WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence

  1. Equipartition and transport in two-dimensional electrostatic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Nycander, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Turbulent equipartition is investigated for the nonlinear evolution of pressure driven flute modes of a plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is recovered by linear stability analysis, and occurs when the pressure profile is more peaked than the profile of the...

  2. Magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1979-01-01

    By using measurements with the University of Iowa plasma wave experiment on the Imp 6 satellite a study has been conducted of the spectrum of electrostatic plasma waves in the terrestrial magnetosheath. Electrostatic plasma wave turbulence is almost continuously present throughout the magnetosheath with broadband (20 Hz to 70 kHz) rms field intensities typically 0.01--1.0 mV m -1 . Peak intensities of about 1.0 mV m -1 near the electron plasma frequency (30--60 kHz) have been detected occasionally. Two or three components can usually be identified in the spectrum of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence: a high-frequency (> or =30kHz) component peaking at the electron plasma frequency f/sub p/e, a low-frequency component with a broad intensity maximum below the nominal ion plasma frequency f/sub p/i (approx. f/sub p/e/43), and a less well defined intermediate component in the range f/sub p/i < f< f/sub p/e. The intensity distribution of magnetosheath electrostatic turbulence clearly shows that the low-frequency component is associated with the bow shock, suggesting that the ion heating begun at the shock continues into the downstream magnetosheath. Electrostatic waves below 1 kHz are polarized along the magnetic field direction, a result consistent with the polarization of electrostatic waves at the shock. The high- and intermediate-frequency components are features of the magnetosheath spectrum which are not characteristic of the shock spectrum but are often detected in the upstream solar wind. The intensity distribution of electrostatic turbulence at the magnetosheath plasma frequency has no apparent correlation with the shock, indicating that electron plasma oscillations are a general feature of the magnetosheath. The plasma wave noise shows a tendency to decrease toward the dawn and dusk regions, consistent with a general decrease in turbulence away from the subsolar magnetosheath

  3. Two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biskamp, D.; Schwarz, E.; Drake, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    A novel type of turbulence, which arises in 2D electron magnetohydrodynamics, is studied by numerical simulation. Energy dissipation rates are found to be independent of the dissipation coefficients. The energy spectrum E{sub k} follows the basic Kolmogorov-type predictions, k{sup -5/3} for kd{sub e} > 1 and k{sup -7/3} for kd{sub e} < 1 (d{sub e} = electron inertial length) and is hence independent of the linear wave properties. Results are compared with other 2D turbulent systems. (author).

  4. Almost two-dimensional treatment of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.M.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The approximation of two-dimensionality is studied and extended for electrostatic drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional, magnetized plasma. It is argued on the basis of the direct interaction approximation that in the absence of parallel viscosity, purely 2-D solutions exist for which only modes with k parallel =0 are excited, but that the 2-D spectrum is unstable to perturbations at nonzero k parallel . A 1-D equation for the parallel profile g k perpendicular (k parallel ) of the saturated spectrum at steady state is derived and solved, allowing for parallel viscosity; the spectrum has finite width in k parallel , and hence finite parallel correlation length, as a result of nonlinear coupling. The enhanced energy dissipation rate, a 3-D effect, may be incorporated in the 2-D approximation by a suitable renormalization of the linear dissipation term. An algorithm is presented that reduces the 3-D problem to coupled 1- and 2-D problems. Numerical results from a 2-D spectral direct simulation, thus modified, are compared with the results from the corresponding 3-D (unmodified) simulation for a specific model of drift wave excitation. Damping at high k parallel is included. It is verified that the 1-D solution for g k perpendicular (k parallel ) accurately describes the shape and width of the 3-D spectrum, and that the modified 2-D simulation gives a good estimate of the 3-D energy saturation level and distribution E(k perpendicular )

  5. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.

    2017-11-01

    We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.

  6. Vortex annihilation and inverse cascades in two dimensional superfluid turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Andrew; Chesler, Paul M.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of a dilute mixture of vortices and antivortices in a turbulent two-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature is well described by first order Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations, or dissipative point vortex dynamics. These equations are governed by a single dimensionless parameter: the ratio of the strength of drag forces to Magnus forces on vortices. When this parameter is small, we demonstrate using numerical simulations that the resulting superfluid enjoys an inverse energy cascade where small scale stirring leads to large scale vortex clustering. We argue analytically and numerically that the vortex annihilation rate in a laminar flow may be parametrically smaller than the rate in a turbulent flow with an inverse cascade. This suggests a new way to detect inverse cascades in experiments on two-dimensional superfluid turbulence using cold atomic gases, where traditional probes of turbulence such as the energy spectrum are not currently accessible.

  7. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with correlation length of electrostatic turbulence. First, the model of drift waves turbulence is presented. Then, the radial correlation length is determined analytically with toroidal coupling and non linear coupling. (TEC). 5 refs

  8. Coherent vortical structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Coutsias, E.A.; Huld, T.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the nonlinear saturated stage of the cross-field electrostatic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a strongly magnetized plasma. The presence of large vortex-like structures in a background of wide-band turbulent fluctuations was demonstrated...... simulations. The importance of the large scale structures for the turbulent plasma transport across magnetic field lines was analyzed in detail....

  9. Electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities associated with electrostatic shocks: Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Tsunehiko N.; Takabe, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulation with the realistic ion-to-electron mass ratio of 1836 is carried out to investigate the electrostatic collisionless shocks in relatively high-speed (∼3000 km s -1 ) plasma flows and also the influence of both electrostatic and electromagnetic instabilities, which can develop around the shocks, on the shock dynamics. It is shown that the electrostatic ion-ion instability can develop in front of the shocks, where the plasma is under counterstreaming condition, with highly oblique wave vectors as was shown previously. The electrostatic potential generated by the electrostatic ion-ion instability propagating obliquely to the shock surface becomes comparable with the shock potential and finally the shock structure is destroyed. It is also shown that in front of the shock the beam-Weibel instability gradually grows as well, consequently suggesting that the magnetic field generated by the beam-Weibel instability becomes important in long-term evolution of the shock and the Weibel-mediated shock forms long after the electrostatic shock vanished. It is also observed that the secondary electrostatic shock forms in the reflected ions in front of the primary electrostatic shock.

  10. Two-dimensional turbulence in three-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, H.; Francois, N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a review of experiments performed in three-dimensional flows that show behaviour associated with two-dimensional turbulence. Experiments reveal the presence of the inverse energy cascade in two different systems, namely, flows in thick fluid layers driven electromagnetically and the Faraday wave driven flows. In thick fluid layers, large-scale coherent structures can shear off the vertical eddies and reinforce the planarity of the flow. Such structures are either self-generated or externally imposed. In the Faraday wave driven flows, a seemingly three-dimensional flow is shown to be actually two-dimensional when it is averaged over several Faraday wave periods. In this system, a coupling between the wave motion and 2D hydrodynamic turbulence is uncovered.

  11. Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie

    2005-01-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...

  12. Confinement and dynamical regulation in two-dimensional convective turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this work the nature of confinement improvement implied by the self-consistent generation of mean flows in two-dimensional convective turbulence is studied. The confinement variations are linked to two distinct regulation mechanisms which are also shown to be at the origin of low......-frequency bursting in the fluctuation level and the convective heat flux integral, both resulting in a state of large-scale intermittency. The first one involves the control of convective transport by sheared mean flows. This regulation relies on the conservative transfer of kinetic energy from tilted fluctuations...

  13. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability-a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation shows that the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability, driven by an electron current to a positively biased collector, is accompanied by strong coherent two-dimensional fluctuations of the plasma potential in front of the collector. These results suggest that this i...... that this instability evolves like a two-dimensional potential relaxation instability....

  14. Rigorous results in space-periodic two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuksin, Sergei; Shirikyan, Armen

    2017-12-01

    We survey the recent advance in the rigorous qualitative theory of the 2d stochastic Navier-Stokes system that is relevant to the description of turbulence in two-dimensional fluids. After discussing briefly the initial-boundary value problem and the associated Markov process, we formulate results on the existence, uniqueness, and mixing of a stationary measure. We next turn to various consequences of these properties: strong law of large numbers, central limit theorem, and random attractors related to a unique stationary measure. We also discuss the Donsker-Varadhan and Freidlin-Wentzell type large deviations, the inviscid limit, and asymptotic results in 3d thin domains. We conclude with some open problems.

  15. Correlation lengths of electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guiziou, L.; Garbet, X.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the radial correlation length of an electrostatic drift wave turbulence is analytically determined in various regimes. The analysis relies on the calculation of a range of mode non linear interaction, which is an instantaneous correlation length. The link with the usual correlation length has not been investigated yet. (TEC). 5 refs

  16. Magnetic phase transition induced by electrostatic gating in two-dimensional square metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiang-Guo; Liu, Shuang-Long; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-03-01

    We investigate theoretically magnetism and magnetic phase transitions induced by electrostatic gating of two-dimensional square metal-organic framework compounds. We find that electrostatic gating can induce phase transitions between homogeneous ferromagnetic and various spin-textured antiferromagnetic states. Electronic structure and Wannier function analysis can reveal hybridizations between transition-metal d orbitals and conjugated π orbitals in the organic framework. Mn-containing compounds exhibit a strong d -π hybridization that leads to partially occupied spin-minority bands, in contrast to compounds containing transition-metal ions other than Mn, for which electronic structure around the Fermi energy is only slightly spin split due to weak d -π hybridization and the magnetic interaction is of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida type. We use a ferromagnetic Kondo lattice model to understand the phase transition in Mn-containing compounds in terms of carrier density and illuminate the complexity and the potential to control two-dimensional magnetization.

  17. Pseudospectral reduction of incompressible two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, John C.; Roberts, Malcolm

    2012-05-01

    Spectral reduction was originally formulated entirely in the wavenumber domain as a coarse-grained wavenumber convolution in which bins of modes interact with enhanced coupling coefficients. A Liouville theorem leads to inviscid equipartition solutions when each bin contains the same number of modes. A pseudospectral implementation of spectral reduction which enjoys the efficiency of the fast Fourier transform is described. The model compares well with full pseudospectral simulations of the two-dimensional forced-dissipative energy and enstrophy cascades.

  18. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszek, Andrew J; Davis, Matthew J; Paganin, David M; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P

    2018-01-19

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  19. Vortex Thermometry for Turbulent Two-Dimensional Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszek, Andrew J.; Davis, Matthew J.; Paganin, David M.; Helmerson, Kristian; Simula, Tapio P.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a new method of statistical analysis to characterize the dynamics of turbulent fluids in two dimensions. We establish that, in equilibrium, the vortex distributions can be uniquely connected to the temperature of the vortex gas, and we apply this vortex thermometry to characterize simulations of decaying superfluid turbulence. We confirm the hypothesis of vortex evaporative heating leading to Onsager vortices proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 165302 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.165302, and we find previously unidentified vortex power-law distributions that emerge from the dynamics.

  20. Effects of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2007-01-01

    The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the ......The appearance of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. We have developed the analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together...... with the divorticity lines. Compressibility of this mapping can be considered as the main reason for the formation of the sharp vorticity gradients at high Reynolds numbers. For two-dimensional turbulence in the case of strong anisotropy the sharp vorticity gradients can generate spectra which fall off as k−3 at large...

  1. Theory of Vortex Crystal Formation in Two-Dimensional Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, D. Z.

    1999-11-01

    The free relaxation of inviscid, incompressible 2D turbulence is often dominated by strong vortices (coherent patches of intense vorticity) that move chaotically and merge. However, recent experiments(K.S. Fine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75), 3277 (1995). with pure electron plasmas have found that freely relaxing turbulent flows with a single sign of vorticity can spontaneously form ``vortex crystals'' -- symmetric, stable arrays of strong vortices that are immersed in a low vorticity background. In this talk we discuss how these complex equilibria can form from 2D turbulence. First, we formulate a statistical theory of the vortex crystals. We show that vortex crystals are well described as ``regional'' maximum fluid entropy (RMFE) states, which are equilibrium states reached through ergodic mixing of the background by the strong vortices.(D.Z. Jin and D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80), 4434 (1998). Given the dynamically conserved quantities as well as the number and the vorticity distributions of the strong vortices, the theory predicts the positions of the strong vortices and the coarse-grained vorticity distribution of the background. These predictions agree well with the observed vortex crystals. Second, we examine the formation process of the vortex crystals in more detail. In the RMFE theory, the vortex crystal equilibrium can only be predicted if the number Nc of the strong vortices in the final state is given. Here, we estimate Nc from the characteristics of the early turbulent flow. The estimate relies on the idea that vortex crystals form because the chaotic motions of the strong vortices are ``cooled'' due to mixing of the background by the vortices. When the rate of cooling is faster than the rate of pairwise mergers, the vortices fall into a crystal pattern before they can merge. We estimate the merger rate from the observed power law decay of the number of strong vortices in the early stages of the flow, and the cooling rate from the rate of mixing of

  2. Nonlinear low-frequency electrostatic wave dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran_g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata-700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700064 (India)

    2016-08-15

    The problem of two-dimensional arbitrary amplitude low-frequency electrostatic oscillation in a quasi-neutral quantum plasma is solved exactly by elementary means. In such quantum plasmas we have treated electrons quantum mechanically and ions classically. The exact analytical solution of the nonlinear system exhibits the formation of dark and black solitons. Numerical simulation also predicts the possible periodic solution of the nonlinear system. Nonlinear analysis reveals that the system does have a bifurcation at a critical Mach number that depends on the angle of propagation of the wave. The small-amplitude limit leads to the formation of weakly nonlinear Kadomstev–Petviashvili solitons.

  3. On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell...

  4. Equatorial spread F studies using SAMI3 with two-dimensional and three-dimensional electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Aveiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a study of equatorial F region irregularities using the NRL SAMI3/ESF model, comparing results using a two-dimensional (2-D and a three-dimensional (3-D electrostatic potential solution. For the 3-D potential solution, two cases are considered for parallel plasma transport: (1 transport based on the parallel ambipolar field, and (2 transport based on the parallel electric field. The results show that the growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh–Taylor instability is not affected by the choice of the potential solution. However, differences are observed in the structures of the irregularities between the 2-D and 3-D solutions. Additionally, the plasma velocity along the geomagnetic field computed using the full 3-D solution shows complex structures that are not captured by the simplified model. This points out that only the full 3-D model is able to fully capture the complex physics of the equatorial F region.

  5. Dual cascade time-of-flight mass spectrometer basing on electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, L. G.; Goloskokov, Yu. V.; Karetskaya, S.P.; Mit', A.G.

    1999-01-01

    In the report [1] we have suggested the scheme of time-of-flight spectrometer containing two electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional field that doesn't depend on one of the Cartesian coordinates). In the articles [2,3] there have been found conditions for obtaining high quality of time-of-flight and spatial focusing. One of basic advantages of this scheme - is availability of intermediate stigmatic image. In the plane where this image is it's possible to place controlled diaphragm that limits ion scatter along the energy if the scatter is too large. With the help of this diaphragm at the spectrometer you can register mass spectrum with the selected energy. Good focusing quality allows reducing of initial ion energy by this increasing the time of their flight and thus analyzers resolving ability. Ion source and receiver are spaced at rather a long distances. This can be useful to solve some practical tasks

  6. Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton S. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.

  7. Energy dispersion of charged particles decelerated in a two-dimensional electrostatic field of the type x1/n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zashkvara, V.V.; Bok, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Two components of the spatial dispersion of particles with respect to kinetic energy can be distinguished of the motion of charged particle beams in electrostatic mirros with a two-dimensional field φ(x,y) ans xz symmetry plane. The first is the longitudinal dispersion, which is along the z axis perpendicular to the field; the second is the transverse dispersion, along the x axis parallel to the field vector in the plane of symmetry. The longitudinal dispersion is a basic characteristic of electrostatic mirrors used as energy analyzers. It has been shown that for first-order angular focusing, the longitudinal dispersion, divided by the focal length, is independent of the structure of the two-dimensional field and is a function only of the angle at which the charged particle beam enters the mirror. The transverse dispersion stems from the energy dependence of the penetration depth of the beam as it is decelerated, and it plays an important role when the energy of a charged particle beam is analyzed by the filtering principle, making use of the property of an electrostatic mirror to transmit or reflect charged particles with kinetic energy in a specified interval. This type of dispersion in electrostatic mirrors with two-dimensional fields has not been analyzed systematically. In the present note the authors consider a particular type of two-dimensional electrostatic field which is characterized by a large transverse dispersion, many times larger than in existing electrostatic reflecting filters employing planar and cylindrical fields

  8. Electrostatic turbulence in strongly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    Turbulence in plasmas has been investigated experimentally and numerically. On the experimental side the turbulent nature of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been studied in a single-ended Q-machine. The development of coherent structures in the background of the turbulent flow has been demonstrated and the capability of structures of transporting plasma across the magnetic field-lines is explained in detail. The numerical investigations are divided into two parts: Numerical simulations of the dynamics from the Q-machine experiments using spectral methods to solve the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical geometry. A numerical study of the Eulerian-Lagrangian transformation in a two-dimensional flow. Here the flow is made up by a large number of structures, where each individual structure is convected by the superposed flow field of all the others. (au) (33 ills., 67 refs.)

