WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional gas flow

  1. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  2. Topology of two-dimensional turbulent flows of dust and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Perlekar, Prasad

    2018-04-01

    We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive heavy inertial particles (dust) in homogeneous and isotropic two-dimensional turbulent flows (gas) for a range of Stokes number, StDNS confirms that the statistics of topological properties of B are the same in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames only if the Eulerian data are weighed by the dust density. We use this correspondence to study the statistics of topological properties of A in the Lagrangian frame from our Eulerian simulations by calculating density-weighted probability distribution functions. We further find that in the Lagrangian frame, the mean value of the trace of A is negative and its magnitude increases with St approximately as exp(-C /St) with a constant C ≈0.1 . The statistical distribution of different topological structures that appear in the dust flow is different in Eulerian and Lagrangian (density-weighted Eulerian) cases, particularly for St close to unity. In both of these cases, for small St the topological structures have close to zero divergence and are either vortical (elliptic) or strain dominated (hyperbolic, saddle). As St increases, the contribution to negative divergence comes mostly from saddles and the contribution to positive divergence comes from both vortices and saddles. Compared to the Eulerian case, the Lagrangian (density-weighted Eulerian) case has less outward spirals and more converging saddles. Inward spirals are the least probable topological structures in both cases.

  3. Numerical study on the two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionizing gas using trial particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brushlinskij, K.V.; Kozlov, A.N.; Morozov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionized αs in a channel between two coaxial electrodes are considered in the MHD-model with account of Hall effect. Stationary solutions of the problem on the flow are obtained either analytically in approximation of a ''smooth'' channel - for ideal conducting plasma, or numerically using the methos of establishment - in the ge-neral case of finite conductivity. A method of further numerical analysis of some peculiarities of flow is suggested in the paper. It is based on studying dynamics of single ''test'' particles in fields of the main MHD plasma flow. Trajectory of the test ion is calculated with account for interaction forces with earlier determined electromagentic field and friction responsible for Coulomb collisions with particles of the background flow. The calculations display trajectories of test particles with different masses, initial positions and initial rates. They are shown to be dose to current lines of background medium in plasma of finite conductivity, that testified to the virtue of effectiveness of the MHD-model. In case of ideal conductivity trajectories of test and background particles can noticeably differ from one another. Stabilization effects of motion of particles accidentally knocked out from the flow and separation of pariticles of different mass by electromao.netic forces are considered

  4. Probing temperature-driven flow lines in a gated two-dimensional electron gas with tunable spin-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, C F; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chang, Y H; Liang, C-T; Kim, Gil-Ho; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Nicholls, J T; Lin, Li-Hung; Ritchie, D A; Dolan, B P

    2012-01-01

    We study the temperature flow of conductivities in a gated GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) containing self-assembled InAs dots and compare the results with recent theoretical predictions. By changing the gate voltage, we are able to tune the 2DEG density and thus vary disorder and spin-splitting. Data for both the spin-resolved and spin-degenerate phase transitions are presented, the former collapsing to the latter with decreasing gate voltage and/or decreasing spin-splitting. The experimental results support a recent theory, based on modular symmetry, which predicts how the critical Hall conductivity varies with spin-splitting.

  5. Numerical Solutions for Supersonic Flow of an Ideal Gas Around Blunt Two-Dimensional Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Franklyn B.

    1961-01-01

    The method described is an inverse one; the shock shape is chosen and the solution proceeds downstream to a body. Bodies blunter than circular cylinders are readily accessible, and any adiabatic index can be chosen. The lower limit to the free-stream Mach number available in any case is determined by the extent of the subsonic field, which in turn depends upon the body shape. Some discussion of the stability of the numerical processes is given. A set of solutions for flows about circular cylinders at several Mach numbers and several values of the adiabatic index is included.

  6. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.

  7. Pulsed flow modulation two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) was combined with quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (MS) via a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface using a triple-quadrupole system as the base platform, which enabled tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). PFM is a simple GC x GC modulator that does not consume cryogenic gases while providing tunable second GC x GC column injection time for enabling the use of quadrupole-based mass spectrometry regardless its limited scanning speed. The 20-ml/min second column flow rate involved with PFM is handled, splitless, by the SMB interface without affecting the sensitivity. The combinations of PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB and PFM GC x GC-MS-MS with SMB were explored with the analysis of diazinon and permethrin in coriander. PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB is characterized by enhanced molecular ion and tailing-free fast ion source response time. It enables universal pesticide analysis with full scan and data analysis with reconstructed single ion monitoring on the enhanced molecular ion and another prominent high mass fragment ion. The elimination of the third fragment ion used in standard three ions method results in significantly reduced matrix interference. GC x GC-MS with SMB improves the GC separation, and thereby our ability for sample identification using libraries. GC-MS-MS with SMB provides better reduction (elimination) of matrix interference than GC x GC-MS. However, it is a target method, which is not always applicable. GC x GC-MS-MS does not seem to further reduce matrix interferences over GC-MS-MS and unlike GC x GC-MS, it is incompatible with library identification, but it is beneficial to have both GC x GC and MS-MS capabilities in the same system.

  8. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  9. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  10. Evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-10

    The present research is focused on the use and evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector, defined as barrier discharge ionization detector (BID), within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The performance of the BID device was compared to that of a flame ionization detector (FID), under similar FM GC×GC conditions. Following development and optimization of the FM GC×GC method, the BID was subjected to fine tuning in relation to acquisition frequency and discharge flow. Moreover, the BID performance was measured and compared to that of the FID, in terms of extra-column band broadening, sensitivity and dynamic range. The comparative study was carried out by using standard compounds belonging to different chemical classes, along with a sample of diesel fuel. Advantages and disadvantages of the BID system, also within the context of FM GC×GC, are critically discussed. In general, the BID system was characterized by a more limited dynamic range and increased sensitivity, compared to the FID. Additionally, BID and FID contribution to band broadening was found to be similar under the operational conditions applied. Particular attention was devoted to the behaviour of the FM GC×GC-BID system toward saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, for a possible future use in the field of mineral-oil food contamination research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Method translation and full metadata transfer from thermal to differential flow modulated comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography: Profiling of suspected fragrance allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Carretta, Andrea; Cobelli, Luigi; Giardina, Matthew; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-13

    The possibility to transfer methods from thermal to differential-flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GC×GC) platforms is of high interest to improve GC×GC flexibility and increase the compatibility of results from different platforms. The principles of method translation are here applied to an original method, developed for a loop-type thermal modulated GC×GC-MS/FID system, suitable for quali-quantitative screening of suspected fragrance allergens. The analysis conditions were translated to a reverse-injection differential flow modulated platform (GC×2GC-MS/FID) with a dual-parallel secondary column and dual detection. The experimental results, for a model mixture of suspected volatile allergens and for raw fragrance mixtures of different composition, confirmed the feasibility of translating methods by preserving 1 D elution order, as well as the relative alignment of resulting 2D peak patterns. A correct translation produced several benefits including an effective transfer of metadata (compound names, MS fragmentation pattern, response factors) by automatic template transformation and matching from the original/reference method to its translated counterpart. The correct translation provided: (a) 2D pattern repeatability, (b) MS fragmentation pattern reliability for identity confirmation, and (c) comparable response factors and quantitation accuracy within a concentration range of three orders of magnitude. The adoption of a narrow bore (i.e. 0.1mm d c ) first-dimension column to operate under close-to-optimal conditions with the differential-flow modulation GC×GC platform was also advantageous in halving the total analysis under the translated conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  13. Two dimensional MHD flows between porous boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gratton, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Similarity solutions of dissipative MHD equations representing conducting fluids injected through porous walls and flowing out in both directions from the center of the channel, are studied as a function of four non dimensional parameters, Reynolds number R e , magnetic Reynolds number R m , Alfvenic Mach number, M A , and pressure gradient coefficient, C. The effluence is restrained by an external magnetic field normal to the walls. When R m m >>1, the solution may model a collision of plasmas of astrophysical interest. In this case the magnetic field lines help to drive the outflow acting jointly with the pressure gradient. The law for C as a function of the other parameters is given for several asymptotic limits. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs

  14. Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, W.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures

  15. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  16. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  17. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  18. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  19. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  20. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  1. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  2. Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).

  3. Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in; Joy, Ashwin [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time τ{sub m} [0 < τ{sub m} < 10]. For the system size considered, using a linear stability analysis, similar to Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0), it is found that for Reynolds number beyond a critical R, say R{sub c}, the Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable. Importantly, it is found that R{sub c} is strongly reduced for increasing values of τ{sub m}. A critical τ{sub m}{sup c} is found above which Kolmogorov flow is unconditionally unstable and becomes independent of Reynolds number. For R < R{sub c}, the neutral stability regime found in Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0) is now found to be a damped regime in viscoelastic fluids, thus changing the fundamental nature of transition of Kolmogorov flow as function of Reynolds number R. A new parallelized nonlinear pseudo spectral code has been developed and is benchmarked against eigen values for Kolmogorov flow obtained from linear analysis. Nonlinear states obtained from the pseudo spectral code exhibit cyclicity and pattern formation in vorticity and viscoelastic oscillations in energy.

  4. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  5. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  6. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  7. Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.

  8. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.

    2004-12-01

    New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.

  9. Nonequilibrium Transport and the Bernoulli Effect of Electrons in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.

    2013-02-01

    Nonequilibrium transport of charged carriers in a two-dimensional electron gas is summarized from an experimental point of view. The transport regime in which the electron-electron interactions are enhanced at high bias leads to a range of striking effects in a two-dimensional electron gas. This regime of transport is quite different than the ballistic transport in which particles propagate coherently with no intercarrier energy transfer and the diffusive transport in which the momentum of the electron system is lost with the involvement of the phonons. Quite a few hydrodynamic phenomena observed in classical gasses have the electrical analogs in the current flow. When intercarrier scattering events dominate the transport, the momentum sharing via narrow angle scattering among the hot and cold electrons lead to negative resistance and electron pumping which can be viewed as the analog of the Bernoulli-Venturi effect observed classical gasses. The recent experimental findings and the background work in the field are reviewed.

  10. Functional renormalization group approach to the two dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, A; Kopietz, P [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hasselmann, N [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de BrasIlia, Caixa Postal 04667, 70910-900 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: hasselma@itp.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: sinner@itp.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the small frequency and momentum structure of the weakly interacting Bose gas in two dimensions using a functional renormalization group approach. The flow equations are derived within a derivative approximation of the effective action up to second order in spatial and temporal variables and investigated numerically. The truncation we employ is based on the perturbative structure of the theory and is well described as a renormalization group enhanced perturbation theory. It allows to calculate corrections to the Bogoliubov spectrum and to investigate the damping of quasiparticles. Our approach allows to circumvent the divergences which plague the usual perturbative approach.

  11. Ideal gas approximation for a two-dimensional rarefied gas under Kawasaki dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudillière, A.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Nardi, F.R.; Olivieri, E.; Scoppola, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-dimensional lattice gas under Kawasaki dynamics, i.e., particles hop around randomly subject to hard-core repulsion and nearest-neighbor attraction. We show that, at fixed temperature and in the limit as the particle density tends to zero, such a gas evolves in a way

  12. Bubbly flows around a two-dimensional circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jubeom; Park, Hyungmin

    2016-11-01

    Two-phase cross flows around a bluff body occur in many thermal-fluid systems like steam generators, heat exchangers and nuclear reactors. However, our current knowledge on the interactions among bubbles, bubble-induced flows and the bluff body are limited. In the present study, the gas-liquid bubbly flows around a solid circular cylinder are experimentally investigated while varying the mean void fraction from 5 to 27%. The surrounding liquid (water) is initially static and the liquid flow is only induced by the air bubbles. For the measurements, we use the high-speed two-phase particle image velocimetry techniques. First, depending on the mean void fraction, two regimes are classified with different preferential concentration of bubbles in the cylinder wake, which are explained in terms of hydrodynamic force balances acting on rising bubbles. Second, the differences between the two-phase and single-phase flows (while matching their Reynolds numbers) around a circular cylinder will be discussed in relation to effects of bubble dynamics and the bubble-induced turbulence on the cylinder wake. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  13. Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    order to be published, he sent the paper to Einstein to translate it. The other contributing scientist is world famous physicist Albert Einstein , maybe...mechanical state, a Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC), where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic...model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bose Einstein condensation, ultracold physics, condensed matter, dipoles 16

  14. Dynamics of lava flow - Thickness growth characteristics of steady two-dimensional flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Iversen, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The thickness growth characteristics of flowing lava are investigated using a heat balance model and a two-dimensional model for flow of a Bingham plastic fluid down an inclined plane. It is found that yield strength plays a crucial role in the thickening of a lava flow of given flow rate. To illustrate this point, downstream thickness profiles and yield strength distributions were calculated for flows with mass flow rates of 10,000 and 100,000 kg/m-sec. Higher flow rates led to slow cooling rates which resulted in slow rate of increase of yield strength and thus greater flow lengths.

  15. Linear and nonlinear viscous flow in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravina, D.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    We report on molecular dynamics simulations of shear viscosity η of a dense two-dimensional fluid as a function of the shear rate γ. We find an analytic dependence of η on γ, and do not find any evidence whatsoever of divergence in the Green-Kubo (GK) value that would be caused by the well-known long-time tail for the shear-stress autocorrelation function, as predicted by the mode-coupling theory. In accordance with the linear response theory, the GK value of η agrees remarkably well with nonequilibrium values at small shear rates. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  16. Two-Dimensional Physical and CFD Modelling of Large Gas Bubble Behaviour in Bath Smelting Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Pan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of large gas bubbles in a liquid bath and the mechanisms of splash generation due to gas bubble rupture in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces were investigated by means of physical and mathematical (CFD modelling techniques. In the physical modelling work, a two-dimensional Perspex model of the pilot plant furnace at CSIRO Process Science and Engineering was established in the laboratory. An aqueous glycerol solution was used to simulate liquid slag. Air was injected via a submerged lance into the liquid bath and the bubble behaviour and the resultant splashing phenomena were observed and recorded with a high-speed video camera. In the mathematical modelling work, a two-dimensional CFD model was developed to simulate the free surface flows due to motion and deformation of large gas bubbles in the liquid bath and rupture of the bubbles at the bath free surface. It was concluded from these modelling investigations that the splashes generated in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces are mainly caused by the rupture of fast rising large gas bubbles. The acceleration of the bubbles into the preceding bubbles and the rupture of the coalescent bubbles at the bath surface contribute significantly to splash generation.

  17. A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with two-dimensional readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Massai, M.M.; Spandre, G.; Torquati, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with a 200 μm anode pitch has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. A gas gain of 10 4 and an energy resolution of 18% (FWHM) at 6 keV have been measured using a gas mixture of argon-CO 2 at atmospheric pressure. A preliminary measurement of the positional sensitivity indicates that a spatial resolution of 50 μm can be obtained. (orig.)

  18. A soap film shock tube to study two-dimensional compressible flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.; Chang-Jian, S.K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)

    2001-07-01

    A new experimental approach to the study of the two-dimensional compressible flow phenomena is presented. In this technique, a variety of compressible flows were generated by bursting plane vertical soap films. An aureole and a ''shock wave'' preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed using traditional high-speed flash photography and a fast line-scan charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The moving shock wave images obtained from the line-scan CCD camera were similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics. The moving shock waves cause thickness jumps and induce supersonic flows. Photographs of the supersonic flows over a cylinder and a wedge are presented. The results suggest clearly the feasibility of the ''soap film shock tube''. (orig.)

  19. On the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovik, Yu.E.; Yudson, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas is presented. The conditions for the validity of the ladder and the Bogolubov approximations are derived. These conditions ensure the existence of a Bose condensate in the ground state of two-dimensional systems. These conditions are different from the corresponding conditions for the three-dimensional case. The connection between the effective interaction and the two-dimensional scattering amplitude at some characteristic energy kappa 2 /2m (not equal to 0) is obtained (f(kappa = 0) = infinity in the two-dimensional case). (Auth.)

  20. Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa, E-mail: evo03@snu.ac.kr [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djeuh@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged

  1. Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin; Park, Goon-Cherl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged

  2. Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, M. F.

    1997-09-01

    A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.

  3. A Comparison of Simplified Two-dimensional Flow Models Exemplified by Water Flow in a Cavern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybytak, Dzmitry; Zima, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    The paper shows the results of a comparison of simplified models describing a two-dimensional water flow in the example of a water flow through a straight channel sector with a cavern. The following models were tested: the two-dimensional potential flow model, the Stokes model and the Navier-Stokes model. In order to solve the first two, the boundary element method was employed, whereas to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, the open-source code library OpenFOAM was applied. The results of numerical solutions were compared with the results of measurements carried out on a test stand in a hydraulic laboratory. The measurements were taken with an ADV probe (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter). Finally, differences between the results obtained from the mathematical models and the results of laboratory measurements were analysed.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Two Dimensional Flows in Yazidang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingxiao; Liu, Libo; Sun, Xuehong; Zheng, Lanxiang; Jing, Hefang; Zhang, Xuande; Li, Chunguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper studied the problem of water flow in the Yazid Ang reservoir. It built 2-D RNG turbulent model, rated the boundary conditions, used the finite volume method to discrete equations and divided the grid by the advancing-front method. It simulated the two conditions of reservoir flow field, compared the average vertical velocity of the simulated value and the measured value nearby the water inlet and the water intake. The results showed that the mathematical model could be applied to the similar industrial water reservoir.

  5. Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    sophisticated computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) methods. Additionally, for 3D interactions, the length scales would require determination in spanwise as well...Manna, M. “Experimental, Analytical, and Computational Methods Applied to Hypersonic Compression Ramp Flows,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Feb. 1994

  6. Asymptotic theory of two-dimensional trailing-edge flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of laminar and turbulent viscous interaction near trailing edges of streamlined bodies are considered. Asymptotic expansions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of large Reynolds numbers are used to describe the local solution near the trailing edge of cusped or nearly cusped airfoils at small angles of attack in compressible flow. A complicated inverse iterative procedure, involving finite-difference solutions of the triple-deck equations coupled with asymptotic solutions of the boundary values, is used to accurately solve the viscous interaction problem. Results are given for the correction to the boundary-layer solution for drag of a finite flat plate at zero angle of attack and for the viscous correction to the lift of an airfoil at incidence. A rational asymptotic theory is developed for treating turbulent interactions near trailing edges and is shown to lead to a multilayer structure of turbulent boundary layers. The flow over most of the boundary layer is described by a Lighthill model of inviscid rotational flow. The main features of the model are discussed and a sample solution for the skin friction is obtained and compared with the data of Schubauer and Klebanoff for a turbulent flow in a moderately large adverse pressure gradient.

  7. two - dimensional mathematical model of water flow in open

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    1996-09-01

    Sep 1, 1996 ... ... one or more navigation locks or of a hydro electric plant. In a case like this it is often necessary to consider how, for instance, the handling of the weir gates influences the flow upstream of the hydropower plant or, on the contrary, what effect the operation of the wajerwork would have on the distribution of.

  8. On the renormalization group flow in two dimensional superconformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Stanishkov, Marian

    2014-01-01

    We extend the results on the RG flow in the next to leading order to the case of the supersymmetric minimal models SM p for p≫1. We explain how to compute the NS and Ramond fields conformal blocks in the leading order in 1/p and follow the renormalization scheme proposed in [1]. As a result we obtained the anomalous dimensions of certain NS and Ramond fields. It turns out that the linear combination expressing the infrared limit of these fields in term of the IR theory SM p−2 is exactly the same as those of the nonsupersymmetric minimal theory

  9. Topology of streamlines and vorticity contours for two - dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten

    on the vortex filament by the localised induction approximation the stream function is slightly modified and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of the parameters. The analysis of the closed form show...... by a point vortex above a wall in inviscid fluid. There is no reason to a priori expect equivalent results of the three vortex definitions. However, the study is mainly motivated by the findings of Kudela & Malecha (Fluid Dyn. Res. 41, 2009) who find good agreement between the vorticity and streamlines...

  10. Impact of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Purcaro, Giorgia; Maimone, Mariarosa; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been on the separation-science scene for about 15 years. This three-dimensional method has made a great positive impact on various fields of research, and among these that related to food analysis is certainly at the forefront. The present critical review is based on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the untargeted (general qualitative profiling and fingerprinting) and targeted analysis of food volatiles; attention is focused not only on its potential in such applications, but also on how recent advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry will potentially be important for food analysis. Additionally, emphasis is devoted to the many instances in which straightforward gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is a sufficiently-powerful analytical tool. Finally, possible future scenarios in the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry food analysis field are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Computation of two-dimensional isothermal flow in shell-and-tube heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, L.N.; Galpin, P.F.; Brown, J.D.; Frisina, V.

    1983-07-01

    A computational procedure is outlined whereby two-dimensional isothermal shell-side flow distributions can be calculated for tube bundles having arbitrary boundaries and flow blocking devices, such as sealing strips, defined in arbitrary locations. The procedure is described in some detail and several computed results are presented to illustrate the robustness and generality of the method

  12. Nonlocality, Correlations, and Magnetotransport in a Spatially Modulated Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that the classical commensurability phenomena in weakly modulated two-dimensional electron systems is a manifestation of the intrinsic properties of the correlation functions describing a homogeneous electron gas in a magnetic field. The theory demonstrates the importance for consideration of nonlocal response and removes the gap between classical and quantum approaches to magnetotransport in such systems.

  13. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  14. Pixel-based analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (color plots) of petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Søren; Hansen, Asger B.; Skov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how to process comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (GC × GC chromatograms) to remove nonsample information (artifacts), including background and retention time shifts. We also demonstrate how this, combined with further reduction of the influence of irrelevant informati......, allows for data analysis without integration or peak deconvolution (pixelbased analysis)....

  15. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of organohalogenated micro-contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Haglund, P.; Boer, de J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2006-01-01

    We explain the principles of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), and discuss key instrumental aspects - with emphasis on column combinations and mass spectrometric detection. As the main item of interest, we review the potential of GC × GC for the analysis of

  16. Tunable secondary dimension selectivity in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, J.; Pluimakers, G.; Knooren, J.; Dutriez, T.; van der Wal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two tunable two-dimensional gas chromatography setups are compared and described in which the secondary dimension consists of two different capillary columns coupled in series. In the first setup the selectivity of the second dimension can be tuned by adjusting the effective column

  17. Phase-Dependent Resistance in a Superconductor—Two-Dimensional-Electron-Gas Quasiparticle Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoulas, A.; Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. v.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. v.d.; Borghs, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the interplay between Josephson coupling and quasiparticle interference effects in the resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas connected to superconducting electrodes with an interrupted ring geometry. By reducing the influence of the Josephson coupling strength at high dc

  18. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there...

  19. Quantitative analysis of target components by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Tas, A.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Asten, A.C. van

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC) is still rarely reported. This is largely due to a lack of suitable software. The objective of the present study is to generate quantitative results from a large GC x GC data set, consisting of 32 chromatograms.

  20. Coherent electron focusing with quantum point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Transverse electron focusing in a two-dimensional electron gas is investigated experimentally and theoretically for the first time. A split Schottky gate on top of a GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs heterostructure defines two point contacts of variable width, which are used as injector and collector of ballistic

  1. Spin-polarized transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with interdigital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.-M.; Nitta, Junsaku; Jensen, Ane

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts on a high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a narrow gap semiconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction are used to investigate spin-polarized electron transport. We demonstrate the use of magnetized contacts to preferentially inject and detect specific spi...

  2. Two dimensional heat transfer problem in flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical modelling of flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel asymmetrically heated by a thin and one-sided enhanced foil. Both surfaces are available for observations due to the openings covered with glass sheets. Thus, changes in the colour of the plain foil surface can be registered and then processed. Plain side of the heating foil is covered with a base coat and liquid crystal paint. Observation of the opposite, enhanced surface of the minichannel allows for identification of the gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and vapour quality. A two-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in three subsequent layers (sheet glass, heating foil, liquid was proposed. Heat transfer in all these layers was described with the respective equations: Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, subject to boundary conditions corresponding to the observed physical process. The solutions (temperature distributions in all three layers were obtained by Trefftz method. Additionally, the temperature of the boiling liquid was obtained by homotopy perturbation method (HPM combined with Trefftz method. The heat transfer coefficient, derived from Robin boundary condition, was estimated in both approaches. In comparison, the results by both methods show very good agreement especially when restricted to the thermal sublayer.

  3. The multi-mode modulator: A versatile fluidic device for two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V; Schimmel, Nicolaas E; Seeley, Stacy K

    2018-02-09

    A fluidic device called the multi-mode modulator (MMM) has been developed for use as a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) modulator. The MMM can be employed in a wide range of capacities including as a traditional heart-cutting device, a low duty cycle GC x GC modulator, and a full transfer GC x GC modulator. The MMM is capable of producing narrow component pulses (widths <50ms) while operating at flows compatible with high resolution chromatography. The sample path of modulated components is confined to the interior of a joining capillary. The joining capillary dimensions and the position of the columns within the joining capillary can be optimized for the selected modulation mode. Furthermore, the joining capillary can be replaced easily and inexpensively if it becomes fouled due to sample matrix components or column bleed. The principles of operation of the MMM are described and its efficacy is demonstrated as a heart-cutting device and as a GC x GC modulator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alignment dynamics of diffusive scalar gradient in a two-dimensional model flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M.

    2018-04-01

    The Lagrangian two-dimensional approach of scalar gradient kinematics is revisited accounting for molecular diffusion. Numerical simulations are performed in an analytic, parameterized model flow, which enables considering different regimes of scalar gradient dynamics. Attention is especially focused on the influence of molecular diffusion on Lagrangian statistical orientations and on the dynamics of scalar gradient alignment.

  5. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1998-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate c...

  6. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1999-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate ch...

  7. LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1992-08-01

    LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification

  8. Rheology of dense granular flows in two dimensions: Comparison of fully two-dimensional flows to unidirectional shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhateja, Ashish; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the rheology of steady two-dimensional granular flows, in different geometries, using discrete element method-based simulations of soft spheres. The flow classification parameter (ψ ), which defines the local flow type (ranging from pure rotation to simple shear to pure extension), varies spatially, to a significant extent, in the flows. We find that the material behaves as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The μ -I scaling proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006), 10.1038/nature04801] is found to be valid in both two-dimensional and unidirectional flows, as observed in previous studies; however, the data for each flow geometry fall on a different curve. The results for the two-dimensional silo flow indicate that the viscosity does not depend directly on the flow type parameter, ψ . We find that the scaling based on "granular fluidity" [Zhang and Kamrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 058001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.058001] gives good collapse of the data to a single curve for all the geometries. The data for the variation of the solid faction with inertial number show a reasonable collapse for the different geometries.

  9. Two dimensional numerical model for steam--water flow in a sudden contraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.; Choi, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    A computational model developed for two-dimensional dispersed two-phase flows is applied to steam--water flow in a sudden contraction. The calculational scheme utilizes the cellular approach in which each cell is regarded as a control volume and the droplets are regarded as sources of mass, momentum and energy to the conveying (steam) phase. The predictions show how droplets channel in the entry region and affect the velocity and pressure distributions along the duct

  10. STRUYA a code for two-dimensional fluid flow analysis with and without structure coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, F.W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Stoelting, K.

    1979-11-01

    STRUYA is a code for two-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flow analysis. Both Eulerian and Lagrangian grids are allowed. In the third dimension the flow domain may be bounded by a moving wall. The wall movement may be prescribed in a time-and space varying way or computed by a structural model. STRUYA offers a general scheme for adapting various structural models. As a standard feature it includes a cylindrical shell model (CYLDY2). (orig.) [de

  11. De Haas-van Alphen effect of a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, B.; Furtado, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the ultracold atom analogue of the two-dimensional de Haas-van Alphen effect in electronic condensed matter systems can be induced by optical fields in a neutral atomic system. The interaction between the suitable spatially varying laser fields and tripod-type trapped atoms generates a synthetic magnetic field which leads the particles to organize themselves in Landau levels. Initially, with the atomic gas in a regime of lowest Landau level, we display the oscillatory behaviour of the atomic energy and its derivative with respect to the effective magnetic field (B) as a function of 1/B. Furthermore, we estimate the area of the Fermi circle of the two-dimensional atomic gas.

  12. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  13. Magnetoresistance calculations for a two-dimensional electron gas with unilateral short-period strong modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výborný, Karel; Smrčka, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 20 (2002), s. 205318-1 - 205318-8 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * short-period superlattices * two-dimensional electron gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  14. Convective heat transfer from rough surfaces with two-dimensional ribs - transitional and laminar flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Meyer, L.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of friction factor and heat transfer coefficients for two rods of 18.9 mm 0.D. with two-dimensional roughness, each in two different outer smooth tubes have been performed in turbulent and laminar flow. The turbulent flow results indicate that the flow was not thermally fully established, the isothermal data however agree reasonably well with our previously obtained general correlation. Laminar flow results can be correlated best when the Reynolds and Greatz numbers are evaluated at the temperature average between the temperature of the inner rod surface and of the outer smooth surface of the annulus, the average being weighted over the two surfaces. (orig.) [de

  15. Separation prediction in two dimensional boundary layer flows using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabetghadam, F.; Ghomi, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the ability of artificial neural networks in prediction of separation in steady two dimensional boundary layer flows is studied. Data for network training is extracted from numerical solution of an ODE obtained from Von Karman integral equation with approximate one parameter Pohlhousen velocity profile. As an appropriate neural network, a two layer radial basis generalized regression artificial neural network is used. The results shows good agreements between the overall behavior of the flow fields predicted by the artificial neural network and the actual flow fields for some cases. The method easily can be extended to unsteady separation and turbulent as well as compressible boundary layer flows. (author)

  16. Decaying quasi-two-dimensional viscous flow on a square domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konijnenberg, J.A. van de; Flor, J.B.; Heijst, G.J.F. van

    1998-01-01

    A comparison is made between experimental, numerical and analytical results for the two-dimensional flow on a square domain. The experiments concern the flow at the interface of a two-layer stratified fluid, evoked by either stirring the fluid with a rake, or by injecting additional fluid...... at the interface. Two numerical simulations were performed with initial conditions and boundary conditions that correspond approximately with those met in the experiments. The analytical results concern the calculation of the lowest modes of a decaying Stokes flow on a square domain. At late times...... relationship between vorticity and stream function in the experiments and the simulations. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics....

  17. Slip-line field analysis of metal flow during two dimensional forging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, R.G.; Khataan, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method of computation and a computer software package were developed for solving problems of two dimensional plastic flow between symmetrical dies of any specified shape. The load required to initiate plastic flow, the stress and velocity distributions in the plastic region of the metal, and the pressure distribution acting on the die are determined. The method can be used to solve any symmetrical plane strain flow problem regardless of the complexity of the die. The accurate solution obtained by this efficient method can provide valuable help to forging die designers. (Author) [pt

  18. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolokolov, I.V., E-mail: igor.kolokolov@gmail.com [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334, Kosygina 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRU Higher School of Economics, 101000, Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-18

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor–Kraichnan–Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  19. Time evolution of the eddy viscosity in two-dimensional navier-stokes flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves; Gama

    2000-02-01

    The time evolution of the eddy viscosity associated with an unforced two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flow is analyzed by direct numerical simulation. The initial condition is such that the eddy viscosity is isotropic and negative. It is shown by concrete examples that the Navier-Stokes dynamics stabilizes negative eddy viscosity effects. In other words, this dynamics moves monotonically the initial negative eddy viscosity to positive values before relaxation due to viscous term occurs.

  20. Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, B.W.; Longcope, D.W.; Ng, C.K.; Sudan, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, Z CL , required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs

  1. Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow and studies of equilibria fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agim, Y.Z.

    1989-08-01

    A set of reduced ideal MHD equations is derived to investigate equilibria of plasmas with mass flow in general two-dimensional geometry. These equations provide a means of investigating the effects of flow on self-consistent equilibria in a number of new two-dimensional configurations such as helically symmetric configurations with helical axis, which are relevant to stellarators, as well as axisymmetric configurations. It is found that as in the axisymmetric case, general two-dimensional flow equilibria are governed by a second-order quasi-linear partial differential equation for a magnetic flux function, which is coupled to a Bernoulli-type equation for the density. The equation for the magnetic flux function becomes hyperbolic at certain critical flow speeds which follow from its characteristic equation. When the equation is hyperbolic, shock phenomena may exist. As a particular example, unidirectional flow along the lines of symmetry is considered. In this case, the equation mentioned above is always elliptic. An exact solution for the case of helically symmetric unidirectional flow is found and studied to determine flow effects on the magnetic topology. In second part of this thesis, magnetic fluctuations due to the thermally excited MHD waves are investigated using fluid and kinetic models to describe stable, uniform, compressible plasma in the range above the drift wave frequency and below the ion cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the fluid model with resistivity yields spectral densities which are roughly Lorentzian, exhibit equipartition with no apparent cutoff in wavenumber space and a Bohm-type diffusion coefficient. Under certain conditions, the ensuing transport may be comparable to classical values. For a phenomenological cutoff imposed on the spectrum, the typical fluctuating-to-equilibrium magnetic field ratio is found to be of the order of 10 -10

  2. Kinetic Theory of a Confined Quasi-Two-Dimensional Gas of Hard Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Brey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a system of hard spheres enclosed between two parallel plates separated a distance smaller than two particle diameters is described at the level of kinetic theory. The interest focuses on the behavior of the quasi-two-dimensional fluid seen when looking at the system from above or below. In the first part, a collisional model for the effective two-dimensional dynamics is analyzed. Although it is able to describe quite well the homogeneous evolution observed in the experiments, it is shown that it fails to predict the existence of non-equilibrium phase transitions, and in particular, the bimodal regime exhibited by the real system. A critical revision analysis of the model is presented , and as a starting point to get a more accurate description, the Boltzmann equation for the quasi-two-dimensional gas has been derived. In the elastic case, the solutions of the equation verify an H-theorem implying a monotonic tendency to a non-uniform steady state. As an example of application of the kinetic equation, here the evolution equations for the vertical and horizontal temperatures of the system are derived in the homogeneous approximation, and the results compared with molecular dynamics simulation results.

  3. Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.

    1986-01-01

    The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.

  4. Transient response in granular quasi-two-dimensional bounded heap flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M; Umbanhowar, Paul B

    2017-10-01

    We study the transition between steady flows of noncohesive granular materials in quasi-two-dimensional bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate. In both experiments and simulations, the primary feature of the transition is a wedge of flowing particles that propagates downstream over the rising free surface with a wedge front velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The entire transition is well modeled as a moving boundary problem with a diffusionlike equation derived from local mass balance and a local relation between the flux and the surface slope.

  5. Mixed finite element simulations in two-dimensional groundwater flow problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hideo

    1989-01-01

    A computer code of groundwater flow in two-dimensional porous media based on the mixed finite element method was developed for accurate approximations of Darcy velocities in safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal. The mixed finite element procedure solves for both the Darcy velocities and pressure heads simultaneously in the Darcy equation and continuity equation. Numerical results of a single well pumping at a constant rate in a uniform flow field showed that the mixed finite element method gives more accurate Darcy velocities nearly 50 % on average error than standard finite element method. (author)

  6. Effect of impurities on the two-dimensional electron gas polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The polarizability for a two-dimensional electron gas is calculated in the presence of impurities by a Green function formalism. This leads to a system with finite mean free path due to electrons scattering off impurities. The calculated polarizability is found to be strongly dependent on the mean free path. The main feature is the suppression of the sharp corner at wave vector 2ksub(F) for finite mean free paths, and the pure metal result is recovered for the infinite mean free path. A possible application of the results to the transport properties of semiconductor inversion layers is discussed. (author)

  7. Magneto-spin Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas

    OpenAIRE

    Milletari', M.; Raimondi, R.; Schwab, P.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the interplay of long-range disorder and in-plane magnetic field gives rise to an out-of-plane spin polarization and a finite spin Hall conductivity of the two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. A key aspect is provided by the electric-field induced in-plane spin polarization. Our results are obtained first in the \\textit{clean} limit where the spin-orbit splitting is much larger than the disorder broadening of the energy levels via the di...

  8. Spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas using inter-digital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.M.; Nitta, J.; Jensen, Ane

    2002-01-01

    We present a model that describes the spin injection across a single interface with two electrodes. The spin-injection rate across a typical hybrid junction made of ferromagnet (FM) and a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is found at the percentage level. We perforin spin-injection-detection ex......-injection-detection experiment on devices with two ferromagnetic contacts on a 2DEG confined in an InAs quantum well. A spin-injection rate of 4.5% is estimated from the measured magnetoresistance....

  9. New edge magnetoplasmon for a two-dimensional electron gas in a ring geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proetto, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    The dynamical response of a classical two-dimensional electron gas confined in a ring geometry under a perpendicular magnetic field is analysed. Within the hydrodynamical approach and in the strong magnetic field limit, a new set of antidot edge magnetoplasmons is obtained, corresponding to density oscillations circulating along the inner boundary of the ring and whose frequency increases with magnetic field. The associated self-induced distribution of densities and currents are presented, together with an analysis of the size dependence of these perimeter waves. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  10. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  11. Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...

  12. Absorption imaging of a quasi-two-dimensional gas: a multiple scattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, L; Corman, L; Yefsah, T; Desbuquois, R; Dalibard, J

    2012-01-01

    Absorption imaging with quasi-resonant laser light is a commonly used technique for probing ultra-cold atomic gases in various geometries. In this paper, we investigate some non-trivial aspects of this method when applying the method to in situ diagnosis of a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) gas. Using Monte Carlo simulations we study the modification of the absorption cross-section of a photon when it undergoes multiple scattering in the gas. We determine the variations of the optical density with various parameters, such as the detuning of the light from the atomic resonance and the thickness of the gas. We compare our results to the known 3D result (the Beer-Lambert law) and outline the specific features of the 2D case. (paper)

  13. One- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation using experimentally generated reversing flow turbuulence models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, L.F.

    1990-08-01

    The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year's funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge

  14. Two-dimensional gas chromatography-online hydrogenation for improved characterization of petrochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Govender, A; Rohwer, E

    2016-05-06

    The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces a variety of hydrocarbons over a wide carbon number range and during subsequent product workup a large variety of synthetic fuels and chemicals are produced. The complexity of the product slate obtained from this process is well documented and the high temperature FT (HT-FT) process products are spread over gas, oil and water phases. The characterization of these phases is very challenging even when using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Despite the increase in separation power, peak co-elution still occurs when samples containing isomeric compounds are analysed by comprehensive two dimensional GC. The separation of isomeric compounds with the same double bond equivalents is especially difficult since these compounds elute in a similar position on the GC×GC chromatogram and have identical molecular masses and similar fragmentation patterns in their electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. On-line hydrogenation after GC×GC separation is a possible way to distinguish between these isomeric compounds since the number of rings and alkene double bonds can be determined from the mass spectra of the compounds before and after hydrogenation. This paper describes development of a GC×GC method with post column hydrogenation for the determination of the backbone of cyclic/olefinic structures enabling us to differentiate between classes like dienes and cyclic olefins in complex petrochemical streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Numerical Scheme Based on an Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Turbulent Flows with Shocks: Application to Two-Dimensional Flows around Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.

  16. [Recent advances in analysis of petroleum geological samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuanbo; Chang, Zhenyang; Dai, Wei; Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui

    2014-10-01

    Abundant geochemical information can be acquired by analyzing the chemical compositions of petroleum geological samples. The information obtained from the analysis provides scientifical evidences for petroleum exploration. However, these samples are complicated and can be easily influenced by physical (e. g. evaporation, emulsification, natural dispersion, dissolution and sorption), chemical (photodegradation) and biological (mainly microbial degradation) weathering processes. Therefore, it is very difficult to analyze the petroleum geological samples and they cannot be effectively separated by traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A newly developed separation technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), has unique advantages in complex sample analysis, and recently it has been applied to petroleum geological samples. This article mainly reviews the research progres- ses in the last five years, the main problems and the future research about GC x GC applied in the area of petroleum geology.

  17. Piecewise parabolic negative magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron gas with triangular antidot lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budantsev, M. V.; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0–0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called “memory effects,” are discussed.

  18. Unsteady two-dimensional potential-flow model for thin variable geometry airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunaa, Mac

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, analytical expressions for distributed and integral unsteady two-dimensional forces on a variable geometry airfoil undergoing arbitrary motion are derived under the assumption of incompressible, irrotational, inviscid flow. The airfoil is represented by its camber line...... in their equivalent state-space form, allowing for use of the present theory in problems employing the eigenvalue approach, such as stability analysis. The analytical expressions for the integral forces can be reduced to Munk's steady and Theodorsen's unsteady results for thin airfoils, and numerical evaluation shows...

