undergone a definite revival in the last few years with the publication of pioneering articles on the use of spin-orbit interactions in antiferromagnets. This paradigm shift offers possibilities for radically new concepts for spin manipulation in electronics. Central to these endeavors are the need for predictive models, relevant disruptive materials, and new experimental designs. This paper reviews the most prominent spintronic effects described based on theoretical and experimental analysis of antiferromagnetic materials. It also details some of the remaining bottlenecks and suggests possible avenues for future research. This review covers both spin-transfer-related effects, such as spin-transfer torque, spin penetration length, domain-wall motion, and "magnetization" dynamics, and spin-orbit related phenomena, such as (tunnel) anisotropic magnetoresistance, spin Hall, and inverse spin galvanic effects. Effects related to spin caloritronics, such as the spin Seebeck effect, are linked to the transport of magnons in antiferromagnets. The propagation of spin waves and spin superfluids in antiferromagnets is also covered.

  18. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    KAUST Repository

    Baltz, V.

    2018-02-15

    Antiferromagnetic materials could represent the future of spintronic applications thanks to the numerous interesting features they combine: they are robust against perturbation due to magnetic fields, produce no stray fields, display ultrafast dynamics, and are capable of generating large magnetotransport effects. Intense research efforts over the past decade have been invested in unraveling spin transport properties in antiferromagnetic materials. Whether spin transport can be used to drive the antiferromagnetic order and how subsequent variations can be detected are some of the thrilling challenges currently being addressed. Antiferromagnetic spintronics started out with studies on spin transfer and has undergone a definite revival in the last few years with the publication of pioneering articles on the use of spin-orbit interactions in antiferromagnets. This paradigm shift offers possibilities for radically new concepts for spin manipulation in electronics. Central to these endeavors are the need for predictive models, relevant disruptive materials, and new experimental designs. This paper reviews the most prominent spintronic effects described based on theoretical and experimental analysis of antiferromagnetic materials. It also details some of the remaining bottlenecks and suggests possible avenues for future research. This review covers both spin-transfer-related effects, such as spin-transfer torque, spin penetration length, domain-wall motion, and

  19. Ising models and soliton equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perk, J.H.H.; Au-Yang, H.

    1985-01-01

    Several new results for the critical point of correlation functions of the Hirota equation are derived within the two-dimensional Ising model. The recent success of the conformal-invariance approach in the determination of a critical two-spin correration function is analyzed. The two-spin correlation function is predicted to be rotationally invariant and to decay with a power law in this approach. In the approach suggested here systematic corrections due to the underlying lattice breaking the rotational invariance are obtained

  20. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  1. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  2. Antiferromagnetic skyrmions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretiakov, Oleg; Barker, Joseph

    Skyrmions are topologically protected entities in magnetic materials which have the potential to be used in spintronics for information storage and processing. However, skyrmions in ferromagnets have some intrinsic difficulties which must be overcome to use them for spintronic applications, such as the inability to move straight along current. We show that skyrmions can also be stabilized and manipulated in antiferromagnetic materials. An antiferromagnetic skyrmion is a compound topological object with a similar but of opposite sign spin texture on each sublattice, which e.g. results in a complete cancelation of the Magnus force. We find that the composite nature of antiferromagnetic skyrmions gives rise to different dynamical behavior, both due to an applied current and temperature effects. O.A.T. and J.B. acknowledge support by the Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 25800184, 25247056, 25220910 and 15H01009) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) of Japan and SpinNet.

  3. Effects of boundary conditions on magnetization switching in kinetic ising models of nanoscale ferromagnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, H.L.; Kolesik, M.; Lindgård, P.-A.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetization switching in highly anisotropic single-domain ferromagnets has been previously shown to be qualitatively described by the droplet theory of metastable decay and simulations of two-dimensional kinetic Ising systems with periodic boundary conditions. In this paper we consider the effe......Magnetization switching in highly anisotropic single-domain ferromagnets has been previously shown to be qualitatively described by the droplet theory of metastable decay and simulations of two-dimensional kinetic Ising systems with periodic boundary conditions. In this paper we consider...... simulations of two-dimensional Ising systems with various system shapes and boundary conditions....

  4. Antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; Martí, Xavier; Wadley, P.; Wunderlich, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2016), 231-241 ISSN 1748-3387 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : antiferromagnets * spintronics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 38.986, year: 2016

  5. Two-dimensional Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Juri

    1998-10-01

    This Ph.D. thesis pursues two goals: The study of the geometrical structure of two-dimensional quantum gravity and in particular its fractal nature. To address these questions we review the continuum formalism of quantum gravity with special focus on the scaling properties of the theory. We discuss several concepts of fractal dimensions which characterize the extrinsic and intrinsic geometry of quantum gravity. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Dimitrij Boulatov, Jakob L. Nielsen and Yoshiyuki Watabiki (1997). The other goal is the discussion of the discretization of quantum gravity and to address the so called quantum failure of Regge calculus. We review dynamical triangulations and show that it agrees with the continuum theory in two dimensions. Then we discuss Regge calculus and prove that a continuum limit cannot be taken in a sensible way and that it does not reproduce continuum results. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Jakob L. Nielsen and George Savvidy (1997).

  6. The Stochastic Ising Model with the Mixed Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We estimate the spectral gap of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model for four classes of mixed boundary conditions. On a finite square, in the absence of an external field, two-sided estimates on the spectral gap for the first class of (weak positive boundary conditions are given. Further, at inverse temperatures , we will show lower bounds of the spectral gap of the Ising model for the other three classes mixed boundary conditions.

  7. Finite-size scaling on the Ising coexistence line

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Sourendu

    1992-01-01

    We report tests of finite-size scaling ansatzes in the low temperature phase of the two-dimensional Ising model. For moments of the magnetisation density, we find good agreement with the new ansatz of Borgs and Koteck\\'y, and clear evi consequences of the convexity of the free energy are not adequately treated in either of these approaches.\\lb {\\it Keywords}\\/: Finite-size scaling, 2-d Ising, pure-phase susceptibility.

  8. Antiferromagnetic noise correlations in optical lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, Georg Morten; Syljuåsen, F. T.; Pedersen, K. G. L.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze how noise correlations probed by time-of-flight experiments reveal antiferromagnetic (AF) correlations of fermionic atoms in two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical lattices. Combining analytical and quantum Monte Carlo calculations using experimentally realistic parameters, we s...

  9. Two-dimensional Heisenberg model with nonlinear interactions: 1/N corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caracciolo, Sergio; Mognetti, Bortolo Matteo; Pelissetto, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a two-dimensional classical N-vector model with a generic nearest-neighbor interaction W(σi-bar σj) in the large-N limit, focusing on the finite-temperature transition point at which energy-energy correlations become critical. We show that this transition belongs to the Ising universality class. However, the width of the region in which Ising behavior is observed scales as 1/N3/2 along the magnetic direction and as 1/N in the thermal direction; outside a crossover to mean-field behavior occurs. This explains why only mean-field behavior is observed for N=∼

  10. On Ising models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    For various Ising models two approaches are discussed, one is that of simulating lattices, also called gauging on exact equations, the other is that of calculating analytical expressions for the boundary free energy of Ising lattices. The first approach allows to conjecture a solution for some Ising

  11. [M(N3)2(H2O)2] x (bpeado): unusual antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chain (M = Mn) and ferromagnetic Ising chain (M = Co) with large coercivity and magnetic relaxation (bpeado = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane-N,N'-dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao-Ling; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2009-01-01

    We present here the structures and magnetism of two isostructural magnetic metal-azido chain compounds of the type [M(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](bpeado) (1, M = Mn; 2, M = Co; bpeado = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane-N,N'-dioxide), prepared by utilizing the long spacer bpeado. The structure is composed of [M(N(3))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n) metal-azido chains, in which metal ions are bridged by two end-on azido ligands, and the chains are further supported by H-bonding interactions between the coordination water of the chain and the lattice bpeado in a three-dimensional (3D) threefold interpenetrated H-bonded framework. Within the structure, the metal-azido chains are separated quite well. Investigation of the magnetic properties has revealed that the Mn compound 1 is an isotropic Heisenberg chain with unusual antiferromagnetic coupling between the Mn(2+) ions linked by double end-on azide anions. The Co compound 2 shows a strong anisotropic Ising-type ferromagnetic chain within the material. Detailed magnetic studies on both polycrystalline and single-crystal samples of 2 have revealed a large coercivity of up to 37.5 kOe (along the crystallographic b-axis), multi-magnetic transitions, and single-chain-magnet-like magnetic relaxation behavior.

  12. Ising model on tangled chain - 1: Free energy and entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdani, R.

    1993-04-01

    In this paper we have considered an Ising model defined on tangled chain, in which more bonds have been added to those of pure Ising chain. to understand their competition, particularly between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic bonds, we have studied, using the transfer matrix method, some simple analytical calculations and an iterative algorithm, the behaviour of the free energy and entropy, particularly in the zero-field and zero temperature limit, for different configurations of the ferromagnetic tangled chain and different types of addition interaction (ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic). We found that the condition J=J' between the ferromagnetic interaction J along the chain and the antiferromagnetic interaction J' across the chain is somewhat as a ''transition-region'' condition for this behaviour. Our results indicate also the existence of non-zero entropy at zero temperature. (author). 17 refs, 8 figs

  13. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  14. Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, R; Hatayama, N; Takahashi, Y; Nakano, H

    2009-01-01

    Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal is investigated according to the recent theoretical development of magneto-volume effect for the three-dimensional weak ferromagnets. We particularly focus on the T 2 -linear thermal expansion of magnetic origin at low temperatures, so far disregarded by conventional theories. As the effect of thermal spin fluctuations we have found that the T-linear thermal expansion coefficient shows strong enhancement by assuming the double Lorentzian form of the non-interacting dynamical susceptibility justified in the small wave-number and low frequency region. It grows faster in proportional to y -1/2 as we approach the magnetic instability point than two-dimensional nearly antiferromagnetic metals with ln(1/y s ) dependence, where y and y s are the inverses of the reduced uniform and staggered magnetic susceptibilities, respectively. Our result is consistent with the Grueneisen's relation between the thermal expansion coefficient and the specific heat at low temperatures. In 2-dimensional electron gas we find that the thermal expansion coefficient is divergent with a finite y when the higher order term of non-interacting dynamical susceptibility is taken into account.

  15. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  16. Conoscopic holography: two-dimensional numerical reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y; Charlot, D

    1993-01-01

    Conoscopic holography is an incoherent light holographic technique based on the properties of crystal optics. We present experimental results of the numerical reconstruction of a two-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram.

  17. Neutron spin-echo study of the critical dynamics of spin-5/2 antiferromagnets in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, K. F.; Keller, T.; Walters, A. C.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Keimer, B.

    2016-07-01

    We report a neutron spin-echo study of the critical dynamics in the S =5/2 antiferromagnets MnF2 and Rb2MnF4 with three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) spin systems, respectively, in zero external field. Both compounds are Heisenberg antiferromagnets with a small uniaxial anisotropy resulting from dipolar spin-spin interactions, which leads to a crossover in the critical dynamics close to the Néel temperature, TN. By taking advantage of the μ eV energy resolution of the spin-echo spectrometer, we have determined the dynamical critical exponents z for both longitudinal and transverse fluctuations. In MnF2, both the characteristic temperature for crossover from 3D Heisenberg to 3D Ising behavior and the exponents z in both regimes are consistent with predictions from the dynamical scaling theory. The amplitude ratio of longitudinal and transverse fluctuations also agrees with predictions. In Rb2MnF4 , the critical dynamics crosses over from the expected 2D Heisenberg behavior for T ≫TN to a scaling regime with exponent z =1.387 (4 ) , which has not been predicted by theory and may indicate the influence of long-range dipolar interactions.

  18. Topological antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šmejkal, Libor; Mokrousov, Yuriy; Yan, Binghai; MacDonald, Allan H.

    2018-03-01

    The recent demonstrations of electrical manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic spins have opened up a new chapter in the story of spintronics. Here, we review the emerging research field that is exploring the links between antiferromagnetic spintronics and topological structures in real and momentum space. Active topics include proposals to realize Majorana fermions in antiferromagnetic topological superconductors, to control topological protection and Dirac points by manipulating antiferromagnetic order parameters, and to exploit the anomalous and topological Hall effects of zero-net-moment antiferromagnets. We explain the basic concepts behind these proposals, and discuss potential applications of topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  19. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array

  20. Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.

  1. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  2. Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Kinetic Correlation in Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yanagisawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the ground state of two-dimensional Hubbard model on the basis of the variational Monte Carlo method. We use wave functions that include kinetic correlation and doublon-holon correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. It is still not clear whether the Hubbard model accounts for high-temperature superconductivity. The antiferromagnetic correlation plays a key role in the study of pairing mechanism because the superconductive phase exists usually close to the antiferromagnetic phase. We investigate the stability of the antiferromagnetic state when holes are doped as a function of the Coulomb repulsion U. We show that the antiferromagnetic correlation is suppressed as U is increased exceeding the bandwidth. High-temperature superconductivity is possible in this region with enhanced antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation and pairing interaction.

  3. Dipolar vortices in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of dipolar vortex solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations is studied. A new type of nonlinear dipole is found and its dynamics in a slightly viscous system is compared with the dynamics of the Lamb dipole. The evolution of dipolar structures from an initial turbulent patch...

  4. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  5. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  6. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons.

  7. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  8. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  9. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    We study countable sums of two dimensional modules for the continuous complex functions on a compact metric space and show that it is possible to construct a spectral triple which gives the original metric back. This spectral triple will be finitely summable for any positive parameter. We also co...

  11. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to

  12. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  13. Magnetic properties of Ising thin films with cubic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laosiritaworn, Y.; Poulter, J.; Staunton, J. B.

    2004-09-01

    We have used Monte Carlo simulations and mean-field analysis to observe the magnetic behavior of Ising thin films with cubic lattice structures as a function of temperature and thickness, especially in the critical region. Magnetization and magnetic susceptibility, including layer variation, are investigated. We find that the magnetic behavior changes from two-dimensional to three-dimensional character with increasing film thickness. Both the crossover of the critical temperature from a two-dimensional to a bulk value and the shift exponent are observed. Nevertheless, with support from a scaling function, the simulations show that the effective critical exponents for films with large enough layer extents only vary a little from their two-dimensional values. This, in particular, provides an indication of two-dimensional universality in the thin films.

  14. Quantum Ising chains with boundary fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore; Pelissetto, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the finite one-dimensional quantum Ising chain in a transverse field in the presence of boundary magnetic fields coupled with the order-parameter spin operator. We consider two magnetic fields located at the boundaries of the chain that have the same strength and that are aligned in the same or in the opposite direction. We derive analytic expressions for the gap in all phases for large values of the chain length L, as a function of the boundary field strength. We also investigate the behaviour of the chain in the quantum ferromagnetic phase for oppositely aligned fields, focusing on the magnet-to-kink transition that occurs at a finite value of the magnetic field strength. At this transition we compute analytically the finite-size crossover functions for the gap, the magnetisation profile, the two-point correlation function, and the density of fermionic modes. As the magnet-to-kink transition is equivalent to the wetting transition in two-dimensional classical Ising models, our results provide new analytic predictions for the finite-size behaviour of Ising systems in a strip geometry at this transition. (paper)

  15. Perspectives of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Hoffmann, Axel

    2018-04-01

    Antiferromagnets are promising for future spintronic applications owing to their advantageous properties: They are magnetically ordered, but neighboring magnetic moments point in opposite directions, which results in zero net magnetization. This means antiferromagnets produce no stray fields and are insensitive to external magnetic field perturbations. Furthermore, they show intrinsic high frequency dynamics, exhibit considerable spin-orbit and magneto-transport effects. Over the past decade, it has been realized that antiferromagnets have more to offer than just being utilized as passive components in exchange bias applications. This development resulted in a paradigm shift, which opens the pathway to novel concepts using antiferromagnets for spin-based technologies and applications. This article gives a broad perspective on antiferromagnetic spintronics. In particular, the manipulation and detection of antiferromagnetic states by spintronics effects, as well as spin transport and dynamics in antiferromagnetic materials will be discussed. We will also outline current challenges and future research directions in this emerging field.

  16. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  18. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  19. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  20. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  1. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strečka, Jozef; Karľová, Katarína; Madaras, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization

  2. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strečka, Jozef, E-mail: jozef.strecka@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Karľová, Katarína [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Madaras, Tomáš [Institute of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-06-15

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization.

  3. Giant magnetocaloric effect, magnetization plateaux and jumps of the regular Ising polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strečka, Jozef; Karľová, Katarína; Madaras, Tomáš

    2015-06-01

    Magnetization process and adiabatic demagnetization of the antiferromagnetic Ising spin clusters with the shape of regular polyhedra (Platonic solids) are exactly examined within the framework of a simple graph-theoretical approach. While the Ising cube as the only unfrustrated (bipartite) spin cluster shows just one trivial plateau at zero magnetization, the other regular Ising polyhedra (tetrahedron, octahedron, icosahedron and dodecahedron) additionally display either one or two intermediate plateaux at fractional values of the saturation magnetization. The nature of highly degenerate ground states emergent at intermediate plateaux owing to a geometric frustration is clarified. It is evidenced that the regular Ising polyhedra exhibit a giant magnetocaloric effect in a vicinity of magnetization jumps, whereas the Ising octahedron and dodecahedron belong to the most prominent geometrically frustrated spin clusters that enable an efficient low-temperature refrigeration by the process of adiabatic demagnetization.

