WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional image reading

  1. Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.

    1977-07-01

    An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures

  2. Two dimensional estimates from ocean SAR images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Le Caillec

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images of the ocean yield a lot of information on the sea-state surface providing that the mapping process between the surface and the image is clearly defined. However it is well known that SAR images exhibit non-gaussian statistics and that the motion of the scatterers on the surface, while the image is being formed, may yield to nonlinearities. The detection and quantification of these nonlinearities are made possible by using Higher Order Spectra (HOS methods and more specifically, bispectrum estimation. The development of the latter method allowed us to find phase relations between different parts of the image and to recognise their level of coupling, i.e. if and how waves of different wavelengths interacted nonlinearly. This information is quite important as the usual models assume strong nonlinearities when the waves are propagating in the azimuthal direction (i.e. along the satellite track and almost no nonlinearities when propagating in the range direction. In this paper, the mapping of the ocean surface to the SAR image is reinterpreted and a specific model (i.e. a Second Order Volterra Model is introduced. The nonlinearities are thus explained as either produced by a nonlinear system or due to waves propagating into selected directions (azimuth or range and interacting during image formation. It is shown that quadratic nonlinearities occur for waves propagating near the range direction while for those travelling in the azimuthal direction the nonlinearities, when present, are mostly due to wave interactions but are almost completely removed by the filtering effect coming from the surface motion itself (azimuth cut-off. An inherent quadratic interaction filtering (azimuth high pass filter is also present. But some other effects, apparently nonlinear, are not detected with the methods described here, meaning that either the usual relation developed for the Ocean-to-SAR transform is somewhat incomplete

  3. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...

  4. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  5. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  6. Two-dimensional 220 MHz Fourier transform EPR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placidi, Giuseppe; Brivati, John A.; Alecci, Marcello; Testa, Luca; Sotgiu, Antonello

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade radiofrequency continuous-wave EPR spectrometers have been developed to detect and localize free radicals in vivo. Only recently, pulsed radiofrequency EPR spectrometers have been described for imaging applications with small samples. In the present work, we show the first two-dimensional image obtained at 220 MHz on a large phantom (40 ml) that simulates typical conditions of in vivo EPR imaging. This pulsed EPR apparatus has the potential to make the time required for three-dimensional imaging compatible with the biological half-life of normally used paramagnetic probes. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional DFA scaling analysis applied to encrypted images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Olmos, C.; Murguía, J. S.; Ramírez-Torres, M. T.; Mejía Carlos, M.; Rosu, H. C.; González-Aguilar, H.

    2015-01-01

    The technique of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) has been widely used to unveil scaling properties of many different signals. In this paper, we determine scaling properties in the encrypted images by means of a two-dimensional DFA approach. To carry out the image encryption, we use an enhanced cryptosystem based on a rule-90 cellular automaton and we compare the results obtained with its unmodified version and the encryption system AES. The numerical results show that the encrypted images present a persistent behavior which is close to that of the 1/f-noise. These results point to the possibility that the DFA scaling exponent can be used to measure the quality of the encrypted image content.

  8. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  9. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  10. Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2013-06-01

    Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.

  11. Two-dimensional filtering of SPECT images using the Metz and Wiener filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    Presently, single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images are usually reconstructed by arbitrarily selecting a one-dimensional ''window'' function for use in reconstruction. A better method would be to automatically choose among a family of two-dimensional image restoration filters in such a way as to produce ''optimum'' image quality. Two-dimensional image processing techniques offer the advantages of a larger statistical sampling of the data for better noise reduction, and two-dimensional image deconvolution to correct for blurring during acquisition. An investigation of two such ''optimal'' digital image restoration techniques (the count-dependent Metz filter and the Wiener filter) was made. They were applied both as two-dimensional ''window'' functions for preprocessing SPECT images, and for filtering reconstructed images. Their performance was compared by measuring image contrast and per cent fractional standard deviation (% FSD) in multiple-acquisitions of the Jaszczak SPECT phantom at two different count levels. A statistically significant increase in image contrast and decrease in % FSD was observed with these techniques when compared to the results of reconstruction with a ramp filter. The adaptability of the techniques was manifested in a lesser % reduction in % FSD at the high count level coupled with a greater enhancement in image contrast. Using an array processor, processing time was 0.2 sec per image for the Metz filter and 3 sec for the Wiener filter. It is concluded that two-dimensional digital image restoration with these techniques can produce a significant increase in SPECT image quality

  12. Ultrasonic two-dimensional imaging of the heart with multiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandt, J.R.T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the author was to present the implementation into cardiology of the ultrasonic linear array scanner. The first clinical results, the progress in examination technique and potential applications are described. One method which complements the ultrasonic imaging capabilities is the use of the echo contrast. (Auth.)

  13. Two-dimensional pixel image lag simulation and optimization in a 4-T CMOS image sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Junting; Li Binqiao; Yu Pingping; Xu Jiangtao [School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Mou Cun, E-mail: xujiangtao@tju.edu.c [Logistics Management Office, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2010-09-15

    Pixel image lag in a 4-T CMOS image sensor is analyzed and simulated in a two-dimensional model. Strategies of reducing image lag are discussed from transfer gate channel threshold voltage doping adjustment, PPD N-type doping dose/implant tilt adjustment and transfer gate operation voltage adjustment for signal electron transfer. With the computer analysis tool ISE-TCAD, simulation results show that minimum image lag can be obtained at a pinned photodiode n-type doping dose of 7.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}, an implant tilt of -2{sup 0}, a transfer gate channel doping dose of 3.0 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and an operation voltage of 3.4 V. The conclusions of this theoretical analysis can be a guideline for pixel design to improve the performance of 4-T CMOS image sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  14. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  15. New Approach for Segmentation and Quantification of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjo, Antonio dos; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Detection of protein spots in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images (2-DE) is a very complex task and current approaches addressing this problem still suffer from significant shortcomings. When quantifying a spot, most of the current software applications include a lot of backgro...

  16. A Robust Identification of the Protein Standard Bands in Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serackis Artūras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation presented in this paper was to develop a software-based assistant for the protein analysis workflow. The prior characterization of the unknown protein in two-dimensional electrophoresis gel images is performed according to the molecular weight and isoelectric point of each protein spot estimated from the gel image before further sequence analysis by mass spectrometry. The paper presents a method for automatic and robust identification of the protein standard band in a two-dimensional gel image. In addition, the method introduces the identification of the positions of the markers, prepared by using pre-selected proteins with known molecular mass. The robustness of the method was achieved by using special validation rules in the proposed original algorithms. In addition, a self-organizing map-based decision support algorithm is proposed, which takes Gabor coefficients as image features and searches for the differences in preselected vertical image bars. The experimental investigation proved the good performance of the new algorithms included into the proposed method. The detection of the protein standard markers works without modification of algorithm parameters on two-dimensional gel images obtained by using different staining and destaining procedures, which results in different average levels of intensity in the images.

  17. Discriminating image textures with the multiscale two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to further explore the usefulness of the two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane as a texture image descriptor. A multiscale generalization is introduced in order to distinguish between different roughness features of images at small and large spatial scales. Numerically generated two-dimensional structures are initially considered for illustrating basic concepts in a controlled framework. Then, more realistic situations are studied. Obtained results allow us to confirm that intrinsic spatial correlations of images are successfully unveiled by implementing this multiscale symbolic information-theory approach. Consequently, we conclude that the proposed representation space is a versatile and practical tool for identifying, characterizing and discriminating image textures.

  18. Image Encryption Scheme Based on Balanced Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. Due to the universality of CA model, it has been widely applied in traditional cryptography and image processing. The aim of this paper is to present a new image encryption scheme based on balanced two-dimensional cellular automata. In this scheme, a random image with the same size of the plain image to be encrypted is first generated by a pseudo-random number generator with a seed. Then, the random image is evoluted alternately with two balanced two-dimensional CA rules. At last, the cipher image is obtained by operating bitwise XOR on the final evolution image and the plain image. This proposed scheme possesses some advantages such as very large key space, high randomness, complex cryptographic structure, and pretty fast encryption/decryption speed. Simulation results obtained from some classical images at the USC-SIPI database demonstrate the strong performance of the proposed image encryption scheme.

  19. X-ray imaging device for one-dimensional and two-dimensional radioscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The X-ray imaging device for the selectable one-dimensional or two-dimensional pictures of objects illuminated by X-rays, comprising an X-ray source, an X-ray screen, and an opto-electrical picture development device placed behind the screen, is characterized by an anamorphotic optical system, which is positioned with a one-dimensional illumination between the X-ray screen and the opto-electrical device and that a two-dimensional illumination will be developed, and that in view of the lens system which forms part of the opto-electrical device, there is placed an X-ray screen in a specified beam direction so that a magnified image may be formed by equalisation of the distance between the X-ray screen and the lens system. (G.C.)

  20. A high-speed computerized tomography image reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.

    1983-01-01

    The nescessity for developing real-time computerized tomography (CT) aiming at the dynamic observation of organs such as hearts has lately been advocated. It is necessary for its realization to reconstruct the images which are markedly faster than present CTs. Although various reconstructing methods have been proposed so far, the method practically employed at present is the filtered backprojection (FBP) method only, which can give high quality image reconstruction, but takes much computing time. In the past, the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method was regarded as unsuitable to practical use because the quality of images obtained was not good, in spite of the promising method for high speed reconstruction because of its less computing time. However, since it was revealed that the image quality by TFT method depended greatly on interpolation accuracy in two-dimensional Fourier space, the authors have developed a high-speed calculation algorithm that can obtain high quality images by pursuing the relationship between the image quality and the interpolation method. In this case, radial data sampling points in Fourier space are increased to β-th power of 2 times, and the linear or spline interpolation is used. Comparison of this method with the present FBP method resulted in the conclusion that the image quality is almost the same in practical image matrix, the computational time by TFT method becomes about 1/10 of FBP method, and the memory capacity also reduces by about 20 %. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. Two-dimensional sonographic cine imaging improves confidence in the initial evaluation of the fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Patricia Sims; Chung, Romy; Lacoursiere, Yvette; Palmieri, Carolina Rossi; Hull, Andrew; Engelkemier, Dawn; Rochelle, Michele; Trivedi, Neha; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2013-06-01

    Initial screening sonography of the fetal heart with static images is often inadequate, resulting in repeated imaging or failure to detect abnormalities. We hypothesized that the addition of short cine clips would reduce the need for repeated imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) static sonograms and short 2D cine clips of the 4-chamber view and left and right ventricular outflow tracts were obtained from 342 patients with gestational ages of greater than 16 weeks. A diagnostic radiologist and a perinatologist retrospectively reviewed the static and cine images independently and graded them as normal, abnormal, or suboptimal. A statistically significant increase in the number of structures called normal was seen when 2D cine clips were added to static imaging for both observers (P cine images versus 61.9% with static images alone, whereas the perinatologist recorded 68.1% as normal versus 58.8%, respectively. The radiologist called 77.8% of structures normal with cine images only versus 61.9% with static images only (P cine images alone (38.9%) versus static images alone (58.8%). The use of cine loops alone resulted in no significant increase in the ability to clear the heart as normal. The maternal body mass index was inversely associated with the ability to clear structures when 2D cine images were added to static images (P cine clips to standard 2D static imaging of the fetal heart significantly improves the number of structures cleared as normal. Two-dimensional cine clips are easily obtained, add little time to a study, and require minimal archival space.

  2. Depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Hyeung; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Joohwan; Hong, Jisoo; Lee, Sin-Doo; Lee, Byoungho

    2004-12-01

    A depth-enhanced three-dimensional-two-dimensional convertible display that uses a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal based on the principle of integral imaging is proposed. In the proposed method, a lens array is located behind a transmission-type display panel to form an array of point-light sources, and a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal is electrically controlled to pass or to scatter light coming from these point-light sources. Therefore, three-dimensional-two-dimensional conversion is accomplished electrically without any mechanical movement. Moreover, the nonimaging structure of the proposed method increases the expressible depth range considerably. We explain the method of operation and present experimental results.

  3. New method for thickness determination and microscopic imaging of graphene-like two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xudong; Chen Yonghai; Liu Yu; Zhu Laipan; Li Yuan; Wu Qing; Huang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We employed the microscopic reflectance difference spectroscopy (micro-RDS) to determine the layer-number and microscopically image the surface topography of graphene and MoS 2 samples. The contrast image shows the efficiency and reliability of this new clipping technique. As a low-cost, quantifiable, no-contact and non-destructive method, it is not concerned with the characteristic signal of certain materials and can be applied to arbitrary substrates. Therefore it is a perfect candidate for characterizing the thickness of graphene-like two-dimensional materials. (paper)

  4. A Review of Surface Deformation and Strain Measurement Using Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Sze-Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.

  5. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  6. Negative refraction imaging of solid acoustic waves by two-dimensional three-component phononic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jing; Liu Zhengyou; Qiu Chunyin

    2008-01-01

    By using of the multiple scattering methods, we study the negative refraction imaging effect of solid acoustic waves by two-dimensional three-component phononic crystals composed of coated solid inclusions placed in solid matrix. We show that localized resonance mechanism brings on a group of flat single-mode bands in low-frequency region, which provides two equivalent frequency surfaces (EFS) close to circular. The two constant frequency surfaces correspond to two Bloch modes, a right-handed and a left-handed, whose leading mode are respectively transverse (T) and longitudinal (L) modes. The negative refraction behaviors of the two kinds of modes have been demonstrated by simulation of a Gaussian beam through a finite system. High-quality far-field imaging by a planar lens for transverse or longitudinal waves has been realized separately. This three-component phononic crystal may thus serve as a mode selector in negative refraction imaging of solid acoustic waves

  7. Two-dimensional restoration of single photon emission computed tomography images using the Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulfelfel, D.; Rangayyan, R.M.; Kuduvalli, G.R.; Hahn, L.J.; Kloiber, R.

    1994-01-01

    The discrete filtered backprojection (DFBP) algorithm used for the reconstruction of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images affects image quality because of the operations of filtering and discretization. The discretization of the filtered backprojection process can cause the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the SPECT imaging system to be anisotropic and nonstationary, especially near the edges of the camera's field of view. The use of shift-invariant restoration techniques fails to restore large images because these techniques do not account for such variations in the MTF. This study presents the application of a two-dimensional (2-D) shift-variant Kalman filter for post-reconstruction restoration of SPECT slices. This filter was applied to SPECT images of a hollow cylinder phantom; a resolution phantom; and a large, truncated cone phantom containing two types of cold spots, a sphere, and a triangular prism. The images were acquired on an ADAC GENESYS camera. A comparison was performed between results obtained by the Kalman filter and those obtained by shift-invariant filters. Quantitative analysis of the restored images performed through measurement of root mean squared errors shows a considerable reduction in error of Kalman-filtered images over images restored using shift-invariant methods

  8. Imaging off-plane shear waves with a two-dimensional phononic crystal lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiang Chenyu; Luan Pigang

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional flat phononic crystal (PC) lens for focusing off-plane shear waves is proposed. The lens consists of a triangular lattice hole-array, embedded in a solid matrix. The self-collimation effect is employed to guide the shear waves propagating through the lens along specific directions. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann maps (DtN) method is employed to calculate the band structure of the PC, which can avoid the problems of bad convergence and fake bands automatically in the void-solid PC structure. When the lens is illuminated by the off-plane shear waves emanating from a point source, a subwavelength image appears in the far-field zone. The imaging characteristics are investigated by calculating the displacement fields explicitly using the multiple scattering method, and the results are in good agreement with the ray-trace predictions. Our results may provide insights for designing new phononic devices.

  9. Image quality assessment using two-dimensional complex mel-cepstrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Serdar; Cetin, A. Enis

    2016-11-01

    Assessment of visual quality plays a crucial role in modeling, implementation, and optimization of image- and video-processing applications. The image quality assessment (IQA) techniques basically extract features from the images to generate objective scores. Feature-based IQA methods generally consist of two complementary phases: (1) feature extraction and (2) feature pooling. For feature extraction in the IQA framework, various algorithms have been used and recently, the two-dimensional (2-D) mel-cepstrum (2-DMC) feature extraction scheme has provided promising results in a feature-based IQA framework. However, the 2-DMC feature extraction scheme completely loses image-phase information that may contain high-frequency characteristics and important structural components of the image. In this work, "2-D complex mel-cepstrum" is proposed for feature extraction in an IQA framework. The method tries to integrate Fourier transform phase information into the 2-DMC, which was shown to be an efficient feature extraction scheme for assessment of image quality. Support vector regression is used for feature pooling that provides mapping between the proposed features and the subjective scores. Experimental results show that the proposed technique obtains promising results for the IQA problem by making use of the image-phase information.

  10. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  11. Quantitative estimation of brain atrophy and function with PET and MRI two-dimensional projection images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Reiko; Uemura, Koji; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Toyama, Hinako; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of atrophy and the decline in brain function objectively and quantitatively. Two-dimensional (2D) projection images of three-dimensional (3D) transaxial images of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. A correlation image was generated between 2D projection images of MRI and cerebral blood flow (CBF) or 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images and the sulcus was extracted from the correlation image clustered by K-means method. Furthermore, the extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted sulcus on 2D-projection MRI and the cerebral cortical function such as blood flow or glucose metabolic rate was assessed in the cortex excluding sulcus on 2D-projection PET image, and then the relationship between the cerebral atrophy and function was evaluated. This method was applied to the two groups, the young and the aged normal subjects, and the relationship between the age and the rate of atrophy or the cerebral blood flow was investigated. This method was also applied to FDG-PET and MRI studies in the normal controls and in patients with corticobasal degeneration. The mean rate of atrophy in the aged group was found to be higher than that in the young. The mean value and the variance of the cerebral blood flow for the young are greater than those of the aged. The sulci were similarly extracted using either CBF or FDG PET images. The purposed method using 2-D projection images of MRI and PET is clinically useful for quantitative assessment of atrophic change and functional disorder of cerebral cortex. (author)

  12. Measurement of the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function of digital imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Schueler, Beth A.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function (2D MTF) of digital imaging systems. A custom x-ray 'point source' phantom was created by machining 256 holes with diameter 0.107 mm through a 0.5-mm-thick copper plate. The phantom was imaged several times, resulting in many images of individual x-ray 'spots'. The center of each spot (with respect to the pixel matrix) was determined to subpixel accuracy by fitting each spot to a 2D Gaussian function. The subpixel spot center locations were used to create a 5x oversampled system point spread function (PSF), which characterizes the optical and electrical properties of the system and is independent of the pixel sampling of the original image. The modulus of the Fourier transform of the PSF was calculated. Next, the Fourier function was normalized to the zero frequency value. Finally, the Fourier transform function was divided by the first-order Bessel function that defined the frequency content of the holes, resulting in the presampled 2D MTF. The presampled 2D MTF of a 0.1 mm pixel pitch computed radiography system and 0.2 mm pixel pitch flat panel digital imaging system that utilized a cesium iodide scintillator was measured. Comparison of the axial components of the 2D MTF to one-dimensional MTF measurements acquired using an edge device method demonstrated that the two methods produced consistent results

  13. Two-dimensional polarimeter with a charge-coupled-device image sensor and a piezoelastic modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povel, H P; Keller, C U; Yadigaroglu, I A

    1994-07-01

    We present the first measurements and scientific observations of the solar photosphere obtained with a new two-dimensional polarimeter based on piezoelastic modulators and synchronous demodulation in a CCD imager. This instrument, which is developed for precision solar-vector polarimetry, contains a specially masked CCD that has every second row covered with an opaque mask. During exposure the charges are shifted back and forth between covered and light-sensitive rows synchronized with the modulation. In this way Stokes I and one of the other Stokes parameters can be recorded. Since the charge shifting is performed at frequencies well above the seeing frequencies and both polarization states are measured with the same pixel, highly sensitive and accurate polarimetry is achieved. We have tested the instrument in laboratory conditions as well as at three solar telescopes.

  14. Beam alignment based on two-dimensional power spectral density of a near-field image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenzhen; Yuan, Qiang; Zeng, Fa; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Junpu; Li, Kehong; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xue, Qiao; Yang, Ying; Dai, Wanjun; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Yuanchen; Zheng, Kuixing; Su, Jingqin; Hu, Dongxia; Zhu, Qihua

    2017-10-30

    Beam alignment is crucial to high-power laser facilities and is used to adjust the laser beams quickly and accurately to meet stringent requirements of pointing and centering. In this paper, a novel alignment method is presented, which employs data processing of the two-dimensional power spectral density (2D-PSD) for a near-field image and resolves the beam pointing error relative to the spatial filter pinhole directly. Combining this with a near-field fiducial mark, the operation of beam alignment is achieved. It is experimentally demonstrated that this scheme realizes a far-field alignment precision of approximately 3% of the pinhole size. This scheme adopts only one near-field camera to construct the alignment system, which provides a simple, efficient, and low-cost way to align lasers.

  15. Absorption imaging of a quasi-two-dimensional gas: a multiple scattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, L; Corman, L; Yefsah, T; Desbuquois, R; Dalibard, J

    2012-01-01

    Absorption imaging with quasi-resonant laser light is a commonly used technique for probing ultra-cold atomic gases in various geometries. In this paper, we investigate some non-trivial aspects of this method when applying the method to in situ diagnosis of a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) gas. Using Monte Carlo simulations we study the modification of the absorption cross-section of a photon when it undergoes multiple scattering in the gas. We determine the variations of the optical density with various parameters, such as the detuning of the light from the atomic resonance and the thickness of the gas. We compare our results to the known 3D result (the Beer-Lambert law) and outline the specific features of the 2D case. (paper)

  16. Real-Time Two-Dimensional Magnetic Particle Imaging for Electromagnetic Navigation in Targeted Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tuan-Anh; Zhang, Xingming; Hoshiar, Ali Kafash; Yoon, Jungwon

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are effective drug carriers. By using electromagnetic actuated systems, MNPs can be controlled noninvasively in a vascular network for targeted drug delivery (TDD). Although drugs can reach their target location through capturing schemes of MNPs by permanent magnets, drugs delivered to non-target regions can affect healthy tissues and cause undesirable side effects. Real-time monitoring of MNPs can improve the targeting efficiency of TDD systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) real-time monitoring scheme has been developed for an MNP guidance system. Resovist particles 45 to 65 nm in diameter (5 nm core) can be monitored in real-time (update rate = 2 Hz) in 2D. The proposed 2D monitoring system allows dynamic tracking of MNPs during TDD and renders magnetic particle imaging-based navigation more feasible. PMID:28880220

  17. Left ventricular thrombi: in vivo detection by indium-111 platelet imaging and two dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.; Hamilton, G.W.; Hammermeister, K.E.; Harker, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Indium-111 platelet imaging, which can identify sites of active intravascular platelet deposition, and two dimensional echocardiography, which can identify intracardiac masses, can both be used to detect left ventricular thrombi noninvasively. We compared these techniques in 44 men at risk for thrombi from remote transmural myocardial infarction (31 patients) or cardiomyopathy (13 patients). All 44 patients underwent platelet imaging; 35 underwent echocardiography. On platelet imaging nine patients had thrombi and onehad a possible thrombus. Of these 10 studies, none were positive at 2 hours, 5 were positive at 24 hours and all were positive 48 or 72 hours after platelet labeling. Nine of these patients underwent echocardiography, and all had an intraventricular mass. The findings on platelet scanning were negative in six patients who had positive (four patients) or equivocally positive (two patients) findings on echocardiography. All patients with thrombi detected by either noninvasive method had transmural anterior myocardial infarction with ventricular aneurysm. Of the seven patients who underwent cardiac surgery or autopsy, three had thrombi. Platelet imaging failed to identify one thrombus in a patient in whom imaging was performed only at 24 hours after labeling. There were no false positive platelet images in this group. Five of these seven patients (two with throbi, three without) underwent echocardiography; in all cases the echocardiographic findings agreed with the pathologic findings. Both platelet imaging and echocardiography detect ventricular thrombi. Platelet imaging may detect only the most hematologically active thrombi. Both techniques may help define patients at risk of embolization and may be useful for in vivo assessment of antithrombotic drugs

  18. Study on two-dimensional distribution of X-ray image based on improved Elman algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Ming-Yuan; Tian, Feng-Shuo; Liu, Yu-Fang; Li, Lei; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The principle of the X-ray detector which can simultaneously perform the measurement of the exposure rate and 2D (two-dimensional) distribution is described. A commercially available CMOS image sensor has been adopted as the key part to receive X-ray without any scintillators. The correlation between the pixel value (PV) and the absorbed exposure rate of X-ray is studied using the improved Elman neural network. Comparing the optimal adjustment process of the BP (Back Propagation) neural network and the improved Elman neural network, the neural network parameters are selected based on the fitting curve and the error curve. The experiments using the practical production data show that the proposed method achieves high accurate predictions to 10 −15 , which is consistent with the anticipated value. It is proven that it is possible to detect the exposure rate using the X-ray detector with the improved Elman algorithm for its advantages of fast converges and smooth error curve. - Highlights: • A method to measure the X-ray radiation with low cost and miniaturization. • A general CMOS image sensor is used to detect X-ray. • The system can measure exposure rate and 2D distribution simultaneously. • The Elman algorithm is adopted to improve the precision of the radiation detector

  19. Algorithm for automatic image dodging of unmanned aerial vehicle images using two-dimensional radiometric spatial attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhuo; Sun, Kaimin; Li, Deren; Bai, Ting

    2016-07-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing technology has come into wide use in recent years. The poor stability of the UAV platform, however, produces more inconsistencies in hue and illumination among UAV images than other more stable platforms. Image dodging is a process used to reduce these inconsistencies caused by different imaging conditions. We propose an algorithm for automatic image dodging of UAV images using two-dimensional radiometric spatial attributes. We use object-level image smoothing to smooth foreground objects in images and acquire an overall reference background image by relative radiometric correction. We apply the Contourlet transform to separate high- and low-frequency sections for every single image, and replace the low-frequency section with the low-frequency section extracted from the corresponding region in the overall reference background image. We apply the inverse Contourlet transform to reconstruct the final dodged images. In this process, a single image must be split into reasonable block sizes with overlaps due to large pixel size. Experimental mosaic results show that our proposed method reduces the uneven distribution of hue and illumination. Moreover, it effectively eliminates dark-bright interstrip effects caused by shadows and vignetting in UAV images while maximally protecting image texture information.

  20. NAMMA TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEREO PROBE AND CLOUD PARTICLE IMAGER V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Cloud Microphysics dataset consists of data from two probes used to measure the size, shape, and concentration of cloud particles; the two-dimensional stereo...

  1. A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does

  2. Application of two-dimensional crystallography and image processing to atomic resolution Z-contrast images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David G; Ramasse, Quentin M; Browning, Nigel D

    2009-06-01

    Zone axis images recorded using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM or Z-contrast imaging) reveal the atomic structure with a resolution that is defined by the probe size of the microscope. In most cases, the full images contain many sub-images of the crystal unit cell and/or interface structure. Thanks to the repetitive nature of these images, it is possible to apply standard image processing techniques that have been developed for the electron crystallography of biological macromolecules and have been used widely in other fields of electron microscopy for both organic and inorganic materials. These methods can be used to enhance the signal-to-noise present in the original images, to remove distortions in the images that arise from either the instrumentation or the specimen itself and to quantify properties of the material in ways that are difficult without such data processing. In this paper, we describe briefly the theory behind these image processing techniques and demonstrate them for aberration-corrected, high-resolution HAADF-STEM images of Si(46) clathrates developed for hydrogen storage.

  3. Development of a two-dimensional imaging system for clinical applications of intravenous coronary angiography using intense synchrotron radiation produced by a multipole wiggler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyodo, K.; Ando, M.; Oku, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y.; Tada, J.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional clinical intravenous coronary angiography system, comprising a large-size View area produced by asymmetrical reflection from a silicon crystal using intense synchrotron radiation from a multipole wiggler and a two-dimensional detector with an image intensifier, has been completed. An advantage of the imaging system is that two-dimensional dynamic imaging of the cardiovascular system can be achieved due to its two-dimensional radiation field. This world-first two-dimensional system has been successfully adapted to clinical applications. Details of the imaging system are described in this paper

  4. Development of a two-dimensional imaging system for clinical applications of intravenous coronary angiography using intense synchrotron radiation produced by a multipole wiggler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyodo, K.; Ando, M. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Inst. of Material Structure Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Oku, Y.; Yamamoto, S. [Graduated School for Advanced Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan); Takeda, T.; Itai, Y.; Ohtsuka, S.; Sugishita, Y. [The Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Tsukuba (Japan); Tada, J. [The Univ. of Tsukuba, Inst. of Basic Medical Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    A two-dimensional clinical intravenous coronary angiography system, comprising a large-size View area produced by asymmetrical reflection from a silicon crystal using intense synchrotron radiation from a multipole wiggler and a two-dimensional detector with an image intensifier, has been completed. An advantage of the imaging system is that two-dimensional dynamic imaging of the cardiovascular system can be achieved due to its two-dimensional radiation field. This world-first two-dimensional system has been successfully adapted to clinical applications. Details of the imaging system are described in this paper. 18 refs.