  9. Sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional turbulence and the energy spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, E.A.; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2010-01-01

    Formation of sharp vorticity gradients in two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic turbulence and their influence on the turbulent spectra are considered. The analog of the vortex line representation as a transformation to the curvilinear system of coordinates moving together with the di-vorticity lines...... is developed and compressibility of this mapping appears as the main reason for the formation of the sharp vorticity gradients at high Reynolds numbers. In the case of strong anisotropy the sharp vorticity gradients can generate spectra which fall off as k −3 at large k, which appear to take the same form...

  10. Two-dimensional dynamics of elasto-inertial turbulence and its role in polymer drag reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sid, S.; Terrapon, V. E.; Dubief, Y.

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the present study is threefold: (i) to demonstrate the two-dimensional nature of the elasto-inertial instability in elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT), (ii) to identify the role of the bidimensional instability in three-dimensional EIT flows, and (iii) to establish the role of the small elastic scales in the mechanism of self-sustained EIT. Direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic fluid flows are performed in both two- and three-dimensional straight periodic channels using the Peterlin finitely extensible nonlinear elastic model (FENE-P). The Reynolds number is set to Reτ=85 , which is subcritical for two-dimensional flows but beyond the transition for three-dimensional ones. The polymer properties selected correspond to those of typical dilute polymer solutions, and two moderate Weissenberg numbers, Wiτ=40 ,100 , are considered. The simulation results show that sustained turbulence can be observed in two-dimensional subcritical flows, confirming the existence of a bidimensional elasto-inertial instability. The same type of instability is also observed in three-dimensional simulations where both Newtonian and elasto-inertial turbulent structures coexist. Depending on the Wi number, one type of structure can dominate and drive the flow. For large Wi values, the elasto-inertial instability tends to prevail over the Newtonian turbulence. This statement is supported by (i) the absence of typical Newtonian near-wall vortices and (ii) strong similarities between two- and three-dimensional flows when considering larger Wi numbers. The role of small elastic scales is investigated by introducing global artificial diffusion (GAD) in the hyperbolic transport equation for polymers. The aim is to measure how the flow reacts when the smallest elastic scales are progressively filtered out. The study results show that the introduction of large polymer diffusion in the system strongly damps a significant part of the elastic scales that are necessary to feed

  11. Fokker-Planck description of the inverse cascade in two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oliver; Vosskuhle, Michel

    2012-11-01

    In many approaches the mathematical description of fully developed turbulence relies on the statistical properties of the longitudinal velocity increments ξ (r) = U (x + r) - U (x) . In the increment statistics is described as a Markov process in scale, leading to a Fokker-Planck description of the probability density functions (PDFs) for the velocity increments. The universality of this approach was tested for different kinds of three-dimensional flows like inhomogeneous turbulence, fractal grid generated turbulence and for the transition of a flow from a vortex street to fully developed turbulence in a cylinder wake the flow. In this talk we want to extend the test for the universality of the Markov description by analyzing data from numerical simulations of the inverse energy cascade in two-dimensional turbulence. The central question is whether the velocity field of the inverse cascade can be modeled as Markov process in scale similar to the three-dimensional case. By estimating the coefficients of the Fokker-Planck equation we are able to discuss the role of intermittency and differences to three-dimensional flows.

  12. Effects of friction on forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackbourn, Luke A K; Tran, Chuong V

    2011-10-01

    Large-scale dissipation mechanisms have been routinely employed in numerical simulations of two-dimensional turbulence to absorb energy at large scales, presumably mimicking the quasisteady picture of Kraichnan in an unbounded fluid. Here, "side effects" of such a mechanism--mechanical friction--on the small-scale dynamics of forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence are elaborated by both theoretical and numerical analysis. Given a positive friction coefficient α, viscous dissipation of enstrophy has been known to vanish in the inviscid limit ν→0. This effectively renders the scale-neutral friction the only mechanism responsible for enstrophy dissipation in that limit. The resulting dynamical picture is that the classical enstrophy inertial range becomes a dissipation range in which the dissipation of enstrophy by friction mainly occurs. For each α>0, there exists a critical viscosity ν(c), which depends on physical parameters, separating the regimes of predominant viscous and frictional dissipation of enstrophy. It is found that ν(c)=[η'(1/3)/(Ck(f)(2))]exp[-η'(1/3)/(Cα)], where η' is half the enstrophy injection rate, k(f) is the forcing wave number, and C is a nondimensional constant (the Kraichnan-Batchelor constant). The present results have important theoretical and practical implications. Apparently, mechanical friction is a poor choice in numerical attempts to address fundamental issues concerning the direct enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence. Furthermore, as relatively strong friction naturally occurs on the surfaces and at lateral boundaries of experimental fluids as well as at the interfaces of shallow layers in geophysical fluid models, the frictional effects discussed in this study are crucial in understanding the dynamics of these systems.

  13. Magnetic field line random walk in two-dimensional dynamical turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. F.; Qin, G.; Ma, Q. M.; Song, T.; Yuan, S. B.

    2017-08-01

    The field line random walk (FLRW) of magnetic turbulence is one of the important topics in plasma physics and astrophysics. In this article, by using the field line tracing method, the mean square displacement (MSD) of FLRW is calculated on all possible length scales for pure two-dimensional turbulence with the damping dynamical model. We demonstrate that in order to describe FLRW with the damping dynamical model, a new dimensionless quantity R is needed to be introduced. On different length scales, dimensionless MSD shows different relationships with the dimensionless quantity R. Although the temporal effect affects the MSD of FLRW and even changes regimes of FLRW, it does not affect the relationship between the dimensionless MSD and dimensionless quantity R on all possible length scales.

  14. Phenomenology of two-dimensional stably stratified turbulence under large-scale forcing

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Abhishek

    2017-01-11

    In this paper, we characterise the scaling of energy spectra, and the interscale transfer of energy and enstrophy, for strongly, moderately and weakly stably stratified two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, restricted in a vertical plane, under large-scale random forcing. In the strongly stratified case, a large-scale vertically sheared horizontal flow (VSHF) coexists with small scale turbulence. The VSHF consists of internal gravity waves and the turbulent flow has a kinetic energy (KE) spectrum that follows an approximate k−3 scaling with zero KE flux and a robust positive enstrophy flux. The spectrum of the turbulent potential energy (PE) also approximately follows a k−3 power-law and its flux is directed to small scales. For moderate stratification, there is no VSHF and the KE of the turbulent flow exhibits Bolgiano–Obukhov scaling that transitions from a shallow k−11/5 form at large scales, to a steeper approximate k−3 scaling at small scales. The entire range of scales shows a strong forward enstrophy flux, and interestingly, large (small) scales show an inverse (forward) KE flux. The PE flux in this regime is directed to small scales, and the PE spectrum is characterised by an approximate k−1.64 scaling. Finally, for weak stratification, KE is transferred upscale and its spectrum closely follows a k−2.5 scaling, while PE exhibits a forward transfer and its spectrum shows an approximate k−1.6 power-law. For all stratification strengths, the total energy always flows from large to small scales and almost all the spectral indicies are well explained by accounting for the scale-dependent nature of the corresponding flux.

  15. Two-dimensional Turbulence in Symmetric Binary-Fluid Mixtures: Coarsening Arrest by the Inverse Cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlekar, Prasad; Pal, Nairita; Pandit, Rahul

    2017-03-21

    We study two-dimensional (2D) binary-fluid turbulence by carrying out an extensive direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the forced, statistically steady turbulence in the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations. In the absence of any coupling, we choose parameters that lead (a) to spinodal decomposition and domain growth, which is characterized by the spatiotemporal evolution of the Cahn-Hilliard order parameter ϕ, and (b) the formation of an inverse-energy-cascade regime in the energy spectrum E(k), in which energy cascades towards wave numbers k that are smaller than the energy-injection scale kin j in the turbulent fluid. We show that the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes coupling leads to an arrest of phase separation at a length scale Lc, which we evaluate from S(k), the spectrum of the fluctuations of ϕ. We demonstrate that (a) Lc ~ LH, the Hinze scale that follows from balancing inertial and interfacial-tension forces, and (b) Lc is independent, within error bars, of the diffusivity D. We elucidate how this coupling modifies E(k) by blocking the inverse energy cascade at a wavenumber kc, which we show is ≃2π/Lc. We compare our work with earlier studies of this problem.

  16. Directional change of fluid particles in two-dimensional turbulence and of football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadoch, Benjamin; Bos, Wouter J. T.; Schneider, Kai

    2017-06-01

    Multiscale directional statistics are investigated in two-dimensional incompressible turbulence. It is shown that the short-time behavior of the mean angle of directional change of fluid particles is linearly dependent on the time lag and that no inertial range behavior is observed in the directional change associated with the enstrophy-cascade range. In simulations of the inverse-cascade range, the directional change shows a power law behavior at inertial range time scales. By comparing the directional change in space-periodic and wall-bounded flow, it is shown that the probability density function of the directional change at long times carries the signature of the confinement. The geometrical origin of this effect is validated by Monte Carlo simulations. The same effect is also observed in the directional statistics computed from the trajectories of football players (soccer players in American English).

  17. Electrostatic turbulence in the Tokamak TBR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.M. de.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristics of turbulence at plasma edge of tokamak TBR - 1 are determined from measurements of potentials and density fluctuations, done with a square array of four single Langmuir probes. Two adjacent probes are used to measure the floating potential of the plasma in either poloidal or toroidal directions, the remaining two probes are used to measure saturation current also in poloidal and toroidal directions. Using multiple shot data from the four probe array the radial fluctuation density (n ∼ ) and floating potential (φ ∼ ) profiles are estimated. Analysing the fluctuations spectra the wavenumber-frequency spectrum S(k,ω) from two points measurements is determined. An extension of the cross-correlation concept to a three points correlations leads to the estimation of the fluctuation induced particle flux, from which the particle diffusion coefficient and the convected heat flux can be estimated. All this measurements were performed with and without a resonant magnetic field to verify the eventual influence of this field on the data already mentioned. It was verified that the particle flux is outward and due to electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies lower than 150 khz. (author)

  18. Turbulence and Air Exchange in a Two-Dimensional Urban Street Canyon Between Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Michela; Badas, Maria Grazia; Ferrari, Simone; Seoni, Alessandro; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a typical building covering: the gable roof, on the flow and air exchange in urban canyons. In general, the morphology of the urban canopy is very varied and complex, depending on a large number of factors, such as building arrangement, or the morphology of the terrain. Therefore we focus on a simple, prototypal shape, the two-dimensional canyon, with the aim of elucidating some fundamental phenomena driving the street-canyon ventilation. Experiments are performed in a water channel, over an array of identical prismatic obstacles representing an idealized urban canopy. The aspect ratio, i.e. canyon-width to building-height ratio, ranges from 1 to 6. Gable roof buildings with 1:1 pitch are compared with flat roofed buildings. Velocity is measured using a particle-image-velocimetry technique with flow dynamics discussed in terms of mean flow and second- and third-order statistical moments of the velocity. The ventilation is interpreted by means of a simple well-mixed box model and the outflow rate and mean residence time are computed. Results show that gable roofs tend to delay the transition from the skimming-flow to the wake-interference regime and promote the development of a deeper and more turbulent roughness layer. The presence of a gable roof significantly increases the momentum flux, especially for high packing density. The air exchange is improved compared to the flat roof buildings, and the beneficial effect is more significant for narrow canyons. Accordingly, for unit aspect ratio gable roofs reduce the mean residence time by a factor of 0.37 compared to flat roofs, whereas the decrease is only by a factor of 0.9 at the largest aspect ratio. Data analysis indicates that, for flat roof buildings, the mean residence time increases by 30% when the aspect ratio is decreased from 6 to 2, whereas this parameter is only weakly dependent on aspect ratio in the case of gable roofs.

  19. Turbulence and Air Exchange in a Two-Dimensional Urban Street Canyon Between Gable Roof Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garau, Michela; Badas, Maria Grazia; Ferrari, Simone; Seoni, Alessandro; Querzoli, Giorgio

    2018-04-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a typical building covering: the gable roof, on the flow and air exchange in urban canyons. In general, the morphology of the urban canopy is very varied and complex, depending on a large number of factors, such as building arrangement, or the morphology of the terrain. Therefore we focus on a simple, prototypal shape, the two-dimensional canyon, with the aim of elucidating some fundamental phenomena driving the street-canyon ventilation. Experiments are performed in a water channel, over an array of identical prismatic obstacles representing an idealized urban canopy. The aspect ratio, i.e. canyon-width to building-height ratio, ranges from 1 to 6. Gable roof buildings with 1:1 pitch are compared with flat roofed buildings. Velocity is measured using a particle-image-velocimetry technique with flow dynamics discussed in terms of mean flow and second- and third-order statistical moments of the velocity. The ventilation is interpreted by means of a simple well-mixed box model and the outflow rate and mean residence time are computed. Results show that gable roofs tend to delay the transition from the skimming-flow to the wake-interference regime and promote the development of a deeper and more turbulent roughness layer. The presence of a gable roof significantly increases the momentum flux, especially for high packing density. The air exchange is improved compared to the flat roof buildings, and the beneficial effect is more significant for narrow canyons. Accordingly, for unit aspect ratio gable roofs reduce the mean residence time by a factor of 0.37 compared to flat roofs, whereas the decrease is only by a factor of 0.9 at the largest aspect ratio. Data analysis indicates that, for flat roof buildings, the mean residence time increases by 30% when the aspect ratio is decreased from 6 to 2, whereas this parameter is only weakly dependent on aspect ratio in the case of gable roofs.

  20. Formation and loss of hierarchical structure in two-dimensional MHD simulations of wave-driven turbulence in interstellar clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.

    1999-01-01

    Two dimensional compressible magneto-hydrodynamical (MHD) simulations run for 20 crossing times on a 800x640 grid with two stable thermal states show persistent hierarchical density structures and Kolmogorov turbulent motions in the interaction zone between incoming non-linear Alfven waves. These structures and motions are similar to what are commonly observed in weakly self-gravitating interstellar clouds, suggesting that these clouds get their fractal structures from non-linear magnetic wav...

  1. Numerical prediction of turbulent heat transfer augmentation in an annular fuel channel with two-dimensional square ribs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Kazuyuki

    1996-01-01

    The square-ribbed fuel rod for high temperature gas-cooled reactors was developed in order to enhance the turbulent heat transfer in comparison with the standard fuel rod. To evaluate the heat transfer performance of the square-ribbed fuel rod, the turbulent heat transfer coefficients in an annular fuel channel with repeated two-dimensional square ribs were analyzed numerically on a fully developed incompressible flow using the k - ε turbulence model and the two-dimensional axisymmetrical coordinate system. Numerical analyses were carried out for a range of Reynolds numbers from 3000 to 20000 and ratios of square-rib pitch to height of 10, 20 and 40, respectively. The predicted values of the heat transfer coefficients agreed within an error of 10% for the square-rib pitch to height ratio of 10, 20% for 20 and 25% for 40, respectively, with the heat transfer empirical correlations obtained from the experimental data. It was concluded by the present study that the effect of the heat transfer augmentation by square ribs could be predicted sufficiently by the present numerical simulations and also a part of its mechanism could be explained by means of the change in the turbulence kinematic energy distribution along the flow direction. (author)

  2. A numerical exercise for turbulent natural convection and pollutant diffusion in a two-dimensional partially partitioned cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jobert, Patrice; Beghein, Claudine; Sergent, Anne [LEPTAB, Universite de La Rochelle (France); Le Quere, Patrick [LIMSI, CNRS, Orsay (France); Collignan, Bernard; Couturier, Stephane [CSTB, Marne La Vallee (France); Glockner, Stephane; Vincent, Stephane [MASTER, ENSCPB, Pessac (France); Groleau, Dominique; Lubin, Pierre [CERMA, CNRS, Nantes (France)

    2005-04-01

    We present the results of a numerical exercise aimed at comparing the predictions of different conventional turbulent modelling approaches for natural convection at Rayleigh numbers characteristic of applications such as energy savings, fire safety or thermal comfort. A two-dimensional configuration was considered that consists of two adjacent rooms separated by a lintel in which natural convection is induced through heating on their opposite sides and subjected to diffusion of a pollutant from one room to the other. Seven contributions are available. The comparison is carried out, in terms of local or global quantities, for the mean thermal and dynamic fields and for the unsteady diffusion of the pollutant from one room to the other. Characteristic differences between steady RANS and unsteady two-dimensional DNS and LES approaches are observed and discussed. (authors)

  3. Electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence associated with the Earth's bow shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1974-01-01

    The electric and magnetic field spectral densities of plasma waves in the earth's bow shock have been measured in the frequency range 20 Hz to 200 kHz using two 16-channel spectrum analyzers on the IMP-6 spacecraft. Electrostatic noise with a spectrum similar to the turbulence in the shock, but with lower intensities, is observed throughout the magnetosheath region, downstream of the shock. The intensity of the electrostatic component of turbulence in the bow shock increases as the upstream electron to ion temperature ratio increases, and decreases as the upstream sound velocity increases; both of these variations for the electrostatic component are consistent with ion sound wave turbulence. (U.S.)