  4. Crossover scaling in the two-dimensional three-state Potts model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We apply simulated tempering and magnetizing (STM Monte Carlo simulations to the two-dimensional three-state Potts model in an external magnetic field in order to investigate the crossover scaling behaviour in the temperature-field plane at the Potts critical point and towards the Ising universality class for negative magnetic fields. Our data set has been generated by STM simulations of several square lattices with sizes up to 160x160 spins, supplemented by conventional canonical simulations of larger lattices at selected simulation points. We present careful scaling and finite-size scaling analyses of the crossover behaviour with respect to temperature, magnetic field and lattice size.

  5. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  6. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  7. Candidate Quantum Spin Liquid due to Dimensional Reduction of a Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zheming; Wang, Dongwei; Baker, Peter J.; Pratt, Francis L.; Zhu, Daoben

    2014-09-01

    As with quantum spin liquids based on two-dimensional triangular and kagome lattices, the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice with either a strong spin-orbital coupling or a frustrating second-nearest-neighbor coupling is expected to be a source of candidate quantum spin liquids. An ammonium salt [(C3H7)3NH]2[Cu2(C2O4)3](H2O)2.2 containing hexagonal layers of Cu2+ was obtained from solution. No structural transition or long-range magnetic ordering was observed from 290 K to 2 K from single crystal X-ray diffraction, specific heat and susceptibility measurements. The anionic layers are separated by sheets of ammonium and H2O with distance of 3.5 Å and no significant interaction between anionic layers. The two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is constructed from Jahn-Teller distorted Cu2+ and oxalate anions, showing a strong antiferromagnetic interaction between S = 1/2 metal atoms with θ = -120 (1) K. Orbital analysis of the Cu2+ interactions through the oxalate-bridges suggests a stripe mode pattern of coupling with weak ferromagnetic interaction along the b axis, and strong antiferromagnetic interaction along the a axis. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility shows that it is dominated by a quasi-one-dimensional contribution with spin chains that are at least as well isolated as those of well-known quasi-one-dimensional spin liquids.

  8. Thermalization, Error Correction, and Memory Lifetime for Ising Anyon Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney G. Brell

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider two-dimensional lattice models that support Ising anyonic excitations and are coupled to a thermal bath. We propose a phenomenological model for the resulting short-time dynamics that includes pair creation, hopping, braiding, and fusion of anyons. By explicitly constructing topological quantum error-correcting codes for this class of system, we use our thermalization model to estimate the lifetime of the quantum information stored in the encoded spaces. To decode and correct errors in these codes, we adapt several existing topological decoders to the non-Abelian setting. We perform large-scale numerical simulations of these two-dimensional Ising anyon systems and find that the thresholds of these models range from 13% to 25%. To our knowledge, these are the first numerical threshold estimates for quantum codes without explicit additive structure.

  9. The Ising Model with Long-Range Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Biryukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The phase transition in the two-dimensional and three-dimensional Ising models with long-range spin interactions are studied with the Monte–Carlo method. The interaction region between spins is characterized by the radius $R$. Results based on numerical simulations have shown the critical temperature $T_c$ dependence from the spin interaction radius $R$. Analytical function $T_{c}(R$ approximating this dependence is designed.

  10. Infinite cascades of phase transitions in the classical Ising chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, P. N.; Chitov, Gennady Y.

    2017-12-01

    We report exact results on one of the best studied models in statistical physics: the classical antiferromagnetic Ising chain in a magnetic field. We show that the model possesses an infinite cascade of thermal phase transitions (also known as disorder lines or geometric phase transitions). The phase transition is signaled by a change of asymptotic behavior of the nonlocal string-string correlation functions when their monotonic decay becomes modulated by incommensurate oscillations. The transitions occur for rarefied (m -periodic) strings with arbitrary odd m . We propose a duality transformation which maps the Ising chain onto the m -leg Ising tube with nearest-neighbor couplings along the legs and the plaquette four-spin interactions of adjacent legs. Then the m -string correlation functions of the Ising chain are mapped onto the two-point spin-spin correlation functions along the legs of the m -leg tube. We trace the origin of these cascades of phase transitions to the lines of the Lee-Yang zeros of the Ising chain in m -periodic complex magnetic field, allowing us to relate these zeros to the observable (and potentially measurable) quantities.

  11. Perspectives of Antiferromagnetic Spintronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Hoffmann, Axel

    2018-04-05

    Antiferromagnets are promising for future spintronics applications owing to their interesting properties: They are magnetically ordered, but neighboring magnetic moments point in opposite directions which results in zero net magneti- zation. This means antiferromagnets produce no stray fields and are insensitive to external magnetic field perturbations. Furthermore, they show intrinsic high frequency dynamics, exhibit considerable spin-orbit and magneto-transport effects. Over the past decade, it has been realized that antiferromagnets have more to offer than just being utilized as passive components in exchange bias applications. This development resulted in a paradigm shift, which opens the pathway to novel concepts using antiferromagnets for spin-based technologies and applications. This article gives a broad per- spective on antiferromagnetic spintronics. In particular, the manipulation and detection of anitferromagnetic states by spintronics effects, as well as spin transport and dynamics in antiferromagnetic materials will be discussed. We will also outline current challenges and future research directions in this emerging field.

  12. Gyroscope with two-dimensional optomechanical mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Kai; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We propose an application of two-dimensional optomechanical oscillator as a gyroscope by detecting the Coriolis force which is modulated at the natural frequency of the optomechanical oscillator. Dependence of gyroscope's sensitivity on shot noise, back-action noise, thermal noise, and input laser power is studied. At optimal input laser power, the gyroscope's sensitivity can be improved by increasing the mass or by decreasing the temperature and decay rate of the mechanical oscillator. When the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation number, n th, is zero, sensitivity improves with decrease in frequency of the mechanical oscillator. For {n}{{th}}\\gg 1, the sensitivity is independent of the mechanical oscillator's frequency.

  13. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...

  14. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  15. Magnetic phase transition induced by electrostatic gating in two-dimensional square metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Long; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We investigate theoretically magnetism and magnetic phase transitions induced by electrostatic gating of two-dimensional square metal-organic framework compounds. We find that electrostatic gating can induce phase transitions between homogeneous ferromagnetic and various spin-textured antiferromagnetic states. Electronic structure and Wannier function analysis can reveal hybridizations between transition-metal d orbitals and conjugated π orbitals in the organic framework. Mn-containing compounds exhibit a strong d -π hybridization that leads to partially occupied spin-minority bands, in contrast to compounds containing transition-metal ions other than Mn, for which electronic structure around the Fermi energy is only slightly spin split due to weak d -π hybridization and the magnetic interaction is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. We use a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model to understand the phase transition in Mn-containing compounds in terms of carrier density and illuminate the complexity and the potential to control two-dimensional magnetization.

  16. Parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Koutoulis, Anthony; Whittock, Simon P; Shellie, Robert A

    2017-11-17

    We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ( 1 D) and second-dimension ( 2 D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules. Precise carrier gas flow control at the junction of the 1 D and 2 D columns permits independent control of flow conditions in each separation column. The 2GC×2GC approach provides two entirely independent GC×GC separations for each injection. Analysis of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils is used to demonstrate the capability of the approach. The analytical performance of each GC×GC separation in the 2GC×2GC experiment is comparable to individual GC×GC separation with matching column configurations. The peak capacity of 2GC×2GC is about 2 times than that of single GC×GC system. The dual 2D chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary separations and additional identification information by harnessing different selectivity provided by the four separation columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.

  18. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Dipolar Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babkevich, P.; Jeong, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Kovacevic, I.; Finco, A.; Toft-Petersen, R.; Ritter, C.; Mânsson, M.; Nakatsuji, S.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report ac susceptibility, specific heat, and neutron scattering measurements on a dipolar-coupled antiferromagnet LiYbF4 . For the thermal transition, the order-parameter critical exponent is found to be 0.20(1) and the specific-heat critical exponent -0.25 (1 ) . The exponents agree with the 2D X Y /h4 universality class despite the lack of apparent two-dimensionality in the structure. The order-parameter exponent for the quantum phase transitions is found to be 0.35(1) corresponding to (2 +1 )D . These results are in line with those found for LiErF4 which has the same crystal structure, but largely different TN, crystal field environment and hyperfine interactions. Our results therefore experimentally establish that the dimensional reduction is universal to quantum dipolar antiferromagnets on a distorted diamond lattice.

  19. Magnetic behaviour of interacting antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovich, V; Jung, G; Gorodetsky, G; Puzniak, R; Wisniewski, A; Skourski, Y; Mogilyanski, D

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic properties of interacting La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 nanoparticles have been investigated. The field-induced transition from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) state in the La 0.2 Ca 0.8 MnO 3 bulk has been observed at exceptionally high magnetic fields. For large particles, the field-induced transition widens while magnetization progressively decreases. In small particles the transition is almost fully suppressed. The thermoremanence and isothermoremanence curves constitute fingerprints of irreversible magnetization originating from nanoparticle shells. We have ascribed the magnetic behaviour of nanoparticles to a core-shell scenario with two main magnetic contributions; one attributed to the formation of a collective state formed by FM clusters in frustrated coordination at the surfaces of interacting AFM nanoparticles and the other associated with inner core behaviour as a two-dimensional diluted antiferromagnet. (paper)

  20. Critical Behavior of Spatial Evolutionary Game with Altruistic to Spiteful Preferences on Two-Dimensional Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Li Xiao-Teng; Chen Xiao-Song; Chen Wei; Liu Jian

    2016-01-01

    Self-questioning mechanism which is similar to single spin-flip of Ising model in statistical physics is introduced into spatial evolutionary game model. We propose a game model with altruistic to spiteful preferences via weighted sums of own and opponent's payoffs. This game model can be transformed into Ising model with an external field. Both interaction between spins and the external field are determined by the elements of payoff matrix and the preference parameter. In the case of perfect rationality at zero social temperature, this game model has three different phases which are entirely cooperative phase, entirely non-cooperative phase and mixed phase. In the investigations of the game model with Monte Carlo simulation, two paths of payoff and preference parameters are taken. In one path, the system undergoes a discontinuous transition from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the change of preference parameter. In another path, two continuous transitions appear one after another when system changes from cooperative phase to non-cooperative phase with the prefenrence parameter. The critical exponents v, β, and γ of two continuous phase transitions are estimated by the finite-size scaling analysis. Both continuous phase transitions have the same critical exponents and they belong to the same universality class as the two-dimensional Ising model. (paper)

  1. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  2. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  3. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  4. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  5. Ward identities in two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1991-01-01

    We study the decoupling of null states in two-dimensional gravity, using methods of critical string theory. We identify a family of null states which fail to decouple due to curvature and boundary terms. This gives relations involving amplitudes at different genus. At genus zero, these determine certain operator product coefficients. At genus one, they determine the partition function. At higher genus, we obtain a relation similar in form to the Painleve equation, but due to an incomplete understanding of a certain ghost/curvature term we do not have a closed relation for the partition function. Our results appear to correspond to the L 0 and L 1 equations in the topological and matrix model approaches. (orig.)

  6. Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary

    2017-06-01

    Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.

  7. Modified black holes in two dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1991-11-01

    The SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZWN model is modified by a topological term and the accompanying change in the geometry of the two dimensional target space is determined. The possibility of this additional term arises from a symmetry in the general formalism of gauging an isometry subgroup of a non-linear sigma model with an antisymmetric tensor. It is shown, in particular, that the space-time exhibits some general singularities for which the recently found black hole is just a special case. From a conformal field theory point of view and for special values of the unitary representation of SL(2,R), this topological term can be interpreted as a small perturbation by a (1,1) conformal operator of the gauged WZWN action. (author). 26 refs

  8. Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang; Zhang Yong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS 2 and WS 2 ), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS 2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS 2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator. (topical reviews)

  9. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  10. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  11. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  12. Generic Ising trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durhuus, Bergfinnur Jøgvan; Napolitano, George Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove that they......The Ising model on a class of infinite random trees is defined as a thermodynamiclimit of finite systems. A detailed description of the corresponding distribution of infinite spin configurations is given. As an application, we study the magnetization properties of such systems and prove...... that they exhibit no spontaneous magnetization. Furthermore, the values of the Hausdorff and spectral dimensions of the underlying trees are calculated and found to be, respectively,¯dh =2 and¯ds = 4/3....

  13. Study on non-universal critical behaviour in Ising model with defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, L.G.

    1986-01-01

    One-dimensional quantum analogous of two-dimensional Ising models with line and step type linear defects are studied. The phenomenological renormalization group was approached using conformal invariance for relating critical exponent N sup(*) sub(H). Aiming to obtain the Hamiltonian diagonal, Lanczos tridiagonal method was used. (H.C.K.)

  14. Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn domain-growth kinetics of Ising models with conserved density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    The domain-growth kinetics of p=fourfold degenerate (2×1) ordering in two-dimensional Ising models with conserved density is studied as a function of temperature and range of Kawasaki spin exchange. It is found by computer simulations that the zero-temperature freezing-in behavior for nearest...

  15. Analytical and computational study of magnetization switching in kinetic Ising systems with demagnetizing fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, H.L.; Rikvold, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    particularly promising as materials for high-density magnetic recording media. In this paper we use analytic arguments and Monte Carlo simulations to quantitatively study the effects of the demagnetizing field on the dynamics of magnetization switching in two-dimensional, single-domain, kinetic Ising systems...

  16. Topological phases of shaken quantum Ising lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Lorenzo, Samuel; Porras, Diego; García-Ripoll, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    The quantum compass model consists of a two-dimensional square spin lattice where the orientation of the spin–spin interactions depends on the spatial direction of the bonds. It has remarkable symmetry properties and the ground state shows topological degeneracy. The implementation of the quantum compass model in quantum simulation setups like ultracold atoms and trapped ions is far from trivial, since spin interactions in those systems typically are independent of the spatial direction. Ising spin interactions, on the contrary, can be induced and controlled in atomic setups with state-of-the art experimental techniques. In this work, we show how the quantum compass model on a rectangular lattice can be simulated by the use of the photon-assisted tunneling induced by periodic drivings on a quantum Ising spin model. We describe a procedure to adiabatically prepare one of the doubly degenerate ground states of this model by adiabatically ramping down a transverse magnetic field, with surprising differences depending on the parity of the lattice size. Exact diagonalizations confirm the validity of this approach for small lattices. Specific implementations of this scheme are presented with ultracold atoms in optical lattices in the Mott insulator regime, as well as with Rydberg atoms. (paper)

  17. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  20. Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.

  1. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: yilungmo@central.uh.edu [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  2. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  3. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  4. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  5. Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza

    2014-03-01

    Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.

  6. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  7. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  8. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  9. El shinto de Ise

    OpenAIRE

    Falero Folgoso, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    Este ensayo ofrece una peregrinación virtual al santuario de Ise. Conforme se desarrolla el itinerario, el lector va recibiendo una lección de religión japonesa o de historia del sintoísmo. En shinto, por el contrario de lo que podemos considerar religiones de iluminación fundadas por un líder carismático, como es el caso del cristianismo, el islam o el budismo, no existe una tradición ascética ni mística, y en su lugar hallamos un profundo sentido de lo sagrado expresado en una gran tradici...

  10. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  11. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  12. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  13. Decorated Ising models with competing interactions and modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tragtenberg, M.H.R.; Yokoi, C.S.O.; Salinas, S.R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The phase diagrams of a variety of decorated Ising lattices are calculated. The competing interactions among the decorating spins may induce different types of modulated orderings. In particular, the effect of an applied field on the phase diagram of the two-dimensional mock ANNNI model is considered, where only the original horizontal bonds on a square lattice are decorated. Some Bravais lattices and Cayley trees where all bonds are equally decorated are then studied. The Bravais lattices display a few stable modulated structures. The Cayley trees, on the other hand, display a large number of modulated phases, which increases with the lattice coordination number. (authors) [pt

  14. Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising system based on the free energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskİin, Mustafa; Özgan, Şükrü

    1990-04-01

    Stable, metastable and unstable solutions of a spin-1 Ising model with bilinear and biquadratic interactions are found by using the free energy surfaces. The free energy expression is obtained in the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method. All these solutions are shown in the two-dimensional phase space, especially the unstable solutions which in some cases are difficult to illustrate in the two-dimensional phase space, found by Keskin et al. recently.