  5. Two-dimensional imaging of Debye-Scherrer ring for tri-axial stress analysis of industrial materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T; Maruyama, Y; Ohba, H; Ejiri, S

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an application of the two-dimensional imaging technology to the X ray tri-axial stress analysis was studied. An image plate (IP) was used to obtain a Debye-Scherre ring and the image data was analized for determining stress. A new principle for stress analysis which is suitable to two-dimensional imaging data was used. For the verification of this two-dimensional imaging type X-ray stress measurement method, an experiment was conducted using a ferritic steel sample which was processed with a surface grinder. Tri-axial stress analysis was conducted to evaluate the sample. The conventional method for X-ray tri-axial stress analysis proposed by Dölle and Hauk was used to evaluate residual stress in order to compare with the present method. As a result, it was confirmed that a sufficiently highly precise and high-speed stress measurement was enabled with the two-dimensional imaging technology compared with the conventional method

  6. High-accuracy optical extensometer based on coordinate transform in two-dimensional digital image correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zeqian; Xu, Xiaohai; Yan, Tianhao; Cai, Yulong; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan

    2018-01-01

    In the measurement of plate specimens, traditional two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is challenged by two aspects: (1) the slant optical axis (misalignment of the optical camera axis and the object surface) and (2) out-of-plane motions (including translations and rotations) of the specimens. There are measurement errors in the results measured by 2D DIC, especially when the out-of-plane motions are big enough. To solve this problem, a novel compensation method has been proposed to correct the unsatisfactory results. The proposed compensation method consists of three main parts: 1) a pre-calibration step is used to determine the intrinsic parameters and lens distortions; 2) a compensation panel (a rigid panel with several markers located at known positions) is mounted to the specimen to track the specimen's motion so that the relative coordinate transformation between the compensation panel and the 2D DIC setup can be calculated using the coordinate transform algorithm; 3) three-dimensional world coordinates of measuring points on the specimen can be reconstructed via the coordinate transform algorithm and used to calculate deformations. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed compensation method. Results come out that when the extensometer length is 400 pixels, the strain accuracy reaches 10 με no matter out-of-plane translations (less than 1/200 of the object distance) nor out-of-plane rotations (rotation angle less than 5°) occur. The proposed compensation method leads to good results even when the out-of-plane translation reaches several percents of the object distance or the out-of-plane rotation angle reaches tens of degrees. The proposed compensation method has been applied in tensile experiments to obtain high-accuracy results as well.

  7. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia by two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xin-lin; Yang, Xiao-hong; Ma, Hui-jing

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the contribution of two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound (3D-SUIS) in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia. Between September 2010 and April 2014, a prospective study was conducted in a single referral center using 3D-SUIS performed after 2D-US in 10 cases of sirenomelia. Diagnostic accuracy and detailed findings were compared with postnatal three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT), radiological findings and autopsy. Pregnancy was terminated in all 10 sirenomelia cases, including 9 singletons and 1 conjoined twin pregnancy, for a total of 5 males and 5 females. These cases of sirenomelia were determined by autopsy and/or chromosomal examination. Initial 2D-US showed that there were 10 cases of oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, single umbilical artery, fusion of the lower limbs and spinal abnormalities; 8 cases of dipus or monopus; 2 cases of apus; and 8 cases of cardiac abnormalities. Subsequent 3D-SUIS showed that there were 9 cases of scoliosis, 10 cases of sacrococcygeal vertebra dysplasia, 3 cases of hemivertebra, 1 case of vertebral fusion, 3 cases of spina bifida, and 5 cases of rib abnormalities. 3D-SUIS identified significantly more skeletal abnormalities than did 2D-US, and its accuracy was 79.5% (70/88) compared with 3D-HCT and radiography. 3D-SUIS seems to be a useful complementary method to 2D-US and may improve the accuracy of identifying prenatal skeletal abnormalities related to sirenomelia.

  8. Detection of Point Sources on Two-Dimensional Images Based on Peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Barreiro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the detection of point sources in two-dimensional astronomical images. The detection scheme we propose is based on peak statistics. We discuss the example of the detection of far galaxies in cosmic microwave background experiments throughout the paper, although the method we present is totally general and can be used in many other fields of data analysis. We consider sources with a Gaussian profile—that is, a fair approximation of the profile of a point source convolved with the detector beam in microwave experiments—on a background modeled by a homogeneous and isotropic Gaussian random field characterized by a scale-free power spectrum. Point sources are enhanced with respect to the background by means of linear filters. After filtering, we identify local maxima and apply our detection scheme, a Neyman-Pearson detector that defines our region of acceptance based on the a priori pdf of the sources and the ratio of number densities. We study the different performances of some linear filters that have been used in this context in the literature: the Mexican hat wavelet, the matched filter, and the scale-adaptive filter. We consider as well an extension to two dimensions of the biparametric scale-adaptive filter (BSAF. The BSAF depends on two parameters which are determined by maximizing the number density of real detections while fixing the number density of spurious detections. For our detection criterion the BSAF outperforms the other filters in the interesting case of white noise.

  9. Effects of temperature and irradiance on a benthic microalgal community: A combined two-dimensional oxygen and fluorescence imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

    2014-01-01

    The effects of temperature and light on both oxygen (O2) production and gross photosynthesis were resolved in a benthic microalgae community by combining two-dimensional (2D) imaging of O2 and variable chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Images revealed a photosynthetically active community...... microbial community, at different temperatures. The present imaging approach demonstrates a great potential to study consequences of environmental effects on photosynthetic activity and O2 turnover in complex phototrophic benthic communities....

  10. Coding/decoding two-dimensional images with orbital angular momentum of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Jiaqi; Li, Xuefeng; Smithwick, Quinn; Chu, Daping

    2016-04-01

    We investigate encoding and decoding of two-dimensional information using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light. Spiral phase plates and phase-only spatial light modulators are used in encoding and decoding of OAM states, respectively. We show that off-axis points and spatial variables encoded with a given OAM state can be recovered through decoding with the corresponding complimentary OAM state.

  11. A modified CoSaMP algorithm for electromagnetic imaging of two dimensional domains

    KAUST Repository

    Sandhu, Ali Imran

    2017-05-13

    The compressive sampling matching pursuit (CoSaMP) algorithm is used for solving the electromagnetic inverse scattering problem on two-dimensional sparse domains. Since the scattering matrix, which is computed by sampling the Green function, does not satisfy the restricted isometry property, a damping parameter is added to the diagonal entries of the matrix to make the CoSaMP work. The damping factor can be selected based on the level of noise in the measurements. Numerical experiments, which demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the proposed algorithm, are presented.

  12. Dynamic three-dimensional display of common congenital cardiac defects from reconstruction of two-dimensional echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K S; Lin, C C; Liu, W S; Chen, F L

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography had long been a standard diagnostic modality for congenital heart disease. Further attempts of three-dimensional reconstruction using two-dimensional echocardiographic images to visualize stereotypic structure of cardiac lesions have been successful only recently. So far only very few studies have been done to display three-dimensional anatomy of the heart through two-dimensional image acquisition because such complex procedures were involved. This study introduced a recently developed image acquisition and processing system for dynamic three-dimensional visualization of various congenital cardiac lesions. From December 1994 to April 1995, 35 cases were selected in the Echo Laboratory here from about 3000 Echo examinations completed. Each image was acquired on-line with specially designed high resolution image grazmber with EKG and respiratory gating technique. Off-line image processing using a window-architectured interactive software package includes construction of 2-D ehcocardiographic pixel to 3-D "voxel" with conversion of orthogonal to rotatory axial system, interpolation, extraction of region of interest, segmentation, shading and, finally, 3D rendering. Three-dimensional anatomy of various congenital cardiac defects was shown, including four cases with ventricular septal defects, two cases with atrial septal defects, and two cases with aortic stenosis. Dynamic reconstruction of a "beating heart" is recorded as vedio tape with video interface. The potential application of 3D display of the reconstruction from 2D echocardiographic images for the diagnosis of various congenital heart defects has been shown. The 3D display was able to improve the diagnostic ability of echocardiography, and clear-cut display of the various congenital cardiac defects and vavular stenosis could be demonstrated. Reinforcement of current techniques will expand future application of 3D display of conventional 2D images.

  13. Two-Dimensional Spatial Imaging of Charge Transport in Germanium Crystals at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moffatt, Robert [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In this dissertation, I describe a novel apparatus for studying the transport of charge in semiconductors at cryogenic temperatures. The motivation to conduct this experiment originated from an asymmetry observed between the behavior of electrons and holes in the germanium detector crystals used by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS). This asymmetry is a consequence of the anisotropic propagation of electrons in germanium at cryogenic temperatures. To better model our detectors, we incorporated this effect into our Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. The purpose of the experiment described in this dissertation is to test those models in detail. Our measurements have allowed us to discover a shortcoming in our most recent Monte Carlo simulations of electrons in germanium. This discovery would not have been possible without the measurement of the full, two-dimensional charge distribution, which our experimental apparatus has allowed for the first time at cryogenic temperatures.

  14. A proposal of Fourier-Bessel expansion with optimized ensembles of bases to analyse two dimensional image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.

    2017-09-01

    It is a critical issue to find the best set of fitting function bases in mode structural analysis of two dimensional images like plasma emission profiles. The paper proposes a method to optimize a set of the bases in the case of Fourier-Bessel function series, using their orthonormal property, for more efficient and precise analysis. The method is applied on a tomography image of plasma emission obtained with the Maximum-likelihood expectation maximization method in a linear cylindrical device. The result demonstrates the excellency of the method that realizes the smaller residual error and minimum Akaike information criterion using smaller number of fitting function bases.

  15. Evaluation of cost functions for gray value matching of two-dimensional images in radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Niels; Ploeger, Lennert S.; van Herk, Marcel

    2003-01-01

    In external beam radiotherapy, portal imaging is applied for verification of the patient setup. Current automatic methods for portal image registration, which are often based on segmentation of anatomical structures, are especially successful for images of the pelvic region. For portal images of

  16. A new method for information retrieval in two-dimensional grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Li; Gao Kun; Chen Jian; Ge Xin; Tian Yang-Chao; Wu Zi-Yu; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be an extremely powerful phase-sensitive imaging technique. By using two-dimensional (2D) gratings, the observable contrast is extended to two refraction directions. Recently, we have developed a novel reverse-projection (RP) method, which is capable of retrieving the object information efficiently with one-dimensional (1D) grating-based phase contrast imaging. In this contribution, we present its extension to the 2D grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, named the two-dimensional reverse-projection (2D-RP) method, for information retrieval. The method takes into account the nonlinear contributions of two refraction directions and allows the retrieval of the absorption, the horizontal and the vertical refraction images. The obtained information can be used for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional phase gradient field, and for an improved phase map retrieval and reconstruction. Numerical experiments are carried out, and the results confirm the validity of the 2D-RP method

  17. Two-dimensional inverse planning and delivery with a preclinical image guided microirradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, James M. P.; Lindsay, Patricia E.; Jaffray, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Recent advances in preclinical radiotherapy systems have provided the foundation for scaling many of the elements of clinical radiation therapy practice to the dimensions and energy demanded in small animal studies. Such systems support the technical capabilities to accurately deliver highly complex dose distributions, but methods to optimize and deliver such distributions remain in their infancy. This study developed an optimization method based on empirically measured two-dimensional dose kernel measurements to deliver arbitrary planar dose distributions on a recently developed small animal radiotherapy platform.Methods: A two-dimensional dose kernel was measured with repeated radiochromic film measurements for the circular 1 mm diameter fixed collimator of the small animal radiotherapy system at 1 cm depth in a solid water phantom. This kernel was utilized in a sequential quadratic programming optimization framework to determine optimal beam positions and weights to deliver an arbitrary desired dose distribution. The positions and weights were then translated to a set of stage motions to automatically deliver the optimized dose distribution. End-to-end efficacy of the framework was quantified through five repeated deliveries of two dosimetric challenges: (1) a 5 mm radius bullseye distribution, and (2) a “sock” distribution contained within a 9 × 13 mm bounding box incorporating rectangular, semicircular, and exponentially decaying geometric constructs and a rectangular linear dose gradient region. These two challenges were designed to gauge targeting, geometric, and dosimetric fidelity.Results: Optimization of the bullseye and sock distributions required 2.1 and 5.9 min and utilized 50 and 77 individual beams for delivery, respectively. Automated delivery of the resulting optimized distributions, validated using radiochromic film measurements, revealed an average targeting accuracy of 0.32 mm, and a dosimetric delivery error along four line

  18. Local imaging of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems with virtual scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelliccione, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sciambi, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called “virtual scanning tunneling microscopy” that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.

  19. Rapid, all-optical crystal orientation imaging of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Sabrina N.; Zhai, Yao; Zande, Arend M. van der; O'Brien, Kevin; Huang, Pinshane Y.; Chenet, Daniel A.; Hone, James C.; Zhang, Xiang; Yin, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant research and industrial interest for their electronic, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. While large-area crystal growth techniques such as chemical vapor deposition have been demonstrated, the presence of grain boundaries and orientation of grains arising in such growths substantially affect the physical properties of the materials. There is currently no scalable characterization method for determining these boundaries and orientations over a large sample area. We here present a second-harmonic generation based microscopy technique for rapidly mapping grain orientations and boundaries of 2D TMDCs. We experimentally demonstrate the capability to map large samples to an angular resolution of ±1° with minimal sample preparation and without involved analysis. A direct comparison of the all-optical grain orientation maps against results obtained by diffraction-filtered dark-field transmission electron microscopy plus selected-area electron diffraction on identical TMDC samples is provided. This rapid and accurate tool should enable large-area characterization of TMDC samples for expedited studies of grain boundary effects and the efficient characterization of industrial-scale production techniques

  20. Two-dimensional real-time imaging system for subtraction angiography using an iodine filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umetani, Keiji; Ueda, Ken; Takeda, Tohoru; Anno, Izumi; Itai, Yuji; Akisada, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Teiichi

    1992-01-01

    A new type of subtraction imaging system was developed using an iodine filter and a single-energy broad bandwidth monochromatized x ray. The x-ray images of coronary arteries made after intravenous injection of a contrast agent are enhanced by an energy-subtraction technique. Filter chopping of the x-ray beam switches energies rapidly, so that a nearly simultaneous pair of filtered and nonfiltered images can be made. By using a high-speed video camera, a pair of two 512 × 512 pixel images can be obtained within 9 ms. Three hundred eighty-four images (raw data) are stored in a 144-Mbyte frame memory. After phantom studies, in vivo subtracted images of coronary arteries in dogs were obtained at a rate of 15 images/s.

  1. Multiplanar and two-dimensional imaging of central airway stenting with multidetector computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgul Mehmet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT provides guidance for primary screening of the central airways. The aim of our study was assessing the contribution of multidetector computed tomography- two dimensional reconstruction in the management of patients with tracheobronchial stenosis prior to the procedure and during a short follow up period of 3 months after the endobronchial treatment. Methods This is a retrospective study with data collected from an electronic database and from the medical records. Patients evaluated with MDCT and who had undergone a stenting procedure were included. A Philips RSGDT 07605 model MDCT was used, and slice thickness, 3 mm; overlap, 1.5 mm; matrix, 512x512; mass, 90 and kV, 120 were evaluated. The diameters of the airways 10 mm proximal and 10 mm distal to the obstruction were measured and the stent diameter (D was determined from the average between D upper and D lower. Results Fifty-six patients, 14 (25% women and 42 (75% men, mean age 55.3 ± 13.2 years (range: 16-79 years, were assessed by MDCT and then treated with placement of an endobronchial stent. A computed tomography review was made with 6 detector Philips RSGDT 07605 multidetector computed tomography device. Endobronchial therapy was provided for the patients with endoluminal lesions. Stents were placed into the area of stenosis in patients with external compression after dilatation and debulking procedures had been carried out. In one patient the migration of a stent was detected during the follow up period by using MDCT. Conclusions MDCT helps to define stent size, length and type in patients who are suitable for endobronchial stinting. This is a non-invasive, reliable method that helps decisions about optimal stent size and position, thus reducing complications.

  2. Analysis of two dimensional charged particle scintillation using video image processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.; Bhave, B.D.; Singh, B.; Panchal, C.G.; Joshi, V.M.; Shyam, A.; Srinivasan, M.

    1993-01-01

    A novel method for video recording of individual charged particle scintillation images and their offline analysis using digital image processing techniques for obtaining position, time and energy information is presented . Results of an exploratory experiment conducted using 241 Am and 239 Pu alpha sources are presented. (author). 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Edge Detection from High Resolution Remote Sensing Images using Two-Dimensional log Gabor Filter in Frequency Domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K; Yu, T; Meng, Q Y; Wang, G K; Li, S P; Liu, S H

    2014-01-01

    Edges are vital features to describe the structural information of images, especially high spatial resolution remote sensing images. Edge features can be used to define the boundaries between different ground objects in high spatial resolution remote sensing images. Thus edge detection is important in the remote sensing image processing. Even though many different edge detection algorithms have been proposed, it is difficult to extract the edge features from high spatial resolution remote sensing image including complex ground objects. This paper introduces a novel method to detect edges from the high spatial resolution remote sensing image based on frequency domain. Firstly, the high spatial resolution remote sensing images are Fourier transformed to obtain the magnitude spectrum image (frequency image) by FFT. Then, the frequency spectrum is analyzed by using the radius and angle sampling. Finally, two-dimensional log Gabor filter with optimal parameters is designed according to the result of spectrum analysis. Finally, dot product between the result of Fourier transform and the log Gabor filter is inverse Fourier transformed to obtain the detections. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can detect edge features from the high resolution remote sensing image commendably

  4. Optimization of air gap for two-dimensional imaging system using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeniya, Tsutomu; Takeda, Tohoru; Yu, Quanwen; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Aiyoshi, Yuji; Hiranaka, Yukio; Itai, Yuji; Akatsuka, Takao

    2000-11-01

    Since synchrotron radiation (SR) has several excellent properties such as high brilliance, broad continuous energy spectrum and small divergence, we can obtain x-ray images with high contrast and high spatial resolution by using of SR. In 2D imaging using SR, air gap method is very effective to reduce the scatter contamination. However, to use air gap method, the geometrical effect of finite source size of SR must be considered because spatial resolution of image is degraded by air gap. For 2D x-ray imaging with SR, x-ray mammography was chosen to examine the effect of air gap method. We theoretically discussed the optimization of air gap distance suing effective scatter point source model proposed by Muntz, and executed experiment with a newly manufactured monochromator with asymmetrical reflection and an imaging plate.

  5. Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Cai, Xiaoying; Auger, Daniel A; Meyer, Craig H; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H

    2016-06-14

    Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold. An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14-26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets. For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain. BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be

  6. Two-dimensional imaging detectors for structural biology with X-ray lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denes, Peter

    2014-07-17

    Our ability to harness the advances in microelectronics over the past decade(s) for X-ray detection has resulted in significant improvements in the state of the art. Biology with X-ray free-electron lasers present daunting detector challenges: all of the photons arrive at the same time, and individual high peak power pulses must be read out shot-by-shot. Direct X-ray detection in silicon pixel detectors--monolithic or hybrid--are the standard for XFELs today. For structural biology, improvements are needed for today's 10-100 Hz XFELs, and further improvements are required for tomorrow's 10+ kHz XFELs. This article will discuss detector challenges, why they arise and ways to overcome them, along with the current state of the art. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Preferential flow systems amended with biogeochemical components: imaging of a two-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley R.; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather M.; Kupis, Shyla; Edayilam, Nimisha; Montgomery, Dawn; Liang, Wei-zhen; Dogan, Mine; Tharayil, Nishanth; Martinez, Nicole; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2018-04-01

    The vadose zone is a highly interactive heterogeneous system through which water enters the subsurface system by infiltration. This paper details the effects of simulated plant exudate and soil component solutions upon unstable flow patterns in a porous medium (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) through the use of two-dimensional tank light transmission method (LTM). The contact angle (θ) and surface tension (γ) of two simulated plant exudate solutions (i.e., oxalate and citrate) and two soil component solutions (i.e., tannic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter, SRNOM) were analyzed to determine the liquid-gas and liquid-solid interface characteristics of each. To determine if the unstable flow formations were dependent on the type and concentration of the simulated plant exudates and soil components, the analysis of the effects of the simulated plant exudate and soil component solutions were compared to a control solution (Hoagland nutrient solution with 0.01 M NaCl). Fingering flow patterns, vertical and horizontal water saturation profiles, water saturation at the fingertips, finger dimensions and velocity, and number of fingers were obtained using the light transmission method. Significant differences in the interface properties indicated a decrease between the control and the plant exudate and soil component solutions tested; specifically, the control (θ = 64.5° and γ = 75.75 mN m-1) samples exhibited a higher contact angle and surface tension than the low concentration of citrate (θ = 52.6° and γ = 70.8 mN m-1). Wetting front instability and fingering flow phenomena were reported in all infiltration experiments. The results showed that the plant exudates and soil components influenced the soil infiltration as differences in finger geometries, velocities, and water saturation profiles were detected when compared to the control. Among the tested solutions and concentrations of soil components, the largest finger width (10.19 cm

  8. Two dimensional microcirculation mapping with real time spatial frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Chen, Xinlin; Lin, Weihao; Cao, Zili; Zhu, Xiuwei; Zeng, Bixin; Xu, M.

    2018-02-01

    We present a spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) study of local hemodynamics in the human finger cuticle of healthy volunteers performing paced breathing and the forearm of healthy young adults performing normal breathing with our recently developed Real Time Single Snapshot Multiple Frequency Demodulation - Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (SSMD-SFDI) system. A two-layer model was used to map the concentrations of deoxy-, oxy-hemoglobin, melanin, epidermal thickness and scattering properties at the subsurface of the forearm and the finger cuticle. The oscillations of the concentrations of deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin at the subsurface of the finger cuticle and forearm induced by paced breathing and normal breathing, respectively, were found to be close to out-of-phase, attributed to the dominance of the blood flow modulation by paced breathing or heartbeat. Our results suggest that the real time SFDI platform may serve as one effective imaging modality for microcirculation monitoring.

  9. Image registration under translation and rotation in two-dimensional planes using Fourier slice theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, M; Sharma, J

    2015-05-10

    Image recognition in the presence of both rotation and translation is a longstanding problem in correlation pattern recognition. Use of log polar transform gives a solution to this problem, but at a cost of losing the vital phase information from the image. The main objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm based on Fourier slice theorem for measuring the simultaneous rotation and translation of an object in a 2D plane. The algorithm is applicable for any arbitrary object shift for full 180° rotation.

  10. Three-dimensional object recognitions from two-dimensional images using wavelet transforms and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschenes, Sylvain; Sheng, Yunlong; Chevrette, Paul C.

    1998-03-01

    3D object classification from 2D IR images is shown. The wavelet transform is used for edge detection. Edge tracking is used for removing noise effectively int he wavelet transform. The invariant Fourier descriptor is used to describe the contour curves. Invariance under out-of-plane rotation is achieved by the feature space trajectory neural network working as a classifier.

  11. Tse computers. [ultrahigh speed optical processing for two dimensional binary image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. H.; Strong, J. P., III

    1977-01-01

    An ultra-high-speed computer that utilizes binary images as its basic computational entity is being developed. The basic logic components perform thousands of operations simultaneously. Technologies of the fiber optics, display, thin film, and semiconductor industries are being utilized in the building of the hardware.

  12. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: II. Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Vargas, J R; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Hochstrasser, D F

    1997-12-01

    After two generations of software systems for the analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) images, a third generation of such software packages has recently emerged that combines state-of-the-art graphical user interfaces with comprehensive spot data analysis capabilities. A key characteristic common to most of these software packages is that many of their tools are implementations of algorithms that resulted from research areas such as image processing, vision, artificial intelligence or machine learning. This article presents the main algorithms implemented in the Melanie II 2-D PAGE software package. The applications of these algorithms, embodied as the feature of the program, are explained in an accompanying article (R. D. Appel et al.; Electrophoresis 1997, 18, 2724-2734).

  13. Two-dimensional Fast ESPRIT Algorithm for Linear Array SAR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yi-chao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The linear array Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR system is a popular research tool, because it can realize three-dimensional imaging. However, owning to limitations of the aircraft platform and actual conditions, resolution improvement is difficult in cross-track and along-track directions. In this study, a twodimensional fast Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT algorithm for linear array SAR imaging is proposed to overcome these limitations. This approach combines the Gerschgorin disks method and the ESPRIT algorithm to estimate the positions of scatterers in cross and along-rack directions. Moreover, the reflectivity of scatterers is obtained by a modified pairing method based on “region growing”, replacing the least-squares method. The simulation results demonstrate the applicability of the algorithm with high resolution, quick calculation, and good real-time response.

  14. Analysis of the sacrum: CT with two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Fishman, E.K.; Scott, W.W. Jr.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Fifteen patients with sacral lesions were assessed using CT and volumetric 3D image rendering. Lesions imaged included sacral fractures, tumors, osteomyelitis, dysplasia, and sacroiliac diastasis. In all cases, transaxial CT alone was superior to conventional radiographs, and CT with 3D was more clinically useful than CT alone. The 3D real-time video format allows rotation and manipulation in several planes, including the X (spinal) and Z (somersaulting) axes, for optimal visualization of abnormalities. The Z axis gives unique unimpeded inlet, outlet, and ''bird's-eye'' views of the pelvis and sacrum, enhancing detection and characterization of sacral of SI disruptions and subsequent pelvic ring compromise. Because of the ease of assimilating information in such a format, 3D may become the key modality for preoperative planning and for postoperative follow-up

  15. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Doppler echocardiography remains the most extended clinical modality for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. Current Doppler ultrasound methods, however, are limited to the representation of a single flow velocity component. We thus developed a novel technique to construct 2D time-resolved (2D+t) LV velocity fields from conventional transthoracic clinical acquisitions. Combining color-Doppler velocities with LV wall positions, the cross-beam blood velocities were calculated using the continuity equation under a planar flow assumption. To validate the algorithm, 2D Doppler flow mapping and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an atrio-ventricular duplicator. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions were used to measure in vivo the error due to the 2D flow assumption and to potential scan-plane misalignment. Finally, the applicability of the Doppler technique was tested in the clinical setting. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new method yields an accurate quantitative description of the main vortex that forms during the cardiac cycle (mean error for vortex radius, position and circulation). MR image analysis evidenced that the error due to the planar flow assumption is close to 15% and does not preclude the characterization of major vortex properties neither in the normal nor in the dilated LV. These results are yet to be confirmed by a head-to-head clinical validation study. Clinical Doppler studies showed that the method is readily applicable and that a single large anterograde vortex develops in the healthy ventricle while supplementary retrograde swirling structures may appear in the diseased heart. The proposed echocardiographic method based on the continuity equation is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require complex training. This technique will potentially enable investigators to study of additional quantitative aspects of intraventricular flow dynamics in the clinical setting by

  16. The application of two-dimensional imaging to very high energy gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1992-05-01

    A technique has been developed to distinguish air showers generated by gamma rays from those generated by hadronic cosmic rays. The method involves the registration of the Cherenkov light images by a large aperture multi-phototube telescope at the Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona. The energy threshold is 0.4 TeV. The efficacy of the technique has been demonstrated by the detection of a signal from the Crab Nebula, a supernova remnant. The physics of shower development at TeV energies is demonstrated to be what is expected, and no support is found for the detection of anomalous signals from binary sources. The sensitivity of the technique is such that a five sigma gamma-ray signal from the Crab can be detected in just an hour of observation. Further improvements in the technique are under way; in particular, a second large aperture camera is now operated in conjunction with the original camera to give stereoscopic images of showers. When completed, this system will give a flux sensitivity a factor of ten below that now available

  17. An electronic image processing device featuring continuously selectable two-dimensional bipolar filter functions and real-time operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleston, B.D.; Beckman, F.H.; Franco, M.J.; Charleston, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile electronic-analogue image processing system has been developed for use in improving the quality of various types of images with emphasis on those encountered in experimental and diagnostic medicine. The operational principle utilizes spatial filtering which selectively controls the contrast of an image according to the spatial frequency content of relevant and non-relevant features of the image. Noise can be reduced or eliminated by selectively lowering the contrast of information in the high spatial frequency range. Edge sharpness can be enhanced by accentuating the upper midrange spatial frequencies. Both methods of spatial frequency control may be adjusted continuously in the same image to obtain maximum visibility of the features of interest. A precision video camera is used to view medical diagnostic images, either prints, transparencies or CRT displays. The output of the camera provides the analogue input signal for both the electronic processing system and the video display of the unprocessed image. The video signal input to the electronic processing system is processed by a two-dimensional spatial convolution operation. The system employs charged-coupled devices (CCDs), both tapped analogue delay lines (TADs) and serial analogue delay lines (SADs), to store information in the form of analogue potentials which are constantly being updated as new sampled analogue data arrive at the input. This information is convolved with a programmed bipolar radially symmetrical hexagonal function which may be controlled and varied at each radius by the operator in real-time by adjusting a set of front panel controls or by a programmed microprocessor control. Two TV monitors are used, one for processed image display and the other for constant reference to the original image. The working prototype has a full-screen display matrix size of 200 picture elements per horizontal line by 240 lines. The matrix can be expanded vertically and horizontally for the

  18. RECONSTRUCTING THREE-DIMENSIONAL JET GEOMETRY FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL IMAGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avachat, Sayali; Perlman, Eric S.; Li, Kunyang; Kosak, Katie

    2018-01-01

    Relativistic jets in AGN are one of the most interesting and complex structures in the Universe. Some of the jets can be spread over hundreds of kilo parsecs from the central engine and display various bends, knots and hotspots. Observations of the jets can prove helpful in understanding the emission and particle acceleration processes from sub-arcsec to kilo parsec scales and the role of magnetic field in it. The M87 jet has many bright knots as well as regions of small and large bends. We attempt to model the jet geometry using the observed 2 dimensional structure. The radio and optical images of the jet show evidence of presence of helical magnetic field throughout. Using the observed structure in the sky frame, our goal is to gain an insight into the intrinsic 3 dimensional geometry in the jets frame. The structure of the bends in jet's frame may be quite different than what we see in the sky frame. The knowledge of the intrinsic structure will be helpful in understanding the appearance of the magnetic field and hence polarization morphology. To achieve this, we are using numerical methods to solve the non-linear equations based on the jet geometry. We are using the Log Likelihood method and algorithm based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations.