  4. Turbulence prediction in two-dimensional bundle flows using large eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, W.A.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Turbulent flow is characterized by random fluctuations in the fluid velocity and by intense mixing of the fluid. Due to velocity fluctuations, a wide range of eddies exists in the flow field. Because these eddies carry mass, momentum, and energy, this enhanced mixing can sometimes lead to serious problems, such as tube vibrations in many engineering systems that include fluid-tube bundle combinations. Nuclear fuel bundles and PWR steam generators are existing examples in nuclear power plants. Fluid-induced vibration problems are often discovered during the operation of such systems because some of the fluid-tube interaction characteristics are not fully understood. Large Eddy Simulation, incorporated in a three dimensional computer code, became one of the promising techniques to estimate flow turbulence, predict and prevent of long-term tube fretting affecting PWR steam generators. the present turbulence investigations is a step towards more understanding of fluid-tube interaction characteristics by comparing the tube bundles with various pitch-to-diameter ratios were performed. Power spectral densities were used for comparison with experimental data. Correlations, calculations of different length scales in the flow domain and other important turbulent-related parameters were calculated. Finally, important characteristics of turbulent flow field were presented with the aid of flow visualization with tracers impeded in the flow field.

  5. Elastic waves and transition to elastic turbulence in a two-dimensional viscoelastic Kolmogorov flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, S.; Boffetta, G.

    2010-09-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the two-dimensional periodic Kolmogorov flow of a viscoelastic fluid, described by the Oldroyd-B model, by means of direct numerical simulations. Above a critical Weissenberg number the flow displays a transition from stationary to randomly fluctuating states, via periodic ones. The increasing complexity of the flow in both time and space at progressively higher values of elasticity accompanies the establishment of mixing features. The peculiar dynamical behavior observed in the simulations is found to be related to the appearance of filamental propagating patterns, which develop even in the limit of very small inertial nonlinearities, thanks to the feedback of elastic forces on the flow.

  6. Bispectral experimental estimation of the nonlinear energy transfer in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manz, P.; Ramisch, M.; Stroth, U.

    2008-01-01

    -wave turbulence. The density fluctuations, which at the realistic collisionality are advected as a passive scalar with the vorticity, show power transfer from large to small scales, while the spectral power in potential fluctuations, which represents the energy, is transferred as an inverse cascade to larger...

  7. Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay

    2002-01-01

    and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...

  8. Proceedings of the Cadarache Workshop on Electrostatic Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Investigations in the field of confinement problems and anomalous transport in fusion devices are reported. Special attention is given to experimental and theoretical developments in the field of nonlinear physics and electrostatic turbulence. Results of experiments on scattering measurement techniques are also presented. Studies involving laser light scattering and microwave reflectometry are included

  9. TWO-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR EVOLUTION CODE INCLUDING ARBITRARY MAGNETIC FIELDS. II. PRECISION IMPROVEMENT AND INCLUSION OF TURBULENCE AND ROTATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Linghuai; Sofia, Sabatino; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre; Ventura, Paolo; Penza, Valentina; Bi Shaolan

    2009-01-01

    In the second paper of this series we pursue two objectives. First, in order to make the code more sensitive to small effects, we remove many approximations made in Paper I. Second, we include turbulence and rotation in the two-dimensional framework. The stellar equilibrium is described by means of a set of five differential equations, with the introduction of a new dependent variable, namely the perturbation to the radial gravity, that is found when the nonradial effects are considered in the solution of the Poisson equation. Following the scheme of the first paper, we write the equations in such a way that the two-dimensional effects can be easily disentangled. The key concept introduced in this series is the equipotential surface. We use the underlying cause-effect relation to develop a recurrence relation to calculate the equipotential surface functions for uniform rotation, differential rotation, rotation-like toroidal magnetic fields, and turbulence. We also develop a more precise code to numerically solve the two-dimensional stellar structure and evolution equations based on the equipotential surface calculations. We have shown that with this formulation we can achieve the precision required by observations by appropriately selecting the convergence criterion. Several examples are presented to show that the method works well. Since we are interested in modeling the effects of a dynamo-type field on the detailed envelope structure and global properties of the Sun, the code has been optimized for short timescales phenomena (down to 1 yr). The time dependence of the code has so far been tested exclusively to address such problems.

  10. Turbulent flux and the diffusion of passive tracers in electrostatic turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basu, R.; Jessen, T.; Naulin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The connection between the diffusion of passive tracer particles and the anomalous turbulent flux in electrostatic drift-wave turbulence is investigated by direct numerical solutions of the 2D Hasegawa-Wakatani equations. The probability density functions for the point-wise and flux surface...

  11. Numerical simulation in a two dimensional turbulent flow over a backward-facing step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Neto, A. da; Grand, D.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of turbulent flows in complex geometries are generally restricted to the prediction of the mean flow and use semi-empirical turbulence models. The present study is devoted to the simulation of the coherence structures which develop in a flow submitted to a velocity change, downstream of a backward facing step. Two aspect ratios (height of the step over height of the channel) have been explored and the values of the Reynolds number vary from (6000 to 90000). In the isothermal case coherent structures have been obtained by the numerical simulation in the mixing layer downstream of the step. The numerical simulations provides results in fairly good agreement with available experimental results. In a second step a thermal stratification is imposed on this flow for one value of Richardson number (0.5) the coherent structures disappear downstream for increasing values of Richardson number. (author)

  12. Effects of irregular two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface roughness in turbulent channel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner

  13. VNAP2: a computer program for computation of two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible, turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, M.C.

    1981-08-01

    VNAP2 is a computer program for calculating turbulent (as well as laminar and inviscid), steady, and unsteady flow. VNAP2 solves the two-dimensional, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence is modeled with either an algebraic mixing-length model, a one-equation model, or the Jones-Launder two-equation model. The geometry may be a single- or a dual-flowing stream. The interior grid points are computed using the unsplit MacCormack scheme. Two options to speed up the calculations for high Reynolds number flows are included. The boundary grid points are computed using a reference-plane-characteristic scheme with the viscous terms treated as source functions. An explicit artificial viscosity is included for shock computations. The fluid is assumed to be a perfect gas. The flow boundaries may be arbitrary curved solid walls, inflow/outflow boundaries, or free-jet envelopes. Typical problems that can be solved concern nozzles, inlets, jet-powered afterbodies, airfoils, and free-jet expansions. The accuracy and efficiency of the program are shown by calculations of several inviscid and turbulent flows. The program and its use are described completely, and six sample cases and a code listing are included.

  14. Development of a new dynamic turbulent model, applications to two-dimensional and plane parallel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laval, Jean Philippe

    1999-01-01

    We developed a turbulent model based on asymptotic development of the Navier-Stokes equations within the hypothesis of non-local interactions at small scales. This model provides expressions of the turbulent Reynolds sub-grid stresses via estimates of the sub-grid velocities rather than velocities correlations as is usually done. The model involves the coupling of two dynamical equations: one for the resolved scales of motions, which depends upon the Reynolds stresses generated by the sub-grid motions, and one for the sub-grid scales of motions, which can be used to compute the sub-grid Reynolds stresses. The non-locality of interaction at sub-grid scales allows to model their evolution with a linear inhomogeneous equation where the forcing occurs via the energy cascade from resolved to sub-grid scales. This model was solved using a decomposition of sub-grid scales on Gabor's modes and implemented numerically in 2D with periodic boundary conditions. A particles method (PIC) was used to compute the sub-grid scales. The results were compared with results of direct simulations for several typical flows. The model was also applied to plane parallel flows. An analytical study of the equations allows a description of mean velocity profiles in agreement with experimental results and theoretical results based on the symmetries of the Navier-Stokes equation. Possible applications and improvements of the model are discussed in the conclusion. (author) [fr

  15. Characterization of zonal flow generation in weak electrostatic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negrea, M; Petrisor, I [Department of Physics, Association Euratom-MEdC, Romania, University of Craiova, 13 A.I. Cuza Street, 200585 Craiova (Romania); Weyssow, B [Physique Statistique-Plasmas, Association Euratom-Etat Belge, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine, Bd. du Triomphe, 1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)], E-mail: mnegrea@yahoo.com

    2008-05-15

    The influence of the diamagnetic Kubo number, which is proportional to the diamagnetic drift velocity, on the zonal flow generation by an anisotropic stochastic electrostatic potential is considered from a semi-analytic point of view. The analysis is performed in the weak turbulence limit and as an analytical tool the decorrelation trajectory method is used. It is shown that the fragmentation of the drift wave structures (a signature of the zonal flow generation) is influenced not only by the anisotropy parameter and the electrostatic Kubo number as expected, but also by the diamagnetic Kubo number. Global Lagrangian averages of characteristic quantities are calculated and interpreted.

  16. Electrostatic Turbulence and Anomalous Effects in Reconnection Diffusion Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.; Graham, D. B.; Norgren, C.; Vaivads, A.; Li, W.; Divin, A. V.; Andre, M.; Markidis, S.; Lindqvist, P. A.; Peng, I. B.; Argall, M. R.; Ergun, R.; Le Contel, O.; Magnes, W.; Russell, C. T.; Giles, B. L.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is a fundamental process whereby microscopicplasma processes cause macroscopic changes in magnetic field topology,so that initially separated plasmas become magnetically connected.Waves can produce particle diffusion, and anomalous resistivity, aswell as heat the plasma and accelerate plasma particles, all of whichcan impact ongoing reconnection. We report electrostatic turbulencedeveloping within the diffusion region of asymmetric magnetopausereconnection using observations by the Magnetospheric Multiscalemission and large-scale particle-in-cell simulations, and characterizeanomalous effects and plasma heating within the diffusion region. Ourobservations demonstrate that electrostatic turbulence plays animportant role in the electron-scale physics of asymmetricreconnection.

  17. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: chavanis@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2014-12-01

    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy (H-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion term and a drift term, has a nice physical interpretation in terms of a selective decay principle. This sheds new light on both the MEPP and the anticipated vorticity method. (paper)

  18. An idealised study of the effects of small scales on chemistry in a two-dimensional turbulent flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaalal, F. Ait; Bartello, P.; Bourqui, M.

    2009-04-01

    The non-linear nature of stratospheric chemical reactions makes them sensitive to mixing and diffusion. Most stratospheric Climate-Chemistry Models neglect the effects of sub-grid flow structures on chemistry. Several previous studies have pointed out that such unresolved small scales could significantly affect the chemistry. However this problem has not been thoroughly studied from a theoretical point of view. To fulfill this gap, we investigate the interactions between advection, diffusion and chemistry for a simple bimolecular reaction between two initially unmixed reactants, within the framework of two-dimensional isotropic and homogenous turbulence. This is a highly simplified representation of quasi-isentropic mixing in the stratosphere. Our goal here is to describe and understand how the production rate of the product species is affected by the size of the smallest scales of the tracer field, as determined by the tracer diffusion coefficient ΰ. The spatial average of the prognostic equation for the product's concentration involves the covariance of the reactants. The time evolution of this covariance depends in turn on a dissipative term, and on second and third order chemical terms. The set of equations is not closed and any finite resolution model would need a parameterization of the dissipation and a closure hypothesis on the chemical terms. To study these terms, we perform ensembles of direct numerical simulations using a pseudo-spectral two-dimensional periodic model. The ensembles span different initial conditions of the flow and different tracer diffusion coefficients ΰ. Our results show a strong dependence of the total production on the diffusion coefficient. This production scales like ΰp(t) , where p(t) is a positive decreasing function of time. This scaling is very similar to the one found by Tan et al. (1998) for atmospheric flows on the deactivation of chlorine by nitrogen oxide at the southern edge of the winter time polar vortex

  19. A Two-dimensional event-counting detector for HV-CSA electrostatic analyzer at SpLine the Spanish CRG beamline at the ESRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Zuazo, J.; Escher, M.; Weber, N.; Merkel, M.; Castro, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A novel 2D-detector has been designed, manufactured and installed on the high voltage cylindrical sector electrostatic analyzer (HV-CSA300/15) of the HAXPES station of SpLine the Spanish CRG beamline at the ESRF. This original 2D-detector constitutes an important improvement of the HAXPES station. A drawback of electrostatic analyzer in HAXPES, is that the electron counter must be raised to high voltages (up to 15 kV). Hence the development of a 2D detector system compatible with a high voltage electrostatic analyzer is a scientific instrumentation challenge. The developed two-dimensional event-counting detector consists of a 2D image intensifier (combination of scintillating screen and MCP) optically coupled with a CMOS-camera and a data processing system. The accumulated event image is transferred to the image processing software on the PC, where the events are classified by their position to give single detector readout. The energy window accepted by the area detector ranges from 100 meV to 50 eV, depending on the analyzer pass energy. Hence, for single shot measurements, i.e, without sweeping the pre-retarding lens voltages up to 200 detector channels can be used compared to a single channel. This results in a gain of the analyser transmission of at least a factor of 20. Thus we overcome the limitations imposed by the low count rate when dealing with high excitation energies and high kinetic-energy electrons.

  20. A Numerical Scheme Based on an Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Turbulent Flows with Shocks: Application to Two-Dimensional Flows around Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.

  1. Quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in shallow fluid layers: the role of bottom friction and fluid layer depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clercx, H J H; van Heijst, G J F; Zoeteweij, M L

    2003-06-01

    The role of bottom friction and the fluid layer depth in numerical simulations and experiments of freely decaying quasi-two-dimensional turbulence in shallow fluid layers has been investigated. In particular, the power-law behavior of the compensated kinetic energy E0(t)=E(t)e(2lambda t), with E(t) the total kinetic energy of the flow and lambda the bottom-drag coefficient, and the compensated enstrophy Omega(0)(t)=Omega(t)e(2lambda t), with Omega(t) the total enstrophy of the flow, have been studied. We also report on the scaling exponents of the ratio Omega(t)/E(t), which is considered as a measure of the characteristic length scale in the flow, for different values of lambda. The numerical simulations on square bounded domains with no-slip boundaries revealed bottom-friction independent power-law exponents for E0(t), Omega(0)(t), and Omega(t)/E(t). By applying a discrete wavelet packet transform technique to the numerical data, we have been able to compute the power-law exponents of the average number density of vortices rho(t), the average vortex radius a(t), the mean vortex separation r(t), and the averaged normalized vorticity extremum omega(ext)(t)/square root E(t). These decay exponents proved to be independent of the bottom friction as well. In the experiments we have varied the fluid layer depth, and it was found that the decay exponents of E0(t), Omega(0)(t), Omega(t)/E(t), and omega(ext)(t)/square root E(t) are virtually independent of the fluid layer depth. The experimental data for rho(t) and a(t) are less conclusive; power-law exponents obtained for small fluid layer depths agree with those from previously reported experiments, but significantly larger power-law exponents are found for experiments with larger fluid layer depths.

  2. Multilocality and fusion rules on the generalized structure functions in two-dimensional and three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioulekas, Eleftherios

    2016-09-01

    Using the fusion-rules hypothesis for three-dimensional and two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence, we generalize a previous nonperturbative locality proof to multiple applications of the nonlinear interactions operator on generalized structure functions of velocity differences. We call this generalization of nonperturbative locality to multiple applications of the nonlinear interactions operator "multilocality." The resulting cross terms pose a new challenge requiring a new argument and the introduction of a new fusion rule that takes advantage of rotational symmetry. Our main result is that the fusion-rules hypothesis implies both locality and multilocality in both the IR and UV limits for the downscale energy cascade of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence and the downscale enstrophy cascade and inverse energy cascade of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence. We stress that these claims relate to nonperturbative locality of generalized structure functions on all orders and not the term-by-term perturbative locality of diagrammatic theories or closure models that involve only two-point correlation and response functions.