  15. Magnetization and spin gap in two-dimensional organic ferrimagnet BIPNNBNO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, A S; Sinitsyn, V E; Bostrem, I G; Hosokoshi, Y; Inoue, K

    2012-01-01

    A magnetization process in the two-dimensional ferrimagnet BIPNNBNO is analyzed. The compound consists of ferrimagnetic (1,1/2) chains coupled by two sorts of antiferromagnetic interaction. Whereas the behavior of the magnetization curve in higher magnetic fields can be understood within a process for the separate ferrimagnetic chain, the appearance of the singlet plateau at lower fields is an example of non-Lieb-Mattis type ferrimagnetism. By using the exact diagonalization technique for finite clusters of size 4 × 6, 4 × 8 and 4 × 10 we show that the interchain frustration coupling plays an essential role in stabilization of the singlet phase. These results are complemented by an analysis of four cylindrically coupled ferrimagnetic (1,1/2) chains via an Abelian bosonization technique and an effective theory based on the XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg model when the interchain interactions are sufficiently weak/strong, respectively. (paper)

  16. Coherent Two-Dimensional Terahertz Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Collective Spin Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian; Li, Xian; Hwang, Harold Y; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Kurihara, Takayuki; Suemoto, Tohru; Nelson, Keith A

    2017-05-19

    We report a demonstration of two-dimensional (2D) terahertz (THz) magnetic resonance spectroscopy using the magnetic fields of two time-delayed THz pulses. We apply the methodology to directly reveal the nonlinear responses of collective spin waves (magnons) in a canted antiferromagnetic crystal. The 2D THz spectra show all of the third-order nonlinear magnon signals including magnon spin echoes, and 2-quantum signals that reveal pairwise correlations between magnons at the Brillouin zone center. We also observe second-order nonlinear magnon signals showing resonance-enhanced second-harmonic and difference-frequency generation. Numerical simulations of the spin dynamics reproduce all of the spectral features in excellent agreement with the experimental 2D THz spectra.

  17. Position of Effective Spins Induced by Dilution in Two-Dimensional Spin-Peierls Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Chitoshi; Miyara, Shouta

    2018-01-01

    The site- and bond-dilution effects of the nonmagnetic ground state of a two-dimensional S = 1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, coupled with the lattice distortions on a square lattice, are investigated by performing quantum Monte Carlo simulations. In the nondiluted system, a phase diagram parameterized by the interchain interaction and the elastic constant is obtained, and the values of the lattice distortions in the dimerized phase are evaluated precisely. In the diluted system, we compare two ground-state energies assuming two patterns of lattice distortions with magnetic moments (effective spins) induced near the diluted parts and induced at the midpoint between the diluted parts. As a result, we find that it is difficult to induce effective spins near diluted parts for large elastic constants, small interchain interactions, and large concentrations of dilution.

  18. One metal-organic frameworks showing two-dimensional sheet structure: Synthesis, structure, and magnetic property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yong Hong [School of Chemistry and Material Science, Huaibei Normal University, Huaibei (China); Wang, Zhe Yu [No. 1 High School of Huaibei, Huaibei (China)

    2015-02-15

    Under hydrothermal condition, the reaction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-DH) and 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane with MnCl{sub 2} ·2H{sub 2}O gave a novel metal-organic framework (MOF), [Mn(2,4-D)2 (H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]{sub n} (1). This complex was characterized by IR, elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry analysis. X-Ray single-crystal diffraction shows that the Mn(II) ions are bidendate bridged by carboxyl groups in the syn–anti mode, giving a two-dimensional (2D) network. Temperature-dependent magnetic studies reveal that there are weak antiferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Mn(II) ions transmitted by carboxyl groups.

  19. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  20. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular

  1. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  2. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  3. Magnetic properties of a diluted transverse spin-1 Ising nanocube with a longitudinal crystal-field

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hamri, M.; Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Ahuja, R.

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the effective field theory with correlations based on the probability distribution technique has been used to investigate the effect of the surface shell longitudinal cristal field on the magnetic properties of a diluted antiferromagnetic spin-1 Ising nanocube particle. This effect has also been studied on the hysteresis loops of the system. It is found that this parameter has a strong effect on the magnetization profiles, compensation temperature, coercive field and remanent magnetization.

  4. Nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Daniel Esmarch

    2008-01-01

    I denne Ph.D. afhandling studeres forskellige egenskaber ved antiferromagnetiske nanopartikler. I en ideel antiferromagnet er spinnene orienteret således at der ikke er et resulterende magnetisk moment. I nanopartikler af antiferromagnetiske materialer er denne kompensation på grund af forskellig...

  5. Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-05-01

    Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.

  6. Prospect for antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martí, Xavier; Fina, I.; Jungwirth, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2015), s. 2900104 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026; GA ČR GB14-37427G EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  7. Synthetic antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duine, R. A.; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Stiles, M. D.

    2018-03-01

    Spintronic and nanomagnetic devices often derive their functionality from layers of different materials and the interfaces between them. We discuss the opportunities that arise from synthetic antiferromagnets consisting of two or more ferromagnetic layers that are separated by metallic spacers or tunnel barriers and have antiparallel magnetizations.

  8. Using random boundary conditions to simulate disordered quantum spin models in two-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, A.; Moreno-Cardoner, M.; Sanpera, A.

    2017-05-01

    Disordered quantum antiferromagnets in two-dimensional compounds have been a focus of interest in the last years due to their exotic properties. However, with very few exceptions, the ground states of the corresponding Hamiltonians are notoriously difficult to simulate making their characterization and detection very elusive, both theoretically and experimentally. Here we propose a method to signal quantum disordered antiferromagnets by doing exact diagonalization in small lattices using random boundary conditions and averaging the observables of interest over the different disorder realizations. We apply our method to study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 model in an anisotropic triangular lattice. In this model, the competition between frustration and quantum fluctuations might lead to some spin-liquid phases as predicted from different methods ranging from spin-wave mean-field theory to 2D-DMRG or PEPS. Our method accurately reproduces the ordered phases expected of the model and signals quantum disordered phases by the presence of a large number of quasidegenerate ground states together with an undefined local order parameter. The method presents a weak dependence on finite-size effects.

  9. A stable "flat" form of two-dimensional crystals: could graphene, silicene, germanene be minigap semiconductors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, A; Kusmartsev, F V; Kugel, K I

    2012-02-08

    The discovery of a flat two-dimensional crystal known as graphene has contradicted Landau-Peierls-Mermin-Wagner arguments that there is no stable flat form of such crystals. Here, we show that the "flat" shape of graphene arises due to a microscopic buckling at the smallest possible interatomic scale. We show that the graphene, silicene, and other two-dimensional crystals are stable due to transverse short-range displacements of appropriate atoms. The distortions are small and form various patterns, which we describe in a framework of Ising model with competing interactions. We show that when temperature decreases, two transitions, disorder into order and order into disorder, arise. The ordered state has a form of stripes where carbon atoms are shifted regularly with respect to the plane. The flat graphene, silicene, or germanene planes look like a microscopic "washboard" with the wavelength of about couple of interatomic spacing of appropriate sublattices, which for graphene is about 1.8-3.6 Å. At lower temperatures, the ordered state transforms into a glass. Because of up-down asymmetry in buckled graphene, silicene and other two-dimensional crystals deposited on substrate, a minibandgap may arise. We derive a criterion for the minigap formation and show how it is related to the buckling and to the graphene-substrate interaction. Because of the bandgap, there may arise new phenomena and in particular a rectification of ac current induced by microwave or infrared radiation. We show that the amplitude of direct current arising at wave mixing of two harmonics of microwave electromagnetic radiation is huge. Moreover, we predict the existence of miniexcitons and a new type of fermionic minipolaritons whose behavior can be controlled by the microwave and terahertz radiation. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  10. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  11. Effects of temperature on domain-growth kinetics of fourfold-degenerate (2×1) ordering in Ising models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst-Madsen, Anders; Shah, Peter Jivan; Hansen, Torben

    1987-01-01

    Computer-simulation techniques are used to study the domain-growth kinetics of (2×1) ordering in a two-dimensional Ising model with nonconserved order parameter and with variable ratio α of next-nearest- and nearest-neighbor interactions. At zero temperature, persistent growth characterized...

  12. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  13. Stability analysis of two-dimensional digital recursive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. E.; Pruess, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to the stability problem for the two-dimensional digital recursive filter is presented. The bivariate difference equation representation of the two-dimensional recursive digital filter is converted to a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) system similar to the state-space representation of the one-dimensional digital recursive filter. In this paper, a pseudo-state representation is used and three coefficient matrices are obtained. A general theorem for stability of two-dimensional digital recursive filters is derived and a very useful theorem is presented which expresses sufficient requirements for instability in terms of the spectral radii of these matrices.

  14. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  15. Numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, T

    2002-01-01

    The two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms $\\G(\\vec{a}(z);y)$, a generalization of the harmonic polylogarithms, themselves a generalization of Nielsen's polylogarithms, appear in analytic calculations of multi-loop radiative corrections in quantum field theory. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, with the two arguments $y,z$ varying in the triangle $0\\le y \\le 1$, $ 0\\le z \\le 1$, $\\ 0\\le (y+z) \\le 1$. This algorithm is implemented into a {\\tt FORTRAN} subroutine {\\tt tdhpl} to compute two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms up to weight 4.

  16. Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahpour, T; Jafari, S A

    2018-01-10

    We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the 'ARPES-dark' state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.

  17. Semiconductor of spinons: from Ising band insulator to orthogonal band insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajollahpour, T.; Jafari, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    We use the ionic Hubbard model to study the effects of strong correlations on a two-dimensional semiconductor. The spectral gap in the limit where on-site interactions are zero is set by the staggered ionic potential, while in the strong interaction limit it is set by the Hubbard U. Combining mean field solutions of the slave spin and slave rotor methods, we propose two interesting gapped phases in between: (i) the insulating phase before the Mott phase can be viewed as gapping a non-Fermi liquid state of spinons by the staggered ionic potential. The quasi-particles of underlying spinons are orthogonal to physical electrons, giving rise to the ‘ARPES-dark’ state where the ARPES gap will be larger than the optical and thermal gap. (ii) The Ising insulator corresponding to ordered phase of the Ising variable is characterized by single-particle excitations whose dispersion is controlled by Ising-like temperature and field dependences. The temperature can be conveniently employed to drive a phase transition between these two insulating phases where Ising exponents become measurable by ARPES and cyclotron resonance. The rare earth monochalcogenide semiconductors where the magneto-resistance is anomalously large can be a candidate system for the Ising band insulator. We argue that the Ising and orthogonal insulating phases require strong enough ionic potential to survive the downward renormalization of the ionic potential caused by Hubbard U.

  18. Ladder Ising spin configurations. Pt. 1. Heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdani, R.; Lambros, A.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a ladder Ising spin model (with two coupled Ising spin chains), characterized by two couplings (interchain and intrachain couplings), to study in detail, in an analytical way, its thermal behaviour and particularly the variation of the specific heat versus temperature, the ratio of interaction constants, and the magnetic field. It is interesting that when the competition between interchain and intrachain interactions is strong the specific heat exhibits a double peak and when the competition is not so strong the specific heat has a single peak. Further, without entering into details, we give, in a numerical way, some similar results for more complicated ladder configurations (with more than two linear Ising chains). The spin-1/2 ladders or systems of spin chains may be realized in nature by vanadyl pyrophosphate ((VO) 2 P 2 O 7 ) or similar materials. All these intermediate systems are today important to gain further insight into the physics of one-dimensional spin chains and two-dimensional high-T c spin systems, both of which have shown interesting and unusual magnetic and superconducting properties. It is plausible that experimental and theoretical studies of ladders may lead to other interesting physical phenomena. (orig.)

  19. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  20. Proteome research : two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabilloud, Thierry, 1961

    2000-01-01

    "Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the central methodology in proteome research, and the state of the art is described in detail in this text, together with extensive coverage of the detection methods available...

  1. 1/f noise in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.B.; Tajima, T.

    1994-10-01

    We derive an exact result on the velocity fluctuation power spectrum of an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. Employing the fluctuation-dissipation relationship and the enstrophy conversation, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a 1/f form

  2. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  3. Coherent Response of Two Dimensional Electron Gas probed by Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jagannath

    Advent of ultrashort lasers made it possible to probe various scattering phenomena in materials that occur in a time scale on the order of few femtoseconds to several tens of picoseconds. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques, such as pump-probe, transient four wave mixing (TFWM), etc., are very common to study the carrier dynamics in various material systems. In time domain, the transient FWM uses several ultrashort pulses separated by time delays to obtain the information of dephasing and population relaxation times, which are very important parameters that govern the carrier dynamics of materials. A recently developed multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy is an enhanced version of TFWM which keeps track of two time delays simultaneously and correlate them in the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform in a two dimensional map. Using this technique, the nonlinear complex signal field is characterized both in amplitude and phase. Furthermore, this technique allows us to identify the coupling between resonances which are rather difficult to interpret from time domain measurements. This work focuses on the study of the coherent response of a two dimensional electron gas formed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well both at zero and at high magnetic fields. In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the inter- actions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the formation of Mahan excitons, which is also referred to as Fermi edge singularity (FES). Polarization and temperature dependent rephasing 2DFT spectra in combination with TI-FWM measurements, provides insight into the dephasing mechanism of the heavy hole (HH) Mahan exciton. In addition to that strong quantum coherence between the HH and LH Mahan excitons is observed, which is rather surprising at this high doping concentration. The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly

  4. Concepts of antiferromagnetic spintronics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomonay, O.; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Sinova, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 1700022. ISSN 1862-6254 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : spintronics * antiferromagnets Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 3.032, year: 2016

  5. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  6. The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, José P. S.; Sá, Paulo M.

    1993-01-01

    General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.

  7. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern.......The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  8. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  9. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  10. Finite cluster renormalization group for disordered two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Kenz, A.

    1987-09-01

    A new type of renormalization group theory using the generalized Callen identities is exploited in the study of the disordered systems. Bond diluted and frustrated Ising systems on a square lattice are analyzed with this new scheme. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Short-range order in two-dimensional binary alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottaviano, L.; Ressel, B.; Teodoro, C. D.; Profeta, G.; Santucci, S.; Cháb, Vladimír; Prince, K. C.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2003), s. 045401-1 - 045401-9 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GV202/98/K002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : semiconductors * interface * ordering * 2D Ising -system Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.962, year: 2003

  12. Untersuchung der magnetischen und strukturellen Eigenschaften der beiden niedrigdimensionalen Antiferromagnete TiPO4 und CrOCl

    OpenAIRE

    Reuvekamp, Patrick Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (III) phosphate TiPO4 (3d1 electronic configuration with S = 1/2) is a one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnet exhibiting non-conventional spin-Peierls behaviour at low temperatures. Chromium oxychloride CrOCl (3d3 electronic configuration with S = 3/2) is a two-dimensional antiferromagnet consisting of ferromagnetic spin chains interconnected by competing anti and ferromagnetic spin exchanges interactions. The magnetic and the structural properties of these compounds are intimately ...

  13. Magnetic hysteresis and domain wall dynamics in single chain magnets with antiferromagnetic interchain coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukharov, A A; Ovchinnikov, A S; Baranov, N V [Department of Physics, Ural State University, Ekaterinburg, 620083 (Russian Federation); Inoue, K [Institute for Advanced Materials Research, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2010-11-03

    Using Monte Carlo simulations we investigate magnetic hysteresis in two- and three-dimensional systems of weakly antiferromagnetically coupled spin chains based on a scenario of domain wall (kink) motion within the chains. By adapting the model of walkers to simulate the domain wall dynamics and using the Ising-like dipole-dipole model, we study the effects of interchain coupling, temperature and anisotropy axis direction on hysteresis curves.

  14. Engineered two-dimensional Ising interactions in a trapped-ion quantum simulator with hundreds of spins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britton, JW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available we set wr 2p 45 kHz so that the radial confinement is suf- ficiently weak that a cloud of ions relaxes into a single 2D plane (b 1). Upon Doppler laser cooling the ions? motional degrees of freedom (TCOM 1 mK) [30], the ions naturally form a 2D...

  15. Spectral methods applied to Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFacio, B.; Hammer, C.L.; Shrauner, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    Several applications of Ising models are reviewed. A 2-d Ising model is studied, and the problem of describing an interface boundary in a 2-d Ising model is addressed. Spectral methods are used to formulate a soluble model for the surface tension of a many-Fermion system

  16. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C.; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  17. Microcanonical simulation of Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Neuberger, H.

    1984-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the microcanonical ensemble for Ising systems are described. We explain how to write very fast algorithms for such simulations, relate correlations measured in the microcanonical ensemble to those in the canonical ensemble and discuss criteria for convergence and ergodicity. (orig.)

  18. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  19. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  20. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  1. A nonperturbative treatment of two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a nonperturbative definition of two-dimensional quantum gravity, based on a double scaling limit of the random matrix model. We develop an operator formalism for utilizing the method of orthogonal polynomials that allows us to solve the matrix models to all orders in the genus expansion. Using this formalism we derive an exact differential equation for the partition function of two-dimensional gravity as a function of the string coupling constant that governs the genus expansion of two-dimensional surfaces, and discuss its properties and consequences. We construct and discuss the correlation functions of an infinite set of pointlike and loop operators to all orders in the genus expansion. (orig.)