  19. Two-dimensional tracking of a motile micro-organism allowing high-resolution observation with various imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, H.; Ogawa, N.; Ishikawa, M.; Hashimoto, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a micro-organism tracking system using a high-speed vision system is reported. This system two dimensionally tracks a freely swimming micro-organism within the field of an optical microscope by moving a chamber of target micro-organisms based on high-speed visual feedback. The system we developed could track a paramecium using various imaging techniques, including bright-field illumination, dark-field illumination, and differential interference contrast, at magnifications of 5 times and 20 times. A maximum tracking duration of 300 s was demonstrated. Also, the system could track an object with a velocity of up to 35 000 μm/s (175 diameters/s), which is significantly faster than swimming micro-organisms

  20. [Assessment of left ventricular twist in type 2 diabetes mellitus by using two-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pei-hua; Huang, Jing-yuan; Ye, Meng; Zheng, Zhe-lan

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the left ventricular twist characteristics in patients with type 2 diabetes by using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (STI). Ninety-three patients with type 2 diabetes admitted in Zhejiang Hospital from May 2012 to September 2013 were enrolled. According to left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), patients were divided into two groups: normal left ventricular systolic function group (group A, LVEF≥0.50, n=46) and abnormal left ventricular systolic function group (group B, LVEF Consistency check for STI was conducted to assess its stability and reliability. The Peaktw, AVCtw, and MVOtw in group A were significantly elevated than those in normal controls (Pconsistency limit=-2.8-2.7; within measurer: R=0.964, bias=-0.2, 95% consistency limits=-2.7-2.2). STI can be used for early recognition of abnormal changes of cardiac function in type 2 diabetic mellitus patients, with high stability and reliability.

  1. Determination of correlation between backflow volume and mitral valve leaflet young modulus from two dimensional echocardiogram images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Rudiyanto P.; Osman, Kahar; Adib, M. Azrul Hisham M.

    2012-06-01

    Mitral valve prolapse without proper monitoring might lead to a severe mitral valve failure which eventually leads to a sudden death. Additional information on the mitral valve leaflet condition against the backflow volume would be an added advantage to the medical practitioner for their decision on the patients' treatment. A study on two dimensional echocardiography images has been conducted and the correlations between the backflow volume of the mitral regurgitation and mitral valve leaflet Young modulus have been obtained. Echocardiogram images were analyzed on the aspect of backflow volume percentage and mitral valve leaflet dimensions on different rates of backflow volume. Young modulus values for the mitral valve leaflet were obtained by using the principle of elastic deflection and deformation on the mitral valve leaflet. The results show that the backflow volume increased with the decrease of the mitral valve leaflet Young modulus which also indicate the condition of the mitral valve leaflet approaching failure at high backflow volumes. Mitral valve leaflet Young modulus values obtained in this study agreed with the healthy mitral valve leaflet Young modulus from the literature. This is an initial overview of the trend on the prediction of the behaviour between the fluid and the structure of the blood and the mitral valve which is extendable to a larger system of prediction on the mitral valve leaflet condition based on the available echocardiogram images.

  2. Comparison of Two-dimensional Synthesized Mammograms versus Original Digital Mammograms Alone and in Combination with Tomosynthesis Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ben; Catullo, Victor J.; Chough, Denise M.; Kelly, Amy E.; Lu, Amy H.; Rathfon, Grace Y.; Lee Spangler, Marion; Sumkin, Jules H.; Wallace, Luisa P.; Bandos, Andriy I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess interpretation performance and radiation dose when two-dimensional synthesized mammography (SM) images versus standard full-field digital mammography (FFDM) images are used alone or in combination with digital breast tomosynthesis images. Materials and Methods A fully crossed, mode-balanced multicase (n = 123), multireader (n = 8), retrospective observer performance study was performed by using deidentified images acquired between 2008 and 2011 with institutional review board approved, HIPAA-compliant protocols, during which each patient signed informed consent. The cohort included 36 cases of biopsy-proven cancer, 35 cases of biopsy-proven benign lesions, and 52 normal or benign cases (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BI-RADS] score of 1 or 2) with negative 1-year follow-up results. Accuracy of sequentially reported probability of malignancy ratings and seven-category forced BI-RADS ratings was evaluated by using areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) in the random-reader analysis. Results Probability of malignancy–based mean AUCs for SM and FFDM images alone was 0.894 and 0.889, respectively (difference, −0.005; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.062, 0.054; P = .85). Mean AUC for SM with tomosynthesis and FFDM with tomosynthesis was 0.916 and 0.939, respectively (difference, 0.023; 95% CI: −0.011, 0.057; P = .19). In terms of the reader-specific AUCs, five readers performed better with SM alone versus FFDM alone, and all eight readers performed better with combined FFDM and tomosynthesis (absolute differences from 0.003 to 0.052). Similar results were obtained by using a nonparametric analysis of forced BI-RADS ratings. Conclusion SM alone or in combination with tomosynthesis is comparable in performance to FFDM alone or in combination with tomosynthesis and may eliminate the need for FFDM as part of a routine clinical study. © RSNA, 2014 PMID:24475859

  3. Development and Characterization of Two-Dimensional Gratings for Single-Shot X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Zakharova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Single-shot grating-based phase-contrast imaging techniques offer additional contrast modalities based on the refraction and scattering of X-rays in a robust and versatile configuration. The utilization of a single optical element is possible in such methods, allowing the shortening of the acquisition time and increasing flux efficiency. One of the ways to upgrade single-shot imaging techniques is to utilize customized optical components, such as two-dimensional (2D X-ray gratings. In this contribution, we present the achievements in the development of 2D gratings with UV lithography and gold electroplating. Absorption gratings represented by periodic free-standing gold pillars with lateral structure sizes from 5 µm to 25 µm and heights from 5 µm to 28 µm have shown a high degree of periodicity and defect-free patterns. Grating performance was tested in a radiographic setup using a self-developed quality assessment algorithm based on the intensity distribution histograms. The algorithm allows the final user to estimate the suitability of a specific grating to be used in a particular setup.

  4. Needle path planning and steering in a three-dimensional non-static environment using two-dimensional ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Abayazid, Momen; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion is commonly performed in minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation cancer treatment. During such procedures, accurate needle tip placement is critical for correct diagnosis or successful treatment. Accurate placement of the needle tip inside tissue is challenging, especially when the target moves and anatomical obstacles must be avoided. We develop a needle steering system capable of autonomously and accurately guiding a steerable needle using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images. The needle is steered to a moving target while avoiding moving obstacles in a three-dimensional (3D) non-static environment. Using a 2D ultrasound imaging device, our system accurately tracks the needle tip motion in 3D space in order to estimate the tip pose. The needle tip pose is used by a rapidly exploring random tree-based motion planner to compute a feasible needle path to the target. The motion planner is sufficiently fast such that replanning can be performed repeatedly in a closed-loop manner. This enables the system to correct for perturbations in needle motion, and movement in obstacle and target locations. Our needle steering experiments in a soft-tissue phantom achieves maximum targeting errors of 0.86 ± 0.35 mm (without obstacles) and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm (with a moving obstacle). PMID:26279600

  5. Quantitative comparison and evaluation of two commercially available, two-dimensional electrophoresis image analysis software packages, Z3 and Melanie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Babu; Cheung, Agnes; Marten, Mark R

    2002-07-01

    While a variety of software packages are available for analyzing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gel images, no comparisons between these packages have been published, making it difficult for end users to determine which package would best meet their needs. The goal here was to develop a set of tests to quantitatively evaluate and then compare two software packages, Melanie 3.0 and Z3, in three of the fundamental steps involved in 2-DE image analysis: (i) spot detection, (ii) gel matching, and (iii) spot quantitation. To test spot detection capability, automatically detected protein spots were compared to manually counted, "real" protein spots. Spot matching efficiency was determined by comparing distorted (both geometrically and nongeometrically) gel images with undistorted original images, and quantitation tests were performed on artificial gels with spots of varying Gaussian volumes. In spot detection tests, Z3 performed better than Melanie 3.0 and required minimal user intervention to detect approximately 89% of the actual protein spots and relatively few extraneous spots. Results from gel matching tests depended on the type of image distortion used. For geometric distortions, Z3 performed better than Melanie 3.0, matching 99% of the spots, even for extreme distortions. For nongeometrical distortions, both Z3 and Melanie 3.0 required user intervention and performed comparably, matching 95% of the spots. In spot quantitation tests, both Z3 and Melanie 3.0 predicted spot volumes relatively well for spot ratios less than 1:6. For higher ratios, Melanie 3.0 did much better. In summary, results suggest Z3 requires less user intervention than Melanie 3.0, thus simplifying differential comparison of 2-DE gel images. Melanie 3.0, however, offers many more optional tools for image editing, spot detection, data reporting and statistical analysis than Z3. All image files used for these tests and updated information on the software are available on the internet

  6. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J.

    2014-01-01

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  7. An Investigation of Preschoolers' Misattributions of the Properties of Two-Dimensional Images: Understanding the Relationship between a Symbol and Its Referent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Laura J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that preschoolers are confused about the relationship between two-dimensional (2D) symbols and their referents. Preschoolers report that 2D images (e.g. televised images and photographs) share some of the characteristics of the objects they are representing. A novel Comparison Task was created to test what might account…

  8. Integration of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation for three-dimensional displacements measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Siegmann, Philip; Díaz, Francisco A.

    2016-12-01

    A low-cost approach for three-dimensional (3-D) full-field displacement measurement is applied for the analysis of large displacements involved in two different mechanical events. The method is based on a combination of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. The two techniques have been employed simultaneously using an RGB camera and a color encoding method; therefore, it is possible to measure in-plane and out-of-plane displacements at the same time with only one camera even at high speed rates. The potential of the proposed methodology has been employed for the analysis of large displacements during contact experiments in a soft material block. Displacement results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a 3D-DIC commercial system. Moreover, the analysis of displacements during an impact test on a metal plate was performed to emphasize the application of the methodology for dynamics events. Results show a good level of agreement, highlighting the potential of FP + 2D DIC as low-cost alternative for the analysis of large deformations problems.

  9. Scanning Hall-probe microscopy system for two-dimensional imaging of critical current density in RE-123 coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashikawa, K.; Inoue, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Shiohara, K.; Imamura, K.; Kiss, T.; Iijima, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Saitoh, T.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive characterization method of in-plane distribution of critical current density for coated conductors. Current distribution in a coated conductor compared with that from theoretical analysis. Relationship between local critical current density and local magnetic field. We have developed a characterization method for two-dimensional imaging of critical current density in coated conductors (CCs) based on scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The distributions of the magnetic field around a sample were measured for several different conditions of external magnetic fields, and then were converted to those of the sheet current density which flowed to shield the external magnetic field or to trap the penetrated magnetic field. As a result, it was found that the amplitude of the sheet current density corresponded to that of critical current density almost in all the area of the sample except for the region where current direction changed. This indicates that we could obtain an in-plane distribution of the critical current density with a spatial resolution of around 100 μm in non-destructive manner by this method. We believe that this measurement will be a multifunctional and comprehensive characterization method for coated conductors.

  10. Towards realistic flow modelling. Creation and evaluation of two-dimensional simulated porous media: An image analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguy, Yannick; Bernard, Dominique; Ehrlich, Robert

    1996-05-01

    This work is part of an attempt to quantify the relationship between the permeability tensor ( K) and the micro-structure of natural porous media. A brief account is first provided of popular theories used to relate the micro-structure to K. Reasons for the lack of predictive power and restricted generality of current models are discussed. An alternative is an empirically based implicit model wherein K is expressed as a consequence of a few “pore-types” arising from the dynamics of depositional processes. The analytical form of that implicit model arises from evidence of universal association between pore-type and throat size in sandstones and carbonates. An explicit model, relying on the local change of scale technique is then addressed. That explicit model allows, from knowledge of the three-dimensional micro-geometry to calculate K explicitly without having recourse to any constitutive assumptions. The predictive and general character of the explicit model is underlined. The relevance of the change of scale technique is recalled to be contingent on the availability of rock-like three-dimensional synthetic media. A random stationary ergodic process is developed, that allows us to generate three-dimensional synthetic media from a two-dimensional autocorrelation function r(λ x ,λ y ) and associated probability density function ∈ β measured on a single binary image. The focus of this work is to ensure the rock-like character of those synthetic media. This is done first through a direct approach: n two-dimensional synthetic media, derived from single set ( ∈ β , r(λ x ,λ y )) yield n permeability tensors K {/i-1,n i} (calculated by the local change of scale) of the same order. This is a necessary condition to ensure that r(λ x ,λ y ) and ∈ β carry all structural information relevant to K. The limits of this direct approach, in terms of required Central Process Unit time and Memory is underlined, raising the need for an alternative. This is done by

  11. Two-dimensional fusion imaging of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs in patients with clinical scaphoid fracture: an imaging study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Jensen, T D

    2009-01-01

    . Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......BACKGROUND: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... CONCLUSION: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement....

  12. Two-dimensional exit dosimetry using a liquid-filled electronic portal imaging device and a convolution model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, Ronald; Herk, Marcel van; Uiterwaal, Hans; Mijnheer, Ben

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: To determine the accuracy of two-dimensional exit dose measurements with an electronic portal imaging device, EPID, using a convolution model for a variety of clinically relevant situations. Materials and methods: Exit doses were derived from portal dose images, obtained with a liquid-filled EPID at distances of 50 cm or more behind the patient, by using a convolution model. The resulting on- and off-axis exit dose values were first compared with ionization chamber exit dose measurements for homogeneous and inhomogeneous phantoms in open and wedged 4,8 and 18 MV photon beams. The accuracy of the EPID exit dose measurements was then determined for a number of anthropomorphic phantoms (lung and larynx) irradiated under clinical conditions and for a few patients treated in an 8 MV beam. The latter results were compared with in vivo exit dose measurements using diodes. Results: The exit dose can be determined from portal images with an accuracy of 1.2% (1 SD) compared with ionization chamber measurements for open beams and homogeneous phantoms at all tested beam qualities. In the presence of wedges and for inhomogeneous phantoms the average relative accuracy slightly deteriorated to 1.7% (1 SD). For lung phantoms in a 4 MV beam a similar accuracy was obtained after refinement of our convolution model, which requires knowledge of the patient contour. Differences between diode and EPID exit dose measurements for an anthropomorphic lung phantom in an 8 MV beam were 2.5% at most, with an average agreement within 1% (1 SD). For larynx phantoms in a 4 MV beam exit doses obtained with an ionization chamber and EPID agreed within 1.5% (1 SD). Finally, exit doses in a few patients irradiated in an 8 MV beam could be determined with the EPID with an accuracy of 1.1% (1 SD) relative to exit dose measurements using diodes. Conclusions: Portal images, obtained with our EPID and analyzed with our convolution model, can be used to determine the exit dose

  13. Two-Dimensional Image Fusion of Planar Bone Scintigraphy and Radiographs in Patients with Clinical Scaphoid Fracture: An Imaging Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Jensen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    . Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......Background: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... Conclusion: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/3...

  14. Digital Breast Tomosynthesis with Synthesized Two-Dimensional Images versus Full-Field Digital Mammography for Population Screening: Outcomes from the Verona Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caumo, Francesca; Zorzi, Manuel; Brunelli, Silvia; Romanucci, Giovanna; Rella, Rossella; Cugola, Loredana; Bricolo, Paola; Fedato, Chiara; Montemezzi, Stefania; Houssami, Nehmat

    2018-04-01

    Purpose To examine the outcomes of a breast cancer screening program based on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus synthesized two-dimensional (2D) mammography compared with those after full-field digital mammography (FFDM). Materials and Methods This prospective study included 16 666 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years who were recruited in April 2015 through March 2016 for DBT plus synthetic 2D screening in the Verona screening program. A comparison cohort of women screened with FFDM (n = 14 423) in the previous year was included. Screening detection measures for the two groups were compared by calculating the proportions associated with each outcome, and the relative rates (RRs) were estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results Cancer detection rate (CDR) for DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging was 9.30 per 1000 screening examinations versus 5.41 per 1000 screening examinations with FFDM (RR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30, 2.29). CDR was significantly higher in patients screened with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging than in those screened with FFDM among women classified as having low breast density (RR, 1.53; 95% CI: 1.13, 2.10) or high breast density (RR, 2.86; 95% CI: 1.42, 6.25). The positive predictive value (PPV) for recall was almost doubled with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging: 23.3% versus 12.9% of recalled patients who were screened with FFDM (RR, 1.81; 95% CI: 1.34, 2.47). The recall rate was similar between groups (RR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.06), whereas the recall rate with invasive assessment was higher for DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging than for FFDM (RR, 1.93; 95% CI: 1.31, 2.03). The mean number of screening studies interpreted per hour was significantly lower for screening examinations performed with DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging (38.5 screens per hour) than with FFDM (60 screens per hour) (P < .001). Conclusion DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging increases CDRs with recall rates comparable to those of FFDM. DBT plus synthetic 2D imaging

  15. Development of a two-dimensional ASIC for hard X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with a CdTe pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiruta, Tatsuro; Tamura, K.; Ikeda, H.; Nakazawa, K.; Takasima, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2006-01-01

    We are developing a two-dimensional analog ASIC for the readout of pixel sensors based on silicon (Si) or cadmium telluride (CdTe) for spectroscopic imaging observations in the X-ray and gamma-ray regions. The aim for the ASIC is to obtain a low-noise performance better than 100 electrons (rms) with self-triggering capabilities. As the first step of prototyping, we have fabricated several ASICs. We obtained an energy resolution of 5.4 keV (FWHM) for 81 keV gamma-rays from 133 Ba with a one-dimensional ASIC connected to a CdTe diode and also verified a readout architecture via a two-dimensional ASIC with 144 pixel channels. Based on the results obtained and experience gained through prototype ASICs, we are developing a 4096-channel two-dimensional analog ASIC

  16. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  17. Reproducibility and influencing factors of 31P MR spectroscopy in rabbit liver with two-dimensional chemical shift imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Risheng; Sun Jianzhong; Ding Wenhong; Xu Xiufang; Wang Zhikang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the reproducibility and influencing factors of relative quantification of phosphorus metabolites with two-dimensional chemical shift imaging (2D CSI) in rabbit liver. Methods: Using 2D CSI MRS, 500 ml phosphate (NaH 2 PO 4 ) solution phantom with 0.05 mol/L concentration and one healthy rabbit were scanned 30 times respectively in one day and rescanned 30 times in the next day, and the stability of MR scanner and reproducibility of within-run and between-days in the same individual were analyzed. Each of thirty rabbits was scanned and rescanned one time respectively in different days, and the reproducibility of between-days in one group was analyzed. The data were statistically analyzed with t tests. Results: (1) Phosphate solution phantom had a good reproducibility of within-run with the coefficient variation (CV) of 4.92% and 5.12% respectively in different two days. No significant change of phosphorus metabolites was detected in between-days, which was 16.68±0.82 and 16.56± 0.85 respectively (t=0.665, P>0.05). (2) The CV of metabolites in one healthy rabbit ranged from 8.04% to 34.13%. Among the metabolites, β-ATP had the best reproducibility with the CV less than 10%. PME was 0.88±0.28 and 0.88±0.30, PDE was 4.35±0.66 and 4.35±0.66, Pi was 0.95±0.30 and 0.97±0.28, α-ATP was 5.58±0.60 and 5.61±0.61, β-ATP was 2.70±0.22 and 2.71± 0.22, γ-ATP was 2.20±0.63 and 2.18±0.44 respectively, no significant changes of metabolites were detected in between-days (P>0.05). (3) The CV of metabolites in 30 healthy rabbits ranged from 8.48% to 36.21%. Among the metabolites, β-ATP had the best reproducibility with CV less than 10%. PME was 0.84±0.30 and 0.79±0.28, PDE was 4.29±0.72 and 3.94±0.84, Pi was 0.91±0.28 and 0.92± 0.31, α-ATP was 5.65±0.66 and 5.36±0.60, β-ATP was 2.71±0.23 and 2.66±0.25, γ-ATP was 2.07±0.29 and 1.99±0.37 respectively, no significant changes of metabolites were detected in between-days (P>0

  18. The Two-Dimensional Gabor Function Adapted to Natural Image Statistics: A Model of Simple-Cell Receptive Fields and Sparse Structure in Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxley, P N

    2017-10-01

    The two-dimensional Gabor function is adapted to natural image statistics, leading to a tractable probabilistic generative model that can be used to model simple cell receptive field profiles, or generate basis functions for sparse coding applications. Learning is found to be most pronounced in three Gabor function parameters representing the size and spatial frequency of the two-dimensional Gabor function and characterized by a nonuniform probability distribution with heavy tails. All three parameters are found to be strongly correlated, resulting in a basis of multiscale Gabor functions with similar aspect ratios and size-dependent spatial frequencies. A key finding is that the distribution of receptive-field sizes is scale invariant over a wide range of values, so there is no characteristic receptive field size selected by natural image statistics. The Gabor function aspect ratio is found to be approximately conserved by the learning rules and is therefore not well determined by natural image statistics. This allows for three distinct solutions: a basis of Gabor functions with sharp orientation resolution at the expense of spatial-frequency resolution, a basis of Gabor functions with sharp spatial-frequency resolution at the expense of orientation resolution, or a basis with unit aspect ratio. Arbitrary mixtures of all three cases are also possible. Two parameters controlling the shape of the marginal distributions in a probabilistic generative model fully account for all three solutions. The best-performing probabilistic generative model for sparse coding applications is found to be a gaussian copula with Pareto marginal probability density functions.

  19. Development of a two-dimensional imaging detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, K; Oku, T; Morimoto, K; Shimizu, H M; Tokanai, F; Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Ryazantsev, A; Ino, T; Kuroda, K; Suzuki, J

    2002-01-01

    For evaluating neutron optical devices, a two-dimensional (2D) detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed at RIKEN. We have investigated a ZnS(Ag)+LiF and a Li glass plate as neutron scintillators with the coding technique for realizing the large sensitive area of 50 x 50 mm sup 2. After fabricating the 2D detector, its performance was tested using cold neutrons at JAERI. As a result, a spatial resolution of propor to 1.0 mm was obtained. (orig.)

  20. The retrieval of two-dimensional distribution of the earth's surface aerodynamic roughness using SAR image and TM thermal infrared image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Renhua; WANG; Jinfeng; ZHU; Caiying; SUN; Xiaomin

    2004-01-01

    After having analyzed the requirement on the aerodynamic earth's surface roughness in two-dimensional distribution in the research field of interaction between land surface and atmosphere, this paper presents a new way to calculate the aerodynamic roughness using the earth's surface geometric roughness retrieved from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and TM thermal infrared image data. On the one hand, the SPM (Small Perturbation Model) was used as a theoretical SAR backscattering model to describe the relationship between the SAR backscattering coefficient and the earth's surface geometric roughness and its dielectric constant retrieved from the physical model between the soil thermal inertia and the soil surface moisture with the simultaneous TM thermal infrared image data and the ground microclimate data. On the basis of the SAR image matching with the TM image, the non-volume scattering surface geometric information was obtained from the SPM model at the TM image pixel scale, and the ground pixel surface's equivalent geometric roughness-height standard RMS (Root Mean Square) was achieved from the geometric information by the transformation of the typical topographic factors. The vegetation (wheat, tree) height retrieved from spectrum model was also transferred into its equivalent geometric roughness. A completely two-dimensional distribution map of the equivalent geometric roughness over the experimental area was produced by the data mosaic technique. On the other hand, according to the atmospheric eddy currents theory, the aerodynamic surface roughness was iterated out with the atmosphere stability correction method using the wind and the temperature profiles data measured at several typical fields such as bare soil field and vegetation field. After having analyzed the effect of surface equivalent geometric roughness together with dynamic and thermodynamic factors on the aerodynamic surface roughness within the working area, this paper first establishes a scale

  1. Direct visualization of in vitro drug mobilization from Lescol XL tablets using two-dimensional (19)F and (1)H magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Gladden, Lynn F; Mantle, Michael D

    2014-02-03

    This article reports the application of in vitro multinuclear ((19)F and (1)H) two-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to study both dissolution media ingress and drug egress from a commercial Lescol XL extended release tablet in a United States Pharmacopeia Type IV (USP-IV) dissolution cell under pharmacopoeial conditions. Noninvasive spatial maps of tablet swelling and dissolution, as well as the mobilization and distribution of the drug are quantified and visualized. Two-dimensional active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) mobilization and distribution maps were obtained via (19)F MRI. (19)F API maps were coregistered with (1)H T2-relaxation time maps enabling the simultaneous visualization of drug distribution and gel layer dynamics within the swollen tablet. The behavior of the MRI data is also discussed in terms of its relationship to the UV drug release behavior.

  2. Image Encryption Technology Based on Fractional Two-Dimensional Triangle Function Combination Discrete Chaotic Map Coupled with Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fractional two-dimensional triangle function combination discrete chaotic map (2D-TFCDM with the discrete fractional difference is proposed. We observe the bifurcation behaviors and draw the bifurcation diagrams, the largest Lyapunov exponent plot, and the phase portraits of the proposed map, respectively. On the application side, we apply the proposed discrete fractional map into image encryption with the secret keys ciphered by Menezes-Vanstone Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (MVECC. Finally, the image encryption algorithm is analysed in four main aspects that indicate the proposed algorithm is better than others.

  3. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Kotaro, E-mail: kotaro@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Isoda, Hiroyoshi, E-mail: sayuki@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Okada, Tomohisa, E-mail: tomokada@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Kamae, Toshikazu, E-mail: toshi13@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Arizono, Shigeki, E-mail: arizono@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hirokawa, Yuusuke, E-mail: yuusuke@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Shibata, Toshiya, E-mail: ksj@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Togashi, Kaori, E-mail: ktogashi@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, 54 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 {+-} 1.0 min (mean {+-} standard deviation), 5.9 {+-} 0.8 min, and 5.8 {+-} 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  4. Non-contrast-enhanced hepatic MR angiography: Do two-dimensional parallel imaging and short tau inversion recovery methods shorten acquisition time without image quality deterioration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Kotaro; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Tomohisa; Kamae, Toshikazu; Arizono, Shigeki; Hirokawa, Yuusuke; Shibata, Toshiya; Togashi, Kaori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study whether shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization is feasible without image quality deterioration by adopting two-dimensional (2D) parallel imaging (PI) and short tau inversion recovery (STIR) methods. Materials and methods: Twenty-four healthy volunteers were enrolled. 3D true steady-state free-precession imaging with a time spatial labeling inversion pulse was conducted using 1D or 2D-PI and fat suppression by chemical shift selective (CHESS) or STIR methods. Three groups of different scan conditions were assigned and compared: group A (1D-PI factor 2 and CHESS), group B (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and CHESS), and group C (2D-PI factor 2 x 2 and STIR). The artery-to-liver contrast was quantified, and the quality of artery visualization and overall image quality were scored. Results: The mean scan time was 9.5 ± 1.0 min (mean ± standard deviation), 5.9 ± 0.8 min, and 5.8 ± 0.5 min in groups A, B, and C, respectively, and was significantly shorter in groups B and C than in group A (P < 0.01). The artery-to-liver contrast was significantly better in group C than in groups A and B (P < 0.01). The scores for artery visualization and overall image quality were worse in group B than in groups A and C. The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05) regarding the arterial branches of segments 4 and 8. Between group A and group C, which had similar scores, there were no statistically significant differences. Conclusion: Shortening the acquisition time for selective hepatic artery visualization was feasible without deterioration of the image quality by the combination of 2D-PI and STIR methods. It will facilitate using non-contrast-enhanced MRA in clinical practice.

  5. Two-dimensional power Doppler-three-dimensional ultrasound imaging of a cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royo Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An imaging diagnosis after an iterative cesarean delivery is reviewed demonstrating a fine ultrasound-pathologic correlation. Case presentation A 33-year-old woman (G3, P3 presented referring intense dysmenorrhea and intermenstrual spotting since her third cesarean delivery, 1 year before. A cesarean section dehiscence with utero-peritoneal fistula was diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Conclusion We can conclude that transvaginal two-dimensional power Doppler and three-dimensional ultrasound are highly accurate in detecting cesarean section dehiscence and uterine fistula.