  19. Wake structure and thrust generation of a flapping foil in two-dimensional flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas; Schnipper, Teis

    2017-01-01

    We present a combined numerical (particle vortex method) and experimental (soap film tunnel) study of a symmetric foil undergoing prescribed oscillations in a two-dimensional free stream. We explore pure pitching and pure heaving, and contrast these two generic types of kinematics. We compare...... measurements and simulations when the foil is forced with pitching oscillations, and we find a close correspondence between flow visualisations using thickness variations in the soap film and the numerically determined vortex structures. Numerically, we determine wake maps spanned by oscillation frequency...

  20. Statistical Mechanics of the Geometric Control of Flow Topology in Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya; Loxley, Peter

    2013-04-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to two dimensional turbulence in a new fashion to predict the effect of geometry on flow topology. We consider two prototypical regimes of turbulence that lead to frequently observed self-organized coherent structures. Our theory predicts bistable behavior that exhibits hysteresis and large abrupt changes in flow topology in one regime; the other regime is predicted to exhibit monstable behavior with a continuous change of flow topology. The predictions are confirmed in fully nonlinear numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equation. These results suggest an explanation of the low frequency regime transitions that have been observed in the non-equilibrium setting of this problem. Following further development in the non-equilibrium context, we expect that insights developed in this problem should be useful in developing a better understanding of the phenomenon of low frequency regime transitions that is a pervasive feature of the weather and climate systems. Familiar occurrences of this phenomenon---wherein extreme and abrupt qualitative changes occur, seemingly randomly, after very long periods of apparent stability---include blocking in the extra-tropical winter atmosphere, the bimodality of the Kuroshio extension system, the Dansgaard-Oeschger events, and the glacial-interglacial transitions.

  1. Two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around three-stranded rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxin; Wan, Rong; Huang, Liuyi; Zhao, Fenfang; Sun, Peng

    2016-08-01

    Three-stranded rope is widely used in fishing gear and mooring system. Results of numerical simulation are presented for flow around a three-stranded rope in uniform flow. The simulation was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pressure and velocity fields of steady incompressible laminar and turbulent wakes behind a three-stranded rope. A three-cylinder configuration and single circular cylinder configuration are used to model the three-stranded rope in the two-dimensional simulation. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes equations, are solved by using two-dimensional finite volume method. The turbulence flow is simulated using Standard κ-ɛ model and Shear-Stress Transport κ-ω (SST) model. The drag of the three-cylinder model and single cylinder model is calculated for different Reynolds numbers by using control volume analysis method. The pressure coefficient is also calculated for the turbulent model and laminar model based on the control surface method. From the comparison of the drag coefficient and the pressure of the single cylinder and three-cylinder models, it is found that the drag coefficients of the three-cylinder model are generally 1.3-1.5 times those of the single circular cylinder for different Reynolds numbers. Comparing the numerical results with water tank test data, the results of the three-cylinder model are closer to the experiment results than the single cylinder model results.

  2. Flow and Jamming of Granular Materials in a Two-dimensional Hopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Junyao

    Flow in a hopper is both a fertile testing ground for understanding fundamental granular flow rheology and industrially highly relevant. Despite increasing research efforts in this area, a comprehensive physical theory is still lacking for both jamming and flow of granular materials in a hopper. In this work, I have designed a two dimensional (2D) hopper experiment using photoelastic particles (particles' shape: disk or ellipse), with the goal to build a bridge between macroscopic phenomenon of hopper flow and microscopic particle-scale dynamics. Through synchronized data of particle tracking and stress distributions in particles, I have shown differences between my data of the time-averaged velocity/stress profile of 2D hopper flow with previous theoretical predictions. I have also demonstrated the importance of a mechanical stable arch near the opening on controlling hopper flow rheology and suggested a heuristic phase diagram for the hopper flow/jamming transition. Another part of this thesis work is focused on studying the impact of particle shape of particles on hopper flow. By comparing particle-tracking and photoelastic data for ellipses and disks at the appropriate length scale, I have demonstrated an important role for the rotational freedom of elliptical particles in controlling flow rheology through particle tracking and stress analysis. This work has been supported by International Fine Particle Research Institute (IFPRI) .

  3. Preferential flow systems amended with biogeochemical components: imaging of a two-dimensional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pales, Ashley R.; Li, Biting; Clifford, Heather M.; Kupis, Shyla; Edayilam, Nimisha; Montgomery, Dawn; Liang, Wei-zhen; Dogan, Mine; Tharayil, Nishanth; Martinez, Nicole; Moysey, Stephen; Powell, Brian; Darnault, Christophe J. G.

    2018-04-01

    The vadose zone is a highly interactive heterogeneous system through which water enters the subsurface system by infiltration. This paper details the effects of simulated plant exudate and soil component solutions upon unstable flow patterns in a porous medium (ASTM silica sand; US Silica, Ottawa, IL, USA) through the use of two-dimensional tank light transmission method (LTM). The contact angle (θ) and surface tension (γ) of two simulated plant exudate solutions (i.e., oxalate and citrate) and two soil component solutions (i.e., tannic acid and Suwannee River natural organic matter, SRNOM) were analyzed to determine the liquid-gas and liquid-solid interface characteristics of each. To determine if the unstable flow formations were dependent on the type and concentration of the simulated plant exudates and soil components, the analysis of the effects of the simulated plant exudate and soil component solutions were compared to a control solution (Hoagland nutrient solution with 0.01 M NaCl). Fingering flow patterns, vertical and horizontal water saturation profiles, water saturation at the fingertips, finger dimensions and velocity, and number of fingers were obtained using the light transmission method. Significant differences in the interface properties indicated a decrease between the control and the plant exudate and soil component solutions tested; specifically, the control (θ = 64.5° and γ = 75.75 mN m-1) samples exhibited a higher contact angle and surface tension than the low concentration of citrate (θ = 52.6° and γ = 70.8 mN m-1). Wetting front instability and fingering flow phenomena were reported in all infiltration experiments. The results showed that the plant exudates and soil components influenced the soil infiltration as differences in finger geometries, velocities, and water saturation profiles were detected when compared to the control. Among the tested solutions and concentrations of soil components, the largest finger width (10.19 cm

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography applied to illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrevski, Blagoj; Wynne, Paul; Marriott, Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC), and especially its latest incarnation--comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC)--have proved advantageous over and above classic one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) in many areas of analysis by offering improved peak capacity, often enhanced sensitivity and, especially in the case of GC × GC, the unique feature of 'structured' chromatograms. This article reviews recent advances in MDGC and GC × GC in drug analysis with special focus on ecstasy, heroin and cocaine profiling. Although 1D GC is still the method of choice for drug profiling in most laboratories because of its simplicity and instrument availability, GC × GC is a tempting proposition for this purpose because of its ability to generate a higher net information content. Effluent refocusing due to the modulation (compression) process, combined with the separation on two 'orthogonal' columns, results in more components being well resolved and therefore being analytically and statistically useful to the profile. The spread of the components in the two-dimensional plots is strongly dependent on the extent of retention 'orthogonality' (i.e. the extent to which the two phases possess different or independent retention mechanisms towards sample constituents) between the two columns. The benefits of 'information-driven' drug profiling, where more points of reference are usually required for sample differentiation, are discussed. In addition, several limitations in application of MDGC in drug profiling, including data acquisition rate, column temperature limit, column phase orthogonality and chiral separation, are considered and discussed. Although the review focuses on the articles published in the last decade, a brief chronological preview of the profiling methods used throughout the last three decades is given.

  5. Generation of acoustic phonons from quasi-two-dimensional hole gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Oh, I.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Generation of phonons from two dimensional electron and hole gases in quantum wells has attracted much attraction recently. The mechanism of phonon emission plays an important role in the phonon spectroscopy which enables us to study the angular and polarization dependence of phonon emission. The acoustic phonon emission from a quasi-two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in quantum wells is influenced by the anisotropic factors in the valence band structure, screening, elastic property, etc. The anisotropy in the valence band structure gives rise to anisotropic effective mass and deformation potential and that in the elastic constants leads to anisotropic sound velocity. Piezoelectric coupling in non-centrosymmetric materials such as GaAs is also anisotropic. In this paper, considering the anisotropy in the effective mass, deformation potential, piezoelectric coupling and screening effect, we present a theory to study the angular and polarization dependence of acoustic phonon emission from a quasi-2DHG in quantum wells. The theory is finally applied to calculate the rate of acoustic phonon emission in GaAs quantum wells

  6. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOUNTAIN RIDGE USING SIMPLE ISENTROPIC MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswanto Siswanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Model sederhana isentropis telah diaplikasikan untuk mengidentifikasi perilaku aliran masa udara melewati topografi sebuah gunung. Dalam model isentropis, temperature potensial θ digunakan sebagai koordinat vertikal dalam rezim aliran adiabatis. Medan angin dalam arah vertikal dihilangkan dalam koordinat isentropis sehingga mereduksi sistim tiga dimensi menjadi sistim dua dimensi lapisan θ. Skema komputasi beda hingga tengah telah digunakan untuk memformulasikan model adveksi. Paper ini membahas aplikasi sederhana dari model isentropis untuk mempelajari gelombang gravitasi dan fenomena angin gunung  dengan desain komputasi periodik dan kondisi batas lateral serta simulasi dengan topografi yang berbeda.   The aim of this work is to study turbulent flow over two-dimensional hill using a simple isentropic model. The isentropic model is represented by applying the potential temperature θ, as the vertical coordinate and is conversed in adiabatic flow regimes. This implies a vanishing vertical wind in isentropic coordinates which reduces the three dimensional system to a stack of two dimensional θ–layers. The equations for each isentropic layer are formally identical with the shallow water equation. A computational scheme of centered finite differences is used to formulate an advective model. This work reviews a simple isentropic model application to investigate gravity wave and mountain wave phenomena regard to different experimental design of computation and topographic height.

  8. An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-06-01

    A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.

  9. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for biogas and biomethane analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, F; Basset, E; Bayard, R; Gallardo, M; Thiebaut, D; Vial, J

    2017-11-17

    The gas industry is going to be revolutionized by being able to generate bioenergy from biomass. The production of biomethane - a green substitute of natural gas - is growing in Europe and the United-States of America. Biomethane can be injected into the gas grid or used as fuel for vehicles after compression. Due to various biomass inputs (e.g. agricultural wastes, sludges from sewage treatment plants, etc.), production processes (e.g. anaerobic digestion, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills), seasonal effects and purification processes (e.g. gas scrubbers, pressure swing adsorption, membranes for biogas upgrading), the composition and quality of biogas and biomethane produced is difficult to assess. All previous publications dealing with biogas analysis reported that hundreds of chemicals from ten chemical families do exist in trace amounts in biogas. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study reported a detailed analysis or the implementation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for biogas matrices. This is the reason why the benefit of implementing two-dimensional gas chromatography for the characterization of biogas and biomethane samples was evaluated. In a first step, a standard mixture of 89 compounds belonging to 10 chemical families, representative of those likely to be found, was used to optimize the analytical method. A set consisting of a non-polar and a polar columns, respectively in the first and the second dimension, was used with a modulation period of six seconds. Applied to ten samples of raw biogas, treated biogas and biomethane collected on 4 industrial sites (two MSW landfills, one anaerobic digester on a wastewater treatment plant and one agricultural biogas plant), this analytical method provided a "fingerprint" of the gases composition at the molecular level in all biogas and biomethane samples. Estimated limits of detection (far below the μgNm -3 ) coupled with the resolution of GC×GC allowed the comparison

  10. Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Quantum Electron Gas with Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Terahertz (THz) plasma waves in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with quantum effects, the electron scattering, the thermal motion of electrons and electron exchange-correlation. We find that, while the electron scattering, the wave number along y direction and the electron exchange-correlation suppress the radiation power, but the thermal motion of electrons and the quantum effects can amplify the radiation power. The radiation frequency decreases with electron exchange-correlation contributions, but increases with quantum effects, the wave number along y direction and thermal motion of electrons. It is worth mentioning that the electron scattering has scarce influence on the radiation frequency. These properties could be of great help to the realization of practical THz plasma oscillations in nanometer FET. (paper)

  11. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  12. Dynamic critical phenomena in two-dimensional fully frustrated Coulomb gas model with disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Luo Mengbo

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic critical phenomena near depinning transition in two-dimensional fully frustrated square lattice Coulomb gas model with disorders was studied using Monte Carlo technique. The ground state of the model system with disorder σ=0.3 is a disordered state. The dependence of charge current density J on electric field E was investigated at low temperatures. The nonlinear J-E behavior near critical depinning field can be described by a scaling function proposed for three-dimensional flux line system [M.B. Luo, X. Hu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 267002]. We evaluated critical exponents and found an Arrhenius creep motion for field region E c /2 c . The scaling law of the depinning transition is also obtained from the scaling function

  13. Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.

  14. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm 2 with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm 2 . Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring

  15. Two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Z.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X.; Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been further confirmed by measuring its electrical properties. The effect of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed and its unique features have been utilized to study the properties of 2DEG formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Sharp electronic transitions from the first to the second subbands in the 2DEG channel have been observed by monitoring the 2DEG carrier mobility as a function of carrier concentration through the use of PPC. These results are expected to have significant implications on field-effect transistor and high electron mobility transistor applications based on the GaN system. copyright 1997 American Vacuum Society

  16. The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin

    2016-01-01

    We use the Hirsch–Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin–orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin–orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin–orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. (paper)

  17. Quantum pump effect induced by a linearly polarized microwave in a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juntao; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua

    2012-05-30

    A quantum pump effect is predicted in an ideal homogeneous two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) that is normally irradiated by linearly polarized microwaves (MW). Without considering effects from spin-orbital coupling or the magnetic field, it is found that a polarized MW can continuously pump electrons from the longitudinal to the transverse direction, or from the transverse to the longitudinal direction, in the central irradiated region. The large pump current is obtained for both the low frequency limit and the high frequency case. Its magnitude depends on sample properties such as the size of the radiated region, the power and frequency of the MW, etc. Through the calculated results, the pump current should be attributed to the dominant photon-assisted tunneling processes as well as the asymmetry of the electron density of states with respect to the Fermi energy.

  18. Laboratory setup and results of experiments on two-dimensional multiphase flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, J.F.; Graham, D.N.

    1990-10-01

    In the event of an accidental release into earth's subsurface of an immiscible organic liquid, such as a petroleum hydrocarbon or chlorinated organic solvent, the spatial and temporal distribution of the organic liquid is of great interest when considering efforts to prevent groundwater contamination or restore contaminated groundwater. An accurate prediction of immiscible organic liquid migration requires the incorporation of relevant physical principles in models of multiphase flow in porous media; these physical principles must be determined from physical experiments. This report presents a series of such experiments performed during the 1970s at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) in Zurich, Switzerland. The experiments were designed to study the transient, two-dimensional displacement of three immiscible fluids in a porous medium. This experimental study appears to be the most detailed published to date. The data obtained from these experiments are suitable for the validation and test calibration of multiphase flow codes. 73 refs., 140 figs

  19. High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field

  20. Direct numerical simulation of the passive scalar field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, N.; Tomita, Y.; Kuroda, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fully developed thermal field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow of air that was carried out. The iso-flux condition is imposed on the walls so that the local mean temperature linearly increases in the streamwise direction. The computation was executed on 1,589,248 grid points by using a spectral method. The statistics obtained include rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat fluxes and other higher order correlations. They are compared mainly with the DNS data obtained by Kim and Moin (1987) and Kim (1987) in a higher Reynolds number flow with isothermal walls. Agreement between these two results is generally good. Each term in the budget equations of temperature variance, its dissipation rate and turbulent heat fluxes is also calculated in order to establish a data base of convective heat transfer for thermal turbulence modeling

  1. K-FIX: a computer program for transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, W.C.; Torrey, M.D.

    1976-11-01

    The transient dynamics of two-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds using the K-FIX program. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The six field equations for the two phases couple through mass, momentum, and energy exchange. The equations are solved using an Eulerian finite difference technique that implicitly couples the rates of phase transitions, momentum, and energy exchange to determination of the pressure, density, and velocity fields. The implicit solution is accomplished iteratively without linearizing the equations, thus eliminating the need for numerous derivative terms. K-FIX is written in a highly modular form to be easily adaptable to a variety of problems. It is applied to growth of an isolated steam bubble in a superheated water pool

  2. Energy transport in a shear flow of particles in a two-dimensional dusty plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2012-11-01

    A shear flow of particles in a laser-driven two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma is observed in a study of viscous heating and thermal conduction. Video imaging and particle tracking yields particle velocity data, which we convert into continuum data, presented as three spatial profiles: mean particle velocity (i.e., flow velocity), mean-square particle velocity, and mean-square fluctuations of particle velocity. These profiles and their derivatives allow a spatially resolved determination of each term in the energy and momentum continuity equations, which we use for two purposes. First, by balancing these terms so that their sum (i.e., residual) is minimized while varying viscosity η and thermal conductivity κ as free parameters, we simultaneously obtain values for η and κ in the same experiment. Second, by comparing the viscous heating and thermal conduction terms, we obtain a spatially resolved characterization of the viscous heating.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications.

  4. A two-dimensional numerical study of the flow inside the combustion chamber of a motored rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I-P.; Yang, S. L.; Schock, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to investigate the unsteady, multidimensional flow inside the combustion chambers of an idealized, two-dimensional, rotary engine under motored conditions. The numerical study was based on the time-dependent, two-dimensional, density-weighted, ensemble-averaged conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and total energy valid for two-component ideal gas mixtures. The ensemble-averaged conservation equations were closed by a K-epsilon model of turbulence. This K-epsilon model of turbulence was modified to account for some of the effects of compressibility, streamline curvature, low-Reynolds number, and preferential stress dissipation. Numerical solutions to the conservation equations were obtained by the highly efficient implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming. The grid system needed to obtain solutions were generated by an algebraic grid generation technique based on transfinite interpolation. Results of the numerical study are presented in graphical form illustrating the flow patterns during intake, compression, gaseous fuel injection, expansion, and exhaust.

  5. A two-dimensional numerical study of the flow inside the combustion chambers of a motored rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, T. I. P.; Yang, S. L.; Schock, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical study was performed to investigate the unsteady, multidimensional flow inside the combustion chambers of an idealized, two-dimensional, rotary engine under motored conditions. The numerical study was based on the time-dependent, two-dimensional, density-weighted, ensemble-averaged conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and total energy valid for two-component ideal gas mixtures. The ensemble-averaged conservation equations were closed by a K-epsilon model of turbulence. This K-epsilon model of turbulence was modified to account for some of the effects of compressibility, streamline curvature, low-Reynolds number, and preferential stress dissipation. Numerical solutions to the conservation equations were obtained by the highly efficient implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming. The grid system needed to obtain solutions were generated by an algebraic grid generation technique based on transfinite interpolation. Results of the numerical study are presented in graphical form illustrating the flow patterns during intake, compression, gaseous fuel injection, expansion, and exhaust.

  6. Numerical studies of unsteady coherent structures and transport in two-dimensional flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesthaven, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    The dynamics of unsteady two-dimensional coherent structures in various physical systems is studied through direct numerical solution of the dynamical equations using spectral methods. The relation between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian auto-correlation functions in two-dimensional homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is studied. A simple analytic expression for the Eulerian and Lagrangian auto-correlation function for the fluctuating velocity field is derived solely on the basis of the one-dimensional power spectrum. The long-time evolution of monopolar and dipolar vortices in anisotropic systems relevant for geophysics and plasma physics is studied by direct numerical solution. Transport properties and spatial reorganization of vortical structures are found to depend strongly on the initial conditions. Special attention is given to the dynamics of strong monopoles and the development of unsteady tripolar structures. The development of coherent structures in fluid flows, incompressible as well as compressible, is studied by novel numerical schemes. The emphasis is on the development of spectral methods sufficiently advanced as to allow for detailed and accurate studies of the self-organizing processes. (au) 1 ill., 94 refs.

  7. GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.

  8. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  9. Characterization of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors Using Two-Dimensional Gas-Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskamp, M.; Lou, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Harley, P. C.; Turnipseed, A.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) plays a role in both regional and global air quality. However, field and laboratory research indicate that the body of knowledge around the identities, quantities and oxidation processes of these compounds in the ambient atmosphere is still incomplete (e.g., Goldstein & Galbally, 2007; Robinson et al., 2009). VOCs emitted to the atmosphere largely are of biogenic origin (Guenther et al., 2006), and many studies of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) suggest that SOA is largely of biogenic origin (albeit closely connected to anthropogenic activities, e.g., de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Accurate modeling of SOA levels and properties will require a more complete understanding of biogenic VOCs (BOCs) and their atmospheric oxidation products. For example, satellite measurements indicate that biogenic VOC emissions are two to three times greater than levels currently included in models (Heald et al., 2010). Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a powerful analytical technique that shows much promise in advancing the state-of-knowledge regarding BVOCs and their role in SOA formation. In this work, samples were collected during BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere Interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) in July and August of 2011. The field site was a Ponderosa Pine forest near Woodland, CO, inside the Manitou Experimental Forest, which is operated by the US Forest Service. The area is characteristic of the central Rocky Mountains and trace gas monitoring indicates that little anthropogenic pollution is transported from the nearby urban areas (Kim et al. 2010 and references therein). Ambient and enclosure samples were collected on ATD (adsorption/thermal desorption) cartridges and analyzed for BVOCs using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and flame ionized detection (FID). Measurements of

  10. Quantification of topological changes of vorticity contours in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkitani, Koji; Al Sulti, Fayeza

    2010-06-01

    A characterization of reconnection of vorticity contours is made by direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow at a relatively low Reynolds number. We identify all the critical points of the vorticity field and classify them by solving an eigenvalue problem of its Hessian matrix on the basis of critical-point theory. The numbers of hyperbolic (saddles) and elliptic (minima and maxima) points are confirmed to satisfy Euler's index theorem numerically. Time evolution of these indices is studied for a simple initial condition. Generally speaking, we have found that the indices are found to decrease in number with time. This result is discussed in connection with related works on streamline topology, in particular, the relationship between stagnation points and the dissipation. Associated elementary procedures in physical space, the merging of vortices, are studied in detail for a number of snapshots. A similar analysis is also done using the stream function.

  11. Calculation of large Reynolds number two-dimensional flow using discrete vortices with random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinazzo, F.; Saffman, P.G.

    1977-01-01

    The numerical calculation of two-dimensional rotational flow at large Reynolds number is considered. The method of replacing a continuous distribution of vorticity by a finite number, N, of discrete vortices is examined, where the vortices move under their mutually induced velocities plus a random component to simulate effects of viscosity. The accuracy of the method is studied by comparison with the exact solution for the decay of a circular vortex. It is found, and analytical arguments are produced in support, that the quantitative error is significant unless N is large compared with a characteristic Reynolds number. The mutually induced velocities are calculated by both direct summation and by the ''cloud in cell'' technique. The latter method is found to produce comparable error and to be much faster

  12. Characterization of the supersonic flowing microwave discharge using two dimensional plasma tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolic, M.; Samolov, A.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.; Godunov, A. [Department of Physics, Center for Accelerator Science, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States); Cuckov, F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2013-03-14

    A tomographic numerical method based on the two-dimensional Radon formula for a cylindrical cavity has been employed for obtaining spatial distributions of the argon excited levels. The spectroscopy measurements were taken at different positions and directions to observe populations of excited species in the plasmoid region and the corresponding excitation temperatures. Excited argon states are concentrated near the tube walls, thus, confirming the assumption that the post discharge plasma is dominantly sustained by travelling surface wave. An automated optical measurement system has been developed for reconstruction of local plasma parameters of the plasmoid structure formed in an argon supersonic flowing microwave discharge. The system carries out angle and distance measurements using a rotating, flat mirror, as well as two high precision stepper motors operated by a microcontroller-based system and several sensors for precise feedback control.

  13. Effects of flow shear and Alfven waves on two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Jamie; Kim, Eun-jin; Thyagaraja, A.

    2008-01-01

    The suppression of turbulent transport by large scale mean shear flows and uniform magnetic fields is investigated in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by a small-scale forcing with finite correlation time. By numerical integration the turbulent magnetic diffusivity D T is shown to be significantly quenched, with a scaling D T ∝B -2 Ω 0 -5/4 , which is much more severe than in the case of a short or delta correlated forcing typified by white noise, studied in E. Kim and B. Dubrulle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 813 (2001)]. Here B and Ω 0 are magnetic field strength and flow shear rate, respectively. The forcing with finite correlation time also leads to much stronger suppression of momentum transport through the cancellation of the Reynolds stress by the Maxwell stress with a positive small value of turbulent viscosity, ν T >0. While fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies are unaffected by the magnetic field just as in the case of a delta correlated forcing, they are much more severely quenched by flow shear than in that of a delta correlated forcing. Underlying physical mechanisms for the reduction of turbulent transport and turbulence level by flow shear and magnetic field are discussed

  14. Self-oscillations of a two-dimensional shear flow with forcing and dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zazueta, A.; Zavala Sansón, L.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional shear flows continuously forced in the presence of dissipative effects are studied by means of numerical simulations. In contrast with most previous studies, the forcing is confined in a finite region, so the behavior of the system is characterized by the long-term evolution of the global kinetic energy. We consider regimes with 1 limited to develop only one vortical instability by choosing an appropriate width of the forcing band. The most relevant regime is found for Reλ > 36, in which the energy maintains a regular oscillation around a reference value. The flow configuration is an elliptical vortex tilted with respect to the forcing axis, which oscillates steadily also. Second, the flow is allowed to develop two Kelvin-Helmholtz billows and eventually more complicated structures. The regimes of the one-vortex case are observed again, except for Reλ > 135. At these values, the energy oscillates chaotically as the two vortices merge, form dipolar structures, and split again, with irregular periodicity. The self-oscillations are explained as a result of the alternate competition between forcing and dissipation, which is verified by calculating the budget terms in the energy equation. The relevance of the forcing-vs.-dissipation competition is discussed for more general flow systems.

  15. Triple-porosity/permeability flow in faulted geothermal reservoirs: Two-dimensional effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar Suarez Arriaga, M. [Michoacan Univ. & CFE, Mich. (Mexico); Samaniego Verduzco, F. [National Autonomous Univ. of Mexico, Coyoacan (Mexico)

    1995-03-01

    An essential characteristic of some fractured geothermal reservoirs is noticeable when the drilled wells intersect an open fault or macrofracture. Several evidences observed, suggest that the fluid transport into this type of systems, occurs at least in three stages: flow between rock matrix and microfractures, flow between fractures and faults and flow between faults and wells. This pattern flow could define, by analogy to the classical double-porosity model, a triple-porosity, triple-permeability concept. From a mathematical modeling point of view, the non-linearity of the heterogeneous transport processes, occurring with abrupt changes on the petrophysical properties of the rock, makes impossible their exact or analytic solution. To simulate this phenomenon, a detailed two-dimensional geometric model was developed representing the matrix-fracture-fault system. The model was solved numerically using MULKOM with a H{sub 2}O=CO{sub 2} equation of state module. This approach helps to understand some real processes involved. Results obtained from this study, exhibit the importance of considering the triple porosity/permeability concept as a dominant mechanism producing, for example, strong pressure gradients between the reservoir and the bottom hole of some wells.

  16. Differential geometric structures of stream functions: incompressible two-dimensional flow and curvatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, K; Iwayama, T; Yajima, T

    2011-01-01

    The Okubo-Weiss field, frequently used for partitioning incompressible two-dimensional (2D) fluids into coherent and incoherent regions, corresponds to the Gaussian curvature of the stream function. Therefore, we consider the differential geometric structures of stream functions and calculate the Gaussian curvatures of some basic flows. We find the following. (I) The vorticity corresponds to the mean curvature of the stream function. Thus, the stream-function surface for an irrotational flow and that for a parallel shear flow correspond to the minimal surface and a developable surface, respectively. (II) The relationship between the coherency and the magnitude of the vorticity is interpreted by the curvatures. (III) Using the Gaussian curvature, stability of single and double point vortex streets is analyzed. The results of this analysis are compared with the well-known linear stability analysis. (IV) Conformal mapping in fluid mechanics is the physical expression of the geometric fact that the sign of the Gaussian curvature does not change in conformal mapping. These findings suggest that the curvatures of stream functions are useful for understanding the geometric structure of an incompressible 2D flow.

  17. Two dimensional numerical analysis of aerodynamic characteristics for rotating cylinder on concentrated air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, M. S.; Rafie, A. S. Mohd; Marzuki, O. F.; Hamid, M. F. Abdul; Chia, C. C.

    2017-12-01

    Over the years, many studies have demonstrated the feasibility of the Magnus effect on spinning cylinder to improve lift production, which can be much higher than the traditional airfoil shape. With this characteristic, spinning cylinder might be used as a lifting device for short take-off distance aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Nonetheless, there is still a gap in research to explain the use of spinning cylinder as a good lifting device. Computational method is used for this study to analyse the Magnus effect, in which two-dimensional finite element numerical analysis method is applied using ANSYS FLUENT software to examine the coefficients of lift and drag, and to investigate the flow field around the rotating cylinder surface body. Cylinder size of 30mm is chosen and several configurations in steady and concentrated air flows have been evaluated. All in all, it can be concluded that, with the right configuration of the concentrated air flow setup, the rotating cylinder can be used as a lifting device for very short take-off since it can produce very high coefficient of lift (2.5 times higher) compared with steady air flow configuration.

  18. Experimental investigation of flow over two-dimensional multiple hill models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow field characteristics in ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer) flow over multiple hills and valleys in two-dimensional models under neutral conditions. Active turbulence grids and boundary layer generation frame were used to simulate the natural winds in wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the mean wind velocity, the velocity vector diagram and turbulence intensity around the hills were investigated by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. From the measurement results, it was known that the average velocity was increased along the upstream slope of upside hill, and then separated at the top of the hills, the acceleration region of U/U ref >1 was generated at the downstream of the hill. Meanwhile, a large clockwise circulation flow was generated between the two hill models. Moreover, the turbulence intensity showed small value in the circulation flow regions. Compared to 1H model, the turbulence intensity in the mainstream direction showed larger value than that in the vertical direction. This paper provided a better understanding of the wind energy distribution on the terrain for proper selection of suitable sites for installing wind farms in the ABL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two-dimensional simulation of gas concentration impedance for a planar solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Ghassemi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The 2D simulation shows another feature in concentration impedance. • The channel gas transport causes a capacitive behavior. • Anode polarization variation has a significant influence on velocity distribution. • The influence of 2D simulation is important for channel height bigger than 2 mm. - Abstract: This paper presents a two-dimensional model for a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode in order to simulate the steady-state performance characteristics as well as the electrochemical impedance spectra. The developed model couples the mass transport with the electrochemical kinetics. The transient conservation equations (momentum and species equations) are solved numerically and the linear kinetic is used for the anode electrochemistry. In order to solve the system of the nonlinear equations, an in-house code based on the finite volume method is developed and utilized. A parametric study is also carried out and the results are discussed. Results show a capacitive semicircle in the Nyquist plot which is identical to the gas concentration impedance. The simulation results are in good agreement with published data

  20. Thermalization of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a `white wall' photon box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered-corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalized two-dimensional photon gas with a freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye-filled optical microresonator, acting as a `white wall' box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon-number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors provide both an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example of the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.

  1. Relaxation and self-organization in two-dimensional plasma and neutral fluid flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Amita

    2008-01-01

    Extensive numerical studies in the framework of a simplified two-dimensional model for neutral and plasma fluid for a variety of initial configurations and for both decaying and driven cases are carried out to illustrate relaxation toward a self-organized state. The dynamical model equation constitutes a simple choice for this purpose, e.g., the vorticity equation of the Navier-Stokes dynamics for the incompressible neutral fluids and the Hasegawa-Mima equation for plasma fluid flow system. Scatter plots are employed to observe a development of functional relationship, if any, amidst the generalized vorticity and its Laplacian. It is seen that they do not satisfy a linear relationship as the well known variational approach of enstrophy minimization subject to constancy of the energy integral for the two-dimensional (2D) system suggests. The observed nonlinear functional relationship is understood by separating the contribution to the scatter plot from spatial regions with intense vorticity patches and those of the background flow region where the background vorticity is weak or absent altogether. It is shown that such a separation has close connection with the known exact analytical solutions of the system. The analytical solutions are typically obtained by assuming a finite source of vorticity for the inner core of the localized structure, which is then matched with the solution in the outer region where vorticity is chosen to be zero. The work also demonstrates that the seemingly ad hoc choice of the linear vorticity source function for the inner region is in fact consistent with the self-organization paradigm of the 2D systems

  2. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, M.C.

    1981-08-01

    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  3. Two-dimensional flow characteristics of wave interactions with a free-rolling rectangular structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang Hyo Jung; Kuang-An Chang [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huang, E.T. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States). Amphibious System Div.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents laboratory observations of flow characteristics for regular waves passing a rectangular structure in a two-dimensional wave tank. The structure with a draft one-half of its height was hinged at the center of gravity and free to roll (one degree of freedom) by waves. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the velocity field in the vicinity of the structure. The mean velocity and turbulence properties were obtained by phase-averaging the PIV velocity maps from repeated test runs. Since the viscous damping (also called the eddy making damping) in a vortical flow affects the roll motion of a blunt body, the quantitative flow pattern was represented to elucidate the coupled interactions between the body motion and the waves. Additionally, the turbulence properties including the turbulence length scale and the turbulent kinetic energy budget were investigated to characterize the interactions. The results show that vortices were generated near the structure corners at locations opposing to that of the roll damping effect for waves with a period longer than the roll natural period of the structure. (Author)

  4. Effect of a levee setback on aquatic resources using two-dimensional flow and bioenergetics models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Robert W.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Christopher S.; McCarthy, Sarah; Berge, Hans; Comanor, Kyle

    2016-04-05

    Watershed restoration is the focus of many resource managers and can include a multitude of restoration actions each with specific restoration objectives. For the White River flowing through the cities of Pacific and Sumner, Washington, a levee setback has been proposed to reconnect the river with its historical floodplain to help reduce flood risks, as well as provide increased habitat for federally listed species of salmonids. The study presented here documents the use of a modeling framework that integrates two-dimensional hydraulic modeling with process-based bioenergetics modeling for predicting how changes in flow from reconnecting the river with its floodplain affects invertebrate drift density and the net rate of energy intake of juvenile salmonids. Modeling results were calculated for flows of 25.9 and 49.3 cubic meters per second during the spring, summer, and fall. Predicted hypothetical future mean velocities and depths were significantly lower and more variable when compared to current conditions. The abundance of low energetic cost and positive growth locations for salmonids were predicted to increase significantly in the study reach following floodplain reconnection, particularly during the summer. This modeling framework presents a viable approach for evaluating the potential fisheries benefits of reconnecting a river to its historical floodplain that integrates our understanding of hydraulic, geomorphology, and organismal biology.

  5. Finite-time barriers to front propagation in two-dimensional fluid flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John R.; Mitchell, Kevin A.

    2015-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the role of certain invariant manifolds, termed burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), as one-way dynamical barriers to reaction fronts propagating within a flowing fluid. These barriers form one-dimensional curves in a two-dimensional fluid flow. In prior studies, the fluid velocity field was required to be either time-independent or time-periodic. In the present study, we develop an approach to identify prominent one-way barriers based only on fluid velocity data over a finite time interval, which may have arbitrary time-dependence. We call such a barrier a burning Lagrangian coherent structure (bLCS) in analogy to Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) commonly used in passive advection. Our approach is based on the variational formulation of LCSs using curves of stationary "Lagrangian shear," introduced by Farazmand et al. [Physica D 278-279, 44 (2014)] in the context of passive advection. We numerically validate our technique by demonstrating that the bLCS closely tracks the BIM for a time-independent, double-vortex channel flow with an opposing "wind."

  6. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional flows over a circular cylinder using the immersed boundary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima E Silva, A.L.F.; Silveira-Neto, A.; Damasceno, J.J.R.

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a virtual boundary method is applied to the numerical simulation of a uniform flow over a cylinder. The force source term, added to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, guarantees the imposition of the no-slip boundary condition over the body-fluid interface. These equations are discretized, using the finite differences method. The immersed boundary is represented with a finite number of Lagrangian points, distributed over the solid-fluid interface. A Cartesian grid is used to solve the fluid flow equations. The key idea is to propose a method to calculate the interfacial force without ad hoc constants that should usually be adjusted for the type of flow and the type of the numerical method, when this kind of model is used. In the present work, this force is calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations applied to the Lagrangian points and then distributed over the Eulerian grid. The main advantage of this approach is that it enables calculation of this force field, even if the interface is moving or deforming. It is unnecessary to locate the Eulerian grid points near this immersed boundary. The lift and drag coefficients and the Strouhal number, calculated for an immersed cylinder, are compared with previous experimental and numerical results, for different Reynolds numbers

  7. GLOBAL STRUCTURE OF THREE DISTINCT ACCRETION FLOWS AND OUTFLOWS AROUND BLACK HOLES FROM TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION-MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin

    2011-01-01

    We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, ρ 0 , we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A, which has the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ∼22L E (where L E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B, which has moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ∼7 R S (where R S is the Schwarzschild radius), while the flow is radiatively inefficient otherwise. The magnetic-pressure-driven disk wind appears in this model. In model C, the density is too low for the flow to be radiatively efficient. The flow thus becomes radiatively inefficient accretion flow, which is geometrically thick and optically thin. The magnetic-pressure force, together with the gas-pressure force, drives outflows from the disk surface, and the flow releases its energy via jets rather than via radiation. Observational implications are briefly discussed.

  8. Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, B; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Bos, W J T; Schneider, K

    2011-03-01

    A study of the relationship between Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a Lagrangian approach and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the Lagrangian Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the Lagrangian velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order -2.

  9. Tunneling conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Ka-oey, A.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically studied the spin-dependent charge transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) and metal junctions. It is shown that the DSOC energy can be directly measured from the tunneling conductance spectrum. We found that spin polarization of the conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from the DSOC system. We also considered the effect of the interfacial scattering barrier (both spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering) on the overall conductance and the spin polarization of the conductance. It is found that the increase of spin-flip scattering can enhance the conductance under certain conditions. Moreover, both types of scattering can increase the spin polarization below the branches crossing of the energy band. - Highlights: → DSOC energy can be directly measured from tunneling conductance spectrum. → Spin polarization of conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from DSOC system. → Both types of scattering can increase spin polarization.

  10. Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.

  11. Study of two-dimensional hole gas at Si/SiGe/Si inverted interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghazdeh, M.A.; Mironov, O.A.; Parry, C.P.; Philips, P.J.; Parker, E.H.C.; Wahll, T.E.; Emeleus, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the transport of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) at the inverted interface of a strained Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 quantum well. By application of bias voltage to a Schottky gate on top of this inverted heterostructure the 2DHG density n s can be controlled, in the range of (1.5-5.2)x10 11 cm -2 . At temperature T = 033 K, the Hall mobility is 4650 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at the maximum carrier density. For lower sheet densities (n s 11 cm -2 ) the system undergoes a transition from a weak to strongly localised phase of significantly reduced mobility. From low temperature Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation measurements we have extracted the hole effective masses m* = (0.25 → 0.28)m o and the ratio of transport to quantum lifetimes α = (0.92 → 0.85) for the corresponding carrier density change of n s = (5.2 → 2.5)x10 11 cm -2 . These results can be explained in terms of the abnormal movement of the hole wave function towards the interface with decreasing n s , short range interface roughness scattering. (author)

  12. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. E-mail: faustgr@usc.es; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A

    2003-10-21

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 {mu}m thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm{sup 2}. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: A perspective on processes of modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q

    2018-02-09

    The first comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) experiment was reported about 25 years ago [J. Chromatogr. Sci. 29 (1991) 227-231]; the GC×GC process was made possible by the development of a transfer device, defined as modulator. The process of modulation enables the isolation of effluent segments from the first column, and their re-injection onto the second column, in a continuous and sequential manner throughout the analysis. Over the years, many types of modulation systems have been introduced, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. Cryogenic systems are, at present, the most popular devices and represent the most effective form of modulation. The present contribution is focused on possible future scenarios, with respect to modulation, and as a consequence related to comprehensive GC, in general. The development of new forms of modulation may open the road to a more widespread use of GC×GC technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry peak sorting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Cheolhwan; Huang, Xiaodong; Regnier, Fred E; Buck, Charles; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-02-01

    We report a novel peak sorting method for the two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) system. The objective of peak sorting is to recognize peaks from the same metabolite occurring in different samples from thousands of peaks detected in the analytical procedure. The developed algorithm is based on the fact that the chromatographic peaks for a given analyte have similar retention times in all of the chromatograms. Raw instrument data are first processed by ChromaTOF (Leco) software to provide the peak tables. Our algorithm achieves peak sorting by utilizing the first- and second-dimension retention times in the peak tables and the mass spectra generated during the process of electron impact ionization. The algorithm searches the peak tables for the peaks generated by the same type of metabolite using several search criteria. Our software also includes options to eliminate non-target peaks from the sorting results, e.g., peaks of contaminants. The developed software package has been tested using a mixture of standard metabolites and another mixture of standard metabolites spiked into human serum. Manual validation demonstrates high accuracy of peak sorting with this algorithm.