  2. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  3. Effective-field theory of the Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, Kayseri 38039 (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-09-15

    The Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices is studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. We consider that the nearest-neighbor spins of each layer are coupled ferromagnetically and the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbor layers are coupled either ferromagnetically or anti-ferromagnetically depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. We investigate the thermal variations of the magnetizations and present the phase diagrams. The phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases, and the system also exhibits a tricritical behavior.

  4. Effective-field theory of the Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deviren, Bayram; Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    The Ising model with three alternative layers on the honeycomb and square lattices is studied by using the effective-field theory with correlations. We consider that the nearest-neighbor spins of each layer are coupled ferromagnetically and the adjacent spins of the nearest-neighbor layers are coupled either ferromagnetically or anti-ferromagnetically depending on the sign of the bilinear exchange interactions. We investigate the thermal variations of the magnetizations and present the phase diagrams. The phase diagrams contain the paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic phases, and the system also exhibits a tricritical behavior

  5. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  6. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  7. Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Bobev, Nikolay [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Crichigno, P. Marcos [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-05

    We find a large class of two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N=1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS{sub 3} solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of four-dimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.

  8. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  9. Quantum melting of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolov, V. T.

    2017-10-01

    The paper reviews theoretical predictions about the behavior of two-dimensional low-density electron systems at nearly absolute zero temperatures, including the formation of an electron (Wigner) crystal, crystal melting at a critical electron density, and transitions between crystal modifications in more complex (for example, two-layer) systems. The paper presents experimental results obtained from real two-dimensional systems in which the nonconducting (solid) state of the electronic system with indications of collective localization is actually realized. Experimental methods for detecting a quantum liquid–solid phase interface are discussed.

  10. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  11. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....

  12. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.

  14. Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2016-03-03

    We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.

  15. Comparable studies of magnetic properties of Ising spins-5/2 and 3/2 systems on decorated square and triangular lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63 46000 Safi (Morocco); Jabar, A. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, 63 46000 Safi (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-07-15

    In this work, we have studied and compared the magnetic properties of Ising spins-5/2 and 3/2 systems on decorated square and triangular lattices using the Monte Carlo simulations. The transition temperature of the two-dimensional decorated square and triangular lattices has been obtained. The effect of the exchange interactions and crystal field on the magnetization is investigated. The magnetic coercive field and saturation magnetization of the two-dimensional decorated square and triangular lattices have been obtained.

  16. Influence of spin and charge fluctuations on spectra of the two-dimensional Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A.

    2018-05-01

    The influence of spin and charge fluctuations on spectra of the two-dimensional fermionic Hubbard model is considered using the strong coupling diagram technique. Infinite sequences of diagrams containing ladder inserts, which describe the interaction of electrons with these fluctuations, are summed, and obtained equations are self-consistently solved for the ranges of Hubbard repulsions , temperatures and electron concentrations with t the intersite hopping constant. For all considered U the system exhibits a transition to the long-range antiferromagnetic order at . At the same time no indication of charge ordering is observed. Obtained solutions agree satisfactorily with results of other approaches and obey moments sum rules. In the considered region of the U-T plane, the curve separating metallic solutions passes from at the highest temperatures to U  =  2t at for half-filling. If only short-range fluctuations are allowed for the remaining part of this region is occupied by insulating solutions. Taking into account long-range fluctuations leads to strengthening of maxima tails, which transform a part of insulating solutions into bad-metal states. For low T, obtained results allow us to trace the gradual transition from the regime of strong correlations with the pronounced four-band structure and well-defined Mott gap for to the Slater regime of weak correlations with the spectral intensity having a dip along the boundary of the magnetic Brillouin zone due to an antiferromagnetic ordering for . For and doping leads to the occurrence of a pseudogap near the Fermi level, which is a consequence of the splitting out of a narrow band from a Hubbard subband. Obtained spectra feature waterfalls and Fermi arcs, which are similar to those observed in hole-doped cuprates.

  17. Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising superantiferromagnet in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Octavio D.R., E-mail: octaviors@gmail.com [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@pq.cnpq.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Viana, J. Roberto, E-mail: vianafisica@bol.com.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Padilha, Igor T., E-mail: igorfis@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil)

    2013-11-01

    The phase transition of the three-dimensional spatially anisotropic Ising antiferromagnetic model in the presence of an uniform longitudinal magnetic field H is studied by using the traditional Monte Carlo (MC) simulation for sizes L=16, 32 and 64. The model consists of ferromagnetic interactions J{sub z}=λ{sub 2}J{sub x} in the x(z) direction and antiferromagnetic interactions J{sub y}=λ{sub 1}J{sub x} in the y direction (Ising superantiferromagnetic). For the particular case λ{sub 1}=λ{sub 2}=1 we obtain the phase diagram in the T–H plane. Was observed first- and second-order transitions in the low and high temperature limits, respectively, with the presence of a tricritical point.

  18. Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamical properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation ...

  19. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular ...

  20. Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconformal field theory; free field realization; string theory; AdS-CFT correspon- dence. PACS Nos 11.25.Hf; 11.25.-w; 11.30.Ly; 11.30.Pb. Conformal symmetries in two space-time dimensions have been very extensively studied owing to their applications both in string theory and two-dimensional statistical systems.

  1. Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes Silva Da Costa, Natália; Palumbo, Giandomenico; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this

  2. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...

  3. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  4. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.

  5. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  6. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface i...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  7. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...

  8. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  9. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  10. (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fountoulakis M, Schuller E, Hardmeier R, Berndt P and Lubec. G 1999 Rat brain proteins: Two-dimensional protein data- base and variation in the expression level; Electrophoresis 20. 3527–3579. Hiroshi Fujii, Junji Tochinara, Yutaka Kawaguchi and Sakagu- chi B 1988 Existence of carotenoids binding protein in larval.

  11. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  12. Polaron dynamics in a two-dimensional anharmonic Holstein model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    A generalized two-dimensional semiclassical :Holstein model with a realistic on-site potential that contains anharmonicity is studied. More precisely, the lattice subsystem of anharmonic on-site oscillators is supposed to have a restricting core. The core plays the role of an effective saturation...

  13. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  14. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  15. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  16. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2 ... CdSe quantum wells; 2D electron gas; magneto-electronic transport. Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are ...

  17. g Algebra and two-dimensional quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    g2 algebra via one special representation in the x–y two-dimensional space. Then, by choosing an appropriate set of ..... Gen. 40, 212 (2005). [3] S Grigorian and S T Yau, Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 459 (2009). [4] L Fernandez-Jambrina and L M Gonzalez-Romero, Class. Quant. Grav. 16, 953 (1999). [5] A Belhaj, J. Phys.

  18. Two-Dimensional Light Diffraction from an EPROM Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2018-01-01

    In introductory physics classes, a laser pointer and a compact disc are all the items required to illustrate diffraction of light in a single dimension. If a two-dimensional diffraction pattern is desired, double axis diffraction grating material is available or a CCD sensor can be extracted from an unused electronics device. This article presents…

  19. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-21

    Jul 21, 2014 ... used, as an alternative for costly 2DE-quantification kits. Our designed protocols are ..... 7 IPG 17 cm strips: (i) made by OP then DNase/RNase treated and (ii) made by OP with optimized IEF. (D) 2DE image of (i) E. coli ..... Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional ...

  20. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  1. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  3. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  4. Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there ...

  5. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  6. Symmetry Reductions of Two-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Burgers Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Li, Biao

    2005-05-01

    By use of a direct method, we discuss symmetries and reductions of the two-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficient (VCBurgers). Five types of symmetry-reducing VCBurgers to (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equation and three types of symmetry reducing VCBurgers to ordinary differential equation are obtained.

  7. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  8. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  9. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  10. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two- dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The se- lected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen ...

  11. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  12. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  13. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  14. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  15. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2013-01-01

    We explore the electrodynamic coupling between a plane wave and an infinite two-dimensional periodic lattice of magnetoelectric point scatterers, deriving a semianalytical theory with consistent treatment of radiation damping, retardation, and energy conservation. We apply the theory to arrays...

  16. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of. CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal ...

  17. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...... constraints on the evolution of divorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics....

  18. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk. AKIRA SUZUKI1, RANABIR DUTT2 and RAJAT K BHADURI1,3. 1Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. 2Department of Physics, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India. 3Department of Physics and ...

  19. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  20. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  1. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  2. Protein mapping by two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, K.; Racaityte, K.; Unger, K.K.; Miliotis, T.; Edholm, L.E.; Bischoff, Rainer; Marko-Varga, G

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry require highly efficient analytical systems for protein mapping providing high resolution, robustness, sensitivity, reproducibility and a high throughput of samples. The potential of two-dimensional (2D) HPLC as a complementary

  3. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These were reported to lead to a variety of novel self-organized colloidal structures, such as linear chains [5,6], periodic lattices [7], anisotropic clusters [3], and cellular structures [8] that are stabilized, in general, by topological defects. More recently, two-dimensional (2D) inverted nematic emulsions were also stud- ied and ...

  4. Tagging multiphoton ionization events by two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mattijs; Broos, Jaap; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to supply process-specific labels to multiphoton ionization events. Employing these tags, the authors can construct excitation and photoelectron spectra along predefined excitation routes in the neutral manifold and ionization routes to the

  5. A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping, namely electrolytic tank model, for graduate and post graduate level physics stu- dents is given here. Laplace's equation is solved for the above and the results are compared with the experiment. The agreement· is so good that this is extended to complex ...

  6. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  7. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  8. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials. Qing-Hai Wang. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 pp ... Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the P T symmetry, the ...

  9. Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the

  10. Fermi liquid of two-dimensional polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    We study Fermi-liquid properties of a weakly interacting two-dimensional gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules with dipole moments d oriented perpendicularly to the plane of their translational motion. This geometry allows the minimization of inelastic losses due to chemical reactions

  11. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  12. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  13. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle– ..... ment, we need less than 75 MB of RAM for a simulation with 10242 particles on a. 10242 grid.

  14. Critical behavior of two-dimensional intrinsically ferromagnetic semiconductor CrI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, G. T.; Luo, X.; Chen, F. C.; Yan, J.; Gao, J. J.; Sun, Y.; Tong, W.; Tong, P.; Lu, W. J.; Sheng, Z. G.; Song, W. H.; Zhu, X. B.; Sun, Y. P.

    2018-02-01

    CrI3, which belongs to a rare category of two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic semiconductors, is of great interest for spintronic device applications. Unlike CrCl3 whose magnetism presents a 2D-Heisenberg behavior, CrI3 exhibits a larger van der Waals gap, smaller cleavage energy, and stronger magnetic anisotropy which could lead to a 3D magnetic characteristic. Hence, we investigate the critical behavior of CrI3 in the vicinity of magnetic transition. We use the modified Arrott plot and Kouvel-Fisher method and conduct critical isotherm analysis to estimate the critical exponents near the ferromagnetic phase transition. This shows that the magnetism of CrI3 follows the crossover behavior of a 3D-Ising behavior with mean field type interactions where the critical exponents β, γ, and δ are 0.323 ± 0.006, 0.835 ± 0.005, and 3.585 ± 0.006, respectively, at the Curie temperature of 64 K. We propose that the crossover behavior can be attributed to the strong uniaxial anisotropy and inevitable interlayer coupling. Our experiment demonstrates the applicability of crossover behavior to a 2D ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  15. On the phase transition nature in compressible Ising models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, A.T.

    1985-01-01

    The phase transition phenomenon is analysed in a compressible ferromagnetic Ising model at null field, through the mean-field approximation. The model studied is d-dimensional under the magnetic point of view and one-dimensional under the elastic point of view. This is achieved keeping the compressive interactions among the ions and rejecting annealing forces completely. The exchange parameter J is linear and the elastic potential quadratic in relation to the microscopic shifts of the lattice. In the one-dimensional case, this model shows no phase transition. In the two-dimensional case, the role of the S i spin of the i-the ion is crucial: a) for spin 1/2 the transitions are of second order; b) for spin 1, desides the second order transitions there is a three-critical point and a first-order transitions line. (L.C.) [pt

  16. Interfaces in confined Ising models: Kawasaki, Glauber and sheared dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Thomas H R; Schmidt, Matthias; Vasilyev, Oleg; Maciolek, Anna; Abraham, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    We study interfacial properties of the phase-separated two-dimensional Ising model. The interface between coexisting phases is stabilized by two parallel walls with opposing surface fields. A driving field parallel to the walls is applied which (i) either acts locally at the walls or (ii) varies linearly with distance across the strip. Using computer simulations with Kawasaki dynamics, we found (Smith et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 067203) that the system reaches a steady state with a sharper magnetization profile, reduced interfacial width, and faster decay of correlations along the interface, as compared to the equilibrium case. Here we present new results for the bond energy profile, providing further evidence for the picture wherein shear acts as effective confinement in this system. As a prerequisite for understanding the driven system, we investigate the pronounced differences between Kawasaki (spin-exchange) and Glauber (spin-flip) dynamics in the confined equilibrium system.

  17. CRISTAL-ISE your project

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    CRISTAL-ISE, a new version of the CRISTAL data tracking software developed at CERN in the late 90s, has recently been launched under an open source license. The potential for applications of this free software outside particle physics covers several areas, including medicine, where CRISTAL-ISE helps to monitor the progress of Alzheimer’s Disease.   CMS lead tungstate crystals produced in Russia. CRISTAL began as a collaboration between CERN, the University of the West of England (UWE) and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).“At the time of CMS’s construction, there was a need for software able to track the production of the almost 80,000 lead tungstate crystals for the Electromagnetic Calorimeter,” explains Andrew Branson, member of the CMS collaboration and Technical Coordinator of the CRISTAL-ISE project. “We started to develop the software when we didn’t yet know the detector testing procedures to go through,...

  18. Eight-Vertex Model of Two-Dimensional Domain Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, Franz S.

    1983-09-01

    A statistical model of interacting linear domain walls (occurring, e.g., in monolayer adsorbates) is solved on the square lattice with use of exact and numerical results of an equivalent eight-vertex model. For attractive walls a commensurate and an incommensurate phase are separated by a first-order line for stiff walls and by a fluid phase for flexible walls. The phase boundaries with the fluid phase are Ising-like. For repulsive stiff walls an intermediate striped phase with a nonuniversal boundary occurs which vanishes for higher flexibilities. Moreover, disorder lines are located.

  19. Two-dimensional materials from high-throughput computational exfoliation of experimentally known compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounet, Nicolas; Gibertini, Marco; Schwaller, Philippe; Campi, Davide; Merkys, Andrius; Marrazzo, Antimo; Sohier, Thibault; Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Cepellotti, Andrea; Pizzi, Giovanni; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Yet, only a few dozen 2D materials have been successfully synthesized or exfoliated. Here, we search for 2D materials that can be easily exfoliated from their parent compounds. Starting from 108,423 unique, experimentally known 3D compounds, we identify a subset of 5,619 compounds that appear layered according to robust geometric and bonding criteria. High-throughput calculations using van der Waals density functional theory, validated against experimental structural data and calculated random phase approximation binding energies, further allowed the identification of 1,825 compounds that are either easily or potentially exfoliable. In particular, the subset of 1,036 easily exfoliable cases provides novel structural prototypes and simple ternary compounds as well as a large portfolio of materials to search from for optimal properties. For a subset of 258 compounds, we explore vibrational, electronic, magnetic and topological properties, identifying 56 ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, including half-metals and half-semiconductors.

  20. Ionothermal Synthesis and Magnetic Studies of Novel Two-Dimensional Metal-Formate Frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderone, P.; Feygenson, M.; Forster, P.M.; Borkowski, L.A.; Teat, S.J.; Aronson, M.C.; Parise, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Five novel two-dimensional frameworks containing formate-bridged metal-centered octahedra are synthesized ionothermally from two ionic liquids previously unused as solvents in hybrid synthesis, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) formate, and 1-hydroxy-3-proplyammonium (HPA) formate. Templating effects of the cation from each ionic liquid drive the formation of different structures. [NH 3 C 2 H 4 OH] 2 [M(CHO 2 ) 4 ] (1: M = Co, 2: M = Ni) exhibit the same stoichiometry and connectivity as their manganese analogue (3: M = Mn), but the manganese form exhibits a different topology from 1 and 2. [NH 3 C 3 H6OH][M(CHO 2 ) 3 (H 2 O)] (4: M = Co, 5: M = Mn) were synthesized using the HPA formate ionic liquid with a metal-formate connectivity related to those of 1-3. Canted antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures (1: T N = 7.0 K, 2: T N = 4.6 K, 3: T N = 8.0 K, 4: T N = 7.0 K, 5: T N = 9.2 K), similar to the magnetic properties previously reported for other metal-formate hybrid materials.

  1. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  2. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2015-09-18

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.