  6. Spot quantification in two dimensional gel electrophoresis image analysis: comparison of different approaches and presentation of a novel compound fitting algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Various computer-based methods exist for the detection and quantification of protein spots in two dimensional gel electrophoresis images. Area-based methods are commonly used for spot quantification: an area is assigned to each spot and the sum of the pixel intensities in that area, the so-called volume, is used a measure for spot signal. Other methods use the optical density, i.e. the intensity of the most intense pixel of a spot, or calculate the volume from the parameters of a fitted function. Results In this study we compare the performance of different spot quantification methods using synthetic and real data. We propose a ready-to-use algorithm for spot detection and quantification that uses fitting of two dimensional Gaussian function curves for the extraction of data from two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) images. The algorithm implements fitting using logical compounds and is computationally efficient. The applicability of the compound fitting algorithm was evaluated for various simulated data and compared with other quantification approaches. We provide evidence that even if an incorrect bell-shaped function is used, the fitting method is superior to other approaches, especially when spots overlap. Finally, we validated the method with experimental data of urea-based 2-DE of Aβ peptides andre-analyzed published data sets. Our methods showed higher precision and accuracy than other approaches when applied to exposure time series and standard gels. Conclusion Compound fitting as a quantification method for 2-DE spots shows several advantages over other approaches and could be combined with various spot detection methods. The algorithm was scripted in MATLAB (Mathworks) and is available as a supplemental file. PMID:24915860

  7. In situ Charge Density Imaging of Metamaterials made with Switchable Two dimensionalElectron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    engineering of complex oxide systems. This work has been accepted for publication in Nature Nanotechnology (“Direct Imaging of the Electron Liquid at Oxide...mail address: eom@engr.wisc.edu - Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison - Mailing Address: 2166 ECB, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706...Interfaces” K. Song et al., in press, Nature Nanotechnology (2018)) Figure 1. Direct imaging of the 2DELs at oxide interfaces. a, b, 2-D surface

  8. A Novel Sidelobe Reduction Algorithm Based on Two-Dimensional Sidelobe Correction Using D-SVA for Squint SAR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sidelobe reduction is a very primary task for synthetic aperture radar (SAR images. Various methods have been proposed for broadside SAR, which can suppress the sidelobes effectively while maintaining high image resolution at the same time. Alternatively, squint SAR, especially highly squint SAR, has emerged as an important tool that provides more mobility and flexibility and has become a focus of recent research studies. One of the research challenges for squint SAR is how to resolve the severe range-azimuth coupling of echo signals. Unlike broadside SAR images, the range and azimuth sidelobes of the squint SAR images no longer locate on the principal axes with high probability. Thus the spatially variant apodization (SVA filters could hardly get all the sidelobe information, and hence the sidelobe reduction process is not optimal. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm called double spatially variant apodization (D-SVA for better sidelobe suppression. Satisfactory sidelobe reduction results are achieved with the proposed algorithm by comparing the squint SAR images to the broadside SAR images. Simulation results also demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Use of a highly sensitive two-dimensional luminescence imaging system to monitor endogenous bioluminescence in plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Henry Michel

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All living organisms emit spontaneous low-level bioluminescence, which can be increased in response to stress. Methods for imaging this ultra-weak luminescence have previously been limited by the sensitivity of the detection systems used. Results We developed a novel configuration of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD for 2-dimensional imaging of light emission from biological material. In this study, we imaged photon emission from plant leaves. The equipment allowed short integration times for image acquisition, providing high resolution spatial and temporal information on bioluminescence. We were able to carry out time course imaging of both delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from whole leaves, and of low level wound-induced luminescence that we showed to be localised to sites of tissue damage. We found that wound-induced luminescence was chlorophyll-dependent and was enhanced at higher temperatures. Conclusions The data gathered on plant bioluminescence illustrate that the equipment described here represents an improvement in 2-dimensional luminescence imaging technology. Using this system, we identify chlorophyll as the origin of wound-induced luminescence from leaves.

  10. Details of 1π sr wide acceptance angle electrostatic lens for electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analysis combined with real space imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, László; Matsuda, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Fumihiko; Goto, Kentaro; Daimon, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new 1π sr Wide Acceptance Angle Electrostatic Lens (WAAEL), which works as a photoemission electron microscope (PEEM), a highly sensitive display-type electron energy and two-dimensional angular distribution analyzer. It can display two-dimensional angular distributions of charged particles within the acceptance angle of ±60° that is much larger than the largest acceptance angle range so far and comparable to the display-type spherical mirror analyzer developed by Daimon et al. . It has good focusing capabilities with 5-times magnification and 27(4) μm lateral-resolution. The relative energy resolution is typically from 2 to 5×10 -3 depending on the diameter of energy aperture and the emission area on the sample. Although, the lateral resolution of the presented lens is far from those are available nowadays, but this is the first working model that can form images using charged particles collected from 1π sr wide acceptance angle. The realization of such lens system is one of the first possible steps towards reaching the field of imaging type atomic resolution electron microscopy Feynman et al. Here some preliminary results are shown.

  11. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  12. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  13. An index of beam hardening artifact for two-dimensional cone-beam CT tomographic images: establishment and preliminary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fusong; Lv, Peijun; Yang, Huifang; Wang, Yong; Sun, Yuchun

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Based on the pixel gray value measurements, establish a beam-hardening artifacts index of the cone-beam CT tomographic image, and preliminarily evaluate its applicability. Methods: The 5mm-diameter metal ball and resin ball were fixed on the light-cured resin base plate respectively, while four vitro molars were fixed above and below the ball, on the left and right respectively, which have 10mm distance with the metal ball. Then, cone beam CT was used to scan the fixed base plate twice. The same layer tomographic images were selected from the two data and imported into the Photoshop software. The circle boundary was built through the determination of the center and radius of the circle, according to the artifact-free images section. Grayscale measurement tools were used to measure the internal boundary gray value G0, gray value G1 and G2 of 1mm and 20mm artifacts outside the circular boundary, the length L1 of the arc with artifacts in the circular boundary, the circumference L2. Hardening artifacts index was set A = (G1 / G0) * 0.5 + (G2 / G1) * 0.4 + (L2 / L1) * 0.1. Then, the A values of metal and resin materials were calculated respectively. Results: The A value of cobalt-chromium alloy material is 1, and resin material is 0. Conclusion: The A value reflects comprehensively the three factors of hardening artifacts influencing normal oral tissue image sharpness of cone beam CT. The three factors include relative gray value, the decay rate and range of artifacts.

  14. Comparative investigation of two-dimensional imaging methods and X-ray tomography in the characterization of microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacaicoa, Inigo; Luetje, Martin [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Materials Engineering, Quality and Reliability; Saelzer, Philipp [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Abt. Materialentwicklung und Verbundwerkstoffe; Umbach, Cristin [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Structural Engineering; Brueckner-Foit, Angelika [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Materials Engineering; Heim, Hans-Peter [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Plastics Engineering; Middendorf, Bernhard [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Building Materials and Construction Chemistry

    2017-11-01

    The microstructural features of three different materials have been quantified by means of 2D image analysis and X-ray micro-computer tomography (CT) and the results were compared to determine the reliability of the 2D analysis in the material characterization. The 3D quantification of shrinkage pores and Fe-rich inclusions of an Al-Si-Cu alloy by X-ray tomography was compared with the statistical analysis of the 2D metallographic pictures and a significant difference in the results was found due to the complex morphology of shrinkage pores and Fe-rich particles. Furthermore, wood particles of a wood-plastic composite were measured by dynamic image analysis and X-ray tomography. Similar results were obtained for the maximum length of the particles, although the results of width differ considerably, which leads to a miscalculation of the particles aspect ratio. Finally, air voids of a foam concrete were investigated by the analysis of the 2D pictures in ImageJ and the results of the 2D circularity were compared with the values of the 3D elongation obtained by micro-computed tomography. The 3D analysis of the air voids in the foam concrete showed a more precise description of the morphology, although the 2D result are in good agreement with the results obtained by X-ray micro-tomography.

  15. Comparative investigation of two-dimensional imaging methods and X-ray tomography in the characterization of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaicoa, Inigo; Luetje, Martin; Saelzer, Philipp; Umbach, Cristin; Brueckner-Foit, Angelika; Heim, Hans-Peter; Middendorf, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The microstructural features of three different materials have been quantified by means of 2D image analysis and X-ray micro-computer tomography (CT) and the results were compared to determine the reliability of the 2D analysis in the material characterization. The 3D quantification of shrinkage pores and Fe-rich inclusions of an Al-Si-Cu alloy by X-ray tomography was compared with the statistical analysis of the 2D metallographic pictures and a significant difference in the results was found due to the complex morphology of shrinkage pores and Fe-rich particles. Furthermore, wood particles of a wood-plastic composite were measured by dynamic image analysis and X-ray tomography. Similar results were obtained for the maximum length of the particles, although the results of width differ considerably, which leads to a miscalculation of the particles aspect ratio. Finally, air voids of a foam concrete were investigated by the analysis of the 2D pictures in ImageJ and the results of the 2D circularity were compared with the values of the 3D elongation obtained by micro-computed tomography. The 3D analysis of the air voids in the foam concrete showed a more precise description of the morphology, although the 2D result are in good agreement with the results obtained by X-ray micro-tomography.

  16. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Interrupted Aortic Arch Type A by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography and Four-Dimensional Echocardiography with B-Flow Imaging and Spatiotemporal Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Weidong; Sun, Feifei; Guo, Yajun; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yu; Huang, Liping; Cai, Ailu

    2016-01-01

    Fetal interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare cardiac anomaly and its prenatal diagnosis is challenging. The purpose of our report is to evaluate the use of two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and 4D echocardiography with B-flow imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation (4D BF-STIC) in detecting IAA type A (IAA-A). Twenty-three cases of confirmed IAA-A identified by fetal echocardiography were involved in the study. The fetal echocardiography image data were reviewed to analyze the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) diameter, the ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta (MPA/AAO) diameter, and the correlation of RV/LV diameter ratio and size of ventricular septal defect (VSD). 4D BF-STIC was performed in 21 fetuses using the sagittal view (4D BF-STIC-sagittal) and the four-chamber view (4D BF-STIC-4CV) as initial planes of view. An additional 183 normal fetuses were also included in our study. RV/LV and MPA/AAO ratios were calculated and compared with that of IAA-A fetuses. Fetal 2DE, 4D BF-STIC-sagittal, and 4D BF-STIC-4CV were used to visualize the aortic arch and its associated neck vessels. Six subgroups were evaluated according to gestational age. Fetal 2DE, 4D BF-STIC-sagittal, and 4D BF-STIC-4CV made the correct prenatal diagnosis of IAA-A in 19/23 (82.6%), 14/21 (66.7%), and 19/21 (90.5%) of patients, respectively. A significantly enlarged MPA combined with symmetric ventricles was found in the IAA-A fetuses, while the size of the VSD was negatively correlated with RV/LV ratio. 4D BF-STIC-sagittal and 4D BF-STIC-4CV were better than traditional 2D ultrasound in detecting the aortic arch and neck vessels between 17 and 28 gestational weeks and 29 to 40 gestational weeks in normal fetuses. It is demonstrated that IAA-A could be diagnosed by traditional fetal echocardiography, while 4D technique could better display the anatomic structure and the spatial relationships of the great arteries. Use of volume reconstruction may

  18. Use of a Reflective Ultraviolet Imaging System (RUVIS) on Two-Dimensional Dust Impressions Created with Footwear on Multiple Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelson, Brian Aaron

    Footwear impression evidence in dust is often difficult to locate in ambient light and is a fragile medium that both collection and enhancement techniques can destroy or distort. The collection of footwear impression evidence always begins with non-destructive photographic techniques; however, current methods are limited to oblique lighting of the impression followed by an attempt to photograph in situ. For the vast majority of footwear impressions, an interactive collection method, and thus a potentially destructive procedure, is subsequently carried out to gather the evidence. Therefore, alternative non-destructive means for the preservation and enhancement of footwear impressions in dust merits further attention. Previous research performed with reflected ultraviolet (UV) photography and reflected ultraviolet imaging systems (RUVIS) has shown that there are additional non-destructive methodologies that can be applied to the search for and documentation of footwear impressions in dust. Unfortunately, these prior studies did not include robust comparisons to traditional oblique white light, instead choosing to focus on different UV wavelengths. This study, however, seeks to evaluate the use of a RUVIS device paired with a 254 nanometer (nm) UV light source to locate 2-D footwear impressions in dust on multiple substrates against standard oblique white light techniques and assess the visibility of the impression and amount of background interference present. The optimal angle of incident UV light for each substrate was also investigated. Finally, this study applied an image enhancement technique in order to evaluate its usefulness when looking at the visibility of a footwear impression and the amount of background interference present for enhanced white light and RUVIS pictures of footwear impressions in dust. A collection of eight different substrate types was gathered for investigation, including vinyl composition tile (VCT), ceramic tile, marble tile, magazine

  19. Analysis of Venusian Atmospheric Two-Dimensional Winds and Features Using Venus Express, Akatsuki, and Ground-Based Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Peralta, Javier; Gray, Candace L.; McGouldrick, Kevin; Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shigeto

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the horizontal dynamics of Venus’s atmosphere at cloud-top level. In particular, we focus on the atmospheric superrotation, in which the equatorial atmosphere rotates with a period of approximately 4-5 days (~60 times faster than the solid planet). The superrotation’s forcing and maintenance mechanisms remain to be explained. Temporal evolution of the zonal (latitudinal direction) wind could reveal the transport of energy and momentum in/out of the equatorial region, and eventually shed light on mechanisms that maintain the Venusian superrotation. As a first step, we characterize the zonal mean wind field of Venus between 2006 and 2013 in ultraviolet images captured by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on board the ESA Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft which observed Venus’s southern hemisphere. Our measurements show that, between 2006 and 2013, the westward wind speed at mid- to equatorial latitudes exhibit an increase of ~20 m/s; these results are consistent with previous studies by Kouyama et al. 2013 and Khatuntsev et al. 2013. The meridional component of the wind could additionally help us characterize large-scale cloud features and their evolution that may be connected to such superrotation. We also conduct ground-based observations contemporaneously with JAXA’s Akatsuki orbiter at the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM to extend our temporal coverage to present. Images we have captured at APO to date demonstrate that, even under unfavorable illumination, it is possible to see large features that could be used for large-scale feature tracking to be compared to images taken by Akatsuki. Our work has been supported by the following grants: NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NASA MUREP NNX15AQ03A, NSF AAG 1212216, and JAXA’s ITYF Fellowship.Kouyama, T. et al (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 37-46, doi:10.1029/2011JE004013.Khatuntsev et al. (2013), Icarus, 226, 140-158, doi

  20. High-definition resolution three-dimensional imaging systems in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: randomized comparative study with high-definition resolution two-dimensional systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hidefumi; Nakagawa, Ken; Usui, Yukio; Iwamura, Masatsugu; Ito, Akihiro; Miyajima, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Arai, Yoichi; Baba, Shiro; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging systems have been introduced worldwide for surgical instrumentation. A difficulty of laparoscopic surgery involves converting two-dimensional (2D) images into 3D images and depth perception rearrangement. 3D imaging may remove the need for depth perception rearrangement and therefore have clinical benefits. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized trial to compare the surgical outcome of 3D-high-definition (HD) resolution and 2D-HD imaging in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP), in order to determine whether an LRP under HD resolution 3D imaging is superior to that under HD resolution 2D imaging in perioperative outcome, feasibility, and fatigue. One-hundred twenty-two patients were randomly assigned to a 2D or 3D group. The primary outcome was time to perform vesicourethral anastomosis (VUA), which is technically demanding and may include a number of technical difficulties considered in laparoscopic surgeries. VUA time was not significantly shorter in the 3D group (26.7 min, mean) compared with the 2D group (30.1 min, mean) (p = 0.11, Student's t test). However, experienced surgeons and 3D-HD imaging were independent predictors for shorter VUA times (p = 0.000, p = 0.014, multivariate logistic regression analysis). Total pneumoperitoneum time was not different. No conversion case from 3D to 2D or LRP to open RP was observed. Fatigue was evaluated by a simulation sickness questionnaire and critical flicker frequency. Results were not different between the two groups. Subjective feasibility and satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the 3D group. Using a 3D imaging system in LRP may have only limited advantages in decreasing operation times over 2D imaging systems. However, the 3D system increased surgical feasibility and decreased surgeons' effort levels without inducing significant fatigue.

  1. Two-dimensional imaging of edge plasma electron density and temperature by the passive helium emission ratio technique in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E; Guasp, J

    2011-01-01

    An intensified visible camera looks tangentially at a poloidal limiter where helium recycles, acting as a wide neutral source, and the atomic line emission due to plasma excitation becomes strongly localized there. It includes a bifurcated coherent bundle, each end with a different interference filter to select helium atomic lines, so that two simultaneous filtered images are captured in one single frame. The object of the proposed technique is to apply the well-known helium-beam line-ratio technique to obtain from selected filtered images the two-dimensional (2D) edge plasma n e and T e . The code EIRENE was used to demonstrate that the helium emission from recycling neutrals dominates the emission for the lines of view passing close above the limiter. Since these chords are nearly parallel to magnetic field lines in the emission region, the images can be approximated to poloidal cuts of the plasma emission within the tolerances discussed in the paper. The absolute radial profiles of T e and n e obtained with the method presented here were checked in the TJ-II stellarator to be in relatively good agreement with other diagnostics within a wide range of plasma parameters for both ECRH and NBI plasmas. The method is finally used to get 2D images of edge plasma T e and n e .

  2. A quantitative analysis of two-dimensional manually segmented transrectal ultrasound axial images in planning high dose rate brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabić-Stanković Kata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Prostate delineation, pre-planning and catheter implantation procedures, in high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT, are commonly based on the prostate manually segmented transrectal ultrasound (TRUS images. The aim of this study was to quantitatively analyze the consistency of prostate capsule delineation, done by a single therapist, prior to each HDR-BT fraction and the changes in the shape of the prostate capsule during HDR-BT, using two dimensional (2D TRUS axial image. Methods. A group of 16 patients were treated at the Medical System Belgrade Brachytherapy Department with definitive HDRBT. The total applied median dose of 52 Gy was divided into four individual fractions, each fraction being delivered 2– 3 weeks apart. Real time prostate axial visualization and the manual segmentation prior to each fraction were performed using B-K Medical ultrasound. Quantitative analyses, analysis of an area and shape were applied on 2D-TRUS axial images of the prostate. Area analyses were used to calculate the average value of the cross-sectional area of the prostate image. The parameters of the prostate shape, the fractal dimension and the circularity ratio of the prostate capsule contour were estimated at the maximum axial cross section of the prostate image. Results. The sample group consisted of four phases, each phase being performed prior to the first, second, third and fourth HDR-BT fraction, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that during HDR-BT fractions there were no significant differences in the average value of area, as well as in the maximum shape of prostate capsule. Conclusions. Quantitative analysis of TRUS axial prostate segmented images shows a successful capsule delineation in the series of manually segmented TRUS images, and the prostate maximum shape remaining unchanged during HDR-BT fractions.

  3. Real-time two-dimensional imaging of potassium ion distribution using an ion semiconductor sensor with charged coupled device technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Toshiaki; Masaki, Yoshitomo; Atsumi, Kazuya; Kato, Ryo; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real-time observation of potassium ion distributions was achieved using an ion imaging device based on charge-coupled device (CCD) and metal-oxide semiconductor technologies, and an ion selective membrane. The CCD potassium ion image sensor was equipped with an array of 32 × 32 pixels (1024 pixels). It could record five frames per second with an area of 4.16 × 4.16 mm(2). Potassium ion images were produced instantly. The leaching of potassium ion from a 3.3 M KCl Ag/AgCl reference electrode was dynamically monitored in aqueous solution. The potassium ion selective membrane on the semiconductor consisted of plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) with bis(benzo-15-crown-5). The addition of a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane to the plasticized PVC membrane greatly improved adhesion of the membrane onto Si(3)N(4) of the semiconductor surface, and the potential response was stabilized. The potential response was linear from 10(-2) to 10(-5) M logarithmic concentration of potassium ion. The selectivity coefficients were K(K(+),Li(+))(pot) = 10(-2.85), K(K(+),Na(+))(pot) = 10(-2.30), K(K(+),Rb(+))(pot) =10(-1.16), and K(K(+),Cs(+))(pot) = 10(-2.05).

  4. Effects of antithrombotic drugs in patients with left ventricular thrombi: assessment with indium-111 platelet imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, J.R.; Ritchie, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with left ventricular thrombi not caused by recent myocardial infarction were prospectively studied by indium-111 platelet imaging and two-dimensional echocardiography to determine the reproducibility of these techniques and the short-term effects of sulfinpyrazone (200 mg four times daily), aspirin (325 mg three times daily) plus dipyridamole (75 mg three times daily), and full-dose warfarin. At baseline, all patients underwent indium-111 platelet imaging and echocardiography, and the results were positive for thrombus. In six patients on no antithrombotic drug therapy, repeat platelet scans and echocardiographic studies at 6.0 +/- 3.3 weeks remained positive and were unchanged. In seven patients studied on sulfinpyrazone, three platelet scans became negative, two became equivocal, and two were unchanged; the presence and size of thrombus was constant by echocardiography in all seven patients. Of the six patients studied on aspirin plus dipyridamole, one platelet scan became negative, those of three became equivocal, and two were unchanged; all echocardiographic findings remained positive, but one patient had decreased thrombus size. Among four warfarin-treated patients, three had resolution of platelet deposition and one was unchanged; by echocardiography, thrombus resolved in one patient, was decreased in size in one, and was unchanged in two. We conclude that, in the absence of antithrombotic drug therapy, platelet imaging and echocardiographic findings are stable in patients with left ventricular thrombi not caused by recent myocardial infarction. Sulfinpyrazone, aspirin plus dipyridamole, and warfarin all interrupt platelet deposition in some patients with chronic left ventricular thrombi

  5. Two-dimensional optical simulation on a visible ray passing through inter-metal dielectric layers of CMOS image sensor device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan-Gyu; Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jeen; Kim, Sang-Young; Hwang, Sung-Bo; Lee, Jeong-Gun

    2005-01-01

    Two-dimensional optical simulation has been performed for investigating light propagation through a micro lens and inter-metal dielectric (IMD) layers in an Al and Cu back-end of line (BEOL) onto a Si photodiode, and its effects on the wave power, as well as optical carriers generated by a visible ray in the silicon substrate area, i.e. photodiode of a CMOS image sensor pixel. The number of optically generated carriers in an Al-BEOL has been compared to a Cu-BEOL. It is shown that more optical carriers are generated in the Cu-BEOL for the red color because a higher permittivity dielectric material like SiC is used in the Cu-BEOL to prevent Cu from diffusing into the dielectric material, resulting in higher optical loss in the higher- permittivity dielectric layers. Thus, the optical power density arriving in the silicon substrate is higher in the Al-BEOL than in the Cu-BEOL when the wavelength is blue (470 nm) or green (550 nm) in the visible ray spectrum. In conclusion, the structure of a Cu-BEOL in a CMOS image sensor has to be optimized for generating more optical carriers through lower-permittivity IMD materials or by reducing the permittivity difference between SiC (or SiN) and IMD materials, without deteriorating the capability as a barrier to Cu diffusion.

  6. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Atsushi

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  7. Two-dimensional micro-beam imaging of trace elements in a single plankton measured by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi [Tokyo Univ. of Science, Faculty of Science, Tokyo (Japan); Terada, Yasuko [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Inst., Mikazuki, Hyogo (Japan); Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi [Tokyo Univ., Ocean Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Hagiwara, Atsushi [Nagasaki Univ., Graduate School of Science and Technology, Bunkyou, Nagasaki (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)

  8. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author)

  9. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author).

  10. Fetal cardiac stroke volume determination by four-dimensional ultrasound with spatio-temporal image correlation compared with two-dimensional and Doppler ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Giuseppe; Capponi, Alessandra; Cavicchioni, Ottavia; Vendola, Marianne; Arduini, Domenico

    2007-12-01

    To assess the agreement of stroke volume (SV) measured with two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonography with Doppler capability (vs) four-dimensional (4D) with spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) in normal and growth restricted fetuses. 2D Doppler and 4D STIC were used to measure SV of 40 normal fetuses at 20 to 22 and 28 to 32 weeks, and 16 growth-restricted fetuses at 26 to 34 weeks of gestation. Intraclass correlation was used to evaluate the agreement between left and right SV obtained by the two techniques, and proportionate Bland-Altman plots constructed. The time necessary to obtain SV was analyzed. The intraclass correlation coefficient between 2D Doppler and 4D STIC measurements for the left ventricle were 0.977 and 0.980 for the right ventricle. The proportionate limits of agreement between the two methods were 18.7 to 23.9% for the left ventricle and - 20.9 to 21.7% for the right ventricle. The time necessary to measure SV was significantly shorter with 4D STIC (3.1 (vs) 7.9 min p < 0.0001) than with 2D Doppler. There is a good agreement between SV measured either by 2D Doppler or by 4D STIC. The 4D STIC represents a simple and rapid technique to estimate fetal SV and promises to become the method of choice. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Assessment of mitral apparatus in patients with acute inferoposterior myocardial infarction and ischaemic mitral regurgitation with two-dimensional echocardiography from anatomically correct imaging planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mėlinytė, Karolina; Valuckiene, Živile; Jurkevičius, Renaldas

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is associated with adverse prognosis after myocardial infarction (MI) as a result of left ventricular remodelling and geometric deformation of the mitral apparatus (MA). The aim of this study was to assess MA from anatomically correct imaging planes in acute inferoposterior MI and IMR. Ninety-three patients with no structural cardiac valve abnormalities and the first acute inferoposterior MI were prospectively enrolled into the study. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography for MA assessment was performed within 48 h of presentation after reperfusion therapy. Based on the degree of mitral regurgitation (MR), patients were divided into either a no significant MR (NMR) group (n = 52 with no or mild, grade 0-I MR) or an IMR group (n = 41 with grade ≥ 2 MR). The control group consisted of 45 healthy individuals. Ischaemic MR was related with dilatation of the left ventricle chambers, decrease in ejection fraction, increase in mitral annulus diameter and area, and changes in subvalvular apparatus when compared with the NMR group or healthy individuals. Ischaemic MR in acute inferoposterior MI is related with worse lesions in MA geometry that cause insufficiency of mitral valve function.

  12. Melanie II--a third-generation software package for analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis images: I. Features and user interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, R D; Palagi, P M; Walther, D; Vargas, J R; Sanchez, J C; Ravier, F; Pasquali, C; Hochstrasser, D F

    1997-12-01

    Although two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) computer analysis software packages have existed ever since 2-DE technology was developed, it is only now that the hardware and software technology allows large-scale studies to be performed on low-cost personal computers or workstations, and that setting up a 2-DE computer analysis system in a small laboratory is no longer considered a luxury. After a first attempt in the seventies and early eighties to develop 2-DE analysis software systems on hardware that had poor or even no graphical capabilities, followed in the late eighties by a wave of innovative software developments that were possible thanks to new graphical interface standards such as XWindows, a third generation of 2-DE analysis software packages has now come to maturity. It can be run on a variety of low-cost, general-purpose personal computers, thus making the purchase of a 2-DE analysis system easily attainable for even the smallest laboratory that is involved in proteome research. Melanie II 2-D PAGE, developed at the University Hospital of Geneva, is such a third-generation software system for 2-DE analysis. Based on unique image processing algorithms, this user-friendly object-oriented software package runs on multiple platforms, including Unix, MS-Windows 95 and NT, and Power Macintosh. It provides efficient spot detection and quantitation, state-of-the-art image comparison, statistical data analysis facilities, and is Internet-ready. Linked to proteome databases such as those available on the World Wide Web, it represents a valuable tool for the "Virtual Lab" of the post-genome area.

  13. A comparison of left ventricular mass between two-dimensional echocardiography, using fundamental and tissue harmonic imaging, and cardiac MRI in patients with hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfakih, Khaled; Bloomer, Tim; Bainbridge, Samantha; Bainbridge, Gavin; Ridgway, John; Williams, Gordon; Sivananthan, Mohan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To compare left ventricular mass (LVM) as measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography using two different calculation methods: truncated ellipse (TE) and area length (AL), in both fundamental and tissue harmonic imaging frequencies, to LVM as measured by, the current gold standard, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Turbo gradient echo (TGE) pulse sequence was utilized for MRI. Materials and methods: Thirty-two subjects with history of hypertension were recruited. The images were acquired, contours were traced and the LVM was calculated for all four different echocardiography methods as well as for the cardiac MRI method. The intra-observer variabilities were calculated. The four different echocardiography methods were compared to cardiac MRI using the method described by Bland and Altman. Results: Twenty-five subjects had adequate paired data sets. The mean LVM as measured by cardiac MRI was 162±55 g and for the four different echocardiography methods were: fundamental AL 165±55 g, harmonic AL 168±53 g, fundamental TE 148±50 g, harmonic TE 149±45 g. The intra-observer variability for cardiac MRI method, expressed as bias ± 1 standard deviation of the difference (S.D.D.), was 2.3±9.2 g and for the four different echocardiography methods were: fundamental TE 0.4±26.8 g, fundamental AL 0.6±27.0 g, harmonic TE 6.7±21.8 g, harmonic AL 6.4±22.9 g. The mean LVM for the AL method was closest to the cardiac MRI technique, while TE underestimated LVM. The 95% limits of agreement were consistently wide for all the 2D echocardiography modalities when compared with the cardiac MRI technique. Conclusion: The intra-observer variability in measurements of 2D echocardiographic LVM, together with the wide limits of agreement when compared to the gold standard (cardiac MRI) are sufficiently large to make serial estimates of LVM, of single patients or small groups of subjects, by 2D echocardiography, unreliable

  14. Concordance and reproducibility between M-mode, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional strain imaging in the assessment of mitral annular displacement and velocity in patients with various heart conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Martina Chantal; Biering-Sorensen, Tor; Sogaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Mitral annular (MA) displacement reflects longitudinal left ventricular (LV) deformation and systolic velocity measurements reflect the rate of contraction; both are valuable in the diagnosis and prognosis of cardiac disease. The aim of this study was to test the agreement and reproducibility...... between motion mode (M-mode), colour tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), and two-dimensional strain imaging (2DSI) when measuring MA displacement and systolic velocity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using GE Healthcare Vivid 7 and E9 and Echopac BT11 software, MA displacement and velocity measurements by 2DSI, TDI...

