Sample records for two-dimensional heat conduction

  1. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.


    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  2. Effect of two dimensional heat conduction within the wall on heat transfer of a tube partially heated on its circumference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Isao; Kurosaki, Yasuo


    This paper dealt with the numerical calculations of the heat transfer of a tube partially heated on its circumference, considering two-dimensional heat conduction within the wall. The contribution of the unheated region of the tube wall to heat tranfer of the heated region was explained by the term of 'fin efficiency of psuedo-fin', it was clarified that the fin efficiency of the unheated region was little affected by the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of the wall, and could be approximated by the fin efficency of a rectangular fin. Both the circumferential and radial heat conductions within the wall affected the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of the heated region; however, the effect of the temperature difference on the circumferentially average Nusselt number could be obtained by using the analytical solution of radially one-dimensional heat conduction. Using these results, a diagram showing the effect of wall conduction on heat transfer, which is useful for designing the circumferentially nonuniformly heated coolant passages, was obtained. (author)

  3. Numerical methods to solve the two-dimensional heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.S. dos.


    A class of numerical methods, called 'Hopscotch Algorithms', was used to solve the heat conduction equation in cylindrical geometry. Using a time dependent heat source, the temperature versus time behaviour of cylindric rod was analysed. Numerical simulation was used to study the stability and the convergence of each different method. Another test had the temperature specified on the outer surface as boundary condition. The various Hopscotch methods analysed exhibit differing degrees of accuracy, few of them being so accurate as the ADE method, but requiring more computational operations than the later, were observed. Finally, compared with the so called ODD-EVEN method, two other Hopscotch methods, are more time consuming. (Author) [pt

  4. Two-dimensional finite element heat transfer model of softwood. Part I, Effective thermal conductivity (United States)

    John F. Hunt; Hongmei Gu


    The anisotropy of wood complicates solution of heat and mass transfer problems that require analyses be based on fundamental material properties of the wood structure. Most heat transfer models use average thermal properties across either the radial or tangential direction and do not differentiate the effects of cellular alignment, earlywood/latewood differences, or...

  5. A nonlocal Fourier's law and its application to the heat conduction of one-dimensional and two-dimensional thermal lattices (United States)

    Challamel, Noël; Grazide, Cécile; Picandet, Vincent; Perrot, Arnaud; Zhang, Yingyan


    This study focuses on heat conduction in unidimensional lattices also known as microstructured rods. The lattice thermal properties can be representative of concentrated thermal interface phases in one-dimensional segmented rods. The exact solution of the linear time-dependent spatial difference equation associated with the lattice problem is presented for some given initial and boundary conditions. This exact solution is compared to the quasicontinuum approximation built by continualization of the lattice equations. A rational-based asymptotic expansion of the pseudo-differential problem leads to an equivalent nonlocal-type Fourier's law. The differential nonlocal Fourier's law is analysed with respect to thermodynamic models available in the literature, such as the Guyer-Krumhansl-type equation. The length scale of the nonlocal heat law is calibrated with respect to the lattice spacing. An error analysis is conducted for quantifying the efficiency of the nonlocal model to capture the lattice evolution problem, as compared to the local model. The propagation of error with the nonlocal model is much slower than that in its local counterpart. A two-dimensional thermal lattice is also considered and approximated by a two-dimensional nonlocal heat problem. It is shown that nonlocal and continualized heat equations both approximate efficiently the two-dimensional thermal lattice response. These extended continuous heat models are shown to be good candidates for approximating the heat transfer behaviour of microstructured rods or membranes.

  6. Numerical studies of heat transfer by simultaneous radiative-conduction and radiative-convection in a two dimensional semi-transparent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draoui, Abdeslam


    The works we present here are on numerical approaches of heat transfer coupling radiation-conduction and radiation-convection within semi-transparent two-dimensional medium. The first part deals with a review of equations of radiative transfer and introduces three numerical methods (Pl, P3, Hottel's zones) which enable one to solve this problem in a two-dimensional environment. After comparing the three methods in the case where radiation is the only mode of transfer, we introduce in the second chapter a study of the coupling of radiation with conduction. So, a fourth method is used to solve this problem. These comparisons lead us to various methods which enable us to show the interest of the spherical harmonics approximations. In the third part, the Pl approximation is kept because it is simple to use, moreover it enables us to introduce both the coupling of radiative transfers with laminar convective equations in a thermally driven two-dimensional cavity. The results show a significant influence of the radiative participation of the fluid on heat and dynamic transfer we met in this type of problem. (author) [fr

  7. Two-dimensional finite element heat transfer model of softwood. Part III, Effect of moisture content on thermal conductivity (United States)

    Hongmei Gu; John F. Hunt


    The anisotropy of wood creates a complex problem for solving heat and mass transfer problems that require analyses be based on fundamental material properties of the wood structure. Most heat transfer models for softwood use average thermal properties across either the radial or tangential direction and do not differentiate the effects of cellular alignment or...

  8. Hall conductivity for two dimensional magnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbois, J.; Ouvry, S.; Texier, C.


    A Kubo inspired formalism is proposed to compute the longitudinal and transverse dynamical conductivities of an electron in a plane (or a gas of electrons at zero temperature) coupled to the potential vector of an external local magnetic field, with the additional coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the electron to the local magnetic field (Pauli Hamiltonian). As an example, the homogeneous magnetic field Hall conductivity is rederived. The case of the vortex at the origin is worked out in detail. A perturbative analysis is proposed for the conductivity in the random magnetic impurity problem (Poissonian vortices in the plane). (author)

  9. Two-dimensional modeling of conduction-mode laser welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.J.


    WELD2D is a two-dimensional finite difference computer program suitable for modeling the conduction-mode welding process when the molten weld pool motion can be neglected. The code is currently structured to treat butt-welded geometries in a plane normal to the beam motion so that dissimilar materials may be considered. The surface heat transfer models used in the code include a Gaussian beam or uniform laser source, and a free electron theory reflectance calculation. Temperature-dependent material parameters are used in the reflectance calculation. Measured cold reflection data are used to include surface roughness or oxide effects until melt occurs, after which the surface is assumed to be smooth and clean. Blackbody reradiation and a simple natural convection model are also included in the upper surface boundary condition. Either an implicit or explicit finite-difference representation of the heat conduction equation in an enthalpy form is solved at each time step. This enables phase transition energies to be easily and accurately incorporated into the formulation. Temperature-dependent 9second-order polynominal dependence) thermal conductivities are used in the conduction calculations. Constant values of specific heat are used for each material phase. At present, material properties for six metals are included in the code. These are: aluminium, nickel, steel, molybdenum, copper and silicon

  10. Solution of the two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation using the finite element method and the Saul'ev ADE method for time derivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haner, A.; Fremd, R.; Schmidt, F.


    The finite element method (FEM) is used for the solution of the twodimensional transient heat conduction equation. The time derivation is approximated by use of Saul'ev ADE method, which is modified for the FEM. This method will be improved in such way that the use of any triangular element is possible. The realisation of the method is based on a modified version of the program DIFGEN which solves the neutron diffusion equation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 MKO [de

  11. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys. (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao


    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C 1-x N x alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  12. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.


    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  13. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang


    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  14. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder (United States)


    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...analytical closed-form analysis performed by Michael P. Perry and Thomas B. Jones (ref. 4). Two- dimensional (2D) finite element steady state analyses

  15. Absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave radiation


    Ryzhii, Victor


    We overview mechanisms of absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field irradiated with microwaves and provide plausible explanations of the features observed in recent experiments related to the so-called zero-resistance (zero-conductance) states.

  16. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter


    This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......, that the foundation has a large impact on the energy consumption of buildings heated by floor heating. Consequently, this detail should be in focus when designing houses with floor heating....

  17. Two-dimensional heat flow analysis applied to heat sterilization of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers (United States)

    William T. Simpson


    Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...

  18. Thermal conductivity of configurable two-dimensional carbon nanotube architecture and strain modulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, H. F.; Bell, J. M.; Gu, Y. T., E-mail: [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George St., Brisbane, Queensland 4000 (Australia); Zhang, G. [Institute of High Performance Computing, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 1 Fusionopolis Way, Singapore 138632 (Singapore)


    We reported the thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT)-based architecture, which can be constructed through welding of single-wall CNTs by electron beam. Using large-scale nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, the thermal conductivity is found to vary with different junction types due to their different phonon scatterings at the junction. The strong length and strain dependence of the thermal conductivity suggests an effective avenue to tune the thermal transport properties of the CNT-based architecture, benefiting the design of nanoscale thermal rectifiers or phonon engineering.

  19. Analytical and numerical solution of one- and two-dimensional steady heat transfer in a coldplate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.F.; Bennett, G.A.; Bultman, D.H.


    We develop analytical models for steady-state, one- and two-dimensional heat transfer in a single-material, flat-plate coldplate. Discrete heat sources are mounted on one side of the plate and heat transfer to a flowing fluid occurs on the other. The models are validated numerically using finite differences. We propose a simple procedure for estimating maximum coldplate temperature at the location of each heat source which includes thermal interaction among the sources. Results from one model are compared with data obtained for a composite coldplate operated in the laboratory. We demonstrate the utility of the models as diagnostic tools to be used for predicting the existence and extent of void volumes and delaminations in the composite material that can occur with coldplates of this type. Based on our findings, recommendations for effective coldplate design are given

  20. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain inverse scattering scheme for a perfectly conducting cylinder (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Hung; Chiu, Chien-Ching; Sun, Chi-Hsien; Chang, Wan-Ling


    This paper reports a two-dimensional time-domain inverse scattering algorithm based upon the finite-difference time domain method (FDTD) for determining the shape of a perfectly conducting cylinder. FDTD is used to solve the scattering electromagnetic wave of a perfectly conducting cylinder. The inverse problem is resolved by an optimization approach and the global searching scheme asynchronous particle swarm optimization is then employed to search the parameter space. By properly processing the scattered field, some electromagnetic properties can be reconstructed. A set of representative numerical results is presented to demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to efficiently reconstruct the electromagnetic properties of metallic scatterer even when the initial guess is far away from the exact one. In addition, the effects of Gaussian noises on imaging reconstruction are also investigated.

  1. Two dimensional simulation of patternable conducting polymer electrode based organic thin film transistor (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Kathiresan, M.; Mukundan, T.


    Device characteristics of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) fabricated with conducting polyaniline:polystyrene sulphonic acid (PANi-PSS) electrodes, patterned by the Parylene lift-off method are systematically analyzed by way of two dimensional numerical simulation. The device simulation was performed taking into account field-dependent mobility, low mobility layer at the electrode-semiconductor interface, trap distribution in pentacene film and trapped charge at the organic/insulator interface. The electrical characteristics of bottom contact thin film transistor with PANi-PSS electrodes and pentacene active material is superior to those with palladium electrodes due to a lower charge injection barrier. Contact resistance was extracted in both cases by the transfer line method (TLM). The extracted charge concentration and potential profile from the two dimensional numerical simulation was used to explain the observed electrical characteristics. The simulated device characteristics not only matched the experimental electrical characteristics, but also gave an insight on the charge injection, transport and trap properties of the OTFTs as a function of different electrode materials from the perspectives of transistor operation.

  2. Tunneling Conductance in Two-Dimensional Junctions between a Normal Metal and a Ferromagnetic Rashba Metal (United States)

    Oshima, Daisuke; Taguchi, Katsuhisa; Tanaka, Yukio


    We have studied charge transport in a ferromagnetic Rashba metal (FRM), where both Rashba type spin-orbit coupling (RSOC) and exchange coupling coexist. It has nontrivial metallic states, i.e., a normal Rashba metal (NRM), anomalous Rashba metal (ARM), and Rashba ring metal (RRM), and they are manipulated by tuning the Fermi level with an applied gate voltage. We theoretically studied the tunneling conductance (G) in a normal metal/FRM junction by changing the Fermi level via an applied gate voltage (Vg) on the FRM. We found a wide variation in the Vg dependence of G, which depends on the metallic states. In an NRM, the Vg dependence of G is the same as that in a conventional two-dimensional system. However, in an ARM, the Vg dependence of G is similar to that in a conventional one- (two-)dimensional system for a large (small) RSOC. Furthermore, in an RRM, which is generated by a large RSOC, the Vg dependence of G is similar to that in the one-dimensional system. In addition, these anomalous properties stem from the density of states in the ARM and RRM caused by the large RSOC and exchange coupling rather than the spin-momentum locking of RSOC.

  3. Solution of the two- dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Laplace equation is a fundamental equation of applied mathematics. Important phenomena in engineering and physics, such as steady-state temperature distribution, electrostatic potential and fluid flow, are modeled by means of this equation. The Laplace equation which satisfies boundary values is known as the Dirichlet problem. The solutions to the Dirichlet problem form one of the most celebrated topics in the area of applied mathematics. In this study, a novel method is presented for the solution of two-dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate. In this alternative method, the solution function of the problem is based on the Green function, and therefore on elliptic functions.

  4. Two Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Plate Heat Exchangers: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Ansari Dezfoli


    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. The mathematical formulation of problems coupled at boundary conditions are presented, the solution procedure is then obtained as a special case of the two region Sturm-Liouville problem. The results obtained for two different flow regimes are then compared with experimental results and with each other. The agreement between the analytical and experimental results is an indication of the accuracy of solution method.

  5. Tunneling conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Ka-oey, A.


    We theoretically studied the spin-dependent charge transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) and metal junctions. It is shown that the DSOC energy can be directly measured from the tunneling conductance spectrum. We found that spin polarization of the conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from the DSOC system. We also considered the effect of the interfacial scattering barrier (both spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering) on the overall conductance and the spin polarization of the conductance. It is found that the increase of spin-flip scattering can enhance the conductance under certain conditions. Moreover, both types of scattering can increase the spin polarization below the branches crossing of the energy band. - Highlights: → DSOC energy can be directly measured from tunneling conductance spectrum. → Spin polarization of conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from DSOC system. → Both types of scattering can increase spin polarization.

  6. Two dimensional heat transfer problem in flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia


    Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical modelling of flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel asymmetrically heated by a thin and one-sided enhanced foil. Both surfaces are available for observations due to the openings covered with glass sheets. Thus, changes in the colour of the plain foil surface can be registered and then processed. Plain side of the heating foil is covered with a base coat and liquid crystal paint. Observation of the opposite, enhanced surface of the minichannel allows for identification of the gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and vapour quality. A two-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in three subsequent layers (sheet glass, heating foil, liquid was proposed. Heat transfer in all these layers was described with the respective equations: Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, subject to boundary conditions corresponding to the observed physical process. The solutions (temperature distributions in all three layers were obtained by Trefftz method. Additionally, the temperature of the boiling liquid was obtained by homotopy perturbation method (HPM combined with Trefftz method. The heat transfer coefficient, derived from Robin boundary condition, was estimated in both approaches. In comparison, the results by both methods show very good agreement especially when restricted to the thermal sublayer.

  7. Numerical experiment of thermal conductivity in two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Aamir, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Department of Physics, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF), Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad 38000 (Pakistan); He, Mao-Gang, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Thermo-Fluid Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education (MOE), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)


    A newly improved homogenous nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (HNEMDS) method, proposed by the Evans, has been used to compute the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma liquids (SCCDPLs), for the first time. The effects of equilibrium external field strength along with different system sizes and plasma states (Γ, κ) on the thermal conductivity of SCCDPLs have been calculated using an enhanced HNEMDS method. A simple analytical temperature representation of Yukawa 2D thermal conductivity with appropriate normalized frequencies (plasma and Einstein) has also been calculated. The new HNEMDS algorithm shows that the present method provides more accurate results with fast convergence and small size effects over a wide range of plasma states. The presented thermal conductivity obtained from HNEMDS method is found to be in very good agreement with that obtained through the previously known numerical simulations and experimental results for 2D Yukawa liquids (SCCDPLs) and with the three-dimensional nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) and equilibrium MDS calculations. It is shown that the HNEMDS algorithm is a powerful tool, making the calculations very efficient and can be used to predict the thermal conductivity in 2D Yukawa liquid systems.

  8. Thermal conductivity of a two-dimensional phosphorene sheet: a comparative study with graphene. (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jingchao; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    A recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) layered material phosphorene has attracted considerable interest as a promising p-type semiconducting material. In this work, thermal conductivity (κ) of monolayer phosphorene is calculated using large-scale classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations. The predicted thermal conductivities for infinite length armchair and zigzag phosphorene sheets are 63.6 and 110.7 W m(-1) K(-1) respectively. The strong anisotropic thermal transport is attributed to the distinct atomic structures at altered chiral directions and direction-dependent group velocities. Thermal conductivities of 2D graphene sheets with the same dimensions are also computed for comparison. The extrapolated κ of the 2D graphene sheet are 1008.5(+37.6)(-37.6) and 1086.9(+59.1)(-59.1) W m(-1) K(-1) in the armchair and zigzag directions, respectively, which are an order of magnitude higher than those of phosphorene. The overall and decomposed phonon density of states (PDOS) are calculated in both structures to elucidate their thermal conductivity differences. In comparison with graphene, the vibrational frequencies that can be excited in phosphorene are severely limited. The temperature effect on the thermal conductivity of phosphorene and graphene sheets is investigated, which reveals a monotonic decreasing trend for both structures.

  9. Universal conductivity of two-dimensional films at the superconductor-insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Fisher, M.P.A. (IBM Research Division, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York (USA)); Girvin, S.M. (Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (USA)); Wallin, M. (Department of Theoretical Physics, Umea University, S-90187 Umea (Sweden)); Young, A.P. (Service de Physique Theorique, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France))


    The zero-temperature universal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) films at the supeconductor-insulator transition is studied. The existence of a finite conductivity at {ital T}=0 and the universality class for this transition is discussed. Neglecting disorder as a first approximation, so the transition is from a commensurate Mott-Hubbard insulator to a superconductor, we calculate analytically the universal conductivity for the 2D pure boson Hubbard model up to the first order in a large-{ital N} expansion and numerically by Monte Carlo simulation of the (2+1)-D {ital XY} model. From the Monte Carlo results we find the universal conductivity to be {sigma}{sup *}=(0.285{plus minus}0.02){sigma}{sub {ital Q}}, where {sigma}{sub {ital Q}}{sup {minus}1}=={ital R}{sub {ital Q}}=={ital h}/(2{ital e}){sup 2}{approx}6.45 k{Omega}. An analysis in 1D suggests that in the presence of disorder, the universal conductivity in films might be somewhat smaller than this value. The possible existence of universal dissipation in {sup 4}He films is also discussed briefly.

  10. Laminar forced convective heat transfer in a two-dimensional branching tee junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodadadi, J.M.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vlachos, N.S.


    Laminar forced convective heat transfer in a two-dimensional ninety degree branching tee junction is studied numerically. The governing elliptic equations are solved by a finite-difference numerical scheme utilizing primitive dependent variables. A wide range of Reynolds numbers and dividing flowrates is studied while the working fluid is air with constant properties which is heated via the constant temperature walls of the bifurcation. The location of the separation and reattachment points corresponding to the two recirculation zones which form near the bifurcation are quantified as a function of the Reynolds number and dividing flowrate. The variation of the local Nusselt number along the walls of the bifurcation is discussed in light of the direct effects of the highly perturbed flowfield

  11. Basic studies on two-dimensional heat transfer characteristics of He II with phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, Takafumi [Energy Conversion Engineering, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Rao, Y.F.; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji


    Multi-dimensional analytical model to simulate the heat transfer characteristics of He II with phase changes is proposed. To simulate the heat transfer characteristics which are different according to the phases, parameters such as the thermo-mechanical force in the He II region, and others to deal with the boiling/condensation in the two-phase He I region are added to the Navier-Stockes equation. In order to verify the validity of the model, a two-dimensional transient numerical simulation is performed. The results of transient temperature distributions from the simulation are compared with the experimental ones by Hamaguchi et al. It is found that the present model yields the results in qualitatively good agreement with the experiments and that the model is able to explain the mechanism of the unique temperature characteristics observed in the experiments. (author)

  12. Prediction of Two-Dimensional Phase of Boron with Anisotropic Electric Conductivity. (United States)

    Cui, Zhi-Hao; Jimenez-Izal, Elisa; Alexandrova, Anastassia N


    Two-dimensional (2D) phases of boron are rare and unique. Here we report a new 2D all-boron phase (named the π phase) that can be grown on a W(110) surface. The π phase, composed of four-membered rings and six-membered rings filled with an additional B atom, is predicted to be the most stable on this support. It is characterized by an outstanding stability upon exfoliation off of the W surface, and unusual electronic properties. The chemical bonding analysis reveals the metallic nature of this material, which can be attributed to the multicentered π-bonds. Importantly, the calculated conductivity tensor is anisotropic, showing larger conductivity in the direction of the sheet that is in-line with the conjugated π-bonds, and diminished in the direction where the π-subsystems are connected by single σ-bonds. The π-phase can be viewed as an ultrastable web of aligned conducting boron wires, possibly of interest to applications in electronic devices.

  13. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  14. Electron-phonon heat exchange in quasi-two-dimensional nanolayers (United States)

    Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Cojocaru, Sergiu


    We study the heat power P transferred between electrons and phonons in thin metallic films deposited on free-standing dielectric membranes. The temperature range is typically below 1 K, such that the wavelengths of the excited phonon modes in the system is large enough so that the picture of a quasi-two-dimensional phonon gas is applicable. Moreover, due to the quantization of the components of the electron wavevectors perpendicular to the metal film's surface, the electrons spectrum forms also quasi two-dimensional sub-bands, as in a quantum well (QW). We describe in detail the contribution to the electron-phonon energy exchange of different electron scattering channels, as well as of different types of phonon modes. We find that heat flux oscillates strongly with thickness of the film d while having a much smoother variation with temperature (Te for the electrons temperature and Tph for the phonons temperature), so that one obtains a ridge-like landscape in the two coordinates, (d, Te) or (d, Tph), with crests and valleys aligned roughly parallel to the temperature axis. For the valley regions we find P ∝ Te3.5 - Tph3.5. From valley to crest, P increases by more than one order of magnitude and on the crests P cannot be represented by a simple power law. The strong dependence of P on d is indicative of the formation of the QW state and can be useful in controlling the heat transfer between electrons and crystal lattice in nano-electronic devices. Nevertheless, due to the small value of the Fermi wavelength in metals, the surface imperfections of the metallic films can reduce the magnitude of the oscillations of P vs. d, so this effect might be easier to observe experimentally in doped semiconductors.

  15. Effect of aging on electrical conductivity of two-dimensional composite with rod-like fillers (United States)

    Tarasevich, Yuri Yu; Laptev, Valeri V.; Burmistrov, Andrei S.; Lebovka, Nikolai I.


    Two-dimensional composite with rod-like fillers has been simulated using a lattice approach. The fillers were assumed to be conductors, whilst the substrate (host matrix) was assumed to be an insulator. Rod-like fillers were considered as linear k-mers of two mutually perpendicular orientations (kx - and ky -mers) on a square lattice with periodic boundary conditions applied along both directions of the lattice. A random sequential adsorption was used to produce an initial homogeneous and isotropic distribution of fillers. By means of the Monte Carlo (MC) technique, translational diffusion of the fillers was simulated as a random walk, while rotational diffusion was ignored. At each given MC step, the system under consideration was transformed into a random resistor network (RRN); the Frank–Lobb algorithm was applied to calculate the electrical conductivity of such RRNs. Diffusional relaxation of the system leads to a kind of aging. For example, when concentration of fillers exceeds the percolation threshold, the aging leads to decreasing of the electrical conductivity and, in some cases, the inhibition of percolation was observed.

  16. Monolayer and bilayer polyaniline C3N: two-dimensional semiconductors with high thermal conductivity. (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Zhang, Jingchao; Zeng, Xiao Cheng


    Polyaniline (PANI) has been extensively studied in the past few decades owing to its broad applications in electronic devices. However, two dimensional PANI was not realized until very recently. In this work, the thermal transport properties of one of the newly synthesized 2D PANI structures, C 3 N, are systematically investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations. The in-plane thermal conductivity (κ) of monolayer and bilayer C 3 N structures is computed, and the κ values for infinite-length systems are found to be as high as 820 and 805 W m -1 K -1 , respectively. Both the values are markedly higher than those of many prevailing 2D semiconducting materials such as phosphorene, hexagonal boron nitride, MoS 2 and MoSe 2 . The effects of different modulators, such as system dimension, temperature, interlayer coupling strength and tensile strain, on the calculated thermal conductivity are evaluated. Monotonic decreasing trends of thermal conductivity with temperature and tensile strain are found, while a positive correlation between the thermal conductivity and system dimension is revealed. Interlayer coupling strength is found to have negligible effects on the in-plane thermal conductivity of bilayer C 3 N. The cross-plane interfacial thermal resistance (R) between two adjacent C 3 N layers is evaluated in the temperature range from 100 to 500 K and at different coupling strengths. The predicted R at temperature 300 K equals 3.4 × 10 -8 K m -2 W -1 . The maximum reductions of R can amount to 59% and 68% with respect to temperature and coupling strength, respectively. Our results provide theoretical guidance to future applications of C 3 N-based low-dimensional materials in electronic devices.

  17. Disparate Strain Dependent Thermal Conductivity of Two-dimensional Penta-Structures. (United States)

    Liu, Huake; Qin, Guangzhao; Lin, Yuan; Hu, Ming


    Two-dimensional (2D) carbon allotrope called penta-graphene was recently proposed from first-principles calculations and various similar penta-structures emerged. Despite significant effort having been dedicated to electronic structures and mechanical properties, little research has been focused on thermal transport in penta-structures. Motivated by this, we performed a comparative study of thermal transport properties of three representative pentagonal structures, namely penta-graphene, penta-SiC2, and penta-SiN2, by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation with interatomic force constants extracted from first-principles calculations. Unexpectedly, the thermal conductivity of the three penta-structures exhibits diverse strain dependence, despite their very similar geometry structures. While the thermal conductivity of penta-graphene exhibits standard monotonic reduction by stretching, penta-SiC2 possesses an unusual nonmonotonic up-and-down behavior. More interestingly, the thermal conductivity of penta-SiN2 has 1 order of magnitude enhancement due to the strain induced buckled to planar structure transition. The mechanism governing the diverse strain dependence is identified as the competition between the change of phonon group velocity and phonon lifetime of acoustic phonon modes with combined effect from the unique structure transition for penta-SiN2. The disparate thermal transport behavior is further correlated to the fundamentally different bonding nature in the atomic structures with solid evidence from the distribution of deformation charge density and more in-depth molecular orbital analysis. The reported giant and robust tunability of thermal conductivity may inspire intensive research on other derivatives of penta-structures as potential materials for emerging nanoelectronic devices. The fundamental physics understood from this study also solidifies the strategy to engineer thermal transport properties of broad 2D materials by simple mechanical

  18. Heat transport in two-dimensional materials by directly solving the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's dual relaxation model (United States)

    Guo, Yangyu; Wang, Moran


    The single mode relaxation time approximation has been demonstrated to greatly underestimate the lattice thermal conductivity of two-dimensional materials due to the collective effect of phonon normal scattering. Callaway's dual relaxation model represents a good approximation to the otherwise ab initio solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation. In this work we develop a discrete-ordinate-method (DOM) scheme for the numerical solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation under Callaway's model. Heat transport in a graphene ribbon with different geometries is modeled by our scheme, which produces results quite consistent with the available molecular dynamics, Monte Carlo simulations, and experimental measurements. Callaway's lattice thermal conductivity model with empirical boundary scattering rates is examined and shown to overestimate or underestimate the direct DOM solution. The length convergence of the lattice thermal conductivity of a rectangular graphene ribbon is explored and found to depend appreciably on the ribbon width, with a semiquantitative correlation provided between the convergence length and the width. Finally, we predict the existence of a phonon Knudsen minimum in a graphene ribbon only at a low system temperature and isotope concentration so that the average normal scattering rate is two orders of magnitude stronger than the intrinsic resistive one. The present work will promote not only the methodology for the solution of the phonon Boltzmann equation but also the theoretical modeling and experimental detection of hydrodynamic phonon transport in two-dimensional materials.

  19. Quantized conductance doubling and hard gap in a two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure. (United States)

    Kjaergaard, M; Nichele, F; Suominen, H J; Nowak, M P; Wimmer, M; Akhmerov, A R; Folk, J A; Flensberg, K; Shabani, J; Palmstrøm, C J; Marcus, C M


    Coupling a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor heterostructure to a superconductor opens new research and technology opportunities, including fundamental problems in mesoscopic superconductivity, scalable superconducting electronics, and new topological states of matter. One route towards topological matter is by coupling a 2D electron gas with strong spin-orbit interaction to an s-wave superconductor. Previous efforts along these lines have been adversely affected by interface disorder and unstable gating. Here we show measurements on a gateable InGaAs/InAs 2DEG with patterned epitaxial Al, yielding devices with atomically pristine interfaces between semiconductor and superconductor. Using surface gates to form a quantum point contact (QPC), we find a hard superconducting gap in the tunnelling regime. When the QPC is in the open regime, we observe a first conductance plateau at 4e 2 /h, consistent with theory. The hard-gap semiconductor-superconductor system demonstrated here is amenable to top-down processing and provides a new avenue towards low-dissipation electronics and topological quantum systems.

  20. THERM 2.0: a PC Program for Analyzing Two-Dimensional HeatTransfer through Building Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windows and Daylighting Group


    THERM is a state-of-the-art, Microsoft Windows{trademark}-based computer program developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for use by building component manufacturers, engineers, educators, students, architects, and others interested in heat transfer. Using THERM, you can model two-dimensional heat-transfer effects in building components such as windows, walls, foundations, roofs, and doors; appliances; and other products where thermal bridges are of concern. THERM's heat-transfer analysis allows you to evaluate a product's energy efficiency and local temperature patterns, which may relate directly to problems with condensation, moisture damage, and structural integrity. THERM's two-dimensional conduction heat-transfer analysis is based on the finite-element method, which can model the complicated geometries of building products. The program's graphic interface allows you to draw cross sections of products or components to be analyzed. To create the cross sections, you can trace imported files in DXF or bitmap format, or input the geometry from known dimensions. Each cross section is represented by a combination of polygons. You define the material properties for each polygon and introduce the environmental conditions to which the component is exposed by defining the boundary conditions surrounding the cross section. Once the model is created, the remaining analysis (mesher and heat transfer) is automatic. You can view results from THERM in several forms, including U-factors, isotherms, heat-flux vectors, and local temperatures. This version of THERM includes several new technical and user interface features; the most significant is a radiation view-factor algorithm. This feature increases the accuracy of calculations in situations where you are analyzing non-planar surfaces that have different temperatures and exchange energy through radiation heat transfer. This heat-transfer mechanism is important in greenhouse windows, hollow

  1. A two-dimensional numerical model of two-phase heat transfer and fluid flow in a kettle reboiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.P.; Jensen, M.K.


    This paper reports on a numerical model that has been developed to predict the two-dimensional, two-phase flow in a kettle reboiler using a finite difference computer code. The effects of bundle-averaged heat flux, heat transfer mode, weir height, and reboiler size were examined. The recirculation flow rate in the kettle reboiler was found to be strongly dependent upon the bundle-averaged heat flux; the recirculating flow increased with increasing heat flux, reached a plateau, and then decreased with further increases in the heat flux. Differences between the constant wall heat flux and constant wall temperature modes of heat transfer were minimal. The model is an improvement over previous one- and two-dimensional models because; the location of the recirculation center could be predicted, the model included the horizontal flow components within the tube bundle, and the model employed a two-fluid rather than a homogeneous fluid model

  2. Stability investigation in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers by means of heat pulsing (United States)

    Zhou, Ming De; Liu, Tian Shu

    The effects of heat pulses from surface-mounted wires on the laminar boundary-layer flow on an 800 x 300 x 32-mm flat wooden plate with a 6:1 elliptical nose are investigated experimentally in the 1.5 x 0.3-m working section of the DFVLR-AVA Goettingen low-turbulence wind tunnel at maximum free-stream velocity 45 m/s and longitudinal turbulence intensity about 0.05 percent. The results of flow visualization and hot-film measurements are presented in extensive graphs and photographs and analyzed. It is found that the initial amplification of disturbances is accurately predicted by two-dimensional linear stability theory, even when the disturbances include significant three-dimensional components. Subharmonic paths to turbulence are shown to begin from lower initial-disturbance fluctuation levels or at lower Reynolds numbers than predicted by the 'K' mechanism (Klebanoff et al., 1962), and the oblique wave angles at which maximum amplification occurs are seen as consistent with the resonant triad model of Craik (1971).

  3. Two-dimensional model for current and heat transport in solid-armature railguns (United States)

    Powell, John D.; Walbert, David J.; Zielinski, Alexander E.


    A numerical model is developed for solving the equations which predict current and heat transport in a solid-armature railgun. The model is two dimensional and fully time dependent. Some preliminary calculations are carried out for a 'U-shaped' armature similar to that currently under investigation in the ARDEC small and cannon-caliber railgun programs. The most extensive calculations are for a situation in which the projectile is started at rest and accelerated to about 500 m/s in a time of about 1 ms. Results of the calculations can be used to infer, for example, where melting in the armature is most likely to occur and where the electromagnetic fields are largest. For comparison, calculations are also presented for a situation in which the projectile is held fixed. Some discussion of future efforts is given, with particular emphasis on describing how the model might be used to guide the design of armatures, or provide input for other types of calculations relating to electromagnetic guns.