  3. Duality-invariant class of two-dimensional field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sfetsos, K

    1999-01-01

    We construct a new class of two-dimensional field theories with target spaces that are finite multiparameter deformations of the usual coset G/H-spaces. They arise naturally, when certain models, related by Poisson-Lie T-duality, develop a local gauge invariance at specific points of their classical moduli space. We show that canonical equivalences in this context can be formulated in loop space in terms of parafermionic-type algebras with a central extension. We find that the corresponding generating functionals are non-polynomial in the derivatives of the fields with respect to the space-like variable. After constructing models with three- and two-dimensional targets, we study renormalization group flows in this context. In the ultraviolet, in some cases, the target space of the theory reduces to a coset space or there is a fixed point where the theory becomes free.

  4. Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tadashi; Naka, Syuji; Ito, Akihiko; Saito, Kozo

    1997-11-01

    We propose a nonintrusive experimental technique, the transient fuel-concentration measurement technique (TFMT), that is capable of being used to measure two-dimensional profiles of transient fuel concentrations over an open liquid fuel surface. The TFMT is based on single-wavelength holographic interferometry; its response time is less than 1 s and spatial resolution is 0.1 mol. % /0.1 mm. It was applied to measure both methanol vapor and n-propanol vapor concentrations. To assess the accuracy of the technique, our results were compared with steady-state methanol and n-propanol fuel-vapor concentrations measured by other researchers with a microsampling technique combined with gas chromatography. We found the TFMT to be accurate for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional profiles of fuel-vapor concentrations.

  5. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  6. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  7. Recombination in one- and two-dimensional fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Zh; Saakian, David B

    2010-05-01

    We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of molecular evolution, where fitness is a function of a Hamming distance from one (one-dimensional case) or two (two-dimensional case) sequences. For the one-dimensional case, we calculate the population distribution dynamics for a model with zero fitness and an arbitrary symmetric initial distribution and find an error threshold transition point in the single-peak fitness model for a given initial symmetric distribution. We calculate the recombination period in the case of a single-peak fitness function, when the original population is located at one sequence, at some Hamming distance from the peak configuration. Steady-state fitness is calculated with finite genome length corrections. We derive analytical equations for the two-dimensional mutation-recombination model.

  8. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem

  9. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  10. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed

  11. Vortex annihilation and inverse cascades in two dimensional superfluid turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chesler, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of a dilute mixture of vortices and antivortices in a turbulent two-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature is well described by first order Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations, or dissipative point vortex dynamics. These equations are governed by a single dimensionless parameter: the ratio of the strength of drag forces to Magnus forces on vortices. When this parameter is small, we demonstrate using numerical simulations that the resulting superfluid enjoys an inverse energy cascade where small scale stirring leads to large scale vortex clustering. We argue analytically and numerically that the vortex annihilation rate in a laminar flow may be parametrically smaller than the rate in a turbulent flow with an inverse cascade. This suggests a new way to detect inverse cascades in experiments on two-dimensional superfluid turbulence using cold atomic gases, where traditional probes of turbulence such as the energy spectrum are not currently accessible.

  12. Two-dimensional turbulence in three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Francois, N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed in three-dimensional flows that show behaviour associated with two-dimensional turbulence. Experiments reveal the presence of the inverse energy cascade in two different systems, namely, flows in thick fluid layers driven electromagnetically and the Faraday wave driven flows. In thick fluid layers, large-scale coherent structures can shear off the vertical eddies and reinforce the planarity of the flow. Such structures are either self-generated or externally imposed. In the Faraday wave driven flows, a seemingly three-dimensional flow is shown to be actually two-dimensional when it is averaged over several Faraday wave periods. In this system, a coupling between the wave motion and 2D hydrodynamic turbulence is uncovered.

  13. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  14. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  15. Two-dimensional cephalometry and computerized orthognathic surgical treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnoto, Budi

    2007-07-01

    Cephalometric radiographs provide for standardized skull/facial views that allow for comparison over time to assess growth in an individual, and to compare that individual against standardized population norms. Cephalometric analysis and surgical prediction are done by robust cephalometric imaging software that can rapidly analyze the radiograph, and retrace and recalculate the analysis for a variety of possible surgical outcomes; however, the validity of the prediction depends on the accuracy of the records, the algorithm specific to the software, and the specifics of the patient population. Three-dimensional digital imaging to replace conventional two-dimensional photographic images and CT scans, with corresponding cephalometric analysis to replace two-dimensional cephalometric films, is already on the horizon.

  16. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  17. The stability of a two-dimensional rising bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Q.; Tanveer, S.

    1995-01-01

    The stability of an inviscid two-dimensional bubble subject to two-dimensional disturbances is considered and the bubbles are found to be linearly stable for all Weber numbers, for which a steady solution is known. Certain aspects of the nonlinear initial value problem are also studied. An initial condition that consists of a superposition of a suitable symmetric eigenmode (of the linear stability operator) on a steady state is found to result in pinching of the bubble neck as it tends to oscillate about the steady state. An estimate of the threshold amplitude of such a disturbance needed to cause breakup of a large aspect ratio bubble is obtained. The presence of gravity appears to inhibit this pinching process

  18. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  19. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hochberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  20. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-09-01

    We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  1. Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  3. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  4. Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.

    2018-03-01

    The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.

  5. Constraints and hidden symmetry in two-dimensional gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil))

    1994-01-15

    We study the hidden symmetry of Polyakov two-dimensional gravity by means of first-class constraints. These are obtained from the combination of Fourier mode expansions of the usual (second-class) constraints of the theory. We show that, more than the usual SL(2,[ital R]), there is a hidden Virasoro symmetry in the theory. The results of the above analysis are also confirmed from the point of view of a geometrical symplectic treatment.

  6. Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.

    1976-03-01

    The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)

  7. Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...

  8. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  9. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  10. New Two-Dimensional Polynomial Failure Criteria for Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shi Yang; Xue, Pu

    2014-01-01

    The in-plane damage behavior and material properties of the composite material are very complex. At present, a large number of two-dimensional failure criteria, such as Chang-Chang criteria, have been proposed to predict the damage process of composite structures under loading. However, there is still no good criterion to realize it with both enough accuracy and computational performance. All these criteria cannot be adjusted by experimental data. Therefore, any special properties of composit...

  11. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  12. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  13. Pseudospectral reduction of incompressible two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, John C.; Roberts, Malcolm

    2012-05-01

    Spectral reduction was originally formulated entirely in the wavenumber domain as a coarse-grained wavenumber convolution in which bins of modes interact with enhanced coupling coefficients. A Liouville theorem leads to inviscid equipartition solutions when each bin contains the same number of modes. A pseudospectral implementation of spectral reduction which enjoys the efficiency of the fast Fourier transform is described. The model compares well with full pseudospectral simulations of the two-dimensional forced-dissipative energy and enstrophy cascades.

  14. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  15. Stability theory for a two-dimensional channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshkin, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    A scheme for deriving conditions for the nonlinear stability of an ideal or viscous incompressible steady flow in a two-dimensional channel that is periodic in one direction is described. A lower bound for the main factor ensuring the stability of the Reynolds-Kolmogorov sinusoidal flow with no-slip conditions (short wavelength stability) is improved. A condition for the stability of a vortex strip modeling Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid vortices (long wavelength stability) is presented.

  16. Effective mass of two-dimensional He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Grau, V.; Krotscheck, E.; Springer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We use structural information from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations for two-dimensional He 3 to calculate the effective mass. Static effective interactions are constructed from the density and spin-structure functions using sum rules. We find that both spin and density fluctuations contribute about equally to the effective mass. Our results show, in agreement with recent experiments, a flattening of the single-particle self-energy with increasing density, which eventually leads to a divergent effective mass

  17. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  18. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic method for mapping DNA replicons.

    OpenAIRE

    Nawotka, K A; Huberman, J A

    1988-01-01

    We describe in detail a method which allows determination of the directions of replication fork movement through segments of DNA for which cloned probes are available. The method uses two-dimensional neutral-alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization with short probe sequences. The nascent strands of replicating molecules form an arc separated from parental and nonreplicating strands. The closer a probe is to its replication origin or to the origin-proximal end of its rest...

  19. On Two-Dimensional Quaternion Wigner-Ville Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawardi Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the two-dimensional quaternion Wigner-Ville distribution (QWVD. The transform is constructed by substituting the Fourier transform kernel with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT kernel in the classical Wigner-Ville distribution definition. Based on the properties of quaternions and the QFT kernel we obtain three types of the QWVD. We discuss some useful properties of various definitions for the QWVD, which are extensions of the classical Wigner-Ville distribution properties.

  20. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  1. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  2. On the Initial Singularity Problem in Two Dimensional Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of how to put interactions in two-dimensional quantum gravity in the strong coupling regime is studied. It shows that the most general interaction consistent with this symmetry is a Liouville term that contain two parameters $(\\alpha, \\beta)$ satisfying the algebraic relation $2\\beta - \\alpha =2$ in order to assure the closure of the diffeomorphism algebra. The model is classically soluble and it contains as general solution the temporal singularity. The theory is quantized and we...

  3. Negative differential Rashba effect in two-dimensional hole systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, B.; Tutuc, E.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Wasserman, D.; Lyon, S. A.; Winkler, R.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that two-dimensional (2D) heavy hole systems in single heterostructures exhibit a \\emph{decrease} in spin-orbit interaction-induced spin splitting with an increase in perpendicular electric field. Using front and back gates, we measure the spin splitting as a function of applied electric field while keeping the density constant. Our results are in contrast to the more familiar case of 2D electrons where spin splitting increases with electric field.

  4. Spontaneous spiral formation in two-dimensional oscillatory media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Petteri; Amemiya, Takashi; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    1999-08-01

    Computational studies of pattern formation in a modified Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is described. Initially inactive two-dimensional reaction media with an immobilized catalyst is connected to a reservoir of fresh reactants through a set of discrete points distributed randomly over the interphase surface. It is shown that the diffusion of reactants combined with oscillatory reaction kinetics can give rise to spontaneous spiral formation and phase waves.

  5. Canard solutions of two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xianfeng [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: chenxf@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu Pei [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario London, Ont., N6A 5B7 (Canada); Han Maoan [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Weijiang [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, some new lemmas on asymptotic analysis are established. We apply an asymptotic method to study generalized two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with one parameter, whose critical manifold has an m-22 th-order degenerate extreme point. Certain sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of canard solutions, which are the extension and correction of some existing results. Finally, one numerical example is given.

  6. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  7. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  8. Observations of two-dimensional monolayer zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Trilochan, E-mail: trilochansahoo@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Nayak, Sanjeev K. [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von Seckendorff Platz 1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Chelliah, Pandian [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Rath, Manasa K.; Parida, Bhaskar [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of planer ZnO nanostructure. • Observation of multilayered and monolayer ZnO. • DFT calculation of (10-10), (11-20) and (0 0 0 1) planes of ZnO. • Stability of non-polar (10-10) and (11-20) planes of ZnO. - Abstract: This letter reports the observations of planar two-dimensional ZnO synthesized using the hydrothermal growth technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and aggregated structures of layered ZnO. The nonpolar (10-10) and (11-20) planes were present in the X-ray diffraction patterns, but the characteristic (0 0 0 1) peak of bulk ZnO was absent. The study found that nonpolar freestanding ZnO structures composed of a single or few layers may be more stable and may have a higher probability of formation than their polar counterparts. The stability of the nonpolar two-dimensional hexagonal ZnO slabs is supported by density functional theory studies.

  9. Two-Dimensional Identification of Fetal Tooth Germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Mariana; Vaz, Paula; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana; Felino, António

    2017-03-01

      To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of two-dimensional ultrasonography in the identification of tooth germs and in the assessment of potential pathology.   Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.   Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho-Empresa Pública in Portugal.   A total of 157 white pregnant women (median age, 32 years; range, 14 to 47 years) undergoing routine ultrasound exams.   Description of the fetal tooth germs, as visualized by two-dimensional ultrasonography, including results from prior fetal biometry and detailed screening for malformations.   In the first trimester group, ultrasonography identified 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 10 tooth germs in the mandible in all fetuses except for one who presented eight maxillary tooth germs. This case was associated with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 13) with a bilateral cleft palate. In the second and third trimesters group, ultrasonography identified a larger range of tooth germs: 81.2% of fetuses showed 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 85.0% of fetuses had 10 tooth germs in the mandible. Hypodontia was more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, which led us to use qualitative two-dimensional ultrasonography to analyze the possible association between hypodontia and other variables such as fetal pathology, markers, head, nuchal, face, and spine.   We recommend using this method as the first exam to evaluate fetal morphology and also to help establish accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in pregnancy.

  10. H₂ sensing properties of two-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezzer, Matteo; Iannotta, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    In this work we have grown particular zinc oxide two-dimensional nanostructures which are essentially a series of hexagonal very thin sheets. The hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure gives them their peculiar shape, whose dimensions are few microns wide, with a thickness in the order of 25 nm. Such kind of nanostructure, grown by thermal oxidation of evaporated metallic zinc on a silica substrate, has been used to fabricate conductometric gas sensors, investigated then for hydrogen gas detection. The "depletion layer sensing mechanism" is clarified, explaining how the geometrical factors of one- and two-dimensional nanostructures affect their sensing parameters. The comparison with one-dimensional ZnO nanowires based structures shows that two-dimensional nanostructures are ideal for gas sensing, due to their tiny thickness, which is comparable to the depletion-layer thickness, and their large cross-section, which increases the base current, thus lowering the limit of detection. The response to H₂ has been found good even to sub-ppm concentrations, with response and recovery times shorter than 18s in the whole range of H₂ concentrations investigated (500 ppb-10 ppm). The limit of detection has been found around 200 ppb for H₂ gas even at relatively low working temperature (175 °C). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  12. Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.

  13. Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations

  14. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  15. Universal reduction of effective coordination number in the quasi-one-dimensional Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todo, Synge

    2006-09-01

    Critical temperature of quasi-one-dimensional general-spin Ising ferromagnets is investigated by means of the cluster Monte Carlo method performed on infinite-length strips, L×∞ or L×L×∞ . We find that in the weak interchain coupling regime the critical temperature as a function of the interchain coupling is well-described by a chain mean-field formula with a reduced effective coordination number, as the quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets recently reported by Yasuda [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 217201 (2005)]. It is also confirmed that the effective coordination number is independent of the spin size. We show that in the weak interchain coupling limit the effective coordination number is, irrespective of the spin size, rigorously given by the quantum critical point of a spin- 1/2 transverse-field Ising model.

  16. Superconductivity, Antiferromagnetism, and Neutron Scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.

    2013-01-01

    High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements...

  17. Magnetic structure of the quasi-two-dimensional compound CoTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinast, E.J. [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua 7 de Setembro, 1156, 90010-191 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Santos, C.A. dos [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil); Schmitt, D. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique, Universite Joseph Fourier, B. P. 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Isnard, O., E-mail: olivier.isnard@grenoble.cnrs.f [Institut Neel, CNRS/Universite Jospeh Fourier, avenue des martyrs B. P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Gusmao, M.A.; Cunha, J.B.M. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2010-02-18

    We report on a detailed investigation of magnetic properties of CoTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} using several techniques: neutron and X-ray diffraction, specific-heat, magnetic susceptibility, and magnetization measurements. The compound shows quasi-two-dimensional behavior due to its layered structure of alternating Co-O and Ta-O planes. We find that all magnetic moments lie entirely in the Co-O planes, along easy axes determined by the orientations of oxygen octahedra that surround the Co ions. The easy axes in successive magnetic planes have relative orientations that differ by 90{sup o}. Antiferromagnetic ordering is observed below 6.6 K, with propagation vectors ({+-}1/4,1/4,1/4) associated to the two non-equivalent sets of Co{sup 2+} ions, whose magnetic moments are perpendicularly oriented.

  18. Degenerate ground states and multiple bifurcations in a two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yan-Wei; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2014-06-01

    We numerically investigate the two-dimensional q-state quantum Potts model on the infinite square lattice by using the infinite projected entangled-pair state (iPEPS) algorithm. We show that the quantum fidelity, defined as an overlap measurement between an arbitrary reference state and the iPEPS ground state of the system, can detect q-fold degenerate ground states for the Z_{q} broken-symmetry phase. Accordingly, a multiple bifurcation of the quantum ground-state fidelity is shown to occur as the transverse magnetic field varies from the symmetry phase to the broken-symmetry phase, which means that a multiple-bifurcation point corresponds to a critical point. A (dis)continuous behavior of quantum fidelity at phase transition points characterizes a (dis)continuous phase transition. Similar to the characteristic behavior of the quantum fidelity, the magnetizations, as order parameters, obtained from the degenerate ground states exhibit multiple bifurcation at critical points. Each order parameter is also explicitly demonstrated to transform under the Z_{q} subgroup of the symmetry group of the Hamiltonian. We find that the q-state quantum Potts model on the square lattice undergoes a discontinuous (first-order) phase transition for q=3 and q=4 and a continuous phase transition for q=2 (the two-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model).

  19. Magnetocaloric properties of a frustrated Blume-Capel antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žukovič Milan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature magnetization processes and magnetocaloric properties of a geometrically frustrated spin-1 Blume-Capel model on a triangular lattice are studied by Monte Carlo simulations. The model is found to display qualitatively different behavior depending on the sign of the single-ion anisotropy D. For positive values of D we observe two magnetization plateaus, similar to the spin-1/2 Ising antiferromagnet, and negative isothermal entropy changes for any field intensity. For a range of small negative values of D there are four magnetization plateaus and the entropy changes can be either negative or positive, depending on the field. If D is negative but large in absolute value then the entropy changes are solely positive.