  15. Analysis of oxidised heavy paraffininc products by high temperature comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Beigley, J; Rohwer, E

    2017-08-04

    Heavy petroleum fractions are produced during crude and synthetic crude oil refining processes and they need to be upgraded to useable products to increase their market value. Usually these fractions are upgraded to fuel products by hydrocracking, hydroisomerization and hydrogenation processes. These fractions are also upgraded to other high value commercial products like lubricant oils and waxes by distillation, hydrogenation, and oxidation and/or blending. Oxidation of hydrogenated heavy paraffinic fractions produces high value products that contain a variety of oxygenates and the characterization of these heavy oxygenates is very important for the control of oxidation processes. Traditionally titrimetric procedures are used to monitor oxygenate formation, however, these titrimetric procedures are tedious and lack selectivity toward specific oxygenate classes in complex matrices. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a way of increasing peak capacity for the comprehensive analysis of complex samples. Other groups have used HT-GC×GC to extend the carbon number range attainable by GC×GC and have optimised HT-GC×GC parameters for the separation of aromatics, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as sulphur-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions. HT-GC×GC column combinations for the separation of oxygenates in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions are optimised in this study. The advantages of the HT-GC×GC method in the monitoring of the oxidation reactions of heavy paraffinic fraction samples are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional repulsive gas of fermions with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luyang; Vafek, Oskar

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the superconducting instability of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling αR. Using renormalization group approach, we find the superconducting transition temperature as a function of the dimensionless ratio Θ=1}/{2}mαR2/EF where EF = 0 when the smaller Fermi surface shrinks to a (Dirac) point. The general trend is that superconductivity is enhanced as Θ increases, but in an intermediate regime Θ ∼ 0.1, a dome-like behavior appears. At a very small value of Θ, the angular momentum channel jz in which superconductivity occurs is quite high. With increasing Θ, jz decreases with a step of 2 down to jz = 6, after which we find the sequence jz = 6, 4, 6, 2, the last value of which continues to Θ → ∞. In an extended range of Θ, the superconducting gap predominantly resides on the large Fermi surface, while Josephson coupling induces a much smaller gap on the small Fermi surface. Below the superconducting transition temperature, we apply mean field theory to derive the self-consistent equations and find the condensation energies. The state with the lowest condensation energy is an unconventional superconducting state which breaks time-reversal symmetry, and in which singlet and triplet pairings are mixed. In general, these states are topologically nontrivial, and the Chern number of the state with total angular momentum jz is C = 2jz.

  17. Low cost, robust, in-house hardware for heart cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Apps, P

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural materials are so complex that no single column can separate all of the components. Heart cutting 2-D GC (GC-GC) using a Deans switch provides maximum separation, but the requisite gas flow configurations have earned a reputation for being...

  18. Peak clustering in two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection based on theoretical calculation of two-dimensional peak shapes: the 2DAid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stee, Leo L P; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2011-10-28

    A method is presented to facilitate the non-target analysis of data obtained in temperature-programmed comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS). One main difficulty of GC×GC data analysis is that each peak is usually modulated several times and therefore appears as a series of peaks (or peaklets) in the one-dimensionally recorded data. The proposed method, 2DAid, uses basic chromatographic laws to calculate the theoretical shape of a 2D peak (a cluster of peaklets originating from the same analyte) in order to define the area in which the peaklets of each individual compound can be expected to show up. Based on analyte-identity information obtained by means of mass spectral library searching, the individual peaklets are then combined into a single 2D peak. The method is applied, amongst others, to a complex mixture containing 362 analytes. It is demonstrated that the 2D peak shapes can be accurately predicted and that clustering and further processing can reduce the final peak list to a manageable size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sediment transport: the case of Brenta River

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alpaos, L.; Martini, P.; Carniello, L.

    2003-04-01

    The paper deals with numerical modelling of flood waves and suspended sediment in plain river basins. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations, modified to take into account of the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamic and the continuity in partially dry areas (for example, during the first stages of a plain flooding and in tidal flows), are solved with a standard Galerkin finite element method using a semi-implicit numerical scheme and considering the role both of the small channel network and the regulation dispositive on the flooding wave propagation. Transport of suspended sediment and bed evolution are coupled with the flood propagation through the convection-dispersion equation and the Exner's equation. Results of a real case study are presented in which the effects of extreme flood of Brenta River (Italy) are examinated. The flooded areas (urban and rural areas) are identified and a mitigation solution based on a diversion channel flowing into Venice Lagoon is proposed. We show that this solution strongly reduces the flood risk in the downstream areas and can provide an important sediment source to the Venice Lagoon. Finally, preliminary results of the sediment dispersion in the Venice Lagoon are presented.

  20. Many-body pairing in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidig, Mathias

    2017-05-24

    This thesis reports on experiments conducted in a single layer, quasi two-dimensional, two-component ultracold Fermi gas in the strongly interacting regime. Ultracold gases can be used to simulate key aspects of more complicated systems like for example cuprates which show high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The momentum distribution of a sample of bosonic dimers in a quasi-2D square lattice geometry was measured to obtain the coherence properties. For shallow lattices, sharp peaks in the momentum distribution, indicating coherence, were observed at zero momentum as well as at positive and negative lattice momenta along each axis. For deeper lattices, heating impeded the ability to prepare a Mott-insulator. A spatially resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy was employed for a quasi-2D Fermi gas in the normal phase throughout the BEC-BCS crossover. The interaction induced energy shifts were measured in the strongly interacting region where they can be on the order of the Fermi energy and thus the local resolution is crucial. Furthermore, the onset of pairing in the strongly interacting region was measured as a function of temperature and it was shown that the fraction of free atoms decreases faster than expected from thermal non-interacting theory. At last, the pairing gap was measured using an imbalanced sample. On the BEC side it was found to be in very good agreement with two-body physics as expected. In the strongly interacting regime, however, a deviation from two-body physics indicates that here many-body effects play a role and thus further studies are required.

  1. Gas dynamics of H II regions. II. Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Yorke, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of H II regions is calculated with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical procedure under the assumption that the exciting star is born within a cool molecular cloud whose density is about 10 3 particles cm -3 . As the ionization of the cloud's edge is completed, a large pressure gradient is set up and ionized cloud material expands into the ionized low-density (1 particle cm -3 ) intercloud medium, with velocities larger than 30 km s -1 .The calculations are made under the simplifying assumptions that (i) within the H II region, ionization equilibrium holds at all times, (ii) the ionization front is a discontinuity, thus its detailed structure is not calculated, (iii) the temperature of each region (H II region, neutral cloud, and intercloud medium) is constant in time, (iv) all ionizing photons come radially from the exciting star. Four cases are calculated and compared with observations: (1) the edge of the cloud is overrun by a supersonic ionization front, (2) the initial Stroemgren sphere surrounding the star lies deep inside the cloud, thus the cloud's edge is ionized by a subsonic ionization front, (3) the ionization front breaks through two opposite faces of the same cloud simultaneously, (4) the flow encounters an isolated globule of density 10 3 particles cm -3 shortly after emerging from the molecular cloud.The phenomena here considered show how evolving H II regions are an important input of kinetic energy to the interstellar medium

  2. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  3. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  4. Spatio-temporal organization of dynamics in a two-dimensional periodically driven vortex flow: A Lagrangian flow network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V

    2017-03-01

    We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.

  5. Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.

  6. Study of two-dimensional flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghbin, S.; Farahat, S.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible viscid flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect and by using geometric conservation law (GCL) has been represented. In this analysis, after the mesh generation for physical model, for the purpose of adaption of meshes with physical condition, the mesh adaption method has been used. Also, for increasing the speed of results convergence, the Multigrid method has been applied to the solver of governing equations. Because of the movement of meshes in this analysis, by using a spring simulation, the generated meshes have been moved and in every time step for the purpose of controlling the quality of meshes, by considering the EquiAngle Skew coefficient (EAS) and the volume of each mesh, the meshes that had a large EAS and a volume more than and less than defined maximum and minimum value, have been removed and then regenerated. Also, because the continuity and momentum conservations law were insufficient to work with these moving grids, the geometric conservation law was combined with the other conservation laws and a general equation was obtained for the dynamic meshes. For solving this general equation, the Simple Algorithm has been used. According to the results, the dynamic ground effect causes unsteadiness and also the Lift coefficient is increased vibrationally. And with respect to the type of airfoil, the Drag coefficient can decrease or increase vibrationally. (author)

  7. SIMULATIONS OF VISCOUS ACCRETION FLOW AROUND BLACK HOLES IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CYLINDRICAL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek [School of Science Education (Astronomy), Chungbuk National University, Chungbuk 28644 (Korea, Republic of); Chattopadhyay, Indranil; Kumar, Rajiv [ARIES, Manora Peak, Nainital-263002, Uttarakhand (India); Ryu, Dongsu, E-mail: seong@chungbuk.ac.kr [Department of Physics, School of Natural Sciences UNIST, Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    We simulate shock-free and shocked viscous accretion flows onto a black hole in a two-dimensional cylindrical geometry, where initial conditions were chosen from analytical solutions. The simulation code used the Lagrangian total variation diminishing plus remap routine, which enabled us to attain high accuracy in capturing shocks and to handle the angular momentum distribution correctly. The inviscid shock-free accretion disk solution produced a thick disk structure, while the viscous shock-free solution attained a Bondi-like structure, but in either case, no jet activity nor any quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO)-like activity developed. The steady-state shocked solution in the inviscid as well as in the viscous regime matched theoretical predictions well. However, increasing viscosity renders the accretion shock unstable. Large-amplitude shock oscillation is accompanied by intermittent, transient inner multiple shocks. This oscillation of the inner part of the disk is interpreted as the source of QPO in hard X-rays observed in micro-quasars. Strong shock oscillation induces strong episodic jet emission. The jets also show the existence of shocks, which are produced as one shell hits the preceding one. The periodicities of the jets and shock oscillation are similar; the jets for the higher viscosity parameter appear to be stronger and faster.

  8. Study of two-dimensional flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghbin, S.; Farahat, S. [Sistan and Baluchestan Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: sadegh_haghbin@yahoo.com

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, the numerical solution of two-dimensional incompressible viscid flow by triangular unstructured grid around airfoil with dynamic ground effect and by using geometric conservation law (GCL) has been represented. In this analysis, after the mesh generation for physical model, for the purpose of adaption of meshes with physical condition, the mesh adaption method has been used. Also, for increasing the speed of results convergence, the Multigrid method has been applied to the solver of governing equations. Because of the movement of meshes in this analysis, by using a spring simulation, the generated meshes have been moved and in every time step for the purpose of controlling the quality of meshes, by considering the EquiAngle Skew coefficient (EAS) and the volume of each mesh, the meshes that had a large EAS and a volume more than and less than defined maximum and minimum value, have been removed and then regenerated. Also, because the continuity and momentum conservations law were insufficient to work with these moving grids, the geometric conservation law was combined with the other conservation laws and a general equation was obtained for the dynamic meshes. For solving this general equation, the Simple Algorithm has been used. According to the results, the dynamic ground effect causes unsteadiness and also the Lift coefficient is increased vibrationally. And with respect to the type of airfoil, the Drag coefficient can decrease or increase vibrationally. (author)

  9. Second dimension column ensemble pressure tuning in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Junior, Ademario I da Silva; Marriott, Philip J

    2018-02-09

    A pressure tunable (PT) coupled column ensemble has been implemented for the second dimension ( 2 D) separation in comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×PTGC). This process requires two columns to be connected by a pressure junction, as a replacement for a single narrow bore, short column in 2 D. Various 2 D 1 and 2 D 2 columns may be selected to provide complementary selectivity (polarity) compared to the 1 D column. The tunable residence time arising from differential pressure drop in each 2 D column results in a tunable fractional contribution of each column in the 2 D separation. A sample mixture comprising different chemical classes, including alkanes and alcohols, is used to identify the feasibility and extent of selectivity tuning possible in GC×PTGC. The column length is also varied due to the imposed challenge of wraparound in the PT coupled column system as pressures are adjusted in the 2 D separation. Different experimental parameters, stationary phase materials and column lengths have been applied to investigate and understand the separation behaviour of the 2 D PT coupled column GC×GC system. Results are discussed considering analyte retention time, peak width, linear velocity and the contribution of each 2 D column. A specific and unexpected example of GC×GC separation was demonstrated where the peak positions of polar and apolar compounds could almost swap their 2 D retention position by application of PT. Kerosene was analysed as an example of complex sample analysis by GC×PTGC system. This process is shown to be a practical approach for altering different stationary phase selectivities in a single 2 D arrangement in GC×GC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic-based retention time predictions of endogenous steroids in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline C A; Ebrahimi-Najafadabi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Casilli, Alessandro; Pereira, Henrique M G; Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Harynuk, James J

    2015-05-01

    This work evaluates the application of a thermodynamic model to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for anabolic agent investigation. Doping control deals with hundreds of drugs that are prohibited in sports. Drug discovery in biological matrices is a challenging task that requires powerful tools when one is faced with the rapidly changing designer drug landscape. In this work, a thermodynamic model developed for the prediction of both primary and secondary retention times in GC × GC has been applied to trimethylsilylated hydroxyl (O-TMS)- and methoxime-trimethylsilylated carbonyl (MO-TMS)-derivatized endogenous steroids. This model was previously demonstrated on a pneumatically modulated GC × GC system, and is applied for the first time to a thermally modulated GC × GC system. Preliminary one-dimensional experiments allowed the calculation of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔC p ) which were successfully applied for the prediction of the analytes' interactions with the stationary phases of both the first-dimension column and the second-dimension column. The model was able to predict both first-dimension and second-dimension retention times with high accuracy compared with the GC × GC experimental measurements. Maximum differences of -8.22 s in the first dimension and 0.4 s in the second dimension were encountered for the O-TMS derivatives of 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11-ketoetiocholanolone, respectively. For the MO-TMS derivatives, the largest discrepancies were from testosterone (9.65 ) for the first-dimension retention times and 11-keto-etiocholanolone (0.4 s) for the second-dimension retention times.

  11. Characterization of lipids in complex samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jover, E.; Adahchour, M.; Bayona, J.M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    Most lipids are a complex mixture of classes of compounds such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, diols, sterols and hydroxy acids. In this study, the suitability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-light mass spectrometer is studied for lipid characterization in

  12. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  13. Reentrant resistance and giant Andreev back scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas coupled to superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Sander; Wees, B.J. van; Nazarov, Yu.V.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Borghs, G.

    1998-01-01

    We first present the bias-voltage dependence of the superconducting phase-dependent reduction in the differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to two superconductors. This reduction exhibits a reentrant behavior, since it first increases upon

  14. Recent developments in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC X GC) I. Introduction and instrumental set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Beens, J.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    We review the literature on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), emphasizing developments in the period 2003-2005. The review opens with a general introduction, the principles of the technique and the set-up of GC × GC systems. It also discusses theoretical aspects, trends in

  15. Simulation of diffusion in a two-dimensional lattice gas cellular automaton: a test of mode-coupling theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.; Ernst, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    We compute the velocity autocorrelation function of a tagged particle in a two-dimensional lattice-gas cellular automaton using a method that is about a million times more efficient than existing techniques. A t-1 algebraic tail in the tagged-particle velocity autocorrelation function is clearly

  16. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  17. Numerical analysis of steady state fluid flow in a two-dimensional wavy channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorji, M.; Hosseinzadeh, E.

    2007-01-01

    A simple geometry of the flow passage that may be used to enhance the heat transfer rate is called wavy and periodic channel. Wavy channel can provide significant heat transfer augmentation and was always important for heat transfer engineering and so far many researches have been done in this field. In this paper, the effects of channel geometry and Reynolds number on the heat transfer coefficient, heat flux and pressure drop for the laminar fully developed flow in a two dimensional channel whereas the walls are considered fix temperature is numerically investigated. The problem is solved for channel with one and two wavy walls and comparisons with the straight channel, in the same flow rate, have been performed. Results indicate that, by decreasing the channel wave length and the distance between the channel walls the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient increase. Results and Conclusions: The following conclusion may be drawn: 1. In a specified channel, for the fluid flow with the constant Reynolds number, by decreasing the wave length from 0.2 m to 0.1 m, the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient increase by 37% , 54% and 29% respectively, whereas by decreasing the wave length from the same value the above mentioned parameters decrease to 108% , 143% and 47% respectively. 2. In a specified wave length, where the amplitude and the Reynolds number is constant, by increasing the distance between the walls from 0.15 m to 0.25 m, the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient decrease by 41% ,8% and 7.8% respectively. References [1] J.C. Burns, T. Parks, J. Fluid Mesh, 29(1967), 405-416. [2] J.L. Goldestein, E.M. Sparrow, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 99 (1977), 187. [3] J.E.O. Brain, E.M. Sparrow, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104 (1982), 410 [4] N. Sanie, S. Dini, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115 (1993), 788. [5] G. Wang, P. Vanka, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38 (17) (1995), 3219. [6] T.A. Rush, T.A. Newell, A.M. Jacobi, Int, J. Heat Mass

  18. Characterization of energy flow and instability development in two-dimensional simulations of hollow z pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; McLenithan, K.D.; Deeney, C.; Chandler, G.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Matzen, M.K.; Roderick, N.F.

    1998-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) Eulerian Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) code has been used to simulate imploding z pinches for three experiments fielded on the Los Alamos Pegasus II capacitor bank [J. C. Cochrane et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Third International Conference, London, United Kingdom 1993 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), p. 381] and the Sandia Saturn accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Second International Conference, Laguna Beach, 1989 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] and Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. These simulations match the experimental results closely and illustrate how the code results may be used to track the flow of energy in the simulation and account for the amount of total radiated energy. The differences between the calculated radiated energy and power in 2-D simulations and those from zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) Lagrangian simulations (which typically underpredict the total radiated energy and overpredict power) are due to the radially extended nature of the plasma shell, an effect which arises from the presence of magnetically driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities. The magnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities differ substantially from hydrodynamically driven instabilities and typical measures of instability development such as e-folding times and mixing layer thickness are inapplicable or of limited value. A new measure of global instability development is introduced, tied to the imploding plasma mass, termed open-quotes fractional involved mass.close quotes Examples of this quantity are shown for the three experiments along with a discussion of the applicability of this measure. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  19. Fast chemical reaction in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow: initial regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Bourqui, Michel S; Bartello, Peter

    2012-04-01

    This paper studies an infinitely fast bimolecular chemical reaction in a two-dimensional biperiodic Navier-Stokes flow. The reactants in stoichiometric quantities are initially segregated by infinite gradients. The focus is placed on the initial stage of the reaction characterized by a well-defined one-dimensional material contact line between the reactants. Particular attention is given to the effect of the diffusion κ of the reactants. This study is an idealized framework for isentropic mixing in the lower stratosphere and is motivated by the need to better understand the effect of resolution on stratospheric chemistry in climate-chemistry models. Adopting a Lagrangian straining theory approach, we relate theoretically the ensemble mean of the length of the contact line, of the gradients along it, and of the modulus of the time derivative of the space-average reactant concentrations (here called the chemical speed) to the joint probability density function of the finite-time Lyapunov exponent λ with two times τ and τ[over ̃]. The time 1/λ measures the stretching time scale of a Lagrangian parcel on a chaotic orbit up to a finite time t, while τ measures it in the recent past before t, and τ[over ̃] in the early part of the trajectory. We show that the chemical speed scales like κ(1/2) and that its time evolution is determined by rare large events in the finite-time Lyapunov exponent distribution. The case of smooth initial gradients is also discussed. The theoretical results are tested with an ensemble of direct numerical simulations (DNSs) using a pseudospectral model.

  20. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  1. Oxygen speciation in upgraded fast pyrolysis bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omais, Badaoui; Crepier, Julien; Charon, Nadège; Courtiade, Marion; Quignard, Alain; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-04-21

    Biomass fast pyrolysis is considered as a promising route to produce liquid for the transportation field from a renewable resource. However, the derived bio-oils are mainly oxygenated (45-50%w/w O on a wet basis) and contain almost no hydrocarbons. Therefore, upgrading is necessary to obtain a liquid with lower oxygen content and characterization of oxygenated compounds in these products is essential to assist conversion reactions. For this purpose, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) can be investigated. Oxygen speciation in such matrices is hampered by the large diversity of oxygenated families and the complexity of the hydrocarbon matrix. Moreover, response factors must be taken into account for oxygenate quantification as the Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) response varies when a molecule contains heteroatoms. To conclude, no distillation cuts were accessible and the analysis had to cover a large range of boiling points (30-630 °C). To take up this analytical challenge, a thorough optimization approach was developed. In fact, four GC × GC column sets were investigated to separate oxygenated compounds from the hydrocarbon matrix. Both model mixtures and the upgraded biomass flash pyrolysis oil were injected using GC × GC-FID to reach a suitable chromatographic separation. The advantages and drawbacks of each column combination for oxygen speciation in upgraded bio-oils are highlighted in this study. Among the four sets, an original polar × semi-polar column combination was selected and enabled the identification by GC × GC-ToF/MS of more than 40 compounds belonging to eight chemical families: ketones, furans, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, guaiacols, anisols, and esters. For quantification purpose, the GC × GC-FID chromatogram was divided into more than 60 blobs corresponding to the previously identified analyte and hydrocarbon zones. A database associating each blob to a molecule and its specific response factor (determined

  2. Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...

  3. Two-dimensional heat flow analysis applied to heat sterilization of ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson

    2004-01-01

    Equations for a two-dimensional finite difference heat flow analysis were developed and applied to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir square timbers to calculate the time required to heat the center of the squares to target temperature. The squares were solid piled, which made their surfaces inaccessible to the heating air, and thus surface temperatures failed to attain...

  4. Evolution of the vorticity-area density during the formation of coherent structures in two-dimensional flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capel, H.W.; Pasmanter, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown: (1) that in two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows the vorticity-area distribution evolves according to an advection-diffusion equation with a negative, time dependent diffusion coefficient and (2) how to use the vorticity-stream function relations, i.e., the so-called

  5. Evaluation of reversible interconversion in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using enantioselective columns in first and second dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Sabrina; Wong, Yong Foo; Chin, Sung-Tong; Grant, Jacob; Lupton, David; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-07-24

    The reversible molecular interconversion behaviour of a synthesised oxime (2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime; (C6H5)CH(CH3)CHN(OH)) was investigated by both, single dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Previous studies on small molecular weight oximes were extended to this larger aromatic oxime (molar mass 149.19gmol(-1)) with interest in the extent of interconversion, enantioselective resolution, and retention time. On a polyethylene glycol (PEG; wax-type) column, a characteristic interconversion zone between two antipodes of E and Z isomers was formed by molecules which have undergone isomerisation on the column (E⇌Z). The extent of interconversion was investigated by varying chromatographic conditions (oven temperature and carrier flow rate) to understand the nature of the behaviour observed. The extent of interconversion was negligible in both enantioselective and methyl-phenylpolysiloxane phase-columns, correlating with the low polarity of the stationary phase. In order to obtain isomerisation along with enantio-resolution, a wax-type and an enantioselective column were coupled in either enantioselective-wax or wax-enantioselective order. The most appropriate column arrangement was selected for study by using a GC×GC experiment with either a wax-phase or phenyl-methylpolysiloxane phase as (2)D column. In addition to evaluation of these fast elution columns, a long narrow-bore enantioselective column (10m) was introduced as (2)D, providing an enantioselective-PEG (coupled-column ensemble: (1)D1+(1)D2)×enantioselective ((2)D) column combination. In this instance, the (1)D1 enantioselective column provides enantiomeric separation of the corresponding enantiomers ((R) and (S)) of (E)- and (Z)-2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime, followed by E/Z isomerisation in the coupled (1)D2 PEG (reactor) column. The resulting chromatographic interconversion region was modulated and separated into either E/Z isomers

  6. Spin currents in a normal two-dimensional electron gas in contact with a spin-orbit interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A; Tkach, Yurii Ya

    2009-01-01

    Spin effects in a normal two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in lateral contact with a 2D region with spin-orbit interaction are studied. The peculiarity of this system is the presence of spin-dependent scattering of electrons from the interface. This results in an equilibrium edge spin current and nontrivial spin responses to a particle current. We investigate the spatial distribution of the spin currents and spin density under non-equilibrium conditions caused by a ballistic electron current flowing normal or parallel to the interface. The parallel electron current is found to generate a spin density near the interface and to change the edge spin current. The perpendicular electron current changes the edge spin current proportionally to the electron current and produces a bulk spin current penetrating deep into the normal region. This spin current has two components, one of which is directed normal to the interface and polarized parallel to it, and the second is parallel to the interface and is polarized in the plane perpendicular to the contact line. Both spin currents have a high degree of polarization (∼40-60%).

  7. Two-dimensional computational modeling of high-speed transient flow in gun tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A. M.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Hasini, H.; Al-Falahi, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, an axisymmetric numerical model was developed to investigate the transient flow inside a 7-meter-long free piston gun tunnel. The numerical solution of the gun tunnel was carried out using the commercial solver Fluent. The governing equations of mass, momentum, and energy were discretized using the finite volume method. The dynamic zone of the piston was modeled as a rigid body, and its motion was coupled with the hydrodynamic forces from the flow solution based on the six-degree-of-freedom solver. A comparison of the numerical data with the theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of a ground-based gun tunnel facility showed good agreement. The effects of parameters such as working gases and initial pressure ratio on the test conditions in the facility were examined. The pressure ratio ranged from 10 to 50, and gas combinations of air-air, helium-air, air-nitrogen, and air-CO2 were used. The results showed that steady nozzle reservoir conditions can be maintained for a longer duration when the initial conditions across the diaphragm are adjusted. It was also found that the gas combination of helium-air yielded the highest shock wave strength and speed, but a longer test time was achieved in the test section when using the CO2 test gas.

  8. Wind Tunnel Study on Flows over Various Two-dimensional Idealized Urban-liked Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yat-Kiu; Liu, Chun-Ho

    2013-04-01

    Extensive human activities (e.g. increased traffic emissions) emit a wide range of pollutants resulting in poor urban area air quality. Unlike open, flat and homogenous rural terrain, urban surface is complicated by the presence of buildings, obstacles and narrow streets. The irregular urban surfaces thus form a random roughness that further modifies the near-surface flows and pollutant dispersion. In this study, a physical modelling approach is employed to commence a series of wind tunnel experiments to study the urban-area air pollution problems. The flow characteristics over different hypothetical urban roughness surfaces were studied in a wind tunnel in isothermal conditions. Preliminary experiments were conducted based on six types of idealized two-dimensional (2D) street canyon models with various building-height-to-street-width (aspect) ratios (ARs) 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/10 and 1/12. The main instrumentation is an in-house 90o X-hotwire anemometry. In each set of configuration, a sampling street canyon was selected near the end of the streamwise domain. Its roof level, i.e. the transverse between the mid points of the upstream and downstream buildings, was divided into eight segments. The measurements were then recorded on the mid-plane of the spannwise domain along the vertical profile (from building roof level to the ceiling of wind tunnel) of the eight segments. All the data acquisition processes were handled by the NI data acquisition modules, NI 9239 and CompactDAQ-9188 hardware. Velocity calculation was carried out in the post-processing stage on a digital computer. The two-component flow velocities and velocity fluctuations were calculated at each sampling points, therefore, for each model, a streamwise average of eight vertical profiles of mean velocity and velocity fluctuations was presented. A plot of air-exchange rate (ACH) against ARs was also presented in order to examine the ventilation performance of different tested models. Preliminary results

  9. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  10. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E.; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10 15  cm −2 (or 1.25 × 10 14  cm −2 per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES

  11. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim; Mekias, Hocine; Guechi, Fairouz

    2007-01-01

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number α and for various values of the inclination angle β between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall

  12. A waveless two-dimensional flow in a channel against an inclined wall with surface tension effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merzougui, Abdelkrim [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Mohamed Boudiaf, M' sila, 28000 (Algeria); Mekias, Hocine [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria); Guechi, Fairouz [Departement de Mathematiques, Faculte des sciences, Universite Farhat Abbas Setif 19000 (Algeria)

    2007-11-23

    Surface tension effect on a two-dimensional channel flow against an inclined wall is considered. The flow is assumed to be steady, irrotational, inviscid and incompressible. The effect of surface tension is taken into account and the effect of gravity is neglected. Numerical solutions are obtained via series truncation procedure. The problem is solved numerically for various values of the Weber number {alpha} and for various values of the inclination angle {beta} between the horizontal bottom and the inclined wall.

  13. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fast characterization of oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Weghe, H.; Vanermen, G.; Gemoets, J.; Lookman, R.; Bertels, D.

    2005-01-01

    Most analytical methods for the characterization of oil contamination rely on gas chromatography. Capillary GC offers a high separation power (peak capacity typically 100 - 500), and by using a boiling point column a volatility based distribution is obtained. However, petrochemical mixtures like mineral oil easily contain more then 5000 compounds, and capillary GC does not succeed in separating such mixtures up to the level of individual components. Analytical results are therefore limited to a classification into boiling point (or equivalent-carbon) fractions. Recent methods refined the classification by fractionation in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons prior to GC-analysis (TPH method, Weisman 1998), and by incorporating water solubility (TTE and OK method, for a detailed description we refer to the Consoil 2005 lecture by R. Lookman 'Oil characterization: assessment of composition, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil'). However, besides analytical difficulties and time consuming protocols related with these methods, the resulting classification still remains coarse and the various groups are not univocally chemically identified. Recently, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCXGC) was introduced. This technique combines two GC-columns with different separation mechanisms. The two columns are connected by a modulator, a device that traps, focuses and re-injects the peaks that elute from the first column into the second column. Each peak from the first column (representing a number of overlapping peaks) is further separated on the second column. The very high separation power of GCXGC (peak capacity 2000 - 10000) is ideal for the analysis of complex mixtures like mineral oil. Another important feature is the generation of structured chromatograms. Isomers appear as distinct groups in the chromatogram as a result of their similar interaction with the 2D-column phase. For chemical identification comprehensive GC can be

  14. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fast characterization of oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Weghe, H.; Vanermen, G.; Gemoets, J.; Lookman, R.; Bertels, D. [VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Most analytical methods for the characterization of oil contamination rely on gas chromatography. Capillary GC offers a high separation power (peak capacity typically 100 - 500), and by using a boiling point column a volatility based distribution is obtained. However, petrochemical mixtures like mineral oil easily contain more then 5000 compounds, and capillary GC does not succeed in separating such mixtures up to the level of individual components. Analytical results are therefore limited to a classification into boiling point (or equivalent-carbon) fractions. Recent methods refined the classification by fractionation in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons prior to GC-analysis (TPH method, Weisman 1998), and by incorporating water solubility (TTE and OK method, for a detailed description we refer to the Consoil 2005 lecture by R. Lookman 'Oil characterization: assessment of composition, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil'). However, besides analytical difficulties and time consuming protocols related with these methods, the resulting classification still remains coarse and the various groups are not univocally chemically identified. Recently, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCXGC) was introduced. This technique combines two GC-columns with different separation mechanisms. The two columns are connected by a modulator, a device that traps, focuses and re-injects the peaks that elute from the first column into the second column. Each peak from the first column (representing a number of overlapping peaks) is further separated on the second column. The very high separation power of GCXGC (peak capacity 2000 - 10000) is ideal for the analysis of complex mixtures like mineral oil. Another important feature is the generation of structured chromatograms. Isomers appear as distinct groups in the chromatogram as a result of their similar interaction with the 2D-column phase. For chemical identification comprehensive GC

  15. Effect of disorder on the density of states of a two-dimensional electron gas under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacie, S.; Meziani, Y.M.; Chaubet, C.; Jouault, B.; Raymond, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the density of states (DOS) of a two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field, using a multiple scattering method, in the ultraquantum limit. We have considered doped and disordered 2D systems. The results of the scattering method are compared with direct simulations of disordered samples. Using the DOS, we have studied the metal-insulator transition and the magnetic freeze-out including a comparison with experimental results

  16. Absolute Negative Resistance Induced by Directional Electron-Electron Scattering in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.; Eberl, Karl

    2007-05-01

    A three-terminal device formed by two electrostatic barriers crossing an asymmetrically patterned two-dimensional electron gas displays an unusual potential depression at the middle contact, yielding absolute negative resistance. The device displays momentum and current transfer ratios that far exceed unity. The observed reversal of the current or potential in the middle terminal can be interpreted as the analog of Bernoulli’s effect in a Fermi liquid. The results are explained by directional scattering of electrons in two dimensions.

  17. Assessment of RELAP5-3D copyright using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The capability of the RELAP5-3D copyright computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code's logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved

  18. Developing of two-dimensional model of the corium cooling and behavior with non-condensible gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of the non-condensible gas injection into the molten corium on the heat transfer and dynamic behavior within the melt when molten core-concrete interaction occurs during the hypothetical severe accident. Corium behavior with gas injection effect is two phase fluid pattern in which droplet has dispersed gas phase in continuous liquid phase of corium. To analyze this behavior, two dimensional governing equation using the governing equation, the computer program is accomplished using the finite difference method and SIMPLER algorithm. And benchmarking calculation is performed for the KfK experiment, which consider the gas injection effect. After this pre-calculation, an analyses is performed with typical corium under severe accidents. It is concluded that the heat transfer within corium increases as the metal components of the corium and gas injection velocity increase. 88 refs., 23 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  19. Unsteady flow around a two-dimensional section of a vertical axis turbine for tidal stream energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Ju Jung

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional unsteady flow around a vertical axis turbine for tidal stream energy conversion was investigated using a computational fluid dynamics tool solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The geometry of the turbine blade section was NACA653-018 airfoil. The computational analysis was done at several different angles of attack and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental data for validation and calibration. Simulations were then carried out for the two-dimensional cross section of a vertical axis turbine. The simulation results demonstrated the usefulness of the method for the typical unsteady flows around vertical axis turbines. The optimum turbine efficiency was achieved for carefully selected combinations of the number of blades and tip speed ratios.

  20. Coupling Navier-stokes and Cahn-hilliard Equations in a Two-dimensional Annular flow Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Vignal, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present a novel isogeometric analysis discretization for the Navier-Stokes- Cahn-Hilliard equation, which uses divergence-conforming spaces. Basis functions generated with this method can have higher-order continuity, and allow to directly discretize the higher- order operators present in the equation. The discretization is implemented in PetIGA-MF, a high-performance framework for discrete differential forms. We present solutions in a two- dimensional annulus, and model spinodal decomposition under shear flow.

  1. Renormalization group flows in σ-models coupled to two-dimensional dynamical gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penati, S.; Santambrogio, A.; Zanon, D.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a bosonic σ-model coupled to two-dimensional gravity. In the semiclassical limit, c→-∞, we compute the gravity dressing of the β-functions at two-loop order in the matter fields. We find that the corrections due to the presence of dynamical gravity are not expressible simply in terms of a multiplicative factor as previously obtained at the one-loop level. Our result indicates that the critical points of the theory are non-trivially influenced and modified by the induced gravity. (orig.)

  2. The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt

  3. Mean flow characteristics of two-dimensional wings in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwan Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study numerically investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional wings in the vicinity of the ground by solving two-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the turbulence closure model of the realizable k-ε model. Numerical simulations are performed at a wide range of the normalized ground clearance by the chord length (0.1≤h/C ≤ 1.25 for the angles of attack (0° ≤ α ≤ 10° in the pre-stall regime at a Reynolds number (Re of 2×106 based on free stream velocity U∞ and the chord length. As the physical model of this study, a cambered airfoil of NACA 4406 has been selected by a performance test for various airfoils. The maximum lift-to-drag ratio is achieved at α = 4° and h/C = 0.1. Under the conditions of α = 4° and h/C = 0.1, the effect of the Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4406 is investigated in the range of 2× 10 5 ≤ Re ≤ 2× 109. As Re increases, Cl and Cd augments and decreases, respectively, and the lift-to-drag ratio increases linearly.

  4. Resistive transition for two-dimensional superconductors: Comparison between experiments and Coulomb-gas-model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Coulomb-gas model of vortex fluctuations leads to scaling relations for the resistive transition which can be directly tested by experiments. By analyzing published resistance data, it is shown that there is experimental evidence for the Coulomb-gas scaling relation in the absence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that there exists some suggestive support for the Coulomb-gas predictions in the presence of a magnetic field

  5. Passive tracer in a flow corresponding to two-dimensional stochastic Navier–Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komorowski, Tomasz; Peszat, Szymon; Szarek, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we prove the law of large numbers and central limit theorem for trajectories of a particle carried by a two-dimensional Eulerian velocity field. The field is given by a solution of a stochastic Navier–Stokes system with non-degenerate noise. The spectral gap property, with respect to the Wasserstein metric, for such a system was shown in Hairer and Mattingly (2008 Ann. Probab. 36 2050–91). In this paper we show that a similar property holds for the environment process corresponding to the Lagrangian observations of the velocity. Consequently we conclude the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem for the tracer. The proof of the central limit theorem relies on the martingale approximation of the trajectory process. (paper)

  6. A solution of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow using the finite volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naceur Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the two dimensional numerical modeling of the coupling electromagnetic-hydrodynamic phenomena in a conduction MHD pump using the Finite volume Method. Magnetohydrodynamic problems are, thus, interdisciplinary and coupled, since the effect of the velocity field appears in the magnetic transport equations, and the interaction between the electric current and the magnetic field appears in the momentum transport equations. The resolution of the Maxwell's and Navier Stokes equations is obtained by introducing the magnetic vector potential A, the vorticity z and the stream function y. The flux density, the electromagnetic force, and the velocity are graphically presented. Also, the simulation results agree with those obtained by Ansys Workbench Fluent software.

  7. Carbon doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with high mobility two dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirmer, Marika; Bougeard, Dominique; Schuh, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, Werner [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Two dimensional hole gases (2DHG) with high carrier mobilities are required for both fundamental research and possible future ultrafast spintronic devices. Here, two different types of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures hosting a 2DHG were investigated. The first structure is a GaAs QW embedded in AlGaAs barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy with carbon-doping only at one side of the quantum well (QW) (single side doped, ssd), while the second structure is similar but with symmetrically arranged doping layers on both sides of the QW (double side doped, dsd). The ssd-structure shows hole mobilities up to 1.2*10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs which are achieved after illumination. In contrast, the dsd-structure hosts a 2DHG with mobility up to 2.05*10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Here, carrier mobility and carrier density is not affected by illuminating the sample. Both samples showed distinct Shubnikov-de-Haas oscillations and fractional quantum-Hall-plateaus in magnetotransport experiments done at 20mK, indicating the high quality of the material. In addition, the influence of different temperature profiles during growth and the influence of the Al content of the barrier Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As on carrier concentration and mobility were investigated and are presented here.

  8. Conductivity of a spin-polarized two-dimensional hole gas at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlimi, S., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Kaaouachi, A. El, E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Limouny, L., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Sybous, A.; Narjis, A.; Errai, M.; Daoudi, E. [Research Group ESNPS , Physics department, University Ibn Zohr, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 8106, Hay Dakhla, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Idrissi, H. El [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Département de physique. BP 146 Quartier Yasmina Mohammedia (Morocco); Zatni, A. [Laboratoire MSTI. Ecole de technologied' Agadir, B.P33/S Agadir (Morocco)

    2014-01-27

    In the ballistic regime where k{sub B}Tτ / ħ ≥1, the temperature dependence of the metallic conductivity in a two-dimensional hole system of gallium arsenide, is found to change non-monotonically with the degree of spin polarization. In particular, it fades away just before the onset of complete spin polarization, but reappears again in the fully spin-polarized state, being, however, suppressed relative to the zero magnetic field case. The analysis of the degree of suppression can distinguish between screening and interaction-based theories. We show that in a fully polarized spin state, the effects of disorder are dominant and approach a strong localization regime, which is contrary to the behavior of 2D electron systems in a weakly disordered unpolarized state. It was found that the elastic relaxation time correction, depending on the temperature, changed significantly with the degree of spin polarization, to reach a minimum just below the start of the spin-polarized integer, where the conductivity is practically independent of temperature.