  4. Effect of the Presence of Semi-circular Cylinders on Heat Transfer From Heat Sources Placed in Two Dimensional Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed W. Mustava


    Full Text Available The effect of a semi-circular cylinders in a two dimensional channel on heat transfer by forced convection from two heat sources with a constant temperature has been studied numerically. Each channel contains two heat sources; one on the upper surface of the channel and the other on the lower surface of the channel. There is semi-circular cylinder under the source in upper surface and there is semi-circular cylinder above the source in lower surface. The location of the second heat source with its semi-cylinder has been changed and keeps the first source with its semi- cylinder at the same location. The flow and temperature field are studied numerically with different values of Reynolds numbers and for different spacing between the centers of the semi-cylinders. The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady forms of the two-dimensional incompressible Navier- Stokes and energy equations.  The Cartesian velocity components and pressure on a collocated (non-staggered grid are used as dependent variables in the momentum equations, which discretized by finite volume method, body fitted coordinates are used to represent the complex channel geometry accurately, and grid generation technique based on elliptic partial differential equations is employed. SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass.  The range of Reynolds number is (Re= 100 – 800 and the range of the spacing between the semi-cylinders is(1-4 and the Prandtl number is 0.7.The results showed that increasing the spacing between the semi-cylinders increases the average of Nusselt number of the first heat source for all Reynolds numbers. As well as the results show that the best case among the cases studied to enhance the heat transfer is when the second heat source and its semi-cylinder located on at the distance (S=1.5 from the first half of the cylinder and the Reynolds number is greater than (Re ≥ 400 because of the

  5. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten


    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  6. FireStem2D — A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires (United States)

    Efthalia K. Chatziefstratiou; Gil Bohrer; Anthony S. Bova; Ravishankar Subramanian; Renato P.M. Frasson; Amy Scherzer; Bret W. Butler; Matthew B. Dickinson


    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by...

  7. Calculation of the electrical of induction heating coils in two dimensional axissymmetric geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerg, J.; Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta University of Technology (Finland). Department of Energy Technology, Laboratory of Electrical Engineering


    The effect of the workpiece temperature on the electrical parameters of a plane, spiral inductor is discussed. The effect of workpiece temperature on the electrical efficiency, power transfer to the workpiece and electromagnetic distortion are also presented. Calculation is performed in two dimensional axissymmetric geometry using a FEM program. (orig.) 5 refs.

  8. Numerical prediction of turbulent heat transfer augmentation in an annular fuel channel with two-dimensional square ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki


    The square-ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was developed in order to enhance the turbulent heat transfer in comparison with the standard fuel rod. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the square-ribbed fuel rod, the turbulent heat transfer coefficients in an annular fuel channel with repeated two-dimensional square ribs were analyzed numerically on a fully developed incompressible flow using the k - ε turbulence model and the two-dimensional axisymmetrical coordinate system. Numerical analyses were carried out for a range of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 20000 and ratios of square-rib pitch to height of 10, 20 and 40, respectively. The predicted values of the heat transfer coefficients agreed within an error of 10% for the square-rib pitch to height ratio of 10, 20% for 20 and 25% for 40, respectively, with the heat transfer empirical correlations obtained from the experimental data. It was concluded by the present study that the effect of the heat transfer augmentation by square ribs could be predicted sufficiently by the present numerical simulations and also a part of its mechanism could be explained by means of the change in the turbulence kinematic energy distribution along the flow direction. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional modeling of water and heat fluxes in green roof substrates (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Sandoval, V. P.


    Due to public concern towards sustainable development, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency, green roofs have become popular in the last years. Green roofs integrate vegetation into infrastructures to reach additional benefits that minimize negative impacts of the urbanization. A properly designed green roof can reduce environmental pollution, noise levels, energetic requirements or surface runoff. The correct performance of green roofs depends on site-specific conditions and on each component of the roof. The substrate and the vegetation layers strongly influence water and heat fluxes on a green roof. The substrate is an artificial media that has an improved performance compared to natural soils as it provides critical resources for vegetation survival: water, nutrients, and a growing media. Hence, it is important to study the effects of substrate properties on green roof performance. The objective of this work is to investigate how the thermal and hydraulic properties affect the behavior of a green roof through numerical modeling. The substrates that were investigated are composed by: crushed bricks and organic soil (S1); peat with perlite (S2); crushed bricks (S3); mineral soil with tree leaves (S4); and a mixture of topsoil and mineral soil (S5). The numerical model utilizes summer-arid meteorological information to evaluate the performance of each substrate. Results show that the area below the water retention curve helps to define the substrate that retains more water. In addition, the non-linearity of the water retention curve can increment the water needed to irrigate the roof. The heat propagation through the roof depends strongly on the hydraulic behavior, meaning that a combination of a substrate with low thermal conductivity and more porosity can reduce the heat fluxes across the roof. Therefore, it can minimize the energy consumed of an air-conditioner system.

  10. Conductance of two-dimensional waveguide in presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (United States)

    Liu, Duan-Yang; Xia, Jian-Bai


    By using the transfer matrix method, we investigated spin transport in some straight structures in presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. It is proved that the interference of two spin states is the same as that in one-dimensional Datta-Das spin field-effect transistor. The conductance of these structures has been calculated. Conductance quantization is common in these waveguides when we change the Fermi energy and the width of the waveguide. Using a periodic system of quadrate stubs and changing the Fermi energy, a nearly square-wave conductance can be obtained in some regions of the Fermi energy.

  11. Heat transfer of phase-change materials in two-dimensional cylindrical coordinates (United States)

    Labdon, M. B.; Guceri, S. I.


    Two-dimensional phase-change problem is numerically solved in cylindrical coordinates (r and z) by utilizing two Taylor series expansions for the temperature distributions in the neighborhood of the interface location. These two expansions form two polynomials in r and z directions. For the regions sufficiently away from the interface the temperature field equations are numerically solved in the usual way and the results are coupled with the polynomials. The main advantages of this efficient approach include ability to accept arbitrarily time dependent boundary conditions of all types and arbitrarily specified initial temperature distributions. A modified approach using a single Taylor series expansion in two variables is also suggested.

  12. Giant reduction of thermal conductivity in a two-dimensional nitrogenated holey C2N nanosheet. (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Zhu, Liyan


    Thermal conductivities of monolayer holey C 2 N nanosheets are investigated via equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. As compared with graphene, the lattice thermal conductivities of C 2 N decrease by two orders in magnitude, which are around 40 W m -1 K -1 at 300 K along both zigzag and armchair directions. The lattice dynamics calculations reveal that the reduced group velocities and shortened phonon lifetimes, due to the incorporation of nitrogen atoms and the holey structure, account for such a giant reduction in thermal conductivity. Our study also indicates that pyridinic-like nitrogen doping would be a more efficient way than graphite-like nitrogen doping to suppress the thermal conductivity of graphene.

  13. Evaluation of the fused silica thermal conductivity by comparing infrared thermometry measurements with two-dimensional simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combis, Patrick; Cormont, Philippe; Hebert, David; Robin, Lucile; Rullier, Jean-Luc; Gallais, Laurent


    A self-consistent approach is proposed to determine the temperature dependent thermal conductivity k(T) of fused silica, for a range of temperatures up to material evaporation using a CO 2 laser irradiation. Calculation of the temperature of silica using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric code was linked step by step as the laser power was increased with experimental measurements using infrared thermography. We show that previously reported k(T) does not reproduce the temporal profile as well as our adaptive fit which shows that k(T) evolves with slope discontinuities at the annealing temperature and the softening temperature.

  14. Influence of Nanopore Shapes on Thermal Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Nanoporous Material


    Huang, Cong-Liang; Huang, Zun; Lin, Zi-Zhen; Feng, Yan-Hui; Zhang, Xin-Xin; Wang, Ge


    The influence of nanopore shapes on the electronic thermal conductivity (ETC) was studied in this paper. It turns out that with same porosity, the ETC will be quite different for different nanopore shapes, caused by the different channel width for different nanopore shapes. With same channel width, the influence of different nanopore shapes can be approximately omitted if the nanopore is small enough (smaller than 0.5 times EMFP in this paper). The ETC anisotropy was discovered for triangle n...

  15. Effect of static charge fluctuations on the conduction along the edge of two-dimensional topological insulator (United States)

    Vayrynen, Jukka; Goldstein, Moshe; Glazman, Leonid


    Static charge disorder may create electron puddles in the bulk of a material which nominally is in the insulating state. A single puddle - quantum dot - coupled to the helical edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator enhances the electron backscattering within the edge. The backscattering rate increases with the electron dwelling time in the dot. While remaining inelastic, the backscattering off a dot may be far more effective than the proposed earlier inelastic processes involving a local scatterer with no internal structure. We find the temperature dependence of the dot-induced correction to the universal conductance of the edge. In addition to the single-dot effect, we calculate the classical temperature-independent conductance correction caused by a weakly conducting bulk. We use our theory to assess the effect of static charge fluctuations in a heterostructure on the edge electron transport in a two-dimensional topological insulator. The work at Yale University is supported by NSF DMR Grant No. 1206612 and the Simons Foundation.

  16. Quantized conductance doubling and hard gap in a two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor heterostructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Nichele, F; Suominen, Henri Juhani


    topological matter is by coupling a 2D electron gas with strong spin-orbit interaction to an s-wave superconductor. Previous efforts along these lines have been adversely affected by interface disorder and unstable gating. Here we show measurements on a gateable InGaAs/InAs 2DEG with patterned epitaxial Al......, yielding devices with atomically pristine interfaces between semiconductor and superconductor. Using surface gates to form a quantum point contact (QPC), we find a hard superconducting gap in the tunnelling regime. When the QPC is in the open regime, we observe a first conductance plateau at 4e(2)/h...

  17. A two-dimensional analysis of laser heat addition in converging nozzles (United States)

    Molvik, G. A.; Merkle, C. L.; Choi, D.


    The two-dimensional equations of motion describing the interaction between a laser beam and a flowing gas are considered. An implicit numerical scheme is used to solve these equations for unchoked flow through a converging-diverging nozzle. Separate grids are used for the fluid dynamics and the radiation equations. The effects of beam focusing and cross-beam intensity profiles are included. The calculations are based upon real gas properties for all quantities except the gas absorptivity, which is taken as a constant. The solutions contain the expected hot central core region with cool gas near the walls. This results in steep temperature gradients in both the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The absorption zone acts as a blockage in the nozzle causing a nonuniform velocity profile at the inlet and an overall decrease in mass flow. The absorption region also forces the streamlines to move away from the axis of symmetry, although this effect is not strong.

  18. Negative differential conductance in two-dimensional C-functionalized boronitrene

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, J T


    It recently has been demonstrated that the large band gap of boronitrene can be significantly reduced by C functionalization. We show that specific defect configurations even can result in metallicity, raising interest in the material for electronic applications. We thus study the transport properties of C-functionalized boronitrene using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism. We investigate various zigzag and armchair defect configurations, spanning wide band gap semiconducting to metallic states. Unusual I–V characteristics are found and explained in terms of the energy and bias-dependent transmission coefficient and wavefunction. In particular, we demonstrate negative differential conductance with high peak-to-valley ratios, depending on the details of the substitutional doping, and identify the finite bias effects that are responsible for this behavior.

  19. Computational simulation of two-dimensional transient natural convection in volumetrically heated square enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural convection is a physical phenomenon that has been investigated in nuclear engineering so as to provide information about heat transfer in severe accident conditions involving nuclear reactors. This research reported transient natural convection of fluids with uniformly distributed volumetrically heat generation in square cavity with isothermal side walls and adiabatic top/bottom walls. Two Prandtl numbers were considered, 0:0321 and 0:71. Direct numerical simulations were applied in order to obtain results about the velocities of the fluid in directions x and y. These results were used in Fast Fourier Transform, which showed the periodic, quasi-chaotic and chaotic behavior of transient laminar flow. (author)

  20. Experimental investigations and validation of two dimensional model for multistream plate fin heat exchangers (United States)

    Goyal, Mukesh; Chakravarty, Anindya; Atrey, M. D.


    Experimental investigations are carried out using a specially developed three-layer plate fin heat exchanger (PFHE), with helium as the working fluid cooled to cryogenic temperatures using liquid nitrogen (LN2) as a coolant. These results are used for validation of an already proposed and reported numerical model based on finite volume analysis for multistream (MS) plate fin heat exchangers (PFHE) for cryogenic applications (Goyal et al., 2014). The results from the experiments are presented and a reasonable agreement is observed with the already reported numerical model.

  1. Two-Dimensional Numerical Model of coupled Heat and Moisture Transport in Frost Heaving Soils. (United States)


    approximation for diffusion oroblems is nee---. This is the main objective of the paper: to develop such a constant- * ~ actor which has the hhetprobability...The conseauences of the above results is that use of the proposed -j(It) - actor should result in a linear diffusion mass matrix lumped finite element...contents were assumed. Because of symmetry only half the tank was analyzed, where at the pipe centerline, zero heat flux in the x- direccion was

  2. Analytical method for steady state heat transfer in two-dimensional porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegal, R.; Goldstein, M.E.


    A general technique has been devised for obtaining exact solutions for the heat transfer behavior of a 2- dimensional porous cooled medium. Fluid flows through the porous medium from a reservoir at constant pressure and temperature to a second reservoir at a lower pressure. For the type of flow involved, the surfaces of the porous region that are each at constant pressure are boundaries of constant velocity potential. This fact is used to map the porous region into a strip bounded by parallel potential lines in a complex potential plane. The energy equation, derived by assuming the local matrix and fluid temperatures are equal, is transformed into a separable equation when its independent variables are changed to the coordinates of the potential plane. This allows the general solution for the temperature distribution to be found in the potential plane. The solution is then mapped into the physical plane to yield the heat transfer characteristics of the porous region. An example problem of a porous wall having a step in thickness and a specified surface temperature or heat flux is worked out in detail.

  3. Conduction in rectangular quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional random resistor networks away from the percolation threshold. (United States)

    Kiefer, Thomas; Villanueva, Guillermo; Brugger, Jürgen


    In this study we investigate electrical conduction in finite rectangular random resistor networks in quasione and two dimensions far away from the percolation threshold p(c) by the use of a bond percolation model. Various topologies such as parallel linear chains in one dimension, as well as square and triangular lattices in two dimensions, are compared as a function of the geometrical aspect ratio. In particular we propose a linear approximation for conduction in two-dimensional systems far from p(c), which is useful for engineering purposes. We find that the same scaling function, which can be used for finite-size scaling of percolation thresholds, also applies to describe conduction away from p(c). This is in contrast to the quasi-one-dimensional case, which is highly nonlinear. The qualitative analysis of the range within which the linear approximation is legitimate is given. A brief link to real applications is made by taking into account a statistical distribution of the resistors in the network. Our results are of potential interest in fields such as nanostructured or composite materials and sensing applications.

  4. Robust and conductive two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks with exceptionally high volumetric and areal capacitance (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Lei, Ting; Lukatskaya, Maria R.; Park, Jihye; Huang, Zhehao; Lee, Minah; Shaw, Leo; Chen, Shucheng; Yakovenko, Andrey A.; Kulkarni, Ambarish; Xiao, Jianping; Fredrickson, Kurt; Tok, Jeffrey B.; Zou, Xiaodong; Cui, Yi; Bao, Zhenan


    For miniaturized capacitive energy storage, volumetric and areal capacitances are more important metrics than gravimetric ones because of the constraints imposed by device volume and chip area. Typically used in commercial supercapacitors, porous carbons, although they provide a stable and reliable performance, lack volumetric performance because of their inherently low density and moderate capacitances. Here we report a high-performing electrode based on conductive hexaaminobenzene (HAB)-derived two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In addition to possessing a high packing density and hierarchical porous structure, these MOFs also exhibit excellent chemical stability in both acidic and basic aqueous solutions, which is in sharp contrast to conventional MOFs. Submillimetre-thick pellets of HAB MOFs showed high volumetric capacitances up to 760 F cm-3 and high areal capacitances over 20 F cm-2. Furthermore, the HAB MOF electrodes exhibited highly reversible redox behaviours and good cycling stability with a capacitance retention of 90% after 12,000 cycles. These promising results demonstrate the potential of using redox-active conductive MOFs in energy-storage applications.

  5. Tuning the conductivity threshold and carrier density of two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces through interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma


    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO3 (LAO and non-polar SrTiO3 (STO. Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (LSTO layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.

  6. Regional two-dimensional magnetotelluric profile in West Bohemia/Vogtland reveals deep conductive channel into the earthquake swarm region (United States)

    Muñoz, Gerard; Weckmann, Ute; Pek, Josef; Kováčiková, Světlana; Klanica, Radek


    The West Bohemia/Vogtland region, characterized by the intersection of the Eger (Ohře) Rift and the Mariánské Lázně fault, is a geodynamically active area exhibiting repeated occurrence of earthquake swarms, massive CO2 emanations and mid Pleistocene volcanism. The Eger Rift is the only known intra-continental region in Europe where such deep seated, active lithospheric processes currently take place. We present an image of electrical resistivity obtained from two-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) data acquired along a regional profile crossing the Eger Rift. At the near surface, the Cheb basin and the aquifer feeding the mofette fields of Bublák and Hartoušov have been imaged as part of a region of very low resistivity. The most striking resistivity feature, however, is a deep reaching conductive channel which extends from the surface into the lower crust spatially correlated with the hypocentres of the seismic events of the Nový Kostel Focal Zone. This channel has been interpreted as imaging a pathway from a possible mid-crustal fluid reservoir to the surface. The resistivity model reinforces the relation between the fluid circulation along deep-reaching faults and the generation of the earthquakes. Additionally, a further conductive channel has been revealed to the south of the profile. This other feature could be associated to fossil hydrothermal alteration related to Mýtina and/or Neualbenreuth Maar structures or alternatively could be the signature of a structure associated to the suture between the Saxo-Thuringian and Teplá-Barrandian zones, whose surface expression is located only a few kilometres away.

  7. Aluminum-based one- and two-dimensional micro fin array structures: high-throughput fabrication and heat transfer testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeaux, Philip A; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Miller, Jacob; Meng, W J; KC, Pratik; Moore, Arden L


    Microscale fin array structures were replicated onto surfaces of aluminum 1100 and aluminum 6061 alloy (Al1100/Al6061) sheet metals through room-temperature instrumented roll molding. Aluminum-based micro fin arrays were replicated at room temperature, and the fabrication process is one with high throughput and low cost. One-dimensional (1D) micro fin arrays were made through one-pass rolling, while two-dimensional (2D) micro fin arrays were made by sequential 90° cross rolling with the same roller sleeve. For roll molding of 1D micro fins, fin heights greater than 600 µ m were achieved and were shown to be proportional to the normal load force per feature width. At a given normal load force, the fin height was further shown to scale inversely with the hardness of the sheet metal. For sequential 90° cross rolling, morphologies of roll molded 2D micro fin arrays were examined, which provided clues to understand how plastic deformation occurred under cross rolling conditions. A series of pool boiling experiments on low profile Al micro fin array structures were performed within Novec 7100, a widely used commercial dielectric coolant. Results for both horizontal and vertical surface orientations show that roll molded Al micro fin arrays can increase heat flux at fixed surface temperature as compared to un-patterned Al sheet. The present results further suggest that many factors beyond just increased surface area can influence heat transfer performance, including surface finish and the important multiphase transport mechanisms in and around the fin geometry. These factors must also be considered when designing and optimizing micro fin array structures for heat transfer applications. (paper)

  8. Experimental and numerical study of two dimensional heat and mass transfer in unsaturated soil with and application to soil thermal energy storage (SBTES) systems (United States)

    Moradi, A.; Smits, K. M.


    A promising energy storage option to compensate for daily and seasonal energy offsets is to inject and store heat generated from renewable energy sources (e.g. solar energy) in the ground, oftentimes referred to as soil borehole thermal energy storage (SBTES). Nonetheless in SBTES modeling efforts, it is widely recognized that the movement of water vapor is closely coupled to thermal processes. However, their mutual interactions are rarely considered in most soil water modeling efforts or in practical applications. The validation of numerical models that are designed to capture these processes is difficult due to the scarcity of experimental data, limiting the testing and refinement of heat and water transfer theories. A common assumption in most SBTES modeling approaches is to consider the soil as a purely conductive medium with constant hydraulic and thermal properties. However, this simplified approach can be improved upon by better understanding the coupled processes at play. Consequently, developing new modeling techniques along with suitable experimental tools to add more complexity in coupled processes has critical importance in obtaining necessary knowledge in efficient design and implementation of SBTES systems. The goal of this work is to better understand heat and mass transfer processes for SBTES. In this study, we implemented a fully coupled numerical model that solves for heat, liquid water and water vapor flux and allows for non-equilibrium liquid/gas phase change. This model was then used to investigate the influence of different hydraulic and thermal parameterizations on SBTES system efficiency. A two dimensional tank apparatus was used with a series of soil moisture, temperature and soil thermal properties sensors. Four experiments were performed with different test soils. Experimental results provide evidences of thermally induced moisture flow that was also confirmed by numerical results. Numerical results showed that for the test conditions

  9. Optical Conductivity in a Two-Dimensional Extended Hubbard Model for an Organic Dirac Electron System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigo Ohki


    Full Text Available The optical conductivity in the charge order phase is calculated in the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model describing an organic Dirac electron system α -(BEDT-TTF 2 I 3 using the mean field theory and the Nakano-Kubo formula. Because the interband excitation is characteristic in a two-dimensional Dirac electron system, a peak structure is found above the charge order gap. It is shown that the peak structure originates from the Van Hove singularities of the conduction and valence bands, where those singularities are located at a saddle point between two Dirac cones in momentum space. The frequency of the peak structure exhibits drastic change in the vicinity of the charge order transition.

  10. Regional two-dimensional magnetotelluric profile in West Bohemia/Vogtland reveals deep conductive channel into the earthquake swarm region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muňoz, G.; Weckmann, U.; Pek, Josef; Kováčiková, Světlana; Klanica, Radek


    Roč. 727, March (2018), s. 1-11 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * West Bohemia * Fogtland * earthquake swarm * conductive channel * fluids Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Volcanology

  11. Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas with k-cubic spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)


    We present a detailed theoretical study on zero-frequency Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas (2DHG) with k-cubic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. The presence of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings strongly modifies the Drude weight in comparison to the electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings. For large hole density and strong k-cubic spin-orbit couplings, the density dependence of Drude weight deviates from the linear behavior. We establish a relation between optical conductivity and the Berry connection. Unlike two-dimensional electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings, we explicitly show that the optical conductivity does not vanish even for equal strength of the two spin-orbit couplings. We attribute this fact to the non-zero Berry phase for equal strength of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings. The least photon energy needed to set in the optical transition in hole gas is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electron gas. Types of two van Hove singularities appear in the optical spectrum are also discussed.

  12. Methods for the Determination of Currents and Fields in Steady Two-Dimensional MHD Flow With Tensor Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.


    Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given

  13. Improving performance and cyclability of zinc-silver oxide batteries by using graphene as a two dimensional conductive additive. (United States)

    Ozgit, Dilek; Hiralal, Pritesh; Amaratunga, Gehan A J


    In this article, the use of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a high-surface-area conductive additive for enhancing zinc-silver oxide (Zn-Ag2O) batteries is reported for the first time. Specific capacity, rate capability and cyclability are all improved with the addition of 5% thermally reduced graphene oxide to the electrode. It is shown that the rGO morphology becomes more beneficial as the active materials tend toward the nanoscale. The combination results in a better utilization of the active material, which in turn improves the specific capacity of the zinc-silver oxide batteries by ca. 50%, as a result of the more intimate contact with the nano (∼50 nm) electrode particles. The resulting rGO network also creates a high-surface-area conducting template for ZnO electrodeposition upon discharge, significantly reducing the overall particle size of the ZnO deposit, thus inhibiting the formation of dendrites, and increasing the number of achievable cycles from 4 to >160 with a basic cellulose separator. The morphology of the electrodes and its electrochemical parameters are studied as a function of cycling.

  14. Heat conduction within linear thermoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Day, William Alan


    J-B. J. FOURIER'S immensely influential treatise Theorie Analytique de la Chaleur [21J, and the subsequent developments and refinements of FOURIER's ideas and methods at the hands of many authors, provide a highly successful theory of heat conduction. According to that theory, the growth or decay of the temperature e in a conducting body is governed by the heat equation, that is, by the parabolic partial differential equation Such has been the influence of FOURIER'S theory, which must forever remain the classical theory in that it sets the standard against which all other theories are to be measured, that the mathematical investigation of heat conduction has come to be regarded as being almost identicalt with the study of the heat equation, and the reader will not need to be reminded that intensive analytical study has t But not entirely; witness, for example, those theories which would replace the heat equation by an equation which implies a finite speed of propagation for the temperature. The reader is refe...

  15. The diagonal and off-diagonal AC conductivity of two-dimensional electron gases with contactless Corbino geometry in the quantum Hall regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christian Leth; Hansen, Ole Per


    We have investigated the AC conductivity elements in the quantum Hall regime of two-dimensional electron gases coupled capacitively to electrodes with Corbino geometry. The samples are GaAlAs/GaAs single heterostructures, and the measurements are made at low frequencies, up to 20 kHz. The diagonal...... conductivity is derived from magnetocapacitance measurements. It increases with increasing frequency according to a power law at integer filling factors. The exponent of the power law depends on both temperature and filling factor. Ratios between Hall conductivities at different filling factors are obtained...... by inductive measurements of the circulating current. They are found to agree with quantization in multipla of e2/h at the integer filling factors. ©1996 American Institute of Physics....

  16. Analytical solutions for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraley, S.K.


    Green's functions are found for steady state heat conduction in a composite rectangular parallelepiped (RPP) and in a composite right circular cylinder (RCC) assuming no contact resistance. These Green's functions may then be used to provide analytical solutions for arbitrary internal source distributions and surface temperature distributions within the RPP or RCC

  17. Magnon specific heat in quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic materials: application to YBa2Cu3O6 and La2CuO4 oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Barrie, S.B.


    The aim of the present paper is to study the magnon specific heat by using the quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg model and Zubarev's double time temperature dependent Green's function. We used the equation of motion method and the Callen decoupling method to evaluate the double time temperature dependent Green's functions. In antiferromagnetic materials, it is found that there is some axis along which the magnetic moment tends to align with lower energy due to the presence of anisotropic antiferromagnetic correlation coupling. We study the role of anisotropic antiferromagnetic coupling on the magnon specific heat. Using our theory, we have calculated the contribution of the magnon specific heat in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6 and La 2 CuO 4 high-temperature superconducting compounds in the antiferromagnetic phase. The role of interlayer coupling between CuO layers has also been studied. (orig.)

  18. Periodically fully developed laminar flow and heat transfer in a two-dimensional horizontal channel with staggered fins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgut Oğuz


    Full Text Available The 2-D periodically fully developed laminar forced convection fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal channel with staggered fins are investigated numerically under constant wall heat flux boundary condition. Study is performed using ANSYS Fluent 6.3.26 which uses finite volume method. Air (Pr @ 0.7 and Freon-12 (Pr @ 3.5 are used as working fluids. Effects of Reynolds number, Prandtl number, fin height, and distances between two fins on heat transfer and friction factor are examined. Results are given in the form of non-dimensional average Nusselt number and average Darcy friction factor as a function of Reynolds number for different fin distances and Prandtl numbers. The velocity and temperature profiles are also obtained. It is seen that as the fin distance increases, behavior approaches the finless channel, as expected. Also, thermal enhancement factors are given graphically for working fluids. It is seen that heat transfer dominates the friction as both the distance between two fins and Prandtl number increase. It is also seen that fins having blockage ratio of 0.10 in 2-D periodically fully developed laminar flow is not advantageous in comparison to smooth channel without fins.

  19. A Two-Dimensional Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic, Heat and Mass Transfer and Stability in a Salt Gradient Solar Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ben Moussa


    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of hydrodynamic, heat and mass transfer and stability in a salt gradient solar pond has been numerically studied by means of computational fluid dynamics in transient regime. The body of the simulated pond is an enclosure of height H and length L wherein an artificial salinity gradient is created in order to suppress convective motions induced by solar radiation absorption and to stabilize the solar pond during the period of operation. Here we show the distribution of velocity, temperature and salt concentration fields during energy collection and storage in a solar pond filled with water and constituted by three different salinity zones. The bottom of the pond is blackened and the free-surface is subjected to heat losses by convection, evaporation and radiation while the vertical walls are adiabatic and impermeable. The governing equations of continuity, momentum, thermal energy and mass transfer are discretized by finite–volume method in transient regime. Velocity vector fields show the presence of thin convective cells in the upper convective zone (UCZ and large convective cells in the lower convective zone (LCZ. This study shows the importance of buoyancy ratio in the decrease of temperature in the UCZ and in the preservation of high temperature in the LCZ. It shows also the importance of the thickness of Non-Convective Zone (NCZ in the reduction of the upwards heat losses.

  20. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Two-Dimensional Cavity Filled with Heterogeneously Porous Medium (United States)

    Yan, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yang; Guo, Zhao-Li; Xu, You-Sheng

    The natural convection problem in a square cavity filled with heterogeneously porous medium is solved by lattice Boltzmann method. The temperature distribution is fully coupled with the fluid velocity through relaxation time. The present calculated results are in good agreement with available published data. It is found that the porosity of porous media near the walls has significant influence on the heat transfer, and the porosity of middle porous medium has little influence on the natural convection. It is of particular interest for thermal management in electronic packages, since it can reduce the space of air.

  1. Ionic Intercalation in Two-Dimensional van der Waals Materials: In Situ Characterization and Electrochemical Control of the Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity of Black Phosphorus. (United States)

    Kang, Joon Sang; Ke, Ming; Hu, Yongjie


    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials have shown novel fundamental properties and promise for wide applications. Here, we report for the first time an experimental demonstration of the in situ characterization and highly reversible control of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of black phosphorus. We develop a novel platform based on lithium ion batteries that integrates ultrafast optical spectroscopy and electrochemical control to investigate the interactions between lithium ions and the lattices of the black phosphorus electrode. We discover a strong dependence of the thermal conductivity on battery charge states (lithium concentrations) during the discharge/charge process. The thermal conductivity of black phosphorus is reversibly tunable over a wide range of 2.45-3.86, 62.67-85.80, and 21.66-27.58 W·m -1 ·K -1 in the cross-plan, zigzag, and armchair directions, respectively. The modulation in thermal conductivity is attributed to phonon scattering introduced by the ionic intercalation in between the interspacing layers and shows anisotropic phonon scattering mechanism based on semiclassical model. At the fully discharged state (x ∼ 3 in Li x P), a dramatic reduction of thermal conductivity by up to 6 times from that of the pristine crystal has been observed. This study provides a unique approach to explore the fundamental energy transport involving lattices and ions in the layered structures and may open up new opportunities in controlling energy transport based on novel operation mechanisms and the rational design of nanostructures.

  2. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  3. One-particle conductance of an open quasi-two-dimensional Fermi system: Evidence of the parallel-magnetic-field-induced mode reduction effect (United States)

    Tarasov, Yu. V.


    The conductance of an open quench-disordered two-dimensional (2D) electron system subject to an in-plane magnetic field is calculated within the framework of conventional Fermi liquid theory actually applied to a three-dimensional system of spinless electrons confined to a highly anisotropic (planar) near-surface potential well. Using the calculation method suggested earlier [Phys. Rev. B 71, 125112 (2005)], the magnetic field piercing a finite range of an infinitely long laterally confined system of carriers is treated (technically) as introducing the additional highly nonlocal scattering region which separates the circuit thereby modeled into three parts—the system as such and two perfect leads. The transverse quantization spectrum of the inner part of the electron waveguide thus constructed can be effectively tuned by means of the magnetic field, even though the least transverse dimension of the waveguide is small compared to the magnetic length. The initially finite (metallic) value of the conductance, which is attributed to the existence of extended modes of the transverse quantization, decreases rapidly as the magnetic field grows. This decrease is due to the mode number reduction effect produced by the magnetic field. The closing of the last current-carrying mode, which is slightly sensitive to the disorder level, is suggested as the conceivable origin of the magnetic-field-driven metal-to-insulator transition widely observed in 2D systems.

  4. Origin of n-type conductivity in two-dimensional InSe: In atoms from surface adsorption and van der Waals gap (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Jun-jie; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Wu, Meng; Cen, Yu-lang; Yu, Tongjun


    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) InSe nanosheet becomes a promising material for electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices due to its excellent electron transport, wide bandgap tunability and good metal contact. The inevitable native point defects are essential in determining its characteristics and device performance. Here we investigate the defect formation energy and thermodynamic transition levels for the most important native defects and clarify the physical origin of n-type conductivity in unintentionally doped 2D InSe by using the powerful first-principles calculations. We find that both surface In adatom and Se vacancy are the key defects, and the In adatom, donated 0.65 electrons to the host, causes the n-type conductivity in monolayer InSe under In-rich conditions. For bilayer or few-layer InSe, the In interstitial within the van der Waals gap, transferred 0.68 electrons to InSe, is found to be the most stable donor defect, which dominates the n-type character. Our results are significant for understanding the defect nature of 2D InSe and improving the related nano-device performance.

  5. Coupled heat conduction and thermal stress formulation using explicit integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.; Kulak, R.F.