  3. Electrostatic probes driven by broad band high power and propagation of the turbulent perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhijiang; Sun Xuan; Wan Shude; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Liu Wandong; Wang Cheng; Pan Gesheng

    2003-01-01

    A high dynamic output, broad-band power source for driving electrostatic probes in the investigation on propagation of turbulent perturbation has been built and used successfully in experiments on the KT-5C tokamak. The details of the experiment setup as well as some preliminary results are presented. Detections both from the small size magnetic probes and electrostatic probes indicate that the modified perturbation excited by the power source may propagate electrostatically, and electromagnetically as well

  4. Turbulence growth and its dependency of wake vortices on excitation frequency by local body-force around two-dimensional hump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakeno, Aiko; Abe, Yoshiaki; Nonomura, Taku; Kawai, Soshi; Fujii, Kozo

    2017-11-01

    We investigated details of wake vortex dynamics to cause turbulence increase and early flow-reattachment under excitation forcing by a plasma actuator setting around a 2D hump numerically. The local body-force was homogeneous in the spanwise direction and bursting temporally. That actuation generates two-dimensional roll vortices and other turbulence motions such like three-dimensional rib structure in downstream. These dynamics depended on the excitation frequency. We tried to discuss multi-scaled vortices separately with considering the temporal phaseaveraged statistics of the excitation frequency and others, those are related to roll vortices and others with rib structure between rolls. It was found that the maximum value of non-periodic fluctuation in downstream correlated with flow-reattachment performance more than that of periodic fluctuation of roll vortices. The amplitude becomes large around separation position in early reattachment cases. The spacial growth rates of peak values in the wall-normal direction are same for high frequency cases, K-H instability modes, however not true for low frequency cases. In high frequency cases, amplitude in the early state of separation plays a significant rule to increase it in downstream. Strategic Programs for Innovative Research of the High Performance Computing Initiative (No. hp120296,hp130001,hp140207, hp150219) Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research(B) (No. 15K21677) by the MEXT.

  5. Two dimensional plasma simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazak, G.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, Sh.; Oreg, J.

    1977-03-01

    An electrostatic two-dimensional particle code for plasma simulation is described. Boundary conditions which take into account the finiteness of the system are presented. An analytic solution for the case of crossed fields plasma acceleration is derived. This solution serves as a check on a computer test run

  6. Simulation of particle diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence. Low frequency Bohm or percolation scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    An important point for turbulent transport consists in determining the scaling law for the diffusion coefficient D due to electrostatic turbulence. It is well-known that for weak amplitudes or large frequencies, the reduced diffusion coefficient has a quasi-linear like (or gyro-Bohm like) scaling, while for large amplitudes or small frequencies it has been traditionally believed that the scaling is Bohm-like. The aim of this work consists to test this prediction for a given realistic model. This problem is studied by direct simulation of particle trajectories. Guiding centre diffusion in a spectrum of electrostatic turbulence is computed for test particles in a model spectrum, by means of a new parallelized code RADIGUET 2. The results indicate a continuous transition for large amplitudes toward a value which is compatible with the Isichenko percolation prediction. (author)

  7. A two-dimensional nodal model with turbulent effects for the synthesis of Si nano-particles by inductively coupled thermal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, V; Ghedini, E; Gherardi, M; Sanibondi, P; Shigeta, M

    2012-01-01

    Nano-particle synthesis by means of inductively coupled plasma torches is a material process of large technological interest. Numerous parameters are involved in the optimization of this process; hence the development of numerical models for the prediction of thermal and magneto-fluid dynamics fields, precursor powder trajectories and thermal history, as well as nano-particle formation and growth, is necessary for the up-scaling of these devices from laboratory batch production to an industrial continuous process. In this work, a two-dimensional (2D) discrete-type model (nodal model) for the analysis of nano-powder nucleation and growth is presented, taking into account convection, diffusion and turbulent effects on particle formation. Discrete-type models feature high precision and reveal a great deal of information useful for clarifying the nano-particle formation process. Using Si as the precursor material, 2D simulations of a nano-particle synthesis RF plasma apparatus with a reaction chamber are carried out. Good agreement is found when comparing results obtained with this model with those coming from a well-established nucleation-coupled moment method. Moreover, the extended amount of obtainable information that characterizes the nodal model is underlined. (paper)

  8. Edge turbulence control on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using electrostatic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Kan; Wang Cheng; Wen Yizi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Xu Zhizhan

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on edge turbulence control have been performed on the KT-5C tokamak by feedback using two sets of electrostatic probes as the driving probe and detective probe. The results indicate that the feedback can enhance or reduce the turbulence amplitude depending upon the phase shift and gain of the feedback network. When the feedback with 90 degree phase shift and with certain loop gain is applied, the spectrum component of turbulence is reduced obviously and the fluctuation amplitude of the electron density and electron temperature become lower by about 25%. consistently the particle flux across the magnetic field induced by the electrostatic fluctuation also decreases by about 25%. On the other hand, the feedback with 0 degree or 180 degree or -90 degree phase shift can enhance the amplitude of the edge turbulence. These results indicate a nonlinear mechanism of the influence of feedback on the edge turbulence, which to some extent also reflect a specific nonlinear characteristic of the edge turbulence

  9. Statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in toroidal magnetized plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labit, B.; Diallo, A.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Iraji, D.; Muller, S.H.; Plyushchev, G.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F.M.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.; Horáček, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 49, 12B (2007), B281-B290 ISSN 0741-3335. [European Physical Society Conference on Plasma Physicaa/34th./. Warsaw, 02.07.2007-06.07.2007] Grant - others:-(XE) European Training fellowships and Grants (Euratom), EDGETURB Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : Tokamak * plasma * scrape-off layer * turbulence * interchange instability Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.070, year: 2007

  10. Two-dimensional porous architecture of protonated GCN and reduced graphene oxide via electrostatic self-assembly strategy for high photocatalytic hydrogen evolution under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pu, Chenchen; Wan, Jun; Liu, Enzhou; Yin, Yunchao; Li, Juan; Ma, Yongning [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Fan, Jun, E-mail: fanjun@nwu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Hu, Xiaoyun, E-mail: hxy3275@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • The protonated GCN (pGCN) is prepared by acidic cutting and hydrothermal process. • The pGCN coupled with rGO are synthesized via electrostatic self-assembly strategy. • The pGCN-5 wt% rGO is obtained with a high specific surface area of 115.64 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}. • The pGCN-5 wt% rGO photocatalysts exhibit superb photocatalytic reduction capacity. - Abstract: Herein, porous protonated graphitic carbon nitride (pGCN) is prepared from bulk g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (GCN) directly by acidic cutting and hydrothermal process. The holey structure not only provides a lot of bounds on the accelerated and photo induced charge transfer and thus reduce the aggregation, but also endows the GCN with more exposure to the active site. The pGCN is obtained with an increased band gap of 2.91 eV together with a higher specific surface area of 82.76 m{sup 2}g{sup −1}. Meanwhile, the positively charged GCN resulted from the protonation pretreatment is beneficial for improving the interaction with negatively charged GO sheets. Compared with GCN, pGCN-rGO displays a significant decrease of PL intensities and an apparently enhancement of visible-light absorption, resulting a lower charge recombination rate and a better light absorption. Besides, the enhanced charge separation is demonstrated by photoluminescence emission spectroscopy and the transient photocurrent measurement. The photocatalytic performance studies for the degradation of MB indicate that pGCN-rGO exhibits the highest adsorption ability towards dye molecules. In addition, the pGCN-5 wt% rGO composite shows the optimal photocatalytic activity, the photodegradation rate of MB is 99.4% after 80 min of irradiation and the H{sub 2} evolution performance up to 557 μmol g{sup −1}h{sup −1} under visible light, which is much higher than the other control samples.

  11. The spatio-temporal structure of electrostatic turbulence in the WEGA stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsen, Stefan

    2008-03-15

    The main object of this work is to provide a detailed characterisation of electrostatic turbulence in WEGA and to identify the underlying instability mechanism driving turbulence. The spatio-temporal structure of turbulence is studied using multiple Langmuir probes providing a sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution. Turbulence in WEGA is dominated by drift wave dynamics. The phase shift between density and potential fluctuations is close to zero, fluctuations are mainly driven by the density gradient, and the phase velocity of turbulent structures points in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift. The structure of turbulence is studied mainly in the plasma edge region inside the last closed flux surface. WEGA can be operated in two regimes differing in the magnetic field strength by almost one order of magnitude (57 mT and 500 mT, respectively). At 57 mT large structures with a poloidal extent comparable to the machine dimensions are observed, whereas at 500 mT turbulent structures are much smaller. The poloidal structure size scales nearly linearly with the inverse magnetic field strength. This scaling may be argued to be related to the drift wave dispersion scale, {rho}{sub s}={radical}(m{sub i}k{sub B}T{sub e})/(qB). However, the structure size remains unchanged when the ion mass is changed by using different discharge gases. Inside the last closed flux surface the poloidal E x B drift in WEGA is negligible. The three-dimensional structure is studied in detail using probes which are toroidally separated but aligned along connecting magnetic field lines. A small but finite parallel wavenumber is found. The ratio between the average parallel and perpendicular wavenumber is in the order of anti {kappa} {sub parallel} / anti {kappa}{sub {theta}} {approx} 10{sup -2}. The parallel phase velocity of turbulent structures is in-between the ion sound velocity and the Alfven velocity. In the parallel dynamics a fundamental difference between the two

  12. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  13. Operation in the turbulent jet field of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet (Variation of mean velocity field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Shigetaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean flowfield of a linear array of multiple rectangular jets run through transversely with a two-dimensional jet, has been investigated, experimentally. The object of this experiment is to operate both the velocity scale and the length scale of the multiple rectangular jets using a two-dimensional jet. The reason of the adoption of this nozzle exit shape was caused by the reports of authors in which the cruciform nozzle promoted the inward secondary flows strongly on both the two jet axes. Aspect ratio of the rectangular nozzle used in this experiment was 12.5. Reynolds number based on the nozzle width d and the exit mean velocity Ue (≅ 39 m / s was kept constant 25000. Longitudinal mean velocity was measured using an X-array Hot-Wire Probe (lh = 3.1 μm in diameter, dh = 0.6 mm effective length : dh / lh = 194 operated by the linearized constant temperature anemometers (DANTEC, and the spanwise and the lateral mean velocities were measured using a yaw meter. The signals from the anemometers were passed through the low-pass filters and sampled using A.D. converter. The processing of the signals was made by a personal computer. Acquisition time of the signals was usually 60 seconds. From this experiment, it was revealed that the magnitude of the inward secondary flows on both the y and z axes in the upstream region of the present jet was promoted by a two-dimensional jet which run through transversely perpendicular to the multiple rectangular jets, therefore the potential core length on the x axis of the present jet extended 2.3 times longer than that of the multiple rectangular jets, and the half-velocity width on the rectangular jet axis of the present jet was suppressed 41% shorter compared with that of the multiple rectangular jets.

  14. Electrostatic instabilities, turbulence and fast ion interactions in the TORPEX device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A; Burckel, A; Federspiel, L; Furno, I; Gustafson, K; Iraji, D; Labit, B; Loizu, J; Plyushchev, G; Ricci, P; Theiler, C; Diallo, A; Podesta, M; Mueller, S H; Poli, F

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence, related structures and their effect on particle, heat and toroidal momentum transport are investigated in TORPEX simple magnetized plasmas using high-resolution diagnostics, control parameters, linear fluid models and nonlinear numerical simulations. The nature of the dominant instabilities is controlled by the value of the vertical magnetic field, B v , relative to that of the toroidal field, B T . For B v /B T > 3%, only ideal interchange instabilities are observed. A critical pressure gradient to drive the interchange instability is experimentally identified. Interchange modes give rise to blobs, radially propagating filaments of enhanced plasma pressure. Blob velocities and sizes are obtained from electrostatic probe measurements using pattern recognition methods. The observed values span a wide range and are described by a single analytical expression, from the small blob size regime in which the blob velocity is limited by cross-field ion polarization currents, to the large blob size regime in which the limitation to the blob velocity comes from parallel currents to the sheath. As a first attempt at controlling the blob dynamical properties, limiter configurations with varying angles between field lines and the conducting surface of the limiter are explored. Mach probe measurements clearly demonstrate a link between toroidal flows and blobs. To complement probe data, a fast framing camera and a movable gas puffing system are installed. Density and light fluctuations show similar signatures of interchange activity. Further developments of optical diagnostics, including an image intensifier and laser-induced fluorescence, are under way. The effect of interchange turbulence on fast ion phase space dynamics is studied using movable fast ion source and detector in scenarios for which the development from linear waves into blobs is fully characterized. A theory validation project is conducted in parallel with TORPEX experiments, based on

  15. Inhomogeneities of plasma density and electric field as sources of electrostatic turbulence in the auroral region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyasov, Askar A., E-mail: asjosik@mail.ru [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Chernyshov, Alexander A., E-mail: achernyshov@iki.rssi.ru; Mogilevsky, Mikhail M., E-mail: mogilevsky@romance.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Golovchanskaya, Irina V., E-mail: golovchanskaya@pgia.ru; Kozelov, Boris V., E-mail: boris.kozelov@gmail.com [Polar Geophysical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science, Apatity, Murmansk region 184209 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Inhomogeneities of plasma density and non-uniform electric fields are compared as possible sources of a sort of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves that can be identified with broadband extremely low frequency electrostatic turbulence in the topside auroral ionosphere. Such waves are excited by inhomogeneous energy-density-driven instability. To gain a deeper insight in generation of these waves, computational modeling is performed with various plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that inhomogeneities of plasma density can give rise to this instability even in the absence of electric fields. By using both satellite-observed and model spatial distributions of plasma density and electric field in our modeling, we show that specific details of the spatial distributions are of minor importance for the wave generation. The solutions of the nonlocal inhomogeneous energy-density-driven dispersion relation are investigated for various ion-to-electron temperature ratios and directions of wave propagation. The relevance of the solutions to the observed spectra of broadband extremely low frequency emissions is shown.

  16. Low-frequency electrostatic turbulence in the polar cap E region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecseli, H.L.; Primdahl, F.; Bahnsen, A.

    1989-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulent fluctuations in a broad frequency band were observed in the polar cap E region over Greenland by an instrumented rocket payload. The fluctuations were detected by potential-difference measurements on two sets of boom-mounted spherical probes. The direction and magnitude of the phase velocity of the fluctuations are determined by standard correlation techniques. The driving mechanism for the turbulence is identified as the Farley-Buneman instability. A characteristic velocity close to the sound speed is deduced while the direction of propagation deviates slightly from the E 0 x B 0 direction. A correlation time of 20-150 ms along the rocket trajectory is determined, indicating that the fluctuations are essentially statistically independent for altitude separations of >50 m. A conditional analysis of the signals indicates that to a good approximation they can be described by Gaussian statistics. The data exclude the possibility of wave steepening as a saturation mechanism for the linear instability. It is thus unlikely that wave energy is cascaded toward short wavelengths to be dissipated there

  17. Flow evolution of a turbulent submerged two-dimensional rectangular free jet of air. Average Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) visualizations and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, Fabio; Petracci, Ivano; Angelino, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zone of flow establishment contains a newly identified undisturbed region of flow. • In the undisturbed region of flow the velocity profile is similar to the exit one. • In undisturbed region of flow the height of average PIV visualizations is constant. • In the undisturbed region of flow the turbulence on the centerline is equal to exit. • Length of undisturbed region of flow decreases with Reynolds number increase. -- Abstract: The paper presents average flow visualizations and measurements, obtained with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique, of a submerged rectangular free jet of air in the range of Reynolds numbers from Re = 35,300 to Re = 2200, where the Reynolds number is defined according to the hydraulic diameter of a rectangular slot of height H. According to the literature, just after the exit of the jet there is a zone of flow, called zone of flow establishment, containing the region of mixing fluid, at the border with the stagnant fluid, and the potential core, where velocity on the centerline maintains a value almost equal to the exit one. After this zone is present the zone of established flow or fully developed region. The goal of the paper is to show, with average PIV visualizations and measurements, that, before the zone of flow establishment is present a region of flow, never mentioned by the literature and called undisturbed region of flow, with a length, L U , which decreases with the increase of the Reynolds number. The main characteristics of the undisturbed region is the fact that the velocity profile maintains almost equal to the exit one, and can also be identified by a constant height of the average PIV visualizations, with length, L CH , or by a constant turbulence on the centerline, with length L CT . The average PIV velocity and turbulence measurements are compared to those performed with the Hot Film Anemometry (HFA) technique. The average PIV visualizations show that the region of constant height has

  18. Transport of thermal plasma above the auroral ionosphere in the presence of electrostatic ion-cyclotron turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Zakharov

    Full Text Available The electron component of intensive electric currents flowing along the geomagnetic field lines excites turbulence in the thermal magnetospheric plasma. The protons are then scattered by the excited electromagnetic waves, and as a result the plasma is stable. As the electron and ion temperatures of the background plasma are approximately equal each other, here electrostatic ion-cyclotron (EIC turbulence is considered. In the nonisothermal plasma the ion-acoustic turbulence may occur additionally. The anomalous resistivity of the plasma causes large-scale differences of the electrostatic potential along the magnetic field lines. The presence of these differences provides heating and acceleration of the thermal and energetic auroral plasma. The investigation of the energy and momentum balance of the plasma and waves in the turbulent region is performed numerically, taking the magnetospheric convection and thermal conductivity of the plasma into account. As shown for the quasi-steady state, EIC turbulence may provide differences of the electric potential of ΔV≈1–10 kV at altitudes of 500 < h < 10 000 km above the Earth's surface. In the turbulent region, the temperatures of the electrons and protons increase only a few times in comparison with the background values.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (electric fields; plasma waves and instabilities

     

  19. Integrable two dimensional supersystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, K.C.; Tripathy, L.K.

    1988-08-01

    The integrability of two dimensional time-dependent classical systems is examined in N=2 superspace using Dirac's second class constraints. The invariants involving quadratic powers in velocities for super harmonic oscillator and super Kepler potentials have been derived. (author). 5 refs

  20. Dipolar vortices in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

    1996-01-01

    The dynamics of dipolar vortex solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations is studied. A new type of nonlinear dipole is found and its dynamics in a slightly viscous system is compared with the dynamics of the Lamb dipole. The evolution of dipolar structures from an initial turbulent patch...