  20. Critical space-time networks and geometric phase transitions from frustrated edge antiferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trugenberger, Carlo A.

    2015-12-01

    Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time that self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension dH=4 . The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (dH-ds) , where ds is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean-field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.

  1. Anisotropy modulated stepwise magnetization in triangular Heisenberg antiferromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Xiaoyan; Liu Junming; Lo, Veng Cheong

    2011-01-01

    During the course of tuning anisotropy from Ising type to zero, the variation of magnetization (M) steps against magnetic field (h) is investigated in a triangular antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model using Monte Carlo techniques. It is revealed that the anisotropy is an essential key to induce the temperature-dependent stepwise M(h) curve observed in frustrated magnetic system, and it can be employed to modulate this steplike magnetic behavior effectively. When the anisotropy is strengthened, a ground state transition occurs from the homogeneous 120 o triangular structure to the collinear partially disordered antiferromagnetic state. No M step is detected in the system without anisotropy. But if the anisotropy is nonzero, the M 0 /3 step (where M 0 is the saturated M) will emerge on M(h) curve, which is due to an h-induced quasi-collinear ferrimagnetic state. This M 0 /3 step can be extended by increasing the anisotropy. When the M 0 /3 plateau dominates the h-range broad enough, the equidistant metastable substeps, which originates from the disorders frozen in the frustrated collinear spin structure, appear to be superposed on the M 0 /3 plateau. Thus the system with a strong anisotropy presents the whole temperature evolution of stepwise M(h) curve in quantitative agreement with the experiments of Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 . - Highlights: → Variation of M steps is investigated by tuning anisotropy from Ising type to zero. → Anisotropy is essential to induce T-dependent multistep M against magnetic field. → Simulation with strong anisotropy reproduces T-evolution of M steps in Ca 3 Co 2 O 6 . → Metastable substeps at low T can be enhanced by increasing anisotropy.

  2. Two-dimensional colloidal fluids exhibiting pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Blesson; Chalmers, Christopher; Archer, Andrew J

    2015-12-28

    Fluids with competing short range attraction and long range repulsive interactions between the particles can exhibit a variety of microphase separated structures. We develop a lattice-gas (generalised Ising) model and analyse the phase diagram using Monte Carlo computer simulations and also with density functional theory (DFT). The DFT predictions for the structures formed are in good agreement with the results from the simulations, which occur in the portion of the phase diagram where the theory predicts the uniform fluid to be linearly unstable. However, the mean-field DFT does not correctly describe the transitions between the different morphologies, which the simulations show to be analogous to micelle formation. We determine how the heat capacity varies as the model parameters are changed. There are peaks in the heat capacity at state points where the morphology changes occur. We also map the lattice model onto a continuum DFT that facilitates a simplification of the stability analysis of the uniform fluid.

  3. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  4. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  5. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  6. Network patterns in exponentially growing two-dimensional biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Yap, Xinhui; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-10-01

    Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments. The underlying mechanism relies on path formation through physical deformation of the enclosing environment.

  7. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  8. Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.

  9. Blind deconvolution of two-dimensional complex data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inspired by the work of Lane and Bates on automatic multidimensional deconvolution, the authors have developed a systematic approach and an operational code for performing the deconvolution of multiply-convolved two-dimensional complex data sets in the absence of noise. They explain, in some detail, the major algorithmic steps, where noise or numerical errors can cause problems, their approach in dealing with numerical rounding errors, and where special noise-mitigating techniques can be used toward making blind deconvolution practical. Several examples of deconvolved imagery are presented, and future research directions are noted.

  10. Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)

  11. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  12. Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.

  13. Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin

    2012-01-01

    We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corresponding gate operations are also proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. Quantum algebras for two-dimensional Cayley-Klein Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, F.J.; Ballesteros, A.; Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous quantization of the quasi-simple groups of motions of the nine two-dimensional Cayley-Klein geometries is obtained by defining a deformed Hopf structure on their enveloping algebras. The spaces of points and lines of the classical CK geometries are homogeneous spaces of their motion groups. Both the well known classical non-euclidean geometries and the (1+1) kinematical geometries are included within this scheme. Their corresponding quantum algebras preserve a scheme of contractions, symmetries and dualities based on the classical one. (Author)

  15. Graphene surface plasmon bandgap based on two dimensional Si gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueke Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A graphene/Si system, which is composed of a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon gratings and a graphene sheet, is designed to realize the complete band gap in infrared region for graphene surface plasmons (GSPs theoretically. The complete band gap originates from the strong scatterings, which is caused by the periodical distribution of effective refractive index. The band structure has been calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and full wave numerical simulations are conducted by finite element method. Thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene, the band structure can be easily tuned, which provides a way to manipulate in-plane GSPs’ propagation.

  16. Two-Dimensional Electron System in Electromagnetic Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Radu Paul; Manolescu, Andrei

    We consider a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a monochromatic linear polarized electromagnetic field, within the Floquet formalism. The Floquet states have a simple relation with the energy eigenstates in the absence of the field. Therefore the single-particle and the two-particle Green functions of the many-body system with Coulomb interactions, in the radiation field, can be formally calculated by the standard diagrammatic techniques, as for the conservative system. We derive the elementary excitations of quasi-particle type, the plasma dispersion relation, and the ground state quasi-energy, and we relate them to the corresponding results for the conservative system.

  17. Saddle-points of a two dimensional random lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertermann, D.

    1985-07-01

    A two dimensional random lattice theory with a free massless scalar field is considered. We analyse the field theoretic generating functional for any given choice of positions of the lattice sites. Asking for saddle-points of this generating functional with respect to the positions we find the hexagonal lattice and a triangulated version of the hypercubic lattice as candidates. The investigation of the neighbourhood of a single lattice site yields triangulated rectangles and regular polygons extremizing the above generating functional on the local level. (author)

  18. Two-dimensional N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersymmetry is one of the possible scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. The building blocks of this scenario are supersymmetric gauge theories. In our work we study the N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills (SYM theory with gauge group SU(2 dimensionally reduced to two-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory. In our lattice formulation we break supersymmetry and chiral symmetry explicitly while preserving R symmetry. By fine tuning the bar-mass of the fermions in the Lagrangian we construct a supersymmetric continuum theory. To this aim we carefully investigate mass spectra and Ward identities, which both show a clear signal of supersymmetry restoration in the continuum limit.

  19. Two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein spaces and gravitational instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new class of solutions of the euclidean Einstein equations with Λ-term ( A-class ) is found by solving the complex two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein equations with the following realization of complex metrics. The A-Class includes two gravitational instantons already known: the CP 2 and the Eguchi-Hanson metric, and allows a U(1)-generalized spin structure. It is shown that all Einstein euclidean two-axial Bianchi type IX metrics are exhausted by the Taub-NUT-de Sitter family and the A-class. (orig.)

  20. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  1. Thermal neutron diffraction on two-dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1974-06-01

    This thesis deals with the problem of neutron diffraction from a two-dimensional lattice. The neutron spin is not taken into account. Firstly the scalar wave field is treated by means of differential equations (Helmholtz) and secondly by the equivalent integral equation formulation (Kirchoff-Weber). Finally, using the methods of the Green function, the reflected and transmitted wave fields are represented as integral transformations of a certain source function. In respect to the calculation of the amplitudes of the diffraction waves the third method seems to be the best one for the purpose of the physical interpretation and the applicability of numerical methods. (C.R.)

  2. Stable corrugated state of the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Moreno, R.M.; Moreno, M.; Ortiz, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A corrugated and stable ground state is found for the two-dimensional electron gas in both the normal paramagnetic and the fully polarized phases. The self-consistent Hartree-Fock method is used with a modulated set of trial wave functions within the deformable jellium model. The results for high metallic densities reproduce the usual noncorrugated ferromagnetic electron-gas behavior. A transition to a paramagnetic corrugated state for values of r s ∼6.5 is predicted. At lower densities r s ∼30, a second transition to a corrugated ferromagnetic phase is suggested

  3. Quantum wells physics and electronics of two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shik, A

    1998-01-01

    This invaluable book is devoted to the physics, technology and device applications of semiconductor structures with ultrathin layers where the electronic properties are governed by the quantum-mechanical laws. Such structures called quantum wells or structures with the two-dimensional electron gas, have become one of the most actively investigated objects in modern solid state physics. Electronic properties of quantum wells differ dramatically from those of bulk semiconductors, which allows one to observe new types of physical phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect and many other so-far-un

  4. Pattern formation in two-dimensional square-shoulder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornleitner, Julia; Kahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a highly efficient and reliable optimization tool that is based on ideas of genetic algorithms, we have systematically studied the pattern formation of the two-dimensional square-shoulder system. An overwhelming wealth of complex ordered equilibrium structures emerge from this investigation as we vary the shoulder width. With increasing pressure three structural archetypes could be identified: cluster lattices, where clusters of particles occupy the sites of distorted hexagonal lattices, lane formation, and compact particle arrangements with high coordination numbers. The internal complexity of these structures increases with increasing shoulder width.

  5. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  6. The Penalty Cost Functional for the Two-Dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Onomza WAZIRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the penalty cost functional for optimizing the two-dimensional control operator of the energized wave equation. In some multiplier methods such as the Lagrange multipliers and Pontrygean maximum principle, the cost of merging the constraint equation to the integral quadratic objective functional to obtain an unconstraint equation is normally guessed or obtained from the first partial derivatives of the unconstrained equation. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method (ECGM necessitates that the penalty cost be sequentially obtained algebraically. The ECGM problem contains a functional which is completely given in terms of state and time spatial dependent variables.

  7. Quasi-integrability and two-dimensional QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Mohayaee, R.

    1996-10-01

    The notion of integrability in two-dimensional QCD is discussed. We show that in spite of an infinite number of conserved charges, particle production is not entirely suppressed. This phenomenon, which we call quasi-integrability, is explained in terms of quantum corrections to the combined algebra of higher-conserved and spectrum-generating currents. We predict the qualitative form of particle production probabilities and verify that they are in agreement with numerical data. We also discuss four-dimensional self-dual Yang-Mills theory in the light of our results. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  8. Two-dimensional fermionic correlations in topologically nontrivial backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, M.V.; Naon, C.M.; Trobo, M.L. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-04-15

    By using a path-integral approach to the study of two-dimensional massless fermionic models in nontrivial sectors, we compute certain special correlation functions which are nonvanishing only when nontrivial topology is taken into account. In particular, we derive the first explicit expression for the so-called nonminimal Green's function. We introduce one specific topological charge distribution for which this correlation function takes a simple form. We also comment on the application of our results to the analysis of massive fermions in topological backgrounds.

  9. On bosonization ambiguities of two dimensional quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, S.A.; Silva Neto, M.B.

    1996-02-01

    We study bosonization ambiguities in two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the presence and in the absence of topologically charged gauge fields. The computation of fermionic correlation functions gives us a mechanism to fix the ambiguities in nontrivial topologies, provided that we do not allow changes of sector as we evaluate functional integrals. This removes an infinite arbitrariness from the theory. In the case of trivial topologies, we find upper and lower bounds for the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter, corresponding to the limiting cases of regularizations which preserve gauge or chiral symmetry. (author). 19 refs.

  10. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančal T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.

  11. Two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases beyond weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Guilherme; LeClair, André; Squires, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Using a formalism based on the two-body S-matrix we study two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Approximate analytic expressions, valid at weak coupling and beyond, are developed and applied to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We successfully recover the correct logarithmic functional form of the critical chemical potential and density for the Bose gas. For fermions, the BKT critical temperature is calculated in BCS and BEC regimes through consideration of Tan’s contact.

  12. Mass/Count Variation: A Mereological, Two-Dimensional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sutton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that two types of context are central to grounding the semantics for the mass/count distinction. We combine and develop the accounts of Rothstein (2010 and Landman (2011, which emphasize (non-overlap at a context. We also adopt some parts of Chierchia’s (2010 account which uses precisifying contexts. We unite these strands in a two-dimensional semantics that covers a wide range of the puzzling variation data in mass/count lexicalization. Most importantly, it predicts where we should expect to find such variation for some classes of nouns but not for others, and also explains why.

  13. Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-02-15

    We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.

  14. Minimal quantization of two-dimensional models with chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gauge models with chiral anomalies - ''left-handed'' QED and the chiral Schwinger model, are quantized consistently in the frames of the minimal quantization method. The choice of the cone time as a physical time for system of quantization is motivated. The well-known mass spectrum is found but with a fixed value of the regularization parameter a=2. Such a unique solution is obtained due to the strong requirement of consistency of the minimal quantization that reflects in the physically motivated choice of the time axis

  15. Magnetism and pairing of two-dimensional trapped fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Simone; Varney, Christopher N; Rigol, Marcos; Scalettar, Richard T

    2011-01-21

    The emergence of local phases in a trapped two-component Fermi gas in an optical lattice is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We treat temperatures that are comparable to or lower than those presently achievable in experiments and large enough systems that both magnetic and paired phases can be detected by inspection of the behavior of suitable short-range correlations. We use the latter to suggest the interaction strength and temperature range at which experimental observation of incipient magnetism and d-wave pairing are more likely and evaluate the relation between entropy and temperature in two-dimensional confined fermionic systems.

  16. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  17. Cavalier perspective plots of two-dimensional matrices. Program Stereo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program Stereo allows representation of a two-dimensional matrix containing numerical data, in the form of a cavalier perspective, isometric or not, with an angle variable between 0 deg and 180 deg. The representation is in histogram form for each matrix row and those curves which fall behind higher curves and therefore would not be seen are suppressed. It has been written in Fortran V for a Calcomp-936 digital plotter operating off-line with a Univac 1106 computer. Drawing method, subroutine structure and running instructions are described in this paper. (author)

  18. A Chain-Detection Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Bonham, Paul; Iqbal, Azlan

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general method of detecting valid chains or links of pieces on a two-dimensional grid. Specifically, using the example of the chess variant known as Switch-Side Chain-Chess (SSCC). Presently, no foolproof method of detecting such chains in any given chess position is known and existing graph theory, to our knowledge, is unable to fully address this problem either. We therefore propose a solution implemented and tested using the C++ programming language. We have been unable to fi...

  19. Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)

  20. Stable two-dimensional dispersion-managed soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Baizakov, Bakhtiyor B.; Salerno, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a dispersion-managed soliton in two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with periodically varying dispersion has been explored. The averaged equations for the soliton width and chirp are obtained which successfully describe the long time evolution of the soliton. The slow dynamics of the soliton around the fixed points for the width and chirp are investigated and the corresponding frequencies are calculated. Analytical predictions are confirmed by direct partial differential equation (PDE) and ordinary differential equation (ODE) simulations. Application to a Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattice is discussed. The existence of a dispersion-managed matter-wave soliton in such system is shown

  1. A novel approach to Ising problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    In this note we discuss some of the recent remarks on the solvability of Ising problems. These remarks tend to a conclusion that it is likely that some Ising problems, for example that of the simple cubic lattice, are essentially unsolvable. One type of argument relates such problems to the theory

  2. Entrepreneurial Leapfrogging in the Context of ISE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -movers. The cross-fertilization between such two research streams provides a great opportunity to shed light on their link toward an interdisciplinary domain of international strategic entrepreneurship (ISE). This article will develop an integrative typology of global innovations as well as a dynamic model...... of entrepreneurial leapfrogging as the initial building blocks of ISE....

  3. ISING MODEL OF CHORIOCAPILLARIS FLOW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaide, Richard F

    2018-01-01

    To develop a mathematical model of local blood flow in the choriocapillaris using an Ising model. A JavaScript Ising model was used to create images that emulated the development of signal voids as would be seen in optical coherence tomography angiography of the choriocapillaris. The model was produced by holding the temperature near criticality and varying the field strength. Individual frames were evaluated, and a movie video was created to show the hypothetical development of flow-related signal voids over a lifetime. Much the same as actual choriocapillaris images in humans, the model of flow-related signal voids followed a power-law distribution. The slope and intercept both decreased with age, as is seen in human subjects. This model is a working hypothesis, and as such can help predict system characteristics, evaluate conclusions drawn from studies, suggest new research questions, and provide a way of obtaining an estimate of behavior in which experimental data are not yet available. It may be possible to understand choriocapillaris blood flow in health and disease states by determining by observing deviations from an expected model.

  4. Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay

    2016-04-01

    Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.

  5. The emergence of geometry: a two-dimensional toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Jorge; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D) X GL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zwei-bein is generated from a topological theory without any pre-existing metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several non-standard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared re...