    The formulation needed for the conductance of heat by means of explicit integration is presented. The implementation of these expressions into a transient structural code, which is also based on explicit temporal integration, is described. Comparisons of theoretical results with code predictions are given both for one-dimensional and two-dimensional problems. The coupled thermal and structural solution of a concrete crucible, when subjected to a sudden temperature increase, shows the history of cracking. The extent of cracking is compared with experimental data

  6. Heat Conduction of Air in Nano Spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yao-Zhong


    Full Text Available Abstract The scale effect of heat conduction of air in nano spacing (NS is very important for nanodevices to improve their life and efficiency. By constructing a special technique, the changes of heat conduction of air were studied by means of measuring the heat conduction with heat conduction instrument in NS between the hot plate and the cooling plate. Carbon nanotubes were used to produce the nano spacing. The results show that when the spacing is small down to nanometer scale, heat conduction plays a prominent role in NS. It was found that the thickness of air is a non-linear parameter for demarcating the heat conduction of air in NS and the rate of heat conduction in unit area could be regard as a typical parameter for the heat conduction characterization at nanometer scale.

  7. Application of linear and non-linear low-Re k-ε models in two-dimensional predictions of convective heat transfer in passages with sudden contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisee, M.; Hejazi, S.H.


    This paper presents comparisons between heat transfer predictions and measurements for developing turbulent flow through straight rectangular channels with sudden contractions at the mid-channel section. The present numerical results were obtained using a two-dimensional finite-volume code which solves the governing equations in a vertical plane located at the lateral mid-point of the channel. The pressure field is obtained with the well-known SIMPLE algorithm. The hybrid scheme was employed for the discretization of convection in all transport equations. For modeling of the turbulence, a zonal low-Reynolds number k-ε model and the linear and non-linear low-Reynolds number k-ε models with the 'Yap' and 'NYP' length-scale correction terms have been employed. The main objective of present study is to examine the ability of the above turbulence models in the prediction of convective heat transfer in channels with sudden contraction at a mid-channel section. The results of this study show that a sudden contraction creates a relatively small recirculation bubble immediately downstream of the channel contraction. This separation bubble influences the distribution of local heat transfer coefficient and increases the heat transfer levels by a factor of three. Computational results indicate that all the turbulence models employed produce similar flow fields. The zonal k-ε model produces the wrong Nusselt number distribution by underpredicting heat transfer levels in the recirculation bubble and overpredicting them in the developing region. The linear low-Re k-ε model, on the other hand, returns the correct Nusselt number distribution in the recirculation region, although it somewhat overpredicts heat transfer levels in the developing region downstream of the separation bubble. The replacement of the 'Yap' term with the 'NYP' term in the linear low-Re k-ε model results in a more accurate local Nusselt number distribution. Moreover, the application of the non-linear k

  8. Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies (United States)

    Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne


    Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.

  9. Integrable two dimensional supersystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, K.C.; Tripathy, L.K.


    The integrability of two dimensional time-dependent classical systems is examined in N=2 superspace using Dirac's second class constraints. The invariants involving quadratic powers in velocities for super harmonic oscillator and super Kepler potentials have been derived. (author). 5 refs

  10. COYOTE: a finite element computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartling, D.K.


    COYOTE is a finite element computer program designed for the solution of two-dimensional, nonlinear heat conduction problems. The theoretical and mathematical basis used to develop the code is described. Program capabilities and complete user instructions are presented. Several example problems are described in detail to demonstrate the use of the program

  11. Member for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.


    Should a radioisotope-powered engine (e.g., a Stirling cycle engine for generating electricity) stop working for any reason, the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat. This will result in a rise in temperature which may cause overheating of and possible damage to the engine as well as to the heat source itself. The invention provides a support/location member for conducting excess heat from the heat source and which, in normal operation of the engine, will impede the conduction of heat away from the heat source and so reduce thermal losses. The member is of elongated form and comprises a stack of heat-conductive slugs disposed in a tube and in interspaced relationship along the axis of the tube. The tube supports the slugs in axial alignment. Means are provided for attaching an end one of the slugs to the heat source and means operable on overheating of said end one of the slugs are also provided whereby the slugs are able to move into heat-conducting contact with each other so as to conduct the excess heat away from said heat source. The slugs may be brazed to the tube whereby progressive overheating of the slugs along the stack results in an overheated slug being freed from attachment to the tube so as to allow the overheated slug to move along the stack and engage the next slug in line in heat-conducting contact. (U.S.)

  12. Heat conductivity of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Fredrikson, Anders; Johannesson, L.E.


    The report deals with the thermal conductivity of bentonite based buffer materials. An improved technique for measuring the thermal conductivity of buffer materials is described. Measurements of FLAC calculations applying this technique have led to a proposal of how standardized tests should be conducted and evaluated. The thermal conductivity of bentonite with different void ratio and degree of water saturation has been determined in the following different ways: * Theoretically according to three different investigations by other researchers. * Laboratory measurements with the proposed method. * Results from back-calculated field tests. Comparison and evaluation showed that these results agreed very well, when the buffer material was almost water saturated. However, the influence of the degree of saturation was not very well predicted with the theoretical methods. Furthermore, the field tests showed that the average thermal conductivity in situ of buffer material (compacted to blocks) with low degree of water saturation was lower than expected from laboratory tests. 12 refs, 29 figs, 11 tabs

  13. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert


    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  14. Modeling Classical Heat Conduction in FLAG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hendon, Raymond Cori [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Los Alamos National Laboratory FLAG code contains both electron and ion heat conduction modules; these have been constructed to be directly relevant to user application problems. However, formal code verification of these modules requires quantitative comparison to exact solutions of the underlying mathematical models. A wide variety of exact solutions to the classical heat conduction equation are available for this purpose. This report summarizes efforts involving the representation of the classical heat conduction equation as following from the large electron-ion coupling limit of the electron and ion 3T temperature equations, subject to electron and ion conduction processes. In FLAG, this limiting behavior is quantitatively verified using a simple exact solution of the classical heat conduction equation. For this test problem, both heat conduction modules produce nearly identical spatial electron and ion temperature profiles that converge at slightly less than 2nd order to the corresponding exact solution.

  15. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)


    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  16. A comparison of numerical methods for the prediction of two-dimensional heat transfer in an electrothermal deicer pad. M.S. Thesis. Final Contractor Report (United States)

    Wright, William B.


    Transient, numerical simulations of the deicing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating have been performed in a 2-D rectangular geometry. Seven numerical schemes and four solution methods were used to find the most efficient numerical procedure for this problem. The phase change in the ice was simulated using the Enthalpy method along with the Method for Assumed States. Numerical solutions illustrating deicer performance for various conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous numerical models and with experimental data. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

  17. Observation of Thermoelectric Voltages from the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas of a HgTe Quantum Well Due to Resonant THz Laser Heating (United States)

    Pakmehr, Mehdi; McCombe, B. D.; Bruene, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.


    HgTe quantum wells (QWs) have shown a number of interesting phenomena, recently the first two-dimensional topological insulating state. We have studied thermoelectric photovoltages of two-dimensional electrons in a 6.1 nm wide HgTe QW induced by cyclotron resonance absorption ( B = 2 to 5 T) of a THz laser beam. We have estimated thermopower coefficients by detailed analysis of the photovoltage signals developed across various contacts of a large Hall bar structure at a bath temperature of 1.6 K. The photovoltage signals are washed out at bath temperature of 18 K.

  18. Solving Direct and Inverse Heat Conduction Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Taler, Jan


    Presents a solution for direct and inverse heat conduction problems. This work discusses the theoretical basis for the heat transfer process in the first part. It presents selected theoretical and numerical problems in the form of exercises with their subsequent solutions in the second part

  19. Polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work reports polynomial approximation approach to transient heat conduction in a long slab, long cylinder and sphere with linear internal heat generation. It has been shown that the polynomial approximation method is able to calculate average temperature as a function of time for higher value of Biot numbers.

  20. Information filtering via biased heat conduction (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Tao; Guo, Qiang


    The process of heat conduction has recently found application in personalized recommendation [Zhou , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA PNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1000488107107, 4511 (2010)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. By decreasing the temperatures of small-degree objects, we present an improved algorithm, called biased heat conduction, which could simultaneously enhance the accuracy and diversity. Extensive experimental analyses demonstrate that the accuracy on MovieLens, Netflix, and Delicious datasets could be improved by 43.5%, 55.4% and 19.2%, respectively, compared with the standard heat conduction algorithm and also the diversity is increased or approximately unchanged. Further statistical analyses suggest that the present algorithm could simultaneously identify users' mainstream and special tastes, resulting in better performance than the standard heat conduction algorithm. This work provides a creditable way for highly efficient information filtering.

  1. DOS-HEATING6: A general conduction code with nuclear heat generation derived from DOT-IV transport calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.L.; Yuecel, A.; Nadkarny, S.


    The HEATING6 heat conduction code is modified to (a) read the multigroup particle fluxes from a two-dimensional DOT-IV neutron- photon transport calculation, (b) interpolate the fluxes from the DOT-IV variable (optional) mesh to the HEATING6 control volume mesh, and (c) fold the interpolated fluxes with kerma factors to obtain a nuclear heating source for the heat conduction equation. The modified HEATING6 is placed as a module in the ORNL discrete ordinates system (DOS), and has been renamed DOS-HEATING6. DOS-HEATING6 provides the capability for determining temperature distributions due to nuclear heating in complex, multi-dimensional systems. All of the original capabilities of HEATING6 are retained for the nuclear heating calculation; e.g., generalized boundary conditions (convective, radiative, finned, fixed temperature or heat flux), temperature and space dependent thermal properties, steady-state or transient analysis, general geometry description, etc. The numerical techniques used in the code are reviewed and the user input instructions and JCL to perform DOS-HEATING6 calculations are presented. Finally a sample problem involving coupled DOT-IV and DOS-HEATING6 calculations of a complex space-reactor configurations described, and the input and output of the calculations are listed. 10 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Heat conduction using Green’s functions

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Kevin D; Haji-Sheikh, A; Litkouhi, Bahman


    Introduction to Green's FunctionsHeat Flux and TemperatureDifferential Energy EquationBoundary and Initial ConditionsIntegral Energy EquationDirac Delta FunctionSteady Heat Conduction in One DimensionGF in the Infinite One-Dimensional BodyTemperature in an Infinite One-Dimensional BodyTwo Interpretations of Green's FunctionsTemperature in Semi-Infinite BodiesFlat PlatesProperties Common to Transient Green's FunctionsHeterogeneous BodiesAnisotropic BodiesTransformationsNon-Fourier Heat ConductionNumbering System in Heat ConductionGeometry and Boundary Condition Numbering SystemBoundary Condition ModifiersInitial Temperature DistributionInterface DescriptorsNumbering System for g(x, t)Examples of Numbering SystemAdvantages of Numbering SystemDerivation of the Green's Function Solution EquationDerivation of the One-Dimensional Green's Function Solution EquationGeneral Form of the Green's Function Solution EquationAlternative Green's Function Solution EquationFin Term m2TSteady Heat ConductionMoving SolidsMethods...

  3. Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennfors, E.


    The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ

  4. Nonstationary Heat Conduction in Atomic Systems (United States)

    Singh, Amit K.

    Understanding heat at the atomistic level is an interesting exercises. It is fascinating to note how the vibration of atoms result into thermodynamic concept of heat. This thesis aims to bring insights into different constitutive laws of heat conduction. We also develop a framework in which the interaction of thermostats to the system can be studied and a well known Kapitza effect can be reduced. The thesis also explores stochastic and continuum methods to model the latent heat release in the first order transition of ideal silicon surfaces into dimers. We divide the thesis into three works which are connected to each other: 1. Fourier's law leads to a diffusive model of heat transfer in which a thermal signal propagates infinitely fast and the only material parameter is the thermal conductivity. In micro- and nano-scale systems, non-Fourier effects involving coupled diffusion and wavelike propagation of heat can become important. An extension of Fourier's law to account for such effects leads to a Jeffreys-type model for heat transfer with two relaxation times. In this thesis, we first propose a new Thermal Parameter Identification (TPI) method for obtaining the Jeffreys-type thermal parameters from molecular dynamics simulations. The TPI method makes use of a nonlinear regression-based approach for obtaining the coefficients in analytical expressions for cosine and sine-weighted averages of temperature and heat flux over the length of the system. The method is applied to argon nanobeams over a range of temperature and system sizes. The results for thermal conductivity are found to be in good agreement with standard Green-Kubo and direct method calculations. The TPI method is more efficient for systems with high diffusivity and has the advantage, that unlike the direct method, it is free from the influence of thermostats. In addition, the method provides the thermal relaxation times for argon. Using the determined parameters, the Jeffreys-type model is able to

  5. Analysis of angular heat conduction in rotary heat regenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, M.C.; Sphaier, L.A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Mecanica Teorica e Aplicada], Emails:,


    Heat regenerators can be found in a considerable number of engineering applications, and are either used as pair of fixed matrices or as single rotary matrix. The thermal design of these devices is usually done considering models that rely on well-established simplifying assumptions. While most of these assumptions comprise reasonable considerations, some of them could lead to noticeable errors on some occasions. One such assumption is that there is no heat transfer between adjacent channels within the regenerator matrix. While this is quite reasonable for fixed-bed exchangers, this might not be a good choice for rotary exchangers on some occasions. Since rotary matrices can operate between two process streams presenting a large temperature difference between them, a large temperature gradient may develop within the plane normal to the flow direction, especially in the angular direction. This paper proposes a new model for simulating rotary heat regenerators, taking into account this previously unconsidered matrix heat conduction effect. A numerical solution of a test case with angular heat conduction is carried-out. With this solution, a parametric analysis is performed, showing how the effects that gradually increasing the angular heat conduction can affect the temperature distributions within the matrix and regenerator outlet. (author)

  6. Heat-Conducting Anchors for Thermocouples (United States)

    Macdavid, Kenton S.


    Metal particles in adhesive aid heat transfer. Aluminum caps containing silver-filled epoxy used as high-thermal-conductance anchors for thermocouples, epoxy providing thermal path between mounting surfaces and thermocouple measuring junctions. Normally, epoxy-filled aluminum caps used when measuring steady-state temperatures. Silver-filled epoxy used when thermocouple not isolated electrically from surface measured.

  7. A heat source probe for measuring thermal conductivity in waste rock dumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackford, M.G.; Harries, J.R.


    The development and use of a heat source probe to measure the thermal conductivity of the material in a waste rock dump is described. The probe releases heat at a constant rate into the surrounding material and the resulting temperature rise is inversely related to the thermal conductivity. The probe was designed for use in holes in the dump which are lined with 50 mm i.d. polyethylene liners. The poor thermal contact between the probe and the liner and the unknown conductivity of the backfill material around the liner necessitated long heating and cooling times (>10 hours) to ensure that the thermal conductivity of the dump material was being measured. Temperature data acquired in the field were analysed by comparing them with temperatures calculated using a two-dimensional cylindrical model of the probe and surrounding material, and the heat transfer code HEATRAN

  8. The solution of the two-dimensional inverse heat transfer problem with the use of the FEM in combination with Trefftz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciejewska Beata


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the boiling heat transfer coefficient for the cooling liquid flow in a rectangular minichannel with asymmetric heating. The main part of the test section is made up of a vertical minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating foil on the side of the fluid flowing in the minichannel is singlesided enhanced on the selected area. The experiment is carried out with FC-72. The investigations focus on the transition from single-phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, that is, from the zone of boiling incipience further to developed boiling. Owing to the liquid crystal layer located on the heating surface contacting the glass, it is possible to measure the heating wall temperature distribution while increasing the heat flux transferred to the liquid flowing in the minichannel. The objective of the calculations is to evaluate a heat transfer model and numerical approach to solving the inverse boundary problem, and to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. This problem has been solved by means the finite element method in combination with Trefftz functions (FEMT. Trefftz functions are used to construct base functions in Hermite space of the finite element.

  9. Study of Thermoelastic Damping in Capacitive Micro-beam Resonators Using Hyperbolic Heat Conduction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghader Rezazadeh


    Full Text Available In the present study, equations of coupled thermoelastic case have been derived using non-Fourier thermal conduction model for a capacitive micro-beam resonator. The Heat conduction is considered to exist in both longitudinal and cross sectional directions. The Quality factor of TED (QTED for two different cases, including two dimensional parabolic (TDP, and one dimensional hyperbolic (ODH heat conduction models have been studied. The results are compared to those of applying one dimensional parabolic (ODP heat conduction model. As the results illustrate QTED of TDP and ODH models are strongly in agreement with those of ODP model. Size-dependency of QTED has been investigated using two dimensional hyperbolic heat conduction model (TDH. According to the results, the values of critical thicknesses achieved of our calculations have a good agreement with the analytical values. By applying TDH model, the effect DC voltage on QTED for an electrostatically deflected micro-beam has been investigated. The results show that the bias DC voltage decreases the QTED, and its influence is more considerable in the vicinity of pull-in position. Air damping (AD and TED has been compared together for various dimensions. The results present that the comparison of quality factor related to AD (QAD and QTED is completely size-dependent.

  10. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi


    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  11. Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina S Sverdlova

    Full Text Available Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.


    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  13. Information filtering via weighted heat conduction algorithm (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Guo, Qiang; Zhang, Yi-Cheng


    In this paper, by taking into account effects of the user and object correlations on a heat conduction (HC) algorithm, a weighted heat conduction (WHC) algorithm is presented. We argue that the edge weight of the user-object bipartite network should be embedded into the HC algorithm to measure the object similarity. The numerical results indicate that both the accuracy and diversity could be improved greatly compared with the standard HC algorithm and the optimal values reached simultaneously. On the Movielens and Netflix datasets, the algorithmic accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, can be improved by 39.7% and 56.1% in the optimal case, respectively, and the diversity could reach 0.9587 and 0.9317 when the recommendation list equals to 5. Further statistical analysis indicates that, in the optimal case, the distributions of the edge weight are changed to the Poisson form, which may be the reason why HC algorithm performance could be improved. This work highlights the effect of edge weight on a personalized recommendation study, which maybe an important factor affecting personalized recommendation performance.

  14. Two dimensional plasma simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazak, G.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, Sh.; Oreg, J.


    An electrostatic two-dimensional particle code for plasma simulation is described. Boundary conditions which take into account the finiteness of the system are presented. An analytic solution for the case of crossed fields plasma acceleration is derived. This solution serves as a check on a computer test run

  15. Heat flux induced blueshift of dominant phonon wavelength and its impact on thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymeric Ramiere


    Full Text Available The concept of dominant phonon wavelength is investigated in systems submitted to a heat flux at low temperatures. Using spectral energy distributions, a treatment of two-dimensional and three-dimensional structures is conducted in parallel. We demonstrate a significant reduction of the dominant phonon wavelength, up to 62%, due to a displacement of the phonon spectrum towards higher frequencies in presence of a heat flux. We name this phenomenon blueshift effect. A formula is provided to directly calculate the corrected dominant phonon wavelength. We illustrate the impact of the blueshift effect by showing that a temperature gradient of 10% at 4K yields a 20% reduction in the thermal conductivity. Therefore, ignoring the blueshift effect in a thermal model can notably alter the physical interpretation of measurements. The results suggest that an appropriate heat flux environment can improve thermoelectric device performances.

  16. Optical and Hall conductivities of a thermally disordered two-dimensional spin-density wave: two-particle response in the pseudogap regime of electron-doped high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.; Millis, A.J.


    We calculate the frequency-dependent longitudinal (σ xx ) and Hall (σ xy ) conductivities for two-dimensional metals with thermally disordered antiferromagnetism using a generalization of a theoretical model, involving a one-loop quasistatic fluctuation approximation, which was previously used to calculate the electron self-energy. The conductivities are calculated from the Kubo formula, with current vertex function treated in a conserving approximation satisfying the Ward identity. In order to obtain a finite dc limit, we introduce phenomenologically impurity scattering, characterized by a relaxation time τ. σ xx ((Omega)) satisfies the f-sum rule. For the infinitely peaked spin-correlation function, χ(q)∝(delta)(q-Q), we recover the expressions for the conductivities in the mean-field theory of the ordered state. When the spin-correlation length ζ is large but finite, both σ xx and σ xy show behaviors characteristic of the state with long-range order. The calculation runs into difficulty for (Omega) ∼ xx ((Omega)) and σ xy ((Omega)) are qualitatively consistent with data on electron-doped cuprates when (Omega) > 1/τ.

  17. Two dimensional image correlation processor (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kai


    Two dimensional images are converted into a very long 1-dimensional data stream by means of raster scan. It is shown that the 1-dimensional correlation function of such long data streams is equivalent to the raster scan converted data of 2-dimensional correlation function of images. Real time correlation of high resolution two-dimensional images has been demonstrated using commercially available components. The advantages of this approach includes programmable electronics reference images, easy interface to objects of interest using conventional image collection optics, real time operation with high resolution images using off-the shelf components, and usefulness in the form of either black and white or full colored images. Such system would be versatile enough for robotics vision, optical inspection, and other pattern recognition and identification applications.

  18. Two-dimensional topological photonics (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady


    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  19. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.


    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  20. Heat flow study at the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling site: Borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production (United States)

    He, Lijuan; Hu, Shengbiao; Huang, Shaopeng; Yang, Wencai; Wang, Jiyang; Yuan, Yusong; Yang, Shuchun


    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Project offers a unique opportunity for studying the thermal regime of the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic belt. In this paper, we report measurements of borehole temperature, thermal conductivity, and radiogenic heat production from the 5158 m deep main hole (CCSD MH). We have obtained six continuous temperature profiles from this borehole so far. The temperature logs show a transient mean thermal gradient that has increased from 24.38 to 25.28 K km-1 over a period of about 1.5 years. We measured thermal conductivities and radiogenic heat productions on more than 400 core samples from CCSD MH. The measured thermal conductivities range between 1.71 and 3.60 W m-1 K-1, and the radiogenic heat productions vary from 0.01 μW m-3 to over 5.0 μW m-3, with a mean value of 1.23 ± 0.82 μW m-3 for the upper 5-km layer of the crust. The heat productions in CCSD MH appear to be more rock-type than depth-dependent and, over the depth range of CCSD MH, do not fit the popular model of heat production decreasing exponentially with increasing depth. The measured heat flow decreases with depth from ˜75 mW m-2 near the surface to ˜66 mW m-2 at a depth of 4600 m. High heat flow anomalies occur at ˜1000 and ˜2300 m, and low anomalies occur at 3300-4000 m. A preliminary two-dimensional numerical model suggests that both radiogenic heat production and thermal refraction due to structural heterogeneity are at least partially responsible for the vertical variation of heat flow in CCSD MH.

  1. Overall conductance and heat transfer area minimization of refrigerators and heat pumps with finite heat reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik


    In the present study, the overall conductance and the overall heat transfer area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems have been minimized analytically considering both internal and external irreversibilities with variable temperature (finite capacity) heat reservoirs. Hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat transfer area ratios have been optimized to attain this goal. The results have been verified with the more elaborate numerical optimization results obtained for ammonia based vapour compression refrigeration and heat pump systems working with variable temperature reservoirs. It is observed that the analytical results for optimum refrigerant temperatures, minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area deviate marginally from the numerically optimized results (within 1%), if one assumes a constant heat rejection temperature. The deviation of minimum overall conductance and heat transfer area is more (about 20%), if one considers both the desuperheating and condensation regions separately. However, in the absence of complex and elaborate numerical models, the simple analytical results obtained here can be used as reasonably accurate preliminary guidelines for optimization of refrigeration and heat pump systems

  2. Application of Monte Carlo Method to Steady State Heat Conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Monte Carlo method was used in modelling steady state heat conduction problems. The method uses the fixed and the floating random walks to determine temperature in the domain of the definition of the heat conduction equation, at a single point directly. A heat conduction problem with an irregular shaped geometry ...

  3. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito


    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pugachev Oleg


    Full Text Available A number of papers deals with the heat conductivity of composite materials: Zarubin et al used new approaches to the problem of evaluation of the effective heat conductivity coefficients of composite material with ball inclusions. We used variational analysis for a simplified model in a vicinity of inclusion. Contemporary computers allow implementing another approach to solving the problem of the effective heat conductivity: it may be modelled by the Brownian motion of virtual heat particles. The main idea is to obtain the exact formula for the heat conductivity for a homogeneous material and subsequently obtain a statistical evaluation of this formula for a composite material.In the present paper we compare two methods for finding the effective heat conductivity coefficients of composite materials by modeling the process of heat conduction via the Brownian motion of virtual heat particles. We consider a composite with ball inclusions of a material with heat conductivity and heat capacity coefficientsdiffering from those of the matrix material. In a computational experiment, we simulate the process of heatconduction through a flat layer of the composite material, which has been heated on one side at the initial moment. In order to find the confidence interval for the effective heat conductivity coefficient, we find, by means of statistics, either the displacement of the center of heat energy, or the probability of a virtual particle to pass through the layer during a certain time. We compare our results with theoretical assessments suggested by other authors.

  5. Analytical and numerical solutions for heat transfer and effective thermal conductivity of cracked media (United States)

    Tran, A. B.; Vu, M. N.; Nguyen, S. T.; Dong, T. Q.; Le-Nguyen, K.


    This paper presents analytical solutions to heat transfer problems around a crack and derive an adaptive model for effective thermal conductivity of cracked materials based on singular integral equation approach. Potential solution of heat diffusion through two-dimensional cracked media, where crack filled by air behaves as insulator to heat flow, is obtained in a singular integral equation form. It is demonstrated that the temperature field can be described as a function of temperature and rate of heat flow on the boundary and the temperature jump across the cracks. Numerical resolution of this boundary integral equation allows determining heat conduction and effective thermal conductivity of cracked media. Moreover, writing this boundary integral equation for an infinite medium embedding a single crack under a far-field condition allows deriving the closed-form solution of temperature discontinuity on the crack and particularly the closed-form solution of temperature field around the crack. These formulas are then used to establish analytical effective medium estimates. Finally, the comparison between the developed numerical and analytical solutions allows developing an adaptive model for effective thermal conductivity of cracked media. This model takes into account both the interaction between cracks and the percolation threshold.

  6. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  7. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  8. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  9. Heat stress-induced loss of eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF-5A) in a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kana; Nakamura, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masanori; Kaino, Seiji; Kondoh, Satoshi; Okita, Kiwamu


    Alterations of intracellular proteins during the process of heat stress-induced cell death of a human pancreatic cancer cell line, MIA PaCa-2, were investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), agarose gel electrophoresis, and cell biology techniques. Incubation of MIA PaCa-2 at 45 degrees C for 30 min decreased the cell growth rate and cell viability without causing chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Incubation at 51 degrees C for 30 min suppressed cell growth and again led to death without DNA fragmentation. The cell death was associated with the loss of an intracellular protein of M(r) 17,500 and pI 5.2 on 2-DE gel. This protein was determined to be eukaryotic initiation factor SA (eIF-5A) by microsequencing of the N-terminal region of peptide fragments obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment of the protein blotted onto a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane. The sequences detected were QXSALRKNGFVVLKGRP and STSKTGXHGHAKVHLVGID, which were homologous with the sequence of eIF-5A from Gln 20 to Pro 36 and from Ser 43 to Asp 61, respectively. Furthermore, the result of sequencing suggested that the protein was an active form of hypusinated eIF-5A, because Lys 46 could be detected but not Lys 49, which is the site for hypusination. These results suggest that loss of the active form of eIF-5A is an important factor in the irreversible process of heat stress-induced death of MIA PaCa-2 cells.

  10. Improvements in or relating to devices for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.


    Reference is made to radioisotope powered heat engines. Should such an engine stop working for any reason the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat, and this may cause overheating and possible damage to the engine as well as the heat source. A device is described for conducting excess heat from the heat source to a heat sink but which in normal operation of the engine will impede heat conduction and so reduce thermal losses. The device may be used to support and/or locate the heat source. Constructional and operational details are given. (U.K.)

  11. Characterization of Molten CZT Using Thermal Conductivity and Heat Capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, Franco [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Maxx [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stowe, Ashley [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    To compare thermal conductivity of a polycrystalline semiconductor to the single crystal semiconductor using thermo-physical data acquired from Simultaneous Thermal Analysis and Transient Plane Source heating.

  12. A comprehensive analysis of conduction-controlled rewetting by the Heat Balance Integral Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.K.; Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721 302, West Bengal (India)


    A two region conduction-controlled rewetting model of hot vertical surfaces with a constant wet side heat transfer coefficient and negligible heat transfer from dry side is solved by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM). The HBIM yields a simple closed form solution for rewetting velocity and temperature distribution in both dry and wet regions for given Biot numbers. Using this method it has been possible to derive a unified relationship for one-dimensional object and two-dimensional slab and rod. The effect of convection is expressed by an effective Biot number whose exact value depends on the geometry and process parameters. The solutions are found to be exactly the same as reported by Duffey and Porthouse [R.B. Duffey, D.T.C Porthouse, The physics of rewetting in water reactor emergency core cooling, Nucl. Eng. Des. 25 (1973) 379-394], Thompson [T.S. Thompson, An analysis of the wet-side heat transfer coefficient during rewetting of a hot dry patch, Nucl. Eng. Des. 22 (1972) 212-224] and Sun et al. [K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien, Cooling of a very hot vertical surface by falling liquid film, ASME J. Heat Transfer 96 (1974) 126-131; K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien, Effect of precursory cooling on falling-film rewetting, ASME J. Heat Transfer 97 (1974) 360-365]. Good agreement with experimental results is also observed. (author)

  13. A three-region conduction-controlled rewetting analysis by the Heat Balance Integral Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, S.K. [National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Mechanical engineering Building, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (India); Das, P.K.; Bhattacharyya, S. [Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kharagpur (India)


    Conduction-controlled rewetting of two-dimensional objects is analyzed by the Heat Balance Integral Method (HBIM) considering three distinct regions: a dry region ahead of wet front, the sputtering region immediately behind the wet front and a continuous film region further upstream. The HBIM yields solutions for wet front velocity, sputtering length and temperature field with respect to wet front. Employing this method, it is seen that heat transfer mechanism is dependent upon two temperature parameters. One of them characterizes the initial wall temperature while the other specifies the range of temperature for sputtering region. Additionally, the mechanism of heat transfer is found to be dependent on two Biot numbers comprising a convective heat transfer in the wet region and a boiling heat transfer in the sputtering region. The present solution exactly matches with the one-dimensional analysis of K.H. Sun, G.E. Dix, C.L. Tien [Cooling of a very hot vertical surface by falling liquid film, ASME J. Heat Transf. 96 (1974) 126-131] for low Biot numbers. Good agreement with experimental results is also observed. (authors)

  14. Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang; Zhang Yong-Wei


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS 2 and WS 2 ), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS 2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS 2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator. (topical reviews)

  15. Effective Heat Conductivity of Composite Materials with Ball Inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pugachev


    Full Text Available The process of heat conduction can be modeled via random motion of particles of heat energy, although these particles do not physically exist: they are considered as special formal objects. The speed of diffusion of heat particles in each material is proportional to its temperature conductivity coefficient. This mathematical model underlying the method of obtaining the effective heat conductivity coefficient of a composite material described in the previous paper \\Heat conductivity of composite materials with included balls of zero heat conductivity" now is being modified in order to deal with materials with various nonzero heat conductivity and capacity coefficients. Namely, when a particle passes from one material to another one, having smaller heat conductivity, it is reflected from the frontier with a certain probability.As a criterion of heat conductivity, we consider the probability that a heat particle starting on one surface of a composite layer, goes to its other surface in a time shorter than T. For a homogeneous material, this probability is calculated theoretically.For a layer of a composite, we perform a multiple computational experiment modeling heat conduction, and for the desired probability we find the confidence interval, wherefrom we obtain the confidence interval for the effective temperature conductivity coefficient, and, finally, calculate the effective heat conductivity coefficient.We have considered inclusions of materials with heat conductivity and volume heat capacity coefficients differing from those of the matrix in 3 times up or down. Ball inclusions of equal size were situated in a cubic order or chaotically. The ratio of the ball radius to the size of cubes was 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4.In series of 4300 randomly moving particles, in all cases considered, the difference between the effective heat conductivity coefficients and those calculated by other methods does not exceed a statistical error.The developed method makes

  16. Two-dimensional Quantum Gravity (United States)

    Rolf, Juri


    This Ph.D. thesis pursues two goals: The study of the geometrical structure of two-dimensional quantum gravity and in particular its fractal nature. To address these questions we review the continuum formalism of quantum gravity with special focus on the scaling properties of the theory. We discuss several concepts of fractal dimensions which characterize the extrinsic and intrinsic geometry of quantum gravity. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Dimitrij Boulatov, Jakob L. Nielsen and Yoshiyuki Watabiki (1997). The other goal is the discussion of the discretization of quantum gravity and to address the so called quantum failure of Regge calculus. We review dynamical triangulations and show that it agrees with the continuum theory in two dimensions. Then we discuss Regge calculus and prove that a continuum limit cannot be taken in a sensible way and that it does not reproduce continuum results. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Jakob L. Nielsen and George Savvidy (1997).

  17. Analysis of combined conduction and radiation heat transfer in presence of participating medium by the development of hybrid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, S.K.; Dandapat, B.K.; Sarkar, A.


    The current study addresses the mathematical modeling aspects of coupled conductive and radiative heat transfer in the presence of absorbing, emitting and isotropic scattering gray medium within two-dimensional square enclosure. A blended method where the concepts of modified differential approximation employed by combining discrete ordinate method and spherical harmonics method, has been developed for modeling the radiative transport equation. The gray participating medium is bounded by isothermal walls of two-dimensional enclosure which are considered to be opaque, diffuse and gray. The effect of various influencing parameters i.e., radiation-conduction parameter, surface emissivity, single scattering albedo and optical thickness has been illustrated. The adaptability of the present method has also been addressed

  18. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law


    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan


    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through A...