  1. Transport processes and entropy production in toroidally rotating plasmas with electrostatic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, H.; Horton, W.

    1996-08-01

    Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidally rotating systems with electrostatic turbulence. A new gyrokinetic equation is derived for rotating plasmas with large flow velocities on the order of the ion thermal speed. Neoclassical and anomalous transport of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum are systematically formulated from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the gyrokinetic equation. As a conjugate pair of the thermodynamic force and the transport flux, the shear of the toroidal flow, which is caused by the radial electric field shear, and the toroidal viscosity enter both the neoclassical and anomalous entropy production. The interaction between the fluctuations and the sheared toroidal flow is self-consistently described by the gyrokinetic equation containing the flow shear as the thermodynamic force and by the toroidal momentum balance equation including the anomalous viscosity. Effects of the toroidal flow shear on the toroidal ion temperature gradient driven modes are investigated. Linear and quasilinear analyses of the modes show that the toroidal flow shear decreases the growth rates and reduces the anomalous toroidal viscosity. (author)

  2. Turbulent Gravito-Electrostatic Sheath (GES) Structure with Kappa-Distributed Electrons for Solar Plasma Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutam, H. P.; Karmakar, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    We report on new characteristic features of the plasma-based gravito-electrostatic sheath (GES) model for solar plasma equilibrium characterization through nonthermal (κ-distributed) electrons composed of both a thermal halo (low-speed) and a suprathermal (high-speed) energy tail. The constituent ions are treated collectively as inertial species. The presence of intrinsic fluid turbulence is included with the help of a proper logatropic equation of state in the ionic momentum conservation law. The analysis is based on the basic physics of space-charge polarization effects, collectively evolving as a plasma sheath, but previously known only for laboratory plasma-scales. We show that the radial location of the solar surface boundary (SSB, inner boundary, diffused), formed by the counteracting GES force balancing, becomes slightly enhanced (by 0.5 on the Jeans scale). The net electric current densities, in both the solar interior and exterior, confirm the universal law of total charge conservation in the presence of geometrical curvature effects. The relevant properties of the new κ-modified equilibrium GES structure are numerically illustrated and discussed. The results are finally compared in the light of existing reports based on the Maxwell-Boltzmann electron distribution. The new outcomes can be extensively expanded to analyze the realistic thermostatistical dynamics of the Sun and its ambient atmosphere, as predicted earlier from various space-based observations.

  3. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  4. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  5. Two-dimensional density and density fluctuation diagnostic for the edge plasma in fusion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoletnik, S.; Petravich, G.; Bencze, A.; Berta, M.; Fiedler, S.; McCormick, K.; Schweinzer, J.

    2005-07-01

    A technique is described for the two-dimensional measurement of electron density profile and fluctuations in edge regions of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The method is based on existing lithium beam beam emission spectroscopy technique, two-dimensional resolution is achieved by electrostatically scanning the beam. If scanning is performed faster than the lifetime of the turbulent structures in the plasma, the diagnostic is capable of measuring the structure of electron density fluctuations as well. The beam strength of currently available beams makes the detection of single fluctuation events impossible, but the full two-dimensional spatial structure of correlations can still be determined. The article describes the technique and fast beam deflection tests up to 250kHz. The capabilities of such a diagnostic for fluctuation measurement are explored by simulating measurement signals. Measurement of both the two-dimensional density profile, fluctuation correlation function and poloidal flow velocity are demonstrated at the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator. The shape of the density profile, the radial and poloidal correlation lengths and the flow velocity are in agreement with expectations and previous Langmuir probe measurement.

  6. Bicoherence Analysis of Electrostatic Interchange Mode Coupling in a Turbulent Laboratory Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, M. C.; Mauel, M. E.; Saperstein, A.

    2017-12-01

    Plasmas confined by a strong dipole field exhibit interchange and entropy mode turbulence, which previous experiments have shown respond locally to active feedback [1]. On the Collisionless Terrella Experiment (CTX), this turbulence is characterized by low frequency, low order, quasi-coherent modes with complex spectral dynamics. We apply bicoherence analysis [2] to study nonlinear phase coupling in a variety of scenarios. First, we study the self-interaction of the naturally occurring interchange turbulence; this analysis is then expanded to include the effects of single or multiple driven modes in the frequency range of the background turbulent oscillations. Initial measurements of coupling coefficients are presented in both cases. Driven low frequency interchange modes are observed to generate multiple harmonics which persist throughout the plasma, becoming weaker as they propagate away from the actuator in the direction of the electron magnetic drift. Future work is also discussed, including application of wavelet bicoherence analysis and applications to planetary magnetospheres. [1] Roberts, Mauel, and Worstell, Phys Plasmas (2015). [2] Grierson, Worstell, and Mauel, Phys Plasmas (2009). Supported by NSF-DOE Partnership for Plasma Science Grants DOE-DE-FG02-00ER54585 and NSF-PHY-1201896.

  7. Modelling of Lévy walk kinetics of charged particles in edge electrostatic turbulence in tokamaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krlín, Ladislav; Papřok, R.; Svoboda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2008), s. 95-109 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100430502; GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : PLASMA TURBULENCE * DIFFUSION * TRANSPORT * FIELD * WAVES Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2008 http://www.springerlink.com/content/101161/?p=0fb843e139344681908c5cc2140bb828&pi=0

  8. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  9. Electrostatic and magnetic measurements of turbulence and transport in Extrap T2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Anders; Sallander, Eva

    1999-10-01

    Langmuir probe and magnetic pick-up coil measurements are used to study edge turbulence in the Extrap T2 reversed field pinch. Magnetic fluctuations resonant outside the toroidal field reversal surface are observed where previously only fluctuations in the spectra of potential and electron density and temperature have been measured. Results are presented which imply that these fluctuations are coupled to and also correlated to the internally resonant tearing mode fluctuations. Evidence of coupling between low-frequency (<100 kHz) and high-frequency fluctuations is also presented. The normalized floating potential fluctuations are seen to increase with the edge electron temperature. This causes an increase of the potential and density fluctuation driven transport with the temperature which is faster than linear. These results, in combination, are consistent with a picture where internally resonant fluctuations couple to edge fluctuations through radial heat conduction from the stochastic core to the edge.

  10. Two dimensional image correlation processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kai

    1992-06-01

    Two dimensional images are converted into a very long 1-dimensional data stream by means of raster scan. It is shown that the 1-dimensional correlation function of such long data streams is equivalent to the raster scan converted data of 2-dimensional correlation function of images. Real time correlation of high resolution two-dimensional images has been demonstrated using commercially available components. The advantages of this approach includes programmable electronics reference images, easy interface to objects of interest using conventional image collection optics, real time operation with high resolution images using off-the shelf components, and usefulness in the form of either black and white or full colored images. Such system would be versatile enough for robotics vision, optical inspection, and other pattern recognition and identification applications.

  11. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  12. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  13. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  14. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  15. Clumps in drift wave turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Mikkelsen, Torben

    1986-01-01

    In a statistical analysis pair correlation of particles is eventually destroyed by small scale fluctuations giving rise to relative particle diffusion. However, in any one given realization of the statistical ensemble particles may remain correlated in certain regions of space. A perfectly frozen......, two-dimensional random flow serves as a particularly simple illustration. For this case particles can be trapped for all times in a local vortex (macro-clump). A small test-cloud of particles (micro-clump) chosen arbitrarily in a realization will on the other hand expand on average. A formulation...... is proposed in terms of conditional eddies, in order to discriminate turbulent flows where macro-clumps may be observed. The analysis is illustrated by results from experimental investigations of strongly turbulent, resistive drift-wave fluctuations. The related problem for electrostatic turbulence...

  16. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  17. Two-dimensional Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf, Juri

    1998-10-01

    This Ph.D. thesis pursues two goals: The study of the geometrical structure of two-dimensional quantum gravity and in particular its fractal nature. To address these questions we review the continuum formalism of quantum gravity with special focus on the scaling properties of the theory. We discuss several concepts of fractal dimensions which characterize the extrinsic and intrinsic geometry of quantum gravity. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Dimitrij Boulatov, Jakob L. Nielsen and Yoshiyuki Watabiki (1997). The other goal is the discussion of the discretization of quantum gravity and to address the so called quantum failure of Regge calculus. We review dynamical triangulations and show that it agrees with the continuum theory in two dimensions. Then we discuss Regge calculus and prove that a continuum limit cannot be taken in a sensible way and that it does not reproduce continuum results. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Jakob L. Nielsen and George Savvidy (1997).

  18. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  19. Nonlinear simulation of electromagnetic current diffusive interchange mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.I.; Fukuyama, A.

    1998-01-01

    The anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas has been investigated extensively. It is pointed out that the nonlinear instability is important in driving the microturbulence[1], i.e., the self-sustained plasma turbulence. This concept is explained as follows; when the electron motion along the magnetic field line is resisted by the background turbulence, it gives rise to the effective resistivity and enhances the level of the turbulence. The nonlinear simulation of the electrostatic current diffusive interchange mode (CDIM) in the two dimensional sheared slab geometry has been performed as an example. The occurrence of the nonlinear instability and the self-sustainment of the plasma turbulence were confirmed by this simulation[2]. On the other hand, the electromagnetic turbulence is sustained in the high pressure limit. The possibility of the self-organization with more variety has been pointed out[3]. It is important to study the electromagnetic turbulence based on the nonlinear simulation. In this paper, the model equation for the electrostatic CDIM turbulence[2] is extended for both electrostatic and electromagnetic turbulence. (1) Not only E x B convective nonlinearity but also the electromagnetic nonlinearity which is related to the parallel flow are incorporated into the model equation. (2) The electron and ion pressure evolution equations are solved separately, making it possible to distinguish the electron and ion thermal diffusivities. The two dimensional nonlinear simulation of the electromagnetic CDIM is performed based on the extended fluid model. This paper is organized as follows. The model equation is explained in section II. The result of simulation is shown in section III. The conclusion and discussion are given in section IV. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Rewoldt, G.

    1984-11-01

    A two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of the trapped-ion instability for the tokamak case with ..beta.. not equal to 0 has been made, based on previous work in the electrostatic limit. The quasineutrality condition and the component of Ampere's law along the equilibrium magnetic field are solved for the perturbed electrostatic potential and the component of the perturbed vector potential along the equilibrium magnetic field. The general integro-differential equations are converted into a matrix eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem by expanding in cubic B-spline finite elements in the minor radius and in Fourier harmonics in the poloidal angle. A model MHD equilibrium with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces and large aspect ratio is used which is consistent with our assemption that B << 1. The effect on the trapped-ion mode of including these electromagnetic extensions to the calculation is considered, and the temperature (and ..beta..) scaling of the mode frequency is shown and discussed.

  1. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  2. Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed

  3. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  4. Two-Dimensional Turbulent Separated Flow. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    With a relatively noisy high-powered argon -ion laser, it is very difficult for a tracker to remain locked on the signal even for a continuous signal...3 Piazzale Adenauer 00144 Roma/EUR LUXEMBOURG See Belgium NETHERLANDS Netherlands Delegation to AGARD National Aerospace Laboratory, NLR P.O

  5. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  6. Conoscopic holography: two-dimensional numerical reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y; Charlot, D

    1993-01-01

    Conoscopic holography is an incoherent light holographic technique based on the properties of crystal optics. We present experimental results of the numerical reconstruction of a two-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram.

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array

  8. Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.

  9. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  10. Numerical simulations of the two-dimensional multimode Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornber, B., E-mail: ben.thornber@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Zhou, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    The two-dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs as shock waves pass through a perturbed material interface, triggering transition to an inhomogeneous turbulence variable density flow. This paper presents a series of large-eddy-simulations of the two dimensional turbulent RM instability and compares the results to the fully three dimensional simulations. There are two aims for this paper, the first is to explore what numerical resolution is required for a statistically converged solution for a two dimensional inhomogeneous flow field. The second aim is to elucidate the key differences in flow physics between the two dimensional and three dimensional Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities, particularly their asymptotic self-similar regime. Convergence is achieved using 64 independent realisations and grid resolutions up to 4096{sup 2} in the plane. It is shown that for narrowband cases the growth rate θ = 0.48 which is substantially higher than the three-dimensional equivalent. Mix measures are consistently lower compared to three-dimensional, and the kinetic energy distribution is homogeneous at late time. The broadband case has a similar initial growth rate as the three-dimensional case, with a marginally lower θ = 0.63. Mix is similar in magnitude, but is reducing at late time. The spectra in both cases exhibit the dual-cascade expected from two-dimensional turbulence.

  11. A two dimensional model of undertow current over mud bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Hammadul Azam; Abdul Aziz Ibrahim; Noraieni Hj, Mokhtar

    1996-01-01

    Coastal wave-current dynamics often causes severe erosion and this activity is more prominent within the surf zone. Turbulence generated by breaking wave is a complex phenomena and the degree of complexity increases to a higher degree when it happens over mud bed. A better understanding on wave and current is necessary to enrich the engineering hand to facilitate any coastal development work. Since physical model has certain deficiencies, such as high cost and scaling problem, the need for developing numerical models in such cases is significant. A time averaged two dimensional model has been developed to simulate the undertow over mud bed. A turbulent energy model also included which considers only the vertical variation of mixing length. Production of turbulent kinetic energy in the surf zone has been calculated from an hydraulic jump analogy. The result obtained shows an insignificant vertical variation of current. Further research is needed involving laboratory and field works to get sufficient data for comparing the model results

  12. Structures, profile consistency, and transport scaling in electrostatic convection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bian, N.H.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    Two mechanisms at the origin of profile consistency in models of electrostatic turbulence in magnetized plasmas are considered. One involves turbulent diffusion in collisionless plasmas and the subsequent turbulent equipartition of Lagrangian invariants. By the very nature of its definition...

  13. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  14. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  15. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons.

  16. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  17. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  18. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    We study countable sums of two dimensional modules for the continuous complex functions on a compact metric space and show that it is possible to construct a spectral triple which gives the original metric back. This spectral triple will be finitely summable for any positive parameter. We also co...

  20. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to

  1. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  2. Spontaneous angular momentum generation of two-dimensional fluid flow in an elliptic geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keetels, G.H.; Clercx, H.J.H.; van Heijst, G.J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous spin-up, i.e., the significant increase of the total angular momentum of a flow that initially has no net angular momentum, is very characteristic for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in square domains bounded by rigid no-slip walls. In contrast, spontaneous spin-up is virtually

  3. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  4. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  5. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  6. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  7. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  8. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  9. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  10. Numerical and theoretical investigations of resistive drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunn Pedersen, T.

    1995-07-01

    With regard to the development of thermonuclear fusion utilizing a plasma confined in a magnetic field, anomalous transport is a major problem and is considered to be caused by electrostatic drift wave turbulence. A simplified quasi-two-dimensional slab model of resistive drift wave turbulence is investigated numerically and theoretically. The model (Hasegawa and Wakatani), consists of two nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation φ. It includes the effect of a background density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic field and a generalized Ohm's law for the electrons in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. It may be used to model the basic features of electrostatic turbulence and the associated transport in an edge plasma. Model equations are derived and some important properties of the system are discussed. It is described how the Fourier spectral method is applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani equations, how the time integration is developed to ensure accurate and fast simulations in a large parameter regime, and how the accuracy of the code is checked. Numerical diagnostics are developed to verify and extend the results in publications concerning quasi-stationary turbulent states and to give an overview of the properties of the quasi-stationary turbulent state. The use of analysis tools, not previously applied to the Hasegawa-Wakatani system, and the results obtained are described. Fluid particles are tracked to obtain Lagrangian statistics for the turbulence. A new theoretical analysis of relative dispersion leads to a decomposition criterion for the particles. The significance of this is investigated numerically and characteristic time scales for particles are determined for a range of parameter values. It is indicated that the turbulent state can be characterized in the context of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory as an attractor with a large basin of attraction. The basic

  11. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  12. Gyroscope with two-dimensional optomechanical mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Kai; Li, Yong

    2017-11-01

    We propose an application of two-dimensional optomechanical oscillator as a gyroscope by detecting the Coriolis force which is modulated at the natural frequency of the optomechanical oscillator. Dependence of gyroscope's sensitivity on shot noise, back-action noise, thermal noise, and input laser power is studied. At optimal input laser power, the gyroscope's sensitivity can be improved by increasing the mass or by decreasing the temperature and decay rate of the mechanical oscillator. When the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation number, n th, is zero, sensitivity improves with decrease in frequency of the mechanical oscillator. For {n}{{th}}\\gg 1, the sensitivity is independent of the mechanical oscillator's frequency.