  9. Giant Andreev Backscattering through a Quantum Point Contact Coupled via a Disordered Two-Dimensional Electron Gas to Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the superconducting-phase-modulated reduction in the resistance of a ballistic quantum point contact (QPC) connected via a disordered two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to superconductors. We show that this reduction is caused by coherent Andreev backscattering of holes through the QPC, which increases monotonically by reducing the bias voltage to zero. In contrast, the magnitude of the phase-dependent resistance of the disordered 2DEG displays a nonmonotonic reentrant behavior versus bias voltage. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  10. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the Fermi-liquid parameters in the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.; Ceperley, D.M.; Martin, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Excitations of the two-dimensional electron gas, including many-body effects, are calculated with a variational Monte Carlo method. Correlated sampling is introduced to calculate small energy differences between different excitations. The usual pair-product (Slater-Jastrow) trial wave function is found to lack certain correlations entirely so that backflow correlation is crucial. From the excitation energies calculated here, we determine Fermi-liquid parameters and related physical quantities such as the effective mass and the Lande g factor of the system. Our results for the effective mass are compared with previous analytic calculations

  11. A low noise ASIC for two dimensional neutron gas detector with performance of high spatial resolution (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Toh, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Sakasai, Kaoru; Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    An ASD-ASIC (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator ASIC) with fast response and low noise performances has been designed for two-dimensional position sensitive neutron gas detectors (InSPaD). The InSPaD is a 2D neutron detector system with 3 He gas and provides a high spatial resolution by making distinction between proton and triton particles generated in the gas chamber. The new ASD-ASIC is required to have very low noise, a wide dynamic range, good output linearity and high counting rate. The new ASD-ASIC has been designed by using CMOS and consisted of 64-channel ASDs, a 16-channel multiplexer with LVTTL drivers and sum amplifier system for summing all analog signals. The performances were evaluated by the Spice simulation. It was confirmed that the new ASD-ASIC had very low noise performance, wide dynamic range and fast signal processing functions. (author)

  12. Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.

  13. Application of a method for comparing one-dimensional and two-dimensional models of a ground-water flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naymik, T.G.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the inability of a one-dimensional ground-water model to interact continuously with surrounding hydraulic head gradients, simulations using one-dimensional and two-dimensional ground-water flow models were compared. This approach used two types of models: flow-conserving one-and-two dimensional models, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional models designed to yield two-dimensional solutions. The hydraulic conductivities of controlling features were varied and model comparison was based on the travel times of marker particles. The solutions within each of the two model types compare reasonably well, but a three-dimensional solution is required to quantify the comparison

  14. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  15. Predicted macroinvertebrate response to water diversion from a montane stream using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models and zero flow approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.

  16. A two-dimensional Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Martin Gerhard

    2016-01-21

    This thesis reports on the preparation of a 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover and the observation of the BKT transition into a quasi long-range ordered superfluid phase. The pair momentum distribution of the gas is probed by means of a matter-wave focusing technique which relies on time-of-flight evolution in a weak harmonic potential. This distribution holds the coherence properties of the gas. The quasi long-range ordered phase manifests itself as a sharp low-momentum peak. The temperature where it forms is identified as the transition temperature. By tuning the temperature and the interaction strength, the phase diagram of the 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover is mapped out. The phase coherence is investigated in a self-interference experiment. Furthermore, algebraic decay of correlations is observed in the trap average of the first order correlation function, which is obtained from the Fourier transform of the pair momentum distribution. This is in qualitative agreement with predictions of homogeneous theory for the superfluid phase in a 2D gas. The presented results provide a foundation for future experimental and theoretical studies of strongly correlated 2D Fermi gases. They might thus help to elucidate complex systems such as the electron gas in high-T{sub c} superconductors.

  17. Ionic liquid phases with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Nolvachai, Yada; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Kulsing, Chadin; Krisnangkura, Kanit; Marriott, Philip J

    2018-02-17

    New generation inert ionic liquid (iIL) GC columns IL60i, IL76i and IL111i, comprising phosphonium or imidazolium cationic species, were investigated for separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In general, the iIL phases provide comparable retention times to their corresponding conventional columns, with only minor selectivity differences. The average tailing factors and peak widths were noticeably improved (reduced) for IL60i and IL76i, while they were slightly improved for IL111i. Inert IL phase columns were coupled with conventional IL columns in comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) with a solid-state modulator which offers variable modulation temperature (T M ), programmable T M during analysis and trapping stationary phase material during the trap/release (modulation) process, independent of oven T and column sets. Although IL phases are classified as polar, relative polarity of the two phases comprising individual GC × GC column sets permits combination of less-polar IL/polar IL and polar IL/less-polar IL column sets; it was observed that a polar/less-polar column set provided better separation of FAME. A higher first dimension ( 1 D) phase polarity combined with a lower 2 D phase polarity, for instance 1 D IL111i with 2 D IL59 gave the best result; the greater difference in 1 D/ 2 D phase polarity results in increasing occupancy of peak area in the 2D space. The IL111i/IL59 column set was selected for analysis of fatty acids in fat and oil products (butter, margarine, fish oil and canola oil). Compared with the conventional IL111, IL111i showed reduced column bleed which makes this more suited to GC × GC analysis of FAME. The proposed method offers a fast profiling approach with good repeatability of analysis of FAME.

  18. Super-Cavitating Flow Around Two-Dimensional Conical, Spherical, Disc and Stepped Disc Cavitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sooraj, S.; Chandrasekharan, Vaishakh; Robson, Rony S.; Bhanu Prakash, S.

    2017-08-01

    A super-cavitating object is a high speed submerged object that is designed to initiate a cavitation bubble at the nose which extends past the aft end of the object, substantially reducing the skin friction drag that would be present if the sides of the object were in contact with the liquid in which the object is submerged. By reducing the drag force the thermal energy consumption to move faster can also be minimised. The super-cavitation behavioural changes with respect to Cavitators of various geometries have been studied by varying the inlet velocity. Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics analysis has been carried out by applying k-ε turbulence model. The variation of drag coefficient, cavity length with respect to cavitation number and inlet velocity are analyzed. Results showed conical Cavitator with wedge angle of 30° has lesser drag coefficient and cavity length when compared to conical Cavitators with wedge angles 45° and 60°, spherical, disc and stepped disc Cavitators. Conical cavitator 60° and disc cavitator have the maximum cavity length but with higher drag coefficient. Also there is significant variation of supercavitation effect observed between inlet velocities of 32 m/s to 40 m/s.

  19. Collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices and plasma modes of a two-dimensional electron gas with spatially modulated charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices is formulated by using linear response theory. Different kinds of collective excitations in type I (GaAs-GaAlAs) and type II (GaSb-InAs) superlattices are surveyed. Special attention is paid to the presence of surface and finite-size effects. In calculating the dielectric matrix, the effect of different approximations of the system is discussed. The theory for inelastic length scattering (Raman scattering), and for Electron Energy Loss (EEL) due to collective excitations, is formulated. Calculations for several model systems are presented and the main features of the spectra are discussed. In part II the theory of collective excitations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a spatially periodic equilibrium density is formulated. As a first example a periodic array of two-dimensional electron gas strips with constant equilibrium density is studied. The integral equation that describes the charge fluctuations on the strips is derived and solved numerically. The spatial dependence of the density fluctuation across a single strip can be in the form of either propagating or evanescent waves

  20. Nonequilibrium chemical potential in a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhabov, D. A., E-mail: pokhabov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Bakarov, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The nonequilibrium state of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime is studied in Hall bars equipped with additional inner contacts situated within the bar. The magnetic-field dependence of the voltage drop between different contact pairs are studied at various temperatures. It was found that the voltage between the inner and outer contacts exhibits peaks of significant amplitude in narrow magnetic-field intervals near integer filling factors. Furthermore, the magnetic-field dependence of the voltage in these intervals exhibits a hysteresis, whereas the voltage between the outer contacts remains zero in the entire magnetic-field range. The appearance of the observed voltage peaks and their hysteretic behavior can be explained by an imbalance between the chemical potentials of edge and bulk states, resulting from nonequilibrium charge redistribution between the edge and bulk states when the magnetic field sweeps under conditions of the quantum Hall effect. The results of the study significantly complement the conventional picture of the quantum Hall effect, explicitly indicating the existence of a significant imbalance at the edge of the two-dimensional electron gas: the experimentally observed difference between the electrochemical potentials of the edge and bulk exceeds the distance between Landau levels by tens of times.

  1. New benchmark for basic and neutral nitrogen compounds speciation in middle distillates using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Brodusch, Nicolas; Durand, Emmanuelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2007-04-27

    This paper reports an analytical method for the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) separation and identification of nitrogen compounds (N-compounds) in middle distillates according to their types (basicity). For the evaluation of the best chromatographic conditions, a non-polar x polar approach was chosen. The impact of the second dimension (stationary phase and column length) on the separation of basic and neutral N-compounds was evaluated by mean of two-dimensional resolution. This study revealed that the implementation of polar secondary column having free electron pairs improves drastically the separation of N-compounds. Indeed, the presence of permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions between neutral N-compounds and the stationary phase was enlightened. The comparison of two different nitrogen chemiluminescence detectors (NCD) was also evaluated for GC x GC selective monitoring of N-compounds. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity achieved using developed chromatographic and detection conditions, it was possible to identify univocally and to quantitate N-compounds (i) by class of compounds and (ii), within a class, by carbon number. Finally, quantitative comparison of GC x GC-NCD with conventional gas chromatography illustrates the benefits of GC x GC leading to an excellent correlation with results obtained by American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) methods for the determination of basic/neutral nitrogen ratio in diesel samples.

  2. Quantum spin-glass transition in the two-dimensional electron gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 2 ... Spin glasses; quantum phase transition; ferromagnetism; electron gas. ... We argue that a quantum transition involving the destruction of the spin-glass order in an applied in-plane magnetic field offers a natural explanation of some features of recent ...

  3. Two dimensional gas temperature measurements of fuel sprays in a high pressure cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is a promising low-emission combustion concept. By partially mixing the fuel, air and exhaust gas before auto-ignition, the soot and NOx emissions are lower than for conventional diesel combustion. However, the fundamental aspects of the mixing process of

  4. Radial flow gas dynamic laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damm, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    The unique gas dynamic laser provides outward radial supersonic flow from a toroidal shaped stacked array of a plurality of nozzles, through a diffuser having ring shaped and/or linear shaped vanes, and through a cavity which is cylindrical and concentric with the stacked array, with the resultant laser beam passing through the housing parallel to the central axis of the diffuser which is coincident with the axis of the gas dynamic laser. Therefore, greater beam extraction flexibility is attainable, because of fewer flow shock disturbances, as compared to the conventional unidirectional flow gas dynamic laser in which unidirectional supersonic flow sweeps through a rectangular cavity and is exhausted through a two-dimensional diffuser. (auth)

  5. Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence in the gas phase: a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular spectroscopy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2017-11-01

    Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) extends the usual laser induced fluorescence technique by adding a second dimension, the wavelength at which excited states emit, thereby significantly enhancing the information that can be extracted. It allows overlapping absorption features, whether they arise from within the same molecule or from different molecules in a mixture, to be associated with their appropriate "parent" state and/or molecule. While the first gas phase version of the technique was published a decade ago, the technique is in its infancy, having been exploited by only a few groups to date. However, its potential in gas phase spectroscopy and dynamics is significant. In this article we provide an overview of the technique and illustrate its potential with examples, with a focus on those utilising high resolution in the dispersed fluorescence dimension.

  6. Compressible magma flow in a two-dimensional elastic-walled dike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woods, A.W.; Bokhove, Onno; de Boer, A; Hill, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    The ascent of magma to the Earth's surface is commonly modeled by assuming a fixed dike or flow geometry from a deep subsurface reservoir to the surface. In practice, however, this flow geometry is produced by deformation of the crust by ascending overpressured magma. Here, we explore how this

  7. Flow channeling in a single fracture as a two-dimensional strongly heterogeneous permeable medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Y.W.; Tsang, C.F.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in the evaluation of contaminant transport in bedrock aquifers and in the performance assessment of geologic nuclear waste repositories has motivated many studies of fluid flow and tracer transport in fractured rocks. Until recently, numerical modeling of fluid flow in the fractured medium commonly makes the assumption that each fracture may be idealized as a pair of parallel plates separated by a constant distance which represents the aperture of the fracture. More recent theoretical work has taken into account that the aperture in a real rock fracture in fact takes on a range of values. Evidence that flow in fractures tends to coalesce in preferred paths has been found in the field. Current studies of flow channeling in a fracture as a result of the variable apertures may also be applicable to flow and transport in a strongly heterogenous porous medium. This report includes the methodology used to study the flow channelling and tracer transport in a single fracture consisting of variable apertures. Relevant parameters that control flow channeling are then identified and the relationship of results to the general problem of flow in a heterogenous porous medium are discussed

  8. The statistical mechanics of the classical two-dimensional Coulomb gas is exactly solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaj, L

    2003-01-01

    The model under consideration is a classical 2D Coulomb gas of pointlike positive and negative unit charges, interacting via a logarithmic potential. In the whole stability range of temperatures, the equilibrium statistical mechanics of this fluid model is exactly solvable via an equivalence with the integrable 2D sine-Gordon field theory. The exact solution includes the bulk thermodynamics, special cases of the surface thermodynamics and the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-body correlation functions

  9. Thermalisation of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a 'white-wall' photon box

    OpenAIRE

    Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered - corresponding to a vanishing chemica...

  10. Investigation of the use of Prandtl/Navier--Stokes equation procedures for two-dimensional incompressible flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, C.R.; Reider, M.B.

    1994-01-01

    The technique of combining solutions of the Prandtl equations with solutions of the Navier--Stokes equations to compute incompressible flow around two-dimensional bodies is investigated herein. Computational evidence is presented which shows that if the ''obvious'' coupling is used to combine the solutions, then the resulting solution is not accurate. An alternate coupling procedure is described which greatly improves the accuracy of the solutions obtained with the combined equation approach. An alternate coupling that can be used to create a more accurate vortex sheet/vortex blob method is then shown

  11. Renormalization of Fermi Velocity in a Composite Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, M.; Burlachkov, L.

    We calculate the self-energy Σ(k, ω) of an electron gas with a Coulomb interaction in a composite 2D system, consisting of metallic layers of thickness d ≳ a0, where a0 = ħ2ɛ1/me2 is the Bohr radius, separated by layers with a dielectric constant ɛ2 and a lattice constant c perpendicular to the planes. The behavior of the electron gas is determined by the dimensionless parameters kFa0 and kFc ɛ2/ɛ1. We find that when ɛ2/ɛ1 is large (≈5 or more), the velocity v(k) becomes strongly k-dependent near kF, and v(kF) is enhanced by a factor of 5-10. This behavior is similar to the one found by Lindhard in 1954 for an unscreened electron gas; however here we take screening into account. The peak in v(k) is very sharp (δk/kF is a few percent) and becomes sharper as ɛ2/ɛ1 increases. This velocity renormalization has dramatic effects on the transport properties; the conductivity at low T increases like the square of the velocity renormalization and the resistivity due to elastic scattering becomes temperature dependent, increasing approximately linearly with T. For scattering by phonons, ρ ∝ T2. Preliminary measurements suggest an increase in vk in YBCO very close to kF.

  12. Statistical mechanics and correlation properties of a rotating two-dimensional flow of like-sign vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viecelli, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Hamiltonian flow of a set of point vortices of like sign and strength has a low-temperature phase consisting of a rotating triangular lattice of vortices, and a normal temperature turbulent phase consisting of random clusters of vorticity that orbit about a common center along random tracks. The mean-field flow in the normal temperature phase has similarities with turbulent quasi-two-dimensional rotating laboratory and geophysical flows, whereas the low-temperature phase displays effects associated with quantum fluids. In the normal temperature phase the vortices follow power-law clustering distributions, while in the time domain random interval modulation of the vortex orbit radii fluctuations produces singular fractional exponent power-law low-frequency spectra corresponding to time autocorrelation functions with fractional exponent power-law tails. Enhanced diffusion is present in the turbulent state, whereas in the solid-body rotation state vortices thermally diffuse across the lattice. Over the entire temperature range the interaction energy of a single vortex in the field of the rest of the vortices follows positive temperature Fermi--Dirac statistics, with the zero temperature limit corresponding to the rotating crystal phase, and the infinite temperature limit corresponding to a Maxwellian distribution. Analyses of weather records dependent on the large-scale quasi-two-dimensional atmospheric circulation suggest the presence of singular fractional exponent power-law spectra and fractional exponent power-law autocorrelation tails, consistent with the theory

  13. Derivation of a correlation for Drag coefficient in two-dimensional bounded supercavitating flows, using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafaghat, R.; Hosseinalipour, S.M.; Derakhshani, S.M.E. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-07-15

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used as a new approach for the determination of the relations between drag coefficient and Cavitation Number with cavity geometry in supercavitating flows which have been most widely used in the hydrodynamics researches. Also the result of the ANNs as a cost function potentially will be used in an optimization algorithm. Instead of complex differential equations and limited experimental data, faster and simpler solutions were obtained using equations derived from the ANN model. For training of the ANN the numerical results are used that are obtained from a boundary element method (BEM). At this problem, a two-dimensional supercavitation potential inviscid flow pasts a symmetric two-dimensional cavitator, which is placed perpendicular to the flow in a channel of infinite width and immediately a cavity is formed behind the cavitator. It was found that the coefficient of multiple determination (R{sup 2}-value) between the actual and ANN predicted data is equal to about 0.9998 for the drag coefficient and Cavitation number. As seen from the obtained results, the calculated cavity geometry for all drag coefficients and Cavitation Numbers are obviously within acceptable limits. (orig.)

  14. Turbulence prediction in two-dimensional bundle flows using large eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, W.A.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Turbulent flow is characterized by random fluctuations in the fluid velocity and by intense mixing of the fluid. Due to velocity fluctuations, a wide range of eddies exists in the flow field. Because these eddies carry mass, momentum, and energy, this enhanced mixing can sometimes lead to serious problems, such as tube vibrations in many engineering systems that include fluid-tube bundle combinations. Nuclear fuel bundles and PWR steam generators are existing examples in nuclear power plants. Fluid-induced vibration problems are often discovered during the operation of such systems because some of the fluid-tube interaction characteristics are not fully understood. Large Eddy Simulation, incorporated in a three dimensional computer code, became one of the promising techniques to estimate flow turbulence, predict and prevent of long-term tube fretting affecting PWR steam generators. the present turbulence investigations is a step towards more understanding of fluid-tube interaction characteristics by comparing the tube bundles with various pitch-to-diameter ratios were performed. Power spectral densities were used for comparison with experimental data. Correlations, calculations of different length scales in the flow domain and other important turbulent-related parameters were calculated. Finally, important characteristics of turbulent flow field were presented with the aid of flow visualization with tracers impeded in the flow field.

  15. Least Squares Shadowing Sensitivity Analysis of Chaotic Flow Around a Two-Dimensional Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonigan, Patrick J.; Wang, Qiqi; Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Gradient-based sensitivity analysis has proven to be an enabling technology for many applications, including design of aerospace vehicles. However, conventional sensitivity analysis methods break down when applied to long-time averages of chaotic systems. This breakdown is a serious limitation because many aerospace applications involve physical phenomena that exhibit chaotic dynamics, most notably high-resolution large-eddy and direct numerical simulations of turbulent aerodynamic flows. A recently proposed methodology, Least Squares Shadowing (LSS), avoids this breakdown and advances the state of the art in sensitivity analysis for chaotic flows. The first application of LSS to a chaotic flow simulated with a large-scale computational fluid dynamics solver is presented. The LSS sensitivity computed for this chaotic flow is verified and shown to be accurate, but the computational cost of the current LSS implementation is high.

  16. Numerical simulation in a two dimensional turbulent flow over a backward-facing step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Neto, A. da; Grand, D.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of turbulent flows in complex geometries are generally restricted to the prediction of the mean flow and use semi-empirical turbulence models. The present study is devoted to the simulation of the coherence structures which develop in a flow submitted to a velocity change, downstream of a backward facing step. Two aspect ratios (height of the step over height of the channel) have been explored and the values of the Reynolds number vary from (6000 to 90000). In the isothermal case coherent structures have been obtained by the numerical simulation in the mixing layer downstream of the step. The numerical simulations provides results in fairly good agreement with available experimental results. In a second step a thermal stratification is imposed on this flow for one value of Richardson number (0.5) the coherent structures disappear downstream for increasing values of Richardson number. (author)

  17. Determination of two-dimensional correlation lengths in an anisotropic two-component flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, O.

    1994-05-01

    Former studies have shown that correlation methods can be used for determination of various two-component flow parameters, among these the correlation length. In cases where the flow can be described as a mixture, in which the minority component forms spatially limited perturbations within the majority component, this parameter gives a good indication of the maximum extension of these perturbations. In the former studies, spherical symmetry of the perturbations has been assumed, and the correlation length has been measured in the direction of the flow (axially) only. However, if the flow structure is anisotropic, the correlation length will be different in different directions. In the present study, the method has been developed further, allowing also measurements perpendicular to the flow direction (radially). The measurements were carried out using laser beams and the two-component flows consisted of either glass beads and air or air and water. In order to make local measurements of both the axial and radial correlation length simultaneously, it is necessary to use 3 laser beams and to form the triple cross-covariance. This lead to some unforeseen complications, due to the character of this function. The experimental results are generally positive and size determinations with an accuracy of better than 10% have been achieved in most cases. Less accurate results appeared only for difficult conditions (symmetrical signals), when 3 beams were used. 5 refs, 13 figs, 3 tabs

  18. A two-dimensional analytical model for groundwater flow in a leaky aquifer extending finite distance under the estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Mo-Hsiung; Hung, Chi-Tung; -Yen Lin, Wen; Ma, Kuo-chen

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, cities and industries in the vicinity of the estuarine region have developed rapidly, resulting in a sharp increase in the population concerned. The increasing demand for human activities, agriculture irrigation, and aquaculture relies on massive pumping of water in estuarine area. Since the 1950s, numerous studies have focused on the effects of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow in the estuarine area. Tide-induced head fluctuation in a two-dimensional estuarine aquifer system is complicated and rather important in dealing with many groundwater management or remediation problems. The conceptual model of the aquifer system considered is multi-layered with estuarine bank and the leaky aquifer extend finite distance under the estuary. The solution of the model describing the groundwater head distribution in such an estuarine aquifer system and subject to the tidal fluctuation effects from estuarine river is developed based on the method of separation of variables along with river boundary. The solutions by Sun (Sun H. A two-dimensional analytical solution of groundwater response to tidal loading in an estuary, Water Resour. Res. 1997; 33:1429-35) as well as Tang and Jiao (Tang Z. and J. J. Jiao, A two-dimensional analytical solution for groundwater flow in a leaky confined aquifer system near open tidal water, Hydrological Processes, 2001; 15: 573-585) can be shown to be special cases of the present solution. On the basis of the analytical solution, the groundwater head distribution in response to estuarine boundary is examined and the influences of leakage, hydraulic parameters, and loading effect on the groundwater head fluctuation due to tide are investigated and discussed. KEYWORDS: analytical model, estuarine river, groundwater fluctuation, leaky aquifer.

  19. Moderately converging ion and electron flows in two-dimensional diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavenago, M.

    2012-01-01

    Flow of particles in diodes is solved selfconsistently assuming an approximated system of flow lines, that can be easily represented by an analytic transformation in a complex plane, with assumed uniformity in the third spatial direction. Beam current compression is tunable by an angle parameter α 0 ; transformed coordinate lines are circular arcs, exactly matching to the curved cathode usually considered by rectilinear converging flows. The curvature of flow lines allows to partly balance the transverse effect of space charge. A self-contained discussion of the whole theory is reported, ranging from analytical solution for selfconsistent potential to electrode drawing to precise numerical simulation, which serves as a verification and as an illustration of typical electrode shapes. Motion and Poisson equation are written in a curved flow line system and their approximate consistency is shown to imply an ordinary differential equation for the beam edge potential. Transformations of this equation and their series solutions are given and discussed, showing that beam edge potential has a maximum, so supporting both diode (with α 0 ≅π/3) and triode design. Numerical simulations confirm the consistency of these solution. Geometrical details of diode design are discussed: the condition of a zero divergence beam, with the necessary anode lens effect included, is written and solved, as a function of beam compression; accurate relations for diode parameters and perveance are given. Weakly relativistic effects including self-magnetic field are finally discussed as a refinement.

  20. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  1. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  2. Tomography for two-dimensional gas temperature distribution based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Can; Wang, Yunchu; Xing, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), the tomography is used to reconstruct the combustion gas temperature distribution. The effects of number of rays, number of grids, and spacing of rays on the temperature reconstruction results for parallel ray are researched. The reconstruction quality is proportional to the ray number. The quality tends to be smoother when the ray number exceeds a certain value. The best quality is achieved when η is between 0.5 and 1. A virtual ray method combined with the reconstruction algorithms is tested. It is found that virtual ray method is effective to improve the accuracy of reconstruction results, compared with the original method. The linear interpolation method and cubic spline interpolation method, are used to improve the calculation accuracy of virtual ray absorption value. According to the calculation results, cubic spline interpolation is better. Moreover, the temperature distribution of a TBCC combustion chamber is used to validate those conclusions.

  3. Evolution of ferromagnetism in two-dimensional electron gas of LaTiO3/SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangdi; Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Pal, B.; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Chakhalian, J.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding, creating, and manipulating spin polarization of two-dimensional electron gases at complex oxide interfaces present an experimental challenge. For example, despite almost a decade long research effort, the microscopic origin of ferromagnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterojunctions is still an open question. Here, by using a prototypical two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) which emerges at the interface between band insulator SrTiO3 and antiferromagnetic Mott insulator LaTiO3, the experiment reveals the evidence for magnetic phase separation in a hole-doped Ti d1 t2g system, resulting in spin-polarized 2DEG. The details of electronic and magnetic properties of the 2DEG were investigated by temperature-dependent d.c. transport, angle-dependent X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and temperature-dependent magnetoresistance. The observation of clear hysteresis in magnetotransport at low magnetic fields implies spin-polarization from magnetic islands in the hole rich LaTiO3 near the interface. These findings emphasize the role of magnetic instabilities in doped Mott insulators, thus providing another path for designing all-oxide structures relevant to spintronic applications.

  4. A comparative study of lattice Boltzmann and volume of fluid method for two dimensional multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seung Yeob [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sung Ho [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    The volume of fluid (VOF) model of FLUENT and the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are used to simulate two-phase flows. Both methods are validated for static and dynamic bubble test cases and then compared to experimental results. The VOF method does not reduce the spurious currents of the static droplet test and does not satisfy the Laplace law for small droplets at the acceptable level, as compared with the LBM. For single bubble flows, simulations are executed for various Eotvos numbers, Morton numbers and Reynolds numbers, and the results of both methods agree well with the experiments in the case of low Eotvos numbers. For high Eotvos numbers, the VOF results deviated from the experiments. For multiple bubbles, the bubble flow characteristics are related by the wake of the leading bubble. The coaxial and oblique coalescence of the bubbles are simulated successfully and the subsequent results are presented. In conclusion, the LBM performs better than the VOF method.

  5. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    Doppler echocardiography remains the most extended clinical modality for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function. Current Doppler ultrasound methods, however, are limited to the representation of a single flow velocity component. We thus developed a novel technique to construct 2D time-resolved (2D+t) LV velocity fields from conventional transthoracic clinical acquisitions. Combining color-Doppler velocities with LV wall positions, the cross-beam blood velocities were calculated using the continuity equation under a planar flow assumption. To validate the algorithm, 2D Doppler flow mapping and laser particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were carried out in an atrio-ventricular duplicator. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance (MR) acquisitions were used to measure in vivo the error due to the 2D flow assumption and to potential scan-plane misalignment. Finally, the applicability of the Doppler technique was tested in the clinical setting. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the new method yields an accurate quantitative description of the main vortex that forms during the cardiac cycle (mean error for vortex radius, position and circulation). MR image analysis evidenced that the error due to the planar flow assumption is close to 15% and does not preclude the characterization of major vortex properties neither in the normal nor in the dilated LV. These results are yet to be confirmed by a head-to-head clinical validation study. Clinical Doppler studies showed that the method is readily applicable and that a single large anterograde vortex develops in the healthy ventricle while supplementary retrograde swirling structures may appear in the diseased heart. The proposed echocardiographic method based on the continuity equation is fast, clinically-compliant and does not require complex training. This technique will potentially enable investigators to study of additional quantitative aspects of intraventricular flow dynamics in the clinical setting by

  6. Generalized Adaptive Smoothing Method for State Estimation of Generic Two-Dimensional Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Y.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    In big cities, the proportion of slow-mode (such as pedestrian) flows in total trip demand is steadily growing every year. Along with this trend, many concerns arise about accessibility and safety. The monitoring and the management of pedestrians serve as a potential solution to maintain the

  7. A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra

  8. A two-dimensional, TVD numerical scheme for inviscid, high Mach number flows in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, S.; Palmer, G.

    1986-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed for hypervelocity flows in chemical equilibrium. Solutions have been achieved for Mach numbers up to 15 with no adverse effect on convergence. Two methods of coupling an equilibrium chemistry package have been tested, with the simpler method proving to be more robust. Improvements in boundary conditions are still required for a production-quality code.

  9. Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan; Li, Yanshuo; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-07

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets could serve as ideal building blocks of molecular sieve membranes owing to their structural diversity and minimized mass-transfer barrier. To date, discovery of appropriate MOF nanosheets and facile fabrication of high performance MOF nanosheet-based membranes remain as great challenges. A modified soft-physical exfoliation method was used to disintegrate a lamellar amphiprotic MOF into nanosheets with a high aspect ratio. Consequently sub-10 nm-thick ultrathin membranes were successfully prepared, and these demonstrated a remarkable H 2 /CO 2 separation performance, with a separation factor of up to 166 and H 2 permeance of up to 8×10 -7  mol m -2  s -1  Pa -1 at elevated testing temperatures owing to a well-defined size-exclusion effect. This nanosheet-based membrane holds great promise as the next generation of ultrapermeable gas separation membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Prediction of retention times in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using thermodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinitie, Teague M; Harynuk, James J

    2012-09-14

    A method was developed to accurately predict both the primary and secondary retention times for a series of alkanes, ketones and alcohols in a flow-modulated GC×GC system. This was accomplished through the use of a three-parameter thermodynamic model where ΔH, ΔS, and ΔC(p) for an analyte's interaction with the stationary phases in both dimensions are known. Coupling this thermodynamic model with a time summation calculation it was possible to accurately predict both (1)t(r) and (2)t(r) for all analytes. The model was able to predict retention times regardless of the temperature ramp used, with an average error of only 0.64% for (1)t(r) and an average error of only 2.22% for (2)t(r). The model shows promise for the accurate prediction of retention times in GC×GC for a wide range of compounds and is able to utilize data collected from 1D experiments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Toward a definition of blueprint of virgin olive oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Bicchi, Carlo; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-03-21

    This study investigates the applicability of an iterative approach aimed at defining a chemical blueprint of virgin olive oil volatiles to be correlated to the product sensory quality. The investigation strategy proposed allows to fully exploit the informative content of a comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to a mass spectrometry (MS) data set. Olive oil samples (19), including 5 reference standards, obtained from the International Olive Oil Council, and commercial samples, were submitted to a sensory evaluation by a Panel test, before being analyzed in two laboratories using different instrumentation, column set, and software elaboration packages in view of a cross-validation of the entire methodology. A first classification of samples based on untargeted peak features information, was obtained on raw data from two different column combinations (apolar×polar and polar×apolar) by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis (i.e., principal component analysis-PCA). However, to improve effectiveness and specificity of this classification, peak features were reliably identified (261 compounds), on the basis of the MS spectrum and linear retention index matching, and subjected to successive pair-wise comparisons based on 2D patterns, which revealed peculiar distribution of chemicals correlated with samples sensory classification. The most informative compounds were thus identified and collected in a "blueprint" of specific defects (or combination of defects) successively adopted to discriminate Extra Virgin from defected oils (i.e., lampante oil) with the aid of a supervised approach, i.e., partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In this last step, the principles of sensomics, which assigns higher information potential to analytes with lower odor threshold proved to be successful, and a much more powerful discrimination of samples was obtained in view of a sensory quality assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  12. Direct numerical simulations of agglomeration of circular colloidal particles in two-dimensional shear flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Joon; Djilali, Ned

    2016-01-01

    Colloidal agglomeration of nanoparticles in shear flow is investigated by solving the fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions in a 2D system. We use an extended finite element method in which the dynamics of the particles is solved in a fully coupled manner with the flow, allowing an accurate description of the fluid-particle interfaces without the need of boundary-fitted meshes or of empirical correlations to account for the hydrodynamic interactions between the particles. Adaptive local mesh refinement using a grid deformation method is incorporated with the fluid-structure interaction algorithm, and the particle-particle interaction at the microscopic level is modeled using the Lennard-Jones potential. Motivated by the process used in fabricating fuel cell catalysts from a colloidal ink, the model is applied to investigate agglomeration of colloidal particles under external shear flow in a sliding bi-periodic Lees-Edwards frame with varying shear rates and particle fraction ratios. Both external shear and particle fraction are found to have a crucial impact on the structure formation of colloidal particles in a suspension. Segregation intensity and graph theory are used to analyze the underlying agglomeration patterns and structures, and three agglomeration regimes are identified

  13. Comparison of two-dimensional MR angiography and microsphere measurement of renal blood flow for detection of renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, T.A.; Lorenz, C.H.; Shetty, A.N.; Holburn, G.E.; Price, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares depiction of the renal arteries by MR angiography to renal blood flow as determined with microspheres in a dog model of renal artery stenosis. A left renal artery stenosis was created by placement of a silk ligature. Nb-95-labeled microspheres were injected into the left ventricle and a reference blood sample was drawn. The dog was imaged in the 1.5-T MR imager with two-dimensional MR angiography sequences. The kidneys were excised, weighted, divided into sections, and counted. Two dogs were studied to date. In dog 1, left renal blood flow (RBF) was 42 mL/min/100 g and right RBF was 337 mL/min/100 g. In dog 2 left RBF was 44 mL/min/100 g and right RBF was 608 mL/min/100 g

  14. A two-dimensional finite element model of front surface current flow in cells under non-uniform, concentrated illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellor, A.; Domenech-Garret, J.L.; Chemisana, D.; Rosell, J.I. [Departament de Medi Ambient i C.S., University of Lleida, Av. Alcalde Rovira Roure 191, E25198 (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    A two-dimensional finite element model of current flow in the front surface of a PV cell is presented. In order to validate this model we perform an experimental test. Later, particular attention is paid to the effects of non-uniform illumination in the finger direction which is typical in a linear concentrator system. Fill factor, open circuit voltage and efficiency are shown to decrease with increasing degree of non-uniform illumination. It is shown that these detrimental effects can be mitigated significantly by reoptimization of the number of front surface metallization fingers to suit the degree of non-uniformity. The behavior of current flow in the front surface of a cell operating at open circuit voltage under non-uniform illumination is discussed in detail. (author)

  15. Anisotropic Friedel oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, I. V.; Kolesnichenko, Yu. A.

    2017-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spatial distribution of the local density of states (LDOS) and the local magnetization density (LMD) in the vicinity of a magnetic point-defect in a degenerate two-dimensional electron gas with a mixed Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interaction (SOI). The dependence of the Friedel oscillations, which arise under these conditions, on the ratio of the SOI constants is investigated. We obtain asymptotic expressions for the oscillatory parts of the LDOS and the LMD, that are accurate for large distances from the defect. It is shown, that the Friedel oscillations are significantly anisotropic and contain several harmonics for certain ratios of the SOI constants. Period of the oscillations for directions along the symmetry axes of the Fermi contours are determined. Finally, we introduce a method for determining the values of the two SOI constants by measuring the period of the Friedel oscillations of the LDOS and the LMD for different harmonics.

  16. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  17. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-04

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.

  18. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background

  19. Relativistic effects in the energy loss of a fast charged particle moving parallel to a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Zoran L.; Akbari, Kamran; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-05-01

    We present a fully relativistic formulation for the energy loss rate of a charged particle moving parallel to a sheet containing two-dimensional electron gas, allowing that its in-plane polarization may be described by different longitudinal and transverse conductivities. We apply our formulation to the case of a doped graphene layer in the terahertz range of frequencies, where excitation of the Dirac plasmon polariton (DPP) in graphene plays a major role. By using the Drude model with zero damping we evaluate the energy loss rate due to excitation of the DPP, and show that the retardation effects are important when the incident particle speed and its distance from graphene both increase. Interestingly, the retarded energy loss rate obtained in this manner may be both larger and smaller than its non-retarded counterpart for different combinations of the particle speed and distance.

  20. Analytic Approximate Solutions for Unsteady Two-Dimensional and Axisymmetric Squeezing Flows between Parallel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of a viscous incompressible fluid between two parallel plates due to the normal motion of the plates is investigated. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a nonlinear fourth-order differential equation by using similarity solutions. Homotopy analysis method (HAM is used to solve this nonlinear equation analytically. The convergence of the obtained series solution is carefully analyzed. The validity of our solutions is verified by the numerical results obtained by fourth-order Runge-Kutta.

  1. Development of a new dynamic turbulent model, applications to two-dimensional and plane parallel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, Jean Philippe

    1999-01-01

    We developed a turbulent model based on asymptotic development of the Navier-Stokes equations within the hypothesis of non-local interactions at small scales. This model provides expressions of the turbulent Reynolds sub-grid stresses via estimates of the sub-grid velocities rather than velocities correlations as is usually done. The model involves the coupling of two dynamical equations: one for the resolved scales of motions, which depends upon the Reynolds stresses generated by the sub-grid motions, and one for the sub-grid scales of motions, which can be used to compute the sub-grid Reynolds stresses. The non-locality of interaction at sub-grid scales allows to model their evolution with a linear inhomogeneous equation where the forcing occurs via the energy cascade from resolved to sub-grid scales. This model was solved using a decomposition of sub-grid scales on Gabor's modes and implemented numerically in 2D with periodic boundary conditions. A particles method (PIC) was used to compute the sub-grid scales. The results were compared with results of direct simulations for several typical flows. The model was also applied to plane parallel flows. An analytical study of the equations allows a description of mean velocity profiles in agreement with experimental results and theoretical results based on the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equation. Possible applications and improvements of the model are discussed in the conclusion. (author) [fr

  2. Two-dimensional PIC simulations of ion beam instabilities in Supernova-driven plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meli, A; Mastichiadis, A [Department of Physics, National University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 15783 (Greece); Drury, L O C [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2 (Ireland)], E-mail: markd@tp4.rub.de

    2008-06-15

    Supernova remnant blast shells can reach the flow speed v{sub s} = 0.1c and shocks form at its front. Instabilities driven by shock-reflected ion beams heat the plasma in the foreshock, which may inject particles into diffusive acceleration. The ion beams can have the speed v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s}. For v{sub b} << v{sub s} the Buneman or upper-hybrid instabilities dominate, while for v{sub b} >> v{sub s} the filamentation and mixed modes grow faster. Here the relevant waves for v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s} are examined and how they interact nonlinearly with the particles. The collision of two plasma clouds at the speed v{sub s} is modelled with particle-in-cell simulations, which convect with them magnetic fields oriented perpendicular to their flow velocity vector. One simulation models equally dense clouds and the other one uses a density ratio of 2. Both simulations show upper-hybrid waves that are planar over large spatial intervals and that accelerate electrons to {approx}10 keV. The symmetric collision yields only short oscillatory wave pulses, while the asymmetric collision also produces large-scale electric fields, probably through a magnetic pressure gradient. The large-scale fields destroy the electron phase space holes and they accelerate the ions, which facilitates the formation of a precursor shock.

  3. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  4. Two-Dimensional Computational Flow Analysis and Frictional Characteristics Model for Red Blood Cell under Inclined Centrifuge Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Shirai, Atsushi

    Simplified two-dimensional flow analysis is performed in order to simulate frictional characteristics measurement of red blood cells moving on a glass plate in a medium with an inclined centrifuge microscope. Computation under various conditions reveals the influences of parameters on lift, drag, and moment acting on a red blood cell. Among these forces, lift appears only when the cell is longitudinally asymmetric. By considering the balance of forces, the frictional characteristics of the red blood cell are modeled as the sum of Coulomb friction and viscous drag. The model describes the possibility that the red blood cell deforms to expand in the front side in response to the inclined centrifugal force. When velocity exceeds some critical value, the lift overcomes the normal centrifugal force component, and the thickness of the plasma layer between the cell and the glass plate increases from the initial value of the plasma protein thickness.