  19. Information entropy and its application in heat conduction (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Wu, Y.; Fan, X. Y.; Guo, P.


    In this paper, heat conduction problems are analyzed from the view of information entropy. The variation law of temperature with time in the lumped-heat-capacity system can be expressed in the form of exponential distribution. It is proved that exponential distribution is the solution of a conditional extreme value problem with information entropy as an objective function. The general analysis procedure of heat conduction problems from the view of information entropy is proposed. Fundamental solution of heat conduction equation can be written in the form of normal distribution, and normal distribution can be derived from the maximum entropy principle.

  20. Homogenization of a Conductive-Radiative Heat Transfer Problem


    Habibi Zakaria


    This paper focuses on the contribution of the second order corrector in periodic homogenization applied to a conductive-radiative heat transfer problem. Especially, for a heat conduction problem in a periodically perforated domain with a non-local boundary condition modelling the radiative heat transfer, if this model contains an oscillating thermal source and a thermal exchange with the perforations, the second order corrector helps us to model the gradients which appear between the source a...

  1. Heat conduction in low-dimensional quantum magnets


    Hess, C.


    Transport properties provide important information about the mobility, elastic and inelastic of scattering of excitations in solids. Heat transport is well understood for phonons and electrons, but little is known about heat transport by magnetic excitations. Very recently, large and unusual magnetic heat conductivities were discovered in low-dimensional quantum magnets. This article summarizes experimental results for the magnetic thermal conductivity $\\kappa_\\mathrm{mag}$ of several compoun...

  2. Ballistic Heat Conduction and Mass Disorder in One Dimension


    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang


    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity ($\\kappa$) scales asymptotically as $\\lim_{L\\rightarrow\\infty}\\kappa\\propto L^{0.5}$ where $L$ is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modeling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale ($L_{C}$) below which ballistic heat conduction ($\\kappa\\propto L$) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic...

  3. Heat pipes with variable thermal conductance property for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravets, V.; Alekseik, Ye.; Alekseik, O.; Khairnasov, S. [National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Baturkin, V.; Ho, T. [Explorationssysteme RY-ES, Bremen (Germany); Celotti, L. [Active Space Technologies GmbH, Berlin (Germany)


    The activities presented in this paper demonstrate a new approach to provide passive thermal control using heat pipes, as demonstrated on the electronic unit of DLR’s MASCOT lander, which embarked on the NEA sample return mission Hayabusa 2 (JAXA). The focus is on the development and testing of heat pipes with variable thermal conductance in a predetermined temperature range. These heat pipes act as thermal switches. Unlike standard gasloaded heat pipes and thermal-diode heat pipes construction of presented heat pipes does not include any additional elements. Copper heat pipes with metal fibrous wicks were chosen as baseline design. We obtained positive results by choosing the heat carrier and structural parameters of the wick (i.e., pore diameter, porosity, and permeability). The increase in the thermal conductivity of the heat pipes from 0.04 W/K to 2.1 W/K was observed in the temperature range between −20 °C and +55 °C. Moreover, the heat pipes transferred the predetermined power of not less than 10 W within the same temperature range. The heat pipes have been in flight since December 2014, and the supporting telemetry data were obtained in September 2015. The data showed the nominal operation of the thermal control system.

  4. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  5. CASKETSS-HEAT: a finite difference computer program for nonlinear heat conduction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikushima, Takeshi


    A heat conduction program CASKETSS-HEAT has been developed. CASKETSS-HEAT is a finite difference computer program used for the solution of multi-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems. Main features of CASKETSS-HEAT are as follows. (1) One, two and three-dimensional geometries for heat conduction calculation are available. (2) Convection and radiation heat transfer of boundry can be specified. (3) Phase change and chemical change can be treated. (4) Finned surface heat transfer can be treated easily. (5) Data memory allocation in the program is variable according to problem size. (6) The program is a compatible heat transfer analysis program to the stress analysis program SAP4 and SAP5. (7) Pre- and post-processing for input data generation and graphic representation of calculation results are available. In the paper, brief illustration of calculation method, input data and sample calculation are presented. (author)

  6. Heat Rejection System for Thermal Management in Space Utilizing a Planar Variable-Conductance Heat Pipe (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The integral planar variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) technology represents a novel, low-TRL heat rejection technology which should operate efficiently and...

  7. Analytical and numerical treatment of the heat conduction equation obtained via time-fractional distributed-order heat conduction law (United States)

    Želi, Velibor; Zorica, Dušan


    Generalization of the heat conduction equation is obtained by considering the system of equations consisting of the energy balance equation and fractional-order constitutive heat conduction law, assumed in the form of the distributed-order Cattaneo type. The Cauchy problem for system of energy balance equation and constitutive heat conduction law is treated analytically through Fourier and Laplace integral transform methods, as well as numerically by the method of finite differences through Adams-Bashforth and Grünwald-Letnikov schemes for approximation derivatives in temporal domain and leap frog scheme for spatial derivatives. Numerical examples, showing time evolution of temperature and heat flux spatial profiles, demonstrate applicability and good agreement of both methods in cases of multi-term and power-type distributed-order heat conduction laws.

  8. Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the method of finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da.


    The unsteady linear heat conduction analysis throught anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is presented. The boundary conditions and the internal heat generation are supposed time - independent. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. Optionally, it can be used with a reduced resolution method called Stoker Economizing Method wich allows a decrease on the program processing costs. (Author) [pt

  9. Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.

  10. Analytical Evalution of Heat Transfer Conductivity with Variable Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahimi, Masoume; Hosseini, Mohammad Javad; Barari, Amin


    The homotopy analysis method (HAM) as a new technique which is powerful and easy-to-use, is applied to solve heat transfer problems. In this paper, we use HAM for heat transfer conductivity equation with variable properties which may contain highly nonlinear terms. The obtained results are also...

  11. Dynamics of heat conduction in a tube wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeck, E.O.; McMorran, P.D.


    Transient, one-dimensional heat conduction in a curved wall has been analyzed with the objective of obtaining simple transfer functions for use in dynamic simulations of various types of heat exchangers. The problem becomes considerably simpler if wall curvature is neglected. A technique was developed for obtaining accurate, highly efficient approximations to the flat-plate transfer functions. (author)

  12. Fractional Heat Conduction Models and Thermal Diffusivity Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Žecová


    Full Text Available The contribution deals with the fractional heat conduction models and their use for determining thermal diffusivity. A brief historical overview of the authors who have dealt with the heat conduction equation is described in the introduction of the paper. The one-dimensional heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are listed. Analytical and numerical methods of solution of the heat conduction models with using integer- and fractional-order derivatives are described. Individual methods have been implemented in MATLAB and the examples of simulations are listed. The proposal and experimental verification of the methods for determining thermal diffusivity using half-order derivative of temperature by time are listed at the conclusion of the paper.

  13. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  14. Heat conduction boundary layers of condensed clumps in cooling flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, H.; Fabian, A.C.


    The structure of heat conduction boundary layers of gaseous condensations embedded in the hot intergalactic gas in clusters of galaxies is investigated by means of steady, one-dimensional, hydrodynamic models. It is assumed that heat conduction is effective only on scales much smaller than the total region of the cooling flow. Models are calculated for an arbitrary scaling factor, accounting for the reduction in heat conduction efficiency compared to the classical Spitzer case. The results imply a lower limit to the size spectrum of the condensations. The enhancement of cooling in the ambient medium due to heat conduction losses is calculated for a range of clump parameters. The luminosity of several observable emission lines, the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray emission spectrum, and the column density of some important ions are determined for the model boundary layers and compared with observations. (author)

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Lower Mantle Minerals and Heat Flux Across the Core-Mantle Boundary (United States)

    Bennett, C.; Rainey, E.; Kavner, A.


    The thermal conductivity properties of the minerals comprising the Earth's lowermost mantle control the core-mantle boundary heat flux, and are therefore critical properties for determining the thermal state and evolution of the Earth's interior. Here we present measurements of the thermal conductivity of lower mantle oxides and silicates as a function of pressure, temperature, and iron content determined in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell using a combination of measurements and 3-D modeling. Our models and measurements demonstrate that the measured steady-state temperature and its increase with increasing laser power depend on the sample thermal conductivity as well as the experimental geometry, enabling measurements of the pressure- and temperature- dependence of lattice thermal conductivity in the laser-heated diamond anvil cell. We applied this technique to iron-bearing silicate perovskites and MgO at lower mantle pressure and temperature conditions. For MgO, we determine the increase in thermal conductivity k with density ρ to be ∂lnk/∂lnρ=4.7±0.6, which is in agreement with results obtained using other experimental and computational techniques. For (Mg0.8,Fe0.2)SiO3 perovskite, we find ∂lnk/∂lnρ=2.9±0.6. We use these values in combination with independent computational and experimental results to determine thermal conductivity of lower mantle minerals up to core-mantle boundary conditions. We combine the mineralogical thermal conductivity estimates in a composite model and include an estimate for the radiative contribution to thermal conductivity. Our new value of the thermal conductivity of the lowermost mantle is ~5-6 W/m/K and is sensitive to the details of the lower mantle assemblage, but is relatively insensitive to pressure and temperature. We combine our mantle thermal conductivity with models for the lower mantle boundary layer to generate a series of two-dimensional maps of core-mantle boundary heat flux, which emphasize the

  16. Fractional model for heat conduction in polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li


    Full Text Available Time-fractional differential equations can accurately describe heat conduction in fractal media, such as wool fibers, goose down and polar bear hair. The fractional complex transform is used to convert time-fractional heat conduction equations with the modified Riemann-Liouville derivative into ordinary differential equations, and exact solutions can be easily obtained. The solution process is straightforward and concise.

  17. Constructal entransy dissipation minimization for 'volume-point' heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingen; Wei Shuhuan; Sun Fengrui


    The 'volume to point' heat conduction problem, which can be described as to how to determine the optimal distribution of high conductivity material through the given volume such that the heat generated at every point is transferred most effectively to its boundary, has became the focus of attention in the current constructal theory literature. In general, the minimization of the maximum temperature difference in the volume is taken as the optimization objective. A new physical quantity, entransy, has been identified as a basis for optimizing heat transfer processes in terms of the analogy between heat and electrical conduction recently. Heat transfer analyses show that the entransy of an object describes its heat transfer ability, just as the electrical energy in a capacitor describes its charge transfer ability. Entransy dissipation occurs during heat transfer processes, as a measure of the heat transfer irreversibility with the dissipation related thermal resistance. By taking equivalent thermal resistance (it corresponds to the mean temperature difference), which reflects the average heat conduction effect and is defined based on entransy dissipation, as an optimization objective, the 'volume to point' constructal problem is re-analysed and re-optimized in this paper. The constructal shape of the control volume with the best average heat conduction effect is deduced. For the elemental area and the first order construct assembly, when the thermal current density in the high conductive link is linear with the length, the optimized shapes of assembly based on the minimization of entransy dissipation are the same as those based on minimization of the maximum temperature difference, and the mean temperature difference is 2/3 of the maximum temperature difference. For the second and higher order construct assemblies, the thermal current densities in the high conductive link are not linear with the length, and the optimized shapes of the assembly based on the

  18. Ballistic heat conduction and mass disorder in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang


    It is well-known that in the disordered harmonic chain, heat conduction is subballistic and the thermal conductivity (κ) scales asymptotically as lim L→∞ κ∝L 0.5 where L is the chain length. However, using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method and analytical modelling, we show that there exists a critical crossover length scale (L C ) below which ballistic heat conduction (κ∝L) can coexist with mass disorder. This ballistic-to-subballistic heat conduction crossover is connected to the exponential attenuation of the phonon transmittance function Ξ i.e. Ξ(ω, L) = exp[−L/λ(ω)], where λ is the frequency-dependent attenuation length. The crossover length can be determined from the minimum attenuation length, which depends on the maximum transmitted frequency. We numerically determine the dependence of the transmittance on frequency and mass composition as well as derive a closed form estimate, which agrees closely with the numerical results. For the length-dependent thermal conductance, we also derive a closed form expression which agrees closely with numerical results and reproduces the ballistic to subballistic thermal conduction crossover. This allows us to characterize the crossover in terms of changes in the length, mass composition and temperature dependence, and also to determine the conditions under which heat conduction enters the ballistic regime. We describe how the mass composition can be modified to increase ballistic heat conduction. (paper)

  19. Numerical Analysis of Heat Storage and Heat Conductivity in the Concrete Hollow Core Deck Element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund


    In order to minimize energy used for cooling and heating, one of the passive solutions is to efficiently utilize heat storage of a building construction. Presently, heat storage calculations in whole building simulation programs are based on 1D heat transfer models. This paper investigates to what...... extent these simplified models estimate the heat storage potential of precast hollow-core concrete decks correctly. This study investigates various approaches on how to model the heat transfer within the air void in the deck. Furthermore, it is analysed how different heat transfer models influence...... method in BSim for the concrete deck element with air voids. Finally, this paper presents a comparison of the calculated heat conductivity of the hollow-core concrete deck and the measured heat conductivity for the same deck by using hot box apparatus....

  20. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU


    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  1. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole


    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  2. High temperature heat capacities and electrical conductivities of boron carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Tsuneo; Arita, Yuri; Naito, Keiji; Imai, Hisashi


    The heat capacities and the electrical conductivities of B x C(x=3, 4, 5) were measured by means of direct heating pulse calorimetry in the temperature range from 300 to 1500 K. The heat capacities of B x C increased with increasing x value. This increase in the heat capacity is probably related to the change of the lattice vibration mode originated from the reduction of the stiffness of the intericosahedral chain accompanied with a change from C-B-C to C-B-B chains. A linear relationship between the logarithm of σT (σ is the electrical conductivity and T is the absolute temperature) of B x C and the reciprocal temperature was observed, indicating the presence of small polaron hopping as the predominant conduction mechanism. The electrical conductivity of B x C also increased with increasing x value (from 4 to 5) due to an increase of the polaron hopping of holes between carbon atoms at geometrically nonequivalent sites, since these nonequivalent sites of carbon atoms were considered to increase in either B 11 C icosahedra or in icosahedral chains with increasing x. The electrical conductivity of B 3 C was higher than that of B 4 C, which is probably due to the precipitation of high-conducting carbon. The thermal conductivity and the thermodynamic quantities of B 4 C were also determined precisely from the heat capacity value. (orig.)

  3. NCEL: two dimensional finite element code for steady-state temperature distribution in seven rod-bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrehor, M.


    The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation

  4. Electrochemical fabrication of two-dimensional palladium nanostructures as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering. (United States)

    Li, Yin; Lu, Gewu; Wu, Xufeng; Shi, Gaoquan


    Two-dimensional palladium (Pd) nanostructures have been fabricated by electrochemical deposition of Pd onto an indium tin oxide glass substrate modified with a thin flat film of polypyrrole or a nanofibril film of polyaniline. The experimental results demonstrated that the morphology of Pd nanoparticles strongly depended on the properties of conducting polymers and the conditions of electrochemical deposition. Two-dimensional nanostructures composed of flower-like (consisting of staggered nanosheets) or pinecone-like Pd nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. They can be used as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering after partly decomposing the polymer components by heating in air, and the enhancement factor of the substrate composed of flower-like Pd nanoparticles was measured to be as high as 105 for 4-mercaptopyridine.

  5. Conduction heat transfer in a cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadat, H. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)], E-mail:; Dubus, N. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France); Pinard, L.; Tatibouet, J.M.; Barrault, J. [Laboratoire en catalyse et chimie organique, Universite de Poitiers, 40 Avenue du Recteur Pineau, 86022 Poitiers (France)


    The thermal behaviour of a dielectric barrier discharge reactor is studied. The experimental tests are performed on a laboratory reactor with two working fluids: helium and air. A simple heat conduction model for calculating the heat loss is developed. By using temperature measurements in the internal and external electrodes, a thermal resistance of the reactor is defined. Finally, the percentage of the input power that is dissipated to the environment is given.

  6. Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems (United States)

    Allan, Marita


    A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

  7. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Heat Conduction in Nanoscale Systems. (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Guo, Zeng-Yuan


    Heat conduction in nanoscale systems has different behavior from bulk materials, which is applied to develop high performance thermoelectric material. The non-trivial behavior is caused by the ballistic-diffusive transport of heat carriers such as phonons. In this paper, we use the thermomass theory and phonon hydrodynamics model to establish a hydrodynamic model for phonon transport. In nanoscale systems, a Poiseuille flow of phonon gas is formed due to the boundary scattering. The thickness of boundary layer is proportional to the mean free paths of phonon. When the boundary layer thickness is comparable with the whole flow region, strong decrease of effective thermal conductivity happens. This method can serve as a fast evaluation method for nanoscale heat conduction.

  8. Size Dependent Heat Conduction in One-Dimensional Diatomic Lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Tejal N.; Gajjar, P.N.


    We study the size dependency of heat conduction in one-dimensional diatomic FPU-β lattices and establish that for low dimensional material, contribution from optical phonons is found more effective to the thermal conductivity and enhance heat transport in the thermodynamic limit N → ∞. For the finite size, thermal conductivity of 1D diatomic lattice is found to be lower than 1D monoatomic chain of the same size made up of the constituent particle of the diatomic chain. For the present 1D diatomic chain, obtained value of power divergent exponent of thermal conductivity 0.428±0.001 and diffusion exponent 1.2723 lead to the conclusions that increase in the system size, increases the thermal conductivity and existence of anomalous energy diffusion. Existing numerical data supports our findings. (paper)

  9. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  10. Conoscopic holography: two-dimensional numerical reconstructions. (United States)

    Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y; Charlot, D


    Conoscopic holography is an incoherent light holographic technique based on the properties of crystal optics. We present experimental results of the numerical reconstruction of a two-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram.

  11. Equilibrium Models of Galaxy Clusters with Cooling, Heating, and Conduction (United States)

    Brüggen, M.


    It is generally argued that most clusters of galaxies host cooling flows in which radiative cooling in the center causes a slow inflow. However, recent observations by Chandra and XMM conflict with the predicted cooling flow rates. Among other mechanisms, heating by a central active galactic nucleus and thermal conduction have been invoked in order to account for the small mass deposition rates. Here we present a family of hydrostatic models for the intracluster medium where radiative losses are exactly balanced by thermal conduction and heating by a central source. We describe the features of this simple model and fit its parameters to the density and temperature profiles of Hydra A.

  12. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  13. Implementation of an implicit method into heat conduction calculation of TRAC-PF1/MOD2 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Abe, Yutaka; Ohnuki, Akira; Murao, Yoshio


    A two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction equation is solved in the TRAC-PF/MOD2 code to calculate temperature transients in fuel rod. A large CPU time is often required to get stable solution of temperature transients in the TRAC calculation with a small axial node size (less than 1.0 mm), because the heat conduction equation is discretized explicitly. To eliminate the restriction of the maximum time step size by the heat conduction calculation, an implicit method for solving the heat condition equation was developed and implemented into the TRAC code. Several assessment calculations were performed with the original and modified TRAC codes. It is confirmed that the implicit method is reliable and is successfully implemented into the TRAC code through comparison with theoretical solutions and assessment calculation results. It is demonstrated that the implicit method makes the heat conduction calculation practical even for the analyses of temperature transients with the axial node size less than 0.1 mm. (author)

  14. HEATING6: a multidimensional heat conduction analysis with the finite-difference formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrod, D.C.; Giles, G.E.; Turner, W.D.


    HEATING6, a modification of the generalized heat conduction code HEATING5, is designed to solve steady-state and/or transient heat conduction problems in one-, two-, or three-dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical coordinates or one-dimensional spherical coordinates. The thermal conductivity, density, and specific heat may be both spatially and temperature-dependent. The thermal conductivity may be anisotropic. Materials may undergo a change of phase. Thermal properties of materials may be extracted from a material properties library. Heat generation rates may be dependent on time, temperature and position, and boundary temperatures may be time- and position-dependent. The boundary conditions, which may be surface-to-boundary or surface-to-surface, may be specified temperatures or any combination of prescribed heat flux, forced convection, natural convection, and radiation. The thermal efficiency of certain finned surfaces may be modeled. The boundary condition parameters may be time- and/or temperature-dependent. The mesh spacing may be variable along each axis. HEATING6 is variably dimensioned and utilizes free-form input. This report includes a discussion of the numerical techniques used by HEATING6, sections on the program structure and modeling concepts, a detailed set of instructions for preparing input data and using the code, and several sample problems

  15. An experiment in heat conduction using hollow cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortuno, M; Marquez, A; Gallego, S; Neipp, C; Belendez, A, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, IngenierIa de Sistemas y TeorIa de la Senal, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)


    An experimental apparatus was designed and built to allow students to carry out heat conduction experiments in hollow cylinders made of different materials, as well as to determine the thermal conductivity of these materials. The evolution of the temperature difference between the inner and outer walls of the cylinder as a function of time is analysed, and when the process reaches the steady state regime the thermal conductivity can be easily calculated. Several materials such as wood, plastic and metals are considered and the values of their thermal conductivities, obtained experimentally, are compared with those given in the reference list.

  16. Analysis of temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The temperature distribution in a heat conducting fiber is computed using the Galerkin Finite Element Method in the present study. The weak form of the governing differential equation is obtained and nodal temperatures for linear and quadratic interpolation functions for different mesh densities are calculated for Neumann ...

  17. Heating and conduction in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, H.D.; Zimmerman, G.B.; Nuckolls, J.H.


    A series of experiments conducted by G. McCall of LASL provides important clues concerning the electron distributions heated in the absorption of intense (less than or approximately equal to 10/sup lb/ W/cm 2 ) laser radiation and the thermal transport of energy. Presented here is a tentative interpretation of these experiments obtained from LASNEX calculations. (U.S.)

  18. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 33; Issue 4. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous Medium in the Presence of Non-Uniform Rotation and Magnetic Field. Joginder S. Dhiman Rekha Dadwal. Volume 33 Issue 4 December 2012 pp 363-373 ...

  19. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Van de Ven, M.; Van Vliet, D.

    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand–bitumen ratio and the

  20. Induction heating of mastic containing conductive fibers and fillers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, Á.; Schlangen, E.; Ven, M. van de; Vliet, D. van


    The objective of this research is to examine the induction heating of mastic through the addition of electrically conductive fillers and fibers (graphite and steel wool), and to prove that this material can be healed with induction energy. The effect of fibers content, sand-bitumen ratio and the

  1. Measurement of the Electronic Thermal Conductance Channels and Heat Capacity of Graphene at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Chung Fong


    Full Text Available The ability to transport energy is a fundamental property of the two-dimensional Dirac fermions in graphene. Electronic thermal transport in this system is relatively unexplored and is expected to show unique fundamental properties and to play an important role in future applications of graphene, including optoelectronics, plasmonics, and ultrasensitive bolometry. Here, we present measurements of bipolar thermal conductances due to electron diffusion and electron-phonon coupling and infer the electronic specific heat, with a minimum value of 10k_{B} (10^{-22}  J/K per square micron. We test the validity of the Wiedemann-Franz law and find that the Lorenz number equals 1.32×(π^{2}/3(k_{B}/e^{2}. The electron-phonon thermal conductance has a temperature power law T^{2} at high doping levels, and the coupling parameter is consistent with recent theory, indicating its enhancement by impurity scattering. We demonstrate control of the thermal conductance by electrical gating and by suppressing the diffusion channel using NbTiN superconducting electrodes, which sets the stage for future graphene-based single-microwave photon detection.

  2. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars


    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation

  3. Large deviations in stochastic heat-conduction processes provide a gradient-flow structure for heat conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peletier, Mark A., E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Redig, Frank, E-mail: [Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Technische Universiteit Delft, Mekelweg 4, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Vafayi, Kiamars, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Postbus 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form -log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ² for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation.

  4. Modelling heat conduction in polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride films. (United States)

    Mortazavi, Bohayra; Pereira, Luiz Felipe C; Jiang, Jin-Wu; Rabczuk, Timon


    We conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) films. To this aim, we constructed large atomistic models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets with random and uniform grain configuration. By performing equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) simulations, we investigated the influence of the average grain size on the thermal conductivity of polycrystalline h-BN films at various temperatures. Using the EMD results, we constructed finite element models of polycrystalline h-BN sheets to probe the thermal conductivity of samples with larger grain sizes. Our multiscale investigations not only provide a general viewpoint regarding the heat conduction in h-BN films but also propose that polycrystalline h-BN sheets present high thermal conductivity comparable to monocrystalline sheets.

  5. High temperature electrically conducting ceramic heating element and control system (United States)

    Halbach, C. R.; Page, R. J.


    Improvements were made in both electrode technology and ceramic conductor quality to increase significantly the lifetime and thermal cycling capability of electrically conducting ceramic heater elements. These elements were operated in vacuum, inert and reducing environments as well as oxidizing atmospheres adding to the versatility of the conducting ceramic as an ohmic heater. Using stabilized zirconia conducting ceramic heater elements, a furnace was fabricated and demonstrated to have excellent thermal response and cycling capability. The furnace was used to melt platinum-20% rhodium alloy (melting point 1904 C) with an isothermal ceramic heating element having a nominal working cavity size of 2.5 cm diameter by 10.0 cm long. The furnace was operated to 1940 C with the isothermal ceramic heating element. The same furnace structure was fitted with a pair of main heater elements to provide axial gradient temperature control over a working cavity length of 17.8 cm.

  6. A multilevel method for conductive-radiative heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banoczi, J.M.; Kelley, C.T. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    We present a fast multilevel algorithm for the solution of a system of nonlinear integro-differential equations that model steady-state combined radiative-conductive heat transfer. The equations can be formulated as a compact fixed point problem with a fixed point map that requires both a solution of the linear transport equation and the linear heat equation for its evaluation. We use fast transport solvers developed by the second author, to construct an efficient evaluation of the fixed point map and then apply the Atkinson-Brakhage, method, with Newton-GMRES as the coarse mesh solver, to the full nonlinear system.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan


    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array

  8. Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane (United States)

    Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.


    We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.

  9. Hyperbolic heat conduction, effective temperature, and third law for nonequilibrium systems with heat flux (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.


    Some analogies between different nonequilibrium heat conduction models, particularly random walk, the discrete variable model, and the Boltzmann transport equation with the single relaxation time approximation, have been discussed. We show that, under an assumption of a finite value of the heat carrier velocity, these models lead to the hyperbolic heat conduction equation and the modified Fourier law with relaxation term. Corresponding effective temperature and entropy have been introduced and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the effective temperature, defined as a geometric mean of the kinetic temperatures of the heat carriers moving in opposite directions, acts as a criterion for thermalization and is a nonlinear function of the kinetic temperature and heat flux. It is shown that, under highly nonequilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature, heat capacity, and local entropy go to zero even at a nonzero equilibrium temperature. This provides a possible generalization of the third law to nonequilibrium situations. Analogies and differences between the proposed effective temperature and some other definitions of a temperature in nonequilibrium state, particularly for active systems, disordered semiconductors under electric field, and adiabatic gas flow, have been shown and discussed. Illustrative examples of the behavior of the effective temperature and entropy during nonequilibrium heat conduction in a monatomic gas and a strong shockwave have been analyzed.

  10. Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials (United States)

    Mahamudur Rahman, Md; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew


    We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.

  11. Increasing Boiling Heat Transfer using Low Conductivity Materials. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mahamudur; Pollack, Jordan; McCarthy, Matthew


    We report the counterintuitive mechanism of increasing boiling heat transfer by incorporating low-conductivity materials at the interface between the surface and fluid. By embedding an array of non-conductive lines into a high-conductivity substrate, in-plane variations in the local surface temperature are created. During boiling the surface temperature varies spatially across the substrate, alternating between high and low values, and promotes the organization of distinct liquid and vapor flows. By systematically tuning the peak-to-peak wavelength of this spatial temperature variation, a resonance-like effect is seen at a value equal to the capillary length of the fluid. Replacing ~18% of the surface with a non-conductive epoxy results in a greater than 5x increase in heat transfer rate at a given superheat temperature. This drastic and counterintuitive increase is shown to be due to optimized bubble dynamics, where ordered pathways allow for efficient removal of vapor and the return of replenishing liquid. The use of engineered thermal gradients represents a potentially disruptive approach to create high-efficiency and high-heat-flux boiling surfaces which are naturally insensitive to fouling and degradation as compared to other approaches.

  12. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B


    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  13. Thermal conductance of heat transfer interfaces for conductively cooled superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, T.L.; Walters, J.D.; Fikse, T.H.


    Minimizing thermal resistances across interfaces is critical for efficient thermal performance of conductively cooled superconducting magnet systems. Thermal conductance measurements have been made for a flexible thermal coupling, designed to accommodate magnet-to-cryocooler and cryocooler-to-shield relative motion, and an interface incorporating Multilam designed as a sliding thermal connector for cryocoolers. Temperature changes were measured across each interface as a function of heat input. Thermal conductances have been calculated for each interface, and the impact of each interface on conductively cooled magnet systems will be discussed

  14. Heat conduction analysis of multi-layered FGMs considering the finite heat wave speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahideh, H.; Malekzadeh, P.; Golbahar Haghighi, M.R.


    Highlights: ► Using a layerwise-incremental differential quadrature for heat transfer of FGMs. ► Superior accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom of the method with respect to FEM. ► Considering multi-layered functionally graded materials. ► Hyperbolic heat transfer analysis of thermal system with heat generation. ► Showing the effect of heat wave speed on thermal characteristic of the system. - Abstract: In this work, the heat conduction with finite wave heat speed of multi-layered domain made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to heat generation is simulated. For this purpose, the domain is divided into a set of mathematical layers, the number of which can be equal or greater than those of the physical layers. Then, in each mathematical layer, the non-Fourier heat transfer equations are employed. Since, the governing equations have variable coefficients due to FGM properties, as an efficient and accurate method the differential quadrature method (DQM) is adopted to discretize both spatial and temporal domains in each layer. This results in superior accuracy with fewer degrees of freedom than conventional finite element method (FEM). To verify this advantages through some comparison studies, a finite element solution are also obtained. After demonstrating the convergence and accuracy of the method, the effects of heat wave speed for two different set of boundary conditions on the temperature distribution and heat flux of the domain are studied.

  15. Heat conduction in diatomic chains with correlated disorder (United States)

    Savin, Alexander V.; Zolotarevskiy, Vadim; Gendelman, Oleg V.


    The paper considers heat transport in diatomic one-dimensional lattices, containing equal amounts of particles with different masses. Ordering of the particles in the chain is governed by single correlation parameter - the probability for two neighboring particles to have the same mass. As this parameter grows from zero to unity, the structure of the chain varies from regular staggering chain to completely random configuration, and then - to very long clusters of particles with equal masses. Therefore, this correlation parameter allows a control of typical cluster size in the chain. In order to explore different regimes of the heat transport, two interatomic potentials are considered. The first one is an infinite potential wall, corresponding to instantaneous elastic collisions between the neighboring particles. In homogeneous chains such interaction leads to an anomalous heat transport. The other one is classical Lennard-Jones interatomic potential, which leads to a normal heat transport. The simulations demonstrate that the correlated disorder of the particle arrangement does not change the convergence properties of the heat conduction coefficient, but essentially modifies its value. For the collision potential, one observes essential growth of the coefficient for fixed chain length as the limit of large homogeneous clusters is approached. The thermal transport in these models remains superdiffusive. In the Lennard-Jones chain the effect of correlation appears to be not monotonous in the limit of low temperatures. This behavior stems from the competition between formation of long clusters mentioned above, and Anderson localization close to the staggering ordered state.

  16. Thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity and specific heat of copper-carbon fiber composite (United States)

    Kuniya, Keiichi; Arakawa, Hideo; Kanai, Tsuneyuki; Chiba, Akio


    A new material of copper/carbon fiber composite is developed which retains the properties of copper, i.e., its excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, and the property of carbon, i.e., a small thermal expansion coefficient. These properties of the composite are adjustable within a certain range by changing the volume and/or the orientation of the carbon fibers. The effects of carbon fiber volume and arrangement changes on the thermal and electrical conductivity, and specific heat of the composite are studied. Results obtained are as follows: the thermal and electrical conductivity of the composite decrease as the volume of the carbon fiber increases, and were influenced by the fiber orientation. The results are predictable from a careful application of the rule of mixtures for composites. The specific heat of the composite was dependent, not on fiber orientation, but on fiber volume. In the thermal fatigue tests, no degradation in the electrical conductivity of this composite was observed.

  17. Mathematical and numerical modeling of inverse heat conduction problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sterian DANAILA


    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the assessment of three numerical methods for solving the inverse heat conduction problem: the Alifanov’s iterative regularization method, the Tikhonov local regularization method and the Tikhonov equation regularization method, respectively. For all methods we developed numerical algorithms for reconstruction of the unsteady boundary condition imposing some restrictions for the unsteady temperature field in the interior points. Numerical tests allow evaluating the accuracy of the considered methods.

  18. Homogenization of a Conductive-Radiative Heat Transfer Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi Zakaria


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the contribution of the second order corrector in periodic homogenization applied to a conductive-radiative heat transfer problem. Especially, for a heat conduction problem in a periodically perforated domain with a non-local boundary condition modelling the radiative heat transfer, if this model contains an oscillating thermal source and a thermal exchange with the perforations, the second order corrector helps us to model the gradients which appear between the source area and the perforations. Ce papier est consacré à montrer l’influence du correcteur de second ordre en homogénéisation périodique. Dans l’homogénéisation d’un problème de conduction rayonnement dans un domaine périodiquement perforé par plusieurs trous, on peut voir une contribution non négligeable de ce correcteur lors de la présence d’une source thermique oscillante et d’un échange thermique dans les perforations. Ce correcteur nous permet de modéliser les gradients qui apparaissent entre la zone de la source thermique et les perforations.