  13. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...

  14. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  15. Parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Koutoulis, Anthony; Whittock, Simon P; Shellie, Robert A

    2017-11-17

    We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ( 1 D) and second-dimension ( 2 D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules. Precise carrier gas flow control at the junction of the 1 D and 2 D columns permits independent control of flow conditions in each separation column. The 2GC×2GC approach provides two entirely independent GC×GC separations for each injection. Analysis of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils is used to demonstrate the capability of the approach. The analytical performance of each GC×GC separation in the 2GC×2GC experiment is comparable to individual GC×GC separation with matching column configurations. The peak capacity of 2GC×2GC is about 2 times than that of single GC×GC system. The dual 2D chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary separations and additional identification information by harnessing different selectivity provided by the four separation columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael

    2006-11-01

    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.

  17. Implications of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory for plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, David

    1977-01-01

    A brief discussion of Navier-Stokes turbulence theory is given with particular reference to the two dimensional case. The MHD turbulence is introduced with possible applications of techniques developed in Navier-Stokes theory. Turbulence in Vlasov plasma is also discussed from the point of view of the ''direct interaction approximation'' (DIA). (A.K.)

  18. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  19. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  20. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  1. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  2. Ward identities in two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.

    1991-01-01

    We study the decoupling of null states in two-dimensional gravity, using methods of critical string theory. We identify a family of null states which fail to decouple due to curvature and boundary terms. This gives relations involving amplitudes at different genus. At genus zero, these determine certain operator product coefficients. At genus one, they determine the partition function. At higher genus, we obtain a relation similar in form to the Painleve equation, but due to an incomplete understanding of a certain ghost/curvature term we do not have a closed relation for the partition function. Our results appear to correspond to the L 0 and L 1 equations in the topological and matrix model approaches. (orig.)

  3. Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.

    2018-04-01

    We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.

  4. Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary

    2017-06-01

    Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.

  5. Modified black holes in two dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1991-11-01

    The SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZWN model is modified by a topological term and the accompanying change in the geometry of the two dimensional target space is determined. The possibility of this additional term arises from a symmetry in the general formalism of gauging an isometry subgroup of a non-linear sigma model with an antisymmetric tensor. It is shown, in particular, that the space-time exhibits some general singularities for which the recently found black hole is just a special case. From a conformal field theory point of view and for special values of the unitary representation of SL(2,R), this topological term can be interpreted as a small perturbation by a (1,1) conformal operator of the gauged WZWN action. (author). 26 refs

  6. Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang; Zhang Yong-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS 2 and WS 2 ), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS 2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS 2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator. (topical reviews)

  7. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  8. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  9. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  10. Development and validation of a new two-dimensional wake model for wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    , wind tunnel experiments, and results of an advanced k-ω turbulence model as well as large eddy simulations. From the comparisons, it is found that the proposed new wake model gives a good prediction in terms of both shape and velocity amplitude of the wake deficit, especially in the far wake which......A new two-dimensional (2D) wake model is developed and validated in this article to predict the velocity and turbulence distribution in the wake of a wind turbine. Based on the classical Jensen wake model, this model is further employing a cosine shape function to redistribute the spread...... of the wake deficit in the crosswind direction. Moreover, a variable wake decay rate is proposed to take into account both the ambient turbulence and the rotor generated turbulence, different from a constant wake decay rate used in the Jensen model. The obtained results are compared to field measurements...

  11. Lippmann-Schwinger theory for two-dimensional plasmon scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Iacopo; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Diaspro, Alberto; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco

    2017-07-01

    Long-lived and ultraconfined plasmons in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems may provide a subwavelength diagnostic tool to investigate localized dielectric, electromagnetic, and pseudo-electromagnetic perturbations. In this article, we present a general theoretical framework to study the scattering of 2D plasmons against such perturbations in the nonretarded limit. We discuss both parabolic-band and massless Dirac fermion 2D electron systems. Our theory starts from a Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the screened potential in an inhomogeneous 2D electron system and utilizes as inputs analytical long-wavelength expressions for the density-density response function, going beyond the local approximation. We present illustrative results for the scattering of 2D plasmons against a pointlike charged impurity and a one-dimensional electrostatic barrier due to a line of charges. Exact numerical results obtained from the solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation are compared with approximate results based on the Born and eikonal approximations. The importance of nonlocal effects is finally emphasized.

  12. Photonic Structure-Integrated Two-Dimensional Material Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form photonic structure/2D material hybrid systems so that the device performance can be manipulated in controllable ways. Here, we first introduce the photocurrent-generation mechanisms of 2D material-based optoelectronics and their performance. We then offer an overview and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of hybrid systems, where 2D material optoelectronics are integrated with photonic structures, especially plasmonic nanostructures, photonic waveguides and crystals. By combining with those photonic structures, the performance of 2D material optoelectronics can be further enhanced, and on the other side, a high-performance modulator can be achieved by electrostatically tuning 2D materials. Finally, 2D material-based photodetector can also become an efficient probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those hybrid systems combine the advantages of 2D materials and photonic structures, providing further capacity for high-performance optoelectronics.

  13. Two-dimensional networks of lanthanide cubane-shaped dumbbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Didier; Lin, Po-Heng; Burchell, Tara J; Korobkov, Ilia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Murugesu, Muralee

    2009-12-21

    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for three new lanthanide complexes, [Ln(III)(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mu(3)-O)(2)(cpt)(6)(MeOH)(6)(H(2)O)](2) (Ln = Dy (1.15MeOH), Ho (2.14MeOH), and Tb (3.18MeOH)), based on 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole ligand (Hcpt). The three complexes were confirmed to be isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of 1 reveals that the eight-coordinate metal centers are organized in two cubane-shaped moieties composed of four Dy(III) ions each. All metal centers in the cubane core are bridged by two mu(3)-oxide and two mu(3)-hydroxide asymmetrical units. Moreover, each cubane is linked to its neighbor by two externally coordinating ligands, forming the dumbbell {Dy(III)(4)}(2) moiety. Electrostatic interactions between the ligands of the triazole-bridged dimers form an extended supramolecular two-dimensional arrangement analogous to a metal-organic framework with quadrilateral spaces occupied by ligands from axial sheets and by four solvent molecules. The magnetic properties of the three compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 1, the static and dynamic data corroborate the fact that the {Dy(III)(4)} cubane-shaped core exhibits slow relaxation of its magnetization below 5 K associated with a single-molecule magnet behavior.

  14. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  17. Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.

    2014-06-01

    Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.

  18. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: yilungmo@central.uh.edu [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  19. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  20. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  1. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  2. Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza

    2014-03-01

    Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.

  3. SSME fuelside preburner two-dimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanoverbeke, T. J.; Claus, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The flow field within the fuelside preburner of the Space Shuttle Main Engine is calculated using a reacting flow code (REACT2D). Inlet and modeling parameters involved in the numerical calculation are systematically varied to establish the sensitivity of the calculated exit temperature profile. It is found that differences in the inlet equivalence ratio have a large effect on the turbine inlet temperature profile. A variety of preburner inlet modeling changes such as inlet turbulence level, modeling the gases as burned, unburned, premixed, or unmixed, are shown to have a smaller effect on the calculated turbine inlet temperature profile. Also, the form of finite differencing used is shown to have an effect on the temperature profile.

  4. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  5. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón

    2015-06-01

    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  6. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  7. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  8. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  9. Solution of the two- dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan BAYKUŞ SAVAŞANERİL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Laplace equation is a fundamental equation of applied mathematics. Important phenomena in engineering and physics, such as steady-state temperature distribution, electrostatic potential and fluid flow, are modeled by means of this equation. The Laplace equation which satisfies boundary values is known as the Dirichlet problem. The solutions to the Dirichlet problem form one of the most celebrated topics in the area of applied mathematics. In this study, a novel method is presented for the solution of two-dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate. In this alternative method, the solution function of the problem is based on the Green function, and therefore on elliptic functions.

  10. Analysis of the Scramjet inlet flow field using two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code was developed to solve the full two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a scramjet inlet. The analysis uses a numerical coordinate transformation which generates a set of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates. The explicit finite difference algorithm of MacCormack is used to solve the governing equations. A two-layer eddy viscosity model is used for the turbulent flow. The code can analyze both inviscid and viscous flows with multiple struts in the flow field. Detailed results are presented for two model problems and two scramjet inlets with one and two struts. The application of the two dimensional analysis in the preliminary design of the actual scramjet inlet is briefly discussed.

  11. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  12. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular

  13. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  14. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  15. Reduction of vertical transport in two-dimensional stably stratified forced shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toqué, Nathalie; Lignières, François; Vincent, Alain

    2006-04-01

    The effect of stable stratification on the vertical transport of passive contaminants in forced, stationary, two-dimensional (2D) and inhomogeneous shear turbulence is investigated numerically. The mean flow consists of several superimposed parallel sheared layers in a stably stratified medium. We find that, as stratification increases, the vertical transport decreases much faster than predicted by mixing length estimates. For the highest stratification, particles vertical dispersion nearly vanishes. The proposed interpretation emphasizes the role of weakly sheared layers where the relative increase of the mean horizontal velocity with respect to the root-mean-square (rms) vertical velocity causes the decrease of the Lagrangian correlation timescale.

  16. Two Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Plate Heat Exchangers: An Analytical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Ansari Dezfoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. The mathematical formulation of problems coupled at boundary conditions are presented, the solution procedure is then obtained as a special case of the two region Sturm-Liouville problem. The results obtained for two different flow regimes are then compared with experimental results and with each other. The agreement between the analytical and experimental results is an indication of the accuracy of solution method.

  17. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2018-01-01

    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  18. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  19. Stability analysis of two-dimensional digital recursive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. E.; Pruess, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    A new approach to the stability problem for the two-dimensional digital recursive filter is presented. The bivariate difference equation representation of the two-dimensional recursive digital filter is converted to a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) system similar to the state-space representation of the one-dimensional digital recursive filter. In this paper, a pseudo-state representation is used and three coefficient matrices are obtained. A general theorem for stability of two-dimensional digital recursive filters is derived and a very useful theorem is presented which expresses sufficient requirements for instability in terms of the spectral radii of these matrices.

  20. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  1. Numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, T

    2002-01-01

    The two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms $\\G(\\vec{a}(z);y)$, a generalization of the harmonic polylogarithms, themselves a generalization of Nielsen's polylogarithms, appear in analytic calculations of multi-loop radiative corrections in quantum field theory. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, with the two arguments $y,z$ varying in the triangle $0\\le y \\le 1$, $ 0\\le z \\le 1$, $\\ 0\\le (y+z) \\le 1$. This algorithm is implemented into a {\\tt FORTRAN} subroutine {\\tt tdhpl} to compute two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms up to weight 4.

  2. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  3. Proteome research : two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabilloud, Thierry, 1961

    2000-01-01

    "Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the central methodology in proteome research, and the state of the art is described in detail in this text, together with extensive coverage of the detection methods available...

  4. 1/f noise in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.B.; Tajima, T.

    1994-10-01

    We derive an exact result on the velocity fluctuation power spectrum of an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. Employing the fluctuation-dissipation relationship and the enstrophy conversation, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a 1/f form

  5. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...

  6. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1979-01-01

    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  7. Coherent Response of Two Dimensional Electron Gas probed by Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Jagannath

    Advent of ultrashort lasers made it possible to probe various scattering phenomena in materials that occur in a time scale on the order of few femtoseconds to several tens of picoseconds. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques, such as pump-probe, transient four wave mixing (TFWM), etc., are very common to study the carrier dynamics in various material systems. In time domain, the transient FWM uses several ultrashort pulses separated by time delays to obtain the information of dephasing and population relaxation times, which are very important parameters that govern the carrier dynamics of materials. A recently developed multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy is an enhanced version of TFWM which keeps track of two time delays simultaneously and correlate them in the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform in a two dimensional map. Using this technique, the nonlinear complex signal field is characterized both in amplitude and phase. Furthermore, this technique allows us to identify the coupling between resonances which are rather difficult to interpret from time domain measurements. This work focuses on the study of the coherent response of a two dimensional electron gas formed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well both at zero and at high magnetic fields. In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the inter- actions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the formation of Mahan excitons, which is also referred to as Fermi edge singularity (FES). Polarization and temperature dependent rephasing 2DFT spectra in combination with TI-FWM measurements, provides insight into the dephasing mechanism of the heavy hole (HH) Mahan exciton. In addition to that strong quantum coherence between the HH and LH Mahan excitons is observed, which is rather surprising at this high doping concentration. The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly

  8. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  9. The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, José P. S.; Sá, Paulo M.

    1993-01-01

    General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.

  10. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern.......The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  11. Vortex statistics for turbulence in a container with rigid boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clercx, H.J.H.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of vortex statistics for decaying two-dimensional turbulence in a square container with rigid no-slip walls is compared with a few available experimental results and with the scaling theory of two-dimensional turbulent decay as proposed by Carnevale et al. Power-law exponents...

  12. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  13. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  14. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  15. Experimental investigation of flow over two-dimensional multiple hill models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-12-31

    The aim of this study is to investigate the flow field characteristics in ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer) flow over multiple hills and valleys in two-dimensional models under neutral conditions. Active turbulence grids and boundary layer generation frame were used to simulate the natural winds in wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the mean wind velocity, the velocity vector diagram and turbulence intensity around the hills were investigated by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. From the measurement results, it was known that the average velocity was increased along the upstream slope of upside hill, and then separated at the top of the hills, the acceleration region of U/U ref >1 was generated at the downstream of the hill. Meanwhile, a large clockwise circulation flow was generated between the two hill models. Moreover, the turbulence intensity showed small value in the circulation flow regions. Compared to 1H model, the turbulence intensity in the mainstream direction showed larger value than that in the vertical direction. This paper provided a better understanding of the wind energy distribution on the terrain for proper selection of suitable sites for installing wind farms in the ABL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A six-mode truncation of the Navier-Stokes equations on a two-dimensional torus: a numerical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, P.M.; Riela, G.

    1981-01-01

    We study a model obtained from a six-mode truncation of the Navier-Stokes equations for a two-dimensional incompressible fluid on a torus. We find that at low values of the Reynolds number R the dynamics is characterized by fixed points and, at large values of R, by two stable periodic orbits; at intermediate values of R two infinite sequences of bifurcations of periodic orbits into periodic orbits of doubled period lead to two regions of ''turbulent'' or ''chaotic'' behaviour. The turbulent regions end up for values of R for which stable periodic orbits appear. (author)

  17. Electrostatic accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterberger, F

    2006-01-01

    The principle of electrostatic accelerators is presented. We consider Cockcroft– Walton, Van de Graaff and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators. We resume high voltage generators such as cascade generators, Van de Graaff band generators, Pelletron generators, Laddertron generators and Dynamitron generators. The speci c features of accelerating tubes, ion optics and methods of voltage stabilization are described. We discuss the characteristic beam properties and the variety of possible beams. We sketch possible applications and the progress in the development of electrostatic accelerators.

  18. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C.; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S. B.

    2018-02-01

    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  19. Multipolar electrostatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardamone, Salvatore; Hughes, Timothy J; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-06-14

    Atomistic simulation of chemical systems is currently limited by the elementary description of electrostatics that atomic point-charges offer. Unfortunately, a model of one point-charge for each atom fails to capture the anisotropic nature of electronic features such as lone pairs or π-systems. Higher order electrostatic terms, such as those offered by a multipole moment expansion, naturally recover these important electronic features. The question remains as to why such a description has not yet been widely adopted by popular molecular mechanics force fields. There are two widely-held misconceptions about the more rigorous formalism of multipolar electrostatics: (1) Accuracy: the implementation of multipole moments, compared to point-charges, offers little to no advantage in terms of an accurate representation of a system's energetics, structure and dynamics. (2) Efficiency: atomistic simulation using multipole moments is computationally prohibitive compared to simulation using point-charges. Whilst the second of these may have found some basis when computational power was a limiting factor, the first has no theoretical grounding. In the current work, we disprove the two statements above and systematically demonstrate that multipole moments are not discredited by either. We hope that this perspective will help in catalysing the transition to more realistic electrostatic modelling, to be adopted by popular molecular simulation software.

  20. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  1. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  2. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  3. A nonperturbative treatment of two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a nonperturbative definition of two-dimensional quantum gravity, based on a double scaling limit of the random matrix model. We develop an operator formalism for utilizing the method of orthogonal polynomials that allows us to solve the matrix models to all orders in the genus expansion. Using this formalism we derive an exact differential equation for the partition function of two-dimensional gravity as a function of the string coupling constant that governs the genus expansion of two-dimensional surfaces, and discuss its properties and consequences. We construct and discuss the correlation functions of an infinite set of pointlike and loop operators to all orders in the genus expansion. (orig.)

  4. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  5. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphous...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  6. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  7. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  8. Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Bobev, Nikolay [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Crichigno, P. Marcos [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-07-05

    We find a large class of two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N=1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS{sub 3} solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of four-dimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.