  15. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  16. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  17. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  18. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  19. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  20. Three-dimensional susceptibility-weighted imaging and two-dimensional T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging of intratumoral hemorrhages in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebel, Ulrike; Sedlacik, Jan; Sabin, Noah D.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.; Patay, Zoltan; Kocak, Mehmet; Broniscer, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging (T2*-GRE) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in determining prevalence and cumulative incidence of intratumoral hemorrhages in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) undergoing antiangiogenic and radiation therapy. Patients were recruited from an institutional review board-approved prospective phase I trial of vandetanib administered in combination with radiation therapy. Patient consent was obtained before enrollment. Consecutive T2*-GRE and SWI exams of 17 patients (F/M: 9/8; age 3-17 years) were evaluated. Two reviewers (R1 and R2) determined the number and size of hemorrhages at baseline and multiple follow-ups (92 scans, mean 5.4/patient). Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, graphical tools, and mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Prevalence of hemorrhages at diagnosis was 41% and 47%; the cumulative incidences of hemorrhages at 6 months by T2*-GRE and SWI were 82% and 88%, respectively. Hemorrhages were mostly petechial; 9.7% of lesions on T2*-GRE and 5.2% on SWI were hematomas (>5 mm). SWI identified significantly more hemorrhages than T2*-GRE did. Lesions were missed or misinterpreted in 36/39 (R1/R2) scans by T2*-GRE and 9/3 scans (R1/R2) by SWI. Hemorrhages had no clinically significant neurological correlates in patients. SWI is more sensitive than T2*-GRE in detecting hemorrhages and differentiating them from calcification, necrosis, and artifacts. Also, petechial hemorrhages are more common in DIPG at diagnosis than previously believed and their number increases during the course of treatment; hematomas are rare. (orig.)

  1. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  2. Two dimensional echocardiography in mitral, aortic and tricuspid valve prolapse - The clinical problem, cardiac nuclear imaging considerations and a proposed standard for diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morganroth, J.; Jones, R.H.; Chen, C.C.; Naito, M.; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.; Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, N.C.)

    1980-01-01

    The mitral valve prolapse syndrome may present with a variety of clinical manifestations and has proved to be a common cause of nonspecific cardiac symptoms in clinical practice. Primary and secondary forms must be distinguished. Myxomatous degeneration appears to be the common denominator of the primary form. The diagnostic standard of this form has not previously been defined because the detection of mitral leaflet tissue in the left atrium (prolapse) on physical examination or angiography is nonspecific. M mode echocardiography has greatly enhanced the recognition of this syndrome but has not proved to be the best diagnostic standard because of its limited view of mitral valve motion. The advent of two-dimensional echocardiography has provided the potential means for specific identification of the mitral leaflet motion in systole and can be considered the diagnostic standard for this syndrome. Primary myxomatous degeneration with leaflet prolapse is not localized to the mitral valve. Two-dimensional echocardiography has detected in preliminary studies tricuspid valve prolapse in up to 50% and aortic valve prolapse in about 20% of patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse

  3. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  4. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  5. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  6. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  7. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  8. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  9. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  10. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  11. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  12. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  13. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  14. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  15. Two-dimensional XD-GRASP provides better image quality than conventional 2D cardiac cine MRI for patients who cannot suspend respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarski, Eve; Chitiboi, Teodora; Ramb, Rebecca; Latson, Larry A; Bhatla, Puneet; Feng, Li; Axel, Leon

    2018-02-01

    Residual respiratory motion degrades image quality in conventional cardiac cine MRI (CCMRI). We evaluated whether a free-breathing (FB) radial imaging CCMRI sequence with compressed sensing reconstruction [extradimensional (e.g. cardiac and respiratory phases) golden-angle radial sparse parallel, or XD-GRASP] could provide better image quality than a conventional Cartesian breath-held (BH) sequence in an unselected population of patients undergoing clinical CCMRI. One hundred one patients who underwent BH and FB imaging in a midventricular short-axis plane at a matching location were included. Visual and quantitative image analysis was performed by two blinded experienced readers, using a five-point qualitative scale to score overall image quality and visual signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) grade, with measures of noise and sharpness. End-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular areas were also measured and compared for both BH and FB images. Image quality was generally better with the BH cines (overall quality grade for BH vs FB images 4 vs 2.9, p XD-GRASP CCMRI was visually inferior to conventional BH CCMRI in general, it provided improved image quality in the subgroup of patients with respiratory-motion-induced artifacts on BH images.

  16. Serial change of 123I-BMIPP SPECT imaging during recovery from stunned myocardium after acute myocardial infarction. Correlation with 201Tl and two-dimensional echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Akira; Kondo, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Akiyama, Kiyozumi; Mori, Yoshihisa; Nosue, Yasuhiro; Makita, Toshinori; Tanio, Hitoshi; Shimono, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Using 123 I-β-methyl iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP), we investigated changes in myocardial fatty acid metabolism at recovery from stunned myocardium after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), correlation with recovery of regional wall motion and thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) distribution in particular. The subjects were 15 patients who underwent successful reperfusion therapy after the first onset of AMI. None of the patients had multi-vessel disease or ischemic episode during their clinical course. Patients underwent 123 I-BMIPP scintigraphy, 201 Tl scintigraphy and two-dimensional echocardiography during the acute and chronic phases. Then, we compared regional wall motion with distribution of 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl. Regional wall motion and SPECT were evaluated by the established 16 segment model. In patients, showing serial improvement in regional wall motion, there was 80.0% (8/10) showed normal 201 Tl distribution during the acute phase or normalized during the chronic phase. However, distribution of 123 I-BMIPP normalized only in 10.0% (1/10) of this group. In examination of each segment that showed serial improvement in regional wall motion, 92.3% (24/26) of these segments showed normal distribution of 201 Tl during the acute phase or normalized distribution during chronic phase, despite distribution of 123 I-BMIPP improved in only 3.8% (1/26) of these segments. These indicate that, in the process of recovery from myocardial stunning after AMI, abnormal distribution of 123 I-BMIPP continued longer than abnormal distribution of 201 Tl. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  18. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  19. A development of two-dimensional birefringence distribution measurement system with a sampling rate of 1.3 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takashi; Otani, Yukitoshi

    2014-03-01

    A two-dimensional birefringence distribution measurement system with a sampling rate of 1.3 MHz is proposed. A polarization image sensor is developed as core device of the system. It is composed of a pixelated polarizer array made from photonic crystal and a parallel read out circuit with a multi-channel analog to digital converter specialized for two-dimensional polarization detection. By applying phase shifting algorism with circularly-polarized incident light, birefringence phase difference and azimuthal angle can be measured. The performance of the system is demonstrated experimentally by measuring actual birefringence distribution and polarization device such as Babinet-Soleil compensator.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of the maxillary sinus prior to dental implant therapy: A comparison between two dimensional and three dimensional radiographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Fung, Karen; Thacker, Sejal; Mahdian, Mina; Jadhaw, Aniket; Schincaglia, Gian Pietro [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting sinus pathology. This study was based on a retrospective evaluation of patients who had undergone both a panoramic radiograph and a CBCT exam. A total of 100 maxillary sinuses were evaluated. Four examiners with various levels of expertise evaluated the images using a five-point scoring system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the two modalities. The image analysis was repeated twice, with at least two weeks between the evaluation sessions. Interobserver reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and intraobserver reliability was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Maxillary sinus pathology was detected in 72% of the patients. High interobserver and intraobserver reliability were observed for both imaging modalities and among the four examiners. Statistical analyses using ROC curves demonstrated that the CBCT images had a larger area under the curve (0.940) than the panoramic radiographs (0.579). Three-dimensional evaluation of the sinus with CBCT was significantly more reliable in detecting pathology than panoramic imaging.

  1. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  2. Two-dimensional and 3-D images of thick tissue using time-constrained times-of-flight and absorbance spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaron, David A.; Lennox, M.; Stevenson, David K.

    1992-05-01

    Reconstructing deep-tissue images in real time using spectrophotometric data from optically diffusing thick tissues has been problematic. Continuous wave applications (e.g., pulse oximetry, regional cerebral saturation) ignore both the multiple paths traveled by the photons through the tissue and the effects of scattering, allowing scalar measurements but only under limited conditions; interferometry works poorly in thick, highly-scattering media; frequency- modulated approaches may not allow full deconvolution of scattering and absorbance; and pulsed-light techniques allow for preservation of information regarding the multiple paths taken by light through the tissue, but reconstruction is both computation intensive and limited by the relative surface area available for detection of photons. We have developed a picosecond times-of-flight and absorbance (TOFA) optical system, time-constrained to measure only photons with a narrow range of path lengths and arriving within a narrow angel of the emitter-detector axis. The delay until arrival of the earliest arriving photons is a function of both the scattering and absorbance of the tissues in a direct line between the emitter and detector, reducing the influence of surrounding tissues. Measurement using a variety of emitter and detector locations produces spatial information which can be analyzed in a standard 2-D grid, or subject to computer reconstruction to produce tomographic images representing 3-D structure. Using such a technique, we have been able to demonstrate the principles of tc-TOFA, detect and localize diffusive and/or absorptive objects suspended in highly scattering media (such as blood admixed with yeast), and perform simple 3-D reconstructions using phantom objects. We are now attempting to obtain images in vivo. Potential future applications include use as a research tool, and as a continuous, noninvasive, nondestructive monitor in diagnostic imaging, fetal monitoring, neurologic and cardiac

  3. Repeatability of two-dimensional chemical shift imaging multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy for measuring human cerebral choline-containing compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Basant K; Egan, Mary; Wallis, Fintan; Jakeman, Philip

    2018-03-22

    To investigate the repeatability of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the in vivo measurement of human cerebral levels of choline-containing compounds (Cho). Two consecutive scans were carried out in six healthy resting subjects at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 T. On each occasion, neurospectroscopy data were collected from 64 voxels using the same 2D chemical shift imaging (CSI) sequence. The data were analyzed in the same way, using the same software, to obtain the values for each voxel of the ratio of Cho to creatine. The Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test, coefficient of variation (CV), repeatability coefficient (RC), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to assess the repeatability. The CV ranged from 2.75% to 33.99%, while the minimum RC was 5.68%. There was excellent reproducibility, as judged by significant ICC values, in 26 voxels. Just three voxels showed significant differences according to the Wilcoxon related-samples signed-rank test. It is therefore concluded that when CSI multivoxel proton neurospectroscopy is used to measure cerebral choline-containing compounds at 1.5 T, the reproducibility is highly acceptable.

  4. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  5. Flow evolution of a turbulent submerged two-dimensional rectangular free jet of air. Average Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualizations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zone of flow establishment contains a newly identified undisturbed region of flow. • In the undisturbed region of flow the velocity profile is similar to the exit one. • In undisturbed region of flow the height of average PIV visualizations is constant. • In the undisturbed region of flow the turbulence on the centerline is equal to exit. • Length of undisturbed region of flow decreases with Reynolds number increase. -- Abstract: The paper presents average flow visualizations and measurements, obtained with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, of a submerged rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2200, where the Reynolds number is defined according to the hydraulic diameter of a rectangular slot of height H. According to the literature, just after the exit of the jet there is a zone of flow, called zone of flow establishment, containing the region of mixing fluid, at the border with the stagnant fluid, and the potential core, where velocity on the centerline maintains a value almost equal to the exit one. After this zone is present the zone of established flow or fully developed region. The goal of the paper is to show, with average PIV visualizations and measurements, that, before the zone of flow establishment is present a region of flow, never mentioned by the literature and called undisturbed region of flow, with a length, L U , which decreases with the increase of the Reynolds number. The main characteristics of the undisturbed region is the fact that the velocity profile maintains almost equal to the exit one, and can also be identified by a constant height of the average PIV visualizations, with length, L CH , or by a constant turbulence on the centerline, with length L CT . The average PIV velocity and turbulence measurements are compared to those performed with the Hot Film Anemometry (HFA) technique. The average PIV visualizations show that the region of constant height has

  6. Whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in monkeys and humans of the phosphodiesterase 4 radioligand [11C](R)-rolipram: comparison of two-dimensional planar, bisected and quadrisected image analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, David R.; Fujita, Masahiro; Ryu, Yong Hoon; Liow, Jeih-San; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: [ 11 C](R)-Rolipram is a selective radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of phosphodiesterase 4, an enzyme that metabolizes 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The aim of this study was to estimate the human radiation absorbed dose of the radioligand based on its biodistribution in both monkeys and humans. Methods: Whole-body PET images were acquired for 2 h after injecting [ 11 C](R)-rolipram in eight healthy humans and three monkeys. The simple method of using a single two-dimensional (2D) planar image was compared to more time-consuming methods that used two (bisected) or four (quadrisected) tomographic images in the anteroposterior direction. Results: Effective dose was 4.8 μGy/MBq based on 2D planar images. The effective dose was only slightly lower by 1% and 5% using the bisected and quadrisected images, respectively. Nevertheless, the two tomographic methods may have more accurately estimated the exposure of some organs (e.g., kidneys) that are asymmetrically located in the body or have radioactivity that appears to overlap on 2D planar images. Monkeys had a different biodistribution pattern compared to humans (e.g., greater urinary excretion) such that their data overestimated the effective dose in humans by 40%. Conclusions: The effective dose of [ 11 C](R)-rolipram was modest and comparable to that of other 11 C-labeled radioligands. The simple and far less time-consuming 2D planar method provided accurate and somewhat more conservative estimates of effective dose than the two tomographic methods. Although monkeys are commonly used to estimate human radiation exposures, their data gave a considerable overestimation for this radioligand

  7. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  8. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  9. Three-Dimensional Isotropic Fat-Suppressed Proton Density-Weighted MRI at 3 Tesla Using a T/R-Coil Can Replace Multiple Plane Two-Dimensional Sequences in Knee Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homsi, R; Gieseke, J; Luetkens, J A; Kupczyk, P; Maedler, B; Kukuk, G M; Träber, F; Agha, B; Rauch, M; Rajakaruna, N; Willinek, W; Schild, H H; Hadizadeh, D R

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate whether a 3 D proton density-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (PDwFS) of the knee is able to replace multiplanar 2D-PDwFS. 52 patients (26 men, mean age: 41.9 ± 14.5years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at 3.0 Tesla using a T/R-coil. The imaging protocol included 3 planes of 2D-PDwFS (acquisition time (AT): 6:40 min; voxel sizes: 0.40 - 0.63 × 0.44 - 0.89 × 3mm³) and a 3D-PDwFS (AT: 6:31 min; voxel size: 0.63 × 0.68 × 0.63mm³). Homogeneity of fat suppression (HFS), artifacts, and image sharpness (IS) were evaluated on a 5-point scale (5[excellent] - 1[non-diagnostic]). The sum served as a measure for the overall image quality (OIQ). Contrast ratios (CR) compared to popliteal muscle were calculated for the meniscus (MEN), anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL). In 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery, two radiologists evaluated the presence of meniscal, ligamental and cartilage lesions to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. The CR was higher in the ACL, PCL and MEN in 3D- PDwFS compared to 2D-PDwFS (p Tesla Using a T/R-Coil Can Replace Multiple Plane Two-Dimensional Sequences in Knee Imaging. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2016; 188: 949 - 956. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. The Convergence Acceleration of Two-Dimensional Fourier Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anry Nersessian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereby, the convergence acceleration of two-dimensional trigonometric interpolation for a smooth functions on a uniform mesh is considered. Together with theoretical estimates some numerical results are presented and discussed that reveal the potential of this method for application in image processing. Experiments show that suggested algorithm allows acceleration of conventional Fourier interpolation even for sparse meshes that can lead to an efficient image compression/decompression algorithms and also to applications in image zooming procedures.

  11. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  12. Quantitative optical mapping of two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Bjarke S.; Whelan, Patrick R.; Mackenzie, David M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The pace of two-dimensional materials (2DM) research has been greatly accelerated by the ability to identify exfoliated thicknesses down to a monolayer from their optical contrast. Since this process requires time-consuming and error-prone manual assignment to avoid false-positives from image...

  13. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  14. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  15. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathaki, P T; Constantinides, A G [Signal Processing Section, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2BT, UK (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging. 7 refs, 2 figs.

  16. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  17. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  18. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  19. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Thresholding using two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm in the luggage inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingyun; Cong Peng; Song Qi

    2006-01-01

    The authors present a new DR image segmentation method based on two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm. The authors use watershed algorithm to locate threshold on the vertical projection plane of two-dimensional histogram. This method is applied to the segmentation of DR images produced by luggage inspection system with DR-CT. The advantage of this method is also analyzed. (authors)

  1. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  2. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  3. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  4. Design of a reading test for low vision image warping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loshin, David S.; Wensveen, Janice; Juday, Richard D.; Barton, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    NASA and the University of Houston College of Optometry are examining the efficacy of image warping as a possible prosthesis for at least two forms of low vision - maculopathy and retinitis pigmentosa. Before incurring the expense of reducing the concept to practice, one would wish to have confidence that a worthwhile improvement in visual function would result. NASA's Programmable Remapper (PR) can warp an input image onto arbitrary geometric coordinate systems at full video rate, and it has recently been upgraded to accept computer-generated video text. We have integrated the Remapper with an SRI eye tracker to simulate visual malfunction in normal observers. A reading performance test has been developed to determine if the proposed warpings yield an increase in visual function; i.e., reading speed. We will describe the preliminary experimental results of this reading test with a simulated central field defect with and without remapped images.

  5. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  6. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  7. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  8. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  9. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  10. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  11. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  12. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  13. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  14. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  16. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  18. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  19. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  20. Initial performance of the two-dimensional 1024-channel amplifier array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tamura, Ken-ichi; Hiruta, Tatsuro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takashima, Takeshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the initial performance of a two-dimensional analog ASIC that has been developed to read out CdTe pixel detectors for the next-generation hard X-ray imager. The readout chip consists of a 32x32 matrix of identical 200μmx200μm pixel cells. Each readout cell contains a low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, three-stage pulse shaping amplifiers and a comparator circuit. Pulse processing circuits have been also designed to achieve lower power consumption for the space application. Analog outputs by injecting a test pulse have been obtained from 991 pixels out of 1024 pixels. The mean noise level is 297+/-29 electrons (rms) and power consumption is 110μW/pixel

  1. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  2. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  3. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  4. Two-dimensional PCA-based human gait identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyan; Wu, Rongteng

    2012-11-01

    It is very necessary to recognize person through visual surveillance automatically for public security reason. Human gait based identification focus on recognizing human by his walking video automatically using computer vision and image processing approaches. As a potential biometric measure, human gait identification has attracted more and more researchers. Current human gait identification methods can be divided into two categories: model-based methods and motion-based methods. In this paper a two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis and temporal-space analysis based human gait identification method is proposed. Using background estimation and image subtraction we can get a binary images sequence from the surveillance video. By comparing the difference of two adjacent images in the gait images sequence, we can get a difference binary images sequence. Every binary difference image indicates the body moving mode during a person walking. We use the following steps to extract the temporal-space features from the difference binary images sequence: Projecting one difference image to Y axis or X axis we can get two vectors. Project every difference image in the difference binary images sequence to Y axis or X axis difference binary images sequence we can get two matrixes. These two matrixes indicate the styles of one walking. Then Two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis(2DPCA) is used to transform these two matrixes to two vectors while at the same time keep the maximum separability. Finally the similarity of two human gait images is calculated by the Euclidean distance of the two vectors. The performance of our methods is illustrated using the CASIA Gait Database.

  5. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  6. Experimental two-dimensional quantum walk on a photonic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Zhen; Chen, Jing-Yuan; Gao, Jun; Sun, Ke; Wang, Chao-Yue; Lai, Peng-Cheng; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Wang, Yao; Qiao, Lu-Feng; Yang, Ai-Lin; Jin, Xian-Min

    2018-05-01

    Quantum walks, in virtue of the coherent superposition and quantum interference, have exponential superiority over their classical counterpart in applications of quantum searching and quantum simulation. The quantum-enhanced power is highly related to the state space of quantum walks, which can be expanded by enlarging the photon number and/or the dimensions of the evolution network, but the former is considerably challenging due to probabilistic generation of single photons and multiplicative loss. We demonstrate a two-dimensional continuous-time quantum walk by using the external geometry of photonic waveguide arrays, rather than the inner degree of freedoms of photons. Using femtosecond laser direct writing, we construct a large-scale three-dimensional structure that forms a two-dimensional lattice with up to 49 × 49 nodes on a photonic chip. We demonstrate spatial two-dimensional quantum walks using heralded single photons and single photon-level imaging. We analyze the quantum transport properties via observing the ballistic evolution pattern and the variance profile, which agree well with simulation results. We further reveal the transient nature that is the unique feature for quantum walks of beyond one dimension. An architecture that allows a quantum walk to freely evolve in all directions and at a large scale, combining with defect and disorder control, may bring up powerful and versatile quantum walk machines for classically intractable problems.

  7. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  8. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  9. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  10. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  11. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  12. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  13. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  14. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  15. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  16. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  17. Two dimensional polar display of cardiac blood pool SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Norinari; Machida, Kikuo; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Takishima, Teruo; Hasegawa, Noriko; Hashimoto, Masanori; Ohno, Ken

    1989-01-01

    A new method of ECG gated cardiac blood pool SPECT to illustrate the left ventricular (LV) wall motion in a single static image, two dimensional polar display (2DPD), was described. Circumferential profiles of the difference between end diastolic and end systolic short axis images of the LV were displayed in a similar way to the bull's eye plot of 201 Tl myocardial SPECT. The diagnoses by 2DPDs agreed with those by cinematic displays of ECG gated blood pool SPECT in 74 out of 84 segments (85.5%) of abnormal motion, and 155 out of 168 segments (80.3%) of normal motion. It is concluded that 2DPD can evaluate regional wall motion by a single static image in a significant number of patients, and is also useful in comparing with the bull's eye image of 201 Tl myorcardial SPECT. (orig.)

  18. Wigner functions from the two-dimensional wavelet group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Krasowska, A E; Murenzi, R

    2000-12-01

    Following a general procedure developed previously [Ann. Henri Poincaré 1, 685 (2000)], here we construct Wigner functions on a phase space related to the similitude group in two dimensions. Since the group space in this case is topologically homeomorphic to the phase space in question, the Wigner functions so constructed may also be considered as being functions on the group space itself. Previously the similitude group was used to construct wavelets for two-dimensional image analysis; we discuss here the connection between the wavelet transform and the Wigner function.

  19. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  20. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  1. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  2. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  3. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  4. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  5. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  6. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  7. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  8. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  9. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  10. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  11. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  12. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  13. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  14. Radiation imaging with optically read out GEM-based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunbauer, F. M.; Lupberger, M.; Oliveri, E.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; van Stenis, M.

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging sensors allow for high granularity optical readout of radiation detectors such as MicroPattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). Taking advantage of the high signal amplification factors achievable by MPGD technologies such as Gaseous Electron Multipliers (GEMs), highly sensitive detectors can be realised and employing gas mixtures with strong scintillation yield in the visible wavelength regime, optical readout of such detectors can provide high-resolution event representations. Applications from X-ray imaging to fluoroscopy and tomography profit from the good spatial resolution of optical readout and the possibility to obtain images without the need for extensive reconstruction. Sensitivity to low-energy X-rays and energy resolution permit energy resolved imaging and material distinction in X-ray fluorescence measurements. Additionally, the low material budget of gaseous detectors and the possibility to couple scintillation light to imaging sensors via fibres or mirrors makes optically read out GEMs an ideal candidate for beam monitoring detectors in high energy physics as well as radiotherapy. We present applications and achievements of optically read out GEM-based detectors including high spatial resolution imaging and X-ray fluorescence measurements as an alternative readout approach for MPGDs. A detector concept for low intensity applications such as X-ray crystallography, which maximises detection efficiency with a thick conversion region but mitigates parallax-induced broadening is presented and beam monitoring capabilities of optical readout are explored. Augmenting high resolution 2D projections of particle tracks obtained with optical readout with timing information from fast photon detectors or transparent anodes for charge readout, 3D reconstruction of particle trajectories can be performed and permits the realisation of optically read out time projection chambers. Combining readily available high performance imaging sensors with compatible

  15. Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarski, Anna; Schürer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Flügel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-04-01

    The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements.

  16. Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malarski, Anna; Schuerer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Fluegel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred

    2009-01-01

    The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements

  17. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  18. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  19. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  20. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  1. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  2. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  3. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  4. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  6. Ergotamine-derived dopamine agonists and left ventricular function in Parkinson patients: systolic and diastolic function studied by conventional echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging, and two-dimensional speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Vibeke Guldbrand; Poulsen, Steen Hvitfeldt; Dupont, Erik; Ostergaard, Karen; Safikhany, Gholamhossein; Egeblad, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    Ergot-derived dopamine agonists (EDDA) induce fibrotic heart valve disease. We aimed to investigate whether EDDA treatment also affects left ventricular (LV) function. Myocardial function was evaluated in 110 Parkinson patients [mean age (63.4 +/- 9.0 years)] treated for at least 6 months with either EDDA (n = 71) or non-EDDA (n = 39). LV ejection fraction did not differ between EDDA and non-EDDA patients [63 +/- 4% vs. 65 +/- 4% (ns)]. There was no difference in prevalence of diastolic dysfunction between EDDA and non-EDDA patients [7% vs. 8% (ns)]. Finally, averaged LV systolic myocardial strain and longitudinal displacement analysed by means of two-dimensional speckle tracking showed no difference between EDDA and non-EDDA patients [strain: 19 +/- 3% vs. 19 +/- 2% (ns) and longitudinal displacement: 12 +/- 2 mm vs. 12 +/- 2 mm (ns)]. Elevated p-NT-proBNP was found in 38% of EDDA patients and in 59% of non-EDDA patients (ns). In contrast to the well-established association between EDDA treatment and valvular fibrosis, EDDA did not have a detectable adverse impact on myocardial systolic and diastolic function.

  7. Two-Dimensional Impact Reconstruction Method for Rail Defect Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of train operating is seriously menaced by the rail defects, so it is of great significance to inspect rail defects dynamically while the train is operating. This paper presents a two-dimensional impact reconstruction method to realize the on-line inspection of rail defects. The proposed method utilizes preprocessing technology to convert time domain vertical vibration signals acquired by wireless sensor network to space signals. The modern time-frequency analysis method is improved to reconstruct the obtained multisensor information. Then, the image fusion processing technology based on spectrum threshold processing and node color labeling is proposed to reduce the noise, and blank the periodic impact signal caused by rail joints and locomotive running gear. This method can convert the aperiodic impact signals caused by rail defects to partial periodic impact signals, and locate the rail defects. An application indicates that the two-dimensional impact reconstruction method could display the impact caused by rail defects obviously, and is an effective on-line rail defects inspection method.

  8. Two-dimensional sparse wavenumber recovery for guided wavefields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Soroosh; Harley, Joel B.

    2018-04-01

    The multi-modal and dispersive behavior of guided waves is often characterized by their dispersion curves, which describe their frequency-wavenumber behavior. In prior work, compressive sensing based techniques, such as sparse wavenumber analysis (SWA), have been capable of recovering dispersion curves from limited data samples. A major limitation of SWA, however, is the assumption that the structure is isotropic. As a result, SWA fails when applied to composites and other anisotropic structures. There have been efforts to address this issue in the literature, but they either are not easily generalizable or do not sufficiently express the data. In this paper, we enhance the existing approaches by employing a two-dimensional wavenumber model to account for direction-dependent velocities in anisotropic media. We integrate this model with tools from compressive sensing to reconstruct a wavefield from incomplete data. Specifically, we create a modified two-dimensional orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm that takes an undersampled wavefield image, with specified unknown elements, and determines its sparse wavenumber characteristics. We then recover the entire wavefield from the sparse representations obtained with our small number of data samples.

  9. Filmless reading and digital imaging distribution with refering to physicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzko, M.; Nissen-Meyer, S.; Sprenger, D.

    1999-01-01

    In healthcare, cost effectiveness as well as the quality of examinations and procedures are subjected to quickly increasing expectations and demands: We like to demonstrate how the resulting challenges and problems can be met with implementation of modern information technology. Analysing the respective demands (pattern of quantities) and choosing the adequate technical solution/ technical approach, we found filmless reading and the usage of digital image distribution to communicate with referring physicians to be cost effective as well as of higher quality. Special attention should be paid to the rigorous maintenance of data security and access. Today's information technology allows individual adjustment to the respective size and requirements of a radiological department or practice for filmless reading and digital image distribution. Working with the systems as a matter of routine and using all of the expanding technological possibilities, an important improvement of service and quality can be achieved. Amortisation will be obtained despite high investments, due to the subsequent savings in personal- and enterprise costs. (orig.) [de

  10. Recognition of Equations Using a Two-Dimensional Stochastic Context-Free Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Philip A.