  19. Dipolar vortices in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter


    The dynamics of dipolar vortex solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations is studied. A new type of nonlinear dipole is found and its dynamics in a slightly viscous system is compared with the dynamics of the Lamb dipole. The evolution of dipolar structures from an initial turbulent patch...

  20. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  1. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  2. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons.

  3. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.


    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  4. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.


    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  5. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao


    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina


    We study countable sums of two dimensional modules for the continuous complex functions on a compact metric space and show that it is possible to construct a spectral triple which gives the original metric back. This spectral triple will be finitely summable for any positive parameter. We also co...

  7. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to

  8. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  9. Impact of the Flameholder Heat Conductivity on Combustion Instability Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Seunghyuck


    In this paper, we investigate the impact of heat transfer between the flame and the flame-holder on the dynamic stability characteristics in a 50-kW backward facing step combustor. We conducted tests where we use a backward step block made of two different materials: ceramic and stainless steel whose thermal conductivities are 1.06 and 12 W/m/K, respectively. A set of experiments was conducted using a propane/air mixture at Re = 6500 for the inlet temperature of 300 - 500 K at atmospheric pressure. We measure the dynamic pressure and flame chemiluminescence to examine distinct stability characteristics using each flame-holder material over a range of operating conditions. We find that for tests with a flame-holder made of ceramic, the onset of instability is significantly delayed in time and, for certain operating conditions, disappears altogether. Stated differently, for certain operating conditions, the combustor can be stabilized by reducing the thermal conductivity of the flame-holder. As the thermal conductivity of the flame-holder increases, the combustor becomes increasingly unstable over a range of operating conditions. These results imply that the dynamic stability characteristics depend strongly on the heat transfer between the flame and the combustor wall near the flame anchoring region. Copyright © 2012 by ASME.

  10. Comparison of CFD Natural Convection and Conduction-only Models for Heat Transfer in the Yucca Mountain Project Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadgu, T.; Webb, S.; Itamura, M.


    Yucca Mountain, Nevada has been designated as the nation's high-level radioactive waste repository and the U.S. Department of Energy has been approved to apply to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to construct a repository. Heat transfer in the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) drift enclosures is an important aspect of repository waste emplacement. Canisters containing radioactive waste are to be emplaced in tunnels drilled 500 m below the ground surface. After repository closure, decaying heat is transferred from waste packages to the host rock by a combination of thermal radiation, natural convection and conduction heat transfer mechanism?. Current YMP mountain-scale and drift-scale numerical models often use a simplified porous medium code to model fluid and heat flow in the drift openings. To account for natural convection heat transfer, the thermal conductivity of the air was increased in the porous medium model. The equivalent thermal conductivity, defined as the ratio of total heat flow to conductive heat flow, used in the porous media models was based on horizontal concentric cylinders. Such modeling does not effectively capture turbulent natural convection in the open spaces as discussed by Webb et al. (2003) yet the approach is still widely used on the YMP project. In order to mechanistically model natural convection conditions in YMP drifts, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT (Fluent, Incorporated, 2001) has been used to model natural convection heat transfer in the YMP emplacement drifts. A two-dimensional (2D) model representative of YMP geometry (e.g., includes waste package, drip shield, invert and drift wall) has been developed and numerical simulations made (Francis et al., 2003). Using CFD simulation results for both natural convection and conduction-only heat transfer in a single phase, single component fluid, equivalent thermal conductivities have been calculated for different Rayleigh numbers. Correlation

  11. Analysis of organic compounds of water-in-crude oil emulsions separated by microwave heating using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Freitas, Lisiane S; Von Mühlen, Carin; Bortoluzzi, Janaína H; Zini, Claudia A; Fortuny, Montserrat; Dariva, Claudio; Coutinho, Raquel C C; Santos, Alexandre F; Caramão, Elina B


    In this work the higher peak capacity and resolution of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) has been successfully applied, for the first time, to tentatively identify several polar organic compounds of organic extracts of aqueous phases resulting from microwave demulsification process of water-in-crude oil emulsions. Results have shown that higher temperatures and longer exposure time to microwave irradiation produced water phases with a wider variety of polar organic compounds. The microwave process showed to be suitable for the extraction of several polar compounds classes of petroleum. The proposed microwave extraction method and GCxGC identification of polar compounds of petroleum samples are of practical interest for the petrochemical industry due to corrosion and related problems associated with these polar compounds in refinery equipments. The GCxGC/time-of-flight MS technique shows to be very important in the total separation of different classes of compounds and allows the identification of many compounds in these classes.

  12. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara


    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  13. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments (United States)

    Anderson, William G.; Ellis, Michael C.; Walker, Kara L.


    Long-term Lunar and Martian surface systems present challenges to thermal system design, including changes in thermal load, and large changes in the thermal environment between Lunar (or Martian) day and night. For example, the heat sink temperature at the Lunar equator can vary from 210 to 315 K. The radiator must be sized to reject the design power at the maximum temperature, but must also be able to accommodate both the changing heat sink temperature, as well as changes in power. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) radiators were examined for the main reactor of a fission surface power system, as well as the cavity cooling radiator. A VCHP radiator was designed for Lunar Equator that is capable of maintaining a 16 K temperature drop with a 4% addition to overall mass. Without the VCHP the radiator would experience a 43 K drop in temperature. This design is also capable of handling turndown on the power without an effect to the outlet temperature. At Shackleton Crater, the temperature drop for a conventional heat pipe radiator is small enough that a VCHP is not beneficial at constant power. However, a VCHP will allow turndown ratios of 5:1 or more. A conventional radiator can not be turned down more than 2:1, without valves to bypass part of the radiator. VCHPs are also easier to start than conventional radiators, since the gas-loading prevents sublimation from the evaporator when the condenser is frozen.

  14. On parameterization of heat conduction in coupled soil water and heat flow modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votrubová, J.; Dohnal, M.; Vogel, T.; Tesař, Miroslav


    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2012), s. 125-137 ISSN 1801-5395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : advective heat flux * dual-permeability model * soil heat transport * soil thermal conductivity * surface energy balance Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2012

  15. Inverse heat conduction estimation of inner wall temperature fluctuations under turbulent penetration (United States)

    Guo, Zhouchao; Lu, Tao; Liu, Bo


    Turbulent penetration can occur when hot and cold fluids mix in a horizontal T-junction pipe at nuclear plants. Caused by the unstable turbulent penetration, temperature fluctuations with large amplitude and high frequency can lead to time-varying wall thermal stress and even thermal fatigue on the inner wall. Numerous cases, however, exist where inner wall temperatures cannot be measured and only outer wall temperature measurements are feasible. Therefore, it is one of the popular research areas in nuclear science and engineering to estimate temperature fluctuations on the inner wall from measurements of outer wall temperatures without damaging the structure of the pipe. In this study, both the one-dimensional (1D) and the two-dimensional (2D) inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP) were solved to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. First, numerical models of both the 1D and the 2D direct heat conduction problem (DHCP) were structured in MATLAB, based on the finite difference method with an implicit scheme. Second, both the 1D IHCP and the 2D IHCP were solved by the steepest descent method (SDM), and the DHCP results of temperatures on the outer wall were used to estimate the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall. Third, we compared the temperature fluctuations on the inner wall estimated by the 1D IHCP with those estimated by the 2D IHCP in four cases: (1) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 3°C, (2) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 30°C, (3) when the maximum disturbance of temperature of fluid inside the pipe was 160°C, and (4) when the fluid temperatures inside the pipe were random from 50°C to 210°C.

  16. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids. (United States)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B Peter; Jenks, Jeromy; Schaef, Herbert T; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F; Nune, Satish K


    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) and the properties depended on the amount of GO added. MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited a significant increase in the thermal conductivity (by approximately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nanoMIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of the base fluid (methanol) was increased by about 20%. The increase in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to GO functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  17. Scaling laws for hydrodynamically similar implosions with heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masakatsu; Iida, Shigeki


    Scaling laws for hydrodynamically similar implosions are derived by applying Lie group analysis to the set of partial differential equations for the hydrodynamic system. Physically this implies that any fluid system belonging to a common similarity group evolves quite in the same manner including hydrodynamic instabilities. The scalings strongly depend on the description of the energy transport, i.e., whether the fluid system is heat conductive or adiabatic. Under a fully specified group transformation the hydrodynamic similarity can still be preserved even when the system is cooperated with such other energy sources as classical laser absorption, hot electrons, local alpha heating, and bremsstrahlung loss. The results are expected to give the basis of target design and diagnostics for scaled high gain experiments in the future

  18. Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data (United States)

    Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.


    In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.

  19. DSMC Convergence for Microscale Gas-Phase Heat Conduction (United States)

    Rader, D. J.; Gallis, M. A.; Torczynski, J. R.


    The convergence of Bird's Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is investigated for gas-phase heat conduction at typical microscale conditions. A hard-sphere gas is confined between two fully accommodating walls of unequal temperature. Simulations are performed for small system and local Knudsen numbers, so continuum flow exists outside the Knudsen layers. The ratio of the DSMC thermal conductivity to the Chapman-Enskog value in the central region is determined for over 200 combinations of time step, cell size, and number of computational molecules per cell. In the limit of vanishing error, this ratio approaches 1.000 to within the correlation uncertainty. In the limit of infinite computational molecules per cell, the difference from unity depends quadratically on time step and cell size as these quantities become small. The coefficients of these quadratic terms are in good agreement with Green-Kubo values found by Hadjiconstantinou, Garcia, and co-workers. These results demonstrate that DSMC can accurately simulate microscale gas-phase heat conduction. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.


    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  1. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.


    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  2. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D


    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  3. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee


    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  4. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  5. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr


    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  6. Detection and localization of changes in two-dimensional temperature distributions by electrical resistance tomography (United States)

    Rashetnia, Reza; Hallaji, Milad; Smyl, Danny; Seppänen, Aku; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammad


    This paper studies the feasibility of applying electrical resistance tomography (ERT) to detect changes in two-dimensional (2D) temperature distributions with potential applications in sensor development. The proposed sensor consists of a thin layer of porous metal film manufactured by spraying colloidal copper paint to a solid surface. A change of the temperature distribution on the surface changes the 2D distributed electrical conductivity of the metal film. The change of the electrical conductivity is localized and quantified with ERT, and further, to convert the estimated conductivity change of the sensor to temperature change, an experimentally developed model is used. The proposed temperature sensor is evaluated experimentally by applying it to a polymeric substrate, and exposing it to known temperature changes using heat sources of different shapes. The results demonstrate that the proposed sensor is capable of detecting and localizing temperature changes, and provides at least qualitative information on the magnitude of the temperature change.

  7. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.


    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  8. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.


    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic flow and heat transfer around a heated cylinder of arbitrary conductivity (United States)

    Tassone, A.; Nobili, M.; Caruso, G.


    The interaction of the liquid metal with the plasma confinement magnetic field constitutes a challenge for the design of fusion reactor blankets, due to the arise of MHD effects: increased pressure drops, heat transfer suppression, etc. To overcome these issues, a dielectric fluid can be employed as coolant for the breeding zone. A typical configuration involves pipes transverse to the liquid metal flow direction. This numerical study is conducted to assess the influence of pipe conductivity on the MHD flow and heat transfer. The CFD code ANSYS CFX was employed for this purpose. The fluid is assumed to be bounded by rectangular walls with non-uniform thickness and subject to a skewed magnetic field with the main component aligned with the cylinder axis. The simulations were restricted to Re = (20; 40) and M = (10; 50). Three different scenarios for the obstacle were considered: perfectly insulating, finite conductivity and perfectly conducting. The electrical conductivity was found to affect the channel pressure penalty due to the obstacle insertion only for M = 10 and just for the two limiting cases. A general increment of the heat transfer with M was found due to the tendency of the magnetic field to equalize the flow rate between the sub-channels individuated by the pipe. The best results were obtained with the insulating pipe, due to the reduced electromagnetic drag. The generation of counter-rotating vortices close to the lateral duct walls was observed for M = 50 and perfectly conducting pipe as a result of the modified currents distribution.

  10. An appraisal of computational techniques for transient heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, T.


    A semi-discretization procedure in which the ''space'' dimension is discretized by the finite element method is emphasized for transient problems. This standard methodology transforms the space-time partial differential equation (PDE) system into a set of ordinary differential equations (ODE) in time. Existing methods for transient heat conduction calculations are then reviewed. Existence of two general classes of time integration schemes- implicit and explicit is noted. Numerical stability characteristics of these two methods are elucidated. Implicit methods are noted to be numerically stable, permitting large time steps, but the cost per step is high. On the otherhand, explicit schemes are noted to be inexpensive per step, but small step size is required. Low computational cost of the explicit schemes make it very attractive for nonlinear problems. However, numerical stability considerations requiring use of very small time steps come in the way of its general adoption. Effectiveness of the fourth-order Runge-Kutta-Gill explicit integrator is then numerically evaluated. Finally we discuss some very recent works on development of computational algorithms which not only achieve unconditional stability, high accuracy and convergence but involve computations on matrix equations of elements only. This development is considered to be very significant in the light of our experience gained for simple heat conduction calculations. We conclude that such algorithms have the potential for further developments leading to development of economical methods for general transient analysis of complex physical systems. (orig.)

  11. Heating and Cooling of Coronal Loops with Turbulent Suppression of Parallel Heat Conduction (United States)

    Bian, Nicolas; Emslie, A. Gordon; Horne, Duncan; Kontar, Eduard P.


    Using the “enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops” (EBTEL) model, we investigate the hydrodynamics of the plasma in a flaring coronal loop in which heat conduction is limited by turbulent scattering of the electrons that transport the thermal heat flux. The EBTEL equations are solved analytically in each of the two (conduction-dominated and radiation-dominated) cooling phases. Comparison of the results with typical observed cooling times in solar flares shows that the turbulent mean free path {λ }T lies in a range corresponding to a regime in which classical (collision-dominated) conduction plays at most a limited role. We also consider the magnitude and duration of the heat input that is necessary to account for the enhanced values of temperature and density at the beginning of the cooling phase and for the observed cooling times. We find through numerical modeling that in order to produce a peak temperature ≃ 1.5× {10}7 K and a 200 s cooling time consistent with observations, the flare-heating profile must extend over a significant period of time; in particular, its lingering role must be taken into consideration in any description of the cooling phase. Comparison with observationally inferred values of post-flare loop temperatures, densities, and cooling times thus leads to useful constraints on both the magnitude and duration of the magnetic energy release in the loop, as well as on the value of the turbulent mean free path {λ }T.

  12. Heating and Cooling of Coronal Loops with Turbulent Suppression of Parallel Heat Conduction. (United States)

    Bian, Nicolas; Emslie, A Gordon; Horne, Duncan; Kontar, Eduard P


    Using the "enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops" (EBTEL) model, we investigate the hydrodynamics of the plasma in a flaring coronal loop in which heat conduction is limited by turbulent scattering of the electrons that transport the thermal heat flux. The EBTEL equations are solved analytically in each of the two (conduction-dominated and radiation-dominated) cooling phases. Comparison of the results with typical observed cooling times in solar flares shows that the turbulent mean free path λ T lies in a range corresponding to a regime in which classical (collision-dominated) conduction plays at most a limited role. We also consider the magnitude and duration of the heat input that is necessary to account for the enhanced values of temperature and density at the beginning of the cooling phase and for the observed cooling times. We find through numerical modeling that in order to produce a peak temperature ≃1.5 × 10 7 K and a 200 s cooling time consistent with observations, the flare-heating profile must extend over a significant period of time; in particular, its lingering role must be taken into consideration in any description of the cooling phase. Comparison with observationally inferred values of post-flare loop temperatures, densities, and cooling times thus leads to useful constraints on both the magnitude and duration of the magnetic energy release in the loop, as well as on the value of the turbulent mean free path λ T .

  13. Heat conduction in nanoscale materials: a statistical-mechanics derivation of the local heat flux. (United States)

    Li, Xiantao


    We derive a coarse-grained model for heat conduction in nanoscale mechanical systems. Starting with an all-atom description, this approach yields a reduced model, in the form of conservation laws of momentum and energy. The model closure is accomplished by introducing a quasilocal thermodynamic equilibrium, followed by a linear response approximation. Of particular interest is the constitutive relation for the heat flux, which is expressed nonlocally in terms of the spatial and temporal variation of the temperature. Nanowires made of copper and silicon are presented as examples.

  14. Gyroscope with two-dimensional optomechanical mirror (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Kai; Li, Yong


    We propose an application of two-dimensional optomechanical oscillator as a gyroscope by detecting the Coriolis force which is modulated at the natural frequency of the optomechanical oscillator. Dependence of gyroscope's sensitivity on shot noise, back-action noise, thermal noise, and input laser power is studied. At optimal input laser power, the gyroscope's sensitivity can be improved by increasing the mass or by decreasing the temperature and decay rate of the mechanical oscillator. When the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation number, n th, is zero, sensitivity improves with decrease in frequency of the mechanical oscillator. For {n}{{th}}\\gg 1, the sensitivity is independent of the mechanical oscillator's frequency.

  15. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...

  16. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko


    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  17. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.


    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  18. A non-linear, finite element, heat conduction code to calculate temperatures in solids of arbitrary geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayal, M.


    Structures often operate at elevated temperatures. Temperature calculations are needed so that the design can accommodate thermally induced stresses and material changes. A finite element computer called FEAT has been developed to calculate temperatures in solids of arbitrary shapes. FEAT solves the classical equation for steady state conduction of heat. The solution is obtained for two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) or for three-dimensional problems. Gap elements are use to simulate interfaces between neighbouring surfaces. The code can model: conduction; internal generation of heat; prescribed convection to a heat sink; prescribed temperatures at boundaries; prescribed heat fluxes on some surfaces; and temperature-dependence of material properties like thermal conductivity. The user has a option of specifying the detailed variation of thermal conductivity with temperature. For convenience to the nuclear fuel industry, the user can also opt for pre-coded values of thermal conductivity, which are obtained from the MATPRO data base (sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission). The finite element method makes FEAT versatile, and enables it to accurately accommodate complex geometries. The optional link to MATPRO makes it convenient for the nuclear fuel industry to use FEAT, without loss of generality. Special numerical techniques make the code inexpensive to run, for the type of material non-linearities often encounter in the analysis of nuclear fuel. The code, however, is general, and can be used for other components of the reactor, or even for non-nuclear systems. The predictions of FEAT have been compared against several analytical solutions. The agreement is usually better than 5%. Thermocouple measurements show that the FEAT predictions are consistent with measured changes in temperatures in simulated pressure tubes. FEAT was also found to predict well, the axial variations in temperatures in the end-pellets(UO 2 ) of two fuel elements irradiated

  19. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Liu, Jian; McGrail, B. Peter; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Schaef, Herbert T.; Shutthanandan, V.; Nie, Zimin; Martin, Paul F.; Nune, Satish K.


    Metal organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. MOHCs utilize the MOF properties to improve the thermo-physical properties of base fluids. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC containing MIL-101(Cr)/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with the intrinsic nano MIL-101(Cr) and the properties depend on the amount of GO added. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) confirmed the preserved crystallinity of MIL-101(Cr) in all nanocomposites with the absence of any unreacted GO. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed the presence of near spherical MIL-101(Cr) nanoparticles in the range of 40-80 nm in diameter. MOHC nanofluids containing MIL-101(Cr)/GO in methanol exhibited significant enhancement in the thermal conductivity (by approxi-mately 50%) relative to that of the intrinsic nano MIL-101(Cr) in methanol. The thermal conductivity of base fluid (methanol) was enhanced by about 20 %. The enhancement in the thermal conductivity of nanoMIL-101(Cr) MOHCs due to graphene oxide functionalization is explained using a classical Maxwell model.

  20. Inverse modeling for heat conduction problem in human abdominal phantom. (United States)

    Huang, Ming; Chen, Wenxi


    Noninvasive methods for deep body temperature measurement are based on the principle of heat equilibrium between the thermal sensor and the target location theoretically. However, the measurement position is not able to be definitely determined. In this study, a 2-dimensional mathematical model was built based upon some assumptions for the physiological condition of the human abdomen phantom. We evaluated the feasibility in estimating the internal organs temperature distribution from the readings of the temperature sensors arranged on the skin surface. It is a typical inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP), and is usually mathematically ill-posed. In this study, by integrating some physical and physiological a-priori information, we invoked the quasi-linear (QL) method to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution. The solutions of this method were improved by increasing the accuracy of the sensors and adjusting their arrangement on the outer surface, and eventually reached the state of converging at the best state accurately. This study suggests that QL method is able to reconstruct the internal temperature distribution in this phantom and might be worthy of a further study in an anatomical based model.

  1. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials. (United States)

    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T L; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. In this work, we employ one identical sensu-unit with facile natural composition to experimentally realize a new class of thermal metamaterials for controlling thermal conduction (e.g., thermal concentrator, focusing/resolving, uniform heating), only resorting to positioning and locating the same unit element of sensu-shape structure. The thermal metamaterial unit and the proper arrangement of multiple identical units are capable of transferring, redistributing and managing thermal energy in a versatile fashion. It is also shown that our sensu-shape unit elements can be used in manipulating dc currents without any change in the layout for the thermal counterpart. These could markedly enhance the capabilities in thermal sensing, thermal imaging, thermal-energy storage, thermal packaging, thermal therapy, and more domains beyond.

  2. Thermal transport in a two-dimensional Z2 spin liquid (United States)

    Metavitsiadis, Alexandros; Pidatella, Angelo; Brenig, Wolfram


    We study the dynamical thermal conductivity of the two-dimensional Kitaev spin model on the honeycomb lattice. We find a strongly temperature dependent low-frequency spectral intensity as a direct consequence of fractionalization of spins into mobile Majorana matter and a static Z2 gauge field. The latter acts as an emergent thermally activated disorder, leading to the appearance of a pseudogap which closes in the thermodynamic limit, indicating a dissipative heat conductor. Our analysis is based on complementary calculations of the current correlation function, comprising exact diagonalization by means of a complete summation over all gauge sectors, as well as a phenomenological mean-field treatment of thermal gauge fluctuations, valid at intermediate and high temperatures. The results will also be contrasted against the conductivity discarding gauge fluctuations.

  3. Optimization method for an evolutional type inverse heat conduction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zuicha; Yu Jianning; Yang Liu


    This paper deals with the determination of a pair (q, u) in the heat conduction equation u t -u xx +q(x,t)u=0, with initial and boundary conditions u(x,0)=u 0 (x), u x vertical bar x=0 =u x vertical bar x=1 =0, from the overspecified data u(x, t) = g(x, t). By the time semi-discrete scheme, the problem is transformed into a sequence of inverse problems in which the unknown coefficients are purely space dependent. Based on the optimal control framework, the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution (q, u) are proved. A necessary condition which is a couple system of a parabolic equation and parabolic variational inequality is deduced

  4. Parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Koutoulis, Anthony; Whittock, Simon P; Shellie, Robert A


    We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ( 1 D) and second-dimension ( 2 D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules. Precise carrier gas flow control at the junction of the 1 D and 2 D columns permits independent control of flow conditions in each separation column. The 2GC×2GC approach provides two entirely independent GC×GC separations for each injection. Analysis of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils is used to demonstrate the capability of the approach. The analytical performance of each GC×GC separation in the 2GC×2GC experiment is comparable to individual GC×GC separation with matching column configurations. The peak capacity of 2GC×2GC is about 2 times than that of single GC×GC system. The dual 2D chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary separations and additional identification information by harnessing different selectivity provided by the four separation columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams. (United States)

    Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael


    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.

  6. The two-dimensional reactor dynamic program TINTE. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, H.


    The TINTE code deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of an HTR taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in two-dimensional r-z-geometry. Initial equations, approximations and solution procedures are compiled in this first part of the description. This involves the following subproblems: Time-dependent neutron flux calculation. Time-dependent heat source distribution (local and non-local fractions). Time-dependent heat transport from the fuel to the fuel element surface. Time-dependent global temperature distribution. Glas-flow even under natural circulation conditions for both a given total mass flow and a given pressure difference. Convection and its feedback to the circulation. The iterations of subproblem solutions, necessary because of the separate treatment, are discussed for both the transient case and of the determination of the steady initial state. (orig.) [de

  7. Coherent Response of Two Dimensional Electron Gas probed by Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (United States)

    Paul, Jagannath

    Advent of ultrashort lasers made it possible to probe various scattering phenomena in materials that occur in a time scale on the order of few femtoseconds to several tens of picoseconds. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques, such as pump-probe, transient four wave mixing (TFWM), etc., are very common to study the carrier dynamics in various material systems. In time domain, the transient FWM uses several ultrashort pulses separated by time delays to obtain the information of dephasing and population relaxation times, which are very important parameters that govern the carrier dynamics of materials. A recently developed multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy is an enhanced version of TFWM which keeps track of two time delays simultaneously and correlate them in the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform in a two dimensional map. Using this technique, the nonlinear complex signal field is characterized both in amplitude and phase. Furthermore, this technique allows us to identify the coupling between resonances which are rather difficult to interpret from time domain measurements. This work focuses on the study of the coherent response of a two dimensional electron gas formed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well both at zero and at high magnetic fields. In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the inter- actions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the formation of Mahan excitons, which is also referred to as Fermi edge singularity (FES). Polarization and temperature dependent rephasing 2DFT spectra in combination with TI-FWM measurements, provides insight into the dephasing mechanism of the heavy hole (HH) Mahan exciton. In addition to that strong quantum coherence between the HH and LH Mahan excitons is observed, which is rather surprising at this high doping concentration. The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly

  8. Parametric analyses of DEMO Divertor using two dimensional transient thermal hydraulic modelling (United States)

    Domalapally, Phani; Di Caro, Marco


    Among the options considered for cooling of the Plasma facing components of the DEMO reactor, water cooling is a conservative option because of its high heat removal capability. In this work a two-dimensional transient thermal hydraulic code is developed to support the design of the divertor for the projected DEMO reactor with water as a coolant. The mathematical model accounts for transient 2D heat conduction in the divertor section. Temperature-dependent properties are used for more accurate analysis. Correlations for single phase flow forced convection, partially developed subcooled nucleate boiling, fully developed subcooled nucleate boiling and film boiling are used to calculate the heat transfer coefficients on the channel side considering the swirl flow, wherein different correlations found in the literature are compared against each other. Correlation for the Critical Heat Flux is used to estimate its limit for a given flow conditions. This paper then investigates the results of the parametric analysis performed, whereby flow velocity, diameter of the coolant channel, thickness of the coolant pipe, thickness of the armor material, inlet temperature and operating pressure affect the behavior of the divertor under steady or transient heat fluxes. This code will help in understanding the basic parameterś effect on the behavior of the divertor, to achieve a better design from a thermal hydraulic point of view.

  9. High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This factsheet describes a project that identified and evaluated commercially available and state-of-the-art polymer-based material options for manufacturing industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. A heat exchanger concept was also developed and its performance evaluated with heat transfer modeling tools.

  10. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.


    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu


    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  13. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.


    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  14. Ward identities in two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.


    We study the decoupling of null states in two-dimensional gravity, using methods of critical string theory. We identify a family of null states which fail to decouple due to curvature and boundary terms. This gives relations involving amplitudes at different genus. At genus zero, these determine certain operator product coefficients. At genus one, they determine the partition function. At higher genus, we obtain a relation similar in form to the Painleve equation, but due to an incomplete understanding of a certain ghost/curvature term we do not have a closed relation for the partition function. Our results appear to correspond to the L 0 and L 1 equations in the topological and matrix model approaches. (orig.)

  15. Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.


    We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.

  16. Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary


    Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.

  17. Modified black holes in two dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.


    The SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZWN model is modified by a topological term and the accompanying change in the geometry of the two dimensional target space is determined. The possibility of this additional term arises from a symmetry in the general formalism of gauging an isometry subgroup of a non-linear sigma model with an antisymmetric tensor. It is shown, in particular, that the space-time exhibits some general singularities for which the recently found black hole is just a special case. From a conformal field theory point of view and for special values of the unitary representation of SL(2,R), this topological term can be interpreted as a small perturbation by a (1,1) conformal operator of the gauged WZWN action. (author). 26 refs

  18. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.


    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  19. Two-dimensional and transient thermal model of the continuous tape laying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skandali, M.; Jansen, K.M.B.; Koussios, S.; Sinke, J.; Benedictus, R.


    The purpose of this study is to simulate the two-dimensional, transient and continuous heat transfer during the thermoset Automated Tape Laying (ATL) process. The heat transfer analysis is coupled with a cure kinetics model of the thermoset prepreg tapes used for the process. Unlike most studies,

  20. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine


    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  1. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.


    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  2. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.


    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  3. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich


    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  4. Graphene surface plasmon bandgap based on two dimensional Si gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueke Wang


    Full Text Available A graphene/Si system, which is composed of a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon gratings and a graphene sheet, is designed to realize the complete band gap in infrared region for graphene surface plasmons (GSPs theoretically. The complete band gap originates from the strong scatterings, which is caused by the periodical distribution of effective refractive index. The band structure has been calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and full wave numerical simulations are conducted by finite element method. Thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene, the band structure can be easily tuned, which provides a way to manipulate in-plane GSPs’ propagation.

  5. Two-dimensional temperature analysis of nuclear fireballs using digitized film (United States)

    Slaughter, Robert C.; Peery, Tyler R.; McClory, John W.


    Researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have begun digitizing technical films spanning the atmospheric nuclear testing operations conducted by the United States from 1945 through 1962. Each atmospheric nuclear test was filmed by Edgerton, Germeshausen, and Grier, Inc., using between 20 to 40 cameras per test. These technical film test data represent a primary source for advancing the knowledge of nuclear weapon output as well as the understanding of nonnuclear high-temperature gases. This manuscript outlines the procedures followed in order to perform two-dimensional temperature calculations for early time nuclear fireballs using digitized film. The digitized optical densities of the film were converted into irradiance on the film that was then used to determine an effective power temperature. The events Wasp Prime and Tesla of Operation Teapot were analyzed using this technique. Film temperature results agreed within uncertainties with historic data collected by calorimeters. Results were also validated by comparison to a thermal heat flux solution that utilizes historic thermal yield values to normalize radiant flux. Additionally, digital imaging and remote sensing image generation was used to demonstrate that the two-dimensional temperature calculation was self-consistent.

  6. Two-dimensional photonic crystal polarizer modulated by silicon resin (United States)

    Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang


    Photonic crystals(PCs)have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the tunability of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of heat-resistant silicon resin. Waveguides can be obtained by the infiltration of silicon resin into air regions in two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of air holes with square lattices of dielectric cylinders. The refractive index of silicon resin can be changed by manipulating the temperature of the sample. Numerical simulation by solving Maxwell's equations using the plane wave expansion(PWE) method shows that the band gaps can be continuously tuned by silicon resin, accordingly the light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides can be controlled. The band gap is analyzed in the temperature range of 20°C-120°C. In our work, the gap map for a square lattice of dielectric cylinders is also simulated. The method can separate TM- and TE-polarized modes in the waveguide. Such a mechanism of band gap adjustment should open up a new application for designing field-sensitive polarizer in photonic integrated circuits.

  7. Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, R; Hatayama, N; Takahashi, Y; Nakano, H


    Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal is investigated according to the recent theoretical development of magneto-volume effect for the three-dimensional weak ferromagnets. We particularly focus on the T 2 -linear thermal expansion of magnetic origin at low temperatures, so far disregarded by conventional theories. As the effect of thermal spin fluctuations we have found that the T-linear thermal expansion coefficient shows strong enhancement by assuming the double Lorentzian form of the non-interacting dynamical susceptibility justified in the small wave-number and low frequency region. It grows faster in proportional to y -1/2 as we approach the magnetic instability point than two-dimensional nearly antiferromagnetic metals with ln(1/y s ) dependence, where y and y s are the inverses of the reduced uniform and staggered magnetic susceptibilities, respectively. Our result is consistent with the Grueneisen's relation between the thermal expansion coefficient and the specific heat at low temperatures. In 2-dimensional electron gas we find that the thermal expansion coefficient is divergent with a finite y when the higher order term of non-interacting dynamical susceptibility is taken into account.

  8. Memory behaviors of entropy production rates in heat conduction (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Based on the relaxation time approximation and first-order expansion, memory behaviors in heat conduction are found between the macroscopic and Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon (BGS) entropy production rates with exponentially decaying memory kernels. In the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT) and BGS statistical mechanics, the memory dependency on the integrated history is unidirectional, while for the extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT) and BGS entropy production rates, the memory dependences are bidirectional and coexist with the linear terms. When macroscopic and microscopic relaxation times satisfy a specific relationship, the entropic memory dependences will be eliminated. There also exist initial effects in entropic memory behaviors, which decay exponentially. The second-order term are also discussed, which can be understood as the global non-equilibrium degree. The effects of the second-order term are consisted of three parts: memory dependency, initial value and linear term. The corresponding memory kernels are still exponential and the initial effects of the global non-equilibrium degree also decay exponentially.

  9. Heating of heat-conducting targets by laser pulses with a high-intensity leading spike (United States)

    Ageev, V. P.; Burdin, S. G.; Konov, V. I.; Uglov, S. A.; Chapliev, N. I.