  9. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  10. Quantum melting of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolgopolov, V. T.

    2017-10-01

    The paper reviews theoretical predictions about the behavior of two-dimensional low-density electron systems at nearly absolute zero temperatures, including the formation of an electron (Wigner) crystal, crystal melting at a critical electron density, and transitions between crystal modifications in more complex (for example, two-layer) systems. The paper presents experimental results obtained from real two-dimensional systems in which the nonconducting (solid) state of the electronic system with indications of collective localization is actually realized. Experimental methods for detecting a quantum liquid–solid phase interface are discussed.

  11. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  12. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....

  13. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.

  15. Electrically controlled crossing of energy levels in quantum dots in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A.

    2017-05-15

    We study the energy spectra of bound states in quantum dots (QDs) formed by an electrostatic potential in two-dimensional topological insulator (TI) and their transformation with changes in QD depth and radius. It is found that, unlike a trivial insulator, the energy difference between the levels of the ground state and first excited state can decrease with decreasing the radius and increasing the depth of the QD so that these levels intersect under some critical condition. The crossing of the levels results in unusual features of optical properties caused by intraceneter electron transitions. In particular, it leads to significant changes of light absorption due to electron transitions between such levels and to the transient electroluminescence induced by electrical tuning of QD and TI parameters. In the case of magnetic TIs, the polarization direction of the absorbed or emitted circularly polarized light is changed due to the level crossing.

  16. Density of states of two-dimensional systems with long-range logarithmic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, Andrés M.; Ortuño, Miguel; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Vinokur, Valerii M.

    2015-08-03

    We investigate a single-particle density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered two- dimensional high dielectric permittivity systems with logarithmic Coulomb interaction between particles. We derive self-consistent DOS at zero temperature and show that it is appreciably suppressed as compared to the DOS expected from the Efros-Shklovskii approach.We carry out zero- and finite-temperature Monte Carlo numerical studies of the DOS and find the perfect agreement between the numerical and analytical results at zero temperature, observing, in particular, a hardening of the Coulomb gap with the increasing electrostatic screening length. At finite temperatures, we reveal a striking scaling of the DOS as a function of energy normalized to the temperature of the system.

  17. Functional Two-Dimensional Coordination Polymeric Layer as a Charge Barrier in Li–S Batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Jing-Kai

    2018-01-04

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) polymeric layers are capable of separating gases and molecules based on the reported size exclusion mechanism. What is equally important but missing today is an exploration of the 2D layers with charge functionality, which enables applications using the charge exclusion principle. This work demonstrates a simple and scalable method of synthesizing a free-standing 2D coordination polymer Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 at the air–water interface. The hydroxyl (−OH) groups are stoichiometrically coordinated and implement electrostatic charges in the 2D structures, providing powerful functionality as a charge barrier. Electrochemical performance of the Li–S battery shows that the Zn2(benzimidazolate)2(OH)2 coordination polymer layers efficiently mitigate the polysulfide shuttling effects and largely enhance the battery capacity and cycle performance. The synthesis of the proposed coordination polymeric layers is simple, scalable, cost saving, and promising for practical use in batteries.

  18. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong

    2008-06-01

    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  19. Magnetoresistance oscillations of two-dimensional electron systems in lateral superlattices with structured unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardts, Rolf R.

    2015-11-01

    Model calculations for commensurability oscillations of the low-field magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in lateral superlattices, consisting of unit cells with an internal structure, are compared with recent experiments. The relevant harmonics of the effective modulation potential depend not only on the geometrical structure of the modulated unit cell, but also strongly on the nature of the modulation. While higher harmonics of an electrostatically generated surface modulation are exponentially damped at the position of the 2DES about 90 nm below the surface, no such damping appears for strain-induced modulation generated, e.g., by the deposition of stripes of calixarene resist on the surface before cooling down the sample.

  20. Conditional Eddies in Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Helene; Pécseli, Hans; Trulsen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Conditional structures, or eddies, in turbulent flows are discussed with special attention to electrostatic turbulence in plasmas. The potential variation of these eddies is obtained by sampling the fluctuations only when a certain condition is satisfied in a reference point. The resulting...

  1. Stability investigation in nominally two-dimensional laminar boundary layers by means of heat pulsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming De; Liu, Tian Shu

    The effects of heat pulses from surface-mounted wires on the laminar boundary-layer flow on an 800 x 300 x 32-mm flat wooden plate with a 6:1 elliptical nose are investigated experimentally in the 1.5 x 0.3-m working section of the DFVLR-AVA Goettingen low-turbulence wind tunnel at maximum free-stream velocity 45 m/s and longitudinal turbulence intensity about 0.05 percent. The results of flow visualization and hot-film measurements are presented in extensive graphs and photographs and analyzed. It is found that the initial amplification of disturbances is accurately predicted by two-dimensional linear stability theory, even when the disturbances include significant three-dimensional components. Subharmonic paths to turbulence are shown to begin from lower initial-disturbance fluctuation levels or at lower Reynolds numbers than predicted by the 'K' mechanism (Klebanoff et al., 1962), and the oblique wave angles at which maximum amplification occurs are seen as consistent with the resonant triad model of Craik (1971).

  2. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  3. Experimental investigation of two-dimensional critical surface structure, stimulated Raman scattering, and two-plasmon decay instability. Annual report, January 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.Y.; Eggleston, D.L.; Tanikawa, T.; Qian, S.J.

    1982-11-01

    Experimental observations of the space and time evolution of resonantly enhanced electrostatic electric fields and plasma density in cylindrical geometry demonstrate the development of two-dimensional caviton structure when an initial density perturbation is imposed on the plasma in the direction perpendicular to the driver field. This two-dimensional structure is observed after the development of profile modification and grows on the ion time scale. The existence of a large azimuthal electric field component is an observational signature of two-dimensional structure. Enhanced electric field maxima are found to be azimuthally correlated with the density minima. Both the density cavities and electric field peaks exhibit increased azimuthal location with the growth of two-dimensional structure. The two-dimensional development exhibits a strong dependence on both perturbation wavenumber and driver power. The related theoretical literature is reviewed and numerical, analytical, and qualitative hybrid models for a driven, two-dimensional, inhomogeneous plasma are presented. Preliminary work is presented in the following additional areas: weak magnetic field effects on critical surface physics, optical measurements of fast electron production, two-dimensional effects in microwave-plasma interactions, Langmuir wave trapping, stimulated Raman scattering and two-plasmon decay instability

  4. Dual Phase-space Cascades in 3D Hybrid-Vlasov–Maxwell Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, S. S.; Kunz, M. W.; Califano, F.

    2018-03-01

    To explain energy dissipation via turbulence in collisionless, magnetized plasmas, the existence of a dual real- and velocity-space cascade of ion-entropy fluctuations below the ion gyroradius has been proposed. Such a dual cascade, predicted by the gyrokinetic theory, has previously been observed in gyrokinetic simulations of two-dimensional, electrostatic turbulence. For the first time, we show evidence for a dual phase-space cascade of ion-entropy fluctuations in a three-dimensional simulation of hybrid-kinetic, electromagnetic turbulence. Some of the scalings observed in the energy spectra are consistent with a generalized theory for the cascade that accounts for the spectral anisotropy of critically balanced, intermittent, sub-ion-Larmor-scale fluctuations. The observed velocity-space cascade is also anisotropic with respect to the magnetic-field direction, with linear phase mixing along magnetic-field lines proceeding mainly at spatial scales above the ion gyroradius and nonlinear phase mixing across magnetic-field lines proceeding at perpendicular scales below the ion gyroradius. Such phase-space anisotropy could be sought in heliospheric and magnetospheric data of solar-wind turbulence and has far-reaching implications for the dissipation of turbulence in weakly collisional astrophysical plasmas.

  5. Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamical properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation ...

  6. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular ...

  7. Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconformal field theory; free field realization; string theory; AdS-CFT correspon- dence. PACS Nos 11.25.Hf; 11.25.-w; 11.30.Ly; 11.30.Pb. Conformal symmetries in two space-time dimensions have been very extensively studied owing to their applications both in string theory and two-dimensional statistical systems.

  8. Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes Silva Da Costa, Natália; Palumbo, Giandomenico; de Morais Smith, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this

  9. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...

  10. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  11. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  12. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface i...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  13. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...

  14. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  15. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  16. (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Fountoulakis M, Schuller E, Hardmeier R, Berndt P and Lubec. G 1999 Rat brain proteins: Two-dimensional protein data- base and variation in the expression level; Electrophoresis 20. 3527–3579. Hiroshi Fujii, Junji Tochinara, Yutaka Kawaguchi and Sakagu- chi B 1988 Existence of carotenoids binding protein in larval.

  17. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  18. Polaron dynamics in a two-dimensional anharmonic Holstein model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    A generalized two-dimensional semiclassical :Holstein model with a realistic on-site potential that contains anharmonicity is studied. More precisely, the lattice subsystem of anharmonic on-site oscillators is supposed to have a restricting core. The core plays the role of an effective saturation...

  19. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  20. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  1. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  2. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2 ... CdSe quantum wells; 2D electron gas; magneto-electronic transport. Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are ...

  3. g Algebra and two-dimensional quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    g2 algebra via one special representation in the x–y two-dimensional space. Then, by choosing an appropriate set of ..... Gen. 40, 212 (2005). [3] S Grigorian and S T Yau, Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 459 (2009). [4] L Fernandez-Jambrina and L M Gonzalez-Romero, Class. Quant. Grav. 16, 953 (1999). [5] A Belhaj, J. Phys.

  4. Two-Dimensional Light Diffraction from an EPROM Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2018-01-01

    In introductory physics classes, a laser pointer and a compact disc are all the items required to illustrate diffraction of light in a single dimension. If a two-dimensional diffraction pattern is desired, double axis diffraction grating material is available or a CCD sensor can be extracted from an unused electronics device. This article presents…

  5. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-21

    Jul 21, 2014 ... used, as an alternative for costly 2DE-quantification kits. Our designed protocols are ..... 7 IPG 17 cm strips: (i) made by OP then DNase/RNase treated and (ii) made by OP with optimized IEF. (D) 2DE image of (i) E. coli ..... Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional ...

  6. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  7. Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koberle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  9. Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Halberg, Axel

    2011-01-01

    We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)

  10. Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there ...

  11. Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo

    1987-01-01

    The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)

  12. Symmetry Reductions of Two-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Burgers Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Li, Biao

    2005-05-01

    By use of a direct method, we discuss symmetries and reductions of the two-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficient (VCBurgers). Five types of symmetry-reducing VCBurgers to (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equation and three types of symmetry reducing VCBurgers to ordinary differential equation are obtained.

  13. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-01-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  14. Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos

    2009-10-01

    We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.

  15. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...

  16. Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two- dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The se- lected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen ...

  17. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  18. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.

    1999-01-01

    A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.

  19. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  20. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  1. Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius

    2013-01-01

    We explore the electrodynamic coupling between a plane wave and an infinite two-dimensional periodic lattice of magnetoelectric point scatterers, deriving a semianalytical theory with consistent treatment of radiation damping, retardation, and energy conservation. We apply the theory to arrays...

  2. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of. CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal ...

  3. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...... constraints on the evolution of divorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics....

  4. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk. AKIRA SUZUKI1, RANABIR DUTT2 and RAJAT K BHADURI1,3. 1Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. 2Department of Physics, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India. 3Department of Physics and ...

  5. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  6. Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels

  7. Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.

    1982-05-04

    Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.

  8. Protein mapping by two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, K.; Racaityte, K.; Unger, K.K.; Miliotis, T.; Edholm, L.E.; Bischoff, Rainer; Marko-Varga, G

    2000-01-01

    Current developments in drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry require highly efficient analytical systems for protein mapping providing high resolution, robustness, sensitivity, reproducibility and a high throughput of samples. The potential of two-dimensional (2D) HPLC as a complementary

  9. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These were reported to lead to a variety of novel self-organized colloidal structures, such as linear chains [5,6], periodic lattices [7], anisotropic clusters [3], and cellular structures [8] that are stabilized, in general, by topological defects. More recently, two-dimensional (2D) inverted nematic emulsions were also stud- ied and ...

  10. Tagging multiphoton ionization events by two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Mattijs; Broos, Jaap; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to supply process-specific labels to multiphoton ionization events. Employing these tags, the authors can construct excitation and photoelectron spectra along predefined excitation routes in the neutral manifold and ionization routes to the

  11. A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping, namely electrolytic tank model, for graduate and post graduate level physics stu- dents is given here. Laplace's equation is solved for the above and the results are compared with the experiment. The agreement· is so good that this is extended to complex ...

  12. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  13. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  14. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials. Qing-Hai Wang. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 pp ... Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the P T symmetry, the ...

  15. Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao

    2011-01-01

    Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the

  16. Fermi liquid of two-dimensional polar molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    We study Fermi-liquid properties of a weakly interacting two-dimensional gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules with dipole moments d oriented perpendicularly to the plane of their translational motion. This geometry allows the minimization of inelastic losses due to chemical reactions

  17. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  18. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...

  19. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle– ..... ment, we need less than 75 MB of RAM for a simulation with 10242 particles on a. 10242 grid.

  20. Plasma turbulence driven by transversely large-scale standing shear Alfvén waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Rao, Sathyanarayan

    2012-01-01

    Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study generation of turbulence consisting of transversely small-scale dispersive Alfvén and electrostatic waves when plasma is driven by a large-scale standing shear Alfvén wave (LS-SAW). The standing wave is set up by reflecting a propagating LS-SAW. The ponderomotive force of the standing wave generates transversely large-scale density modifications consisting of density cavities and enhancements. The drifts of the charged particles driven by the ponderomotive force and those directly caused by the fields of the standing LS-SAW generate non-thermal features in the plasma. Parametric instabilities driven by the inherent plasma nonlinearities associated with the LS-SAW in combination with the non-thermal features generate small-scale electromagnetic and electrostatic waves, yielding a broad frequency spectrum ranging from below the source frequency of the LS-SAW to ion cyclotron and lower hybrid frequencies and beyond. The power spectrum of the turbulence has peaks at distinct perpendicular wave numbers (k ⊥ ) lying in the range d e −1 -6d e −1 , d e being the electron inertial length, suggesting non-local parametric decay from small to large k ⊥ . The turbulence spectrum encompassing both electromagnetic and electrostatic fluctuations is also broadband in parallel wave number (k || ). In a standing-wave supported density cavity, the ratio of the perpendicular electric to magnetic field amplitude is R(k ⊥ ) = |E ⊥ (k ⊥ )/|B ⊥ (k ⊥ )| ≪ V A for k ⊥ d e A is the Alfvén velocity. The characteristic features of the broadband plasma turbulence are compared with those available from satellite observations in space plasmas.

  1. High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field

  2. Mean flow characteristics of two-dimensional wings in ground effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hwan Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study numerically investigates the aerodynamic characteristics of two-dimensional wings in the vicinity of the ground by solving two-dimensional steady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the turbulence closure model of the realizable k-ε model. Numerical simulations are performed at a wide range of the normalized ground clearance by the chord length (0.1≤h/C ≤ 1.25 for the angles of attack (0° ≤ α ≤ 10° in the pre-stall regime at a Reynolds number (Re of 2×106 based on free stream velocity U∞ and the chord length. As the physical model of this study, a cambered airfoil of NACA 4406 has been selected by a performance test for various airfoils. The maximum lift-to-drag ratio is achieved at α = 4° and h/C = 0.1. Under the conditions of α = 4° and h/C = 0.1, the effect of the Reynolds number on the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 4406 is investigated in the range of 2× 10 5 ≤ Re ≤ 2× 109. As Re increases, Cl and Cd augments and decreases, respectively, and the lift-to-drag ratio increases linearly.

  3. Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...

  4. Turbulence spreading, anomalous transport, and pinch effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2005-01-01

    , and front propagation are observed. The model accounts for the interaction between the microscale of the turbulence and the meso-, respectively, system scale on which profile modifications occur. Comparison with direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional interchange turbulence shows qualitatively good...

  5. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  6. Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A

    2015-09-18

    To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.

  7. Duality-invariant class of two-dimensional field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Sfetsos, K

    1999-01-01

    We construct a new class of two-dimensional field theories with target spaces that are finite multiparameter deformations of the usual coset G/H-spaces. They arise naturally, when certain models, related by Poisson-Lie T-duality, develop a local gauge invariance at specific points of their classical moduli space. We show that canonical equivalences in this context can be formulated in loop space in terms of parafermionic-type algebras with a central extension. We find that the corresponding generating functionals are non-polynomial in the derivatives of the fields with respect to the space-like variable. After constructing models with three- and two-dimensional targets, we study renormalization group flows in this context. In the ultraviolet, in some cases, the target space of the theory reduces to a coset space or there is a fixed point where the theory becomes free.