    1989-11-01

    We propose using two-dimensional stochastic context-free grammars for image recognition, in a manner analogous to using hidden Markov models for speech recognition. The value of the approach is demonstrated in a system that recognizes printed, noisy equations. The system uses a two-dimensional probabilistic version of the Cocke-Younger-Kasami parsing algorithm to find the most likely parse of the observed image, and then traverses the corresponding parse tree in accordance with translation formats associated with each production rule, to produce eqn I troff commands for the imaged equation. In addition, it uses two-dimensional versions of the Inside/Outside and Baum re-estimation algorithms for learning the parameters of the grammar from a training set of examples. Parsing the image of a simple noisy equation currently takes about one second of cpu time on an Alliant FX/80.

  11. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  12. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  13. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  14. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  15. Suspension and simple optical characterization of two-dimensional membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast, David B.; Knobel, Robert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a method for suspending two-dimensional crystal materials in an electronic circuit using an only photoresists and solvents. Graphene and NbSe2 are suspended tens of nanometers above metal electrodes with clamping diameters of several microns. The optical cavity formed from the membrane/air/metal structures enables a quick method to measure the number of layers and the gap separation using comparisons between the expected colour and optical microscope images. This characterization technique can be used with just an illuminated microscope with a digital camera which makes it adaptable to environments where other means of characterization are not possible, such as inside nitrogen glove boxes used in handling oxygen-sensitive materials.

  16. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Savran, Mona Meral; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...

  17. Wavelet analysis in two-dimensional tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkovets, Dimitry N.

    2002-02-01

    The diagnostic possibilities of wavelet-analysis of coherent images of connective tissue in its pathological changes diagnostics. The effectiveness of polarization selection in obtaining wavelet-coefficients' images is also shown. The wavelet structures, characterizing the process of skin psoriasis, bone-tissue osteoporosis have been analyzed. The histological sections of physiological normal and pathologically changed samples of connective tissue of human skin and spongy bone tissue have been analyzed.

  18. Haptic two-dimensional shape identification in children, adolescents, and young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overvliet, Krista E.; Krampe, Ralf Th

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the influence of image mediation (the process that translates tactile information into a visual image) on the development of haptic two-dimensional (2D) shape identification in 78 participants from five different age groups: preschoolers (4–5 years), first graders (6–7 years), fifth

  19. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges...

  20. Three-dimensional isotropic fat-suppressed proton density-weighted MRI at 3 tesla using a T/R-coil can replace multiple plane two-dimensional sequences in knee imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homsi, R.; Luetkens, J.A. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Gieseke, J. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    To evaluate whether a 3D proton density-weighted fat-suppressed sequence (PDwFS) of the knee is able to replace multiplanar 2D-PDwFS. 52 patients (26 men, mean age: 41.9±14.5 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the knee at 3.0 Tesla using a T/R-coil. The imaging protocol included 3 planes of 2D-PDwFS (acquisition time (AT): 6:40 min; voxel sizes: 0.40-0.63 x 0.44-0.89 x 3 mm{sup 3}) and a 3D-PDwFS (AT: 6:31 min; voxel size: 0.63 x 0.68 x 0.63 mm{sup 3}). Homogeneity of fat suppression (HFS), artifacts, and image sharpness (IS) were evaluated on a 5-point scale (5[excellent] - 1[non-diagnostic]). The sum served as a measure for the overall image quality (OIQ). Contrast ratios (CR) compared to popliteal muscle were calculated for the meniscus (MEN), anterior (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCL). In 13 patients who underwent arthroscopic knee surgery, two radiologists evaluated the presence of meniscal, ligamental and cartilage lesions to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection. The CR was higher in the ACL, PCL and MEN in 3D- PDwFS compared to 2D-PDwFS (p<0.01 for ACL and PCL; p=0.07 for MEN). Compared to 2D images, the OIQ was rated higher in 3D-PDwFS images (p<0.01) due to fewer artifacts and HFS despite the lower IS (p<0.01). The sensitivity and specificity of lesion detection in 3D- and 2D-PDwFS were similar. Compared to standard multiplanar 2D-PDwFS knee imaging, isotropic high spatial resolution 3D-PDwFS of the knee at 3.0T can be acquired with high image quality in a reasonable scan time. Multiplanar reformations in arbitrary planes may serve as an additional benefit of 3D-PDwFS.

  1. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  2. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  3. Investigational study of optical function materials for two-dimensional data processing; Nijigen joho shoriyo hikari kino zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper investigated/studied `space light modulation materials,` `dynamic hologram/memory materials,` `optical waveguide path materials,` etc. which become key materials in the high speed two dimensional processing. As to electrooptical materials proposed in this investigational study, the external electric field and the electric charges generated make quality of molecules themselves directly change to memory strong/weak signals of light. Therefore, the response velocity becomes less than a millionth of that of the liquid crystal display, and high speed which is needed for realtime moving image processing is anticipated. Hologram includes the phase information in addition to information on light strength. Therefore, it is a large capacity record medium and at the same time a record medium which can read/write two dimensional information as it is. With optical fiber, images cannot be transmitted as they are. Light waveguide path materials are those that accumulate roles of mirror and lens in a sheet of the material and construct a system which is strong in vibration, as optical parts connecting among materials for two dimensional data processing. 273 refs., 107 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Correlates of Reading Ability in Dysfluent and Non-Impaired Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Catherine; Shaywitz, Bennett; Holahan, John; Shaywitz, Sally; Marchione, Karen; Beaulieu, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Many children and adults have specific reading disabilities; insight into the brain structure underlying these difficulties is evolving from imaging. Previous research highlights the left temporal-parietal white matter as important in reading, yet the degree of involvement of other areas remains unclear. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and…

  5. Effect of Reading Ability and Internet Experience on Keyword-Based Image Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pei-Lan; Lin, Sunny S. J.; Sun, Chuen-Tsai

    2013-01-01

    Image searches are now crucial for obtaining information, constructing knowledge, and building successful educational outcomes. We investigated how reading ability and Internet experience influence keyword-based image search behaviors and performance. We categorized 58 junior-high-school students into four groups of high/low reading ability and…

  6. A Cognitive Semiotic Study of Students' Reading a Textless Image versus a Verbal Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roaa Hasan Ali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores fourth year college students'   content   retrieval from reading textless versus verbal images. Furthermore, it examines  the extent to which the respondents comprehend and understand them .The procedures include selecting an image from the internet, designing a written test with its rubrics and exposing it to jury members to ascertain its face validity. The data of this study were analyzed according to the adopted of Peirce's model (1931 of ' icon, index and symbol'. The researchers find out that most of the results were in favor of the verbal images, captions restrict readers' creativity to infer any additional message. Keywords: Content retrieval, Textless images, Verbal images

  7. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  8. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  9. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  10. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  11. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in bounded domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Heijst, van G.J.F.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we will discuss recent experimental and numerical results of quasi-two-dimensional decaying and forced Navier–Stokes turbulence in bounded domains. We will give a concise overview of developments in two-dimensional turbulence research, with emphasis on the progress made during the

  12. Functions of the digital image in Education: A methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image on instructional screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Milagros Azzato

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research goes through the instructional possibilities that reading and writing the digital image have in Education. Along these lines, we are presenting this research that looks for, on one hand, to develop a methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image, and on the other, to implement these methodologies in a course used as a study case and whose objective was to evaluate students' performance when writing screens for a learning object using the methodologies for reading and writing the digital image. The process for compiling date was based on the questionnaire technique, individual interviews and the analysis of course proposed activities. The application of the first questionnaire allowed us to determine students' knowledge level about the digital image before starting the course. The individual interview allowed us to determine the students' reading criteria gained after using the reading methodology for the digital image to analyse educational materials (Galavis, 2008; Azzato, 2009. The proposed activities for the course permitted us to value students' performance when reading and writing the digital image of a learning object. Finally, after course completion, the second questionnaire was applied in order to determine the students' acquired knowledge level about reading and writing an image on digital screens. The results obtained in each of the analysis allowed us to establish that the proposed methodologies were highly useful to write the educational image for the screens of each one of the learning objects created in the course.

  13. Temporal enhancement of two-dimensional color doppler echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentjev, Alexey B.; Settlemier, Scott H.; Perrin, Douglas P.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Shturts, Igor V.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.

    2016-03-01

    Two-dimensional color Doppler echocardiography is widely used for assessing blood flow inside the heart and blood vessels. Currently, frame acquisition time for this method varies from tens to hundreds of milliseconds, depending on Doppler sector parameters. This leads to low frame rates of resulting video sequences equal to tens of Hz, which is insufficient for some diagnostic purposes, especially in pediatrics. In this paper, we present a new approach for reconstruction of 2D color Doppler cardiac images, which results in the frame rate being increased to hundreds of Hz. This approach relies on a modified method of frame reordering originally applied to real-time 3D echocardiography. There are no previous publications describing application of this method to 2D Color Doppler data. The approach has been tested on several in-vivo cardiac 2D color Doppler datasets with approximate duration of 30 sec and native frame rate of 15 Hz. The resulting image sequences had equivalent frame rates to 500Hz.

  14. Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of CMC Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mital, Subodh K.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    A research program has been developed to quantify the effects of the microstructure of a woven ceramic matrix composite and its variability on the effective properties and response of the material. In order to characterize and quantify the variations in the microstructure of a five harness satin weave, chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) SiC/SiC composite material, specimens were serially sectioned and polished to capture images that detailed the fiber tows, matrix, and porosity. Open source quantitative image analysis tools were then used to isolate the constituents, from which two dimensional finite element models were generated which approximated the actual specimen section geometry. A simplified elastic-plastic model, wherein all stress above yield is redistributed to lower stress regions, is used to approximate the progressive damage behavior for each of the composite constituents. Finite element analyses under in-plane tensile loading were performed to examine how the variability in the local microstructure affected the macroscopic stress-strain response of the material as well as the local initiation and progression of damage. The macroscopic stress-strain response appeared to be minimally affected by the variation in local microstructure, but the locations where damage initiated and propagated appeared to be linked to specific aspects of the local microstructure.

  15. Value of tissue Doppler-derived Tei index and two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging derived longitudinal strain on predicting outcome of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Herrmann, Sebastian; Cikes, Maja; Ertl, Georg; Weidemann, Frank; Störk, Stefan; Nordbeck, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prognosis of patients with light-chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CA) is poor. Speckle tracking imaging (STI) derived longitudinal deformation parameters and Doppler-derived left ventricular (LV) Tei index are valuable predictors of outcome in patients with AL-CA. We estimated the prognostic utility of Tei index and deformation parameters in 58 comprehensively phenotyped patients with AL-CA after a median follow-up of 365 days (quartiles 121, 365 days). The primary end point was all-cause mortality. 19 (33%) patients died during follow-up. Tei index (0.89 ± 0.29 vs. 0.61 ± 0.16, p < 0.001) and E to global early diastolic strain rate ratio (E/GLSR dias ) were higher while global longitudinal systolic strain (GLS sys ) was lower in non-survivors than in survivors (all p < 0.05). Tei index, NYHA functional class, GLS sys and E/GLSR dias were independent predictors of all-cause mortality risk, and Tei index ≥0.9 (HR 7.01, 95% CI 2.43-20.21, p < 0.001) was the best predictor of poor outcome. Combining Tei index and GLS sys yielded the best results on predicting death within 1 year (100% with Tei index ≥0.9 and GLS sys ≤13%) or survival (95% with Tei index ≤0.9 and GLS sys ≥13%). We conclude that 1-year mortality risk in AL-CA patients can be reliably predicted using Tei index or deformation parameters, with combined analysis offering best performance.

  16. Two-dimensional readout system for radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional readout system has been provided for reading out locations of scintillations produced in a scintillation type radiation detector array wherein strips of scintillator material are arranged in a parallel planar array. Two sets of light guides are placed perpendicular to the scintillator strips, one on the top and one on the bottom to extend in alignment across the strips. Both the top and bottom guides are composed of a number of 90 0 triangular prisms with the lateral side forming the hypotenuse equal to twice the width of a scintillator strip. The prism system reflects light from a scintillation along one of the strips back and forth through adjacent strips to light pipes coupled to the outermost strips of the detector array which transmit light pulses to appropriate detectors to determine the scintillation along one axis. Other light pipes are connected to the end portions of the strips to transmit light from the individual strips to appropriate light detectors to indicate the particular strip activated, thereby determining the position of a scintillation along the other axis. The number of light guide pairs may be equal the number of the scintillation strips when equal spatial resolution for each of the two coordinates is desired. When the scintillator array detects an event which produces a scintillation along one of the strips, the emitted light travels along four different paths, two of which are along the strip, and two of which are through the light guide pair perpendicular to the strips until all four beams reach the outer edges of the array where they may be transmitted to light detectors by means of light pipes connected therebetween according to a binary code for direct digital readout. (U.S.)

  17. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Karaiskaj, D., E-mail: karaiskaj@usf.edu [Department of Physics, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Ave., Tampa, Florida 33620 (United States); Tokumoto, T.; Hilton, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294 (United States); Reno, J. L. [CINT, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The dephasing of the Fermi edge singularity excitations in two modulation doped single quantum wells of 12 nm and 18 nm thickness and in-well carrier concentration of ∼4 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} was carefully measured using spectrally resolved four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. Although the absorption at the Fermi edge is broad at this doping level, the spectrally resolved FWM shows narrow resonances. Two peaks are observed separated by the heavy hole/light hole energy splitting. Temperature dependent “rephasing” (S{sub 1}) 2DFT spectra show a rapid linear increase of the homogeneous linewidth with temperature. The dephasing rate increases faster with temperature in the narrower 12 nm quantum well, likely due to an increased carrier-phonon scattering rate. The S{sub 1} 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations. Distinct 2DFT lineshapes were observed for co-linear and cross-linear polarizations, suggesting the existence of polarization dependent contributions. The “two-quantum coherence” (S{sub 3}) 2DFT spectra for the 12 nm quantum well show a single peak for both co-linear and co-circular polarizations.

  19. Functional inks and printing of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guohua; Kang, Joohoon; Ng, Leonard W T; Zhu, Xiaoxi; Howe, Richard C T; Jones, Christopher G; Hersam, Mark C; Hasan, Tawfique

    2018-05-08

    Graphene and related two-dimensional materials provide an ideal platform for next generation disruptive technologies and applications. Exploiting these solution-processed two-dimensional materials in printing can accelerate this development by allowing additive patterning on both rigid and conformable substrates for flexible device design and large-scale, high-speed, cost-effective manufacturing. In this review, we summarise the current progress on ink formulation of two-dimensional materials and the printable applications enabled by them. We also present our perspectives on their research and technological future prospects.

  20. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  1. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  2. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  3. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  4. The blind student’s interpretation of two-dimensional shapes in geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani; Budayasa, I. K.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    The blind student’s interpretation of two-dimensional shapes represents the blind student’s mental image of two-dimensional shapes that they can’t visualize directly, which is related to illustration of the characteristics and number of edges and angles. The objective of this research is to identify the blind student’s interpretation of two-dimensional shapes. This research was an exploratory study with qualitative approach. A subject of this research is a sixth-grade student who experiencing total blind from the fifth grade of elementary school. Researchers interviewed the subject about his interpretation of two-dimensional shapes according to his thinking.The findings of this study show the uniqueness of blind students, who have been totally blind since school age, in knowing and illustrating the characteristics of edges and angles of two-dimensional shapes by utilizing visual experiences that were previously obtained before the blind. The result can inspire teachers to design further learning for development of blind student geometry concepts.

  5. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  6. Two-dimensional electronic femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogilvie J.P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We report two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with a femtosecond stimulated Raman scattering probe. The method reveals correlations between excitation energy and excited state vibrational structure following photoexcitation. We demonstrate the method in rhodamine 6G.

  7. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  8. Generalized similarity method in unsteady two-dimensional MHD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2009 ... temperature two-dimensional MHD laminar boundary layer of incompressible fluid. ...... Φ η is Blasius solution for stationary boundary layer on the plate,. ( ). 0.

  9. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei-Kai, Qi; Tao, Zhu; Yong, Chen; Ji-Rong, Ren

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  10. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  11. Study on two-dimensional induced signal readout of MRPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yucheng; Yue Qian; Li Yuanjing; Ye Jin; Cheng Jianping; Wang Yi; Li Jin

    2012-01-01

    A kind of two-dimensional readout electrode structure for the induced signal readout of MRPC has been studied in both simulation and experiments. Several MRPC prototypes are produced and a series of test experiments have been done to compare with the result of simulation, in order to verify the simulation model. The experiment results are in good agreement with those of simulation. This method will be used to design the two-dimensional signal readout mode of MRPC in the future work.

  12. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...prospects for a variety of emerging applications in a broad range of fields, such as electronics, energy conversion and storage, catalysis and polymer

  13. Dual-sided reading versus single-sided reading: comparison of image quality and radiation dose between the two computed radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Shaojuan; Qi Hengtao; Zhao Yongxia; Jiao Fanglian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided reading image plate (IP) and dual-sided reading IP. Methods: A contrast-detail phantom CDRAD 2.0 was exposed by single-sided and dual-sided reading IP with different mAs sets. The entrance surface doses were recorded for all images. Images were then presented to two radiologists on a high resolution monitor of diagnosis workstation. The image quality figure (IQF) was measured for each image. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearman's correlation test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test to compare the difference in image quality and exposure dose between single-sided IP and dual-sided reading IP. Results: With different tube current dosage of 5.6, 12.0, 20.0, 25.0, and 40.0 mAs, IQF values of single-sided reading IP were 47.95, 37.68, 34.31, 28.61, and 24.65, respectively, while those of dual- sided reading IP were 38.83, 29.81, 29.65, 25.16, and 21.43, respectively. The IQF difference between them showed statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion: Image quality of dual-sided reading IP has been proved to be far superior to that of single-sided reading IP, in particular for low contrast detail. The image quality of single-sided reading IP is similar to that of dual-sided reading IP only at high dose levels. The clinical application of dual-sided reading IP will reduce the exposure dose by about 25% compared with single-sided reading IP. (authors)

  14. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  15. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  16. Real-Time Two-Dimensional Imaging of Microbubble Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vignon, F.; Shi, W.T.; Powers, J.E.; Liu, J.; Drvol, L.; Lof, J.; Everbach, C.; Gao, S.; Xie, F.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound cavitation of microbubble contrast agents has a potentialfor therapeutic applications, including sonothrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. For safety, efficacy, and reproducibility of treatment, it is critical to evaluate the cavitation state (e.g. stable versus inertial forms of

  17. Imagens de Leitura na Literatura de Cordel (Images of Reading in "Cordel" Literature).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Luli

    1997-01-01

    Shows, in "Cordel" literature (a popular manifestation found in northeastern Brazil) an expressive source for the analysis of popular culture in Brazil. Uses this literature to discuss images of reading. (PA)

  18. Reduction of CMOS Image Sensor Read Noise to Enable Photon Counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidash, Michael; Ma, Jiaju; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2016-04-09

    Recent activity in photon counting CMOS image sensors (CIS) has been directed to reduction of read noise. Many approaches and methods have been reported. This work is focused on providing sub 1 e(-) read noise by design and operation of the binary and small signal readout of photon counting CIS. Compensation of transfer gate feed-through was used to provide substantially reduced CDS time and source follower (SF) bandwidth. SF read noise was reduced by a factor of 3 with this method. This method can be applied broadly to CIS devices to reduce the read noise for small signals to enable use as a photon counting sensor.

  19. The simulation of two-dimensional migration patterns - a novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, Heldio Pereira [Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica]|[Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    A novel approach to the problem of simulation of two-dimensional migration of solutes in saturated soils is presented. In this approach, the two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation is solved by finite-differences in a stepwise fashion, by employing the one-dimensional solution first in the direction of flow and then perpendicularly, using the same time increment in both cases. As the results of this numerical model were to be verified against experimental results obtained by radioactive tracer experiments, an attenuation factor, to account for the contribution of the gamma rays emitted by the whole plume of tracer to the readings of the adopted radiation detectors, was introduced into the model. The comparison between experimental and simulated concentration contours showed good agreement, thus establishing the feasibility of the approach proposed herein. (author) 6 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The simulation of two-dimensional migration patterns - a novel approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Heldio Pereira

    1997-01-01

    A novel approach to the problem of simulation of two-dimensional migration of solutes in saturated soils is presented. In this approach, the two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation is solved by finite-differences in a stepwise fashion, by employing the one-dimensional solution first in the direction of flow and then perpendicularly, using the same time increment in both cases. As the results of this numerical model were to be verified against experimental results obtained by radioactive tracer experiments, an attenuation factor, to account for the contribution of the gamma rays emitted by the whole plume of tracer to the readings of the adopted radiation detectors, was introduced into the model. The comparison between experimental and simulated concentration contours showed good agreement, thus establishing the feasibility of the approach proposed herein. (author)

  1. Performance of a malaria microscopy image analysis slide reading device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescott William R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viewing Plasmodium in Romanovsky-stained blood has long been considered the gold standard for diagnosis and a cornerstone in management of the disease. This method however, requires a subjective evaluation by trained, experienced diagnosticians and establishing proficiency of diagnosis is fraught with many challenges. Reported here is an evaluation of a diagnostic system (a “device” consisting of a microscope, a scanner, and a computer algorithm that evaluates scanned images of standard Giemsa-stained slides and reports species and parasitaemia. Methods The device was challenged with two independent tests: a 55 slide, expert slide reading test the composition of which has been published by the World Health Organization (“WHO55” test, and a second test in which slides were made from a sample of consenting subjects participating in a malaria incidence survey conducted in Equatorial Guinea (EGMIS test. These subjects’ blood was tested by malaria RDT as well as having the blood smear diagnosis unequivocally determined by a worldwide panel of a minimum of six reference microscopists. Only slides with unequivocal microscopic diagnoses were used for the device challenge, n = 119. Results On the WHO55 test, the device scored a “Level 4” using the WHO published grading scheme. Broken down by more traditional analysis parameters this result was translated to 89% and 70% sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Species were correctly identified in 61% of the slides and the quantification of parasites fell within acceptable range of the validated parasitaemia in 10% of the cases. On the EGMIS test it scored 100% and 94% sensitivity/specificity, with 64% of the species correct and 45% of the parasitaemia within an acceptable range. A pooled analysis of the 174 slides used for both tests resulted in an overall 92% sensitivity and 90% specificity with 61% species and 19% quantifications correct. Conclusions In its

  2. Efficient processing of two-dimensional arrays with C or C++

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, David I.

    2017-07-20

    Because fast and efficient serial processing of raster-graphic images and other two-dimensional arrays is a requirement in land-change modeling and other applications, the effects of 10 factors on the runtimes for processing two-dimensional arrays with C and C++ are evaluated in a comparative factorial study. This study’s factors include the choice among three C or C++ source-code techniques for array processing; the choice of Microsoft Windows 7 or a Linux operating system; the choice of 4-byte or 8-byte array elements and indexes; and the choice of 32-bit or 64-bit memory addressing. This study demonstrates how programmer choices can reduce runtimes by 75 percent or more, even after compiler optimizations. Ten points of practical advice for faster processing of two-dimensional arrays are offered to C and C++ programmers. Further study and the development of a C and C++ software test suite are recommended.Key words: array processing, C, C++, compiler, computational speed, land-change modeling, raster-graphic image, two-dimensional array, software efficiency

  3. Two-dimensional convolution subject to data-spreading algorithm. Report for August 1985-July 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y C; Wang, H C

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for two-dimensional convolution is proposed to be highly efficient and suitable for parallel processing, and a hardware of pipeline architecture is implemented to realize the algorithm. The implemented hardware is built on an IBM personal computer and acts as an auxiliary processor of the personal computer. This makes the dream come true that high speed, low-cost image processing is feasible on personal computers. The hardware executes two operations of two-dimensional convolution concurrently on an 256 x 256 image frame in less than 500 miniseconds. Several functions are available to users, and parameters such as weighting coefficients and threshold value are programmable. Various processing results of the image frame can be obtained by changing these parameters. Besides, horizontal and vertical edge detection can also be executed concurrently, with results available at the same time.

  4. To investigate the characteristics of two -dimensional images and color flow distribution of uterine fi-broids and uterine fibroids%子宫肌瘤和子宫腺肌瘤的二维图像及彩色血流分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金莉; 梁凤伟; 严富良; 温海群; 唐其满; 朱秀蕾

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察子宫肌瘤和子宫腺肌瘤的二维图像及彩色血流分布特点,提高两种疾病的诊断准确性。方法:随机选取进行子宫肌瘤和子宫腺肌瘤检查的患者各50例进行超声检查,观察子宫肌瘤和子宫腺肌瘤的二维图像特点,并对比二者的血流分布特点。结果:宫肌瘤的内部多为低回声,彩色多普勒显示周边环状血流信号,血流分布呈现高速低阻型特征。子宫腺肌瘤可在子宫肌层见异常病灶,其边界模糊,彩色多普勒显示散在血流信号,其血流分布呈高速高阻型,VS、VD、PI 以及 RI 均高于子宫肌瘤周边,且差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论:子宫肌瘤和子宫腺肌瘤的二维图像以及彩色血流分布特点有助于提高两种疾病诊断的准确性。%Objective To observe the characteristics of two -dimensional images and color flow distribution of uterine fibroids and uterine fibroids,and to improve the diagnostic accuracy of two kinds of diseases.Method 240 cases of uterine myoma and 50 cases of adenomyoma were selected they were checked with ultrasound,to observe the characteristics of two -dimensional image of uterine myoma and adenomyoma,and compared their blood flow distribution characteristics.Results The interior of the uterine fibroids was mostly low echo area,and the blood flow distribution showed the characteristics of high speed and low resist-ance.Uterine fibroids can be seen in the uterine muscular layer of abnormal lesions,its boundary fuzzy,the blood flow distribution was high speed and high resistance,VD,PI,VS and RI were higher than the uterine fibroids,and with statistical difference (P 0.05).Conclusion The two -dimensional images of uterine fibroids and uterine fibroids and color flow distribution characteris-tics are helpful to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of two kinds of diseases.

  5. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S B

    2018-02-23

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  6. Two-dimensional analytic weighting functions for limb scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawada, D. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    Through the inversion of limb scatter measurements it is possible to obtain vertical profiles of trace species in the atmosphere. Many of these inversion methods require what is often referred to as weighting functions, or derivatives of the radiance with respect to concentrations of trace species in the atmosphere. Several radiative transfer models have implemented analytic methods to calculate weighting functions, alleviating the computational burden of traditional numerical perturbation methods. Here we describe the implementation of analytic two-dimensional weighting functions, where derivatives are calculated relative to atmospheric constituents in a two-dimensional grid of altitude and angle along the line of sight direction, in the SASKTRAN-HR radiative transfer model. Two-dimensional weighting functions are required for two-dimensional inversions of limb scatter measurements. Examples are presented where the analytic two-dimensional weighting functions are calculated with an underlying one-dimensional atmosphere. It is shown that the analytic weighting functions are more accurate than ones calculated with a single scatter approximation, and are orders of magnitude faster than a typical perturbation method. Evidence is presented that weighting functions for stratospheric aerosols calculated under a single scatter approximation may not be suitable for use in retrieval algorithms under solar backscatter conditions.

  7. Two-dimensional model of a freely expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, Q.

    1975-01-01

    The free expansion of an initially confined plasma is studied by the computer experiment technique. The research is an extension to two dimensions of earlier work on the free expansion of a collisionless plasma in one dimension. In the two-dimensional rod model, developed in this research, the plasma particles, electrons and ions are modeled as infinitely long line charges or rods. The line charges move freely in two dimensions normal to their parallel axes, subject only to a self-consistent electric field. Two approximations, the grid approximation and the periodic boundary condition are made in order to reduce the computation time. In the grid approximation, the space occupied by the plasma at a given time is divided into boxes. The particles are subject to an average electric field calculated for that box assuming that the total charge within each box is located at the center of the box. However, the motion of each particle is exactly followed. The periodic boundary condition allows us to consider only one-fourth of the total number of particles of the plasma, representing the remaining three-fourths of the particles as symmetrically placed images of those whose positions are calculated. This approximation follows from the expected azimuthal symmetry of the plasma. The dynamics of the expansion are analyzed in terms of average ion and electron positions, average velocities, oscillation frequencies and relative distribution of energy between thermal, flow and electric field energies. Comparison is made with previous calculations of one-dimensional models which employed plane, spherical or cylindrical sheets as charged particles. In order to analyze the effect of the grid approximation, the model is solved for two different grid sizes and for each grid size the plasma dynamics is determined. For the initial phase of expansion, the agreement for the two grid sizes is found to be good

  8. White matter and reading deficits after pediatric traumatic brain injury: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad Parker Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric traumatic brain injury often results in significant long-term deficits in mastery of reading ability. This study aimed to identify white matter pathways that, when damaged, predicted reading deficits in children. Based on the dual-route model of word reading, we predicted that integrity of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus would be related to performance in sight word identification while integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus would be related to performance in phonemic decoding. Reading fluency and comprehension were hypothesized to relate to the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and cingulum bundle. The connectivity of white matter pathways was used to predict reading deficits in children aged 6 to 16 years with traumatic brain injury (n = 29 and those with orthopedic injury (n = 27 using tract-based spatial statistics. Results showed that children with traumatic brain injury and reduced microstructural integrity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus demonstrated reduced word-reading ability on sight word and phonemic decoding tasks. Additionally, children with traumatic brain injury and microstructural changes involving the cingulum bundle demonstrated reduced reading fluency. Results support the association of a dorsal pathway via the superior longitudinal fasciculus with both sight word reading and phonemic decoding. No association was identified between the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and sight word reading or phonemic decoding. Reading fluency was associated with the integrity of the cingulum bundle. These findings support dissociable pathways predicting word reading and fluency using Diffusion Tensor Imaging and provide additional information for developing models of acquired reading deficits by specifying areas of brain damage which may predict reading deficits following recovery from the acute phase of TBI.