  5. Numerical simulation of transient, adiabatic, two-dimensional two-phase flow using the two-fluid model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves Conti, T. das.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical method is developed to simulate adiabatic, transient, two-dimensional two-phase flow. The two-fluid model is used to obtain the mass and momentum conservation equations. These are solved by an iterative algorithm emphoying a time-marching scheme. Based on the corrective procedure of Hirt and Harlow a poisson equation is derived for the pressure field. This equation is finite-differenced and solved by a suitable matrix inversion technique. In the absence of experiment results several numerical tests were made in order to chec accuracy, convergence and stability of the proposed method. Several tests were also performed to check whether the behavior of void fraction and phasic velocities conforms with previous observations. (Author) [pt

  6. An Extended Assessment of Fluid Flow Models for the Prediction of Two-Dimensional Steady-State Airfoil Aerodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Herbert-Acero

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the analysis, application, and comparison of thirteen fluid flow models in the prediction of two-dimensional airfoil aerodynamics, considering laminar and turbulent subsonic inflow conditions. Diverse sensitivity analyses of different free parameters (e.g., the domain topology and its discretization, the flow model, and the solution method together with its convergence mechanisms revealed important effects on the simulations’ outcomes. The NACA 4412 airfoil was considered throughout the work and the computational predictions were compared with experiments conducted under a wide range of Reynolds numbers (7e5≤Re≤9e6 and angles-of-attack (-10°≤α≤20°. Improvements both in modeling accuracy and processing time were achieved by considering the RS LP-S and the Transition SST turbulence models, and by considering finite volume-based solution methods with preconditioned systems, respectively. The RS LP-S model provided the best lift force predictions due to the adequate modeling of the micro and macro anisotropic turbulence at the airfoil’s surface and at the nearby flow field, which in turn allowed the adequate prediction of stall conditions. The Transition-SST model provided the best drag force predictions due to adequate modeling of the laminar-to-turbulent flow transition and the surface shear stresses. Conclusions, recommendations, and a comprehensive research agenda are presented based on validated computational results.

  7. Characterisation of biodegradation capacities of environmental microflorae for diesel oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Sophie; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Marchal, Rémy; Monot, Frédéric

    2006-12-01

    In contaminated soils, efficiency of natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation largely depends on biodegradation capacities of the local microflorae. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various microflorae towards diesel oil were determined in laboratory conditions. Microflorae were collected from 9 contaminated and 10 uncontaminated soil samples and were compared to urban wastewater activated sludge. The recalcitrance of hydrocarbons in tests was characterised using both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The microflorae from contaminated soils were found to exhibit higher degradation capacities than those from uncontaminated soil and activated sludge. In cultures inoculated by contaminated-soil microflorae, 80% of diesel oil on an average was consumed over 4-week incubation compared to only 64% in uncontaminated soil and 60% in activated sludge cultures. As shown by GC, n-alkanes of diesel oil were totally utilised by each microflora but differentiated degradation extents were observed for cyclic and branched hydrocarbons. The enhanced degradation capacities of impacted-soil microflorae resulted probably from an adaptation to the hydrocarbon contaminants but a similar adaptation was noted in uncontaminated soils when conifer trees might have released natural hydrocarbons. GCxGC showed that a contaminated-soil microflora removed all aromatics and all branched alkanes containing less than C(15). The most recalcitrant compounds were the branched and cyclic alkanes with 15-23 atoms of carbon.

  8. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  9. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  10. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskan, O.; Clercx, H. J. H [Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Speetjens, M. F. M. [Energy Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Metcalfe, G. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria 3190 (Australia); Swinburne University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  11. Direct experimental visualization of the global Hamiltonian progression of two-dimensional Lagrangian flow topologies from integrable to chaotic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskan, O; Speetjens, M F M; Metcalfe, G; Clercx, H J H

    2015-10-01

    Countless theoretical/numerical studies on transport and mixing in two-dimensional (2D) unsteady flows lean on the assumption that Hamiltonian mechanisms govern the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers. However, experimental studies specifically investigating said mechanisms are rare. Moreover, they typically concern local behavior in specific states (usually far away from the integrable state) and generally expose this indirectly by dye visualization. Laboratory experiments explicitly addressing the global Hamiltonian progression of the Lagrangian flow topology entirely from integrable to chaotic state, i.e., the fundamental route to efficient transport by chaotic advection, appear non-existent. This motivates our study on experimental visualization of this progression by direct measurement of Poincaré sections of passive tracer particles in a representative 2D time-periodic flow. This admits (i) accurate replication of the experimental initial conditions, facilitating true one-to-one comparison of simulated and measured behavior, and (ii) direct experimental investigation of the ensuing Lagrangian dynamics. The analysis reveals a close agreement between computations and observations and thus experimentally validates the full global Hamiltonian progression at a great level of detail.

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of the development of an inhomogeneous volume discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Yu. I.; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic processes accompanying plasma column formation in an inhomogeneous discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture at a pressure of 4 atm were investigated by using a two-dimensional model. Two cathode spots spaced by 0.7 cm were initiated by distorting the cathode surface at local points, which resulted in an increase in the field strength in the cathode region. Three regimes differing in the charging voltage, electric circuit inductance, and electric field strength at the local cathode points were considered. The spatiotemporal distributions of the discharge current; the electron density; and the densities of excited xenon atoms, HCl(v = 0) molecules in the ground state, and HCl(v > 0) molecules in vibrational levels were calculated. The development of the discharge with increasing the electron density from 10 4 to 10 16 cm −3 was analyzed, and three characteristic stages in the evolution of the current distribution were demonstrated. The width of the plasma column was found to depend on the energy deposited in the discharge. The width of the plasma column was found to decrease in inverse proportion to the deposited energy due to spatiotemporal variations in the rates of electron production and loss. The calculated dependences of the cross-sectional area of the plasma column on the energy deposited in the discharge agree with the experimental results.

  13. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at an oxide interface has been attracting considerable attention for physics research and nanoelectronic applications. Early studies reported the formation of 2DEG at semiconductor interfaces (e.g., AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with interesting electrical properties such as high electron mobility. Besides 2DEG formation at semiconductor junctions, 2DEG was realized at the interface of an oxide heterostructure such as the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO heterojunction. The origin of 2DEG was attributed to the well-known “polar catastrophe” mechanism in oxide heterostructures, which consist of an epitaxial LAO layer on a single crystalline STO substrate among proposed mechanisms. Recently, it was reported that the creation of 2DEG was achieved using the atomic layer deposition (ALD technique, which opens new functionality of ALD in emerging nanoelectronics. This review is focused on the origin of 2DEG at oxide heterostructures using the ALD process. In particular, it addresses the origin of 2DEG at oxide interfaces based on an alternative mechanism (i.e., oxygen vacancies.

  14. Quantum-size effects in the energy loss of charged particles interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.; Muino, R. Diez; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process

  15. Discriminating Brazilian crude oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multiway principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Paloma S; Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Mogollón, Noroska Gabriela S; Augusto, Fabio

    2016-11-11

    The geochemical characterization of petroleum is an essential task to develop new strategies and technologies when analyzing the commercial potential of crude oils for exploitation. Due to the chemical complexity of these samples, the use of modern analytical techniques along with multivariate exploratory data analysis approaches is an interesting strategy to extract relevant geochemical characteristics about the oils. In this work, important geochemical information obtained from crude oils from different production basins were obtained analyzing the maltene fraction of the oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-QMS), and performing multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) of the chromatographic data. The results showed that four MPC explained 93.57% of the data variance, expressing mainly the differences on the profiles of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction of the oils (C 13 -C 18 and C 19 -C 30 n-alkanes and the pristane/phytane ratio). The MPC1 grouped the samples severely biodegraded oils, while the type of the depositional paleoenvironments of the oils and its oxidation conditions (as well as their thermal maturity) could be inferred analysing others relevant MPC. Additionally, considerations about the source of the oil samples was also possible based on the overall distribution of relevant biomarkers such as the phenanthrene derivatives, tri-, tetra- and pentacyclic terpanes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical characterisation of two Australian-grown strawberry varieties by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samykanno, Kavitha; Pang, Edwin; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    The volatile compositions of two strawberry varieties ('Albion' and 'Juliette') grown in Australia were analysed with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS). A suitable data processing method was created that should be sufficiently robust to compare sample chromatograms within a harvest season as well as between seasons with relative ease. Ninety-four compounds were tentatively or positively identified between the two varieties of which 20 have apparently not been previously reported to be components of strawberry volatiles. It was determined that Albion and Juliette have comparable total soluble solids content close to 11°Brix. However, since Juliette exhibited a lower titratable acidity content than Albion, it consequently has a slightly larger sugar/acid ratio. The presence of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-(2H)-furan-3-one (furaneol) was detected only in Juliette and this variety also had a higher area percentage of 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one (mesifuran), according to the sampling protocol. These experimental results offer possible explanations as to why Juliette is perceived to have a sweeter flavour than Albion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Analytic and numeric Green's functions for a two-dimensional electron gas in an orthogonal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2006-01-01

    We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems

  18. Geometric contribution leading to anomalous estimation of two-dimensional electron gas density in GaN based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhanu B.; Jha, Jaya; Takhar, Kuldeep; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    We have observed that the estimation of two-dimensional electron gas density is dependent on the device geometry. The geometric contribution leads to the anomalous estimation of the GaN based heterostructure properties. The observed discrepancy is found to originate from the anomalous area dependent capacitance of GaN based Schottky diodes, which is an integral part of the high electron mobility transistors. The areal capacitance density is found to increase for smaller radii Schottky diodes, contrary to a constant as expected intuitively. The capacitance is found to follow a second order polynomial on the radius of all the bias voltages and frequencies considered here. In addition to the quadratic dependency corresponding to the areal component, the linear dependency indicates a peripheral component. It is further observed that the peripheral to areal contribution is inversely proportional to the radius confirming the periphery as the location of the additional capacitance. The peripheral component is found to be frequency dependent and tends to saturate to a lower value for measurements at a high frequency. In addition, the peripheral component is found to vanish when the surface is passivated by a combination of N2 and O2 plasma treatments. The cumulative surface state density per unit length of the perimeter of the Schottky diodes as obtained by the integrated response over the distance between the ohmic and Schottky contacts is found to be 2.75 × 1010 cm-1.

  19. Towards chemical profiling of ignitable liquids with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: Exploring forensic application to neat white spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Andjoe A S; Lopatka, Martin; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Schoenmakers, Peter J; van Asten, Arian C

    2016-10-01

    The application of GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-MS for the chemical analysis and profiling of neat white spirit is explored and the benefit of the enhanced peak capacity offered by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography is demonstrated. An extensive sampling exercise was conducted throughout The Netherlands and the production and logistics in terms of bottling and distribution of white spirits were studied. An exploratory approach based on target-peak tables and principal component analysis was employed to study the brand-to-brand differences and production variations over time. Despite the complex chemical composition of white spirit samples this study shows that chemical variation during productions is actually quite limited. Hence care has to be taken with the chemical comparison for forensic purposes. Although some clustering was noticed on brand level, the large scale production process leads to a very consistent composition across stores and brands. However, because of the broad specifications of this commodity product, substantial chemical variation was found over time. This temporal discrimination could be of forensic value when considering white spirits supplies in individual households. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Durability-enhanced two-dimensional hole gas of C-H diamond surface for complementary power inverter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Xu, Dechen; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Kitabayashi, Yuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Shibata, Masanobu; Kudo, Takuya; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2017-02-20

    Complementary power field effect transistors (FETs) based on wide bandgap materials not only provide high-voltage switching capability with the reduction of on-resistance and switching losses, but also enable a smart inverter system by the dramatic simplification of external circuits. However, p-channel power FETs with equivalent performance to those of n-channel FETs are not obtained in any wide bandgap material other than diamond. Here we show that a breakdown voltage of more than 1600 V has been obtained in a diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FET with a p-channel based on a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG). Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2 O 3 induces the 2DHG ubiquitously on a hydrogen-terminated (C-H) diamond surface and also acts as both gate insulator and passivation layer. The high voltage performance is equivalent to that of state-of-the-art SiC planar n-channel FETs and AlGaN/GaN FETs. The drain current density in the on-state is also comparable to that of these two FETs with similar device size and V B .

  1. Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Similarity Measures on Peak Alignment for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Peak alignment is a critical procedure in mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery in metabolomics. One of peak alignment approaches to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) data is peak matching-based alignment. A key to the peak matching-based alignment is the calculation of mass spectral similarity scores. Various mass spectral similarity measures have been developed mainly for compound identification, but the effect of these spectral similarity measures on the performance of peak matching-based alignment still remains unknown. Therefore, we selected five mass spectral similarity measures, cosine correlation, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation, partial correlation, and part correlation, and examined their effects on peak alignment using two sets of experimental GC×GC-MS data. The results show that the spectral similarity measure does not affect the alignment accuracy significantly in analysis of data from less complex samples, while the partial correlation performs much better than other spectral similarity measures when analyzing experimental data acquired from complex biological samples. PMID:24151524

  2. A comparison of the transport properties of bilayer graphene,monolayer graphene, and two-dimensional electron gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Li-Feng; Dong Li-Min; Wu Zhi-Fang; Fang Chao

    2013-01-01

    we studied and compared the transport properties of charge carriers in bilayer graphene,monolayer graphene,and the conventional semiconductors (the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)).It is elucidated that the normal incidence transmission in the bilayer graphene is identical to that in the 2DEG but totally different from that in the monolayer graphene.However,resonant peaks appear in the non-normal incidence transmission profile for a high barrier in the bilayer graphene,which do not occur in the 2DEG.Furthermore,there are tunneling and forbidden regions in the transmission spectrum for each material,and the division of the two regions has been given in the work.The tunneling region covers a wide range of the incident energy for the two graphene systems,but only exists under specific conditions for the 2DEG.The counterparts of the transmission in the conductance profile are also given for the three materials,which may be used as high-performance devices based on the bilayer graphene.

  3. Epitaxial engineering of polar ɛ-Ga2O3 for tunable two-dimensional electron gas at the heterointerface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Beom; Mishra, Rohan

    2018-04-01

    We predict the formation of a polarization-induced two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface of ɛ-Ga2O3 and CaCO3, wherein the density of the 2DEG can be tuned by reversing the spontaneous polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, for example, with an applied electric field. ɛ-Ga2O3 is a polar and metastable ultra-wide band-gap semiconductor. We use density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and coincidence-site lattice model to predict the region of epitaxial strain under which ɛ-Ga2O3 can be stabilized over its other competing polymorphs and suggest promising substrates. Using group-theoretical methods and DFT calculations, we show that ɛ-Ga2O3 is a ferroelectric material where the spontaneous polarization can be reversed through a non-polar phase by using an electric field. Based on the calculated band alignment of ɛ-Ga2O3 with various substrates, we show the formation of a 2DEG with a high sheet charge density of 1014 cm-2 at the interface with CaCO3 due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, which makes the system attractive for high-power and high-frequency applications.

  4. Supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with twin comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for ultimate analysis of middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Thiébaut, Didier; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Courtiade, Marion; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2010-02-19

    This paper reports the conditions of online hyphenation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with twin comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (twin-GCxGC) for detailed characterization of middle distillates; this is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining processes. In this configuration, saturated and unsaturated compounds that have been fractionated by SFC are transferred on two different GC x GC columns sets (twin-GCxGC) placed in the same GC oven. Cryogenic focusing is used for transfer of fractions into the first dimension columns before simultaneous GCxGC analysis of both saturated and unsaturated fractions. The benefits of SFC-twin-GC x GC are demonstrated for the extended alkane, iso-alkane, alkene, naphthenes and aromatics analysis (so-called PIONA analysis) of diesel samples which can be achieved in one single injection. For that purpose, saturated and unsaturated compounds have been separated by SFC using a silver loaded silica column prior to GC x GC analysis. Alkenes and naphthenes are quantitatively recovered in the unsaturated and saturated fractions, respectively, allowing their identification in various diesel samples. Thus, resolution between each class of compounds is significantly improved compared to a single GCxGC run, and for the first time, an extended PIONA analysis of diesel samples is presented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-06-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models.

  6. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models. PMID:25264474

  7. Normal-Gamma-Bernoulli Peak Detection for Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Jang, Hyejeong; Koo, Imhoi; Lee, Joohyoung; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other analytical platforms, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has much increased separation power for analysis of complex samples and thus is increasingly used in metabolomics for biomarker discovery. However, accurate peak detection remains a bottleneck for wide applications of GC×GC-MS. Therefore, the normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) model is generalized by gamma distribution and a new peak detection algorithm using the normal-gamma-Bernoulli (NGB) model is developed. Unlike the NEB model, the NGB model has no closed-form analytical solution, hampering its practical use in peak detection. To circumvent this difficulty, three numerical approaches, which are fast Fourier transform (FFT), the first-order and the second-order delta methods (D1 and D2), are introduced. The applications to simulated data and two real GC×GC-MS data sets show that the NGB-D1 method performs the best in terms of both computational expense and peak detection performance.

  8. Tuning the conductivity threshold and carrier density of two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces through interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO3 (LAO and non-polar SrTiO3 (STO. Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (LSTO layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.

  9. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra

    2009-05-01

    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A numerical model for density-and-viscosity-dependent flows in two-dimensional variably saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadel, Michel C.; Suidan, Makram T.; Venosa, Albert D.

    1999-04-01

    We present a formulation for water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media that accounts for the effects of the solute on water density and viscosity. The governing equations are cast in a dimensionless form that depends on six dimensionless groups of parameters. These equations are discretized in space using the Galerkin finite element formulation and integrated in time using the backward Euler scheme with mass lumping. The modified Picard method is used to linearize the water flow equation. The resulting numerical model, the MARUN model, is verified by comparison to published numerical results. It is then used to investigate beach hydraulics at seawater concentration (about 30 g l -1) in the context of nutrients delivery for bioremediation of oil spills on beaches. Numerical simulations that we conducted in a rectangular section of a hypothetical beach revealed that buoyancy in the unsaturated zone is significant in soils that are fine textured, with low anisotropy ratio, and/or exhibiting low physical dispersion. In such situations, application of dissolved nutrients to a contaminated beach in a freshwater solution is superior to their application in a seawater solution. Concentration-engendered viscosity effects were negligible with respect to concentration-engendered density effects for the cases that we considered.

  11. Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sedimenttransport: the case of the Brenta River, Veneto (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Martini

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of flood waves and suspended sediment transport in a lowland river basin of North Eastern Italy. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations are modified to take into account the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamics in partially dry areas, as for example, in the first stages of an inundation process or in tidal flow. The set of equations are solved with a standard Galerkin finite element method using a semi-implicit numerical scheme where the effects of both the small channel network and the regulation devices on the flood wave propagation are accounted for. Transport of suspended sediment and bed evolution are coupled with the hydrodynamics using an appropriate form of the advection-dispersion equation and Exner's equation. Applications to a case study are presented in which the effects of extreme flooding on the Brenta River (Italy are examined. Urban and rural flood risk areas are identified and the effects of a alleviating action based on a diversion channel flowing into Venice Lagoon are simulated. The results show that this solution strongly reduces the flood risk in the downstream areas and can provide an important source of sediment for the Venice Lagoon. Finally, preliminary results of the sediment dispersion due to currents and waves in the Venice Lagoon are presented.

  12. Two dimensional modelling of flood flows and suspended sedimenttransport: the case of the Brenta River, Veneto (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, P.; Carniello, L.; Avanzi, C.

    2004-03-01

    The paper presents a numerical model for the simulation of flood waves and suspended sediment transport in a lowland river basin of North Eastern Italy. The two dimensional depth integrated momentum and continuity equations are modified to take into account the bottom irregularities that strongly affect the hydrodynamics in partially dry areas, as for example, in the first stages of an inundation process or in tidal flow. The set of equations are solved with a standard Galerkin finite element method using a semi-implicit numerical scheme where the effects of both the small channel network and the regulation devices on the flood wave propagation are accounted for. Transport of suspended sediment and bed evolution are coupled with the hydrodynamics using an appropriate form of the advection-dispersion equation and Exner's equation. Applications to a case study are presented in which the effects of extreme flooding on the Brenta River (Italy) are examined. Urban and rural flood risk areas are identified and the effects of a alleviating action based on a diversion channel flowing into Venice Lagoon are simulated. The results show that this solution strongly reduces the flood risk in the downstream areas and can provide an important source of sediment for the Venice Lagoon. Finally, preliminary results of the sediment dispersion due to currents and waves in the Venice Lagoon are presented.

  13. [Determination of fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruize; Zhou, Ya; Mao, Ting; Jiang, Jie

    2018-01-08

    A method for the determination of 37 fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream was developed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The samples were extracted with toluene and acetyl chloride-methanol (1:9,v/v) solution was added to the extract for fat esterification. Finally, the fatty acids were analyzed by GC×GC-MS. The GC conditions were as follows:a DB-5 column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm) was set as the 1st dimensional column and a BPX-50 column (2.5 m×0.1 mm×0.25 μm) was the 2nd dimensional column. The primary oven temperature was programmed from 50℃ (held for 2 min) to 180℃ at a rate of 20℃/min, followed by an increase to 250℃ at 2.5℃/min, then raised up to 300℃ (held for 5 min) at 3℃/min. The ion source temperature was 200℃ with auxiliary temperature of 300℃ in scan mode. All fatty acids were separated effectively and determined accurately while the modulation period was 5s and the scan range of MS was m/z 40-385. This procedure was applied to analyze the fatty acids in commercial natural cream and artificial cream from Chinese markets, among which we found the characteristic components in different kinds of samples. Compared with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), GC×GC-MS method was more sensitive and more components of fatty acids were detected. Conclusively, this work suggests a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream, which is meaningful to ensure the quality identification and safety of natural cream.

  14. Methods for the Determination of Currents and Fields in Steady Two-Dimensional MHD Flow With Tensor Conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witalis, E.A.

    1965-12-01

    Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given

  15. Methods for the Determination of Currents and Fields in Steady Two-Dimensional MHD Flow With Tensor Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1965-12-15

    Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given.

  16. A two-dimensional analytical well model with applications to groundwater flow and convective transport modelling in the geosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Nakka, B.W.

    1994-12-01

    A two-dimensional analytical well model has been developed to describe steady groundwater flow in an idealized, confined aquifer intersected by a withdrawal well. The aquifer comprises a low-dipping fracture zone. The model is useful for making simple quantitative estimates of the transport of contaminants along groundwater pathways in the fracture zone to the well from an underground source that intercepts the fracture zone. This report documents the mathematical development of the analytical well model. It outlines the assumptions and method used to derive an exact analytical solution, which is verified by two other methods. It presents expressions for calculating quantities such as streamlines (groundwater flow paths), fractional volumetric flow rates, contaminant concentration in well water and minimum convective travel time to the well. In addition, this report presents the results of applying the analytical model to a site-specific conceptual model of the Whiteshell Research Area in southeastern Manitoba, Canada. This hydrogeological model includes the presence of a 20-m-thick, low-dipping (18 deg) fracture zone (LD1) that intercepts the horizon of a hypothetical disposal vault located at a depth of 500 m. A withdrawal well intercepts LD1 between the vault level and the ground surface. Predictions based on parameters and boundary conditions specific to LD1 are presented graphically. The analytical model has specific applications in the SYVAC geosphere model (GEONET) to calculate the fraction of a plume of contaminants moving up the fracture zone that is captured by the well, and to describe the drawdown in the hydraulic head in the fracture zone caused by the withdrawal well. (author). 16 refs., 6 tabs., 35 figs

  17. Analysis of Poiseuille Flow Property in Two-Dimensional Mi-cro Channels of Microfluidic Pneumatic Micro-Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaohua; Long, Wei; Chen, Yajun

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the control mechanism and mathematical description of the microfluidic flow in the microfluidic process of the PDMS membrane type pneumatic micro-valve were studied. The velocity and pressure variation law of the velocity field inside micro valve was analyzed by numerical simulation method. The influence of the two kinds of inlet drive modes on the working effect and the pressure flow characteristics of the pneumatic micro-valve was studied. The structure of the elastic solid valve diaphragm under the dual action of the airway and the liquid channel was analyzed. Deformation and stress distribution. The results show that the gas flow in the gas flow channel under the diaphragm by the vacuum part of the role of the formation of a suction gas vortex, pressure-driven mode was easier under the diaphragm to produce a strong gas vortex, resulting in internal and external pressure to promote diaphragm cut-off liquid channel; In the pressure pneumatic mode, the stress at both ends of the diaphragm was smaller, the membrane was not easy to tear failure.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Particle Flow Motion in a Two-Dimensional Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor with Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular pebble-bed nuclear reactor (MPBNR technology is promising due to its attractive features such as high fuel performance and inherent safety. Particle motion of fuel and graphite pebbles is highly associated with the performance of pebbled-bed modular nuclear reactor. To understand the mechanism of pebble’s motion in the reactor, we numerically studied the influence of number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles, funnel angle of the reactor, height of guide ring on the distribution of pebble position, and velocity by means of discrete element method (DEM in a two-dimensional MPBNR. Velocity distributions at different areas of the reactor as well as mixing characteristics of fuel and graphite pebbles were investigated. Both fuel and graphite pebbles moved downward, and a uniform motion was formed in the column zone, while pebbles motion in the cone zone was accelerated due to the decrease of the cross sectional flow area. The number ratio of fuel and graphite pebbles and the height of guide ring had a minor influence on the velocity distribution of pebbles, while the variation of funnel angle had an obvious impact on the velocity distribution. Simulated results agreed well with the work in the literature.

  19. Two-dimensional Molecular Gas and Ongoing Star Formation around H II Region Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Xu, Ye; Yu, Naiping; Zhang, Chuan-peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-chun; Ju, Bing-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Yin

    2017-11-01

    We performed a multi-wavelength study toward H II region Sh2-104. New maps of 12CO J = 1 - 0 and 13CO J = 1 - 0 were obtained from the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Sh2-104 displays a double-ring structure. The outer ring with a radius of 4.4 pc is dominated by 12, 500 μm, 12CO J = 1 - 0, and 13CO J = 1 - 0 emission, while the inner ring with a radius of 2.9 pc is dominated by 22 μm and 21 cm emission. We did not detect CO emission inside the outer ring. The north-east portion of the outer ring is blueshifted, while the south-west portion is redshifted. The present observations have provided evidence that the collected outer ring around Sh2-104 is a two-dimensional structure. From the column density map constructed by the Hi-GAL survey data, we extract 21 clumps. About 90% of all the clumps will form low-mass stars. A power-law fit to the clumps yields M=281 {M}⊙ {(r/{pc})}1.31+/- 0.08. The selected YSOs are associated with the collected material on the edge of Sh2-104. The derived dynamical age of Sh2-104 is 1.6× {10}6 yr. Comparing the Sh2-104 dynamical age with the YSO timescale and the fragmentation time of the molecular ring, we further confirm that the collect-and-collapse process operates in this region, indicating positive feedback from a massive star for surrounding gas.

  20. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-07

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes.

  1. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan; Rose, Gavin; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the (1)D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021-0.048 μmol L(-1), and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R(2)) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%-157% for 5 μg L(-1) and 80%-138% for 10 μg L(-1) spiked levels. Both (1)tR and (2)tR shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis of essential oils in perfume using multivariate curve resolution combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Luiz Antonio Fonseca; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Pedroso, Marcio Pozzobon; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2011-08-05

    The use of multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to build multivariate quantitative models using data obtained from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented and evaluated. The MCR algorithm presents some important features, such as second order advantage and the recovery of the instrumental response for each pure component after optimization by an alternating least squares (ALS) procedure. A model to quantify the essential oil of rosemary was built using a calibration set containing only known concentrations of the essential oil and cereal alcohol as solvent. A calibration curve correlating the concentration of the essential oil of rosemary and the instrumental response obtained from the MCR-ALS algorithm was obtained, and this calibration model was applied to predict the concentration of the oil in complex samples (mixtures of the essential oil, pineapple essence and commercial perfume). The values of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and of the root mean square error of the percentage deviation (RMSPD) obtained were 0.4% (v/v) and 7.2%, respectively. Additionally, a second model was built and used to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A model to quantify the essential oil of lemon grass was built and its concentration was predicted in the validation set and real perfume samples. The RMSEP and RMSPD obtained were 0.5% (v/v) and 6.9%, respectively, and the concentration of the essential oil of lemon grass in perfume agreed to the value informed by the manufacturer. The result indicates that the MCR algorithm is adequate to resolve the target chromatogram from the complex sample and to build multivariate models of GC×GC-FID data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallio, M.; Jussila, M.; Rissanen, T.; Anttila, P.; Hartonen, K.; Reissell, A.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Adahchour, M.; Hyotylainen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was applied in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest. The samples were collected at Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the QUEST campaign, in

  4. Development and validation of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in human plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Steenbergen, H.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) have been suggested to exert adverse biological effects similar to, although less severe than, their cholesterol counterparts. For that reason, their analysis in human plasma is highly relevant. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled

  5. Improved determination of flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase (micro)extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Wiewel, J.; Verdel, R.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    The practicability and potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled to both conventional flame ionisation (FID) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection, were compared with those of conventional one-dimensional (1D) GC, with the determination of

  6. Identification and classification of components in flash pyrolysis oil and hydrodeoxygenated oils by two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J. H.; Wildschut, J.; Evers, P.; Heeres, H. J.; Koning de, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oils (HDO) are considered promising renewable liquid energy carriers. To gain insights in the various reaction pathways taking place during the hydrodeoxygenation reaction of pyrolysis oil, two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses

  7. AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas structures studied by photo reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Cervantes, A; Rivera Alvarez, Z; Hernandez, F; Huerta, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendez Garcia, V. H.; Lastras Martinez, A.; Zamora, L.; Saucedo, N. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Melendez Lira, M; Lopez, M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) heterostructures were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy in three different laboratories. The samples were characterized by room temperature Photo reflectance (PR) spectroscopy and measurements at 77 K. Internal electric fields were detected by the presence of Franz-Keldysh (FK) oscillations in the PR spectra. >From a FK analysis we obtained the GaAs band-gap energy and the built-in electric field strength in each sample. On the other hand, in the energy region corresponding to Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As a broad PR signal was registered typical of a highly doped material. Using the third derivative theory we obtained the Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As band-gap energy, and from this value the Al concentration in the samples. Results showed that the sample with highest electron mobility exhibited the lowest internal electric field strength. [Spanish] Se fabricaron heteroestructuras del tipo Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs con un gas de electrones en dos dimensiones por medio de epitaxia de haces moleculares en tres laboratorios diferentes. Las muestras se caracterizaron por fotorreflectancia (FR) a temperatura ambiente y por mediciones del efecto mayor a 77 K. Campos electricos internos se detectaron por la presencia de oscilaciones Franz-Leldysh (FK) en los espectros de FR. Del analisis de las oscilaciones FK obtuvimos la energia de la brecha prohibida del GaAs y la intensidad del campo electrico interno en cada muestra. Por otra parte, en la region de energia correspondiente al Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As observamos una senal de FR ancha, tipica de un material altamente impurificado. Usando la teoria de la tercera derivada, obtuvimos el valor de la brecha de energia del Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1}-xAs, y de este valor la concentracion de Al en las muestras. Los resultados mostraron que la estructura con el valor de movilidad electronica mas alto tiene la intensidad de campo electrico interno mas baja.

  8. Flow-induced vibration and flow characteristics prediction for a sliding roller gate by two-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.

  9. Flow-induced vibration and flow characteristics prediction for a sliding roller gate by two-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock; Cho, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.

  10. Quasi-two-dimensional nonlinear evolution of helical magnetorotational instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamatsashvili, G.; Stefani, F.; Guseva, A.; Avila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one of the fundamental processes in astrophysics, driving angular momentum transport and mass accretion in a wide variety of cosmic objects. Despite much theoretical/numerical and experimental efforts over the last decades, its saturation mechanism and amplitude, which sets the angular momentum transport rate, remains not well understood, especially in the limit of high resistivity, or small magnetic Prandtl numbers typical to interiors (dead zones) of protoplanetary disks, liquid cores of planets and liquid metals in laboratory. Using direct numerical simulations, in this paper we investigate the nonlinear development and saturation properties of the helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI)—a relative of the standard MRI—in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow at very low magnetic Prandtl number (correspondingly at low magnetic Reynolds number) relevant to liquid metals. For simplicity, the ratio of azimuthal field to axial field is kept fixed. From the linear theory of HMRI, it is known that the Elsasser number, or interaction parameter determines its growth rate and plays a special role in the dynamics. We show that this parameter is also important in the nonlinear problem. By increasing its value, a sudden transition from weakly nonlinear, where the system is slightly above the linear stability threshold, to strongly nonlinear, or turbulent regime occurs. We calculate the azimuthal and axial energy spectra corresponding to these two regimes and show that they differ qualitatively. Remarkably, the nonlinear state remains in all cases nearly axisymmetric suggesting that this HMRI-driven turbulence is quasi two-dimensional in nature. Although the contribution of non-axisymmetric modes increases moderately with the Elsasser number, their total energy remains much smaller than that of the axisymmetric ones.

  11. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan [Nanjing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zizhulin Street, Gulou 210003, Nanjing (China); Rose, Gavin [Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Macleod Centre, Ernest Jones Drive, Macleod, Vic 3085 (Australia); Marriott, Philip J., E-mail: philip.marriott@monash.edu [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • GC × GC-FPD(P-mode) was applied to detection of 37 phosphorus (P)-containing compounds. • The method improves resolution of P-compounds that coelute in the first dimension. • P-compounds are analyzed with excellent sensitivity supported by cryogenic modulation. • The FPD(P-mode) selectivity allows analysis in high hydrocarbon (H/C) matrix. • Soil samples and spiked chemical weapon compounds in H/C matrix are readily screened. -- Abstract: Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the {sup 1}D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021–0.048 μmol L{sup −1}, and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%–157% for 5 μg L{sup −1} and 80%–138% for 10 μg L{sup −1} spiked levels. Both {sup 1}t{sub R} and {sup 2}t{sub R} shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples.

  12. An electrical characterization of a two-dimensional electron gas in GaN/AlGaN on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhamri, S.; Berney, R.; Mitchel, W.C.; Mitchell, W.D.; Roberts, J.C.; Rajagopal, P.; Gehrke, T.; Piner, E.L.; Linthicum, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results of transport measurements performed on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on silicon substrates. Variable temperature Hall effect measurements revealed that the temperature dependence of the carrier density and mobility were characteristic of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Carrier densities greater than 1x10 13 cm -2 and Hall mobilities in excess of 1500 cm2/V s were measured at room temperature. Variable field Hall measurements at low temperatures, and in magnetic fields up to 6 T, indicated that conduction is dominated by a single carrier type in these samples. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) measurements were also performed, but no oscillations were observed in fields up to 8 T and at temperatures as low as 1.2 K. Illuminating some of the samples with a blue (λ=470 nm) light emitting diode (LED) induced a persistent increase in the carrier density. SdH measurements were repeated and again no oscillations were present following illumination. However, exposing the samples to radiation from an UV (λ=395 nm) LED induced well-defined SdH oscillations in fields as low as 4 T. The observation of SdH oscillations confirmed the presence of a 2DEG in these structures. It is hypothesized that small angle scattering suppressed the oscillations before exposure to UV light. This conclusion is supported by the observed increase in the quantum scattering time, τ q , with the carrier density and the calculated quantum to transport scattering times ratio, τ q /τ c . For instance, in one of the samples the τ q increased by 32% while the τ c changed by only 3% as the carrier density increased; an indication of an increase in the screening of small angle scattering. The absence of SdH oscillations in fields up to 8 T and at temperatures as low as 1.2 K is not unique to AlGaN/GaN on silicon. This behavior was observed in AlGaN/GaN on sapphire and on silicon carbide. SdH oscillations were observed in one AlGaN/GaN on silicon carbide sample following exposure to

  13. Two-dimensional flow-through microcosms - Versatile test systems to study biodegradation processes in porous aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert D.; Rolle, Massimo; Kürzinger, Petra; Grathwohl, Peter; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Griebler, Christian

    2009-05-01

    SummaryA fundamental prerequisite of any remedial activity is a sound knowledge of both the biotic and abiotic processes involved in transport and degradation of contaminants. Investigations of these aspects in situ often seem infeasible due to the complexity of interacting processes. A simplified portrayal of nature can be facilitated in laboratory-based two-dimensional (2D) sediment flow-through microcosms. This paper describes the versatility of such simple aquifer model systems with respect to biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons, i.e. toluene and ethylbenzene, under various environmental conditions. Initially constructed to study non-reactive and bioreactive transport of organic contaminants in homogeneous porous media under steady state hydraulic conditions, experimental setups developed towards more realistic heterogeneous sediment packing and transient hydraulic conditions. High-resolution spatial and temporal sampling allowed to obtain new insights on the distribution of bioactivities in contaminant plumes and associated controlling and limiting factors. Major biodegradation activities in saturated porous sediments are located at the fringes of contaminant plumes and are driven by dispersive mixing. These hot-spots of contaminant biotransformation are characterized by steep physical-chemical gradients in the millimeter to centimeter range. Sediment heterogeneity, i.e. high-conductivity zones, was shown to significantly enhance transverse mixing and subsequently biodegradation. On the contrary, transient hydraulic conditions may generate intermediate disturbances to biodegrader populations and thus may interfere with optimized contaminant conversion. However, a bacterial strain aerobically degrading toluene, i.e. Pseudomonas putida F1, was shown to adapt to vertically moving contaminant plumes, in the way that it regained full biodegradation potential two-times faster in areas with a mid-term (days to weeks) contamination history than in areas not

  14. Voltage- and Light-Controlled Spin Properties of a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in p-Type GaAs/AlAs Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeti, H. V. A.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the spin properties of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at the contact layer of a p-type GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD). We have measured the polarized-resolved photoluminescence of the RTD as a function of bias voltage, laser intensity and external magnetic field up to 15T. By tuning the voltage and the laser intensity, we are able to change the spin-splitting from the 2DHG from almost 0 meV to 5 meV and its polarization degree from - 40% to + 50% at 15T. These results are attributed to changes of the local electric field applied to the two-dimensional gas which affects the valence band and the hole Rashba spin-orbit effect.

  15. The Interplay of Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction and Landau Level Broadening on a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammag, Rayda; Villagonzalo, Cristine

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional electron gas in a tilted magnetic field with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) was studied. The RSOI is accredited to the asymmetry of the heterostructure where the two-dimensional electron gas is found. The effects of the disorder-attributed Landau level broadening and the RSOI on the spin splitting were identified by simulating the density of states which was assumed to take a Gaussian shape. Increased Landau level broadening obscures the spin splitting and increases the overlap between spin states resulting to stout Gaussian peaks. On the other hand, stronger RSOI amplifies the splitting and lessens the overlap between spin states of the Landau levels. The splitting, however, results to stouter peaks. The similarity in the RSOI and Landau level broadening effects can be explained by recognizing that the asymmetry of the heterostructure is in itself a form of structural disorder.

  16. Two-dimensional perturbations of the accelerated motion of inhomogeneous gas layers and shells in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of perturbations in a two-layer spherical shell and a plane layer with a two-step density distribution has been simulated numerically. The clumps formed by instability are shown to have qualitatively different structures, depending on the ratio of the densities in the inner and outer layers of the shell. Inhomogeneities bordered by a dense gas are formed in shells with an outwardly decreasing density. If, however, a denser gas is in the outer layer, then cores surrounded by a more rarefied material appear. These results are used to analyze the expansion of the HII region RCW 82. Since the inhomogeneities observed in the 13CO emission in the outer parts of this region have sharply delineated boundaries, our calculations argue for the model of the expansion of a shell with an outwardly decreasing density. The interaction of an accelerating shell with clumps in front of it has also been investigated. The deformations of a clump during its penetration into the shell and the formation of a groove in the shell gradually fillingwith a cold gas have been revealed. Thereafter, the shell material collapses to form a cumulative jet. As applied to the HII region RCW 82, we conclude that the existence of jets is possible if there are inhomogeneities with a scale of ˜1018 cm in the interstellar medium. The lack of data on such jet flows at the boundary of this region is an additional argument for the model where the inhomogeneous structure of the boundaries is attributable to the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  17. Explicit finite-difference solution of two-dimensional solute transport with periodic flow in homogenous porous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordjevich Alexandar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is solved by the explicit finitedifference method for the transport of solutes through a homogenous two-dimensional domain that is finite and porous. Retardation by adsorption, periodic seepage velocity, and a dispersion coefficient proportional to this velocity are permitted. The transport is from a pulse-type point source (that ceases after a period of activity. Included are the firstorder decay and zero-order production parameters proportional to the seepage velocity, and periodic boundary conditions at the origin and at the end of the domain. Results agree well with analytical solutions that were reported in the literature for special cases. It is shown that the solute concentration profile is influenced strongly by periodic velocity fluctuations. Solutions for a variety of combinations of unsteadiness of the coefficients in the advection-diffusion equation are obtainable as particular cases of the one demonstrated here. This further attests to the effectiveness of the explicit finite difference method for solving two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients in finite media, which is especially important when arbitrary initial and boundary conditions are required.