  6. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  7. Two-dimensional theory and simulation of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Cary, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional homogeneous theory of free-electron lasers with a wiggler magnetic field of constant wavelength is formulated. It has been found from the theory that waves propagating obliquely with respect to the electron beam are always unstable with appreciable growth rates; therefore, mode competition among the on-axis and off-axis modes is an important consideration in the design of the free-electron laser. Furthermore, electromagnetic waves with group velocities opposite to the direction of electron beam propagation are absolutely unstable if k/sub o/v/sub o/ > ω/sub pe/(1/γ/sup 3/2/ + 1/γ/sup 1/2/). Due to strong nonlinear saturation levels of the low-frequency absolute instability, the dynamics of the electron beam and the generation of the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation can be severely affected. Two-dimensional particle simulations show that the efficiency of generation of the on-axis high-frequency electromagnetic wave decreases significantly due to instability of the off-axis modes. In addition, complete disruption of the electron beam and laser oscillation due to the onset of the absolute instability have been observed in simulations

  8. Growth and characterization of two-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sancho, Oscar Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures of palladium, nickel, silver and gadolinium were grown by means of physical evaporation in atmospheres of high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. The qualitative characterization, in situ, of the nanostructures was carried out with techniques of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The model for the quantification of contaminants in the nanostructures, was proposed by Seah and Shirley, and was made using the spectra XPS measured in situ in the atmospheres of vacuum. For the two-dimensional nanostructures of gadolinium of thicknesses 8 Å, 16 Å, 24 Å, 32 Å, 36 Å, 44 Å, 50 Å, 61 Å, 77 Å, 81 Å, 92 Å and 101 Å, were obtained optical spectra of transmission measured in situ. An band of absorption centered at approximately 2,40 eV is obtained by an increase in the dynamic conductivity from the optical constants, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the nanostructure of gadolinium. In addition, the optical constants for the gadolinium nanostructures have presented a maximum of 80 Å of thickness and then it was continued a decreasing tendency toward the values that were reported in the literature for bulk of gadolinium. (author) [es

  9. Two-dimensional photonic crystal polarizer modulated by silicon resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang

    2007-11-01

    Photonic crystals(PCs)have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the tunability of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of heat-resistant silicon resin. Waveguides can be obtained by the infiltration of silicon resin into air regions in two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of air holes with square lattices of dielectric cylinders. The refractive index of silicon resin can be changed by manipulating the temperature of the sample. Numerical simulation by solving Maxwell's equations using the plane wave expansion(PWE) method shows that the band gaps can be continuously tuned by silicon resin, accordingly the light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides can be controlled. The band gap is analyzed in the temperature range of 20°C-120°C. In our work, the gap map for a square lattice of dielectric cylinders is also simulated. The method can separate TM- and TE-polarized modes in the waveguide. Such a mechanism of band gap adjustment should open up a new application for designing field-sensitive polarizer in photonic integrated circuits.

  10. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  11. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  12. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14 C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  13. Numerical method for two-dimensional unsteady reacting flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method that numerically solves the full two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations with species transport, mixing, and chemical reaction between species is presented. The generality of the formulation permits the solution of flows in which deflagrations, detonations, or transitions from deflagration to detonation are found. The solution procedure is embodied in the RICE computer program. RICE is an Eulerian finite difference computer code that uses the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique to solve the governing equations. One first presents the differential equations of motion and the solution procedure of the Rice program. Next, a method is described for artificially thickening the combustion zone to dimensions resolvable by the computational mesh. This is done in such a way that the physical flame speed and jump conditions across the flame front are preserved. Finally, the results of two example calculations are presented. In the first, the artificial thickening technique is used to solve a one-dimensional laminar flame problem. In the second, the results of a full two-dimensional calculation of unsteady combustion in two connected chambers are detailed

  14. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Geun Ho; Amani, Matin; Rasool, Haider; Lien, Der-Hsien; Mastandrea, James P; Ager Iii, Joel W; Dubey, Madan; Chrzan, Daryl C; Minor, Andrew M; Javey, Ali

    2017-09-20

    The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2 , respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.Strain engineering is an essential tool for modifying local electronic properties in silicon-based electronics. Here, Ahn et al. demonstrate control of biaxial strain in two-dimensional materials based on the growth substrate, enabling more complex low-dimensional electronics.

  15. Flexoelectricity in two-dimensional crystalline and biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Sharma, Pradeep

    2015-10-01

    The ability of a material to convert electrical stimuli into mechanical deformation, i.e. piezoelectricity, is a remarkable property of a rather small subset of insulating materials. The phenomenon of flexoelectricity, on the other hand, is universal. All dielectrics exhibit the flexoelectric effect whereby non-uniform strain (or strain gradients) can polarize the material and conversely non-uniform electric fields may cause mechanical deformation. The flexoelectric effect is strongly enhanced at the nanoscale and accordingly, all two-dimensional membranes of atomistic scale thickness exhibit a strong two-way coupling between the curvature and electric field. In this review, we highlight the recent advances made in our understanding of flexoelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) membranes--whether the crystalline ones such as dielectric graphene nanoribbons or the soft lipid bilayer membranes that are ubiquitous in biology. Aside from the fundamental mechanisms, phenomenology, and recent findings, we focus on rapidly emerging directions in this field and discuss applications such as energy harvesting, understanding of the mammalian hearing mechanism and ion transport among others.

  16. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  17. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Davoodi, Pooya; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    of the problem, the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits which can be preprocessed in O(N) time to support O(clog 2 c) query time. For c=O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using a data......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static m by n matrix (two dimensional array) A of size N=m⋅n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... the space and query time of the problem. We show that every algorithm enabled to access A during the query and using a data structure of size O(N/c) bits requires Ω(c) query time, for any c where 1≤c≤N. This lower bound holds for arrays of any dimension. In particular, for the one dimensional version...

  18. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    , the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits additional space which can be preprocessed in O(N) time and achieves O(clog2 c) query time. For c = O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static two dimensional m by n array A of size N = m · n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... optimal O(N) bits additional space. For the case where queries can not probe A, we give a data structure of size O(N· min {m,logn}) bits with O(1) query time, assuming m ≤ n. This leaves a gap to the lower bound of Ω(Nlogm) bits for this version of the problem....

  19. Development of two dimensional electrophoresis method using single chain DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junichi; Hidaka, So

    1998-01-01

    By combining a separation method due to molecular weight and a method to distinguish difference of mono-bases, it was aimed to develop a two dimensional single chain DNA labeled with Radioisotope (RI). From electrophoretic pattern difference of parent and variant strands, it was investigated to isolate the root module implantation control gene. At first, a Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method using concentration gradient gel was investigated. As a result, it was formed that intervals between double chain and single chain DNAs expanded, but intervals of both single chain DNAs did not expand. On next, combination of non-modified acrylic amide electrophoresis method and Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method was examined. As a result, hybrid DNA developed by two dimensional electrophoresis arranged on two lines. But, among them a band of DNA modified by high concentration of urea could not be found. Therefore, in this fiscal year's experiments, no preferable result could be obtained. By the used method, it was thought to be impossible to detect the differences. (G.K.)

  20. Self-overlap as a method of analysis in Ising models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, A; Luque, B; Lacasa, L; Valero, E

    2007-06-01

    The damage spreading (DS) method provided a useful tool to obtain analytical results of the thermodynamics and stability of the two-dimensional (2D) Ising model--amongst many others--but it suffered both from ambiguities in its results and from large computational costs. In this paper we propose an alternative method, the so-called self-overlap method, based on the study of correlation functions measured at subsequent time steps as the system evolves towards its equilibrium. Applying Markovian and mean-field approximations to a 2D Ising system we obtain both analytical and numerical results on the thermodynamics that agree with the expected behavior. We also provide some analytical results on the stability of the system. Since only a single replica of the system needs to be studied, this method would seem to be free from the ambiguities that afflicted the DS method. It also seems to be numerically more efficient and analytically simpler.

  1. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perna, P., E-mail: paolo.perna@imdea.org; Guerrero, R.; Niño, M. A. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Ajejas, F.; Maccariello, D.; Cuñado, J. L. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Muñoz, M. [IMM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Prieto, J. L. [ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Miranda, R.; Camarero, J. [IMDEA-Nanoscience, c/ Faraday, 9 Campus de Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); DFMC and Instituto “Nicolás Cabrera”, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold) magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM)/ antiferromagnetic (AFM) bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR) response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and giant magnetoresistance (GMR), chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  2. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  3. Spin structures in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Erik

    a detailed knowledge of it can be important for applications of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles for example combined with ferromagnetic nanoparticles in nanocomposite devices. In this thesis the magnetic structure, in particular the orientation of the spins in the antiferromagnetic sublattices......, proposed to explain the unusual magnetic properties of the mineral. In summary the thesis have demonstrated methods for investigation of spin structures in magnetic nanoparticles. In particular, the classical model of the temperature dependence of canted spin structures sucessfully explains many...... experimental observations of anomalous temperature dependence in nanoparticle and bulk systems. Morover, XY Z neutron polarisation analysis have been demonstrated to be an effective way of investigating the magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, significantly improving the unpolarised neutron...

  4. Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition and two-dimensional melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, V. N.; Tareyeva, E. E.; Fomin, Yu D.; Tsiok, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    The main aspects of the theory of phase transitions in two-dimensional degenerate systems (Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless, or BKT, transitions) are reviewed in detail, including the transition mechanism, the renormalization group as a tool for describing the transition, and how the transition scenario can possibly depend on the core energy of topological defects (in particular, in thin superconducting films). Various melting scenarios in two-dimensional systems are analyzed, and the current status of actual experiments and computer simulations in the field is examined. Whereas in three dimensions melting always occurs as a single first-order transition, in two dimensions, as shown by Halperin, Nelson, and Young, melting via two continuous BKT transitions with an intermediate hexatic phase characterized by quasi-long-range orientational order is possible. But there is also a possibility for a first-order phase transition to occur. Recently, one further melting scenario, different from that occurring in the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless–Halperin–Nelson–Young theory, has been proposed, according to which a solid can melt in two stages: a continuous BKT-type solid–hexatic transition and then a first-order hexatic-phase–isotropic-liquid phase transition. Particular attention is given to the melting scenario as a function of the potential shape and to the random pinning effect on two-dimensional melting. In particular, it is shown that random pinning can alter the melting scenario fundamentally in the case of a first-order transition. Also considered is the melting of systems with potentials having a negative curvature in the repulsion region–potentials that are successfully used in describing the anomalous properties of water in two dimensions. This review is an extended version of the report “Old and new in the physics of phase transitions” presented at the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of

  5. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  6. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  7. Three-dimensional magnetic interactions in quasi-two-dimensional PdAs2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Wu, Y.; Cao, H. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Yan, J.-Q.

    2017-06-01

    Millimeter-sized PdAs2O6 single crystals are grown using the vapor transport technique. The magnetic order at {{T}\\text{N}}=140 K is studied by measuring magnetic properties, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and a metamagnetic transition observed in magnetic fields above 20 kOe suggest that the magnetic moment lies in the ab plane, consistent with the magnetic structure determined by neutron single crystal diffraction. Below 140 K, Pd2+ ions order ferromagnetically in the ab plane but antiferromagnetically along the crystallographic c axis. The ordered moment is refined to be 2.09(2) {μ\\text{B}} /Pd2+ using the fitted magnetic form factor of Pd2+ . A weak λ-type anomaly around T N was observed in specific heat and the magnetic entropy change across T N is 1.72 J mol-1 K.This small entropy change and the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility support the presence of short range correlations in a wide temperature range {{T}\\text{N}} 250 K. The comparison with SrRu2O6 suggests that the magnetic interactions in PdAs2O6 are dominated by Pd-(O-\\text{As}\\text{As} -O)-Pd super-superexchange and three dimensional despite the quasi-two-dimensional arrangement of magnetic ions. The comparison with NiAs2O6 suggests that increasing covalency of isostructural compounds is an effective approach to design and to discover new materials with higher magnetic order temperatures in the localized regime.

  8. Power laws in Ising nanostripes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzewinski, A.; Sznajd, J.; Szota, K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of high accuracy density-matrix renormalization-group calculations for infinite Ising stripes of finite widths 100 ≤ L ≤ 400 are presented. It is shown that in the presence of the small external magnetic field the infinite system critical power laws can be observed for L of order hundreds nm. The single power law describes the field dependence of the magnetization or the longitudinal correlation length only on the infinite system critical isotherm independently of the value of L. The approximate power law which describes how the magnetization varies with a distance from the infinite system critical point for several directions in the plane (temperature, external field) is also studied. (author)

  9. Ising model for neural data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Tyrcha, Joanna; Hertz, John

    2009-01-01

    this and reflects intrinsic properties of the network. Finally, we study the quality of these models by comparing their entropies with that of the data.  We find that they perform well for small subsets of the neurons in the network, but the fit quality starts to deteriorate as the subset size grows, signalling......(dansk abstrakt findes ikke) We study pairwise Ising models for describing the statistics of multi-neuron spike trains, using data from a simulated cortical network. We explore efficient ways of finding the optimal couplings in these models and examine their statistical properties. To do this, we...... of the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer equations and an approximation proposed by Sessak and Monasson -- are remarkably accurate. Using these approximations for larger subsets of neurons, we find that extracting couplings using data from a subset smaller than the full network tends systematically to overestimate...

  10. On the Decay of Correlations in the Random Field Ising Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2018-01-01

    In a celebrated 1990 paper, Aizenman and Wehr proved that the two-dimensional random field Ising model has a unique infinite volume Gibbs state at any temperature. The proof is ergodic-theoretic in nature and does not provide any quantitative information. This article proves the first quantitative version of the Aizenman-Wehr theorem. The proof introduces a new method for proving decay of correlations that may be interesting in its own right. A fairly detailed sketch of the main ideas behind the proof is also included.

  11. Intruder Motion in Two-Dimensional Shaken Granular Beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huan-Ping; Lv Yong-Jun; Zheng Ning; Shi Qing-Fan; Li Liang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of an intruder immersed in a two-dimensional shaken granular bed is experimentally investigated. With two types of background particles, f−Γ phase diagrams depicting the intruder's motion are measured and compared. It is found that even with the same size and density ratio of the intruder to the background particles, the intruder exhibits a distinct behavior at given vibrational conditions: rising behavior in one granular bed; sinking behavior in another granular bed. We slightly tune the size and density ratio to confirm the reliability of the experimental results. In addition, we examine the influences of interstitial air, convection and the initial position on the intruder's motion, speculating that the opposite motion could be traced to the material properties of the background particles

  12. Two-dimensional neutron scintillation detector with optimal gamma discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyo, M.; Reinartz, R.; Schelten, J.; Mueller, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gamma sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation neutron detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2387 PM) has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by ±25% a discrimination unit was developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. By this method narrow discriminator windows can be used to reduce the gamma background drastically without effecting the neutron sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method and its performance tested by neutron measurements will be described. Experimental results concerning spatial resolution and γ-sensitivity are presented

  13. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... and pharmaceutical applications, e.g., drug development. The technique results in an image, where the proteins appear as dark spots on a bright background. However, the analysis of these images is very time consuming and requires a large amount of manual work so there is a great need for fast, objective, and robust...... methods based on image analysis techniques in order to significantly accelerate this key technology. The methods described and developed fall into three categories: image segmentation, point pattern matching, and a unified approach simultaneously segmentation the image and matching the spots. The main...

  14. On wakefields with two-dimensional planar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In order to reach higher acceleration gradients in linear accelerators, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerating RF frequency, which in turn requires smaller accelerating structures. As the structure size becomes smaller, rectangular structures become increasingly interesting because they are easier to construct than cylindrically symmetric ones. One drawback of small structures, however, is that the wakefields generated by the beam in such structures tend to be strong. Recently, it has been suggested that one way of ameliorating this problem is to use rectangular structures that are very flat and to use flat beams. In the limiting case of a very flat planar geometry, the problem resembles a purely two-dimensional (2-D) problem, the wakefields of which have been studied

  15. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Savran, Mona Meral; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...

  16. Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of right ventricular infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy, B.; Nanda, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time, two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction who had clinical features suggestive of right ventricular involvement. All patients showed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In the four-chamber view, seven patients showed akinesis of the entire right ventricular diaphragmatic wall and three showed akinesis of segments of the diaphragmatic wall. Segmental dyskinetic areas involving the right ventricular free wall were identified in four patients. One patient showed a large right ventricular apical aneurysm. Other echocardiographic features included enlargement of the right ventricle in eight cases, paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven cases, tricuspid incompetence in eight cases, dilation of the stomach in four cases and localized pericardial effusion in two cases. Right ventricular infarction was confirmed by radionuclide methods in seven patients, at surgery in one patient and at autopsy in two patients

  17. Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoruk, O

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)

  18. Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method

  19. Suspension and simple optical characterization of two-dimensional membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast, David B.; Knobel, Robert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a method for suspending two-dimensional crystal materials in an electronic circuit using an only photoresists and solvents. Graphene and NbSe2 are suspended tens of nanometers above metal electrodes with clamping diameters of several microns. The optical cavity formed from the membrane/air/metal structures enables a quick method to measure the number of layers and the gap separation using comparisons between the expected colour and optical microscope images. This characterization technique can be used with just an illuminated microscope with a digital camera which makes it adaptable to environments where other means of characterization are not possible, such as inside nitrogen glove boxes used in handling oxygen-sensitive materials.