    The results of an analysis of the solution of a one-dimensional heat conduction equation are used to study the specific features of the thermal effects of laser pulses with a leading spike on a target. Simple criteria are obtained for establishing the ability of a pulse to cause a given increase in the target surface temperature during the leading edge of a spike and also during the tail of the laser pulse. A study is made of the influence of the inhomogeneity of the distribution of surface heat sources on the realization of processes characterized by a threshold in respect of the temperature of the irradiated surface. The results obtained are compared with the experimental delay time in the process of initiation of an air breakdown plasma by interaction of CO2 laser pulses with a metal target.

  10. Two-dimensional modeling of electrochemical and transport phenomena in the porous structures of a PEMFC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahraoui, Melik [Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Tunis (IPEIT) (Tunisia); Kharrat, Chafik; Halouani, Kamel [UR: Micro-Electro-Thermal Systems (METS-ENIS), Industrial Energy Systems Group, Institut Preparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingenieurs de Sfax (IPEIS), University of Sfax, B.P: 1172, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)


    A two-dimensional CFD model of PEM fuel cell is developed by taking into account the electrochemical, mass and heat transfer phenomena occurring in all of its regions simultaneously. The catalyst layers and membrane are each considered as distinct regions with finite thickness and calculated properties such as permeability, local protonic conductivity, and local dissolved water diffusion. This finite thickness model enables to model accurately the protonic current in these regions with higher accuracy than using an infinitesimal interface. In addition, this model takes into account the effect of osmotic drag in the membrane and catalyst layers. General boundary conditions are implemented in a way taking into consideration any given species concentration at the fuel cell inlet, such as water vapor which is a very important parameter in determining the efficiency of fuel cells. Other operating parameters such as temperature, pressure and porosity of the porous structure are also investigated to characterize their effect on the fuel cell efficiency. (author)

  11. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.


    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  12. Solving Two -Dimensional Diffusion Equations with Nonlocal Boundary Conditions by a Special Class of Padé Approximants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siddique


    Full Text Available Parabolic partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary conditions arise in modeling of a wide range of important application areas such as chemical diffusion, thermoelasticity, heat conduction process, control theory and medicine science. In this paper, we present the implementation of positivity- preserving Padé numerical schemes to the two-dimensional diffusion equation with nonlocal time dependent boundary condition. We successfully implemented these numerical schemes for both Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous cases. The numerical results show that these Padé approximation based numerical schemes are quite accurate and easily implemented.

  13. Difference schemes for numerical solutions of lagging models of heat conduction


    Cabrera Sánchez, Jesús; Castro López, María Ángeles; Rodríguez Mateo, Francisco; Martín Alustiza, José Antonio


    Non-Fourier models of heat conduction are increasingly being considered in the modeling of microscale heat transfer in engineering and biomedical heat transfer problems. The dual-phase-lagging model, incorporating time lags in the heat flux and the temperature gradient, and some of its particular cases and approximations, result in heat conduction modeling equations in the form of delayed or hyperbolic partial differential equations. In this work, the application of difference schemes for the...

  14. Two-dimensional disruption thermal analysis code DREAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Seki, Masahiro.


    When a plasma disruption takes place in a tokamak type fusion reactor, plasma facing components such as first wall and divertor/limiter are subjected to an intense heat load with very high heat flux and short duration. At the surface of the wall, temperature rapidly rises, and melting and evaporation occurs, it causes reduction of wall thickness and crack initiation/propagation. As lifetime of the components is significantly affected by them, the transient analysis in consideration of phase changes (melting/evaporation) and radiation heat loss is required in the design of these components. This paper describes the computer code DREAM developed to perform the two-dimensional transient thermal analysis that takes phase changes and radiation into account. The input and output of the code and a sample analysis on a disruption simulation experiment are also reported. The user's input manual is added as an appendix. The profiles and time variations of temperature, and melting and evaporated thicknesses of the material subjected to intense heat load can be obtained, using this computer code. This code also gives the temperature data for elastoplastic analysis with FEM structural analysis codes (ADINA, MARC, etc.) to evaluate the thermal stress and crack propagation behavior within the wall materials. (author)

  15. Heat and electrical conductivity of thermotropic liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidov, N.S.; Majidov, H.; Saburov, B.S.; Safarov, M.M.


    A results of thermal conduction and electrical conduction of chemo tropic liquid crystals are brought in this article. An installation dependence formula of thermal conduction investigating things from the electrical conduction and temperatures is constructed

  16. Radiation and gas conduction heat transport across a helium dewar multilayer insulation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.


    This report describes a method for calculating mixed heat transfer through the multilayer insulation used to insulate a 4 K liquid helium cryostat. The method described here permits one to estimate the insulation potential for a multilayer insulation system from first principles. The heat transfer regimes included are: radiation, conduction by free molecule gas conduction, and conduction through continuum gas conduction. Heat transfer in the transition region between the two gas conduction regimes is also included

  17. Enhancement of ionic conductivity in stabilized zirconia ceramics under millimeter-wave irradiation heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishimoto, Akira; Ayano, Keiko; Hayashi, Hidetaka


    Ionic conductivity in yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramics under millimeter-wave irradiation heating was compared with that obtained using conventional heating. The former was found to result in higher conductivity than the latter. Enhancement of the ionic conductivity and the reduction in activation energy seemed to depend on self-heating resulting from the millimeter-wave irradiation. Millimeter-wave irradiation heating restricted the degradation in conductivity accompanying over-substitution, suggesting the optimum structure that provided the maximum conductivity could be different between the two heating methods.

  18. The lumping of heat transfer parameters in cooled packed beds: effect of the bed entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, E.J.; Gerner, J.W.; Gerner, J.W.; Westerterp, K.R.; van der Wal, S.


    The lumping of the heat transfer parameters of the one- and the two-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of a cooled fixed bed were compared. It appeared that the lumping of the two-dimensional parameters, being the effective radial conductivity h-eff and the heat transfer coefficient at the wall

  19. DPL model analysis of non-Fourier heat conduction restricted by continuous boundary interface (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Liu, Dengying


    Dual-phase lag (DPL) model is used to describe the non-Fourier heat conduction in a finite medium where the boundary at x=0 is heated by a rectangular pulsed energy source and the other boundary is tightly contacted with another medium and satisfies the continuous boundary condition. Numerical solution of this kind of non-Fourier heat conduction is presented in this paper. The results are compared with those predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC) equation.

  20. Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana


    Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.

  1. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  3. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng


    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  4. Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.


    Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.

  5. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone


    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  6. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel


    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  7. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip


    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  8. Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors (United States)

    Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza


    Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.

  9. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames (United States)

    Murat Altay, H.; Kedia, Kushal S.; Speth, Raymond L.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.


    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between the mixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate's thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of steady perforated-plate stabilized premixed flames

    KAUST Repository

    Altay, H. Murat


    The objective of this work is to examine the impact of the operating conditions and the perforated-plate design on the steady, lean premixed flame characteristics. We perform two-dimensional simulations of laminar flames using a reduced chemical kinetics mechanism for methane-air combustion, consisting of 20 species and 79 reactions. We solve the heat conduction problem within the plate, allowing heat exchange between the gas mixture and the solid plate. The physical model is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the axisymmetric compressible conservation equations. The results suggest that the flame consumption speed, the flame structure, and the flame surface area depend significantly on the equivalence ratio, mean inlet velocity, the distance between the perforated-plate holes and the plate thermal conductivity. In the case of an adiabatic plate, a conical flame is formed, anchored near the corner of the hole. When the heat exchange between themixture and the plate is finite, the flame acquires a Gaussian shape stabilizing at a stand-off distance, that grows with the plate conductivity. The flame tip is negatively curved; i.e. concave with respect to the reactants. Downstream of the plate, the flame base is positively curved; i.e. convex with respect to the reactants, stabilizing above a stagnation region established between neighboring holes. As the plate\\'s thermal conductivity increases, the heat flux to the plate decreases, lowering its top surface temperature. As the equivalence ratio increases, the flame moves closer to the plate, raising its temperature, and lowering the flame stand-off distance. As the mean inlet velocity increases, the flame stabilizes further downstream, the flame tip becomes sharper, hence raising the burning rate at that location. The curvature of the flame base depends on the distance between the neighboring holes; and the flame there is characterized by high concentration of intermediates, like carbon monoxide. © 2010 Taylor

  11. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.


    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  12. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles (United States)

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón


    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  13. Fundamental-Solution-Based Hybrid Element Model for Nonlinear Heat Conduction Problems with Temperature-Dependent Material Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang


    Full Text Available The boundary-type hybrid finite element formulation coupling the Kirchhoff transformation is proposed for the two-dimensional nonlinear heat conduction problems in solids with or without circular holes, and the thermal conductivity of material is assumed to be in terms of temperature change. The Kirchhoff transformation is firstly used to convert the nonlinear partial differential governing equation into a linear one by introducing the Kirchhoff variable, and then the new linear system is solved by the present hybrid finite element model, in which the proper fundamental solutions associated with some field points are used to approximate the element interior fields and the conventional shape functions are employed to approximate the element frame fields. The weak integral functional is developed to link these two fields and establish the stiffness equation with sparse and symmetric coefficient matrix. Finally, the algorithm is verified on several examples involving various expressions of thermal conductivity and existence of circular hole, and numerical results show good accuracy and stability.

  14. Growth and characterization of two-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sancho, Oscar Andrey


    Two dimensional nanostructures of palladium, nickel, silver and gadolinium were grown by means of physical evaporation in atmospheres of high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. The qualitative characterization, in situ, of the nanostructures was carried out with techniques of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The model for the quantification of contaminants in the nanostructures, was proposed by Seah and Shirley, and was made using the spectra XPS measured in situ in the atmospheres of vacuum. For the two-dimensional nanostructures of gadolinium of thicknesses 8 Å, 16 Å, 24 Å, 32 Å, 36 Å, 44 Å, 50 Å, 61 Å, 77 Å, 81 Å, 92 Å and 101 Å, were obtained optical spectra of transmission measured in situ. An band of absorption centered at approximately 2,40 eV is obtained by an increase in the dynamic conductivity from the optical constants, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the nanostructure of gadolinium. In addition, the optical constants for the gadolinium nanostructures have presented a maximum of 80 Å of thickness and then it was continued a decreasing tendency toward the values that were reported in the literature for bulk of gadolinium. (author) [es

  15. In vitro burn model illustrating heat conduction patterns using compressed thermal papers. (United States)

    Lee, Jun Yong; Jung, Sung-No; Kwon, Ho


    To date, heat conduction from heat sources to tissue has been estimated by complex mathematical modeling. In the present study, we developed an intuitive in vitro skin burn model that illustrates heat conduction patterns inside the skin. This was composed of tightly compressed thermal papers with compression frames. Heat flow through the model left a trace by changing the color of thermal papers. These were digitized and three-dimensionally reconstituted to reproduce the heat conduction patterns in the skin. For standardization, we validated K91HG-CE thermal paper using a printout test and bivariate correlation analysis. We measured the papers' physical properties and calculated the estimated depth of heat conduction using Fourier's equation. Through contact burns of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 seconds on porcine skin and our burn model using a heated brass comb, and comparing the burn wound and heat conduction trace, we validated our model. The heat conduction pattern correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.846, p heat conduction depth correlation analysis (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.93, p model. Our model showed good correlation with porcine skin burn injury and replicated its heat conduction patterns. © 2014 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus


    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  17. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira


    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  18. Mechanisms of stabilization and blowoff of a premixed flame downstream of a heat-conducting perforated plate

    KAUST Repository

    Kedia, Kushal S.


    The objective of this work is to investigate the flame stabilization mechanism and the conditions leading to the blowoff of a laminar premixed flame anchored downstream of a heat-conducting perforated-plate/multi-hole burner, with overall nearly adiabatic conditions. We use unsteady, fully resolved, two-dimensional simulations with detailed chemical kinetics and species transport for methane-air combustion. Results show a bell-shaped flame stabilizing above the burner plate hole, with a U-shaped section anchored between neighboring holes. The base of the positively curved U-shaped section of the flame is positioned near the stagnation point, at a location where the flame displacement speed is equal to the flow speed. This location is determined by the combined effect of heat loss and flame stretch on the flame displacement speed. As the mass flow rate of the reactants is increased, the flame displacement speed at this location varies non-monotonically. As the inlet velocity is increased, the recirculation zone grows slowly, the flame moves downstream, and the heat loss to the burner decreases, strengthening the flame and increasing its displacement speed. As the inlet velocity is raised, the stagnation point moves downstream, and the flame length grows to accommodate the reactants mass flow. Concomitantly, the radius of curvature of the flame base decreases until it reaches an almost constant value, comparable to the flame thickness. While the heat loss decreases, the higher flame curvature dominates thereby reducing the displacement speed of the flame base. For a stable flame, the gradient of the flame base displacement speed normal to the flame is higher than the gradient of the flow speed along the same direction, leading to dynamic stability. As inlet velocity is raised further, the former decreases while the latter increases until the stability condition is violated, leading to blowoff. The flame speed during blow off is determined by the feedback between the

  19. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  20. Variable Conductance Heat Pipe Cooling of Stirling Convertor and General Purpose Heat Source (United States)

    Tarau, Calin; Schwendeman, Carl; Anderson, William G.; Cornell, Peggy A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.


    In a Stirling Radioisotope Power System (RPS), heat must be continuously removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. The Stirling convertor normally provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS at the cost of an early termination of the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) can be used to passively allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. In a previous NASA SBIR Program, Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (ACT) developed a series of sodium VCHPs as backup cooling systems for Stirling RPS. The operation of these VCHPs was demonstrated using Stirling heater head simulators and GPHS simulators. In the most recent effort, a sodium VCHP with a stainless steel envelope was designed, fabricated and tested at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) with a Stirling convertor for two concepts; one for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) back up cooling system and one for the Long-lived Venus Lander thermal management system. The VCHP is designed to activate and remove heat from the stopped convertor at a 19 degC temperature increase from the nominal vapor temperature. The 19 degC temperature increase from nominal is low enough to avoid risking standard ASRG operation and spoiling of the Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI). In addition, the same backup cooling system can be applied to the Stirling convertor used for the refrigeration system of the Long-lived Venus Lander. The VCHP will allow the refrigeration system to: 1) rest during transit at a lower temperature than nominal; 2) pre-cool the modules to an even lower temperature before the entry in Venus atmosphere; 3) work at nominal temperature on Venus surface; 4) briefly stop multiple times on the Venus surface to allow scientific measurements. This paper presents the experimental

  1. Heat conduction and thermal stabilization in YBCO tape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    †Shibli National College, Azamgarh 276 131, India. MS received 20 April 2011; ... profile along the length of HTS tape under a given energy (joule heating) such that propagation of the hot spot devel- oped locally can be prevented ... diction is best described by carrying out a thermal conduc- tion of the initial quench zone ...

  2. Thermal analysis of two-dimensional structures in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pierin

    Full Text Available The structural materials, as reinforced concrete, steel, wood and aluminum, when heated have their mechanical proprieties degraded. In fire, the structures are subject to elevated temperatures and consequently the load capacity of the structural elements is reduced. The Brazilian and European standards show the minimal dimensions for the structural elements had an adequate bearing capacity in fire. However, several structural checks are not contemplated in methods provided by the standards. In these situations, the knowledge of the temperature distributions inside of structural elements as function of time of exposition is required. The aim of this paper is present software developed by the authors called ATERM. The software performs the thermal transient analysis of two-dimensional structures. The structure may be formed of any material and heating is provided by means of a curve of temperature versus time. The data input and the visualization of the results is performed thought the GiD software. Several examples are compared with software Super TempCalc and ANSYS. Some conclusions and recommendations about the thermal analysis are presented


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondin, John M.


    We investigate the flip-flop instability observed in two-dimensional planar hydrodynamic simulations of Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion in the case of an accreting object with a radius much smaller than the nominal accretion radius, as one would expect in astrophysically relevant situations. Contrary to previous results with larger accretors, accretion from a homogenous medium onto a small accretor is characterized by a robust, quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. For gas with a ratio of specific heats of 5/3, such a disk remains locked in one direction for a uniform ambient medium. The accretion flow is more variable for gas with a ratio of specific heats of 4/3, with more dynamical interaction of the disk flow with the bow shock leading to occasional flips in the direction of rotation of the accretion disk. In both cases the accretion of angular momentum is determined by the flow pattern behind the accretion shock rather than by the parameters of the upstream flow.

  4. Finite element simulation of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries


    Thermoacoustic engines use heat to produce acoustic power. The subject of this manuscript is modeling of thermoacoustic engines. A finite element simulation has been performed on a theoretical example of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine. The simulation solves the linearized

  5. Analysis of transient heat conduction in a PWR fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Eneida Regina G. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cotta, Renato M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Jian, Su, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    This paper aims to analyze transient heat conduction in a nuclear fuel rod by an improved lumped parameter approach. One-dimensional transient heat conduction is considered, with the circumferential symmetry assumed and the axial conduction neglected. The thermal conductivity and specific heat in the fuel pellet are considered temperature dependent, while the thermophysical properties of the cladding are considered constant. Hermite approximation for integration is used to obtain the average temperature and heat flux in the radial direction. Significant improvement over the classical lumped parameter formulation has been achieved. The proposed model can be also used in dynamic analysis of PWR and nuclear power plant simulators. (author)

  6. Analytical minimization of overall conductance and heat transfer area in refrigeration and heat pump systems and its numerical confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Ram Gopal, M.


    Minimization of heat exchanger area for a specified capacity is very important in the design of refrigeration and heat pump systems, yielding space, weight and cost benefits. In this study, minimization of overall conductance and total area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems has been performed analytically. The analysis is performed for constant temperature heat sources and sinks considering both internal and external irreversibilities. Expressions are obtained for optimum hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat exchanger area ratios. The analytical results have been confirmed by those obtained from a detailed numerical simulation of actual ammonia based refrigeration and heat pump systems, and good agreement is observed. Such theoretical models can be employed as simple yet effective design guidelines for real systems as demonstrated here

  7. Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoruk, O


    Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)

  8. Thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui; Niu, Qian

    Thermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional Rashba systems is studied using the analytical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation. To highlight the effects of inter-band scattering, we assume point-like potential impurities, and obtain the band-and energy-dependent transport relaxation times. Unconventional transport behaviors arise when the Fermi level lies near or below the band crossing point (BCP), such as the non-Drude electrical conducivity below the BCP, the failure of the standard Mott relation linking the Peltier coefficient to the electrical conductivity near the BCP, the enhancement of diffusion thermopower and figure of merit below the BCP, the zero-field Hall coefficient which is not inversely proportional to and not a monotonic function of the carrier density, the enhanced Nernst coefficient below the BCP, and the enhanced current-induced spin-polarization efficiency.

  9. Increased Thermal Conductivity in Metal-Organic Heat Carrier Nanofluids


    Manjula I. Nandasiri; Jian Liu; B. Peter McGrail; Jeromy Jenks; Herbert T. Schaef; Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan; Zimin Nie; Paul F. Martin; Satish K. Nune


    Metal-organic heat carriers (MOHCs) are recently developed nanofluids containing metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles dispersed in various base fluids including refrigerants (R245Fa) and methanol. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of MOHCs containing nanoMIL-101(Cr) and graphene oxide (GO) in an effort to improve the thermo-physical properties of various base fluids. MOHC/GO nanocomposites showed enhanced surface area, porosity, and nitrogen adsorption compared with th...

  10. Manipulating Steady Heat Conduction by Sensu-shaped Thermal Metamaterials


    Han, Tiancheng; Bai, Xue; Liu, Dan; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Baowen; Thong, John T. L.; Qiu, Cheng-Wei


    The ability to design the control of heat flow has innumerable benefits in the design of electronic systems such as thermoelectric energy harvesters, solid-state lighting, and thermal imagers, where the thermal design plays a key role in performance and device reliability. However, to realize one advanced control function of thermal flux, one needs to design one sophisticated, multilayered and inhomogeneous thermal structure with different composition/shape at different regions of one device....

  11. A two-parameter nondiffusive heat conduction model for data analysis in pump-probe experiments (United States)

    Ma, Yanbao


    Nondiffusive heat transfer has attracted intensive research interests in last 50 years because of its importance in fundamental physics and engineering applications. It has unique features that cannot be described by the Fourier law. However, current studies of nondiffusive heat transfer still focus on studying the effective thermal conductivity within the framework of the Fourier law due to a lack of a well-accepted replacement. Here, we show that nondiffusive heat conduction can be characterized by two inherent material properties: a diffusive thermal conductivity and a ballistic transport length. We also present a two-parameter heat conduction model and demonstrate its validity in different pump-probe experiments. This model not only offers new insights of nondiffusive heat conduction but also opens up new avenues for the studies of nondiffusive heat transfer outside the framework of the Fourier law.

  12. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.


    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  13. Numerical modeling of the conduction and radiation heating in precision glass moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard


    wafer, heating can be performed by either conduction or radiation. The numerical simulation of these two heating mechanisms in the wafer based glass moulding process is the topic of the present paper. First, the transient heating of the glass wafer is simulated by the FEM software ABAQUS. Temperature...

  14. Heat conduction problem of an evaporating liquid wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Barta


    Full Text Available We consider the stationary heat transfer near the contact line of an evaporating liquid wedge surrounded by the atmosphere of its pure vapor. In a simplified setting, the problem reduces to the Laplace equation in a half circle, subject to a non-homogeneous and singular boundary condition. By classical tools (conformal mapping, Green's function, we reformulate the problem as an integral equation for the unknown Neumann boundary condition in the setting of appropriate fractional Sobolev and weighted space. The unique solvability is then obtained by means of the Fredholm theorem.

  15. Crystallization studies on phase-change optical recording media by use of a two-dimensional periodic mark array (United States)

    Xun, Xiaodong; Erwin, James K.; Bletscher, Warren; Choi, Jinhan; Kallenbach, Senta; Mansuripur, Masud


    We present the results of crystallization studies in thin-film samples of amorphous and crystalline GexSbyTez. The experiments, conducted at moderately elevated temperatures, are based on measurements of the first-order diffraction efficiency from a two-dimensional periodic array of recorded marks. When the samples are slowly heated above room temperature, changes in the efficiencies of various diffracted orders give information about the on-going crystallization process within the sample. Two different compositions of the GeSbTe alloy are used in these experiments. Measurements on Ge2Sb2,3Te5 films show crystallization dominated by nucleation. For the Sb-rich eutectic composition Ge-(SbTe), crystallization is found to be dominated by growth from crystalline boundaries. We also show that crystalline marks written by relatively high-power laser pulses are different in their optical properties from the regions crystallized by slow heating of the sample to moderate temperatures.

  16. Determination of the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of neem seeds by inverse problem method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Nnamchi


    Full Text Available Determination of the thermal conductivity and the specific heat capacity of neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss usingthe inverse method is the main subject of this work. One-dimensional formulation of heat conduction problem in a spherewas used. Finite difference method was adopted for the solution of the heat conduction problem. The thermal conductivityand the specific heat capacity were determined by least square method in conjunction with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.The results obtained compare favourably with those obtained experimentally. These results are useful in the analysis ofneem seeds drying and leaching processes.

  17. The effect of substrate conduction on boiling data on pin-fin heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, D.A.; Raeisi, A.H.; Kew, P.A.; Hamed, R.S.


    Heat-transfer experiments for a copper heat sink containing pin-fins with a cross section of 1 mm by 1 mm and a height of 1 mm have been reported previously. The pin-fins were manufactured on a 5 mm thick, 50 mm square base plate in a square, in-line arrangement with a pitch of 2 mm. Data were produced while boiling R113 and water at atmospheric pressure. The heat sink was heated from below through a 5 mm thick aluminium wall by an electrical heating method that is normally associated with the uniform heat flux boundary condition. However, variations in the heat-transfer coefficient and the liquid subcooling interacted with the high thermal conductivity of the aluminium and copper materials to produce a near isothermal wall boundary condition. Thus, heat conduction effects had to be taken into account when determining the heat-flux distribution required in the analysis of the data. Many experiments like these have used the uniform heat-flux assumption to analyse the data. The discrepancies produced from this approach are explored. Single-phase flows across a pin-fin surface produce a reasonably uniform distribution of heat-transfer coefficient. However, the liquid temperature increases as it moves across the heat sink. This produces a non-uniform heat flux distribution at the solid–fluid interface. The uniform heat-flux assumption is shown to lead to errors of ±17% in the estimation of the heat-transfer coefficient. The original boiling flow experiments found that the water data were confined and that the majority of the R113 data were not. The confined and unconfined data are processed with the thermal conduction in the walls taken into account and by assuming a uniform heat flux at the solid–fluid interface. The uniform heat-flux distribution analysis for unconfined flows shows errors in the heat-transfer coefficient to be typically ±17%. Confined flows produce smaller errors, typically ±12%, close to the onset of nucleation. However, these damp out

  18. Steady heat conduction-based thermal conductivity measurement of single walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a micropipette thermal sensor. (United States)

    Shrestha, R; Lee, K M; Chang, W S; Kim, D S; Rhee, G H; Choi, T Y


    In this paper, we describe the thermal conductivity measurement of single-walled carbon nanotubes thin film using a laser point source-based steady state heat conduction method. A high precision micropipette thermal sensor fabricated with a sensing tip size varying from 2 μm to 5 μm and capable of measuring thermal fluctuation with resolution of ±0.01 K was used to measure the temperature gradient across the suspended carbon nanotubes (CNT) film with a thickness of 100 nm. We used a steady heat conduction model to correlate the temperature gradient to the thermal conductivity of the film. We measured the average thermal conductivity of CNT film as 74.3 ± 7.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at room temperature.

  19. Effect of spatial variation of thermal conductivity on non-fourier heat conduction in a finite slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharkhah, Mohammad; Amiri, Shahin; Shokouhmand, Hossein


    The non-Fourier heat conduction problem in a finite slab is studied analytically. Dependence of thermal conductivity on space has been considered. The Laplace transform method is used to remove the time-dependent terms in the governing equation and the boundary conditions. The hyperbolic heat conduction (HHC) equation has been solved by employing trial solution method and collocation optimization criterion. Results show that the space-dependent thermal conductivity strongly affects the temperature distribution. A temperature peak on the insulated wall of the slab has been observed due to linear variation of thermal conductivity. It has been shown that the magnitude of the temperature peak increases with increasing the dimensionless relaxation time. To validate the approach, the results have been compared with the analytical solution obtained for a special case which shows a good agreement

  20. Radial heat conduction in a power reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.


    Two radial conduction models, one for steady state and another for unsteady state, in a nuclear power reactor fuel element are developed. The objective is to obtain the temperatures in the fuel pellet and the cladding. The lumped-parameter hypothesis are adopted to represent the system. Both models are verified and their results are compared with similar ones. A method to calculate the conductance in the gap between the UO 2 pellet and the clad and its associated uncertainty is included in the steady state model. (author) [es

  1. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine


    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  2. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.


    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular

  3. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha


    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  4. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.


    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  5. Heat conduction and thermal stabilization in YBCO tape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) coated conductors are widely used in the conduction-cooled superconducting magnets with rapid development in refrigeration technologies at present. 'Quench' is a state that refers to the irreversible and uncontrolled superconductor to resistive transitions in the superconductor ...

  6. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sations in nebulae may be due to thermal effects. Abbassi et al. (2008) considered the possibility of the thermal conduction in the presence of toroidal magnetic field. – which had been a largely neglected ingredient before – could affect the global properties of the hot accretion flows substantially and investigated the effect of ...

  7. On the Jeans Criterion of a Stratified Heat Conducting Gaseous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    homogeneous stratified gaseous medium with finite thermal conductiv- ity and infinite electrical conductivity, in the presence of non-uniform rotation and magnetic field in the Chandrasekhar's frame of reference, is studied. It is found that the magnetic field, whether uniform or non- uniform, has no effect on the Jeans' criterion ...

  8. Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.


    The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles

  9. The two-dimensional reactor dynamics program TINTE. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, H.


    The TINTE code system deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of the primary circuit of an HTGR taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in two-dimensional r-z geometry. In Part One of this report (Juel-2167) the initial equations were compiled and methods of solution discussed. In an appendix to this second part they are completed by some supplementary points. The TINTE code construction and a detailed input description will be discussed in Part Three. The Part Two shows examples of application, especially a comparative calculation of dynamic experiments performed at the AVR. A good agreement between calculational and experimental results is found. Further examples show the flexibility of TINTE: first of all, individual moduli of TINTE are used to find a solution to a thermofluid problem. In addition TINTE is used to demonstrate the mutual feedback between nuclear and thermal processes in process heat reactors, including those with natural convective conditions, without any control rod movement. (orig.) [de

  10. Two dimensional simulation of high power laser-surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, S.R.; Wilke, M.D.; Green, R.E.L.; Johnson, R.P.; Busch, G.E.


    For laser intensities in the range of 10 8 --10 9 W/cm 2 , and pulse lengths of order 10 microsec or longer, the authors have modified the inertial confinement fusion code Lasnex to simulate gaseous and some dense material aspects of the laser-matter interaction. The unique aspect of their treatment consists of an ablation model which defines a dense material-vapor interface and then calculates the mass flow across this interface. The model treats the dense material as a rigid two-dimensional mass and heat reservoir suppressing all hydrodynamic motion in the dense material. The computer simulations and additional post-processors provide predictions for measurements including impulse given to the target, pressures at the target interface, electron temperatures and densities in the vapor-plasma plume region, and emission of radiation from the target. The authors will present an analysis of some relatively well diagnosed experiments which have been useful in developing their modeling. The simulations match experimentally obtained target impulses, pressures at the target surface inside the laser spot, and radiation emission from the target to within about 20%. Hence their simulational technique appears to form a useful basis for further investigation of laser-surface interaction in this intensity, pulse-width range. This work is useful in many technical areas such as materials processing

  11. Development and adaptation of conduction and radiation heat-transfer computer codes for the CFTL. [Core Flow Test Loop; RODCON; HOTTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conklin, J.C.


    RODCON and HOTTEL are two computational methods used to calculate thermal and radiation heat transfer for the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) analysis efforts. RODCON was developed at ORNL to calculate the internal temperature distribution of the fuel rod simulator (FRS) for the CFTL. RODCON solves the time-dependent heat transfer equation in two-dimensional (R angle) cylindrical coordinates at an axial plane with user-specified radial material zones and time- and position-variant surface conditions at the FRS periphery. Symmetry of the FRS periphery boundary conditions is not necessary. The governing elliptic, partial differential heat equation is cast into a fully implicit, finite-difference form by approximating the derivatives with a forward-differencing scheme with variable mesh spacing. The heat conduction path is circumferentially complete, and the potential mathematical problem at the rod center can be effectively ignored. HOTTEL is a revision of an algorithm developed by C.B. Baxi at the General Atomic Company (GAC) to be used in calculating radiation heat transfer in a rod bundle enclosed in a hexagonal duct. HOTTEL uses geometric view factors, surface emissivities, and surface areas to calculate the gray-body or composite view factors in an enclosure having multiple reflections in a nonparticipating medium.

  12. Two dimensional MHD flows between porous boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.


    Similarity solutions of dissipative MHD equations representing conducting fluids injected through porous walls and flowing out in both directions from the center of the channel, are studied as a function of four non dimensional parameters, Reynolds number R e , magnetic Reynolds number R m , Alfvenic Mach number, M A , and pressure gradient coefficient, C. The effluence is restrained by an external magnetic field normal to the walls. When R m m >>1, the solution may model a collision of plasmas of astrophysical interest. In this case the magnetic field lines help to drive the outflow acting jointly with the pressure gradient. The law for C as a function of the other parameters is given for several asymptotic limits. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs

  13. Entropic Constitutive Relation and Modeling for Fourier and Hyperbolic Heat Conductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Li


    Full Text Available Most existing phenomenological heat conduction models are expressed by temperature and heat flux distributions, whose definitions might be debatable in heat conductions with strong non-equilibrium. The constitutive relations of Fourier and hyperbolic heat conductions are here rewritten by the entropy and entropy flux distributions in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics (CIT and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT. The entropic constitutive relations are then generalized by Boltzmann–Gibbs–Shannon (BGS statistical mechanics, which can avoid the debatable definitions of thermodynamic quantities relying on local equilibrium. It shows a possibility of modeling heat conduction through entropic constitutive relations. The applicability of the generalizations by BGS statistical mechanics is also discussed based on the relaxation time approximation, and it is found that the generalizations require a sufficiently small entropy production rate.

  14. Influence of wall conduction on mixed convection heat transfer in externally finned pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moukalled, F.; Darwish, M. [American Univ. of Beirut (Lebanon). Mechanical Engineering Dept.; Acharya, S. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.


    The influence of wall heat conduction on laminar mixed convection in externally finned vertical pipes are investigated numerically. Buoyancy in both aiding and opposed modes is considered. Results are presented in terms of the streamwise variation of the fluid bulk temperature and tube-side. Nusselt number, axially averaged and periodically fully developed Nusselt number values, and axial velocity and temperature profiles. For opposed flows, buoyancy forces decrease the overall heat transferred to the fluid, while for buoyancy-aided flows, buoyancy causes an enhancement in the overall heat transferred to the fluid. Including of longitudinal wall conduction increases the heat transfer to the fluid and enhances the effects of buoyancy.

  15. Developing seamless method to calculate heat convection and conduction on cartesian grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanno, I.; Morinishi, K.; Matsuno, K.; Nishida, H.