  18. Gas-Liquid Transition in a Two-Dimensional System of Millimeter-Sized Like-Charged Metal Balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, B. V. R.; Rajamani, P. V.; Chakrabarti, J.; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, D. T.

    2000-01-01

    Metal balls with a diameter of 1.59 mm, gently rubbed against a dielectric surface using a shaker, are seen to spontaneously exhibit a two-dimensional liquidlike order with macroscopic dimensions, viz., interball distances of several millimeters. This liquidlike order transforms to a gaslike order through coexistence upon decreasing the area fraction of the balls. The measured pair interaction of like-charged balls surprisingly exhibits a long-range attractive term analogous to that in charged colloids. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  19. Comparison of an Electronic Nose Based on Ultrafast Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Sensory Evaluation for an Analysis of Type of Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whisky is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages. There are many types of whisky, for example, Scotch, Irish, and American whisky (called bourbon. The whisky market is highly diversified, and, because of this, it is important to have a method which would enable rapid quality evaluation and authentication of the type of whisky. The aim of this work was to compare 3 methods: an electronic nose based on the technology of ultrafast gas chromatography (Fast-GC, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC, and sensory evaluation. The selected whisky brands included 6 blended whiskies from Scotland, 4 blended whiskies from Ireland, and 4 bourbons produced in the USA. For data analysis, peak heights of chromatograms were used. The panelists who took part in sensory evaluations included 4 women and 4 men. The obtained data were analyzed by 2 chemometric methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and discrimination function analysis (DFA. E-nose and GC × GC allowed for differentiation between whiskies by type. Sensory analysis did not allow for differentiation between whiskies by type, but it allowed giving consumer preferences.

  20. Additional band broadening of peptides in the first size-exclusion chromatographic dimension of an automated stop-flow two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jucai; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Qiu, Chaoying; Zhao, Mouming; Sun, Baoguo; Lin, Lianzhu; Su, Guowan

    2017-10-27

    The need to improve the peak capacity of liquid chromatography motivates the development of two-dimensional analysis systems. This paper presented a fully automated stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography system with size exclusion chromatography followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography (SEC×RPLC) to efficiently separate peptides. The effects of different stop-flow operational parameters (stop-flow time, peak parking position, number of stop-flow periods and column temperature) on band broadening in the first dimension (1 st D) SEC column were quantitatively evaluated by using commercial small proteins and peptides. Results showed that the effects of peak parking position and the number of stop-flow periods on band broadening were relatively small. Unlike stop-flow analysis of large molecules with a long running time, additional band broadening was evidently observed for small molecule analytes due to the relatively high effective diffusion coefficient (D eff ). Therefore, shorter analysis time and lower 1 st D column temperature were suggested for analyzing small molecules. The stop-flow two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system was further tested on peanut peptides and an evidently improved resolution was observed for both stop-flow heart-cutting and comprehensive 2D-LC analysis (in spite of additional band broadening in SEC). The stop-flow SEC×RPLC, especially heart-cutting analysis with shorter analysis time and higher 1 st D resolution for selected fractions, offers a promising approach for efficient analysis of complex samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical analysis of temperature and flow effects in a dry, two-dimensional, porous-media reservoir used for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, L.E.

    1979-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to define the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a CAES dry porous media reservoir subjected to simulated air mass cycling. The knowledge gained will provide, or will assist in providing, design guidelines for the efficient and stable operation of the air storage reservoir. The analysis and results obtained by two-dimensional modeling of dry reservoirs are presented. While the fluid/thermal response of the underground system is dependent on many parameters, the two-dimensional model was applied only to those parameters that entered the analysis by virtue of inclusion of the vertical dimension. In particular, the parameters or responses that were quantified or characterized include wellbore heat transfer, heat losses to the vertical boundaries of the porous zone, gravitationally induced flows, producing length of the wellbore, and the effects of nonuniform permeability. The analysis of the wellbore heat transfer included consideration of insulation, preheating (bubble development with heated air), and air mass flow rate.

  2. Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas with k-cubic spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2016-01-28

    We present a detailed theoretical study on zero-frequency Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas (2DHG) with k-cubic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. The presence of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings strongly modifies the Drude weight in comparison to the electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings. For large hole density and strong k-cubic spin-orbit couplings, the density dependence of Drude weight deviates from the linear behavior. We establish a relation between optical conductivity and the Berry connection. Unlike two-dimensional electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings, we explicitly show that the optical conductivity does not vanish even for equal strength of the two spin-orbit couplings. We attribute this fact to the non-zero Berry phase for equal strength of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings. The least photon energy needed to set in the optical transition in hole gas is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electron gas. Types of two van Hove singularities appear in the optical spectrum are also discussed.

  3. A Flow System for Generation of Concentration Perturbation in Two-Dimensional Correlation Near-Infrared Spectroscopy: Application to Variable Selection in Multivariate Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, CF; Pasquini, C

    2010-01-01

    A flow system is proposed to produce a concentration perturbation in liquid samples, aiming at the generation of two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectra. The system presents advantages in relation to batch systems employed for the same purpose: the experiments are accomplished in a closed system; application of perturbation is rapid and easy; and the experiments can be carried out with micro-scale volumes. The perturbation system has been evaluated in the investigation and selection...

  4. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Poel, Erwin P; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

    2014-07-01

    The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free, and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between 10(8) and 10(11) the heat transport is lower for Γ=0.33 than for Γ=1 in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is, surprisingly, the opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for a lower aspect ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for Ra ≥ 10(10). Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall simulations with a no-slip boundary condition on the plates also exhibit zonal flow. In all the other cases, the flow is roll like. In two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the velocity boundary conditions thus have large implications on both roll-like and zonal flow that have to be taken into consideration before the boundary conditions are imposed.

  6. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Fluid-Driven Fracture Propagation in Reservoirs Based on a Modified Fluid-Mechanically Coupled Model in Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.

  7. Offline coupling of high-speed counter-current chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry generates a two-dimensional plot of toxaphene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Thomas; Vetter, Walter

    2009-11-20

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), a separation technique based solely on the partitioning of solutes between two immiscible liquid phases, was applied for the fractionation of technical toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide which consists of a complex mixture of structurally closely related compounds. A solvent system (n-hexane/methanol/water 34:24:1, v/v/v) was developed which allowed to separate compounds of technical toxaphene (CTTs) with excellent retention of the stationary phase (S(f) = 88%). Subsequent analysis of all HSCCC fractions by gas chromatography coupled to electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) provided a wealth of information regarding separation characteristics of HSCCC and the composition of technical toxaphene. The visualization of the large amount of data obtained from the offline two-dimensional HSCCC-GC/ECNI-MS experiment was facilitated by the creation of a two-dimensional (2D) contour plot. The contour plot not only provided an excellent overview of the HSCCC separation progress, it also illustrated the differences in selectivity between HSCCC and GC. The results of this proof-of-concept study showed that the 2D chromatographic approach involving HSCCC facilitated the separation of CTTs that coelute in unidimensional GC. Furthermore, the creation of 2D contour plots may provide a useful means of enhancing data visualization for other offline two-dimensional separations.

  8. Vorticity vector-potential method based on time-dependent curvilinear coordinates for two-dimensional rotating flows in closed configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan; Zhang, Da-peng; Xie, Xi-lin

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a vorticity vector-potential method for two-dimensional viscous incompressible rotating driven flows is developed in the time-dependent curvilinear coordinates. The method is applicable in both inertial and non-inertial frames of reference with the advantage of a fixed and regular calculation domain. The numerical method is applied to triangle and curved triangle configurations in constant and varying rotational angular velocity cases respectively. The evolutions of flow field are studied. The geostrophic effect, unsteady effect and curvature effect on the evolutions are discussed.

  9. Gas-liquid flow filed in agitated vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormazi, F.; Alaie, M.; Dabir, B.; Ashjaie, M.

    2001-01-01

    Agitated vessels in form of sti reed tank reactors and mixed ferment ors are being used in large numbers of industry. It is more important to develop good, and theoretically sound models for scaling up and design of agitated vessels. In this article, two phase flow (gas-liquid) in a agitated vessel has been investigated numerically. A two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model, is used to predict the gas-liquid flow. The effects of gas phase, varying gas flow rates and variation of bubbles shape on flow filed of liquid phase are investigated. The numerical results are verified against the experimental data

  10. FLUST-2D - A computer code for the calculation of the two-dimensional flow of a compressible medium in coupled retangular areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, G.

    1979-01-01

    The computer-code FLUST-2D is able to calculate the two-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid in arbitrary coupled rectangular areas. In a finite-difference scheme the program computes pressure, density, internal energy and velocity. Starting with a basic set of equations, the difference equations in a rectangular grid are developed. The computational cycle for coupled fluid areas is described. Results of test calculations are compared to analytical solutions and the influence of time step and mesh size are investigated. The program was used to precalculate the blowdown experiments of the HDR experimental program. Downcomer, plena, internal vessel region, blowdown pipe and a containment area have been modelled two-dimensionally. The major results of the precalculations are presented. This report also contains a description of the code structure and user information. (orig.) [de

  11. Gas Flow Across Gaps in Protoplanetary Disks

    OpenAIRE

    Lubow, Steve H.; D'Angelo, Gennaro

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the gas accretion flow through a planet-produced gap in a protoplanetary disk. We adopt the alpha disk model and ignore effects of planetary migration. We develop a semi-analytic, one-dimensional model that accounts for the effects of the planet as a mass sink and also carry out two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of a planet embedded in a disk. The predictions of the mass flow rate through the gap based on the semi-analytic model generally agree with the hydrodynamical simu...

  12. Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; de la Torre, A; Eknapakul, T; Buaphet, P; Mo, S-K; Meevasana, W; Bahramy, M S; Baumberger, F

    2014-02-27

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties.

  13. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of a two-dimensional model for predicting the pressure-flow and compression properties during column packing scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin T; Cecchini, Douglas; Chu, Cathy; Liu, Wei-Han; Spann, Andrew

    2007-03-23

    A two-dimensional model was formulated to describe the pressure-flow behavior of compressible stationary phases for protein chromatography at different temperatures and column scales. The model was based on the assumption of elastic deformation of the solid phase and steady-state Darcy flow. Using a single fitted value for the empirical modulus parameters, the model was applied to describe the pressure-flow behavior of several adsorbents packed using both fluid flow and mechanical compression. Simulations were in agreement with experimental data and accurately predicted the pressure-flow and compression behavior of three adsorbents over a range of column scales and operating temperatures. Use of the described theoretical model potentially improves the accuracy of the column scale-up process, allowing the use of limited laboratory scale data to predict column performance in large scale applications.

  15. A bias-tunable electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jianduo, E-mail: l_j316@163.co [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Li Yunbao; Yun Meijuan [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zheng Wei [Key Laboratory of Dynamic Geodesy, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077 (China)

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the effect of the bias in an electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes. The numerical results show that the electron transmission and the conductance as well as the spin polarization are strongly dependent on the bias applied to the device. - Research highlights: We propose a bias-tunable electron-spin filter. The transmission and the conductance depend on the bias and the electron energy. The spin polarization depends on the bias and the electron energy. The results are helpful for making new types of bias-tunable spin filters.

  16. Suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas in LaGaO3/SrTiO3 by cation intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2013-12-03

    Cation intermixing at the n-type polar LaGaO 3 /SrTiO 3 (001) interface is investigated by first principles calculations. Ti"Ga, Sr"La, and SrTi"LaGa intermixing are studied in comparison to each other, with a focus on the interface stability. We demonstrate in which cases intermixing is energetically favorable as compared to a clean interface. A depopulation of the Ti 3d xy orbitals under cation intermixing is found, reflecting a complete suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas present at the clean interface.

  17. Effects of SiNx on two-dimensional electron gas and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren; Zhi-Biao, Hao; Lei, Wang; Lai, Wang; Hong-Tao, Li; Yi, Luo

    2010-01-01

    SiN x is commonly used as a passivation material for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, the effects of SiN x passivation film on both two-dimensional electron gas characteristics and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are investigated. The SiN x films are deposited by high- and low-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, and they display different strains on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, which can explain the experiment results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  18. Tuning the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Interfaces with Ti-O Configurations: Evidence from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Gan, Yulin; Niu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Chemical redox reaction can lead to a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface between a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO) substrate and an amorphous LaAlO3 (a-LAO) capping layer. When replacing the STO substrate with rutile and anatase TiO2 substrates, considerable differences...... in interfacial conduction are observed. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transport measurements, we conclude that the interfacial conduction comes from redox reactions, and that the differences among the materials systems result mainly from variations in the activation energies...

  19. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  20. Towards realistic flow modelling. Creation and evaluation of two-dimensional simulated porous media: An image analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguy, Yannick; Bernard, Dominique; Ehrlich, Robert

    1996-05-01

    This work is part of an attempt to quantify the relationship between the permeability tensor ( K) and the micro-structure of natural porous media. A brief account is first provided of popular theories used to relate the micro-structure to K. Reasons for the lack of predictive power and restricted generality of current models are discussed. An alternative is an empirically based implicit model wherein K is expressed as a consequence of a few “pore-types” arising from the dynamics of depositional processes. The analytical form of that implicit model arises from evidence of universal association between pore-type and throat size in sandstones and carbonates. An explicit model, relying on the local change of scale technique is then addressed. That explicit model allows, from knowledge of the three-dimensional micro-geometry to calculate K explicitly without having recourse to any constitutive assumptions. The predictive and general character of the explicit model is underlined. The relevance of the change of scale technique is recalled to be contingent on the availability of rock-like three-dimensional synthetic media. A random stationary ergodic process is developed, that allows us to generate three-dimensional synthetic media from a two-dimensional autocorrelation function r(λ x ,λ y ) and associated probability density function ∈ β measured on a single binary image. The focus of this work is to ensure the rock-like character of those synthetic media. This is done first through a direct approach: n two-dimensional synthetic media, derived from single set ( ∈ β , r(λ x ,λ y )) yield n permeability tensors K {/i-1,n i} (calculated by the local change of scale) of the same order. This is a necessary condition to ensure that r(λ x ,λ y ) and ∈ β carry all structural information relevant to K. The limits of this direct approach, in terms of required Central Process Unit time and Memory is underlined, raising the need for an alternative. This is done by

  1. Two-dimensional fluid dynamics in a sharply bent channel: Laminar flow, separation bubble, and vortex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Daichi; Fukudome, Koji; Wada, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    Understanding the hydrodynamic properties of fluid flow in a curving pipe and channel is important for controlling the flow behavior in technologies and biomechanics. The nature of the resulting flow in a bent pipe is extremely complicated because of the presence of a cross-stream secondary flow. In an attempt to disentangle this complexity, we investigate the fluid dynamics in a bent channel via the direct numerical simulation of the Navier-Stokes equation in two spatial dimensions. We exploit the absence of secondary flow from our model and systematically investigate the flow structure along the channel as a function of both the bend angle and Reynolds number of the laminar-to-turbulent regime. We numerically suggest a scaling relation between the shape of the separation bubble and the flow conductance, and construct an integrated phase diagram.

  2. Thinning Approximation for Two-Dimensional Scattering Patterns from Coarse-Grained Polymer Melts under Shear Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagita, Katsumi; Murashima, Takahiro; Takano, Hiroshi; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro

    2017-12-01

    We proposed a thinning approximation (TA) for estimation of the two-dimensional (2D) wide-angle scattering patterns from Kremer-Grest polymer melts under shear. In the TA, extra particles are inserted at the middle of bonds for fine-graining of the coarse-grained polymers. For the case without the TA, spots corresponding to the orientation of bonds at a high shear rate are difficult to observe because the bond length of successive particles is comparable to the distance between neighboring particles. With the insertion of the extra particles, a ring pattern originating from the neighboring particles can be moved to a wide-angle region. Thus, we can observe the spots at high shear rates. We also examined the relationship between 2D scattering patterns and the Weissenberg number, which is defined as the product of the shear rate and the longest relaxation time. It is confirmed that the relationship for coarse-grained polymers with the TA is consistent with that of the all-atomistic model of polyethylene.

  3. Development and utilization of a two-dimensional model of transient fluid flow in a generic repository (OGRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korver, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    An existing time-dependent numerical model (OGRE) has been modified to examine the time frames associated with repressuring the formation rocks surrounding a generic nuclear waste repository following the operational period when wastes are being stored. The model is two-dimensional in the vertical plane, and assumes that the entire regime is saturated, but the repository is at one atmosphere during the operational period. For the physical and geometric parameters assumed, the results of a simulation of the time necessary to repressurize the formation after the operational period was 421.5 years. These results were in close agreement with a steady-state calculation performed by Golder Associates, Inc., in 1977. The fact that the time-dependent model results were close to the steady-state calculation resulted from the use (in the model) of a very small compressibility value, which caused the simulation to reach a steady-state condition in a relatively short time. Based on these studies, the magnitude of the system (water plus matrix) compressibility is of great importance in determining whether the time for repressurization can be determined from analytical methods or requires the use of a time-dependent numerical model

  4. Magnetic two-dimensional electron gas at the manganite-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of highly mobile spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucially important for both fundamental and applied research. Usually, spin polarization appears below 10 K for the 2DEG of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, stemming from the magnetic ordering of Ti3+ ions with the mediat......Fabrication of highly mobile spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucially important for both fundamental and applied research. Usually, spin polarization appears below 10 K for the 2DEG of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, stemming from the magnetic ordering of Ti3+ ions...... with the mediation of itinerant electrons. Herein, we report a magnetic 2DEG at a La7/8Sr1/8MnO3-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, which simultaneously shows electrically tunable anomalous Hall effect and high conductivity. The spin-polarized temperature for the 2DEG is promoted to 30 K while the mobility remains...... high. The magnetism likely results from a gradient manganese interdiffusion into SrTiO3. The present work demonstrates the great potential of manganite-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces for spintronic applications....

  5. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N.C.; Struik, Paul C.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2016-01-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Michailof, Chrysa; Lappas, Angelos; Li, Qiangyi; Kneale, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Pyrolysis oils have attracted a lot of interest, as they are liquid energy carriers and general sources of chemicals. In this work, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) techniques were used to provide both qualitative and quantitative results of the analysis of three different pyrolysis oils. The chromatographic methods and parameters were optimized and solvent choice and separation restrictions are discussed. Pyrolysis oil samples were diluted in suitable organic solvent and were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. An average of 300 compounds were detected and identified in all three samples using the ChromaToF (Leco) software. The deconvoluted spectra were compared with the NIST software library for correct matching. Group type classification was performed by use of the ChromaToF software. The quantification of 11 selected compounds was performed by means of a multiple-point external calibration curve. Afterwards, the pyrolysis oils were extracted with water, and the aqueous phase was analyzed both by GC-FID and, after proper change of solvent, by GC×GC-TOFMS. As previously, the selected compounds were quantified by both techniques, by means of multiple point external calibration curves. The parameters of the calibration curves were calculated by weighted linear regression analysis. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation and linearity range for each standard compound with each method are presented. The potency of GC×GC-TOFMS for an efficient mapping of the pyrolysis oil is undisputable, and the possibility of using it for quantification as well has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the GC-FID analysis provides reliable results that allow for a rapid screening of the pyrolysis oil. To the best of our knowledge, very few papers have been reported with quantification attempts on pyrolysis oil samples using GC×GC-TOFMS most of which make use of the

  7. Characterisation of middle-distillates by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC): A powerful alternative for performing various standard analysis of middle-distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendeuvre, Colombe; Ruiz-Guerrero, Rosario; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Duval, Laurent; Thiébaut, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2005-09-09

    The detailed characterisation of middle distillates is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining process. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) is a powerful tool for improving characterisation of petroleum samples. The aim of this paper is to compare GC x GC and various ASTM methods -- gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) -- for group type separation and detailed hydrocarbon analysis. Best features of GC x GC are demonstrated and compared to these techniques in terms of cost, time consumption and accuracy. In particular, a new approach of simulated distillation (SimDis-GC x GC) is proposed: compared to the standard method ASTM D2887 it gives unequal information for better understanding of conversion process.

  8. Composite heat transfer in a pipe with thermal radiation of two-dimensional propagation - in connection with the temperature rise in flowing medium upstream from heating section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echigo, R.; Hasegawa, S.; Kamiuto, K.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical procedure is presented for simultaneous convective and radiative heat transfer with a fully developed laminar flow in a pipe by taking account of the two-dimensional propagation of radiative transfer and also shows the numerical results on the temperature profiles and the heat-transfer characteristics. In order to solve the energy equation with two-dimensional radiative transfer the entire ranges of the temperature field have to be solved simultaneously both along the radial and flow directions. Moreover, the heat flux by thermal radiation emitted from the heating wall propagates upstream so that it is necessary to examine the temperature profiles of the flowing medium to a certain distance upstream from the entrance of the heating section. In this way in order to attempt to solve the governing equation numerically by a finite difference method the dimension of matrix becomes extremely large provided that a satisfactory validity of numerical calculation is required Consequently the band matrix method is used and the temperature profiles of the medium in both regions upstream and downstream from the entrance of the heating section are illustrated and the heat transfer results are discussed in some detail by comparing with those of the one-dimensional transfer of radiation.(auth)

  9. Multivariate analytical figures of merit as a metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-09-30

    The present contribution is devoted to develop multivariate analytical figures of merit (AFOMs) as a new metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). In this regard, new definition of sensitivity (SEN) is extended to GC×GC-MS data and then, other multivariate AFOMs including analytical SEN (γ), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) are calculated. Also, two frequently used second- and third-order calibration algorithms of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) as representative of multi-set methods and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) as representative of multi-way methods are discussed to exploit pure component profiles and to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Different GC×GC-MS data sets with different number of components along with various levels of artifacts are simulated and analyzed. Noise, elution time shifts in both chromatographic dimensions, peak overlap and interferences are considered as the main artifacts in this work. Additionally, a new strategy is developed to estimate the noise level using variance-covariance matrix of residuals which is very important to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Finally, determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aromatic fraction of heavy fuel oil (HFO) analyzed by GC×GC-MS is considered as real case to confirm applicability of the proposed metric in real samples. It should be pointed out that the proposed strategy in this work can be used for other types of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic (CTDC) techniques like comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of clastic and carbonate sedimentation, consolidation, subsidence, fluid flow, heat flow and solute transport during the formation of sedimentary basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzer, Klaus

    1999-05-01

    Geological processes that create sedimentary basins or act during their formation can be simulated using the public domain computer code `BASIN'. For a given set of geological initial and boundary conditions the sedimentary basin evolution is calculated in a forward modeling approach. The basin is represented in a two-dimensional vertical cross section with individual layers. The stratigraphic, tectonic, hydrodynamic and thermal evolution is calculated beginning at an initial state, and subsequent changes of basin geometry are calculated from sedimentation rates, compaction and pore fluid mobilization, isostatic compensation, fault movement and subsidence. The sedimentologic, hydraulic and thermal parameters are stored at discrete time steps allowing the temporal evolution of the basin to be analyzed. A maximum flexibility in terms of geological conditions is achieved by using individual program modules representing geological processes which can be switched on and off depending on the data available for a specific simulation experiment. The code incorporates a module for clastic and carbonate sedimentation, taking into account the impact of clastic sediment supply on carbonate production. A maximum of four different sediment types, which may be mixed during sedimentation, can be defined. Compaction and fluid flow are coupled through the consolidation equation and the nonlinear form of the equation of state for porosity, allowing nonequilibrium compaction and overpressuring to be calculated. Instead of empirical porosity-effective stress equations, a physically consistent consolidation model is applied which incorporates a porosity dependent sediment compressibility. Transient solute transport and heat flow are calculated as well, applying calculated fluid flow rates from the hydraulic model. As a measure for hydrocarbon generation, the Time-Temperature Index (TTI) is calculated. Three postprocessing programs are available to provide graphic output in Post

  11. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. History independence of steady state in simultaneous two-phase flow through two-dimensional porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erpelding, Marion; Sinha, Santanu; Tallakstad, Ken Tore; Hansen, Alex; Flekkøy, Eirik Grude; Måløy, Knut Jørgen

    2013-11-01

    It is well known that the transient behavior during drainage or imbibition in multiphase flow in porous media strongly depends on the history and initial condition of the system. However, when the steady-state regime is reached and both drainage and imbibition take place at the pore level, the influence of the evolution history and initial preparation is an open question. Here, we present an extensive experimental and numerical work investigating the history dependence of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow through porous media. Our experimental system consists of a Hele-Shaw cell filled with glass beads which we model numerically by a network of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. From measurements of global pressure evolution, histograms of saturation, and cluster-size distributions, we find that when both phases are flowing through the porous medium, the steady state does not depend on the initial preparation of the system or on the way it has been reached.

  13. Detailed analysis and group-type separation of natural fats and oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casilli, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni

    2003-11-26

    Comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) is an adequate methodology for the separation and identification of very complex samples. It is based on the coupling of two capillary columns that each give a different but substantial contribution to the unprecedented resolving power of this technique. The 2D space chromatograms that derive from GC x GC analysis have great potential for identification. This is due to the fact that the contour plot positions, pinpointed by two retention time coordinates, give characteristic patterns for specific families of compounds that can be mathematically translated. This investigation concerned the application of this principle to fatty acid methyl esters that were grouped on an equal double bond number basis. The ester samples were derived from various lipids and all underwent bidimensional analysis on two sets of columns. Peak attribution was supported by mass spectra, linear retention indices and information reported in the literature.

  14. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra; Chopp, David L.; Moran, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions

  15. Two-Dimensional Rotorcraft Downwash Flow Field Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners with Agile Beam Steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per

    2014-01-01

    and rescue helicopter are presented. Since the line-of-sight directions of the two synchronized WindScanners were scanned within the plane of interest, the influence of the wind component perpendicular to the plane was avoided. The results also demonstrate the possibilities within less demanding flows...

  16. Cross-equatorial flow through an abyssal channel under the complete Coriolis force: Two-dimensional solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. L.; Dellar, P. J.

    The component of the Coriolis force due to the locally horizontal component of the Earth's rotation vector is commonly neglected, under the so-called traditional approximation. We investigate the role of this "non-traditional" component of the Coriolis force in cross-equatorial flow of abyssal ocean currents. We focus on the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW), which crosses from the southern to the northern hemisphere through the Ceara abyssal plain in the western Atlantic ocean. The bathymetry in this region resembles a northwestward channel, connecting the Brazil Basin in the south to the Guyana Basin in the north. South of the equator, the AABW leans against the western continental rise, consistent with a northward flow in approximate geostrophic balance. The AABW then crosses to the other side of the abyssal channel as it crosses the equator, and flows into the northern hemisphere leaning towards the east against the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The non-traditional component of the Coriolis force is strongest close to the equator. The traditional component vanishes at the equator, being proportional to the locally vertical component of the Earth's rotation vector. The weak stratification of the abyssal ocean, and subsequent small internal deformation radius, defines a relatively short characteristic horizontal lengthscale that tends to make non-traditional effects more prominent. Additionally, the steep gradients of the channel bathymetry induce large vertical velocities, which are linked to zonal accelerations by the non-traditional components of the Coriolis force. We therefore expect non-traditional effects to play a substantial role in cross-equatorial transport of the AABW. We present asymptotic steady solutions for non-traditional shallow water flow through an idealised abyssal channel, oriented at an oblique angle to the equator. The current enters from the south, leaning up against the western side of the channel in approximate geostrophic balance, and crosses the

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry in perfume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casillia, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

    2005-03-04

    Single column gas chromatography (GC) in combination with a flame ionization detector (FID) and/or a mass spectrometer is routinely employed in the determination of perfume profiles. The latter are to be considered medium to highly complex matrices and, as such, can only be partially separated even on long capillaries. Inevitably, several monodimensional peaks are the result of two or more overlapping components, often hindering reliable identification and quantitation. The present investigation is based on the use of a comprehensive GC (GC x GC) method, in vacuum outlet conditions, for the near to complete resolution of a complex perfume sample. A rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) system, employed for the assignment of GC x GC peaks, supplied high quality mass spectra. The validity of the three-dimensional (3D) GC x GC-qMS application was measured and compared to that of GC-qMS analysis on the same matrix. Peak identification, in all applications, was achieved through MS spectra library matching and the interactive use of linear retention indices (LRI).

  18. Interaction between Two-Dimensional Sonic Jets and Supersonic Flow to Model Heat Addition in a Supersonic Combustor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    pressure between two Mach 3 flows approachs absolute zero , Pb=.04 psia for Pop= 100 psia. However, viscous effects increase the base pressure. Korst theory...this problem. Acetylene was chosen as the primary fuel because of its relatively low spontaneous ignition temperature, 581 degrees Farenheit , and high...with the corresponding test section. The exit dimension could be adjusted with a screw mechanism from zero to 2.625 inches. A bracket to hold a .250

  19. Two-dimensional real-time blood flow and temperature of soft tissue around maxillary anterior implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Kanao, Masato; Kondo, Yusuke; Kajiwara, Norihiro; Masaki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Hosokawa, Ryuji

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the basic nature of soft tissue surrounding maxillary anterior implants by simultaneous measurements of blood flow and surface temperature and (2) analyze differences with and without bone grafting associated with implant placement to try to detect the signs of surface morphology change. Twenty maxillary anterior implant patients, 10 bone grafting and 10 graftless, were involved in this clinical trial. Soft tissue around the implant was evaluated with 2-dimensional laser speckle imaging and a thermograph. Blood flow was significantly lower in attached gingiva surrounding implants in graftless patients (P = 0.0468). On the other hand, it was significantly lower in dental papillae (P = 0.0254), free gingiva (P = 0.0198), and attached gingiva (P = 0.00805) in bone graft patients. Temperature was significantly higher in free gingiva (P = 0.00819) and attached gingiva (P = 0.00593) in graftless patients, whereas it was significantly higher in dental papilla and free gingiva in implants with bone grafting. The results suggest that simultaneous measurements of soft-tissue blood flow and temperature is a useful technique to evaluate the microcirculation of soft tissue surrounding implants.

  20. Gas sensors boosted by two-dimensional h-BN enabled transfer on thin substrate foils: towards wearable and portable applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Taha; Bishop, Chris; Jordan, Matthew B; Sundaram, Suresh; Li, Xin; Alam, Saiful; ElGmili, Youssef; Patriarche, Gilles; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2017-11-09

    The transfer of GaN based gas sensors to foreign substrates provides a pathway to enhance sensor performance, lower the cost and extend the applications to wearable, mobile or disposable systems. The main keys to unlocking this pathway is to grow and fabricate the sensors on large h-BN surface and to transfer them to the flexible substrate without any degradation of the performances. In this work, we develop a new generation of AlGaN/GaN gas sensors with boosted performances on a low cost flexible substrate. We fabricate 2-inch wafer scale AlGaN/GaN gas sensors on sacrificial two-dimensional (2D) nano-layered h-BN without any delamination or cracks and subsequently transfer sensors to an acrylic surface on metallic foil. This technique results in a modification of relevant device properties, leading to a doubling of the sensitivity to NO 2 gas and a response time that is more than 6 times faster than before transfer. This new approach for GaN-based sensor design opens new avenues for sensor improvement via transfer to more suitable substrates, and is promising for next-generation wearable and portable opto-electronic devices.

  1. All-optical evaluation of spin-orbit interaction based on diffusive spin motion in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-26

    A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.

  2. The effect of charged quantum dots on the mobility of a two-dimensional electron gas: How important is the Coulomb scattering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzmann, A.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of a layer of charged self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on the mobility of a nearby two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Time-resolved transconductance spectroscopy was used to separate the two contributions of the change in mobility, which are: (i) The electrons in the QDs act as Coulomb scatterers for the electrons in the 2DEG. (ii) The screening ability and, hence, the mobility of the 2DEG decreases when the charge carrier density is reduced by the charged QDs, i.e., the mobility itself depends on the charge carrier concentration. Surprisingly, we find a negligible influence of the Coulomb scattering on the mobility for a 2DEG, separated by a 30 nm tunneling barrier to the layer of QDs. This means that the mobility change is completely caused by depletion, i.e., reduction of the charge carrier density in the 2DEG, which indirectly influences the mobility

  3. Theoretical evaluation of two dimensional electron gas characteristics of quaternary AlxInyGa1-x-yN/GaN hetero-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbardar Mojaver, Hassan; Manouchehri, Farzin; Valizadeh, Pouya

    2016-04-01

    The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) characteristics of gated metal-face wurtzite AlInGaN/GaN hetero-junctions including positions of subband energy levels, fermi energy level, and the 2DEG concentration as functions of physical and compositional properties of the hetero-junction (i.e., barrier thickness and metal mole-fractions) are theoretically evaluated using the variational method. The calculated values of the 2DEG concentration are in good agreement with the sparsely available experimental data reported in the literature. According to our simulation results, a considerable shift in the positive direction of threshold voltage of AlInGaN/GaN hetero-junction field-effect transistors can be achieved by engineering both the spontaneous and the piezoelectric polarizations using a quaternary AlInGaN barrier-layer of appropriate mole-fractions.

  4. Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Barnes, Brian B; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lancas, Fernando M; Snow, Nicholas H

    2013-07-19

    Analysis of several emerging contaminants (steroids, caffeine and methylparaben) in water using automated solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS) is presented. Experimental design was used to determine the best SPME extraction conditions and the steroids were not derivatized prior to injection. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS provided linear ranges from 0.6 to 1200μgL(-1) and limits of detection and quantitation from 0.02 to 100μgL(-1). A series of river water samples obtained locally were subjected to analysis. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS is readily automated, straightforward and competitive with other methods for low level analysis of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Resolution of co-eluting compounds of Cannabis Sativa in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Amigo, José Manuel; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC/qMS) analysis of Cannabis sativa extracts shows a high complexity due to the large variety of terpenes and cannabinoids and to the fact that the complete resolution of the peaks is not straightforwardly achieved. In order to support the resolution of the co-eluted peaks in the sesquiterpene and the cannabinoid chromatographic region the combination of Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternating Least Squares algorithms was satisfactorily applied. As a result, four co-eluting areas were totally resolved in the sesquiterpene region and one in the cannabinoid region in different samples of Cannabis sativa. The comparison of the mass spectral profiles obtained for each resolved peak with theoretical mass spectra allowed the identification of some of the co-eluted peaks. Finally, the classification of the studied samples was achieved based on the relative concentrations of the resolved peaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prediction of two-dimensional electron gas mediated magnetoelectric coupling at ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan-ying; Lian, Chao; Meng, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    First-principles calculations predict the emergence of magnetoelectric coupling mediated by two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Free electrons endowed by naturally existing oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 are driven to the heterostructure interface under the polarizing field of ferroelectric PbTiO3 to form a 2DEG. The electrons are captured by interfacial Ti atoms, which surprisingly exhibits ferromagnetism even at room temperature with a small critical density of ˜15.5 μ C /cm2 . The ferroelectricity-controlled ferromagnetism mediated by interfacial 2DEG shows strong magnetoelectric coupling strength, enabling convenient control of magnetism by electric field and vice versa. The PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure is cheap, easily grown, and controllable, promising future applications in low-cost spintronics and information storage at ambient condition.

  7. Integral transformation of the Navier-Stokes equations for laminar flow in channels of arbitrary two-dimensional geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guerrero, Jesus Salvador

    1995-01-01

    Laminar developing flow in channels of arbitrary geometry was studied by solving the Navier-Stokes equations in the stream function-only formulation through the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT). The stream function is expanded in an infinite system based on eigenfunctions obtained by considering solely the diffusive terms of the original formulation. The Navier-Stokes equations are transformed into an infinite system of ordinary differential equations, by using the transformation and inversion formulae. For computational purposes, the infinite series is truncated, according to an automatic error control procedure. The ordinary differential is solved through well-established scientific subroutines from widely available mathematical libraries. The classical problem of developing flow between parallel-plates is analysed first, as for both uniform and irrotational inlet conditions. The effect of truncating the duct length in the accuracy of the obtained solution is studied. A convergence analysis of the results obtained by the GITT is performed and compared with results obtained by finite difference and finite element methods, for different values of Reynolds number. The problem of flow over a backward-facing step then follows. Comparisons with experimental results in the literature indicate an excellent agreement. The numerical co-validation was established for a test case, and perfect agreement is reached against results considered as benchmarks in the recent literature. The results were shown to be physically more reasonable than others obtained by purely numerical methods, in particular for situations where three-dimensional effects are identified. Finally, a test problem for an irregular by shoped duct was studied and compared against results found in the literature, with good agreement and excellent convergence rates for the stream function field along the whole channel, for different values of Reynolds number. (author)

  8. Two-dimensional analysis of two-phase reacting flow in a firing direct-injection diesel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    The flow field, spray penetration, and combustion in two-stroke diesel engines are described. Fuel injection begins at 345 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) and n-dodecane is used as the liquid fuel. Arrhenius kinetics is used to calculate the reaction rate term in the quasi-global combustion model. When the temperature, fuel, and oxygen mass fraction are within suitable flammability limits, combustion begins spontaneously. No spark is necessary to ignite a localized high temperature region. Compression is sufficient to increase the gaseous phase temperature to a point where spontaneous chemical reactions occur. Results are described for a swirl angle of 22.5 degrees.

  9. Evaluating of air flow movements and thermal comfort in a model room with Euler equation: Two dimensional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafi, Fatima Zohra; Halle, Stephane [Mechanical engineering department, Ecole de technologie superieure, Quebec university, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study that consists of estimating the temperature distribution and air flow movement in a model room with a numerical model based on the Euler equations. Numerical results obtained for two scenarios of ventilation and heating are compared with the predictions of a Navier-Stokes model, as well as with experimental results. A comparison of the local thermal comfort indices PMV and PPD obtained experimentally and numerically is also presented. Results show that the Euler model is capable of properly estimating the temperature distribution, the air movement and the comfort indices in the room. Furthermore, the use of Euler equations allows a reduction of computational time in the order of 30% compared to the Navier-Stokes modeling. (author)

  10. Two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada-California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddell, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of the flow system are principally determined by locations of low-hydraulic-conductivity rocks (barriers); by amounts of recharge originating in the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat, Timpahute, and Sheep Ranges, and in Pahute Mesa; and by amount of flow into the study area from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley. Discharge areas (Ash Meadows, Oasis Valley, Alkali Flat, and Furnace Creek Ranch) are upgradient from barriers. Analyses of sensitivity of hydraulic head with respect to model-parameter variations indicate that the flux terms having the greatest impact on model output are recharge on Pahute Mesa, underflow from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley, and discharge at Ash Meadows. The most important transmissivity terms are those for rocks underlying the Amargosa Desert (exclusive of Amargosa Flat area), the Eleana Formation along the west side of Yucca Flat, and the Precambrian and Cambrian clastic rocks underlying the Groom Range. Sensitivities of fluxes derived from simulated heads and head sensitivities were used to determine the parameters that would most affect predictions of radionuclide transport from a hypothetical nuclear repository in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site. The important parameters for determining flux through western Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountain are recharge to and underflow beneath Pahute Mesa; and transmissivities of the Eleana Formation, clastic rocks underlying the Groom Range, tuffs underlying Fortymile Canyon, and tuffs beneath Yucca Mountain. In the eastern part of Jackass Flats, the important parameters are transmissivities of the Eleana Formation; clastic rocks underlying the Groom Range; transmissivity of tuffs beneath Fortymile Canyon; and recharge or discharge terms for Pahute Mesa, Ash Meadows, and the Sheep Range. Transmissivities of rocks beneath the Amargosa Desert are important for flux calculations there

  11. Synthetic jet flow control of two-dimensional NACA 65(1)-412 airfoil flow with finite-time lyapunov exponent analysis of Lagrangian coherent structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Peter Inuk

    Synthetic jet (SJ) control of a low-Reynolds number, unsteady, compressible, viscous flow over a NACA 65-(1)412 airfoil, typical for unmanned air vehicles and gas turbines, has been investigated computationally. A particular focus was placed in the development and control of Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS) and the associated Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) fields. The FTLE fields quantitatively measure of the repulsion rate in forward-time and the attraction rate in backward-time, and provide a unique perspective on effective flow control. A Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) methods, high-fidelity Navier-Stokes solver performs direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the airfoil flow. Three SJ control strategies have been investigated: immediately downstream of flow separation, normal to the separated shear layer; near the leading edge, normal to the airfoil suction side; near the trailing edge, normal to the airfoil pressure side. A finite difference algorithm computes the FTLE from DNS velocity data. A baseline flow without SJ control is compared to SJ actuated flows. The baseline flow forms a regular, time-periodic, asymmetric von Karman vortex street in the wake. The SJ downstream of flow separation increases recirculation region vorticity and reduces the effective angle of attack. This decreases the time-averaged lift by 2:98% and increases the time-averaged drag by 5:21%. The leading edge SJ produces small vortices that deflect the shear layer downwards, and decreases the effective angle of attack. This reduces the time-averaged lift by 1:80%, and the time-averaged drag by 1:84%. The trailing edge SJ produces perturbations that add to pressure side vortices without affecting global flow characteristics. The time-averaged lift decreases by 0:47%, and the time-averaged drag increases by 0:20%. For all SJ cases, the aerodynamic performance is much more dependent on changes to the pressure distribution than changes to the skin friction distribution. No proposed

  12. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author)

  13. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author).