  9. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  10. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  11. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  12. Velocity and Dispersion for a Two-Dimensional Random Walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinghui

    2009-01-01

    In the paper, we consider the transport of a two-dimensional random walk. The velocity and the dispersion of this two-dimensional random walk are derived. It mainly show that: (i) by controlling the values of the transition rates, the direction of the random walk can be reversed; (ii) for some suitably selected transition rates, our two-dimensional random walk can be efficient in comparison with the one-dimensional random walk. Our work is motivated in part by the challenge to explain the unidirectional transport of motor proteins. When the motor proteins move at the turn points of their tracks (i.e., the cytoskeleton filaments and the DNA molecular tubes), some of our results in this paper can be used to deal with the problem. (general)

  13. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  14. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  15. Pair Interaction of Dislocations in Two-Dimensional Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, C.; Gasser, U.; Keim, P.; Maret, G.; von Grünberg, H. H.

    2005-10-01

    The pair interaction between crystal dislocations is systematically explored by analyzing particle trajectories of two-dimensional colloidal crystals measured by video microscopy. The resulting pair energies are compared to Monte Carlo data and to predictions derived from the standard Hamiltonian of the elastic theory of dislocations. Good agreement is found with respect to the distance and temperature dependence of the interaction potential, but not regarding the angle dependence where discrete lattice effects become important. Our results on the whole confirm that the dislocation Hamiltonian allows a quantitative understanding of the formation and interaction energies of dislocations in two-dimensional crystals.

  16. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  17. Two-dimensional QCD in the Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Yu.S.; Nefed'ev, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Various aspects of the 't Hooft model for two-dimensional QCD in the limit of infinite number of colours in the Coulomb gauge are discussed. The properties of mesonic excitations are studied, with special emphasis on the pion. Attention is paid to the dual role of the pion. which, while a genuine qq-bar state, is a Goldstone boson of two-dimensional QCD as well. In particular, the validity of the soft-pion theorems is demonstrated. It is shown that the Coulomb gauge is the most suitable choice for the study of hadronic observables involving pions [ru

  18. Quantum Communication Through a Two-Dimensional Spin Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaoming; Gu Yongjian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the state or entanglement transfer through a two-dimensional spin network. We show that for state transfer, better fidelity can be gained along the diagonal direction but for entanglement transfer, when the initial entanglement is created along the boundary, the concurrence is more inclined to propagate along the boundary. This behavior is produced by quantum mechanical interference and the communication quality depends on the precise size of the network. For some number of sites, the fidelity in a two-dimensional channel is higher than one-dimensional case. This is an important result for realizing quantum communication through high dimension spin chain networks.

  19. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  20. Finite element solution of two dimensional time dependent heat equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maaz

    1999-01-01

    A Microsoft Windows based computer code, named FHEAT, has been developed for solving two dimensional heat problems in Cartesian and Cylindrical geometries. The programming language is Microsoft Visual Basic 3.0. The code makes use of Finite element formulation for spatial domain and Finite difference formulation for time domain. Presently the code is capable of solving two dimensional steady state and transient problems in xy- and rz-geometries. The code is capable excepting both triangular and rectangular elements. Validation and benchmarking was done against hand calculations and published results. (author)

  1. Chaotic dynamics in two-dimensional noninvertible maps

    CERN Document Server

    Mira, Christian; Cathala, Jean-Claude; Gardini, Laura

    1996-01-01

    This book is essentially devoted to complex properties (Phase plane structure and bifurcations) of two-dimensional noninvertible maps, i.e. maps having either a non-unique inverse, or no real inverse, according to the plane point. They constitute models of sets of discrete dynamical systems encountered in Engineering (Control, Signal Processing, Electronics), Physics, Economics, Life Sciences. Compared to the studies made in the one-dimensional case, the two-dimensional situation remained a long time in an underdeveloped state. It is only since these last years that the interest for this resea

  2. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Vectorized Matlab Codes for Linear Two-Dimensional Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Koko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A vectorized Matlab implementation for the linear finite element is provided for the two-dimensional linear elasticity with mixed boundary conditions. Vectorization means that there is no loop over triangles. Numerical experiments show that our implementation is more efficient than the standard implementation with a loop over all triangles.

  4. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  5. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  6. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  7. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ¿-¿, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of

  8. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  9. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  10. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  11. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  12. First principles calculation of two dimensional antimony and antimony arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Sharad Babu, E-mail: sbpillai001@gmail.com; Narayan, Som; Jha, Prafulla K. [Department. of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    This work focuses on the strain dependence of the electronic properties of two dimensional antimony (Sb) material and its alloy with As (SbAs) using density functional theory based first principles calculations. Both systems show indirect bandgap semiconducting character which can be transformed into a direct bandgap material with the application of relatively small strain.

  13. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  14. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  15. Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures

  16. Exterior calculus and two-dimensional supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciuto, S.

    1980-01-01

    An important property of the calculus of differential forms on superspace is pointed out, and an economical way to treat the linear problem associated with certain supersymmetric two-dimensional models is discussed. A generalization of the super sine-Gordon model is proposed; its bosonic limit is a new model whose associate linear set has an SU(3) structure. (orig.)

  17. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for N. 2) is carried ... extensively used for the case of non-linear partial differential equation by various authors. [3,4–7,12 ..... found to be integrable just by accident.

  18. Temperature maxima in stable two-dimensional shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, O.; Hoover, W.G.; Hoover, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics to study the structure of moderately strong shock waves in dense two-dimensional fluids, using Lucy pair potential. The stationary profiles show relatively broad temperature maxima, for both the longitudinal and the average kinetic temperatures, just as does Mott-Smith model for strong shock waves in dilute three-dimensional gases. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Two-dimensional molecular line transfer for a cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutowicz, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the proposed axisymmetric model of the cometary coma the gas density profile is described by an angular density function. Three methods for treating two-dimensional radiative transfer are compared: the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) (the Sobolev method), Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and accelerated Monte Carlo (MC).

  20. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2

  1. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  2. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  3. Two-dimensional ion effects in relativistic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poukey, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    In relativistic diodes, ions are emitted from the anode plasma. The effects and properties of these ions are studied via a two-dimensional particle simulation code. The space charge of these ions enhances the electron emission, and this additional current (including that of the ions, themselves) aids in obtaining superpinched electron beams for use in pellet fusion studies. (U.S.)

  4. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...

  5. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  6. Mass relations for two-dimensional classical configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tataru-Mihai, P.

    1980-01-01

    Using the two-dimensional sigma-nonlinear models as a framework mass relations for classical configurations of instanton/soliton type are derived. Our results suggest an interesting differential-geometric interpretation of the mass of a classical configuration in terms of the topological characteristics of an associated manifold. (orig.)

  7. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  8. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  9. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  10. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  11. Two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.T.; Hubbard, G.S.; Haller, E.E.; Sommer, H.A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n + resisitive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p + resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 μm is indicated

  12. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL POSITION SENSITIVE SI(LI) DETECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, Jack T.; Hubbard, G. Scott; Haller, Eugene E.; Sommer, Heinrich A.

    1978-11-01

    Circular, large-area two-dimensional Si(Li) position sensitive detectors have been fabricated. The detectors employ a thin lithium-diffused n{sup +} resistive layer for one contact and a boron implanted p{sup +} resistive layer for the second contact. A position resolution of the order of 100 {micro}m is indicated.

  13. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  14. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; Meulen ,van der Martin; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core

  15. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...

  16. Two-Dimensional Charge Transport in Disordered Organic Semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brondijk, J. J.; Roelofs, W. S. C.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Shehu, A.; Cramer, T.; Biscarini, F.; Blom, P. W. M.; de Leeuw, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of carrier confinement on the charge-transport properties of organic field-effect transistors. Confinement is achieved experimentally by the use of semiconductors of which the active layer is only one molecule thick. The two-dimensional confinement of charge carriers provides

  17. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  18. Two-dimensional dissipation in third sound resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, A.L.; Mochel, J.M.; Illinois Univ., Urbana

    1981-01-01

    The first determination of non-linear superflow dissipation in a truly two-dimensional helium film is reported. Superfluid velocities were measured using third sound resonance on a closed superfluid film. The predicted power law dissipation function, with exponent of approximately eight, is observed at three temperatures in a film of 0.58 mobile superfluid layers. (orig.)

  19. Graphene: a promising two-dimensional support for heterogeneous catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobin eFan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has many advantages that make it an attractive two-dimensional (2D support for heterogeneous catalysts. It not only allows the high loading of targeted catalytic species, but also facilitates the mass transfer during the reaction processes. These advantages, along with its unique physical and chemical properties, endow graphene great potential as catalyst support in heterogeneous catalysis.

  20. Two-dimensional interpolation with experimental data smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejbal, Z.

    1989-01-01

    A method of two-dimensional interpolation with smoothing of time statistically deflected points is developed for processing of magnetic field measurements at the U-120M field measurements at the U-120M cyclotron. Mathematical statement of initial requirements and the final result of relevant algebraic transformations are given. 3 refs

  1. Tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    361/362, - (1996), s. 167-170 ISSN 0039-6028. [International Conference on the Electronic Properties of Two Dimensional Systems /11./. Nottingham, 07.08.1995-11.08.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/94/1278 Grant - others:INT(XX) 9106888 Impact factor: 2.783, year: 1996

  2. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavity...

  3. Two-Dimensional Tellurene as Excellent Thermoelectric Material

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Sitansh; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    We study the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional tellurene by first-principles calculations and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory. The HSE06 hybrid functional results in a moderate direct band gap of 1.48 eV at the Γ point. A high

  4. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...

  5. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  6. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  7. Two-dimensional QCD as a model for strong interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1977-01-01

    After an introduction to the formalism of two-dimensional QCD, its applications to various strong interaction processes are reviewed. Among the topics discussed are spectroscopy, deep inelastic cross-sections, ''hard'' processes involving hadrons, ''Regge'' behaviour, the existence of the Pomeron, and inclusive hadron cross-sections. Attempts are made to abstracts features useful for four-dimensional QCD phenomenology. (author)

  8. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  9. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  10. Kubo conductivity of a strongly magnetized two-dimensional plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D.; Tappert, F.

    1971-01-01

    The Kubo formula is used to evaluate the bulk electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional guiding-center plasma in a strong dc magnetic field. The particles interact only electrostatically. An ?anomalous' electrical conductivity is derived for this system, which parallels a recent result of Taylor and McNamara for the coefficient of spatial diffusion.

  11. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivó-Truyols, G.

    2012-01-01

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual

  12. Equilibrium spherically curved two-dimensional Lennard-Jones systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.; van Dantzig, R.

    2005-01-01

    To learn about basic aspects of nano-scale spherical molecular shells during their formation, spherically curved two-dimensional N-particle Lennard-Jones systems are simulated, studying curvature evolution paths at zero-temperature. For many N-values (N < 800) equilibrium configu- rations are traced

  13. Giant 1/f noise in two-dimensional polycrystalline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snarskii, A.; Bezsudnov, I.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of excess (1/f noise) in two-dimensional polycrystalline media is investigated. On the base of current trap model, it is shown that there exists a certain anisotropy value of conductivity tensor for polycrystalline media when the amplitude of 1/f noise becomes giant

  14. Measurement of Galactic Logarithmic Spiral Arm Pitch Angle Using Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel C.; Shields, Douglas W.; Kennefick, Julia; Kennefick, Daniel; Seigar, Marc S.; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Puerari, Ivânio

    2012-01-01

    A logarithmic spiral is a prominent feature appearing in a majority of observed galaxies. This feature has long been associated with the traditional Hubble classification scheme, but historical quotes of pitch angle of spiral galaxies have been almost exclusively qualitative. We have developed a methodology, utilizing two-dimensional fast Fourier transformations of images of spiral galaxies, in order to isolate and measure the pitch angles of their spiral arms. Our technique provides a quanti...

  15. Negative refraction at infrared wavelengths in a two-dimensional photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berrier, A.; Mulot, M.; Swillo, M.; Qiu, M.; Thylen, L.; Anand, S.; Talneau, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the first experimental evidence of negative refraction at telecommunication wavelengths by a two-dimensional photonic crystal field. Samples were fabricated by chemically assisted ion beam etching in the InP-based low-index constrast system. Experiments of beam imaging and light collection show light focusing by the photonic crystal field. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that the observed focusing is due to negative refraction in the photonic crystal area

  16. Analysis of two-dimensional microdischarge distribution in dielectric-barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirokov, A; Gutsol, A; Fridman, A; Sieber, K D; Grace, J M; Robinson, K S

    2004-01-01

    The two-dimensional spatial distribution of microdischarges in atmospheric pressure dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) in air was studied. Experimental images of DBDs (Lichtenberg figures) were obtained using photostimulable phosphors. The storage phosphor imaging method takes advantage of the linear response of the phosphor for characterization of microdischarge intensity and position. A microdischarge interaction model in DBDs is proposed and a Monte Carlo simulation of microdischarge interactions in the discharge is presented. Comparison of modelled and experimental images indicates interactions and short-range structuring of microdischarge channels

  17. The OMPS Limb Profiler Instrument: Two-Dimensional Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rault, Didier F.

    2010-01-01

    The upcoming Ozone Mapper and Profiler Suite (OMPS), which will be launched on the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) platform in early 2011, will continue monitoring the global distribution of the Earth's middle atmosphere ozone and aerosol. OMPS is composed of three instruments, namely the Total Column Mapper (heritage: TOMS, OMI), the Nadir Profiler (heritage: SBUV) and the Limb Profiler (heritage: SOLSE/LORE, OSIRIS, SCIAMACHY, SAGE III). The ultimate goal of the mission is to better understand and quantify the rate of stratospheric ozone recovery. The focus of the paper will be on the Limb Profiler (LP) instrument. The LP instrument will measure the Earth's limb radiance (which is due to the scattering of solar photons by air molecules, aerosol and Earth surface) in the ultra-violet (UV), visible and near infrared, from 285 to 1000 nm. The LP simultaneously images the whole vertical extent of the Earth's limb through three vertical slits, each covering a vertical tangent height range of 100 km and each horizontally spaced by 250 km in the cross-track direction. Measurements are made every 19 seconds along the orbit track, which corresponds to a distance of about 150km. Several data analysis tools are presently being constructed and tested to retrieve ozone and aerosol vertical distribution from limb radiance measurements. The primary NASA algorithm is based on earlier algorithms developed for the SOLSE/LORE and SAGE III limb scatter missions. All the existing retrieval algorithms rely on a spherical symmetry assumption for the atmosphere structure. While this assumption is reasonable in most of the stratosphere, it is no longer valid in regions of prime scientific interest, such as polar vortex and UTLS regions. The paper will describe a two-dimensional retrieval algorithm whereby the ozone distribution is simultaneously retrieved vertically and horizontally for a whole orbit. The retrieval code relies on (1) a forward 2D Radiative Transfer code (to model limb

  18. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  19. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  20. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  1. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  2. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  3. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  4. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem

  5. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  6. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  7. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine......Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  8. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  9. Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.

    2018-03-01

    The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.

  10. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed

  11. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-09-01

    We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  12. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  13. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  14. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  15. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules

  16. Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, M.R.

    1992-01-01

    The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)

  17. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  18. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  19. Two-dimensional color-code quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Austin G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in detail how to perform universal fault-tolerant quantum computation on a two-dimensional color code, making use of only nearest neighbor interactions. Three defects (holes) in the code are used to represent logical qubits. Triple-defect logical qubits are deformed into isolated triangular sections of color code to enable transversal implementation of all single logical qubit Clifford group gates. Controlled-NOT (CNOT) is implemented between pairs of triple-defect logical qubits via braiding.

  20. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  1. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  2. Graphene – A Two-Dimensional Dirac Material

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Danny; Wicklund, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional material, whose popularity has soared in both condensedmatter physics and material science the past decade. Due to its unique properties, graphene can be used in a vast array of new and interesting applications that could fundamentally change the material industry. This report reviews the current research and literature in order to trace the historical development of graphene. Then, in order to better understand the material, the unique properties of graphene are...

  3. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  4. Hall effect in the two-dimensional Luttinger liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the Hall effect in the normal state is a commom theme of all the cuprate superconductors and has been one of the more puzzling observations on these puzzling materials. We describe a general scheme within the Luttinger liquid theory of these two-dimensional quantum fluids which corrrelates the anomalous Hall and resistivity observations on a wide variety of both pure and doped single crystals, especially the data in the accompanying Letter of Chien, Wang, and Ong

  5. Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    order to be published, he sent the paper to Einstein to translate it. The other contributing scientist is world famous physicist Albert Einstein , maybe...mechanical state, a Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC), where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic...model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bose Einstein condensation, ultracold physics, condensed matter, dipoles 16

  6. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  7. Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...

  8. Two-dimensional readout in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Solovov, V; Ferreira-Marques, R; Lopes, M I; Pereira, A; Policarpo, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A two-dimensional readout with metal strips deposited on both sides of a glass plate is investigated aiming to assess the possibility of its use in a liquid xenon ionisation chamber for positron emission tomography. Here, we present results obtained with an alpha-source. It is shown that position resolution of <=1 mm, fwhm, can be achieved for free charge depositions equivalent to those due to gamma-rays with energy from 220 down to 110 keV.

  9. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  10. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2015-01-01

    This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286

  11. Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.

  12. GEPOIS: a two dimensional nonuniform mesh Poisson solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintenz, J.P.; Freeman, J.R.

    1979-06-01

    A computer code is described which solves Poisson's equation for the electric potential over a two dimensional cylindrical (r,z) nonuniform mesh which can contain internal electrodes. Poisson's equation is solved over a given region subject to a specified charge distribution with either Neumann or Dirichlet perimeter boundary conditions and with Dirichlet boundary conditions on internal surfaces. The static electric field is also computed over the region with special care given to normal electric field components at boundary surfaces

  13. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  14. Two-dimensional manifolds with metrics of revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabitov, I Kh

    2000-01-01

    This is a study of the topological and metric structure of two-dimensional manifolds with a metric that is locally a metric of revolution. In the case of compact manifolds this problem can be thoroughly investigated, and in particular it is explained why there are no closed analytic surfaces of revolution in R 3 other than a sphere and a torus (moreover, in the smoothness class C ∞ such surfaces, understood in a certain generalized sense, exist in any topological class)

  15. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  16. Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.

    1976-03-01

    The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)

  17. Two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchand, R.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.

    1979-11-01

    A fully two-dimensional eigenmode analysis of the trapped-ion instability in axisymmetric toroidal geometry is presented. The calculations also takes into account the basic dynamics associated with other low frequency modes such as the trapped-electron instability and the ion-temperature-gradient instability. The poloidal structure of the mode is taken into account by Fourier expanding the perturbed electrostatic potential, PHI, in theta

  18. Two-dimensional shielding benchmarks for iron at YAYOI, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Yoshiaki; An, Shigehiro; Kasai, Shigeru; Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Koyama, Kinji.

    The aim of this work is to assess the collapsed neutron and gamma multigroup cross sections for two dimensional discrete ordinate transport code. Two dimensional distributions of neutron flux and gamma ray dose through a 70cm thick and 94cm square iron shield were measured at the fast neutron source reactor ''YAYOI''. The iron shield was placed over the lead reflector in the vertical experimental column surrounded by heavy concrete wall. The detectors used in this experiment were threshold detectors In, Ni, Al, Mg, Fe and Zn, sandwitch resonance detectors Au, W and Co, activation foils Au for neutrons and thermoluminescence detectors for gamma ray dose. The experimental results were compared with the calculated ones by the discrete ordinate transport code ANISN and TWOTRAN. The region-wise, coupled neutron-gamma multigroup cross-sections (100n+20gamma, EURLIB structure) were generated from ENDF/B-IV library for neutrons and POPOP4 library for gamma-ray production cross-sections by using the code system RADHEAT. The effective microscopic neutron cross sections were obtained from the infinite dilution values applying ABBN type self-shielding factors. The gamma ray production multigroup cross-sections were calculated from these effective microscopic neutron cross-sections. For two-dimensional calculations the group constants were collapsed into 10 neutron groups and 3 gamma groups by using ANISN. (auth.)

  19. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  20. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  1. Automated Processing of Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstschmid; Sterk; Freeman

    1998-04-01

    An automated scheme is described which locates the centers of cross peaks in two-dimensional correlation spectra, even under conditions of severe overlap. Double-quantum-filtered correlation (DQ-COSY) spectra have been investigated, but the method is also applicable to TOCSY and NOESY spectra. The search criterion is the intrinsic symmetry (or antisymmetry) of cross-peak multiplets. An initial global search provides the preliminary information to build up a two-dimensional "chemical shift grid." All genuine cross peaks must be centered at intersections of this grid, a fact that reduces the extent of the subsequent search program enormously. The program recognizes cross peaks by examining the symmetry of signals in a test zone centered at a grid intersection. This "symmetry filter" employs a "lowest value algorithm" to discriminate against overlapping responses from adjacent multiplets. A progressive multiplet subtraction scheme provides further suppression of overlap effects. The processed two-dimensional correlation spectrum represents cross peaks as points at the chemical shift coordinates, with some indication of their relative intensities. Alternatively, the information is presented in the form of a correlation table. The authenticity of a given cross peak is judged by a set of "confidence criteria" expressed as numerical parameters. Experimental results are presented for the 400-MHz double-quantum-filtered COSY spectrum of 4-androsten-3,17-dione, a case where there is severe overlap. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  2. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  3. Imaging seizure activity: a combined EEG/EMG-fMRI study in reading epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek-Haddadi, Afraim; Mayer, Thomas; Hamandi, Khalid; Symms, Mark; Josephs, Oliver; Fluegel, Dominique; Woermann, Friedrich; Richardson, Mark P; Noppeney, Uta; Wolf, Peter; Koepp, Matthias J

    2009-02-01

    To characterize the spatial relationship between activations related to language-induced seizure activity, language processing, and motor control in patients with reading epilepsy. We recorded and simultaneously monitored several physiological parameters [voice-recording, electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG), electroencephalography (EEG)] during blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in nine patients with reading epilepsy. Individually tailored language paradigms were used to induce and record habitual seizures inside the MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used for structural brain analysis. Reading-induced seizures occurred in six out of nine patients. One patient experienced abundant orofacial reflex myocloni during silent reading in association with bilateral frontal or generalized epileptiform discharges. In a further five patients, symptoms were only elicited while reading aloud with self-indicated events. Consistent activation patterns in response to reading-induced myoclonic seizures were observed within left motor and premotor areas in five of these six patients, in the left striatum (n = 4), in mesiotemporal/limbic areas (n = 4), in Brodmann area 47 (n = 3), and thalamus (n = 2). These BOLD activations were overlapping or adjacent to areas physiologically activated during language and facial motor tasks. No subtle structural abnormalities common to all patients were identified using VBM, but one patient had a left temporal ischemic lesion. Based on the findings, we hypothesize that reflex seizures occur in reading epilepsy when a critical mass of neurons are activated through a provoking stimulus within corticoreticular and corticocortical circuitry subserving normal functions.

  4. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  5. Central endoscopy reads in inflammatory bowel disease clinical trials: The role of the imaging core lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Harris; Berzin, Tyler M; Yu, Hui Jing; Huang, Christopher S; Mishkin, Daniel S

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are evolving at a rapid pace by employing central reading for endoscopic mucosal assessment in a field that was, historically, largely based on assessments by local physicians. This transition from local to central reading carries with it numerous technical, operational, and scientific challenges, many of which can be resolved by imaging core laboratories (ICLs), a concept that has a longer history in clinical trials in a number of diseases outside the realm of gastroenterology. For IBD trials, ICLs have the dual goals of providing objective, consistent assessments of endoscopic findings using central-reading paradigms whilst providing important expertise with regard to operational issues and regulatory expectations. This review focuses on current approaches to using ICLs for central endoscopic reading in IBD trials. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press and the Digestive Science Publishing Co. Limited.

  6. Separation of complex fringe patterns using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, Krzysztof; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2012-12-10

    A method for processing fringe patterns containing additively superimposed multiple fringe sets is presented. It enables to analyze different fringe families present in a single image separately. The proposed method is based on a two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. A robust ridge extraction algorithm for a single fringe set extraction is presented. The method is fully automatic and requires no user interference. Spectral separation of fringe families is not required. Simulations are presented to verify performance and advantage of the proposed method over the Fourier transform based technique. Method validity has been confirmed using experimental images.

  7. Parallel and Multivalued Logic by the Two-Dimensional Photon-Echo Response of a Rhodamine–DNA Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Implementing parallel and multivalued logic operations at the molecular scale has the potential to improve the miniaturization and efficiency of a new generation of nanoscale computing devices. Two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy is capable of resolving dynamical pathways on electronic and vibrational molecular states. We experimentally demonstrate the implementation of molecular decision trees, logic operations where all possible values of inputs are processed in parallel and the outputs are read simultaneously, by probing the laser-induced dynamics of populations and coherences in a rhodamine dye mounted on a short DNA duplex. The inputs are provided by the bilinear interactions between the molecule and the laser pulses, and the output values are read from the two-dimensional molecular response at specific frequencies. Our results highlights how ultrafast dynamics between multiple molecular states induced by light–matter interactions can be used as an advantage for performing complex logic operations in parallel, operations that are faster than electrical switching. PMID:25984269

  8. On the two-dimensional Saigo-Maeda fractional calculus asociated with two-dimensional Aleph TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of two-dimensional Saigo-Maeda operators of Weyl type associated with Aleph function defined in this paper. Two theorems on these defined operators are established. Some interesting results associated with the H-functions and generalized Mittag-Leffler functions are deduced from the derived results. One dimensional analog of the derived results is also obtained.

  9. Rethinking Over Textuality of Digital Image: A Methodological Proposal for Pleasant Reading on Digital Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It sets out the necessity about thinking over the instructional function of image in digital world under the light of the new opportunities of a methodological proposal to read as a game. First, for this reason it exams the perceptions of García Canclini about the reading of university students, and its problems on the context of new technologies: accumulation of information versus weakening of reflection. To this situation it adds the no appreciation of visual images. Faced with this problematic situation, and with the aim of sketching out options, it analyzes two experiences about books: the “tasty” reading of texts (the “good reading”, and the potentialities presented in the essential characteristics of playing. So, it proposes a methodology shaped for five steps to read images on digital screen. Its aim is seizing the possibilities of “good reading” to expand the comprehension of the visual information perceived through the screen. The proposal puts the accent in the textuality of representational surface of an image. Also it brings the attentive visual route about in order to enable to identify both significant forms and spaces. This proposal is illustrated with examples.

  10. High-speed fan-beam reconstruction using direct two-dimensional Fourier transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, Noboru; Mizutani, Toshio; Takahashi, Yoshizo; Inouye, Tamon.

    1984-01-01

    Since the first development of X-ray computer tomography (CT), various efforts have been made to obtain high quality of high-speed image. However, the development of high resolution CT and the ultra-high speed CT to be applied to hearts is still desired. The X-ray beam scanning method was already changed from the parallel beam system to the fan-beam system in order to greatly shorten the scanning time. Also, the filtered back projection (DFBP) method has been employed to directly processing fan-beam projection data as reconstruction method. Although the two-dimensional Fourier transform (TFT) method significantly faster than FBP method was proposed, it has not been sufficiently examined for fan-beam projection data. Thus, the ITFT method was investigated, which first executes rebinning algorithm to convert the fan-beam projection data to the parallel beam projection data, thereafter, uses two-dimensional Fourier transform. By this method, although high speed is expected, the reconstructed images might be degraded due to the adoption of rebinning algorithm. Therefore, the effect of the interpolation error of rebinning algorithm on the reconstructed images has been analyzed theoretically, and finally, the result of the employment of spline interpolation which allows the acquisition of high quality images with less errors has been shown by the numerical and visual evaluation based on simulation and actual data. Computation time was reduced to 1/15 for the image matrix of 512 and to 1/30 for doubled matrix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Content-addressable read/write memories for image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, W. E.; Savage, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    The commonly encountered image analysis problems of region labeling and clustering are found to be cases of search-and-rename problem which can be solved in parallel by a system architecture that is inherently suitable for VLSI implementation. This architecture is a novel form of content-addressable memory (CAM) which provides parallel search and update functions, allowing speed reductions down to constant time per operation. It has been proposed in related investigations by Hall (1981) that, with VLSI, CAM-based structures with enhanced instruction sets for general purpose processing will be feasible.

  12. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  13. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  14. Introduction to two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenker, S.H.