    In these days, studying and developing algorithms which calculate fluid flows which have interfaces or bodies on cartesian grid become trend of computational fluid dynamics area. In this paper, we propose Virtual Flux Method (VFM) which calculates heat and fluid flow around interfaces or bodies on cartesian grid. This method enables to seamlessly calculate heat convection on the surface of the bodies and fluid and heat conduction inside bodies. In three dimensional calculations of shell and tube type heat exchangers, there is a possibility that fluid inside and outside tubes and heat flow between these fluid and tube bodies are calculated without any kind of extra algorithms but VFM. (author)

  16. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J


    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  17. Case studies of heat conduction in rotary drums with L-shaped lifters via DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Xie


    Full Text Available Rotary drums are widely used in numerous processes in industry to handle granular materials. In present work, heat transfer processes in drums with L-shaped lifters have been investigated by coupling the discrete element method (DEM with heat transfer model. Effects of both operational and structural parameters have been analyzed. It is found that increasing rotational speed could improve heat transfer to a certain extent, however, just in relatively low speed stage. When lifter number increases, the heat transfer speed slightly decreases. An increasing lifter height could promote heat transfer first and then reduces it, but the amplitude of variation keeps small. The heat transfer rate descends with increasing lifter width. The heat transfer mechanisms have also been discussed by comparing mixing rates, total contact areas for thermal conduction, time constants (TC indicating apparent heat transfer rate and effective heat transfer coefficients(HTC. It is concluded that dynamic conduction due to particle flow is dominated in all cases. The L-shaped lifers are turned out not a good choice when heat conduction between particles is prominent.

  18. Development of two-dimensional interdigitated center of pressure sensor (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.


    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional (2D) flexible patch sensor to detect and monitor the center of pressure (CoP) location and the total magnitude of a spatially distributed pressure to the specific surface areas of engineering structures. The CoP sensor with the contact mode induced by a pressure distribution was formulated by force sensitive resistor technology and was mainly composed of a thin conductive polymer layer, adhesive spacers, and two interdigitated patterned electrode films with unique sensing aperture shadings. By properly mapping the interdigitated electrode patterns to the top and bottom surfaces of the conductive polymer, the proposed sensor ideally enables to measure an overall applied pressure level and its centroid location within a predetermined sensing region in real-time. The CoP sensor containing 36 sensing sections within a dimension of around 3 × 3 inches was prototyped and experimentally investigated to verify its capability to identify the CoP location and magnitude due to the presence of a permanent magnet-based local pressure distribution. Only five electric wires connected to the CoP sensor to inspect the pressure-sensing positions of 36 segments. The evaluation results of the measured sensor data demonstrate good agreements with the actual test parameters such as the total pressure and its centroid position with about 5% locational error. However, to provide accurate information on the overall pressure range, the compensation factors must be determined and applied to the individual sensing sections of the sensor.

  19. Engineering the Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene (United States)

    Babar, Rohit; Kabir, Mukul


    Correlated interaction between dilute localized impurity electrons and the itinerant host conduction electrons in metals gives rise to the conventional many-body Kondo effect below sufficiently low temperature. In sharp contrast to these conventional Kondo systems, we report an intrinsic, robust, and high-temperature Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene. While absorbed at a thermodynamically stable lattice defect, Cr impurity triggers an electronic phase transition in phosphorene to provide conduction electrons, which strongly interact with the localized moment generated at the Cr site. These manifest into the intrinsic Kondo state, where the impurity moment is quenched in multiple stages and at temperatures in the 40-200 K range. Further, along with a much smaller extension of the Kondo cloud, the predicted Kondo state is shown to be robust under uniaxial strain and layer thickness, which greatly simplifies its future experimental realization. We predict the present study will open up new avenues in Kondo physics and trigger further theoretical and experimental studies.

  20. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.


    New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.

  1. Estimation of surface heat flux and temperature distributions in a multilayer tissue based on the hyperbolic model of heat conduction. (United States)

    Lee, Haw-Long; Chen, Wen-Lih; Chang, Win-Jin; Yang, Yu-Ching


    In this study, an inverse algorithm based on the conjugate gradient method and the discrepancy principle is applied to solve the inverse hyperbolic heat conduction problem in estimating the unknown time-dependent surface heat flux in a skin tissue, which is stratified into epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous layers, from the temperature measurements taken within the medium. Subsequently, the temperature distributions in the tissue can be calculated as well. The concept of finite heat propagation velocity is applied to the modeling of the bioheat transfer problem. The inverse solutions will be justified based on the numerical experiments in which two different heat flux distributions are to be determined. The temperature data obtained from the direct problem are used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of measurement errors on the precision of the estimated results is also investigated. Results show that an excellent estimation on the time-dependent surface heat flux can be obtained for the test cases considered in this study.

  2. Surface temperature and surface heat flux determination of the inverse heat conduction problem for a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroyanagi, Toshiyuki


    Based on an idea that surface conditions should be a reflection of interior temperature and interior heat flux variation as inverse as interior conditions has been determined completely by the surface temperature and/on surface heat flux as boundary conditions, a method is presented for determining the surface temperature and the surface heat flux of a solid when the temperature and heat flux at an interior point are a prescribed function of time. The method is developed by the integration of Duhumels' integral which has unknown temperature or unknown heat flux in its integrand. Specific forms of surface condition determination are developed for a sample inverse problem: slab. Ducussing the effect of a degree of avairable informations at an interior point due to damped system and the effect of variation of surface conditions on those formulations, it is shown that those formulations are capable of representing the unknown surface conditions except for small time interval followed by discontinuous change of surface conditions. The small un-resolved time interval is demonstrated by a numerical example. An evaluation method of heat flux at an interior point, which is requested by those formulations, is discussed. (author)

  3. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.


    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  4. Stability analysis of two-dimensional digital recursive filters (United States)

    Alexander, W. E.; Pruess, S. A.


    A new approach to the stability problem for the two-dimensional digital recursive filter is presented. The bivariate difference equation representation of the two-dimensional recursive digital filter is converted to a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) system similar to the state-space representation of the one-dimensional digital recursive filter. In this paper, a pseudo-state representation is used and three coefficient matrices are obtained. A general theorem for stability of two-dimensional digital recursive filters is derived and a very useful theorem is presented which expresses sufficient requirements for instability in terms of the spectral radii of these matrices.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović


    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  6. Numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, T


    The two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms $\\G(\\vec{a}(z);y)$, a generalization of the harmonic polylogarithms, themselves a generalization of Nielsen's polylogarithms, appear in analytic calculations of multi-loop radiative corrections in quantum field theory. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, with the two arguments $y,z$ varying in the triangle $0\\le y \\le 1$, $ 0\\le z \\le 1$, $\\ 0\\le (y+z) \\le 1$. This algorithm is implemented into a {\\tt FORTRAN} subroutine {\\tt tdhpl} to compute two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms up to weight 4.

  7. The amorphous nature of C{sub 60} hard carbon manifested in its specific heat, sound velocity and heat conduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biljakovic, K. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); JDS Uniphase Corp., Eatontown, NJ (United States) and Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail:; Kozlov, M.; Staresinic, D.; Saint-Paul, M. [Institute of Physics, Zagreb (Croatia); JDS Uniphase Corp., Eatontown, NJ (United States); Centre de Recherche sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, CNRS, Grenoble (France)


    Detailed measurements of the specific heat, thermal conductivity and relative variation of the sound velocity in the temperature range 2-280 K for hard fullerene-based carbon are reported. The novel material was obtained from pressure-temperature treatment of C{sub 60} fullerene and is known for a unique combination of its diamond-like hardness and high electrical conductivity. The substance was found to possess an unconventional, close-to-linear temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity over almost the entire temperature range. The specific heat of hard carbon exhibited a very large linear contribution to the specific heat at low temperatures, but no excess contribution to C{sub p}/T{sup 3}, and a deviation from the Debye dependence above 6 K. The sound velocity decreased linearly from 4 up to 120 K. These results are consistent with the concept of a glassy solid formed by polymerized and partially transformed fullerene clusters. (author)

  8. The amorphous nature of C60 hard carbon manifested in its specific heat, sound velocity and heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biljakovic, K.; Kozlov, M.; Staresinic, D.; Saint-Paul, M.


    Detailed measurements of the specific heat, thermal conductivity and relative variation of the sound velocity in the temperature range 2-280 K for hard fullerene-based carbon are reported. The novel material was obtained from pressure-temperature treatment of C 60 fullerene and is known for a unique combination of its diamond-like hardness and high electrical conductivity. The substance was found to possess an unconventional, close-to-linear temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity over almost the entire temperature range. The specific heat of hard carbon exhibited a very large linear contribution to the specific heat at low temperatures, but no excess contribution to C p /T 3 , and a deviation from the Debye dependence above 6 K. The sound velocity decreased linearly from 4 up to 120 K. These results are consistent with the concept of a glassy solid formed by polymerized and partially transformed fullerene clusters. (author)

  9. Mathematical and information-geometrical entropy for phenomenological Fourier and non-Fourier heat conduction (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang


    The second law of thermodynamics governs the direction of heat transport, which provides the foundational definition of thermodynamic Clausius entropy. The definitions of entropy are further generalized for the phenomenological heat transport models in the frameworks of classical irreversible thermodynamics and extended irreversible thermodynamics (EIT). In this work, entropic functions from mathematics are combined with phenomenological heat conduction models and connected to several information-geometrical conceptions. The long-time behaviors of these mathematical entropies exhibit a wide diversity and physical pictures in phenomenological heat conductions, including the tendency to thermal equilibrium, and exponential decay of nonequilibrium and asymptotics, which build a bridge between the macroscopic and microscopic modelings. In contrast with the EIT entropies, the mathematical entropies expressed in terms of the internal energy function can avoid singularity paired with nonpositive local absolute temperature caused by non-Fourier heat conduction models.

  10. Proteome research : two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabilloud, Thierry, 1961


    "Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the central methodology in proteome research, and the state of the art is described in detail in this text, together with extensive coverage of the detection methods available...

  11. 1/f noise in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.B.; Tajima, T.


    We derive an exact result on the velocity fluctuation power spectrum of an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. Employing the fluctuation-dissipation relationship and the enstrophy conversation, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a 1/f form

  12. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...

  13. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.


    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  14. Dense Non Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) Removal from Fractured Rock using Thermal Conductive Heating (TCH) (United States)


    may include thermal destruction by oxidation and pyrolysis near heating elements (for thermal conductive heating) at temperatures around 400ΕC...subsequent treatment, while the separated liquids were pumped to the existing groundwater treatment plant operated by ECOR Solutions, who operates the site’s

  15. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.


    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  16. The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity


    Lemos, José P. S.; Sá, Paulo M.


    General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.

  17. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.


    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern.......The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  18. CTE-Matched, Liquid-Cooled, High Thermal Conductivity Heat Sink, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of a CTE-matched, liquid-cooled, high thermal conductivity heat sink for use in spacecraft thermal management applications. The material...

  19. Size effects in non-linear heat conduction with flux-limited behaviors (United States)

    Li, Shu-Nan; Cao, Bing-Yang


    Size effects are discussed for several non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors, including the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier, hierarchy moment, nonlinear phonon hydrodynamic, tempered diffusion, thermon gas and generalized nonlinear models. For the phonon hydrodynamic, Lagrange multiplier and tempered diffusion models, heat flux will not exist in problems with sufficiently small scale. The existence of heat flux needs the sizes of heat conduction larger than their corresponding critical sizes, which are determined by the physical properties and boundary temperatures. The critical sizes can be regarded as the theoretical limits of the applicable ranges for these non-linear heat conduction models with flux-limited behaviors. For sufficiently small scale heat conduction, the phonon hydrodynamic and Lagrange multiplier models can also predict the theoretical possibility of violating the second law and multiplicity. Comparisons are also made between these non-Fourier models and non-linear Fourier heat conduction in the type of fast diffusion, which can also predict flux-limited behaviors.

  20. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong


    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  1. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.


    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  2. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  3. Radiative heat exchange of a meteor body in the approximation of radiant heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilyugin, N.N.; Chernova, T.A.


    The problem of the thermal and dynamic destruction of large meteor bodies moving in planetary atmospheres is fundamental for the clarification of optical observations and anomalous phenomena in the atmosphere, the determination of the physicochemical properties of meteoroids, and the explanation of the fall of remnants of large meteorites. Therefore, it is important to calculate the coefficient of radiant heat exchange (which is the determining factor under these conditions) for large meteor bodies as they move with hypersonic velocities in an atmosphere. The solution of this problem enables one to find the ablation of a meteorite during its aerodynamic heating and to determine the initial conditions for the solution of problems of the breakup of large bodies and their subsequent motion and ablation. Hypersonic flow of an inviscid gas stream over an axisymmetric blunt body is analyzed with allowance for radiative transfer in a thick-thin approximation. The gas-dynamic problem of the flow of an optically thick gas over a large body is solved by the method of asymptotic joined expansions, using a hypersonic approximation and local self-similarity. An equation is obtained for the coefficient of radiant heat exchange and the peculiarities of such heat exchange for meteor bodies of large size are noted

  4. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU


    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  5. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage. (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury


    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. The factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. Particularly, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Model for ballistic spin-transport in ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas/ferromagnet structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapers, T; Nitta, J; Heersche, HB; Takayanagi, H

    The spin dependent conductance of a ferromagnet/two-dimensional electron gas ferromagnet structure is theoretically examined in the ballistic transport regime. It is shown that the spin signal can be improved considerably by making use of the spin filtering effect of a barrier at the ferromagnet

  7. Two-dimensional finite element analysis of rectangular panel with hole using NICE/SPAR (United States)

    Razzaq, Zia; Prasad, Venkatesh; Darbhamulla, Siva Prasad


    A panel 30 in. long, 11.5 in. wide, with a 2.0 in. diameter hole at the center is analyzed. Since a two-dimensional analysis is conducted, the thickness of the panel is taken as unity. Owing to the symmetry, it is sufficient to analyze only one fourth of the panel with appropriate boundary conditions.

  8. One- and two-dimensional fluids properties of smectic, lamellar and columnar liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Jakli, Antal


    Smectic and lamellar liquid crystals are three-dimensional layered structures in which each layer behaves as a two-dimensional fluid. Because of their reduced dimensionality they have unique physical properties and challenging theoretical descriptions, and are the subject of much current research. One- and Two-Dimensional Fluids: Properties of Smectic, Lamellar and Columnar Liquid Crystals offers a comprehensive review of these phases and their applications. The book details the basic structures and properties of one- and two-dimensional fluids and the nature of phase transitions. The later chapters consider the optical, magnetic, and electrical properties of special structures, including uniformly and non-uniformly aligned anisotropic films, lyotropic lamellar systems, helical and chiral structures, and organic anisotropic materials. Topics also include typical and defective features, magnetic susceptibility, and electrical conductivity. The book concludes with a review of current and potential applications ...

  9. A new approach to the theory of heat conduction with finite wave speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Antonio Cimmelli


    Full Text Available Relations between the physical models describing the heat conduction in solids and a phenomenological model leading to quasi-linear hyperbolic equations and systems of conservation laws are presented. A new semi-empirical temperature scale is introduced in terms of which a modified Fourier law is formulated. The hyperbolicity of the heat conduction equation is discussed together with some wave propagation problems.

  10. Non-Fourier heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Daixian; Wu, Jianjun; Li, Jian; He, Zhaofu


    The phase transition in heat conduction of polytetrafluoroethylene-like polymers was investigated and applied in many fields of science and engineering. Considering more details including internal absorption of laser radiation, reflectivity of material and non-Fourier effect etc., the combined heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation of polytetrafluoroethylene were modeled and investigated numerically. The thermal and mechanic issues in laser ablation were illustrated and analyzed. Especially, the phenomenon of temperature discontinuity formed in the combined phase transition and non-Fourier heat conduction was discussed. Comparisons of target temperature profiles between Fourier and non-Fourier heat conduction in melting process were implemented. It was indicated that the effect of non-Fourier plays an important role in the temperature evolvement. The effect of laser fluence was proven to be significant and the thermal wave propagation was independent on the laser intensity for the non-Fourier heat conduction. Besides, the effect of absorption coefficients on temperature evolvements was studied. For different ranges of absorption coefficients, different temperature evolvements can be achieved. The above numerical simulation provided insight into physical processes of combined non-Fourier heat conduction and phase transition in laser ablation.

  11. Final Report for Project titled High Thermal Conductivity Polymer Composites for Low-Cost Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibaud-Erkey, Catherine [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States); Alahyari, Abbas [United Technologies reserach Center, East Hartford, CT (United States)


    Heat exchangers (HXs) are critical components in a wide range of heat transfer applications, from HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Cooling) to automobiles to manufacturing plants. They require materials capable of transferring heat at high rates while also minimizing thermal expansion over the usage temperature range. Conventionally, metals are used for applications where effective and efficient heat exchange is required, since many metals exhibit thermal conductivity over 100 W/m K. While metal HXs are constantly being improved, they still have some inherent drawbacks due to their metal construction, in particular corrosion. Polymeric material can offer solution to such durability issues and allow designs that cannot be afforded by metal construction either due to complexity or cost. A major drawback of polymeric material is their low thermal conductivity (0.1-0.5? W/mK) that would lead to large system size. Recent improvements in the area of filled polymers have highlighted the possibility to greatly improve the thermal conductivity of polymeric materials while retaining their inherent manufacturing advantage, and have been applied to heat sink applications. Therefore, the objective of this project was to develop a robust review of materials for the manufacturing of industrial and commercial non-metallic heat exchangers. This review consisted of material identification, literature evaluation, as well as empirical and model characterization, resulting in a database of relevant material properties and characteristics to provide guidance for future heat exchanger development.

  12. Development, manufacturing and testing of a gas-loaded variable conductance methanol heat pipe (United States)

    Vanbuggenum, R. I. J.; Daniels, D. H. W.


    The experimental technology required to measure the performance of moderate temperature heat pipes is presented. The heat pipe manufacturing process is described. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the porous structure inside the heat pipe envelope were examined using a specially developed test rig, based upon a steady-state evaporation test. A fully automated test facility was developed and validated by testing constant conductance and variable conductance heat pipes (VCHP). Theoretical performance predictions are illustrated in terms of pressure, depicted in 3D-plots, and compared with the test results of the heat pipe performance tests. The design of the VCHP was directed towards the verification of the VCHP mathematical model. The VCHP design is validated and ready for the final testing and model verification.

  13. Measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity with LFA 447 apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zajas, Jan Jakub; Heiselberg, Per

    The LFA 447 can be successfully used for measurements of thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity of various samples. It is especially useful when determining the properties of materials on a very small scale. The matrix measurement mode allows for determining the local...... properties with a fine resolution, down to 1 millimeter. Special attention needs to be taken when determining the specific heat capacity in the comparative method. First of all, the test and reference sample should be of nearly identical thickness. Secondly, their heat diffusion time should be comparable, so...... that the heat losses from both samples during the measurement are similar. Finally, the leveling of the samples is very important. Very small discrepancies can cause a massive error in the derivation of specific heat capacity and, as a result, thermal conductivity....

  14. A multipoint flux approximation of the steady-state heat conduction equation in anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Amgad


    In this work, we introduce multipoint flux (MF) approximation method to the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic media. In such media, the heat flux vector is no longer coincident with the temperature gradient vector. In this case, thermal conductivity is described as a second order tensor that usually requires, at least, six quantities to be fully defined in general three-dimensional problems. The two-point flux finite differences approximation may not handle such anisotropy and essentially more points need to be involved to describe the heat flux vector. In the framework of mixed finite element method (MFE), the MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes. We consider the lowest order Brezzi-Douglas-Marini (BDM) mixed finite element method with a special quadrature rule that allows for nodal velocity elimination resulting in a cell-centered system for the temperature. We show comparisons with some analytical solution of the problem of conduction heat transfer in anisotropic long strip. We also consider the problem of heat conduction in a bounded, rectangular domain with different anisotropy scenarios. It is noticed that the temperature field is significantly affected by such anisotropy scenarios. Also, the technique used in this work has shown that it is possible to use the finite difference settings to handle heat transfer in anisotropic media. In this case, heat flux vectors, for the case of rectangular mesh, generally require six points to be described. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  15. The contact heat conductance at diamond-OFHC copper interface with GaIn eutectic as a heat transfer medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assoufid, L.; Khounsary, A.M.


    Results of an experimental study of the contact heat conductance across a single diamond crystal interface with OFHC copper (Cu) are reported. Gallium-indium (GaIn) eutectic was used as an interstitial material. Contact conductance data are important in the design and the prediction of the performance of x-ray diamond monochromators under high-heat-load conditions. Two sets of experiments were carried out. In one, the copper surface in contact with diamond was polished and then electroless plated with 1 μm of nickel, while in the other, the copper contact surface was left as machined. Measured average interface heat conductances are 44.7 ±8 W/cm 2 -K for nonplated copper and 23.0 ±3 W/cm 2 -K for nickel-plated copper. For reference, the thermal contact conductances at a copper-copper interface (without diamond) were also measured, and the results are reported. A typical diamond monochromator, 0.2 mm thick, will absorb about 44 W under a standard undulator beam at the Advanced Photon Source. The measured conductance for nickel-plated copper suggests that the temperature drop across the interface of diamond and nickel-plated copper, with a 20 mm 2 contact area, will be about 10 degree C. Therefore temperature rises are rather modest, and the accuracy of the measured contact conductances presented here are sufficient for design purposes

  16. Fabrication of metal-free two dimensional/two dimensional homojunction photocatalyst using various carbon nitride nanosheets as building blocks. (United States)

    Ye, Boyong; Han, Xiaoxue; Yan, Mengdie; Zhang, Huanhuan; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiyang


    Semiconductor photocatalysis currently suffered three main problems, low solar energy utilization, high photo-generated charge recombination rate and the heavy metal ions release by the photo-corrosion. Herein, we developed a visible-light-driven homojunction photocatalyst with the metal-free two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNS). By employing liquid exfoliation and chemical blowing approaches, we obtained two kinds of CNNS materials (le-CNNS and cb-CNNS) with different band structures, and subsequently fabricated the homojunction photocatalyst. This 2D/2D nanocomposited homojunction photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance compared to these individual 2D nanosheets materials. Moreover, its well universality and reusability were also demonstrated by photo-degradation of various organic pollutants and five successive runs. By studying the optical properties and the electrochemical behavior, the band alignment of this homojunction was illustrated and the possible mechanism was proposed, where the transmitted electrons on the conduction band (CB) of le-CNNS would transport to the CB of cb-CNNS, and the holes on the valence band (VB) of cb-CNNS transferred to the VB of le-CNNS, therefore promoting the photo-induced carrier separation. Additionally, the photoluminescence, electrochemical impendence and photocurrent measurements further demonstrated that the recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs had been efficiently suppressed in the homojunction and were respectively collected on different CNNS components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of small-size solder ball defects through heat conduction analysis (United States)

    Zhou, Xiuyun; Chen, Yaqiu; Lu, Xiaochuan


    Aiming to solve the defect detection problem of a small-size solder ball in the high density chip, heat conduction analysis based on eddy current pulsed thermography is put forward to differentiate various defects. With establishing the 3D finite element model about induction heating, defects such as cracks and void can be distinguished by temperature difference resulting from heat conduction. Furthermore, the experiment of 0.4 mm-diameter solder balls with different defects is carried out to prove that crack and void solder can be distinguished. Three kinds of crack length on a gull-wing pin are selected, including 0.24 mm, 1.2 mm, and 2.16 mm, to verify that the small defect can be discriminated. Both the simulation study and experiment result show that the heat conduction analysis method is reliable and convenient.

  18. Graphene oxide-loaded shortening as an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsetskul Thammasit


    Full Text Available Graphene oxide-loaded shortening (GOS, an environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid with high thermal conductivity, was successfully prepared by mixing graphene oxide (GO with a shortening. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that GO particles, prepared by the modified Hummer’s method, dispersed well in the shortening. In addition, the latent heat of GOS decreased while their viscosity and thermal conductivity increased with increasing the amount of loaded GO. The thermal conductivity of the GOS with 4% GO was higher than that of pure shortening of ca. three times, from 0.1751 to 0.6022 W/mK, and increased with increasing temperature. The GOS started to be degraded at ca. 360°C. After being heated and cooled at 100°C for 100 cycles, its viscosity slightly decreased and no chemical degradation was observed. Therefore, the prepared GOS is potentially used as environmentally friendly heat transfer fluid at high temperature.

  19. The inaccuracy of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional composite walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Hsiao, M.-C.; Chen, W.-L.; Lin, K.-C.


    This investigation is to show that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite walls should not be solved by the conventionally one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because the interface temperatures are not unique. Thus PTRC model cannot be used like its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model which has the unique node electric voltage. Two typical composite wall examples, solved by CFD software, are used to demonstrate the incorrectness. The numerical results are compared with those obtained by PTRC model, and very large differences are observed between their results. This proves that the application of conventional heat transfer PTRC model to two-dimensional composite walls, introduced in most heat transfer text book, is totally incorrect. An alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to the two-dimensional composite walls with isothermal boundaries. Results with acceptable accuracy can be obtained by the new model

  20. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C.; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S. B.


    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  1. A Multi-Dimensional Cognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Physics Students' Understanding of Heat Conduction (United States)

    Chiou, Guo-Li; Anderson, O. Roger


    This study proposes a multi-dimensional approach to investigate, represent, and categorize students' in-depth understanding of complex physics concepts. Clinical interviews were conducted with 30 undergraduate physics students to probe their understanding of heat conduction. Based on the data analysis, six aspects of the participants' responses…

  2. A simple method to definethe heat conductivity of a limited plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov Andrey Sergeevich


    Full Text Available To the present moment there are a lot of ways to define heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of solid bodies. The schemes of determining heat conductivity, which use transient methods, usually include a heater and a cooler. The sample is placed in between them. The temperature and temperature differential is determined using several thermocouples.The authors present a method of determining the thermal characteristics of a sample in the form of a rectangular plate, allowing to apply only one thermocouple, which leads to a simple analytical expression for thermal diffusivity. The described method provides high-precision determination of thermal diffusivity of the body of small size and with the accuracy sufficient for practice — conductivity coefficient. The method uses a simple mathematical model and minimal hardware resources compared to other methods. The exception is the heat-insulating materials. The determination of their thermal conductivity using this method can lead to poor accuracy.

  3. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.


    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  4. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman


    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  5. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation. (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V


    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  6. A nonperturbative treatment of two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A.


    We propose a nonperturbative definition of two-dimensional quantum gravity, based on a double scaling limit of the random matrix model. We develop an operator formalism for utilizing the method of orthogonal polynomials that allows us to solve the matrix models to all orders in the genus expansion. Using this formalism we derive an exact differential equation for the partition function of two-dimensional gravity as a function of the string coupling constant that governs the genus expansion of two-dimensional surfaces, and discuss its properties and consequences. We construct and discuss the correlation functions of an infinite set of pointlike and loop operators to all orders in the genus expansion. (orig.)

  7. Formulation and validation of a two-dimensional steady-state model of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin R.


    systems. A steady-state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented, aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times with the purpose of inclusion in complete system models. The model includes mass and energy balances and correlations for heat and mass transfer based on empirical...... relations from the scientific literature. Convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are computed locally accounting for the entrance length effects. Mass diffusion inside the desiccant material is neglected. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces...

  8. Modelling of convective-conductive heat transfer with phase change in an electrically heated UO2 pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, H.; Giuliani, S.


    This paper describes an explicit finite element solution to transient conductive-convective heat transfer problems with phase change within an electrically heated region. The basic governing equations include the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the thermal energy equation. The phase change is modelled by a variant of the enthalpy method. Heat is generated by Joule effect due to the passage of an electric current for which a steady situation is assumed. An explicit scheme is used for the time integration, based on a fractional step method. A second-order Taylor-Galerkin method is introduced in the convection phase. The equations are discretized successively in space using the standard Galerkin finite element method. A reduced integration has been introduced as an option. In addition, a group representation is used for the non-linear velocity terms. To illustrate the proposed methodology, an application related to experimental tests is described. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of the thermal conductivity and heat transfer coefficient of a binary bed of beryllium pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, M.D.; Piazza, G. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik; Goraieb, A.; Sordon, G.


    The four ITER partners propose to use binary beryllium pebble bed as neutron multiplier. Recently this solution has been adopted for the ITER blanket as well. In order to study the heat transfer in the blanket the effective thermal conductivity and the wall heat transfer coefficient of the bed have to be known. Therefore at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe heat transfer experiments have been performed with a binary bed of beryllium pebbles and the results have been correlated expressing thermal conductivity and wall heat transfer coefficients as a function of temperature in the bed and of the difference between the thermal expansion of the bed and of that of the confinement walls. The comparison of the obtained correlations with the data available from the literature show a quite good agreement. (author)

  10. Comparison of microwave and conduction-convection heating autohydrolysis pretreatment for bioethanol production. (United States)

    Aguilar-Reynosa, Alejandra; Romaní, Aloia; Rodríguez-Jasso, Rosa M; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Garrote, Gil; Ruiz, Héctor A


    This work describes the application of two forms of heating for autohydrolysis pretreatment on isothermal regimen: conduction-convection heating and microwave heating processing using corn stover as raw material for bioethanol production. Pretreatments were performed using different operational conditions: residence time (10-50 min) and temperature (160-200°C) for both pretreatments. Subsequently, the susceptibility of pretreated solids was studied using low enzyme loads, and high substrate loads. The highest conversion was 95.1% for microwave pretreated solids. Also solids pretreated by microwave heating processing showed better ethanol conversion in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (92% corresponding to 33.8g/L). Therefore, microwave heating processing is a promising technology in the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Cattaneo-Christov heat flux on Jeffrey fluid flow with variable thermal conductivity (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Javed, Mehwish; Imtiaz, Maria; Alsaedi, Ahmed


    This paper presents the study of Jeffrey fluid flow by a rotating disk with variable thickness. Energy equation is constructed by using Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model with variable thermal conductivity. A system of equations governing the model is obtained by applying boundary layer approximation. Resulting nonlinear partial differential system is transformed to ordinary differential system. Homotopy concept leads to the convergent solutions development. Graphical analysis for velocities and temperature is made to examine the influence of different involved parameters. Thermal relaxation time parameter signifies that temperature for Fourier's heat law is more than Cattaneo-Christov heat flux. A constitutional analysis is made for skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate. Effects of Prandtl number on temperature distribution and heat transfer rate are scrutinized. It is observed that larger Reynolds number gives illustrious temperature distribution.

  12. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.


    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphous...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  13. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  14. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.


    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  15. Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Bobev, Nikolay [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Crichigno, P. Marcos [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We find a large class of two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N=1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS{sub 3} solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of four-dimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.

  16. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.


    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  17. Quantum melting of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal (United States)

    Dolgopolov, V. T.


    The paper reviews theoretical predictions about the behavior of two-dimensional low-density electron systems at nearly absolute zero temperatures, including the formation of an electron (Wigner) crystal, crystal melting at a critical electron density, and transitions between crystal modifications in more complex (for example, two-layer) systems. The paper presents experimental results obtained from real two-dimensional systems in which the nonconducting (solid) state of the electronic system with indications of collective localization is actually realized. Experimental methods for detecting a quantum liquid–solid phase interface are discussed.

  18. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.


    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  19. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank


    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....

  20. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.


    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  1. Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.


    The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.

  2. Nonlinear waves in an ultrarelativistic heat-conducting fluid II (Eckart formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Giambò


    Full Text Available In this paper a second-order theory for relativistic heat-conducting fluids is derived in the Eckart scheme, based on the assumption that the entropy 4-current should include quadratic terms in the heat flux. In the special case of ultrarelativistic fluids, the velocities of hydrodynamic and thermal weak discontinuity wave fronts are determined and, through the second-order compatibility conditions, the discontinuities associated to the waves and the transport equations for the amplitude of the discontinuities are found out. Finally, for heat wave, plane, cylindrical and spherical diverging waves are also investigated.

  3. Electrical conductivity of carbonaceous chondrites and electric heating of meteorite parent bodies (United States)

    Duba, AL


    Electromagnetic heating of rock-forming materials most probably was an important process in the early history of the solar system. Electrical conductivity experiments of representative materials such as carbonaceous chondrites are necessary to obtain data for use in electromagnetic heating models. With the assumption that carbon was present at grain boundaries in the material that comprised the meteorite parent bodies, the electrical heating of such bodies was calculated as a function of body size and solar distance using the T-Tauri model of Sonett and Herbert (1977). The results are discussed.

  4. Unsteady heat conduction in the soil layers above underground repository for spent nuclear fuel (United States)

    Talukder, N. K.

    Due to radioactivity of spent nuclear fuel, a repository is expected to act as a heat source of exponentially decreasing intensity over hundreds of years. In case of underground emplacement of such a heat source, the temperature changes in the soil layers surrounding the heat source may have important implications such as evaporation of the water contained in the soil and its subsequent condensation. Assuming a uniformly distributed power generation over a horizontal, relatively thin, circular zone of several thousand meters diameter located several hundred meters below the ground surface, the temperature variations along the vertical centerline of the heating zone was estimated analytically under simplifying assumptions. Unsteady one-dimensional heat conduction in a semi-infinite solid with an exponentially decreasing heat flux at the proximal end was considered. The corresponding solution of the Fourier equation for heat conduction contains Error Functions of complex arguments. The evaluation of the Error Functions for discrete space and time parameters was performed applying analytical procedures and using standard tables. The results show temperature distributions in the soil at various time points over thousands of years after underground emplacement of spent nuclear fuel.