  14. Two-dimensional magnetic field evolution measurements and plasma flow speed estimates from the coaxial thruster experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Gerwin, R.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Scheuer, J.T.; Hoyt, R.P.; Henins, I.

    1994-01-01

    Local, time-dependent magnetic field measurements have been made in the Los Alamos coaxial thruster experiment (CTX) [C. W. Barnes et al., Phys. Fluids B 2, 1871 (1990); J. C. Fernandez et al., Nucl. Fusion 28, 1555 (1988)] using a 24 coil magnetic probe array (eight spatial positions, three axis probes). The CTX is a magnetized, coaxial plasma gun presently being used to investigate the viability of high pulsed power plasma thrusters for advanced electric propulsion. Previous efforts on this device have indicated that high pulsed power plasma guns are attractive candidates for advanced propulsion that employ ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma stream flow through self-formed magnetic nozzles. Indirect evidence of magnetic nozzle formation was obtained from plasma gun performance and measurements of directed axial velocities up to v z ∼10 7 cm/s. The purpose of this work is to make direct measurement of the time evolving magnetic field topology. The intent is to both identify that applied magnetic field distortion by the highly conductive plasma is occurring, and to provide insight into the details of discharge evolution. Data from a magnetic fluctuation probe array have been used to investigate the details of applied magnetic field deformation through the reconstruction of time-dependent flux profiles. Experimentally observed magnetic field line distortion has been compared to that predicted by a simple one-dimensional (1-D) model of the discharge channel. Such a comparison is utilized to estimate the axial plasma velocity in the thruster. Velocities determined in this manner are in approximate agreement with the predicted self-field magnetosonic speed and those measured by a time-of-flight spectrometer

  15. Lattice gas automata simulations of flow through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukuma, Yosuke; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Takahashi, Ryoichi

    1998-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident, a debris bed may be formed from once- molten and fragmented fuel elements. In order to avoid further degradation of the reactor core, it is necessary to remove the heat from the debris bed since the debris bed still release the decay heat. So as to predict the coolability of the debris bed, it is important to precisely estimate flow patterns through complex geometry of debris bed in microscopic level. Lattice gas automata could be powerful tool to simulate such a complex geometry. As a first step of the study, fundamental numerical simulation were conducted in two dimensional systems by using the lattice gas automata method to clarify single phase flow patterns through porous media in mesoscopic level. Immiscible lattice gas model is one of the lattice gas automata method and utilized for spinodal decomposition simulation of binary fluids. This model was applied to generate the complex flow geometry simulating porous media. It was approved that the complex flow geometries were successfully generated by the present method. Flow concentration was observed in specified flow channels for lower Reynolds number. Two dimensional flow concentration was caused by the irregular flow geometry generated by the present method, since the flow selects the channels of lower friction. Two dimensional pressure distribution was observed relating to the concentrations of flow in specified channels. The simulating results of the flow through the porous media by the present method qualitatively agree with the Ergun's equation. Quantitatively, the present results approach to Ergun's equation in higher Reynolds number than 10, although concentration of the flow in a specified flow channels were observed in lower Reynolds number than 10. It can be concluded that this technique is useful is useful to simulate flow through complex geometry like porous media. (author)

  16. A flow system for generation of concentration perturbation in two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectroscopy: application to variable selection in multivariate calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Claudete Fernandes; Pasquini, Celio

    2010-05-01

    A flow system is proposed to produce a concentration perturbation in liquid samples, aiming at the generation of two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectra. The system presents advantages in relation to batch systems employed for the same purpose: the experiments are accomplished in a closed system; application of perturbation is rapid and easy; and the experiments can be carried out with micro-scale volumes. The perturbation system has been evaluated in the investigation and selection of relevant variables for multivariate calibration models for the determination of quality parameters of gasoline, including ethanol content, MON (motor octane number), and RON (research octane number). The main advantage of this variable selection approach is the direct association between spectral features and chemical composition, allowing easy interpretation of the regression models.

  17. An investigation of two-dimensional, two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading by the time-marching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teymourtash, A. R.; Mahpeykar, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    During the course of expansion in turbines, the steam at first super cools and then nucleated to become a two-phase mixture. This is an area where greater understanding can lead to improved design. This paper describes a numerical method for the solution of two-dimensional two-phase flow of steam in a cascade of turbine blading; the unsteady euler equations governing the overall behaviour of the fluid are combined with equations describing droplet behaviour and treated by Jasmine fourth order runge Kutta time marching scheme which modified to allow for two-phase effects. The theoretical surface pressure distributions, droplet radii and contours of constant wetness fraction are presented and results are discussed in the light of knowledge of actual surface pressure distributions

  18. Two-dimensional numerical experiments with DRIX-2D on two-phase-water-flows referring to the HDR-blowdown-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moesinger, H.

    1979-08-01

    The computer program DRIX-2D has been developed from SOLA-DF. The essential elements of the program structure are described. In order to verify DRIX-2D an Edwards-Blowdown-Experiment is calculated and other numerical results are compared with steady state experiments and models. Numerical experiments on transient two-phase flow, occurring in the broken pipe of a PWR in the case of a hypothetic LOCA, are performed. The essential results of the two-dimensional calculations are: 1. The appearance of a radial profile of void-fraction, velocity, sound speed and mass flow-rate inside the blowdown nozzle. The reason for this is the flow contraction at the nozzle inlet leading to more vapour production in the vicinity of the pipe wall. 2. A comparison between modelling in axisymmetric and Cartesian coordinates and calculations with and without the core barrel show the following: a) The three-dimensional flow pattern at the nozzle inlet is poorly described using Cartesian coordinates. In consequence a considerable difference in pressure history results. b) The core barrel alters the reflection behaviour of the pressure waves oscillating in the blowdown-nozzle. Therefore, the core barrel should be modelled as a wall normal to the nozzle axis. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Two-Dimensional Cutting (TDC Vitrectome: In Vitro Flow Assessment and Prospective Clinical Study Evaluating Core Vitrectomy Efficiency versus Standard Vitrectome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanis Pavlidis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate comparative aspiration flow performance and also vitrectomy operating time efficiency using a double-cutting open port vitreous cutting system incorporated in a two-dimensional cutting (TDC, DORC International vitrectome design versus standard vitreous cutter. Methods. In vitro investigations compared aspiration flow rates in artificial vitreous humor at varying cutter speeds and vacuum levels using a TDC vitrectome and a standard vitrectome across different aspiration pump systems. A prospective single-centre clinical study evaluated duration of core vitrectomy in 80 patients with macular pucker undergoing 25-gauge or 27-gauge vitrectomy using either a TDC vitrectome at 16,000 cuts per minute (cpm or standard single-cut vitrectome, combined with a Valve Timing intelligence (VTi pump system (EVA, DORC International. Results. Aspiration flow rates remained constant independent of TDC vitrectome cut rate, while flow rates decreased linearly at higher cutter speeds using a classic single-blade vitrectome. Mean duration of core vitrectomy surgeries using a TDC vitreous cutter system was significantly (p<0.001 shorter than the mean duration of core vitrectomy procedures using a single-cut vitrectome of the same diameter (reduction range, 34%–50%. Conclusion. Vitrectomy surgery performed using a TDC vitrectome was faster than core vitrectomy utilizing a standard single-action vitrectome at similar cut speeds.

  20. Gas Flow Detection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  1. Effect of Temperature and Fluid Flow on Dendrite Growth During Solidification of Al-3 Wt Pct Cu Alloy by the Two-Dimensional Cellular Automaton Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Wei, Yanhong; Liu, Renpei; Yu, Fengyi

    2017-12-01

    A two-dimensional cellular automaton-finite volume model was developed to simulate dendrite growth of Al-3 wt pct Cu alloy during solidification to investigate the effect of temperature and fluid flow on dendrite morphology, solute concentration distribution, and dendrite growth velocity. Different calculation conditions that may influence the results of the simulation, including temperature and flow, were considered. The model was also employed to study the effect of different undercoolings, applied temperature fields, and forced flow velocities on solute segregation and dendrite growth. The initial temperature and fluid flow have a significant impact on the dendrite morphologies and solute profiles during solidification. The release of energy is operated with solidification and results in the increase of temperature. A larger undercooling leads to larger solute concentration near the solid/liquid interface and solute concentration gradient at the same time-step. Solute concentration in the solid region tends to increase with the increase of undercooling. Four vortexes appear under the condition when natural flow exists: the two on the right of the dendrite rotate clockwise, and those on the left of the dendrite rotate counterclockwise. With the increase of forced flow velocity, the rejected solute in the upstream region becomes easier to be washed away and enriched in the downstream region, resulting in acceleration of the growth of the dendrite in the upstream and inhibiting the downstream dendrite growth. The dendrite perpendicular to fluid flow shows a coarser morphology in the upstream region than that of the downstream. Almost no secondary dendrite appears during the calculation process.

  2. Origin of the inertial deviation from Darcy's law: An investigation from a microscopic flow analysis on two-dimensional model structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnaou, Mehrez; Lasseux, Didier; Ahmadi, Azita

    2017-10-01

    Inertial flow in porous media occurs in many situations of practical relevance among which one can cite flows in column reactors, in filters, in aquifers, or near wells for hydrocarbon recovery. It is characterized by a deviation from Darcy's law that leads to a nonlinear relationship between the pressure drop and the filtration velocity. In this work, this deviation, also known as the nonlinear, inertial, correction to Darcy's law, which is subject to controversy upon its origin and dependence on the filtration velocity, is studied through numerical simulations. First, the microscopic flow problem was solved computationally for a wide range of Reynolds numbers up to the limit of steady flow within ordered and disordered porous structures. In a second step, the macroscopic characteristics of the porous medium and flow (permeability and inertial correction tensors) that appear in the macroscale model were computed. From these results, different flow regimes were identified: (1) the weak inertia regime where the inertial correction has a cubic dependence on the filtration velocity and (2) the strong inertia (Forchheimer) regime where the inertial correction depends on the square of the filtration velocity. However, the existence and origin of those regimes, which depend also on the microstructure and flow orientation, are still not well understood in terms of their physical interpretations, as many causes have been conjectured in the literature. In the present study, we provide an in-depth analysis of the flow structure to identify the origin of the deviation from Darcy's law. For accuracy and clarity purposes, this is carried out on two-dimensional structures. Unlike the previous studies reported in the literature, where the origin of inertial effects is often identified on a heuristic basis, a theoretical justification is presented in this work. Indeed, a decomposition of the convective inertial term into two components is carried out formally allowing the

  3. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols by Using One-Dimensional and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometric Method: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gyong Ahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced separation technology paired with mass spectrometry is an ideal method for the analysis of atmospheric samples having complex chemical compositions. Due to the huge variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources of organic compounds, simultaneous quantification and identification of organic compounds in aerosol samples represents a demanding analytical challenge. In this regard, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS has become an effective analytical method. However, verification and validation approaches to quantify these analytes have not been critically evaluated. We compared the performance of gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS and GC×GC-TOFMS for quantitative analysis of eighteen target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The quantitative obtained results such as limits of detection (LODs, limits of quantification (LOQs, and recoveries of target PAHs were approximately equivalent based on both analytical methods. Furthermore, a larger number of analytes were consistently identified from the aerosol samples by GC×GC-TOFMS compared to GC-qMS. Our findings suggest that GC×GC-TOFMS would be widely applicable to the atmospheric and related sciences with simultaneous target and nontarget analysis in a single run.

  4. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of oxygenates in middle distillates I. Determination of the nature of biodiesels blend in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Coupard, Vincent; Charon, Nadège; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2008-04-04

    In the current energetic context (increasing consumption of vehicle fuels, greenhouse gas emission etc.) government policies lead to mandatory introduction in fossil fuels of fuels resulting from renewable sources of energy such as biomass. Blending of fatty acid alkyl esters from vegetable oils (also known as biodiesel) with conventional diesel fuel is one of the solutions technologically available; B5 blends (up to 5%w/w esters in fossil fuel) are marketed over Europe. Therefore, for quality control as well as for forensic reasons, it is of major importance to monitor the biodiesel origin (i.e. the fatty acid ester distribution) and its content when it is blend with petroleum diesel. This paper reports a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) method that was developed for the individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in middle distillates matrices. Several first and the second dimension columns have been investigated and their performances to achieve (i) a group type separation of hydrocarbons and (ii) individual identification and quantitation of fatty acid ester blend with diesel are reported and discussed. Finally, comparison of quantitative GC x GC results with reference methods demonstrates the benefits of GC x GC approach which enables fast and reliable individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in one single run. Results show that under developed chromatographic conditions, quantitative group type analysis of hydrocarbons is also possible, meaning that simultaneous quantification of hydrocarbons and fatty acid esters can be achieved in one single run.

  5. Numerical analysis for two-dimensional compressible and two-phase flow fields of air-water in Eulerian grid framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su

    2008-01-01

    Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated

  6. Gisplana two dimensional flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payeras Socias, J.; Montero Ramos, M.; Pablo Sanmartin, M.A. de; Diaz Teijeiro, M.

    1996-01-01

    The Environmental Radiological Monitoring Network (R.V.R.A.) includes a set of 90 sampling points chosen from the major spanish river basins. The R.V.R.A.'s database is an structured system providing quantitative radiological information of radioactivity levels in spanish continental waters. (Author)

  7. Evolution of potent odorants within the volatile metabolome of high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.): evaluation by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marta Cialiè; Liberto, Erica; Spigolon, Nicola; Fontana, Mauro; Somenzi, Marco; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-01-09

    Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality. The volatile metabolome is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dedicated pattern recognition, based on 2D data (targeted fingerprinting), is used to mine analytical outputs, while principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher ratio, hierarchical clustering, and analysis of variance are used to find decision makers among the most informative chemicals. Low-temperature drying (18-20 °C) has a decisive effect on quality; it correlates negatively with bacteria and mold metabolic activity, nut viability, and lipid oxidation products (2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and (E)-2-heptanal). Protective atmosphere storage (99% N 2 -1% O 2 ) effectively limits lipid oxidation for 9-12 months after nut harvest. The combination of optimal drying and storage preserves the aroma potential; after roasting at different shelf-lives, key odorants responsible for malty and buttery (2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 2,3-pentanedione), earthy (methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine) and caramel-like and musty notes (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone - furaneol and acetyl pyrrole) show no

  8. A nominally second-order cell-centered Lagrangian scheme for simulating elastic-plastic flows on two-dimensional unstructured grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Pierre-Henri; Abgrall, Rémi; Breil, Jérôme; Loubère, Raphaël; Rebourcet, Bernard

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a cell-centered Lagrangian scheme devoted to the numerical simulation of solid dynamics on two-dimensional unstructured grids in planar geometry. This numerical method, utilizes the classical elastic-perfectly plastic material model initially proposed by Wilkins [M.L. Wilkins, Calculation of elastic-plastic flow, Meth. Comput. Phys. (1964)]. In this model, the Cauchy stress tensor is decomposed into the sum of its deviatoric part and the thermodynamic pressure which is defined by means of an equation of state. Regarding the deviatoric stress, its time evolution is governed by a classical constitutive law for isotropic material. The plasticity model employs the von Mises yield criterion and is implemented by means of the radial return algorithm. The numerical scheme relies on a finite volume cell-centered method wherein numerical fluxes are expressed in terms of sub-cell force. The generic form of the sub-cell force is obtained by requiring the scheme to satisfy a semi-discrete dissipation inequality. Sub-cell force and nodal velocity to move the grid are computed consistently with cell volume variation by means of a node-centered solver, which results from total energy conservation. The nominally second-order extension is achieved by developing a two-dimensional extension in the Lagrangian framework of the Generalized Riemann Problem methodology, introduced by Ben-Artzi and Falcovitz [M. Ben-Artzi, J. Falcovitz, Generalized Riemann Problems in Computational Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge Monogr. Appl. Comput. Math. (2003)]. Finally, the robustness and the accuracy of the numerical scheme are assessed through the computation of several test cases.

  9. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  10. Gas microstrip detectors for X-ray tomographic flow imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Key, M J; Luggar, R D; Kundu, A

    2003-01-01

    A investigation into the suitability of gas microstrip detector technology for a high-speed industrial X-ray tomography system is reported. X-ray energies in the region 20-30 keV are well suited to the application, which involves imaging two-dimensional slices through gas/liquid multiphase pipeline flows for quantitative component fraction measurement. Stable operation over a period representing several hundred individual tomographic scans at gas gains of 500 is demonstrated using a Penning gas mixture of krypton/propylene.

  11. Investigation of plasmonic resonances in the two-dimensional electron gas of an InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W.; Peale, Robert E.; Saxena, Himanshu; Buchwald, Walter R.

    2011-05-01

    The observation of THz regime transmission resonances in an InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be attributed to excitation of plasmons in its two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Properties of grating-based, gate-voltage tunable resonances are shown to be adequately modeled using commercial finite element method (FEM) software when the HEMT layer structure, gate geometry and sheet charge concentration are taken into account. The FEM results are shown to produce results consistent with standard analytical theories in the 10-100 cm-1 wavenumber range. An original analytic formula presented here describes how the plasmonic resonance may change in the presence of a virtual gate, or region of relatively high free charge carriers that lies in the HEMT between the physical grating gate and the 2DEG. The virtual gate and corresponding analytic formulation are able to account for the red-shifting experimentally observed in plasmonic resonances. The calculation methods demonstrated here have the potential to greatly aid in the design of future detection devices that require specifically tuned plasmonic modes in the 2DEG of a HEMT, as well as giving new insights to aid in the development of more complete analytic theories.

  12. Effect of asymmetric interface on charge and spin transport across two dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling/ferromagnet junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Pasanai, K.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically studied the effect of interfacial scattering on the transport of charge and spin across the junction of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling and ferromagnetic material junction, via the conductance (G) and the spin-polarization of the conductance spectra (P) using the scattering method. At the interface, not only were the effects of spin-conserving (Z0) and spin-flip scattering (Zf) considered, but also the interfacial Rashba spin-orbit coupling scattering (ZRSOC) , which was caused by the asymmetry of the interface, was taken into account, and all of them were modeled by the delta potential. It was found that G was suppressed with increasing Z0 , as expected. Interestingly, a particular value of Zf can cause G and P to reach a maximum value. In particular, ZRSOC plays a crucial role to reduce G and P in the metallic limit, but its influence on the tunneling limit was quite weak. On the other hand, the effect of ZRSOC was diminished in the tunneling limit of the magnetic junction.

  13. Analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using a single-stage thermal modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntlhokwe, Gaalebalwe; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Górecki, Tadeusz; Edwards, Matthew; Vestner, Jochen; Muller, Magdalena; Erasmus, Lené; Joubert, Elizabeth; Christel Cronje, J; de Villiers, André

    2017-07-01

    The applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a single-stage thermal modulator was explored for the analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatile compounds. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was used in combination with GC×GC separation on a non-polar × polar column set with flame ionisation (FID) detection for the analysis of fermented Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia subternata and Cyclopia genistoides tea infusions of a single harvest season. Method optimisation entailed evaluation of the effects of several experimental parameters on the performance of the modulator, the choice of columns in both dimensions, as well as the HS-SPME extraction fibre. Eighty-four volatile compounds were identified by co-injection of reference standards. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear differentiation between the species based on their volatile profiles. Due to the highly reproducible separations obtained using the single-stage thermal modulator, multivariate data analysis was simplified. The results demonstrate both the complexity of honeybush volatile profiles and the potential of GC×GC separation in combination with suitable data analysis techniques for the investigation of the relationship between sensory properties and volatile composition of these products. The developed method therefore offers a fast and inexpensive methodology for the profiling of honeybush tea volatiles. Graphical abstract Surface plot obtained for the GC×GC-FID analysis of honeybush tea volatiles.

  14. Metabolomics strategy for the mapping of volatile exometabolome from Saccharomyces spp. widely used in the food industry based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cátia; Brandão, Tiago; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2017-05-01

    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used in the food and beverages industries. Their cellular excreted metabolites are important for general quality of products and can contribute to product differentiation. This exploratory study presents a metabolomics strategy for the comprehensive mapping of cellular metabolites of two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus (both collected in an industrial context) through a multidimensional chromatography platform. Solid-phase microextraction was used as a sample preparation method. The yeast viability, a specific technological quality parameter, was also assessed. This untargeted analysis allowed the putative identification of 525 analytes, distributed over 14 chemical families, the origin of which may be explained through the pathways network associated with yeasts metabolism. The expression of the different metabolic pathways was similar for both species, event that seems to be yeast genus dependent. Nevertheless, these species showed different growth rates, which led to statistically different metabolites content. This was the first in-depth approach that characterizes the headspace content of S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus species cultures. The combination of a sample preparation method capable of providing released volatile metabolites directly from yeast culture headspace with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography was successful in uncovering a specific metabolomic pattern for each species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Screening of oil sources by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanfeng; Zhu, Shukui; He, Sheng; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-02-06

    Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOFMS), volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in crude oil samples from different reservoirs or regions were analyzed for the development of a molecular fingerprint database. Based on the GC×GC/TOFMS fingerprints of crude oils, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to distinguish the oil sources and find biomarkers. As a supervised technique, the geological characteristics of crude oils, including thermal maturity, sedimentary environment etc., are assigned to the principal components. The results show that tri-aromatic steroid (TAS) series are the suitable marker compounds in crude oils for the oil screening, and the relative abundances of individual TAS compounds have excellent correlation with oil sources. In order to correct the effects of some other external factors except oil sources, the variables were defined as the content ratio of some target compounds and 13 parameters were proposed for the screening of oil sources. With the developed model, the crude oils were easily discriminated, and the result is in good agreement with the practical geological setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Suppressed carrier density for the patterned high mobility two-dimensional electron gas at γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Wei; Gan, Yulin; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the non-isostructural interface between spinel γ-Al2O3 and perovskite SrTiO3 is featured by a record electron mobility among complex oxide interfaces in addition to a high carrier density up to the order of 1015 cm-2. Herein, we report on the patterning...... is found to be approximately 3×1013 cm-2, much lower than that of the unpatterned sample (~1015 cm-2). Remarkably, a high electron mobility of approximately 3,600 cm2V-1s-1 was obtained at low temperatures for the patterned 2DEG at a carrier density of ~ 7×1012 cm-2, which exhibits clear Shubnikov-de Hass...... quantum oscillations. The patterned high-mobility 2DEG at the γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface paves the way for the design and application of spinel/perovskite interfaces for high-mobility all-oxide electronic devic...

  17. The quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediment samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with μECD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples is a challenge due to the very large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of chlorinated n-alkanes with varying chain lengths (C 10 to C 30 ) and degree of chlorination (30 to 70% by weight). Their physical-chemical properties make these compounds persistent in the environment and able to bioaccumulate in living organisms. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with micro-electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and quantify short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) in sediment samples. Distinct ordered bands were observed in the GC × GC chromatograms pointing to group separation. Using the Classification function of the ChromaTOF software, summary tables were generated to determine total area counts to set up multilevel-calibration curves for different technical mixes. Fortified sediment samples were analyzed by GC × GC-μECD with minimal extraction and cleanup. Recoveries ranged from 120 to 130%. To further validate the proposed method for the analysis of SCCPs, the laboratory participated in interlaboratory studies for the analysis of standards and sediment samples. The results showed recoveries between 75 and 95% and z-score values <2, demonstrating that the method is suitable for the analysis of SCCPs in soil/sediment samples. Graphical abstract Quantification of SCCPs by 2D-GC-μECD.

  18. Scattering times in the two-dimensional electron gas of AlxGa1-xN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiuxun; Honda, Yoshio; Narita, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Masahito; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Guo Qixin; Nishio, Mitsushiro

    2009-01-01

    Low-field Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) measurements were performed on two-dimensional electron gas of Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/GaN and Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/AlN/GaN heterostructures at a low temperature. A dramatic improvement in electron mobility is observed in Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 1 and 2 nm thick AlN interlayers. A further increase in the AlN thickness degrades the transport behaviour. Transport and quantum scattering times were derived from the corresponding Hall mobility and the oscillatory part of the SdH signal. The ratio of the transport scattering time and the quantum scattering time increases from 3.87 in the heterostructure without the AlN interlayer to 14.34 with the 1 nm AlN interlayer and to 12.45 with the 2 nm AlN interlayer. A modified scattering calculation due to charged dislocation with a finite length suggests that dislocation related long-range scattering event tends to dominate both transport and quantum scattering times when a thin AlN interlayer is introduced.

  19. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari; Sharma, Rajesh K.; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Thakur, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness

  20. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India); Sharma, Rajesh K., E-mail: rksharma@sspl.drdo.in; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Thakur, Om Prakash [Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness.

  1. Comparison of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with sulfur-chemiluminescence detector to standard methods for speciation of sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerrero, Rosario; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Thiébaut, Didier; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Espinat, Didier

    2006-10-01

    The monitoring of total sulfur content and speciation of individual sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates is required for efficient catalyst selection and for a better understanding of the kinetics of the reactions involved in hydrotreament processes. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) hyphenated to sulfur chemiluminescence detection (SCD) has recently evolved as a powerful tool for improving characterization and identification of sulfur compounds. The aim of this paper is to compare quantitatively GCxGC-SCD and various other methods commonly employed in the petroleum industry, such as X-ray fluorescence, conventional GC-SCD, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, for total sulfur content determination and speciation analysis. Different samples of middle distillates have been analyzed to demonstrate the high potential and important advantages of GCxGC-SCD for innovative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing compounds. More accurate and detailed results for benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes are presented, showing that GCxGC-SCD should become, in the future, an essential tool for sulfur speciation analysis.

  2. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  3. Enhanced Characterization of the Smell of Death by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Brasseur, Catherine; Haubruge, Eric; Focant, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Soon after death, the decay process of mammalian soft tissues begins and leads to the release of cadaveric volatile compounds in the surrounding environment. The study of postmortem decomposition products is an emerging field of study in forensic science. However, a better knowledge of the smell of death and its volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. Domestic pigs are the most widely used human body analogues in forensic experiments, mainly due to ethical restrictions. Indeed, decomposition trials on human corpses are restricted in many countries worldwide. This article reports on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) for thanatochemistry applications. A total of 832 VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass in terrestrial ecosystem, i.e. a forest biotope, were identified by GCxGC-TOFMS. These postmortem compounds belong to many kinds of chemical class, mainly oxygen compounds (alcohols, acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters), sulfur and nitrogen compounds, aromatic compounds such as phenolic molecules and hydrocarbons. The use of GCxGC-TOFMS in study of postmortem volatile compounds instead of conventional GC-MS was successful. PMID:22723918

  4. Enhanced characterization of the smell of death by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dekeirsschieter

    Full Text Available Soon after death, the decay process of mammalian soft tissues begins and leads to the release of cadaveric volatile compounds in the surrounding environment. The study of postmortem decomposition products is an emerging field of study in forensic science. However, a better knowledge of the smell of death and its volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. Domestic pigs are the most widely used human body analogues in forensic experiments, mainly due to ethical restrictions. Indeed, decomposition trials on human corpses are restricted in many countries worldwide. This article reports on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS for thanatochemistry applications. A total of 832 VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass in terrestrial ecosystem, i.e. a forest biotope, were identified by GCxGC-TOFMS. These postmortem compounds belong to many kinds of chemical class, mainly oxygen compounds (alcohols, acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, sulfur and nitrogen compounds, aromatic compounds such as phenolic molecules and hydrocarbons. The use of GCxGC-TOFMS in study of postmortem volatile compounds instead of conventional GC-MS was successful.

  5. Application of Light Reflection Visualization for Measuring Organic-Liquid Saturation for Two-Phase Systems in Two-Dimensional Flow Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L; Brusseau, Mark L

    2011-11-01

    A simple, noninvasive imaging technique was used to obtain in situ measurements of organic-liquid saturation in a two-phase system under dynamic conditions. Efficacy of the light reflection visualization (LRV) imaging method was tested through comparison of measured and known volumes of organic liquid for experiments conducted with a two-dimensional flow cell. Two sets of experiments were conducted, with source-zone configurations representing two archetypical residual-and-pool architectures. LRV measurements were collected during the injection of organic liquid and during a dissolution phase induced by water flushing. There was a strong correlation between measured and known organic-liquid volumes, with the LRV-measured values generally somewhat lower than the known volumes. Errors were greater for the system wherein organic liquid was present in multiple zones comprised of porous media of different permeabilities, and for conditions of multiphase flow. This method proved effective at determining organic-liquid distribution in a two-phase system using minimal specialized equipment.

  6. Application of adjustment calculus in the nodeless Trefftz method for a problem of two-dimensional temperature field of the boiling liquid flowing in a minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.

  7. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  8. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Numerical Analysis of Dusty-Gas Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T.

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents the development of a numerical code for simulating unsteady dusty-gas flows including shock and rarefaction waves. The numerical results obtained for a shock tube problem are used for validating the accuracy and performance of the code. The code is then extended for simulating two-dimensional problems. Since the interactions between the gas and particle phases are calculated with the operator splitting technique, we can choose numerical schemes independently for the different phases. A semi-analytical method is developed for the dust phase, while the TVD scheme of Harten and Yee is chosen for the gas phase. Throughout this study, computations are carried out on SGI Origin2000, a parallel computer with multiple of RISC based processors. The efficient use of the parallel computer system is an important issue and the code implementation on Origin2000 is also described. Flow profiles of both the gas and solid particles behind the steady shock wave are calculated by integrating the steady conservation equations. The good agreement between the pseudo-stationary solutions and those from the current numerical code validates the numerical approach and the actual coding. The pseudo-stationary shock profiles can also be used as initial conditions of unsteady multidimensional simulations.

  11. Fundamentals of gas particle flow

    CERN Document Server

    Rudinger, G

    1980-01-01

    Fundamentals of Gas-Particle Flow is an edited, updated, and expanded version of a number of lectures presented on the "Gas-Solid Suspensions” course organized by the von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics. Materials presented in this book are mostly analytical in nature, but some experimental techniques are included. The book focuses on relaxation processes, including the viscous drag of single particles, drag in gas-particles flow, gas-particle heat transfer, equilibrium, and frozen flow. It also discusses the dynamics of single particles, such as particles in an arbitrary flow, in a r

  12. Thermosensitive gas flow sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlicki, T.; Osadnik, S.; Prociow, E.

    1997-01-01

    Results of investigations on thermal gas flow sensor have been presented. The sensor consists of three thin film resistors Si+Ta. The circuit was designed in the form of two bridges; one of them serves for measurement of the heater temperature, the second one for the measurement of temperature difference of peripheral resistors. The measurement of output voltage versus the rate of nitrogen flow at various power levels dissipated at the heater and various temperatures have been made. The measurements were carried out in three versions; (a) at constant temperature of the heater, (b) at constant power dissipated in the heater, controlled by the power of the heater, (c) at constant temperature of the heater controlled by the power dissipated in the peripheral resistors of the sensor. Due to measurement range it is advantageous to stabilize the temperature of the heater, especially by means of the power supplied to the peripheral resistors. In this case the wider measurement range can be obtained. (author)

  13. FMG, RENUM, LINEL, ELLFMG, ELLP, and DIMES: Chain of programs for calculating and analyzing fluid flow through two-dimensional fracture networks -- theory and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billaux, D.; Bodea, S.; Long, J.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes some of the programs developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for network modelling. By themselves, these programs form a complete chain for the study of the equivalent permeability of two-dimensional fracture networks. FMG generates the fractures considered as line discontinuities, with any desired distribution of aperture, length, and orientation. The locations of these fractures on a plane can be either specified or generated randomly. The intersections of these fractures with each other, and with the boundaries of a specified flow region, are determined, and a finite element line network is output. RENUM is a line network optimizer. Nodes very close to each other are merged, dead-ends are removed, and the nodes are then renumbered in order to minimize the bandwidth of the corresponding linear system of equations. LINEL computes the steady state flux through a mesh of line elements previously processed by program RENUM. Equivalent directional permeabilities are output. ELLFMG determines the three components of the permeability tensor which best fits the directional permeabilities output by LINEL. A measure of the goodness fit is also computed. Two plotting programs, DIMES and ELLP, help visualize the outputs of these programs. DIMES plots the line network at various stages of the process. ELLP plots the equivalent permeability results. 14 refs., 25 figs

  14. Automating data analysis for two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry non-targeted analysis of comparative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Ivan A; Ogba, O Maduka; Chibwe, Leah; Hoh, Eunha; Cheong, Paul H-Y; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2018-03-16

    Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples. We used data from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil, pre- and post-bioremediation, to assess the effectiveness of OCTpy in facilitating the selection of analytes that have formed or degraded following treatment. Using datasets from the soil extracts pre- and post-bioremediation, OCTpy selected, on average, 18% of the initial suggested analytes generated by the LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software Statistical Compare feature. Based on this list, 63-100% of the candidate analytes identified by a highly trained individual were also selected by OCTpy. This process was accomplished in several minutes per sample, whereas manual data analysis took several hours per sample. OCTpy automates the analysis of complex mixtures of comparative samples, reduces the potential for human error during heavy data handling and decreases data analysis time by at least tenfold. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  16. Tile-based Fisher-ratio software for improved feature selection analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Parsons, Brendon A; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2013-10-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The data can be initially overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way as to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based Fisher ratio algorithmic approaches have been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between the sample classes relative to those that are not changing (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses the challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is often a shortcoming for both pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic approaches. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio algorithm significantly improves the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. In this study, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio algorithmic approach was able to "discover" all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06, the ratio between the concentrations in the spiked diesel sample to the native concentration in diesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for fatty acid methyl ester separation and quantification using dual ionic liquid columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Bano, Asghari; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-10-18

    Safflower oil is a complex mixture of C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amongst other fatty acids, and achieving separation between these similar structure components using one dimensional gas chromatography (GC) may be difficult. This investigation aims to obtain improved separation of fatty acid methyl esters in safflower oil, and their quantification using comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). Here, GC×GC separation is accomplished by the coupling of two ionic liquid (IL) column phases: the combination of SLB-IL111 with IL59 column phases was finally selected since it provided excellent separation of a FAME standard mixture, as well as fatty acids in safflower and linseed oil, compared to other tested column sets. Safflower oil FAME were well separated in a short run of 16min. FAME validation was demonstrated by method reproducibility, linearity over a range up to 500mgL(-1), and limits of detection which ranged from 1.9mgL(-1) to 5.2mgL(-1) at a split ratio of 20:1. Quantification was carried out using two dilution levels of 200-fold for major components and 20-fold for trace components. The fatty acids C15:0 and C17:0 were not reported previously in safflower oil. The SLB-IL111/IL59 column set proved to be an effective and novel configuration for separation and quantification of vegetable and animal oil fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: revealing fructose-induced changes in mice urinary metabolic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Collino, Massimo; Chiazza, Fausto; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    This study exploits the information potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography configured with a parallel dual secondary column-dual detection by mass spectrometry and flame ionization (GC×2GC-MS/FID) to study changes in urinary metabolic signatures of mice subjected to high-fructose diets. Samples are taken from mice fed with normal or fructose-enriched diets provided either in aqueous solution or in solid form and analyzed at three stages of the dietary intervention (1, 6, and 12 weeks). Automated Untargeted and Targeted fingerprinting for 2D data elaboration is adopted for the most inclusive data mining of GC×GC patterns. The UT fingerprinting strategy performs a fully automated peak-region features fingerprinting and combines results from pre-targeted compounds and unknowns across the sample-set. The most informative metabolites, with statistically relevant differences between sample groups, are obtained by unsupervised multivariate analysis (MVA) and cross-validated by multi-factor analysis (MFA) with external standard quantitation by GC-MS. Results indicate coherent clustering of mice urine signatures according to dietary manipulation. Notably, the metabolite fingerprints of mice fed with liquid fructose exhibited greater derangement in fructose, glucose, citric, pyruvic, malic, malonic, gluconic, cis-aconitic, succinic and 2-keto glutaric acids, glycine acyl derivatives (N-carboxy glycine, N-butyrylglycine, N-isovaleroylglycine, N-phenylacetylglycine), and hippuric acid. Untargeted fingerprinting indicates some analytes which were not a priori pre-targeted which provide additional insights: N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl glutamine, malonyl glycine, methyl malonyl glycine, and glutaric acid. Visual features fingerprinting is used to track individual variations during experiments, thereby extending the panorama of possible data elaboration tools. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  19. Comparison of two algorithmic data processing strategies for metabolic fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstetter, Martin F; Appel, Inka J; Dettmer, Katja; Gruber, Michael A; Oefner, Peter J

    2011-09-28

    The alignment algorithm Statistical Compare (SC) developed by LECO Corporation for the processing of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data was validated and compared to the in-house developed retention time correction and data alignment tool INCA (Integrative Normalization and Comparative Analysis) by a spike-in experiment and the comparative metabolic fingerprinting of a wild type versus a double mutant strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Starting with the same peak lists generated by LECO's ChromaTOF software, the accuracy of peak alignment and detection of 1.1- to 4-fold changes in metabolite concentration was assessed by spiking 20 standard compounds into an aqueous methanol extract of E. coli. To provide the same quality input signals for both alignment routines, the universal m/z 73 trace of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) group was used as a quantitative measure for all features. The performance of data processing and alignment was evaluated and illustrated by ROC curves. Statistical Compare performed marginally better at the lower fold changes, while INCA did so at the higher fold changes. Using SC, quantitative precision could be improved substantially by exploiting the signal intensities of metabolite-specific unique (U) m/z ion traces rather than the universal m/z 73 trace. A list of 56 features that distinguished the two E. coli strains was obtained by the SC alignment using m/z U with an estimated false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05. Ultimately, 23 metabolites could be identified, one additional and five less than with INCA due to the failure of SC to extract unitized m/z U's across all fingerprints with suitable spectral intensities for the latter metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  1. Web Server for Peak Detection, Baseline Correction, and Alignment in Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tze-Feng; Wang, San-Yuan; Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tan, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Chen, Chi-Hsin Sally; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Olivia A; Tseng, Y Jane

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) is superior for chromatographic separation and provides great sensitivity for complex biological fluid analysis in metabolomics. However, GC×GC/TOF-MS data processing is currently limited to vendor software and typically requires several preprocessing steps. In this work, we implement a web-based platform, which we call GC 2 MS, to facilitate the application of recent advances in GC×GC/TOF-MS, especially for metabolomics studies. The core processing workflow of GC 2 MS consists of blob/peak detection, baseline correction, and blob alignment. GC 2 MS treats GC×GC/TOF-MS data as pictures and clusters the pixels as blobs according to the brightness of each pixel to generate a blob table. GC 2 MS then aligns the blobs of two GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets according to their distance and similarity. The blob distance and similarity are the Euclidean distance of the first and second retention times of two blobs and the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the two mass spectra, respectively. GC 2 MS also directly corrects the raw data baseline. The analytical performance of GC 2 MS was evaluated using GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets of Angelica sinensis compounds acquired under different experimental conditions and of human plasma samples. The results show that GC 2 MS is an easy-to-use tool for detecting peaks and correcting baselines, and GC 2 MS is able to align GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets acquired under different experimental conditions. GC 2 MS is freely accessible at http://gc2ms.web.cmdm.tw .

  2. Cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas from 0.4 to 100 K at high filling factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Jeremy A. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Tokumoto, Takahisa [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Cherian, Judy G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Kuno, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Reno, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGill, Stephen A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Karaiskaj, Denis [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Hilton, David J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the cyclotron mobility of a Landau-quantized two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature (0.4 --100 K) at a fixed magnetic field (1.25 T) using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in a sample with a low frequency mobility of μdc = 3.6 x 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a carrier concentration of ns = 2 x 106 cm-2. The low temperature mobility in this sample results from both impurity scattering and acoustic deformation potential scattering, with μ$-1\\atop{CR}$ ≈ (2.1 x 105 cm2 V-1 s-1)-1 + (3.8 x 10-8 V sK-1 cm-2 x T)-1 at low temperatures. Above 50 K, the cyclotron oscillations show a strong reduction in both the oscillation amplitude and lifetime that is dominated by the contribution due to polar optical phonons. These results suggest that electron dephasing times as long as ~ 300 ps are possible even at this high lling factor (v = 6:6) in higher mobility samples (> 107 cm2 V-1 s-1) that have lower impurity concentrations and where the cyclotron mobility at this carrier concentration would be limited by acoustic deformation potential scattering.