    1986-01-01

    Some of the basic properties of conformal and superconformal field theories in two dimensions are discussed in connection with the string and superstring theories built from them. In the first lecture the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, highest weight states, primary fields, operator products coefficients, bootstrap ideas, and unitary and degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra are discussed. In the second lecture the basic structure of superconformal two dimensional field theory is sketched and then the Ramond Neveu-Schwarz formulation of the superstring is described. Some of the issues involved in constructing the fermion vertex in this formalism are discussed

  15. Quasi-integrability and two-dimensional QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Mohayaee, R.

    1996-10-01

    The notion of integrability in two-dimensional QCD is discussed. We show that in spite of an infinite number of conserved charges, particle production is not entirely suppressed. This phenomenon, which we call quasi-integrability, is explained in terms of quantum corrections to the combined algebra of higher-conserved and spectrum-generating currents. We predict the qualitative form of particle production probabilities and verify that they are in agreement with numerical data. We also discuss four-dimensional self-dual Yang-Mills theory in the light of our results. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  16. Two dimensional hybrid simulation of a curved bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, V.A.; Winske, D.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from two dimensional hybrid simulations of curved collisionless supercritical shocks, retaining both quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel sections of the shock in order to study the character and origin of the foreshock ion population. The simulations demonstrate that the foreshock ion population is dominated by ions impinging upon the quasi-parallel side of the shock, while nonlocal transport from the quasi-perpendicular side of the shock into the foreshock region is minimal. Further, it is shown that the ions gain energy by drifting significantly in the direction of the convection electric field through multiple shock encounters

  17. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  18. Voltage quantization by ballistic vortices in two-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.P.; Delin, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The voltage generated by moving ballistic vortices with a mass m ν in a two-dimensional superconducting ring is quantized, and this quantization depends on the amount of charge enclosed by the ring. The quantization of the voltage is the dual to flux quantization in a superconductor, and is a manifestation of the Aharonov-Casher effect. The quantization is obtained by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld criterion to the canonical momentum of the ballistic vortices. The results of this quantization condition can also be used to understand the persistent voltage predicted by van Wees for an array of Josephson junctions

  19. Two-dimensional beam profiles and one-dimensional projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, D. J. S.; Jones, B.; Adams, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    One-dimensional projections of improved two-dimensional representations of transverse profiles of particle beams are proposed for fitting to data from harp-type monitors measuring beam profiles on particle accelerators. Composite distributions, with tails smoothly matched on to a central (inverted) parabola, are shown to give noticeably better fits than single gaussian and single parabolic distributions to data from harp-type beam profile monitors all along the proton beam transport lines to the two target stations on the ISIS Spallation Neutron Source. Some implications for inferring beam current densities on the beam axis are noted.

  20. Two-dimensionally confined topological edge states in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, Sabyasachi; Miyake, Hirokazu; DeGottardi, Wade; Waks, Edo; Hafezi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We present an all-dielectric photonic crystal structure that supports two-dimensionally confined helical topological edge states. The topological properties of the system are controlled by the crystal parameters. An interface between two regions of differing band topologies gives rise to topological edge states confined in a dielectric slab that propagate around sharp corners without backscattering. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations show these edges to be confined in the out-of-plane direction by total internal reflection. Such nanoscale photonic crystal architectures could enable strong interactions between photonic edge states and quantum emitters. (paper)

  1. Nonlinear aerodynamics of two-dimensional airfoils in severe maneuver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew T.; Mccune, James E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear theory of forces and moment acting on a two-dimensional airfoil in unsteady potential flow. Results are obtained for cases of both large and small amplitude motion. The analysis, which is based on an extension of Wagner's integral equation to the nonlinear regime, takes full advantage of the trailing wake's tendency to deform under local velocities. Interactive computational results are presented that show examples of wake-induced lift and moment augmentation on the order of 20 percent of quasi-static values. The expandability and flexibility of the present computational method are noted, as well as the relative speed with which solutions are obtained.

  2. Two-dimensional unsteady lift problems in supersonic flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslet, Max A; Lomax, Harvard

    1949-01-01

    The variation of pressure distribution is calculated for a two-dimensional supersonic airfoil either experiencing a sudden angle-of-attack change or entering a sharp-edge gust. From these pressure distributions the indicial lift functions applicable to unsteady lift problems are determined for two cases. Results are presented which permit the determination of maximum increment in lift coefficient attained by an unrestrained airfoil during its flight through a gust. As an application of these results, the minimum altitude for safe flight through a specific gust is calculated for a particular supersonic wing of given strength and wing loading.

  3. Engineering topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    Based on a perturbative approach, we propose a simple and efficient method to engineer the topological edge states in two dimensional magnetic photonic crystals. The topological edge states in the microstructures can be constructed and varied by altering the parameters of the microstructure according to the field-energy distributions of the Bloch states at the related Bloch wave vectors. The validity of the proposed method has been demonstrated by exact numerical calculations through three concrete examples. Our method makes the topological edge states "designable."

  4. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.

    2015-12-17

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  5. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  6. Pattern formation in two-dimensional square-shoulder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornleitner, Julia; Kahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a highly efficient and reliable optimization tool that is based on ideas of genetic algorithms, we have systematically studied the pattern formation of the two-dimensional square-shoulder system. An overwhelming wealth of complex ordered equilibrium structures emerge from this investigation as we vary the shoulder width. With increasing pressure three structural archetypes could be identified: cluster lattices, where clusters of particles occupy the sites of distorted hexagonal lattices, lane formation, and compact particle arrangements with high coordination numbers. The internal complexity of these structures increases with increasing shoulder width.

  7. Pattern formation in two-dimensional square-shoulder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornleitner, Julia [Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Forschungsszentrum Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kahl, Gerhard, E-mail: fornleitner@cmt.tuwien.ac.a [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik and Centre for Computational Materials Science (CMS), Technische Universitaet Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, A-1040 Wien (Austria)

    2010-03-17

    Using a highly efficient and reliable optimization tool that is based on ideas of genetic algorithms, we have systematically studied the pattern formation of the two-dimensional square-shoulder system. An overwhelming wealth of complex ordered equilibrium structures emerge from this investigation as we vary the shoulder width. With increasing pressure three structural archetypes could be identified: cluster lattices, where clusters of particles occupy the sites of distorted hexagonal lattices, lane formation, and compact particle arrangements with high coordination numbers. The internal complexity of these structures increases with increasing shoulder width.

  8. Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.

  9. Human muscle proteins: analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giometti, C.S.; Danon, M.J.; Anderson, N.G.

    1983-09-01

    Proteins from single frozen sections of human muscle were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and detected by fluorography or Coomassie Blue staining. The major proteins were identical in different normal muscles obtained from either sex at different ages, and in Duchenne and myotonic dystrophy samples. Congenital myopathy denervation atrophy, polymyositis, and Becker's muscular dystrophy samples, however, showed abnormal myosin light chain compositions, some with a decrease of fast-fiber myosin light chains and others with a decrease of slow-fiber light chains. These protein alterations did not correlate with any specific disease, and may be cause by generalized muscle-fiber damage.

  10. Cavalier perspective plots of two-dimensional matrices. Program Stereo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program Stereo allows representation of a two-dimensional matrix containing numerical data, in the form of a cavalier perspective, isometric or not, with an angle variable between 0 deg and 180 deg. The representation is in histogram form for each matrix row and those curves which fall behind higher curves and therefore would not be seen are suppressed. It has been written in Fortran V for a Calcomp-936 digital plotter operating off-line with a Univac 1106 computer. Drawing method, subroutine structure and running instructions are described in this paper. (author)

  11. Bosonization in a two-dimensional Riemann Cartan geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denardo, G.; Spallucci, E.

    1987-01-01

    We study the vacuum functional for a Dirac field in a two dimensional Riemann-Cartan geometry. Torsion is treated as a quantum variable while the metric is considered as a classical background field. Decoupling spinors from the non-Riemannian part of the geometry introduces a chiral Jacobian into the vacuum generating functional. We compute this functional Jacobian determinant by means of the Alvarez method. Finally, we show that the effective action for the background geometry is of the Liouville type and does not preserve any memory of the initial torsion field. (author)

  12. Periodic trajectories for two-dimensional nonintegrable Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.

    1990-02-01

    I want to report on some calculations of classical periodic trajectories in a two-dimensional nonintegrable potential. After a brief introduction, I will present some details of the theory. The main part of this report will be devoted to showing pictures of the various families of trajectories and to discussing the topology (in E-τ space) and branching behavior of these families. Then I will demonstrate the connection between periodic trajectories and ''nearby'' nonperiodic trajectories, which nicely illustrates the relationship of this work to chaos. Finally, I will discuss very briefly how periodic trajectories can be used to calculate tori. 12 refs., 40 figs

  13. Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.

  14. Repulsion of polarized particles from two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J.; Picardi, Michela F.; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2018-05-01

    Repulsion of nanoparticles, molecules, and atoms from surfaces can have important applications in nanomechanical devices, microfluidics, optical manipulation, and atom optics. Here, through the solution of a classical scattering problem, we show that a dipole source oscillating at a frequency ω can experience a robust and strong repulsive force when its near-field interacts with a two-dimensional material. As an example, the case of graphene is considered, showing that a broad bandwidth of repulsion can be obtained at frequencies for which propagation of plasmon modes is allowed 0 chemical potential tunable electrically or by chemical doping.

  15. Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)

  16. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  17. Poincare' maps of impulsed oscillators and two-dimensional dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupini, R.; Lenci, S.; Gardini, L.; Urbino Univ.

    1996-01-01

    The Poincare' map of one-dimensional linear oscillators subject to periodic, non-linear and time-delayed impulses is shown to reduce to a family of plane maps with possible non-uniqueness of the inverse. By restricting the analysis to a convenient form of the impulse function, a variety of interesting dynamical behaviours in this family are pointed out, including multistability and homoclinic bifurcations. Critical curves of two-dimensional endomorphisms are used to identify the structure of absorbing areas and their bifurcations

  18. Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)

  19. Two-Dimensional One-Component Plasma on Flamm's Paraboloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni, Riccardo; Téllez, Gabriel

    2008-11-01

    We study the classical non-relativistic two-dimensional one-component plasma at Coulomb coupling Γ=2 on the Riemannian surface known as Flamm's paraboloid which is obtained from the spatial part of the Schwarzschild metric. At this special value of the coupling constant, the statistical mechanics of the system are exactly solvable analytically. The Helmholtz free energy asymptotic expansion for the large system has been found. The density of the plasma, in the thermodynamic limit, has been carefully studied in various situations.

  20. Morphology of bipolar planetary nebulae. I. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoli, G.

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional spectrophotometric observations of bipolar planetary nebulae were performed by using a CCD detector mounted at the Cassegrain focus of either 1.54 m Danish Telescope or 2.2 m German Telescope at La Silla (ESO) in Chile. Emission lines have been selected with the help of narrow band-pass interference filters (Δλ∼ 10 - 20 A). Isophotal maps in various lines Hα, [NII] λ 6584, [OIII] λ 5007 and [SII] λλ 6717-6731 are presented. Particular attention has been given to scrutinize the symmetries inside a few bipolar planetary nebulae, in order to subsequently investigate their space structure

  1. Gibbs perturbations of a two-dimensional gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrova, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Small Gibbs perturbations of random fields have been investigated up to now for a few initial fields only. Among them there are independent fields, Gaussian fields and some others. The possibility for the investigation of Gibbs modifications of a random field depends essentially on the existence of good estimates for semiinvariants of this field. This is the reason why the class of random fields for which the investigation of Gibbs perturbations with arbitrary potential of bounded support is possible is rather small. The author takes as initial a well-known model: a two-dimensional gauge field. (Auth.)

  2. Saddle-points of a two dimensional random lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertermann, D.

    1985-07-01

    A two dimensional random lattice theory with a free massless scalar field is considered. We analyse the field theoretic generating functional for any given choice of positions of the lattice sites. Asking for saddle-points of this generating functional with respect to the positions we find the hexagonal lattice and a triangulated version of the hypercubic lattice as candidates. The investigation of the neighbourhood of a single lattice site yields triangulated rectangles and regular polygons extremizing the above generating functional on the local level. (author)

  3. Minimal quantization of two-dimensional models with chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gauge models with chiral anomalies - ''left-handed'' QED and the chiral Schwinger model, are quantized consistently in the frames of the minimal quantization method. The choice of the cone time as a physical time for system of quantization is motivated. The well-known mass spectrum is found but with a fixed value of the regularization parameter a=2. Such a unique solution is obtained due to the strong requirement of consistency of the minimal quantization that reflects in the physically motivated choice of the time axis

  4. Two-dimensional N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Daniel; Wellegehausen, Björn; Wipf, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the possible scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. The building blocks of this scenario are supersymmetric gauge theories. In our work we study the N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with gauge group SU(2) dimensionally reduced to two-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory. In our lattice formulation we break supersymmetry and chiral symmetry explicitly while preserving R symmetry. By fine tuning the bar-mass of the fermions in the Lagrangian we construct a supersymmetric continuum theory. To this aim we carefully investigate mass spectra and Ward identities, which both show a clear signal of supersymmetry restoration in the continuum limit.

  5. Mixed-symmetry superconductivity in two-dimensional Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaelian, K.A.; Betouras, J.; Chubukov, A.V.; Joynt, R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic Fermi liquid with attraction in both s and d channels and examine the possibility of a superconducting state with mixed s and d symmetry of the gap function. We show that both in the weak-coupling limit and at strong coupling, a mixed s+id symmetry state is realized in a certain range of interaction. Phase transitions between the mixed and the pure symmetry states are second order. We also show that there is no stable mixed s+d symmetry state at any coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S.

    2005-01-01

    Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays

  7. Network patterns in exponentially growing two-dimensional biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Yap, Xinhui; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-10-01

    Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments. The underlying mechanism relies on path formation through physical deformation of the enclosing environment.

  8. Two dimensional topological insulator in quantizing magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of quantizing magnetic field on the electron transport is investigated in a two dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) based on a 8 nm (013) HgTe quantum well (QW). The local resistance behavior is indicative of a metal-insulator transition at B ≈ 6 T. On the whole the experimental data agrees with the theory according to which the helical edge states transport in a 2D TI persists from zero up to a critical magnetic field Bc after which a gap opens up in the 2D TI spectrum.

  9. Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-02-15

    We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.

  10. The Penalty Cost Functional for the Two-Dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Onomza WAZIRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the penalty cost functional for optimizing the two-dimensional control operator of the energized wave equation. In some multiplier methods such as the Lagrange multipliers and Pontrygean maximum principle, the cost of merging the constraint equation to the integral quadratic objective functional to obtain an unconstraint equation is normally guessed or obtained from the first partial derivatives of the unconstrained equation. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method (ECGM necessitates that the penalty cost be sequentially obtained algebraically. The ECGM problem contains a functional which is completely given in terms of state and time spatial dependent variables.

  11. Wave dispersion relations in two-dimensional Yukawa systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanhong; Liu Bin; Chen Yanping; Yang Size; Wang Long; Wang Xiaogang

    2003-01-01

    Collective modes in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation in a wide range of coupling parameter Γ and screening strength κ. The dispersion relations and sound speeds of the transverse and longitudinal waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the longitudinal wave is demonstrated. Frequency gaps are found on the dispersion curves of the transverse wave due to scattering of the waves on lattice defects for proper values of Γ. The common frequency of transverse and longitudinal waves drops dramatically with the increasing screening strength κ

  12. Two-dimensional simulations of magnetically-driven instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian MHD code is used to study the evolution of magnetically-driven instabilities in cylindrical geometry. The code incorporates an equation of state, resistivity, and radiative cooling model appropriate for an aluminum plasma. The simulations explore the effects of initial perturbations, electrical resistivity, and radiative cooling on the growth and saturation of the instabilities. Comparisons are made between the 2-D simulations, previous 1-D simulations, and results from the Pioneer experiments of the Los Alamos foil implosion program

  13. Autocorrelation based reconstruction of two-dimensional binary objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia-Barbosa, Y.; Castaneda, R.

    2005-10-01

    A method for reconstructing two-dimensional binary objects from its autocorrelation function is discussed. The objects consist of a finite set of identical elements. The reconstruction algorithm is based on the concept of class of element pairs, defined as the set of element pairs with the same separation vector. This concept allows to solve the redundancy introduced by the element pairs of each class. It is also shown that different objects, consisting of an equal number of elements and the same classes of pairs, provide Fraunhofer diffraction patterns with identical intensity distributions. However, the method predicts all the possible objects that produce the same Fraunhofer pattern. (author)

  14. Linear and nonlinear viscous flow in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravina, D.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    We report on molecular dynamics simulations of shear viscosity η of a dense two-dimensional fluid as a function of the shear rate γ. We find an analytic dependence of η on γ, and do not find any evidence whatsoever of divergence in the Green-Kubo (GK) value that would be caused by the well-known long-time tail for the shear-stress autocorrelation function, as predicted by the mode-coupling theory. In accordance with the linear response theory, the GK value of η agrees remarkably well with nonequilibrium values at small shear rates. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  15. BRST quantization of Polyakov's two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Katsumi

    1990-01-01

    Two-dimensional gravity coupled to minimal models is quantized in the chiral gauge by the BRST method. By using the Wakimoto construction for the gravity sector, we show how the quartet mechanism of Kugo and Ojima works and solve the physical state condition. As a result the positive semi-definiteness of the physical subspace is shown. The formula of Knizhnik et al. for gravitational scaling dimensions is rederived from the physical state condition. We also observe a relation between the chiral gauge and the conformal gauge. (orig.)

  16. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  17. Two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out

  18. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... of the impurity. Transforming the equation to the noninertial frame of reference coupled with the center of mass we investigate the soliton behavior in the close vicinity of the impurity. With the help of the lens transformation we show that the soliton width is governed by an Ermakov-Pinney equation. We also...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  19. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Xu; Qiang, Tian

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)

  20. Distributed Two-Dimensional Fourier Transforms on DSPs with an Application for Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey Scott

    2006-01-01

    Many applications of two-dimensional Fourier Transforms require fixed timing as defined by system specifications. One example is image-based wavefront sensing. The image-based approach has many benefits, yet it is a computational intensive solution for adaptive optic correction, where optical adjustments are made in real-time to correct for external (atmospheric turbulence) and internal (stability) aberrations, which cause image degradation. For phase retrieval, a type of image-based wavefront sensing, numerous two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms (FFTs) are used. To meet the required real-time specifications, a distributed system is needed, and thus, the 2-D FFT necessitates an all-to-all communication among the computational nodes. The 1-D floating point FFT is very efficient on a digital signal processor (DSP). For this study, several architectures and analysis of such are presented which address the all-to-all communication with DSPs. Emphasis of this research is on a 64-node cluster of Analog Devices TigerSharc TS-101 DSPs.

  1. Atomic structure of a metal-supported two-dimensional germania film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Adrián Leandro; Schlexer, Philomena; Büchner, Christin; Davis, Earl M.; Burrall, Hannah; Burson, Kristen M.; Schneider, Wolf-Dieter; Heyde, Markus; Pacchioni, Gianfranco; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2018-03-01

    The growth and microscopic characterization of two-dimensional germania films is presented. Germanium oxide monolayer films were grown on Ru(0001) by physical vapor deposition and subsequent annealing in oxygen. We obtain a comprehensive image of the germania film structure by combining intensity-voltage low-energy electron diffraction (I/V-LEED) and ab initio density functional theory (DFT) analysis with atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) imaging. For benchmarking purposes, the bare Ru(0001) substrate and the (2 ×2 )3 O covered Ru(0001) were analyzed with I/V-LEED with respect to previous reports. STM topographic images of the germania film reveal a hexagonal network where the oxygen and germanium atom positions appear in different imaging contrasts. For quantitative LEED, the best agreement has been achieved with DFT structures where the germanium atoms are located preferentially on the top and fcc hollow sites of the Ru(0001) substrate. Moreover, in these atomically flat germania films, local site geometries, i.e., tetrahedral building blocks, ring structures, and domain boundaries, have been identified, indicating possible pathways towards two-dimensional amorphous networks.

  2. Reading device of a radiation image contained in a radioluminescent screen and tomography device containing it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.; Cuzin, M.; Parot, P.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is aimed at improving the random access time to a stimulable radioluminescent screen point (and consequently the reading time of the screen image); it is noticeably useful for longitudinal tomography. The reading device contains a source emitting a stimulation radiation beam towards the stimulable radioluminescent screen, a control mean of the stimulation radiation beam and a deflection mean which allows the beam to scan the screen surface. The device is characterized by the use of a very fast acousto-optical type deflection mean [fr

  3. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  4. Growth and characterization of two-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sancho, Oscar Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures of palladium, nickel, silver and gadolinium were grown by means of physical evaporation in atmospheres of high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. The qualitative characterization, in situ, of the nanostructures was carried out with techniques of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The model for the quantification of contaminants in the nanostructures, was proposed by Seah and Shirley, and was made using the spectra XPS measured in situ in the atmospheres of vacuum. For the two-dimensional nanostructures of gadolinium of thicknesses 8 Å, 16 Å, 24 Å, 32 Å, 36 Å, 44 Å, 50 Å, 61 Å, 77 Å, 81 Å, 92 Å and 101 Å, were obtained optical spectra of transmission measured in situ. An band of absorption centered at approximately 2,40 eV is obtained by an increase in the dynamic conductivity from the optical constants, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the nanostructure of gadolinium. In addition, the optical constants for the gadolinium nanostructures have presented a maximum of 80 Å of thickness and then it was continued a decreasing tendency toward the values that were reported in the literature for bulk of gadolinium. (author) [es

  5. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Geun Ho; Amani, Matin; Rasool, Haider; Lien, Der-Hsien; Mastandrea, James P; Ager Iii, Joel W; Dubey, Madan; Chrzan, Daryl C; Minor, Andrew M; Javey, Ali

    2017-09-20

    The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2 , respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.Strain engineering is an essential tool for modifying local electronic properties in silicon-based electronics. Here, Ahn et al. demonstrate control of biaxial strain in two-dimensional materials based on the growth substrate, enabling more complex low-dimensional electronics.

  6. Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, R; Hatayama, N; Takahashi, Y; Nakano, H

    2009-01-01

    Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal is investigated according to the recent theoretical development of magneto-volume effect for the three-dimensional weak ferromagnets. We particularly focus on the T 2 -linear thermal expansion of magnetic origin at low temperatures, so far disregarded by conventional theories. As the effect of thermal spin fluctuations we have found that the T-linear thermal expansion coefficient shows strong enhancement by assuming the double Lorentzian form of the non-interacting dynamical susceptibility justified in the small wave-number and low frequency region. It grows faster in proportional to y -1/2 as we approach the magnetic instability point than two-dimensional nearly antiferromagnetic metals with ln(1/y s ) dependence, where y and y s are the inverses of the reduced uniform and staggered magnetic susceptibilities, respectively. Our result is consistent with the Grueneisen's relation between the thermal expansion coefficient and the specific heat at low temperatures. In 2-dimensional electron gas we find that the thermal expansion coefficient is divergent with a finite y when the higher order term of non-interacting dynamical susceptibility is taken into account.

  7. Emergence of geometry: A two-dimensional toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jorge; Espriu, Domene; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral Lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D)xGL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zweibein is generated from a topological theory without any preexisting metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several nonstandard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective Lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared regulator. The low-energy expansion is valid for momenta k>M, i.e. for supra-horizon scales. We briefly discuss a possible implementation of a similar mechanism in four dimensions.

  8. Chimera patterns in two-dimensional networks of coupled neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Alexander; Kasimatis, Theodoros; Hizanidis, Johanne; Provata, Astero; Hövel, Philipp

    2017-03-01

    We discuss synchronization patterns in networks of FitzHugh-Nagumo and leaky integrate-and-fire oscillators coupled in a two-dimensional toroidal geometry. A common feature between the two models is the presence of fast and slow dynamics, a typical characteristic of neurons. Earlier studies have demonstrated that both models when coupled nonlocally in one-dimensional ring networks produce chimera states for a large range of parameter values. In this study, we give evidence of a plethora of two-dimensional chimera patterns of various shapes, including spots, rings, stripes, and grids, observed in both models, as well as additional patterns found mainly in the FitzHugh-Nagumo system. Both systems exhibit multistability: For the same parameter values, different initial conditions give rise to different dynamical states. Transitions occur between various patterns when the parameters (coupling range, coupling strength, refractory period, and coupling phase) are varied. Many patterns observed in the two models follow similar rules. For example, the diameter of the rings grows linearly with the coupling radius.

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for two-dimensional ising structure in atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacGregor, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Although the unpaired nucleons in an atomic nucleus exhibit pronounced shell-model-like behavior, the situation with respect to the paired-off ''core region'' nucleons is considerably more obscure. Several recent ''multi-alpha knockout'' and ''quasi-fission'' experiments indicate that nucleon clustering is prevalent throughout the core region of the nucleus; this same conclusion is suggested by nuclear-binding-energy systematics, by the evidence for a ''neutron halo'' in heavy nuclei and by the magnetic-moment systematics of low-mass odd-A nuclei. A number of arguments suggests, in turn, that this nucleon clustering is not spherical or spheroidal in shape, as has generally been assumed, but instead is in the form of two-dimensional Ising-like layers, with the layers arrayed perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the nucleus. The effects of this two-dimensional layering are observed most clearly in low-energy-induced fission, where nuclei with an even (odd) number of Ising layers fission symmetrically (asymmetrically). This picture of the nucleus gives an immediate quantitative explanation for the observed asymmetry in the fission of uranium, and also for the transition from symmetric to asymmetric and back to symmetric fission as the atomic number of the fissioning nuclues increase from A = 197 up to A = 258. These results suggest that, in the shell model formulation of the atomic nucleus, the basis states for the paired-off nucleon core region should be modified so as to contain laminar nucleon cluster correlations

  11. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); SSR, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  12. Aspects of jamming in two-dimensional athermal frictionless systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C; Reichhardt, C J Olson

    2014-05-07

    In this work we provide an overview of jamming transitions in two dimensional systems focusing on the limit of frictionless particle interactions in the absence of thermal fluctuations. We first discuss jamming in systems with short range repulsive interactions, where the onset of jamming occurs at a critical packing density and where certain quantities show a divergence indicative of critical behavior. We describe how aspects of the dynamics change as the jamming density is approached and how these dynamics can be explored using externally driven probes. Different particle shapes can produce jamming densities much lower than those observed for disk-shaped particles, and we show how jamming exhibits fragility for some shapes while for other shapes this is absent. Next we describe the effects of long range interactions and jamming behavior in systems such as charged colloids, vortices in type-II superconductors, and dislocations. We consider the effect of adding obstacles to frictionless jamming systems and discuss connections between this type of jamming and systems that exhibit depinning transitions. Finally, we discuss open questions such as whether the jamming transition in all these different systems can be described by the same or a small subset of universal behaviors, as well as future directions for studies of jamming transitions in two dimensional systems, such as jamming in self-driven or active matter systems.

  13. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  14. The emergence of geometry: a two-dimensional toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Jorge; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D) X GL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zwei-bein is generated from a topological theory without any pre-existing metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several non-standard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared re...

  15. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14 C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  16. Development of two dimensional electrophoresis method using single chain DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junichi; Hidaka, So

    1998-01-01

    By combining a separation method due to molecular weight and a method to distinguish difference of mono-bases, it was aimed to develop a two dimensional single chain DNA labeled with Radioisotope (RI). From electrophoretic pattern difference of parent and variant strands, it was investigated to isolate the root module implantation control gene. At first, a Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method using concentration gradient gel was investigated. As a result, it was formed that intervals between double chain and single chain DNAs expanded, but intervals of both single chain DNAs did not expand. On next, combination of non-modified acrylic amide electrophoresis method and Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method was examined. As a result, hybrid DNA developed by two dimensional electrophoresis arranged on two lines. But, among them a band of DNA modified by high concentration of urea could not be found. Therefore, in this fiscal year's experiments, no preferable result could be obtained. By the used method, it was thought to be impossible to detect the differences. (G.K.)

  17. Bayesian approach for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel

    2012-03-20

    A new method for peak detection in two-dimensional chromatography is presented. In a first step, the method starts with a conventional one-dimensional peak detection algorithm to detect modulated peaks. In a second step, a sophisticated algorithm is constructed to decide which of the individual one-dimensional peaks have been originated from the same compound and should then be arranged in a two-dimensional peak. The merging algorithm is based on Bayesian inference. The user sets prior information about certain parameters (e.g., second-dimension retention time variability, first-dimension band broadening, chromatographic noise). On the basis of these priors, the algorithm calculates the probability of myriads of peak arrangements (i.e., ways of merging one-dimensional peaks), finding which of them holds the highest value. Uncertainty in each parameter can be accounted by adapting conveniently its probability distribution function, which in turn may change the final decision of the most probable peak arrangement. It has been demonstrated that the Bayesian approach presented in this paper follows the chromatographers' intuition. The algorithm has been applied and tested with LC × LC and GC × GC data and takes around 1 min to process chromatograms with several thousands of peaks.

  18. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  19. Application of tomographic techniques to two-dimensional surface analysis using the Harwell nuclear microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, J.; Hutchinson, I.G.; Pierce, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear methods of surface analysis are discussed briefly, and the circumstances are described in which a two-dimensional analysis of the sample surface is desirable to enable the surface composition to be mapped accurately. Tomographic techniques of data manipulation are outlined. Data acquisition in the present case is performed by moving the sample in a defined sequence of positions, at each of which analytical data are gathered by the proton microprobe. The method and equipment are outlined. Data processing leading to the reconstruction of the image is summarised. (U.K.)

  20. Family of two-dimensional Born-Infeld equations and a system of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiv, M.; Rosenhaus, V.

    1979-01-01

    Lower-order conserved quantities, the ''currents'', for two-dimensional Lorentz-invariant Born-Infeld equation are considered. The currents are divided into pairs, which contain a class (basic currents) leading to the family equations. The basic currents determine the transformations between the solutions of the Born-Infeld eqution family. The equations belonging to the family are fully hodograph-invariant, partly hodograph-invariant, and effectively linear, i.e. non-linear equations with linear image of hodograph transformation