  20. Two-dimensional void reconstruction by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.; Harms, A.A.; Vlachopoulos, J.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary algebraic reconstruction methods are utilized in investigating the two-dimensional void distribution in a water analog from neutron transmission measurements. It is sought to ultimately apply these techniques to the determination of time-averaged void distribution in two-phase flow systems as well as for potential usage in neutron radiography. Initially, projection data were obtained from a digitized model of a hypothetical two-phase representation and later from neutron beam traverses across a voided methacrylate plastic model. From 10 to 15 views were incorporated, and decoupling of overlapped measurements was utilized to afford greater resolution. In general, the additive Algebraic Reconstruction Technique yielded the best reconstructions, with others showing promise for noisy data. Results indicate the need for some further development of the method in interpreting real data

  1. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Selective growth of two-dimensional phosphorene on catalyst surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Dong, J C; Ding, F

    2018-02-01

    Although the study of black phosphorene (BP) and its isomers has attracted enormous attention, the method of synthesizing high-quality samples in a large area is still pending. Here we explore the potential of using the chemical vapor deposition method to synthesize large-area two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene films on metal surfaces. Our ab initio calculations show that BP can be synthesized by using tin (Sn) as a catalyst, while one of its isomers, blue phosphorene (BLP), is very possible to be synthesized by using most other metals, such as Ag and Au. Besides, our study also suggests that the large binding energy between the 2D phosphorene and the active metal substrate may prohibit the exfoliation of the 2D phosphorene for real applications and, therefore, tin, silver and gold are predicted to be the most suitable catalysts for the synthesis of BP and BLP.

  3. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  4. Cooperation in two-dimensional mixed-games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Marco A; Silva, Jafferson K L da; Wardil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a common framework to study the evolution of cooperation, where it is usually assumed that the same game is played in all interactions. Here, we investigate a model where the game that is played by two individuals is uniformly drawn from a sample of two different games. Using the master equation approach we show that the random mixture of two games is equivalent to play the average game when (i) the strategies are statistically independent of the game distribution and (ii) the transition rates are linear functions of the payoffs. We also use Monte-Carlo simulations in a two-dimensional lattice and mean-field techniques to investigate the scenario when the two above conditions do not hold. We find that even outside of such conditions, several quantities characterizing the mixed-games are still the same as the ones obtained in the average game when the two games are not very different. (paper)

  5. Charge ordering in two-dimensional ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Aurélien; Urbic, Tomaz

    2018-04-01

    The structural properties of model two-dimensional (2D) ionic liquids are examined, with a particular focus on the charge ordering process, with the use of computer simulation and integral equation theories. The influence of the logarithmic form of the Coulomb interaction, versus that of a 3D screened interaction form, is analysed. Charge order is found to hold and to be analogous for both interaction models, despite their very different form. The influence of charge ordering in the low density regime is discussed in relation to well known properties of 2D Coulomb fluids, such as the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and criticality. The present study suggests the existence of a stable thermodynamic labile cluster phase, implying the existence of a liquid-liquid "transition" above the liquid-gas binodal. The liquid-gas and Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions would then take place inside the predicted cluster phase.

  6. Spin precession in inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.-H.; Chang, C.-R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical method to calculate the expectation value of spin in an inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional (2D) system with respect to an arbitrarily spin-polarized electron state, injected via an ideal point contact. The 2D system is confined in a [0 0 1]-grown quantum well, where both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are taken into account. The obtained analytical results allow more concrete description of the spatial behaviors of the spin precession caused individually by the Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. Applying the calculation on the Datta-Das spin-FET, whose original design considers only the Rashba effect inside the channel, we investigate the possible influence due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Concluded solution is the choice of ±[1±10], in particular [1 1 0], as the channel direction

  7. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  8. Thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui; Niu, Qian

    Thermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional Rashba systems is studied using the analytical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation. To highlight the effects of inter-band scattering, we assume point-like potential impurities, and obtain the band-and energy-dependent transport relaxation times. Unconventional transport behaviors arise when the Fermi level lies near or below the band crossing point (BCP), such as the non-Drude electrical conducivity below the BCP, the failure of the standard Mott relation linking the Peltier coefficient to the electrical conductivity near the BCP, the enhancement of diffusion thermopower and figure of merit below the BCP, the zero-field Hall coefficient which is not inversely proportional to and not a monotonic function of the carrier density, the enhanced Nernst coefficient below the BCP, and the enhanced current-induced spin-polarization efficiency.

  9. Advancements of two dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yanchun; Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping

    2018-05-15

    The developments of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applications in protein studies are discussed, especially for the past two decades. The powerful utilities of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies are summarized. The emphasis is on the vibration spectroscopic techniques including IR, NIR, Raman and optical activity (ROA), as well as vibration circular dichroism (VCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, some new developments, such as hetero-spectral 2DCOS, moving-window correlation, and model based correlation, are also reviewed for their utility in the investigation of the secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein. Finally, the new possibility and challenges of 2DCOS in protein research are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sample preparation guidelines for two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Anton

    2014-12-01

    Sample preparation is one of the key technologies for successful two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Due to the great diversity of protein sample types and sources, no single sample preparation method works with all proteins; for any sample the optimum procedure must be determined empirically. This review is meant to provide a broad overview of the most important principles in sample preparation in order to avoid a multitude of possible pitfalls. Sample preparation protocols from the expert in the field were screened and evaluated. On the basis of these protocols and my own comprehensive practical experience important guidelines are given in this review. The presented guidelines will facilitate straightforward protocol development for researchers new to gel-based proteomics. In addition the available choices are rationalized in order to successfully prepare a protein sample for 2DE separations. The strategies described here are not limited to 2DE and can also be applied to other protein separation techniques.

  11. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2016-10-20

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C 1-x N x alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  12. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  13. Two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weili; Dong Lifang; Zhang Xinchun

    2010-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals have been obtained by filaments' self-organization in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge with two water electrodes, which undergo the transition from square to square superlattice and finally to the hexagon. The spatio-temporal behaviors of the plasma photonic crystals in nanosecond scale have been studied by optical method, which show that the plasma photonic crystal is actually an integration of different transient sublattices. The photonic band diagrams of the transverse electric (TE) mode and transverse magnetic mode for each sublattice of these plasma photonic crystals have been investigated theoretically. A wide complete band gap is formed in the hexagonal plasma photonic crystal with the TE mode. The changes of the band edge frequencies and the band gap widths in the evolvement of different structures are studied. A kind of tunable plasma photonic crystal which can be controlled both in space and time is suggested.

  14. Electromagnetic two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Rewoldt, G.

    1984-11-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of the trapped-ion instability for the tokamak case with ..beta.. not equal to 0 has been made, based on previous work in the electrostatic limit. The quasineutrality condition and the component of Ampere's law along the equilibrium magnetic field are solved for the perturbed electrostatic potential and the component of the perturbed vector potential along the equilibrium magnetic field. The general integro-differential equations are converted into a matrix eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem by expanding in cubic B-spline finite elements in the minor radius and in Fourier harmonics in the poloidal angle. A model MHD equilibrium with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces and large aspect ratio is used which is consistent with our assemption that B << 1. The effect on the trapped-ion mode of including these electromagnetic extensions to the calculation is considered, and the temperature (and ..beta..) scaling of the mode frequency is shown and discussed.

  15. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  16. Self-organized defect strings in two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Polster, David; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Using experiments with single-particle resolution and computer simulations we study the collective behavior of multiple vacancies injected into two-dimensional crystals. We find that the defects assemble into linear strings, terminated by dislocations with antiparallel Burgers vectors. We show that these defect strings propagate through the crystal in a succession of rapid one-dimensional gliding and rare rotations. While the rotation rate decreases exponentially with the number of defects in the string, the diffusion constant is constant for large strings. By monitoring the separation of the dislocations at the end points, we measure their effective interactions with high precision beyond their spontaneous formation and annihilation, and we explain the double-well form of the dislocation interaction in terms of continuum elasticity theory.

  17. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  18. Photostrictive Two-Dimensional Materials in the Monochalcogenide Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleoot, Raad; Paillard, Charles; Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Xu, Bin; Bellaiche, L.; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador

    2017-06-01

    Photostriction is predicted for group-IV monochalcogenide monolayers, two-dimensional ferroelectrics with rectangular unit cells (the lattice vector a1 is larger than a2) and an intrinsic dipole moment parallel to a1. Photostriction is found to be related to the structural change induced by a screened electric polarization (i.e., a converse piezoelectric effect) in photoexcited electronic states with either px or py (in-plane) orbital symmetry that leads to a compression of a1 and a comparatively smaller increase of a2 for a reduced unit cell area. The structural change documented here is 10 times larger than that observed in BiFeO3 , making monochalcogenide monolayers an ultimate platform for this effect. This structural modification should be observable under experimentally feasible densities of photexcited carriers on samples that have been grown already, having a potential usefulness for light-induced, remote mechano-optoelectronic applications.

  19. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  20. Rigorous results in space-periodic two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Shirikyan, Armen

    2017-12-01

    We survey the recent advance in the rigorous qualitative theory of the 2d stochastic Navier-Stokes system that is relevant to the description of turbulence in two-dimensional fluids. After discussing briefly the initial-boundary value problem and the associated Markov process, we formulate results on the existence, uniqueness, and mixing of a stationary measure. We next turn to various consequences of these properties: strong law of large numbers, central limit theorem, and random attractors related to a unique stationary measure. We also discuss the Donsker-Varadhan and Freidlin-Wentzell type large deviations, the inviscid limit, and asymptotic results in 3d thin domains. We conclude with some open problems.

  1. Superconductivity in engineered two-dimensional electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Andrey V.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider Kohn-Luttinger mechanism for superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas confined to a narrow well between two grounded metallic planes with two occupied subbands with Fermi momenta kF L>kF S . On the basis of a perturbative analysis, we conclude that non-s -wave superconductivity emerges even when the bands are parabolic. We analyze the conditions that maximize Tc as a function of the distance to the metallic planes, the ratio kF L/kF S , and rs, which measures the strength of Coulomb correlations. The largest attraction is in p -wave and d -wave channels, of which p wave is typically the strongest. For rs=O (1 ) we estimate that the dimensionless coupling λ ≈10-1 , but it likely continues increasing for larger rs (where we lose theoretical control).

  2. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  3. Fluid dynamics of two-dimensional pollination in Ruppia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Pell, Fischer; Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily. We observed two mechanisms by which the pollen released from male inflorescences of Ruppia maritima is adsorbed on a water surface: (i) inflorescences rise above the surface and after they mature their pollen mass falls onto the surface as clumps and disperses on the surface; (ii) inflorescences remain below the surface and produce air bubbles which carry their pollen mass to the surface where it disperses. In both cases dispersed pollen masses combined under the action of capillary forces to form pollen rafts. This increases the probability of pollination since the capillary force on a pollen raft towards a stigma is much larger than on a single pollen grain. The presence of a trace amount of surfactant can disrupt the pollination process so that the pollen is not transported or captured on the water surface. National Science Foundation.

  4. Two-dimensional assemblies from crystallizable homopolymers with charged termini

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Boott, Charlotte E.; Harniman, Robert L.; Nazemi, Ali; Li, Xiaoyu; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Manners, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The creation of shaped, uniform and colloidally stable two-dimensional (2D) assemblies by bottom-up methods represents a challenge of widespread current interest for a variety of applications. Herein, we describe the utilization of surface charge to stabilize self-assembled planar structures that are formed from crystallizable polymer precursors by a seeded growth approach. Addition of crystallizable homopolymers with charged end-groups to seeds generated by the sonication of block copolymer micelles with crystalline cores yields uniform platelet micelles with controlled dimensions. Significantly, the seeded growth approach is characterized by a morphological memory effect whereby the origin of the seed, which can involve a quasi-hexagonal or rectangular 2D platelet precursor, dictates the observed 2D platelet shape. This new strategy is illustrated using two different polymer systems, and opens the door to the construction of 2D hierarchical structures with broad utility.

  5. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan

    1997-10-01

    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  6. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorić, G.; Maluckov, A.; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G. Ya; Malomed, B. A.

    2015-06-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  7. Oscillation of Two-Dimensional Neutral Delay Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of nonlinear two-dimensional dynamic systems of the neutral type (x(t-a(tx(τ1(tΔ=p(tf1(y(t, yΔ(t=-q(tf2(x(τ2(t. We obtain sufficient conditions for all solutions of the system to be oscillatory. Our oscillation results when a(t=0 improve the oscillation results for dynamic systems on time scales that have been established by Fu and Lin (2010, since our results do not restrict to the case where f(u=u. Also, as a special case when =ℝ, our results do not require an to be a positive real sequence. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  8. The first principle calculation of two-dimensional Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    As the size of integrated device becoming increasingly small, from the last century, semiconductor industry is facing the enormous challenge to break the Moore’s law. The development of calculation, communication and automatic control have emergent expectation of new materials at the aspect of semiconductor industrial technology and science. In spite of silicon device, searching the alternative material with outstanding electronic properties has always been a research point. As the discovery of graphene, the research of two-dimensional Dirac material starts to express new vitality. This essay studied the development calculation of 2D material’s mobility and introduce some detailed information of some approximation method of the first principle calculation.

  9. Persistence of Precursor Waves in Two-dimensional Relativistic Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Masanori; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the efficiency of coherent upstream large-amplitude electromagnetic wave emission via synchrotron maser instability in relativistic magnetized shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We considered a purely perpendicular shock in an electron–positron plasma. The coherent wave emission efficiency was measured as a function of the magnetization parameter σ , which is defined as the ratio of the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy flux. The wave amplitude was systematically smaller than that observed in one-dimensional simulations. However, it continued to persist, even at a considerably low magnetization rate, where the Weibel instability dominated the shock transition. The emitted electromagnetic waves were sufficiently strong to disturb the upstream medium, and transverse filamentary density structures of substantial amplitude were produced. Based on this result, we discuss the possibility of the wakefield acceleration model to produce nonthermal electrons in a relativistic magnetized ion–electron shock.

  10. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  11. Flat Chern Band in a Two-Dimensional Organometallic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a “romance of flatland” could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  12. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  13. Custom acetabular component design with interactive two-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Millet, C.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.; Fishman, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a revision of failed acetabular components that must accommodate existing segmental and cavitary bone defects and global loss of bone stock. Two-dimensional CT can be used to determine which patients may benefit from a custom acetabulum and to design such a prosthesis. Ninety-one sequential failed hip arthroplasties were reviewed to find 12 potential custom cup candidates, of whom seven underwent CT assessment and subsequent cup design and placement. Coronal and sagittal CT was used to review existing bone stock and bone defects, to measure and map the contour of the defect into which the new cup must fit and to determine the precise placement, angulation, and depth of screw holes to provide purchase for the new cup. A template was produced for approval, followed by cup manufacture and placement

  14. Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).

  15. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  16. Efficient two-dimensional compressive sensing in MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Nafiseh; Abbasfar, Aliazam; Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has been a way to lower sampling rate leading to data reduction for processing in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems. In this paper, we further reduce the computational complexity of a pulse-Doppler collocated MIMO radar by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing. To do so, we first introduce a new 2D formulation for the compressed received signals and then we propose a new measurement matrix design for our 2D compressive sensing model that is based on minimizing the coherence of sensing matrix using gradient descent algorithm. The simulation results show that our proposed 2D measurement matrix design using gradient decent algorithm (2D-MMDGD) has much lower computational complexity compared to one-dimensional (1D) methods while having better performance in comparison with conventional methods such as Gaussian random measurement matrix.

  17. Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2013-06-01

    Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.

  18. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Hu, S; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Using electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we found that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of ≈10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of ≈60 milli-electron volts between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two-dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Seismic isolation of buildings on two dimensional phononic crystal foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Li, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    In order to realize the seismic isolation of buildings, we establish the two dimensional phononic crystal (PC) foundation which has the cell with the size close to the regular concrete test specimens, and is composed of the concrete base, rubber coating and lead cylindrical core. We study the in-plane band gap (BG) characteristics in it, through the analysis of the frequency dispersion relation and frequency response result. To lower the start BG frequency to the seismic frequency range, we also study the influences of material parameters (the elastic modulus of coating and density of cylindrical core) and geometry parameters (the thickness of coating, radius of cylindrical core and lattice constant) on BG ranges. The study could help to design the PC foundation for seismic isolation of building.

  20. Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photonic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ke; Gao, Shanshan; Wu, Longlong; Wang, Geng; Liu, Xin; Chen, Gang; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have created enormous expectations for low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic devices. In prospect, future advancements may derive from reaping novel electrical and optical properties beyond pristine perovskites through microscopic structure design and engineering. Herein, we report the successful preparation of two-dimensional inverse-opal perovskite (IOP) photonic films, featuring unique nanostructures and vivid colors. Further compositional and structural managements promise optical property and energy level tunability of the IOP films. They are further functionalized in solar cells, resulting in colorful devices with respectable power conversion efficiency. Such concept has not been previously applied for perovskite-based solar cells, which could open a route for more versatile optoelectronic devices.