  3. Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

    2010-01-15

    In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were

  4. Influence of the Fin on Two-Dimensional Characteristics of Dispersed Flow With Wall Liquid Film in the Vicinity of Obstacle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, Zoran V.; Stevanovic, Vladimir D.; Serizawa, Akimi

    2002-01-01

    Spacers have positive effects on the heat transfer enhancement and critical heat flux (CHF) increase downstream of their location in the boiling channel. These effects are further increased by the inclusion of the fin on the spacer rear edge. Numerical simulation of a separation in a high void gas phase and dispersed droplets flow around a spacer, with a liquid film flowing on the wall, is performed. Mechanisms leading to the CHF increase due to the two-phase flow separation and liquid film thickening downstream the spacer are demonstrated. Numerical simulations of gas phase, entrained droplets and wall liquid film flows were performed with the three-fluid model and with the application of the high order numerical scheme for the liquid film surface interface tracking. Predicted is a separation of gas and entrained droplets streams around the spacer without and with a fin inclined 30 and 60 degrees to the wall, as well as a change of wall liquid film thickness in the vicinity of spacer. Results of liquid film dynamic behaviour are compared with the recently obtained experimental results. Multi-dimensional characteristics of surface waves on the liquid film were measured with newly developed ultrasonic transmission technique in a 3 3 rod bundle test section with air-water flow under atmospheric conditions. Obtained numerical results are in good agreement with experimental observations. The presented investigation gives insight into the complex mechanisms of separated two-phase flow with wall liquid film around the spacer and support thermal-hydraulic design and optimisation of flow obstacles in various thermal equipment. (authors)

  5. Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in South African red wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Crouch, A.M.; Górecki, T.; Villiers, de A.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) has been applied for the analysis of volatile compounds in three young South African red wines. In spite of the significant benefits offered by GC × GC–TOFMS for the separation and

  6. Gas/liquid flow configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, Jacques; Fitremann, J.-M.

    1978-01-01

    Prediction of flow configurations (morphology) for gas/liquid or liquid/vapour mixtures is an important industrial problem which is not yet fully understood. The ''Flow Configurations'' Seminar of Societe Hydrotechnique de France has framed recommendations for investigation of potential industrial applications for flow configurations [fr

  7. Dynamic simulation of dispersed gas-liquid two-phase flow using a discrete bubble model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delnoij, E.; Lammers, F.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1997-01-01

    In this paper a detailed hydrodynamic model for gas-liquid two-phase flow will be presented. The model is based on a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian approach and describes the time-dependent two-dimensional motion of small, spherical gas bubbles in a bubble column operating in the homogeneous regime. The

  8. Identification of volatiles from pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) pulp by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcio P; Ferreira, Ernesto C; Hantao, Leandro W; Bogusz, Stanislau; Augusto, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Combining qualitative data from the chromatographic structure of 2-D gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) and that from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) should result in a more accurate assignment of the peak identities than the simple analysis by GC/MS, where coelution of analytes is unavoidable in highly complex samples (rendering spectra unsuitable for qualitative purposes) or for compounds in very low concentrations. Using data from GC×GC-FID combined with GC/MS can reveal coelutions that were not detected by mass spectra deconvolution software. In addition, some compounds can be identified according to the structure of the GC×GC-FID chromatogram. In this article, the volatile fractions of fresh and dehydrated pineapple pulp were evaluated. The extraction of the volatiles was performed by dynamic headspace extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction (DHS-SPME), a technique appropriate for slurries or solid matrices. Extracted analytes were then analyzed by GC×GC-FID and GC/MS. The results obtained using both techniques were combined to improve compound identifications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Tracking changes in composition and amount of dissolved organic matter throughout drinking water treatment plants by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiong; Xu, Meijia; Wang, Zijian; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2017-12-31

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the performance of water treatment processes and produce undesirable disinfection by-products during disinfection. Several studies have been undertaken on the structural characterization of DOM, but its fate during drinking water treatment processes is still not fully understood. In this work, the nontargeted screening method of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) was used to reveal the detailed changes of different chemical classes of compounds in DOM during conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes at three drinking water treatment plants in China. The results showed that when the dissolved organic carbon removal was low, shifts in the DOM composition could not be detected with the specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm, but the changes were clear in the three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix or GC×GC-qMS analyses. Coagulation-sedimentation processes selectively removed 37-59% of the nitrogenous compounds, alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons but increased the concentrations of halogen-containing compounds by 17-26% because of the contact time with chlorine in this step. Filtration was less efficient at removing DOM but preferentially removed 21-60% of the acids. However, other organic matter would be released from the filter (e.g., nitrogenous compounds, acids, and aromatic hydrocarbons). Biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment removed most of the compounds produced from ozonation, particularly ketones, alcohols, halogen-containing compounds and acids. However, it should be noted that certain highly polar or high molecular weight compounds not identified in this study might be released from the BAC bed. After the whole treatment processes, the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds, alcohols, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and ketones were decreased more by the advanced treatment processes than by the conventional treatment

  10. Detection of Synthetic Testosterone Use by Novel Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Herbert J.; Zhang, Ying; Auchus, Richard J.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS) for the analysis of urinary steroids to detect illicit synthetic testosterone use, of interest in sport doping. GC coupled to IRMS (GCC-IRMS) is currently used to measure the carbon isotope ratios (CIR, δ13C) of urinary steroids in anti-doping efforts; however, extensive cleanup of urine extracts is required prior to analysis to enable baseline separation of target steroids. With its greater separation capabilities, GC×GC has the potential to reduce sample preparation requirements and enable CIR analysis of minimally processed urine extracts. Challenges addressed include on-line reactors with minimized dimensions to retain narrow peaks shapes, baseline separation of peaks in some cases, and reconstruction of isotopic information from sliced steroid chromatographic peaks. Difficulties remaining include long-term robustness of on-line reactors and urine matrix effects that preclude baseline separation and isotopic analysis of low concentration and trace components. In this work, steroids were extracted, acetylated, and analyzed using a refined, home-built GC×GCC-IRMS system. 11-hydroxy-androsterone (11OHA) and 11-ketoetiocolanolone (11KE) were chosen as endogenous reference compounds (ERC) because of their satisfactory signal intensity, and their CIR was compared to target compounds (TC) androsterone (A) and etiocholanolone (E). Separately, a GC×GC-qMS system was used to measure testosterone (T)/EpiT concentration ratios. Urinary extracts of urine pooled from professional athletes, and urine from one individual that received testosterone gel (T-gel) and one individual that received testosterone injections (T-shot) were analyzed. The average precisions of δ13C and Δδ13C measurements were SD(δ13C) approximately ± 1‰ (n=11). The T-shot sample resulted in a positive for T use with a T/EpiT ratio of > 9 and CIR

  11. Convection Study by PIV Method Within Horizontal Liquid Layer Evaporating Into Inert Gas Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreta Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the experimental study of convection in a horizontal evaporating liquid layer (ethanol of limited size under the action of gas flow (air. The two-dimensional velocity field in the liquid layer is obtained using the PIV method. The existence of a vortex convective flow within a liquid layer directed towards the gas flow has been revealed.

  12. Analysis of volatile organic compounds released from the decay of surrogate human models simulating victims of collapsed buildings by thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; McGregor, L; Spiliopoulou, C; Statheropoulos, M

    2015-07-09

    Field experiments were devised to mimic the entrapment conditions under the rubble of collapsed buildings aiming to investigate the evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the early dead body decomposition stage. Three pig carcasses were placed inside concrete tunnels of a search and rescue (SAR) operational field terrain for simulating the entrapment environment after a building collapse. The experimental campaign employed both laboratory and on-site analytical methods running in parallel. The current work focuses only on the results of the laboratory method using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOF MS). The flow-modulated TD-GC×GC-TOF MS provided enhanced separation of the VOC profile and served as a reference method for the evaluation of the on-site analytical methods in the current experimental campaign. Bespoke software was used to deconvolve the VOC profile to extract as much information as possible into peak lists. In total, 288 unique VOCs were identified (i.e., not found in blank samples). The majority were aliphatics (172), aromatics (25) and nitrogen compounds (19), followed by ketones (17), esters (13), alcohols (12), aldehydes (11), sulfur (9), miscellaneous (8) and acid compounds (2). The TD-GC×GC-TOF MS proved to be a sensitive and powerful system for resolving the chemical puzzle of above-ground "scent of death". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL"−"1 for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL"−"1 for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL"−"1 for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g"−"1 and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g"−"1 in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic

  14. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Lirong, E-mail: gaolr@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL{sup −1} for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL{sup −1} for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL{sup −1} for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g{sup −1} and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g{sup −1} in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis of Fetal Interrupted Aortic Arch Type A by Two-Dimensional Echocardiography and Four-Dimensional Echocardiography with B-Flow Imaging and Spatiotemporal Image Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Ren, Weidong; Sun, Feifei; Guo, Yajun; Sun, Wei; Wang, Yu; Huang, Liping; Cai, Ailu

    2016-01-01

    Fetal interrupted aortic arch (IAA) is a rare cardiac anomaly and its prenatal diagnosis is challenging. The purpose of our report is to evaluate the use of two-dimensional echocardiography (2DE) and 4D echocardiography with B-flow imaging and spatiotemporal image correlation (4D BF-STIC) in detecting IAA type A (IAA-A). Twenty-three cases of confirmed IAA-A identified by fetal echocardiography were involved in the study. The fetal echocardiography image data were reviewed to analyze the ratio of right ventricle to left ventricle (RV/LV) diameter, the ratio of main pulmonary artery to ascending aorta (MPA/AAO) diameter, and the correlation of RV/LV diameter ratio and size of ventricular septal defect (VSD). 4D BF-STIC was performed in 21 fetuses using the sagittal view (4D BF-STIC-sagittal) and the four-chamber view (4D BF-STIC-4CV) as initial planes of view. An additional 183 normal fetuses were also included in our study. RV/LV and MPA/AAO ratios were calculated and compared with that of IAA-A fetuses. Fetal 2DE, 4D BF-STIC-sagittal, and 4D BF-STIC-4CV were used to visualize the aortic arch and its associated neck vessels. Six subgroups were evaluated according to gestational age. Fetal 2DE, 4D BF-STIC-sagittal, and 4D BF-STIC-4CV made the correct prenatal diagnosis of IAA-A in 19/23 (82.6%), 14/21 (66.7%), and 19/21 (90.5%) of patients, respectively. A significantly enlarged MPA combined with symmetric ventricles was found in the IAA-A fetuses, while the size of the VSD was negatively correlated with RV/LV ratio. 4D BF-STIC-sagittal and 4D BF-STIC-4CV were better than traditional 2D ultrasound in detecting the aortic arch and neck vessels between 17 and 28 gestational weeks and 29 to 40 gestational weeks in normal fetuses. It is demonstrated that IAA-A could be diagnosed by traditional fetal echocardiography, while 4D technique could better display the anatomic structure and the spatial relationships of the great arteries. Use of volume reconstruction may

  16. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  17. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  18. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  19. Anisotropic transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas in ordered-disordered GaInP2 homojunctions: The structure of ordered domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, F. A. J. M.; Bauhuis, G. J.; Hageman, P. R.; van Geelen, A.; Giling, L. J.

    1994-12-01

    The modulation-doped ordered-GaInP2/disordered-GaInP2 homojunction is presented. Capacitance-voltage (CV) profiling techniques, temperature-dependent Hall and resistivity measurements, cross-sectional transverse electron micrographs (TEM), and high-field magnetotransport have been used to characterize this structure grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. The CV measurements showed a narrow profile at the homointerface with an order of magnitude reduction in carrier density within 3 nm. Typical two-dimensional behavior was observed from Hall data showing sheet carrier densities as high as 3.6×1013 cm-2 without carrier freeze-out, and constant mobilities around 900 cm2 V-1 s-1 below T=100 K. The 300-K channel conductivity of this junction is 3.2×10-3 Ω-1, which is higher than reported for other two-dimensional electron gases. By proper choice of the substrate orientation, domains of only the (111¯) ordering variant were present. TEM showed elongated shapes of average thickness 3.5-6 nm and length 75 nm in the (011) plane. By using Hall bars with different current directions, an asymmetry is observed for the contributions to the scattering mechanisms which determine the mobility: ``mesoscopic'' interface-roughness scattering for T300 K indicates strong electron-phonon coupling. This asymmetry shows that the domain length in the (011) plane is larger than that in the (011¯) plane. The magnetoresistance ρxx and the Hall resistance ρxy show oscillations in reciprocal magnetic field involving an excited subband i with ni2D=7.6×1011 cm-2, where 2D denotes two dimensional. The ρxy versus B curve shows features of a slight parallel conduction.

  20. Extended Macroscopic Study of Dilute Gas Flow within a Microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Hssikou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of monatomic and dilute gas is studied in the slip and early transition regimes using the extended macroscopic theory. The gas is confined within a two-dimensional microcavity where the longitudinal sides are in the opposite motion with constant velocity ±Uw. The microcavity walls are kept at the uniform and reference temperature T0. Thus, the gas flow is transported only by the shear stress induced by the motion of upper and lower walls. From the macroscopic point of view, the regularized 13-moment equations of Grad, R13, are solved numerically. The macroscopic gas proprieties are studied for different values of the so-called Knudsen number (Kn, which gives the gas-rarefaction degree. The results are compared with those obtained using the classical continuum theory of Navier-Stokes and Fourier (NSF.

  1. Numerical modeling method on the movement of water flow and suspended solids in two-dimensional sedimentation tanks in the wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guang-Ming; Jiang, Yi-Min; Qin, Xiao-Sheng; Huang, Guo-He; Li, Jian-Bing

    2003-01-01

    Taking the distributing calculation of velocity and concentration as an example, the paper established a series of governing equations by the vorticity-stream function method, and dispersed the equations by the finite differencing method. After figuring out the distribution field of velocity, the paper also calculated the concentration distribution in sedimentation tank by using the two-dimensional concentration transport equation. The validity and feasibility of the numerical method was verified through comparing with experimental data. Furthermore, the paper carried out a tentative exploration into the application of numerical simulation of sedimentation tanks.

  2. Numerical studies of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, B.; Amter, S.; Lu, Ning

    1992-02-01

    A computer model (TGIF -- Thermal Gradient Induced Flow) of two-dimensional, steady-state rock-gas flow driven by temperature and humidity differences is described. The model solves for the ''fresh-water head,'' a concept that has been used in models of variable-density water flow but has not previously been applied to gas flow. With this approach, the model can accurately simulate the flows driven by small differences in temperature. The unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are being studied as a potential site for a repository for high-level nuclear waste. Using the TGIF model, preliminary calculations of rock-gas flow in Yucca Mountain are made for four east-west cross-sections through the mountain. Calculations are made for three repository temperatures and for several assumptions about a possible semi-confining layer above the repository. The gas-flow simulations are then used to calculate travel-time distributions for air and for radioactive carbon-14 dioxide from the repository to the ground surface

  3. Analysis of human plasma lipids by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual detection and with the support of high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivo, Simona; Beccaria, Marco; Sullini, Giuseppe; Tranchida, Peter Q; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of the present research is the analysis of the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of human plasma by using data derived from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual quadrupole mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. This approach enabled us to attain both mass spectral information and analyte percentage data. Furthermore, gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to increase the reliability of identification of several unsaponifiable lipid constituents. The synergism between both the high-resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry processes enabled us to attain a more in-depth knowledge of the unsaponifiable fraction of human plasma. Additionally, information was attained on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the plasma samples, subjected to investigation by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual quadrupole mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Viscous-shock-layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous-shock-layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially-symmetric flow fields. Solutions were obtained using an implicit finite-difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically-blunted cone configurations at freestream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  5. Viscous shock layer solutions for turbulent flow of radiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E. C.; Moss, J. N.

    1975-01-01

    The viscous shock layer equations for hypersonic laminar and turbulent flows of radiating or nonradiating gas mixtures in chemical equilibrium are presented for two-dimensional and axially symmetric flow fields. Solutions are obtained using an implicit finite difference scheme and results are presented for hypersonic flow over spherically blunted cone configurations at free stream conditions representative of entry into the atmosphere of Venus. These data are compared with solutions obtained using other methods of analysis.

  6. Effect of the nanofilm thickness on the properties of the two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between two dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadiev, R. M., E-mail: gadiev.radik@gmail.com; Lachinov, A. N. [M. Akmullah Baskir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Karamov, D. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Kiselev, D. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Kornilov, V. M. [M. Akmullah Baskir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The mechanism of formation of the two-dimensional conductivity along the interface between two polymer dielectrics is experimentally studied. The idea of “polar catastrophe,” which was successfully used earlier to explain the electronic properties of the interface between two perovskites LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, is chosen as a base hypothesis. Piezoelectric response microscopy is used to reveal the presence of spontaneous polarization on the surface of a polymer film, and the remanent polarization is found to decrease with increasing film thickness. As in the case of perovskites, the polymer film thickness is found to strongly affect the electrical conductivity along the interface. Substantial differences between these phenomena are detected. The change in the electrical conductivity is shown to be caused by a significant increase in the charge carrier mobility when the film thickness decreases below a certain critical value. The relation between the change in the carrier mobility and the change in the spontaneous surface polarization of the polymer film when its thickness decreases is discussed.

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF YOUNG STARS IN THE INNER 180 pc OF NGC 1068: CORRELATION WITH MOLECULAR GAS RING AND STELLAR KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-08-20

    We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.

  8. Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Vodka is a spirit-based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin have been costly, time-consuming and insufficient for making a distinction between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. In the present study, we employed comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and an electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast GC with chemometric methods such as partial least square discriminant analysis, discriminant function analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy. Both techniques allow a distinction between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC, the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose; however, the electronic nose allowed the significantly faster analysis of vodkas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Biosynthetic Studies of the Male Marking Pheromone in Bumblebees by Using Labelled Fatty Acids and Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Mass Detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Frišonsová, K.; Průchová, Markéta; Votavová, A.; Hovorka, Oldřich; Kovalczuk, T.; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2015), s. 839-850 ISSN 2192-6506 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * bumblebees * fatty acids * gas chromatography * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2015

  10. Prediction of a mobile two-dimensional electron gas at the LaSc O3 /BaSn O3 (001) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Tula R.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces, such as LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (001), have aroused significant interest due to their high carrier density (˜1014c m-2 ) and strong lateral confinement (˜1 nm). However, these 2DEGs are normally hosted by the weakly dispersive and degenerate d bands (e.g., Ti -3 d bands), which are strongly coupled to the lattice, causing mobility of such 2DEGs to be relatively low at room temperature (˜1 c m2/Vs ). Here, we propose using oxide host materials with the conduction bands formed from s electrons to increase carrier mobility and soften its temperature dependence. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigate LaSc O3 /BaSn O3 (001) heterostructure and as a model system, where the conduction band hosts the s -like carriers. We find that the polar discontinuity at this interface leads to electronic reconstruction resulting in the formation of the 2DEG at this interface. The conduction electrons reside in the highly dispersive Sn -5 s bands, which have a large band width and a low effective mass. The predicted 2DEG is expected to be highly mobile even at room temperature due to the reduced electron-phonon scattering via the inter-band scattering channel. A qualitatively similar behavior is predicted for a doped BaSn O3 , where a monolayer of BaO is replaced with LaO. We anticipate that the quantum phenomena associated with these 2DEGs to be more pronounced owing to the high mobility of the carriers.

  11. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  13. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  14. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  15. Adiabatic gas-liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.

    1982-01-01

    The author starts by discussing the gas-fluidic mixture, its application and its special characteristics. The conservation theorems for these mixtures are then presented, including the continuity equation, the impulse equation, and energy balance. The type of flow in vertical channels, vertical downwards flow and flow in horizontal and inclined tubes is discussed followed by a short section on local volumetric steam contents and slip. The expressions for the slip and for the local volumetric steam contents are explained before discussing phase separation in nonflowing fluids. Pressure loss in tubes and channels is followed by discussion of pressure loss in various types of moulded bodies with particular reference to fuel rod bundles. In conclusion the author discusses pressure wave expansion, critical discharge and cross exchange in sub-divided channels. (A.N.K.)

  16. Intelligent gas-mixture flow sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Fred; Houkes, Z.; van Kuijk, J.C.C.; van Kuijk, Joost

    A simple way to realize a gas-mixture flow sensor is presented. The sensor is capable of measuring two parameters from a gas flow. Both the flow rate and the helium content of a helium-nitrogen gas mixture are measured. The sensor exploits two measurement principles in combination with (local)

  17. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  18. Effects of viscous dissipation and slip velocity on two-dimensional and axisymmetric squeezing flow of Cu-water and Cu-kerosene nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Khan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Squeezing flow of nanofluids has been taken into account under the effects of viscous dissipation and velocity slip. Two types of base fluids are used to study the behavior of Copper nanoparticles between parallel plates. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations governing the flow are obtained by imposing similarity transformations on conservation laws. Resulting equations are solved by using an efficient analytical technique the variation of parameters method (VPM. Influences of nanoparticle concentration and different emerging parameters on flow profiles are presented graphically coupled with comprehensive discussions. A numerical solution is also sought for the sake of comparison. Effect of different parameters on skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number is also discussed.

  19. Flow evolution of a turbulent submerged two-dimensional rectangular free jet of air. Average Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualizations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zone of flow establishment contains a newly identified undisturbed region of flow. • In the undisturbed region of flow the velocity profile is similar to the exit one. • In undisturbed region of flow the height of average PIV visualizations is constant. • In the undisturbed region of flow the turbulence on the centerline is equal to exit. • Length of undisturbed region of flow decreases with Reynolds number increase. -- Abstract: The paper presents average flow visualizations and measurements, obtained with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, of a submerged rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2200, where the Reynolds number is defined according to the hydraulic diameter of a rectangular slot of height H. According to the literature, just after the exit of the jet there is a zone of flow, called zone of flow establishment, containing the region of mixing fluid, at the border with the stagnant fluid, and the potential core, where velocity on the centerline maintains a value almost equal to the exit one. After this zone is present the zone of established flow or fully developed region. The goal of the paper is to show, with average PIV visualizations and measurements, that, before the zone of flow establishment is present a region of flow, never mentioned by the literature and called undisturbed region of flow, with a length, L U , which decreases with the increase of the Reynolds number. The main characteristics of the undisturbed region is the fact that the velocity profile maintains almost equal to the exit one, and can also be identified by a constant height of the average PIV visualizations, with length, L CH , or by a constant turbulence on the centerline, with length L CT . The average PIV velocity and turbulence measurements are compared to those performed with the Hot Film Anemometry (HFA) technique. The average PIV visualizations show that the region of constant height has

  20. Renormalization of modular invariant Coulomb gas and Sine-Gordon theories, and quantum Hall flow diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, David

    1998-01-01

    Using the renormalisation group (RG) we study two dimensional electromagnetic coulomb gas and extended Sine-Gordon theories invariant under the modular group SL(2,Z). The flow diagram is established from the scaling equations, and we derive the critical behaviour at the various transition points of the diagram. Following proposal for a SL(2,Z) duality between different quantum Hall fluids, we discuss the analogy between this flow and the global quantum Hall phase diagram.

  1. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  2. An investigation of the thermomechanical features of Laohugou Glacier No. 12 on Qilian Shan, western China, using a two-dimensional first-order flow-band ice flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuzhe; Zhang, Tong; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Xiang; Liu, Yushuo; Sun, Weijun; Chen, Jizu; Ding, Minghu; Du, Wentao; Qin, Dahe

    2018-03-01

    By combining in situ measurements and a two-dimensional thermomechanically coupled ice flow model, we investigate the thermomechanical features of the largest valley glacier (Laohugou Glacier No. 12; LHG12) on Qilian Shan located in the arid region of western China. Our model results suggest that LHG12, previously considered as fully cold, is probably polythermal, with a lower temperate ice layer overlain by an upper layer of cold ice over a large region of the ablation area. Modelled ice surface velocities match well with the in situ observations in the east branch (main branch) but clearly underestimate those near the glacier terminus, possibly because the convergent flow is ignored and the basal sliding beneath the confluence area is underestimated. The modelled ice temperatures are in very good agreement with the in situ measurements from a deep borehole (110 m deep) in the upper ablation area. The model results are sensitive to surface thermal boundary conditions, for example surface air temperature and near-surface ice temperature. In this study, we use a Dirichlet surface thermal condition constrained by 20 m borehole temperatures and annual surface air temperatures. Like many other alpine glaciers, strain heating is important in controlling the englacial thermal structure of LHG12. Our transient simulations indicate that the accumulation zone becomes colder during the last two decades as a response to the elevated equilibrium line altitude and the rising summer air temperatures. We suggest that the extent of accumulation basin (the amount of refreezing latent heat from meltwater) of LHG12 has a considerable impact on the englacial thermal status.

  3. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  4. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  5. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  6. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  7. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  8. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  9. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  10. Effects of Ramped Wall Temperature on Unsteady Two-Dimensional Flow Past a Vertical Plate with Thermal Radiation and Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Rajesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of free convection with thermal radiation of a viscous incompressible unsteady flow past a vertical plate with ramped wall temperature and mass diffusion is presented here, taking into account the homogeneous chemical reaction of first order. The fluid is gray, absorbing-emitting but non-scattering medium and the Rosseland approximation is used to describe the radiative flux in the energy equation. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using an implicit finite-difference method of the Crank-Nicolson type, which is stable and convergent. The velocity profiles are compared with the available theoretical solution and are found to be in good agreement. Numerical results for the velocity, the temperature, the concentration, the local and average skin friction, the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are shown graphically. This work has wide application in chemical and power engineering and also in the study of vertical air flow into the atmosphere. The present results can be applied to an important class of flows in which the driving force for the flow is provided by combination of the thermal and chemical species diffusion effects.

  11. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F G; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-12-29

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by analytical scientists, namely online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC, having a second-dimension separation in the liquid phase) and liquid chromatography-ion mobility-spectrometry (LC-IMS, second dimension separation in the gas phase). The goal of the current study was a general assessment of the liquid-chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) platforms for untargeted lipid mapping in human plasma. For the first time trapped-ion-mobility spectrometry (TIMS) was employed for the separation of the major lipid classes and ion-mobility-derived collision-cross-section values were determined for a number of lipid standards. The general effects of a number of influencing parameters have been inspected and possible directions for improvements are discussed. We aimed to provide a general indication and practical guidelines for the analyst to choose an efficient multidimensional separation platform according to the particular requirements of the application. Analysis time, orthogonality, peak capacity, and an indicative measure for the resolving power are discussed as main characteristics for multidimensional separation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  13. Research Update: Diode performance of the Pt/Al2O3/two-dimensional electron gas/SrTiO3 structure and its time-dependent resistance evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwan Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Time domain electric pulse measurements were conducted on a capacitor consisting of a Pt film as the top electrode, atomic-layer-deposited 6.5-nm-thick amorphous Al2O3 as the dielectric layer, and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at the interface between Al2O3 and SrTiO3 as the bottom electrode. The sample showed highly useful current-voltage characteristics as the selector in cross-bar array resistance switching random access memory. The long-term (order of second variation in the leakage current when the Pt electrode was positively biased was attributed to the field-induced migration of oxygen vacancies between the interior of the Al2O3 and the 2DEG region. Relaxation of the vacancy concentration occurred even at room temperature.

  14. Temperature Dependence of the Spin-Hall Conductivity of a Two-Dimensional Impure Rashba Electron Gas in the Presence of Electron-Phonon and Electron-Electron Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Bayervand, A.

    2015-03-01

    Based on Kubo's linear response formalism, temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional impure (magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities) Rashba electron gas in the presence of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions is analyzed theoretically. We will show that the temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity is determined by the relaxation rates due to these interactions. At low temperature, the elastic lifetimes ( and are determined by magnetic and nonmagnetic impurity concentrations which are independent of the temperature, while the inelastic lifetimes ( and related to the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, decrease when the temperature increases. We will also show that since the spin-Hall conductivity is sensitive to temperature, we can distinguish the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions.

  15. Correlation Between Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Mobility and Crystal Quality in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Structure Grown on 4H-SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Cheon; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyngjae; So, Byungchan; Lee, Kyungbae; Ko, Kwangse; Nam, Okhyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the crystal quality and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. For the structure with an AlN nucleation layer grown at 1100 °C, the 2DEG mobility and sheet carrier density were 1627 cm²/V·s and 3.23 × 10¹³ cm⁻², respectively, at room temperature. Further, it was confirmed that the edge dislocation density of the GaN buffer layer was related to the 2DEG mobility and sheet carrier density in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  16. Two-dimensional finite element solution for the simultaneous transport of water and solutes through a nonhomogeneous aquifer under transient saturated unsaturated flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gureghian, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematical model of ground water transport through an aquifer is presented. The solute of interest is a metal tracer or radioactive material which may undergo decay through a sorbing unconfined aquifer. The subject is developed under the following headings: flow equation, solute equation, boundary conditions, finite element formulation, element formulation, solution scheme (flow equation, solute equation), results and discussions, water movement in a ditch drained aquifer under transient state, water and solute movement in a homogeneous and unsaturated soil, transport of 226 Ra in nonhomogeneous aquifer, tailings pond lined, and tailings pond unlined. It is concluded that this mathematical model may have a wide variety of applications. The uranium milling industry may find it useful to evaluate the hydrogeological suitability of their disposal sites. It may prove suited for the design of clay disposal ponds destined to hold hazardous liquids. It may also provide a means of estimating the long-term impact of radionuclides or other pollutants on the quality of ground water. 31 references, 9 figures, 3 tables

  17. Creating Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Nonpolar/Nonpolar Oxide Interface via Polarization Discontinuity: First-Principles Analysis of CaZrO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Safdar; Cheng, Jianli; Yang, Kesong

    2016-01-13

    We studied strain-induced polarization and resulting conductivity in the nonpolar/nonpolar CaZrO3/SrTiO3 (CZO/STO) heterostructure (HS) system by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. By modeling four types of CZO/STO HS-based slab systems, i.e., TiO2/CaO and SrO/ZrO2 interface models with CaO and ZrO2 surface terminations in each model separately, we found that the lattice-mismatch-induced compressive strain leads to a strong polarization in the CZO film and that as the CZO film thickness increases there exists an insulator-to-metal transition. The polarization direction and critical thickness of the CZO film for forming interfacial metallic states depend on the surface termination of CZO film in both types of interface models. In the TiO2/CaO and SrO/ZrO2 interface models with CaO surface termination, the strong polarization drives the charge transfer from the CZO film to the first few TiO2 layers in the STO substrate, leading to the formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface. In the HS models with ZrO2 surface termination, two polarization domains with opposite directions are in the CZO film, which results in the charge transfer from the middle CZO layer to the interface and surface, respectively, leading to the coexistence of the 2DEG on the interface and the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) at the middle CZO layer. These findings open a new avenue to achieve 2DEG (2DHG) in perovskite-based HS systems via polarization discontinuity.

  18. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  19. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  20. Practical computation of multidimensional thermal flows in a gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, M.H.

    1982-12-01

    A finite-element theory is derived for Onsager's two-dimensional equation approximating the steady, viscous, gas motion in a high-speed centrifuge. A new high-order tensor product element is proposed to make the computations easy. The method of weighted residuals is used to construct the stiffness matrix, associated boundary integrals, and load vectors. Ekman suction conditions along horizontal surfaces are shown to be natural boundary conditions of the weak approximation. A class of pure bounary-value problems are solved for the field variables of interest. We evaluate the effect of Ekman suction on the flow by computing with and without suction. Also, we compute the case of pure two-dimensional flow where the azimuthal velocity perturbation is presumed to vanish. The effect of this simplifying assumption on the end-to-end temperature difference necessary for a given circulation is discussed. Numerical results are presented graphically and we show that the so-called streamfunction must be graphed in physical coordinates for the isolines to be streamlines. Only in this form do the velocity vectors lie tangent to the contours. Also, the radial velocity is redefined for graphical purposes

  1. Two-dimensional interaction of a shear flow with a free surface in a stratified fluid and its solitary-wave solutions via mathematical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seadawy, Aly R.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we presented the problem formulations of models for internal solitary waves in a stratified shear flow with a free surface. The nonlinear higher order of extended KdV equations for the free surface displacement is generated. We derived the coefficients of the nonlinear higher-order extended KdV equation in terms of integrals of the modal function for the linear long-wave theory. The wave amplitude potential and the fluid pressure of the extended KdV equation in the form of solitary-wave solutions are deduced. We discussed and analyzed the stability of the obtained solutions and the movement role of the waves by making graphs of the exact solutions.

  2. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  3. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  4. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  5. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  6. Study of gas-liquid flow in model porous media for heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Marie; Bodiguel, Hugues; Guillot, Pierre; Laboratory of the Future Team

    2015-11-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis of chemical reactions involving a gas and a liquid phase is usually achieved in fixed bed reactors. Four hydrodynamic regimes have been observed. They depend on the total flow rate and the ratio between liquid and gas flow rate. Flow properties in these regimes influence transfer rates. Rather few attempts to access local characterization have been proposed yet, though these seem to be necessary to better describe the physical mechanisms involved. In this work, we propose to mimic slices of reactor by using two-dimensional porous media. We have developed a two-dimensional system that is transparent to allow the direct observation of the flow and the phase distribution. While varying the total flow rate and the gas/liquid flow rate ratio, we observe two hydrodynamic regimes: at low flow rate, the gaseous phase is continuous (trickle flow), while it is discontinuous at higher flow rate (pulsed flow). Thanks to some image analysis techniques, we are able to quantify the local apparent liquid saturation in the system. Its fluctuations in time are characteristic of the transition between the two regimes: at low liquid flow rates, they are negligible since the liquid/gas interface is fixed, whereas at higher flow rates we observe an alternation between liquid and gas. This transition between trickle to pulsed flow is in relative good agreement with the existing state of art. However, we report in the pulsed regime important flow heterogeneities at the scale of a few pores. These heterogeneities are likely to have a strong influence on mass transfers. We acknowledge the support of Solvay.

  7. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  8. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  9. Advances in gas-liquid flows 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.M.; Hashemi, A.

    1990-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flows commonly occur in nature and industrial applications. Rain, clouds, geysers, and waterfalls are examples of natural gas-liquid flow phenomena, whereas industrial applications can be found in nuclear reactors, steam generators, boilers, condensers, evaporators, fuel atomization, heat pipes, electronic equipment cooling, petroleum engineering, chemical process engineering, and many others. The household-variety phenomena such as garden sprinklers, shower, whirlpool bath, dripping faucet, boiling tea pot, and bubbling beer provide daily experience of gas-liquid flows. The papers presented in this volume reflect the variety and richness of gas-liquid two-phase flow and the increasing role it plays in modern technology. This volume contains papers dealing with some recent development in gas-liquid flow science and technology, covering basic gas-liquid flows, measurements and instrumentation, cavitation and flashing flows, countercurrent flow and flooding, flow in various components and geometries liquid metals and thermocapillary effects, heat transfer, nonlinear phenomena, instability, and other special and general topics related to gas-liquid flows

  10. Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Turbulent Gas Flow in Microtube with Constant Heat Flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chungpyo; Matsushita, Shinichi; Ueno, Ichiro; Asako, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Local friction factors for turbulent gas flows in circular microtubes with constant wall heat flux were obtained numerically. The numerical methodology is based on arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian method to solve two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations. The Lam-Bremhorst's Low-Reynolds number turbulence model was employed to calculate eddy viscosity coefficient and turbulence energy. The simulations were performed for a wide flow range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers with different constant wall heat fluxes. The stagnation pressure was chosen in such a way that the outlet Mach number ranged from 0.07 to 1.0. Both Darcy friction factor and Fanning friction factor were locally obtained. The result shows that the obtained both friction factors were evaluated as a function of Reynolds number on the Moody chart. The values of Darcy friction factor differ from Blasius correlation due to the compressibility effects but the values of Fanning friction factor almost coincide with Blasius correlation. The wall heat flux varied from 100 to 10000 W/m 2 . The wall and bulk temperatures with positive heat flux are compared with those of incompressible flow. The result shows that the Nusselt number of turbulent gas flow is different from that of incompressible flow.

  11. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Bastos Caramao, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Vladimir de [URI, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO{sub x} gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC x GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC x GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC x GC. (orig.)

  12. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  13. Analyses of liquid-gas two-phase flow in fermentation tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Takashi; Serizawa, Akimi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawara, Zensaku; Gofuku, Akio; Kataoka, Isao.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of two-phase flow is one of the important problems for both design and safety analyses of various engineering systems. For example, the flow conditions in beer fermentation tanks have an influence on the quality of production and productivity of tank. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical calculation code based on the one-pressure two-fluid model is developed to understand the circulation structure of low quality liquid-gas two-phase flows induced by bubble plume in a tank. (author)

  14. Stirling Engine with Unidirectional Gas Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Blumbergs, Ilmars

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a Stirling engine with unidirectional gas flow configuration of beta type Stirling engine is described and studied from kinematic and thermodynamics points of view. Some aspects of the Stirling engine with unidirectional gas flow engine are compared to classic beta type Stirling engines. The aim of research has been to develop a new type of Stirling engine, using SolidWorks 3D design software and Flow Simulation software. In the development process, special attention has been d...

  15. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  16. Joint two-dimensional observations of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields associated with auroral zone currents 1. Three-dimensional current flows associated with a substorm-intensified eastward electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Untiedt, J.; Greenwald, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two-dimensional distributions of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields in the evening sector auroral oval have been simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array and the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (Stare) radars, respectively, on February 15, 1977. They were associated with varying, substorm-intensified, eastward electrojet current systems of the western, middle, and eastern segment of the eastward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm-intensified eastward electroject was a nearly pure Hall current driven by northward electric fields. The observed eastward increase of the current in the western segment of the electrojet was due to a gradual enhancement of the Hall conductivity. Here, the electrojet was fed by a broad sheet of net downward field-aligned current. During one period, the eastern-terminating part of the eastward electrojet diverged up the field lines in a rather local area because of a strong longitudinal decrease in the northward-directed electric field. On another occasion, it diverged northward within the ionosphere and joined the westward-flowing current because of a rotation of the northward electric field with increasing latitude through west- to southward. These two observed mechanisms of current divergence in the region where eastward and westward electrojects coexist may shed some new light on the controversy over the existence of upward field-aligned current flow in the Harang discontinuity

  17. Enhanced two dimensional electron gas transport characteristics in Al2O3/AlInN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedsman, J. J.; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y.; Egawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics

  18. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: I. Characterization of pineapple aroma compounds by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied via headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Early green-ripe stage, post-harvest ripened, and green-ripe fruits at the end of their commercial shelf-life were compared to air-freighted pineapples harvested at full maturity. In total, more than 290 volatiles could be identified by mass spectrometry and their linear retention indices. The majority of compounds comprise esters (methyl and ethyl esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, acetates), terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, 2-ketones, free fatty acids, and miscellaneous γ- and δ-lactones. The structured separation space obtained by GC×GC allowed revealing various homologous series of compound classes as well as clustering of sesquiterpenes. Post-harvest ripening increased the diversity of the volatile profile compared to both early green-ripe maturity stages and on-plant ripened fruits.

  19. Properties of the quantum Hall effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in the n-inversion layer of InSb grain boundaries under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraak, W.; Nachtwei, G.; Herrmann, R.; Glinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetotransport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the interface of the grain boundary in p-type InSb bicrystals are investigated. Under high hydrostatic pressures and in high magnetic fields (B > 5 T) the integral quantum Hall regime is reached, where the Hall resistance ρ xy is quantized to h/e 2 j (j is the number of filled Landau levels of the 2DEG). In this high field regime detailed measurements are given of the resistivity ρ xx and the Hall resistance ρ xy as function of temperature T and current density j x . An unexpected high accuracy of the Hall resistance ρ xy at magnetic field values close to a fully occupied Landau level is found, despite the high value of the diagonal resistivity ρ xx . At high current densities j x in the quantum Hall regime (j = 1) a sudden breakdown of the quantized resistance value associated with a jump-like switching to the next lower quantized value h/2e 2 is observed. A simple macroscopic picture is proposed to account for these novel transport properties associated with the quantum Hall effect. (author)

  20. Room-temperature mobility above 2200 cm{sup 2}/V·s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Persson, Ingemar; Nilsson, Daniel; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Palisaitis, Justinas; Forsberg, Urban; Persson, Per O. Å.; Janzén, Erik [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-22

    A high mobility of 2250 cm{sup 2}/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.