  5. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis (United States)

    Kot, V. A.


    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  6. Analysis of convective longitudinal fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sobamowo


    Full Text Available In this study, analysis of heat transfer in a longitudinal rectangular fin with temperature-dependent thermal conductivity and internal heat generation was carried out using finite difference method. The developed systems of non-linear equations that resulted from the discretization using finite difference scheme were solved with the aid of MATLAB using fsolve. The numerical solution was validated with the exact solution for the linear problem. The developed heat transfer models were used to investigate the effects of thermo-geometric parameters, coefficient of heat transfer and thermal conductivity (non-linear parameters on the temperature distribution, heat transfer and thermal performance of the longitudinal rectangular fin. From the results, it shows that the fin temperature distribution, the total heat transfer, and the fin efficiency are significantly affected by the thermo-geometric parameters of the fin. Also, for the solution to be thermally stable, the fin thermo-geometric parameter must not exceed a specific value. However, it was established that the increase in temperature-dependent properties and internal heat generation values increases the thermal stability range of the thermo-geometric parameter. The results obtained in this analysis serve as basis for comparison of any other method of analysis of the problem.

  7. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials (United States)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo


    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  8. Thermal transport and dissipation in two dimensional superfluid 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, R.A.


    The thermal conductivity of unsaturated helium films on a stainless steel substrate near the super-fluid transition has been examined, both as a function of temperature and as a function of heat carried by film. The terms of vortex dynamics as calculated by Ambegaokar, Halperin, Nelson, and Siggia (AHNS). Near the superfluid transitions it was found that the thermal conductivity increases with decreasing temperature in a manner similar to what would be expected on the basis of the AHNS theory. Below the superfluid transition, the determination of the dependence of thermal conductivity on superfluid velocity differs from the dependence expected on the basis of the AHNS theory. Also, the specific heat of helium in filled pores of Vycor glass has been examined. The temperature range in which rho/sub s/ is known to vanish with 2/3 power law has been studied in detail. No singularity was found in the specific heat. The data have been analyzed in terms of finite size scaling theory and two-scale factor universality

  9. Fluctuation theory for transport properties in multicomponent mixtures: thermodiffusion and heat conductivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander


    The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general statis...... of the heat conductivity coefficient for ideal gas. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The theory of transport properties in multicomponent gas and liquid mixtures, which was previously developed for diffusion coefficients, is extended onto thermodiffusion coefficients and heat conductivities. The derivation of the expressions for transport properties is based on the general...... statistical theory of fluctuations around an equilibrium state. The Onsager matrix of phenomenological coefficients is expressed in terms of the penetration lengths, including the newly introduced penetration length for the energy transfer. As an example, this penetration length is found from the known value...

  10. On the Heat Flux Vector and Thermal Conductivity of Slags: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi


    Full Text Available The viscosity and the thermal conductivity of slag are among two of the most important material properties that need to be studied. In this paper we review the existing theoretical and experimental correlations for the thermal conductivity of slag. However, since, in general, slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, it is the heat flux vector which must be studied. Both explicit and implicit approaches are discussed and suggestions about the form of the heat flux vector and the thermal conductivity and their dependence on shear rate, porosity, deformation, etc. are provided. The discussion of the constitutive modeling of the heat flux vector for slag is from a theoretical perspective.

  11. Transient modeling/analysis of hyperbolic heat conduction problems employing mixed implicit-explicit alpha method (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; D'Costa, Joseph F.


    This paper describes the evaluation of mixed implicit-explicit finite element formulations for hyperbolic heat conduction problems involving non-Fourier effects. In particular, mixed implicit-explicit formulations employing the alpha method proposed by Hughes et al. (1987, 1990) are described for the numerical simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models, which involves time-dependent relaxation effects. Existing analytical approaches for modeling/analysis of such models involve complex mathematical formulations for obtaining closed-form solutions, while in certain numerical formulations the difficulties include severe oscillatory solution behavior (which often disguises the true response) in the vicinity of the thermal disturbances, which propagate with finite velocities. In view of these factors, the alpha method is evaluated to assess the control of the amount of numerical dissipation for predicting the transient propagating thermal disturbances. Numerical test models are presented, and pertinent conclusions are drawn for the mixed-time integration simulation of hyperbolic heat conduction models involving non-Fourier effects.

  12. Fully coupled heat conduction and deformation analyses of nonlinear viscoelastic composites

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Kamran


    This study presents an integrated micromechanical model-finite element framework for analyzing coupled heat conduction and deformations of particle-reinforced composite structures. A simplified micromechanical model consisting of four sub-cells, i.e., one particle and three matrix sub-cells is formulated to obtain the effective thermomechanical properties and micro-macro field variables due to coupled heat conduction and nonlinear thermoviscoelastic deformation of a particulate composite that takes into account the dissipation of energy from the viscoelastic constituents. A time integration algorithm for simultaneously solving the equations that govern heat conduction and thermoviscoelastic deformations of isotropic homogeneous materials is developed. The algorithm is then integrated to the proposed micromechanical model. A significant temperature generation due to the dissipation effect in the viscoelastic matrix was observed when the composite body is subjected to cyclic mechanical loadings. Heat conduction due to the dissipation of the energy cannot be ignored in predicting the factual temperature and deformation fields within the composite structure, subjected to cyclic loading for a long period. A higher creep resistant matrix material or adding elastic particles can lower the temperature generation. Our analyses suggest that using particulate composites and functionally graded materials can reduce the heat generation due to energy dissipation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  14. Growth and electronic properties of two-dimensional systems on (110) oriented GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.


    As the only non-polar plane the (110) surface has a unique role in GaAs. Together with Silicon as a dopant it is an important substrate orientation for the growth of n-type or p-type heterostructures. As a consequence, this thesis will concentrate on growth and research on that surface. In the course of this work we were able to realize two-dimensional electron systems with the highest mobilities reported so far on this orientation. Therefore, we review the necessary growth conditions and the accompanying molecular process. The two-dimensional electron systems allowed the study of a new, intriguing transport anisotropy not explained by current theory. Moreover, we were the first growing a two-dimensional hole gas on (110) GaAs with Si as dopant. For this purpose we invented a new growth modulation technique necessary to retrieve high mobility systems. In addition, we discovered and studied the metal-insulator transition in thin bulk p-type layers on (110) GaAs. Besides we investigated the activation process related to the conduction in the valence band and a parallelly conducting hopping band. The new two-dimensional hole gases revealed interesting physics. We studied the zero B-field spin splitting in these systems and compared it with the known theory. Furthermore, we investigated the anisotropy of the mobility. As opposed to the expectations we observed a strong persistent photoconductivity in our samples. Landau levels for two dimensional hole systems are non-linear and can show anticrossings. For the first time we were able to resolve anticrossings in a transport experiment and study the corresponding activation process. Finally, we compared these striking results with theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  15. Approximate Analytic Solutions of Transient Nonlinear Heat Conduction with Temperature-Dependent Thermal Diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Mustafa


    Full Text Available A new approach for generating approximate analytic solutions of transient nonlinear heat conduction problems is presented. It is based on an effective combination of Lie symmetry method, homotopy perturbation method, finite element method, and simulation based error reduction techniques. Implementation of the proposed approach is demonstrated by applying it to determine approximate analytic solutions of real life problems consisting of transient nonlinear heat conduction in semi-infinite bars made of stainless steel AISI 304 and mild steel. The results from the approximate analytical solutions and the numerical solution are compared indicating good agreement.

  16. An analysis of heat conduction in polar bear hairs using one-dimensional fractional model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei-Hong


    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. The polar bears can perennially live in an extremely cold environment and can maintain body temperature at around 37 °C. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? Its membrane-pore structure plays an important role. In the previous work, we established a 1-D fractional heat conduction equation to reveal the hidden mechanism for the hairs. In this paper, we further discuss solutions and parameters of the equation established and analyze heat conduction in polar bear hairs.

  17. Numerical Solution of Problem for Non-Stationary Heat Conduction in Multi-Layer Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Еsman


    Full Text Available A mathematical model for non-stationary heat conduction of multi-layer bodies has been developed. Dirac’s δ-function is used to take into account phase and chemical transformations in one of the wall layers. While formulating a problem non-linear heat conduction equations have been used with due account of dependence of thermal and physical characteristics on temperature. Solution of the problem is realized with the help of methods of a numerical experiment and computer modeling.

  18. Device for measuring high temperature heat conductivity of solids and melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magomedov, Ya.B.; Gadzhiev, G.G.


    A modification of a device for measuring heat conductivity by a compensation method when a thermocouple with gadolinium sulfide being used is suggested. Such a device has less error of measurement (8%), wider interval of working temperatures (300-1600K) and it permits to investigate the material in the wide range of heat conductivity values (0.5-30 W/(mxK)). The stainless steel 12Kh18N10T, lanthanum sulfide and melted quartz were used for the device calibration. The results obtained and the literature data on these materials agree well between each other

  19. Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamical properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation ...

  20. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular ...

  1. Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconformal field theory; free field realization; string theory; AdS-CFT correspon- dence. PACS Nos 11.25.Hf; 11.25.-w; 11.30.Ly; 11.30.Pb. Conformal symmetries in two space-time dimensions have been very extensively studied owing to their applications both in string theory and two-dimensional statistical systems.

  2. Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes Silva Da Costa, Natália; Palumbo, Giandomenico; de Morais Smith, Cristiane


    It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this

  3. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...

  4. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  5. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence (United States)

    Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.


    We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.

  6. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim


    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  7. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.


    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface i...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  8. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...

  9. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  10. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  11. (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Fountoulakis M, Schuller E, Hardmeier R, Berndt P and Lubec. G 1999 Rat brain proteins: Two-dimensional protein data- base and variation in the expression level; Electrophoresis 20. 3527–3579. Hiroshi Fujii, Junji Tochinara, Yutaka Kawaguchi and Sakagu- chi B 1988 Existence of carotenoids binding protein in larval.

  12. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy


    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  13. Polaron dynamics in a two-dimensional anharmonic Holstein model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A generalized two-dimensional semiclassical :Holstein model with a realistic on-site potential that contains anharmonicity is studied. More precisely, the lattice subsystem of anharmonic on-site oscillators is supposed to have a restricting core. The core plays the role of an effective saturation...

  14. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.


    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  15. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  16. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  17. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2 ... CdSe quantum wells; 2D electron gas; magneto-electronic transport. Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are ...

  18. g Algebra and two-dimensional quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    g2 algebra via one special representation in the x–y two-dimensional space. Then, by choosing an appropriate set of ..... Gen. 40, 212 (2005). [3] S Grigorian and S T Yau, Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 459 (2009). [4] L Fernandez-Jambrina and L M Gonzalez-Romero, Class. Quant. Grav. 16, 953 (1999). [5] A Belhaj, J. Phys.

  19. Two-Dimensional Light Diffraction from an EPROM Chip (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom


    In introductory physics classes, a laser pointer and a compact disc are all the items required to illustrate diffraction of light in a single dimension. If a two-dimensional diffraction pattern is desired, double axis diffraction grating material is available or a CCD sensor can be extracted from an unused electronics device. This article presents…

  20. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 21, 2014 ... used, as an alternative for costly 2DE-quantification kits. Our designed protocols are ..... 7 IPG 17 cm strips: (i) made by OP then DNase/RNase treated and (ii) made by OP with optimized IEF. (D) 2DE image of (i) E. coli ..... Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional ...

  1. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  2. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.


    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel


    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  4. Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there ...

  5. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo


    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  6. Symmetry Reductions of Two-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Burgers Equation (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Li, Biao


    By use of a direct method, we discuss symmetries and reductions of the two-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficient (VCBurgers). Five types of symmetry-reducing VCBurgers to (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equation and three types of symmetry reducing VCBurgers to ordinary differential equation are obtained.

  7. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos


    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  8. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos


    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  9. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  10. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two- dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The se- lected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen ...

  11. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.


    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  12. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise (United States)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.


    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  13. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  14. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  15. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius


    We explore the electrodynamic coupling between a plane wave and an infinite two-dimensional periodic lattice of magnetoelectric point scatterers, deriving a semianalytical theory with consistent treatment of radiation damping, retardation, and energy conservation. We apply the theory to arrays...

  16. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of. CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal ...

  17. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...... constraints on the evolution of divorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics....

  18. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk. AKIRA SUZUKI1, RANABIR DUTT2 and RAJAT K BHADURI1,3. 1Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. 2Department of Physics, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India. 3Department of Physics and ...

  19. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.


    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  20. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.


    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  1. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.


    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  2. Protein mapping by two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, K.; Racaityte, K.; Unger, K.K.; Miliotis, T.; Edholm, L.E.; Bischoff, Rainer; Marko-Varga, G


    Current developments in drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry require highly efficient analytical systems for protein mapping providing high resolution, robustness, sensitivity, reproducibility and a high throughput of samples. The potential of two-dimensional (2D) HPLC as a complementary

  3. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These were reported to lead to a variety of novel self-organized colloidal structures, such as linear chains [5,6], periodic lattices [7], anisotropic clusters [3], and cellular structures [8] that are stabilized, in general, by topological defects. More recently, two-dimensional (2D) inverted nematic emulsions were also stud- ied and ...

  4. Tagging multiphoton ionization events by two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mattijs; Broos, Jaap; Buma, Wybren Jan


    Two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to supply process-specific labels to multiphoton ionization events. Employing these tags, the authors can construct excitation and photoelectron spectra along predefined excitation routes in the neutral manifold and ionization routes to the

  5. A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping, namely electrolytic tank model, for graduate and post graduate level physics stu- dents is given here. Laplace's equation is solved for the above and the results are compared with the experiment. The agreement· is so good that this is extended to complex ...

  6. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn


    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  7. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  8. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials. Qing-Hai Wang. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 pp ... Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the P T symmetry, the ...

  9. Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao


    Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the

  10. Fermi liquid of two-dimensional polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    We study Fermi-liquid properties of a weakly interacting two-dimensional gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules with dipole moments d oriented perpendicularly to the plane of their translational motion. This geometry allows the minimization of inelastic losses due to chemical reactions

  11. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  12. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  13. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle– ..... ment, we need less than 75 MB of RAM for a simulation with 10242 particles on a. 10242 grid.

  14. Incorrectness of conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuit model for two-dimensional circular composite pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-L.; Hsien, T.-L.; Chen, W.-L.; Yu, S.-J.


    This study is to prove that two-dimensional steady state heat transfer problems of composite circular pipes cannot be appropriately solved by the conventional one-dimensional parallel thermal resistance circuits (PTRC) model because its interface temperatures are not unique. Thus, the PTRC model is definitely different from its conventional recognized analogy, parallel electrical resistance circuits (PERC) model, which has unique node electric voltages. Two typical composite circular pipe examples are solved by CFD software, and the numerical results are compared with those obtained by the PTRC model. This shows that the PTRC model generates large error. Thus, this conventional model, introduced in most heat transfer text books, cannot be applied to two-dimensional composite circular pipes. On the contrary, an alternative one-dimensional separately series thermal resistance circuit (SSTRC) model is proposed and applied to a two-dimensional composite circular pipe with isothermal boundaries, and acceptable results are returned

  15. Conductive heat flow at the TAG Active Hydrothermal Mound: Results from 1993-1995 submersible surveys (United States)

    Becker, K.; Von Herzen, R.; Kirklin, J.; Evans, R.; Kadko, D.; Kinoshita, M.; Matsubayashi, O.; Mills, R.; Schultz, A.; Rona, P.

    We report 70 measurements of conductive heat flow at the 50-m-high, 200-m-diameter TAG active hydrothermal mound, made during submersible surveys with Alvin in 1993 and 1995 and Shinkai 6500 in 1994. The stations were all measured with 5-thermistor, 0.6- or 1-m-long Alvin heat flow probes, which are capable of determining both gradient and thermal conductivity, and were transponder-navigated to an estimated accuracy of ±5-10 m relative to the 10-m-diameter central complex of black smokers. Within 20 m of this complex, conductive heat flow values are extremely variable (0.1- > 100 W/m²), which can only be due to local spatial and possible temporal variability in the immediate vicinity of the vigorous discharge sites. A similar local variability is suggested in the “Kremlin” area of white smokers to the southeast of the black smoker complex. On the south and southeast side of the mound, there is very high heat flow (3.7- > 25 W/m²) on the sedimented terraces that slope down from the Kremlin area. Heat flow is also high (0.3-3 W/m²) in the pelagic carbonate sediments on the surrounding seafloor within a few tens of meters of the southwest, northwest, and northeast sides of the mound. On the west side of the sulfide rubble plateau that surrounds the central black smoker peak, there is a coherent belt of very low heat flow (smokers, suggestive of local, shallow recharge of bottom water. The three submersible surveys spanned nearly two years, but showed no indication of any temporal variability in conductive heat flow over this time scale, whether natural or induced by ODP drilling in 1994.

  16. Estimating thermal diffusivity and specific heat from needle probe thermal conductivity data (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.


    Thermal diffusivity and specific heat can be estimated from thermal conductivity measurements made using a standard needle probe and a suitably high data acquisition rate. Thermal properties are calculated from the measured temperature change in a sample subjected to heating by a needle probe. Accurate thermal conductivity measurements are obtained from a linear fit to many tens or hundreds of temperature change data points. In contrast, thermal diffusivity calculations require a nonlinear fit to the measured temperature change occurring in the first few tenths of a second of the measurement, resulting in a lower accuracy than that obtained for thermal conductivity. Specific heat is calculated from the ratio of thermal conductivity to diffusivity, and thus can have an uncertainty no better than that of the diffusivity estimate. Our thermal conductivity measurements of ice Ih and of tetrahydrofuran (THF) hydrate, made using a 1.6 mm outer diameter needle probe and a data acquisition rate of 18.2 pointss, agree with published results. Our thermal diffusivity and specific heat results reproduce published results within 25% for ice Ih and 3% for THF hydrate. ?? 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  17. Empirical mapping of the convective heat transfer coefficients with local hot spots on highly conductive surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekelioğlu Murat


    Full Text Available An experimental method was proposed to assess the natural and forced convective heat transfer coefficients on highly conductive bodies. Experiments were performed at air velocities of 0m/s, 4.0m/s, and 5.4m/s, and comparisons were made between the current results and available literature. These experiments were extended to arbitrary-shape bodies. External flow conditions were maintained throughout. In the proposed method, in determination of the surface convective heat transfer coefficients, flow condition is immaterial, i.e., either laminar or turbulent. With the present method, it was aimed to acquire the local heat transfer coefficients on any arbitrary conductive shape. This method was intended to be implemented by the heat transfer engineer to identify the local heat transfer rates with local hot spots. Finally, after analyzing the proposed experimental results, appropriate decisions can be made to control the amount of the convective heat transfer off the surface. Limited mass transport was quantified on the cooled plate.

  18. Determination of heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity of waste glass melter feed: Extension to high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, Jarrett A.; Pokorny, Richard; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel R.


    The heat conductivity (λ) and the thermal diffusivity (a) of reacting glass batch, or melter feed, control the heat flux into and within the cold cap, a layer of reacting material floating on the pool of molten glass in an all-electric continuous waste glass melter. After previously estimating λ of melter feed at temperatures up to 680 deg C, we focus in this work on the λ(T) function at T > 680 deg C, at which the feed material becomes foamy. We used a customized experimental setup consisting of a large cylindrical crucible with an assembly of thermocouples, which monitored the evolution of the temperature field while the crucible with feed was heated at a constant rate from room temperature up to 1100°C. Approximating measured temperature profiles by polynomial functions, we used the heat transfer equation to estimate the λ(T) approximation function, which we subsequently optimized using the finite-volume method combined with least-squares analysis. The heat conductivity increased as the temperature increased until the feed began to expand into foam, at which point the conductivity dropped. It began to increase again as the foam turned into a bubble-free glass melt. We discuss the implications of this behavior for the mathematical modeling of the cold cap

  19. MHD natural convection from a heated vertical wavy surface with variable viscosity and thermal conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, M.; Hazarika, G.C.; Sibanda, P.


    We investigate the effects of temperature dependent viscosity and thermal conductivity on natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible electrically conducting fluid along a vertical wavy surface. The flow is permeated by uniform transverse magnetic field. The fluid viscosity and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary as inverse linear functions of temperature. The coupled non-linear systems of partial differential equations are solved using the finite difference method. The effects of variable viscosity parameter, variable thermal conductivity parameter and magnetic parameter on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics are discussed and shown graphically. (author)

  20. Evaluation of heat transfer in acupuncture needles: convection and conduction approaches. (United States)

    Tzou, Chieh-Han John; Yang, Tzyy-Yih; Chung, Ya-Chien


    Originating in ancient China, acupuncture using needles has been developed for thousands of years and has received attention for its reported medical remedies, such as pain relief and chronic disease treatment. Heat transfer through the needles, which might have effects on the biomechanism of acupuncture, providing a stimulus and regulating homeostasis, has never been studied. This article analyzes the significance of heat transfer through needles via convection and conduction, approached by means of computational analysis. The needle is a cylindrical body, and an axis symmetrical steady-state heat-transfer model that viscosity and static pressure was not applied. This article evaluates heat transfer via acupuncture needles by using five metal materials: silver, copper, brass, iron, and stainless steel. A silver needle of the type extensively applied in acupuncture can dissipate more than seven times as much heat as a stainless steel needle of the same type. Heat transfer through such a needle is significant, compared to natural body-energy consumption over a range of ambient temperatures. The mechanism by which heat flows in or out of the body through the needles may be crucial in the remedial efficacy of acupuncture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Simulation research of “heat conduction effect” of liver tissue during radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai JIANG


    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the heat conduction effect (HCE and effective extent in liver tissue produced by radiofrequency ablation (RFA. Methods  To simulate the HCE produced by RFA, isolated swine livers were heated to different temperature for a range of different heating time with RFA. The temperature of liver in different distance away from the center and the changes in color and morphology of liver tissue after radiofrequency treatment were recorded to explore the attenuation pattern of different heating center temperature and duration of treatment. Results  When the temperature of heating center reached 70℃, 5mm in radius of liver tissue was ablated in 10min. To expand the range to 10mm, central temperature should be maintained above 80℃ or 90℃, and the heating time should be maintained for 40min and 25min, respectively. Conclusion  To complete ablation of an area of liver tissue with 10mm in diameter with HCE, the temperature of heating center should be maintained at higher than 8090℃ and the ablation time should be maintained for 25-40min.

  2. Dynamical contribution to the heat conductivity in stochastic energy exchanges of locally confined gases (United States)

    Gaspard, Pierre; Gilbert, Thomas


    We present a systematic computation of the heat conductivity of the Markov jump process modeling the energy exchanges in an array of locally confined hard spheres at the conduction threshold. Based on a variational formula (Sasada 2016 (arXiv:1611.08866)), explicit upper bounds on the conductivity are derived, which exhibit a rapid power-law convergence towards an asymptotic value. We thereby conclude that the ratio of the heat conductivity to the energy exchange frequency deviates from its static contribution by a small negative correction, its dynamic contribution, evaluated to be -0.000 373 in dimensionless units. This prediction is corroborated by kinetic Monte Carlo simulations which were substantially improved compared to earlier results.

  3. On the non-optimality of tree structures for heat conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Suna; Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole


    This paper revisits topology optimization of heat conduction structures for minimum thermal compliance and minimum maximum temperature, respectively. For both optimization problems, volume-to-line and volume-to-point structures are optimized based on three material interpolation models describing...... different design spaces regarding the relation between material density and effective conductivity. The numerical results are backed up by analytical studies. Comparisons of results show that lamellar needle structures, rather than commonly seen tree structures, constitute the optimal topologies for heat...... conduction. This contradicts the usual hypothesis drawn from the observation of natural transferring systems and designs from numerous related studies. The conclusion still holds when a minimum length scale is imposed for both high and low conductive phases. Finally, the minimum thermal compliance problem...

  4. Evaluation of heat current formulations for equilibrium molecular dynamics calculations of thermal conductivity. (United States)

    Guajardo-Cuéllar, Alejandro; Go, David B; Sen, Mihir


    Equilibrium molecular dynamics combined with the Green-Kubo formula can be used to calculate the thermal conductivity of materials such as germanium and carbon. The foundation of this calculation is extracting the heat current from the results and implementing it into the Green-Kubo formula. This work considers all formulations from the literature that calculate the heat current for the Tersoff potential, the interatomic potential most applicable to semiconductor materials. The formulations for the heat current are described, and results for germanium and carbon are presented. The formulations are compared with respect to how well they capture the physics of the Tersoff potential and how well the calculated value of the thermal conductivity reflects the experimentally measured value.

  5. Heat conduction in one-dimensional chains and nonequilibrium Lyapunov spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posch, H.A.; Hoover, W.G.


    We define and study the heat conductivity κ and the Lyapunov spectrum for a modified 'ding-a-ling' chain undergoing steady heat flow. Free and bound particles alternate along a chain. In the present work, we use a linear gravitational potential to bind all the even-numbered particles to their lattice sites. The chain is bounded by two stochastic heat reservoirs, one hot and one cold. The Fourier conductivity of the chain decreases smoothly to a finite large-system limit. Special treatment of satellite collisions with the stochastic boundaries is required to obtain Lyapunov spectra. The summed spectra are negative, and correspond to a relatively small contraction in phase space, with the formation of a multifractal strange attractor. The largest of the Lyapunov exponents for the ding-a-ling chain appears to converge to a limiting value with increasing chain length, so that the large-system Lyapunov spectrum has a finite limit. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  6. Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heat Measurements of Candidate Structural Materials for the JWST Optical Bench (United States)

    Canavan, E. R.; Tuttle, J. G.


    The James Webb Space Telescope will include an optical bench known as the integrated science instrument module (ISIM). Candidate structural materials for the ISIM must have low density, high stiffness, and low thermal expansion coefficient at the operating temperature of 30 Kelvin. The thermal conductivity and specific heat are important in modeling the on-orbit cooldown. We built two different systems for measuring the thermal conductivity and specific heat of samples between 4 Kelvin and 290 Kelvin. Both experiments were carefully designed to minimize potential errors due to radiative heat transfer. We chose the cooling system and instrumentation to allow long-term unattended operation. Software was developed to automate each experiment. It used an algorithm designed to ensure that each system was in steady state before a measurement was taken. We describe the two experiments and present the data.

  7. Hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change (United States)

    Tamma, Kumar K.; Railkar, Sudhir B.


    The present paper describes the applicability of hybrid transfinite element modeling/analysis formulations for nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change. The methodology is based on application of transform approaches and classical Galerkin schemes with finite element formulations to maintain the modeling versatility and numerical features for computational analysis. In addition, in conjunction with the above, the effects due to latent heat are modeled using enthalpy formulations to enable a physically realistic approximation to be dealt computationally for materials exhibiting phase change within a narrow band of temperatures. Pertinent details of the approach and computational scheme adapted are described in technical detail. Numerical test cases of comparative nature are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed formulations for numerical modeling/analysis of nonlinear heat conduction problems involving phase change.

  8. Evaluation of thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin mixed with A1203


    Ebadian B.; Parkan MA.


    One of the most important characteristics of denture base is thermal conductivity. This property has a major role in secretions of salivary glands and their enzymes, taste of the food and gustatory response. Polymethyl methacrylate used in prosthodontics is relatively an insulator. Different materials such as metal fillers and ceramics have been used to solve this problem. The aim of this study was the evaluation of AI2O3 effect on thermal conductivity of heat-cured acrylic resin. Acrylic res...

  9. An investigation on a two-dimensional problem of Mode-I crack in a thermoelastic medium (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Manushi; Shivay, Om Namha; Mukhopadhyay, Santwana


    In this work, we consider a two-dimensional dynamical problem of an infinite space with finite linear Mode-I crack and employ a recently proposed heat conduction model: an exact heat conduction with a single delay term. The thermoelastic medium is taken to be homogeneous and isotropic. However, the boundary of the crack is subjected to a prescribed temperature and stress distributions. The Fourier and Laplace transform techniques are used to solve the problem. Mathematical modeling of the present problem reduces the solution of the problem into the solution of a system of four dual integral equations. The solution of these equations is equivalent to the solution of the Fredholm's integral equation of the first kind which has been solved by using the regularization method. Inverse Laplace transform is carried out by using the Bellman method, and we obtain the numerical solution for all the physical field variables in the physical domain. Results are shown graphically, and we highlight the effects of the presence of crack in the behavior of thermoelastic interactions inside the medium in the present context, and its results are compared with the results of the thermoelasticity of type-III.

  10. Heat conduction in a plate-type fuel element with time-dependent boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faya, A.J.G.; Maiorino, J.R.


    A method for the solution of boundary-value problems with variable boundary conditions is applied to solve a heat conduction problem in a plate-type fuel element with time dependent film coefficient. The numerical results show the feasibility of the method in the solution of this class of problems. (Author) [pt

  11. Low-temperature specific heat and thermal conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleator, T.; Bernasconi, A.; Posselt, D.


    Specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements were made on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Evidence for a crossover between regimes of characteristically different excitations was observed. The data analysis indicates a "bump" in the density...

  12. Topology optimization of heat conduction problems using the finite volume method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg-Hansen, Allan; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole


    This note addresses the use of the finite volume method (FVM) for topology optimization of a heat conduction problem. Issues pertaining to the proper choice of cost functions, sensitivity analysis and example test problems are used to illustrate the effect of applying the FVM as an analysis tool ...

  13. Enhancement and reduction of one-dimensional heat conduction with correlated mass disorder (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong; Zhang, Gang


    Short-range order in strongly disordered structures plays an important role in their heat conduction property. Using numerical and analytical methods, we show that short-range spatial correlation (with a correlation length of Λm) in the mass distribution of the one-dimensional (1D) alloylike random binary lattice leads to a dramatic enhancement of the high-frequency phonon transmittance but also increases the low-frequency phonon opacity. High-frequency semiextended states are formed while low-frequency modes become more localized. This results in ballistic heat conduction at finite lengths but also paradoxically higher thermal resistance that scales as √{Λm} in the L →∞ limit. We identify an emergent crossover length (Lc) below which the onset of thermal transparency appears. The crossover length is linearly dependent on but is two orders of magnitude larger than Λm. Our results suggest that the phonon transmittance spectrum and heat conduction in a disordered 1D lattice can be controlled via statistical clustering of the constituent component atoms into domains. They also imply that the detection of ballistic heat conduction in disordered 1D structures may be a signature of the intrinsic mass correlation at a much smaller length scale.

  14. On Electromagnetic Modulation of Flow Instabilities, Mixing and Heat Transfer in Conducting and Magnetized Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.


    In the present paper we give a concise review of some recent highlights of our research dealing with electromagnetic control of flow, mixing and heat transfer of electrically conductive or magnetized fluids. We apply a combination of state-of-art numerical (DNS and LES) and experimental (PIV and

  15. One-dimensional heat conduction equation of the polar bear hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei-Hong


    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus possess special membrane-pore structure. The structure enables the polar bear to survive in the harsh Arctic regions. In this paper, the membrane-pore structure be approximately considered as fractal space, 1-D heat conduction equation of the polar bear hair is established and the solution of the equation is obtained.

  16. Evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Dolman, A.J.; Elbers, J.A.


    The behaviour of evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel is studied for the HAPEX-Sahel Intensive Observation Period. Both fallow savannah and patterned woodland reach evaporation rates of 4–5 mm day−1 during the rainy part of the IOP

  17. Influence of the electron-phonon iinteraction on phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Slobodanka P.


    Full Text Available A model for phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire is developed. The calculation takes into account modification of the acoustic phonon dispersion relation due to the electron-phonon interaction. The results obtained are compared with models based upon a simpler, Callaway formula.

  18. Dynamic properties of silica aerogels as deduced from specific-heat and thermal-conductivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    The specific heat C(p) and the thermal conductivity lambda of a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels have been measured at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. The results confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected in the dynamic behavior...

  19. Low-temperature specific-heat and thermal-conductivity of silica aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, A.; Sleator, T.; Posselt, D.


    Specific heat, C(p), and thermal conductivity, lambda, have been measured on a series of base-catalyzed silica aerogels at temperatures between 0.05 and 20 K. Results for both C(p)(T) and lambda(T) confirm that the different length-scale regions observed in the aerogel structure are reflected...

  20. Experimental investigation of thermal conductivity coefficient and heat exchange between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental research of thermal conductivity coefficients of the siliceous sand bed fluidized by air and an experimental investigation of the particle size influence on the heat transfer coefficient between fluidized bed and inclined exchange surfaces. The measurements were performed for the specific fluidization velocity and sand particle diameters d p=0.3, 0.5, 0.9 mm. The industrial use of fluidized beds has been increasing rapidly in the past 20 years owing to their useful characteristics. One of the outstanding characteristics of a fluidized bed is that it tends to maintain a uniform temperature even with nonuniform heat release. On the basis of experimental research, the influence of the process's operational parameters on the obtained values of the bed's thermal conductivity has been analyzed. The results show direct dependence of thermal conductivity on the intensity of mixing, the degree of fluidization, and the size of particles. In the axial direction, the coefficients that have been treated have values a whole order higher than in the radial direction. Comparison of experimental research results with experimental results of other authors shows good agreement and the same tendency of thermal conductivity change. It is well known in the literature that the value of the heat transfer coefficient is the highest in the horizontal and the smallest in the vertical position of the heat exchange surface. Variation of heat transfer, depending on inclination angle is not examined in detail. The difference between the values of the relative heat transfer coefficient between vertical and horizontal heater position for all particle sizes reduces by approximately 15% with the increase of fluidization rate.