  8. Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Tadashi; Naka, Syuji; Ito, Akihiko; Saito, Kozo

    1997-11-01

    We propose a nonintrusive experimental technique, the transient fuel-concentration measurement technique (TFMT), that is capable of being used to measure two-dimensional profiles of transient fuel concentrations over an open liquid fuel surface. The TFMT is based on single-wavelength holographic interferometry; its response time is less than 1 s and spatial resolution is 0.1 mol. % /0.1 mm. It was applied to measure both methanol vapor and n-propanol vapor concentrations. To assess the accuracy of the technique, our results were compared with steady-state methanol and n-propanol fuel-vapor concentrations measured by other researchers with a microsampling technique combined with gas chromatography. We found the TFMT to be accurate for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional profiles of fuel-vapor concentrations.

  9. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  10. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  11. Recombination in one- and two-dimensional fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Zh; Saakian, David B

    2010-05-01

    We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of molecular evolution, where fitness is a function of a Hamming distance from one (one-dimensional case) or two (two-dimensional case) sequences. For the one-dimensional case, we calculate the population distribution dynamics for a model with zero fitness and an arbitrary symmetric initial distribution and find an error threshold transition point in the single-peak fitness model for a given initial symmetric distribution. We calculate the recombination period in the case of a single-peak fitness function, when the original population is located at one sequence, at some Hamming distance from the peak configuration. Steady-state fitness is calculated with finite genome length corrections. We derive analytical equations for the two-dimensional mutation-recombination model.

  12. Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem

  13. CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  14. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  15. Two-dimensional cephalometry and computerized orthognathic surgical treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnoto, Budi

    2007-07-01

    Cephalometric radiographs provide for standardized skull/facial views that allow for comparison over time to assess growth in an individual, and to compare that individual against standardized population norms. Cephalometric analysis and surgical prediction are done by robust cephalometric imaging software that can rapidly analyze the radiograph, and retrace and recalculate the analysis for a variety of possible surgical outcomes; however, the validity of the prediction depends on the accuracy of the records, the algorithm specific to the software, and the specifics of the patient population. Three-dimensional digital imaging to replace conventional two-dimensional photographic images and CT scans, with corresponding cephalometric analysis to replace two-dimensional cephalometric films, is already on the horizon.

  16. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  17. The stability of a two-dimensional rising bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Q.; Tanveer, S.

    1995-01-01

    The stability of an inviscid two-dimensional bubble subject to two-dimensional disturbances is considered and the bubbles are found to be linearly stable for all Weber numbers, for which a steady solution is known. Certain aspects of the nonlinear initial value problem are also studied. An initial condition that consists of a superposition of a suitable symmetric eigenmode (of the linear stability operator) on a steady state is found to result in pinching of the bubble neck as it tends to oscillate about the steady state. An estimate of the threshold amplitude of such a disturbance needed to cause breakup of a large aspect ratio bubble is obtained. The presence of gravity appears to inhibit this pinching process

  18. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  19. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonit Hochberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  20. Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2017-09-01

    We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.

  1. Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-01-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not

  3. Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.

  4. Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.

    2018-03-01

    The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.

  5. Constraints and hidden symmetry in two-dimensional gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcelos-Neto, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil))

    1994-01-15

    We study the hidden symmetry of Polyakov two-dimensional gravity by means of first-class constraints. These are obtained from the combination of Fourier mode expansions of the usual (second-class) constraints of the theory. We show that, more than the usual SL(2,[ital R]), there is a hidden Virasoro symmetry in the theory. The results of the above analysis are also confirmed from the point of view of a geometrical symplectic treatment.

  6. Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.

    1976-03-01

    The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)

  7. Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.

    1990-05-01

    The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, A.; Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)

  9. New Two-Dimensional Polynomial Failure Criteria for Composite Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shi Yang; Xue, Pu

    2014-01-01

    The in-plane damage behavior and material properties of the composite material are very complex. At present, a large number of two-dimensional failure criteria, such as Chang-Chang criteria, have been proposed to predict the damage process of composite structures under loading. However, there is still no good criterion to realize it with both enough accuracy and computational performance. All these criteria cannot be adjusted by experimental data. Therefore, any special properties of composit...

  10. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  11. Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaposnik, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model

  12. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  13. Stability theory for a two-dimensional channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troshkin, O. V.

    2017-08-01

    A scheme for deriving conditions for the nonlinear stability of an ideal or viscous incompressible steady flow in a two-dimensional channel that is periodic in one direction is described. A lower bound for the main factor ensuring the stability of the Reynolds-Kolmogorov sinusoidal flow with no-slip conditions (short wavelength stability) is improved. A condition for the stability of a vortex strip modeling Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid vortices (long wavelength stability) is presented.

  14. Effective mass of two-dimensional He3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Grau, V.; Krotscheck, E.; Springer, J.

    2003-01-01

    We use structural information from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations for two-dimensional He 3 to calculate the effective mass. Static effective interactions are constructed from the density and spin-structure functions using sum rules. We find that both spin and density fluctuations contribute about equally to the effective mass. Our results show, in agreement with recent experiments, a flattening of the single-particle self-energy with increasing density, which eventually leads to a divergent effective mass

  15. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  16. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic method for mapping DNA replicons.

    OpenAIRE

    Nawotka, K A; Huberman, J A

    1988-01-01

    We describe in detail a method which allows determination of the directions of replication fork movement through segments of DNA for which cloned probes are available. The method uses two-dimensional neutral-alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization with short probe sequences. The nascent strands of replicating molecules form an arc separated from parental and nonreplicating strands. The closer a probe is to its replication origin or to the origin-proximal end of its rest...

  17. On Two-Dimensional Quaternion Wigner-Ville Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawardi Bahri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the two-dimensional quaternion Wigner-Ville distribution (QWVD. The transform is constructed by substituting the Fourier transform kernel with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT kernel in the classical Wigner-Ville distribution definition. Based on the properties of quaternions and the QFT kernel we obtain three types of the QWVD. We discuss some useful properties of various definitions for the QWVD, which are extensions of the classical Wigner-Ville distribution properties.

  18. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2009-01-15

    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  19. Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.

  20. On the Initial Singularity Problem in Two Dimensional Quantum Cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa, J.

    1995-01-01

    The problem of how to put interactions in two-dimensional quantum gravity in the strong coupling regime is studied. It shows that the most general interaction consistent with this symmetry is a Liouville term that contain two parameters $(\\alpha, \\beta)$ satisfying the algebraic relation $2\\beta - \\alpha =2$ in order to assure the closure of the diffeomorphism algebra. The model is classically soluble and it contains as general solution the temporal singularity. The theory is quantized and we...

  1. Negative differential Rashba effect in two-dimensional hole systems

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, B.; Tutuc, E.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Wasserman, D.; Lyon, S. A.; Winkler, R.

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that two-dimensional (2D) heavy hole systems in single heterostructures exhibit a \\emph{decrease} in spin-orbit interaction-induced spin splitting with an increase in perpendicular electric field. Using front and back gates, we measure the spin splitting as a function of applied electric field while keeping the density constant. Our results are in contrast to the more familiar case of 2D electrons where spin splitting increases with electric field.

  2. Spontaneous spiral formation in two-dimensional oscillatory media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Petteri; Amemiya, Takashi; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    1999-08-01

    Computational studies of pattern formation in a modified Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is described. Initially inactive two-dimensional reaction media with an immobilized catalyst is connected to a reservoir of fresh reactants through a set of discrete points distributed randomly over the interphase surface. It is shown that the diffusion of reactants combined with oscillatory reaction kinetics can give rise to spontaneous spiral formation and phase waves.

  3. Canard solutions of two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Xianfeng [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: chenxf@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu Pei [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario London, Ont., N6A 5B7 (Canada); Han Maoan [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Weijiang [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, some new lemmas on asymptotic analysis are established. We apply an asymptotic method to study generalized two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with one parameter, whose critical manifold has an m-22 th-order degenerate extreme point. Certain sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of canard solutions, which are the extension and correction of some existing results. Finally, one numerical example is given.

  4. Plasma turbulence in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)

  5. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  6. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  7. Observations of two-dimensional monolayer zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahoo, Trilochan, E-mail: trilochansahoo@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Nayak, Sanjeev K. [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von Seckendorff Platz 1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Chelliah, Pandian [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Rath, Manasa K.; Parida, Bhaskar [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of planer ZnO nanostructure. • Observation of multilayered and monolayer ZnO. • DFT calculation of (10-10), (11-20) and (0 0 0 1) planes of ZnO. • Stability of non-polar (10-10) and (11-20) planes of ZnO. - Abstract: This letter reports the observations of planar two-dimensional ZnO synthesized using the hydrothermal growth technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and aggregated structures of layered ZnO. The nonpolar (10-10) and (11-20) planes were present in the X-ray diffraction patterns, but the characteristic (0 0 0 1) peak of bulk ZnO was absent. The study found that nonpolar freestanding ZnO structures composed of a single or few layers may be more stable and may have a higher probability of formation than their polar counterparts. The stability of the nonpolar two-dimensional hexagonal ZnO slabs is supported by density functional theory studies.

  8. Two-Dimensional Identification of Fetal Tooth Germs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Mariana; Vaz, Paula; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana; Felino, António

    2017-03-01

      To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of two-dimensional ultrasonography in the identification of tooth germs and in the assessment of potential pathology.   Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.   Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho-Empresa Pública in Portugal.   A total of 157 white pregnant women (median age, 32 years; range, 14 to 47 years) undergoing routine ultrasound exams.   Description of the fetal tooth germs, as visualized by two-dimensional ultrasonography, including results from prior fetal biometry and detailed screening for malformations.   In the first trimester group, ultrasonography identified 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 10 tooth germs in the mandible in all fetuses except for one who presented eight maxillary tooth germs. This case was associated with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 13) with a bilateral cleft palate. In the second and third trimesters group, ultrasonography identified a larger range of tooth germs: 81.2% of fetuses showed 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 85.0% of fetuses had 10 tooth germs in the mandible. Hypodontia was more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, which led us to use qualitative two-dimensional ultrasonography to analyze the possible association between hypodontia and other variables such as fetal pathology, markers, head, nuchal, face, and spine.   We recommend using this method as the first exam to evaluate fetal morphology and also to help establish accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in pregnancy.

  9. H₂ sensing properties of two-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonezzer, Matteo; Iannotta, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    In this work we have grown particular zinc oxide two-dimensional nanostructures which are essentially a series of hexagonal very thin sheets. The hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure gives them their peculiar shape, whose dimensions are few microns wide, with a thickness in the order of 25 nm. Such kind of nanostructure, grown by thermal oxidation of evaporated metallic zinc on a silica substrate, has been used to fabricate conductometric gas sensors, investigated then for hydrogen gas detection. The "depletion layer sensing mechanism" is clarified, explaining how the geometrical factors of one- and two-dimensional nanostructures affect their sensing parameters. The comparison with one-dimensional ZnO nanowires based structures shows that two-dimensional nanostructures are ideal for gas sensing, due to their tiny thickness, which is comparable to the depletion-layer thickness, and their large cross-section, which increases the base current, thus lowering the limit of detection. The response to H₂ has been found good even to sub-ppm concentrations, with response and recovery times shorter than 18s in the whole range of H₂ concentrations investigated (500 ppb-10 ppm). The limit of detection has been found around 200 ppb for H₂ gas even at relatively low working temperature (175 °C). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.

  11. Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.

  12. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  13. A two-dimensional regularization algorithm for density profile evaluation from broadband reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, F.; Varela, P.; Silva, A.; Manso, M.; Santos, J.; Nunes, I.; Serra, F.; Kurzan, B.; Suttrop, W.

    1997-01-01

    Broadband reflectometry is a current technique that uses the round-trip group delays of reflected frequency-swept waves to measure density profiles of fusion plasmas. The main factor that may limit the accuracy of the reconstructed profiles is the interference of the probing waves with the plasma density fluctuations: plasma turbulence leads to random phase variations and magneto hydrodynamic activity produces mainly strong amplitude and phase modulations. Both effects cause the decrease, and eventually loss, of signal at some frequencies. Several data processing techniques can be applied to filter and/or interpolate noisy group delay data obtained from turbulent plasmas with a single frequency sweep. Here, we propose a more powerful algorithm performing two-dimensional regularization (in space and time) of data provided by multiple consecutive frequency sweeps, which leads to density profiles with improved accuracy. The new method is described and its application to simulated data corrupted by noise and missing data is considered. It is shown that the algorithm improves the identification of slowly varying plasma density perturbations by attenuating the effect of fast fluctuations and noise contained in experimental data. First results obtained with this method in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. A two-dimensional regularization algorithm for density profile evaluation from broadband reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, F.; Varela, P.; Silva, A.; Manso, M.; Santos, J.; Nunes, I.; Serra, F.; Kurzan, B.; Suttrop, W.

    1997-01-01

    Broadband reflectometry is a current technique that uses the round-trip group delays of reflected frequency-swept waves to measure density profiles of fusion plasmas. The main factor that may limit the accuracy of the reconstructed profiles is the interference of the probing waves with the plasma density fluctuations: plasma turbulence leads to random phase variations and magneto hydrodynamic activity produces mainly strong amplitude and phase modulations. Both effects cause the decrease, and eventually loss, of signal at some frequencies. Several data processing techniques can be applied to filter and/or interpolate noisy group delay data obtained from turbulent plasmas with a single frequency sweep. Here, we propose a more powerful algorithm performing two-dimensional regularization (in space and time) of data provided by multiple consecutive frequency sweeps, which leads to density profiles with improved accuracy. The new method is described and its application to simulated data corrupted by noise and missing data is considered. It is shown that the algorithm improves the identification of slowly varying plasma density perturbations by attenuating the effect of fast fluctuations and noise contained in experimental data. First results obtained with this method in ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are presented.

  15. Coherent Structures in the Similarity Region of a Two-Dimensional Turbulent Jet: A Vortex Street,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    Kolmogoroff length (m) tmin Minimum interface length scale (m) I Structural pattern wavelength (m) L its/D S M(Xo,X) Integrated vortex count defined in Eq. 5.24...a vortex centered coordinate system in Figure 5-2 T Time delay (s) Th Hold time applied to G(r,t) (s) Tpeak Time delay yielding the maximum space -time...eddies to the smaller ones. This, in turn, requires increasingly smaller scales for the viscous dissipation of energy as described by the Kolmogoroff

  16. Experimental confirmation of self-regulating turbulence paradigm in the two-dimensional spectral condensation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bardoczi, L.; Bencze, A.; Berta, Miklós; Schmitz, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 6 (2014), č. článku 063103. ISSN 1539-3755 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * tokamak Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.288, year: 2014

  17. Two-dimensional hybrid simulations of kinetic plasma turbulence: Current and vorticity vs proton temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franci, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto F.no (Firenze) (Italy); Hellinger, Petr, E-mail: petr.hellinger@asu.cas.cz [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, Bocni II/1401, CZ-14100 Prague (Czech Republic); Matteini, Lorenzo [Physics Department, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Verdini, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Solar-Terrestrial Center of Excellence, Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels (Belgium); Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2016-03-25

    Proton temperature anisotropies between the directions parallel and perpendicular to the mean magnetic field are usually observed in the solar wind plasma. Here, we employ a high-resolution hybrid particle-in-cell simulation in order to investigate the relation between spatial properties of the proton temperature and the peaks in the current density and in the flow vorticity. Our results indicate that, although regions where the proton temperature is enhanced and temperature anisotropies are larger correspond approximately to regions where many thin current sheets form, no firm quantitative evidence supports the idea of a direct causality between the two phenomena. On the other hand, quite a clear correlation between the behavior of the proton temperature and the out-of-plane vorticity is obtained.

  18. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.

    1996-01-01

    Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation

  19. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  20. Network patterns in exponentially growing two-dimensional biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Yap, Xinhui; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-10-01

    Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments. The underlying mechanism relies on path formation through physical deformation of the enclosing environment.

  1. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  2. Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.

    1988-01-01

    A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.

  3. Blind deconvolution of two-dimensional complex data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Inspired by the work of Lane and Bates on automatic multidimensional deconvolution, the authors have developed a systematic approach and an operational code for performing the deconvolution of multiply-convolved two-dimensional complex data sets in the absence of noise. They explain, in some detail, the major algorithmic steps, where noise or numerical errors can cause problems, their approach in dealing with numerical rounding errors, and where special noise-mitigating techniques can be used toward making blind deconvolution practical. Several examples of deconvolved imagery are presented, and future research directions are noted.

  4. Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)

  5. Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.

    2002-01-01

    We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed

  6. Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.

  7. Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin

    2012-01-01

    We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corresponding gate operations are also proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Quantum algebras for two-dimensional Cayley-Klein Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, F.J.; Ballesteros, A.; Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous quantization of the quasi-simple groups of motions of the nine two-dimensional Cayley-Klein geometries is obtained by defining a deformed Hopf structure on their enveloping algebras. The spaces of points and lines of the classical CK geometries are homogeneous spaces of their motion groups. Both the well known classical non-euclidean geometries and the (1+1) kinematical geometries are included within this scheme. Their corresponding quantum algebras preserve a scheme of contractions, symmetries and dualities based on the classical one. (Author)

  9. Graphene surface plasmon bandgap based on two dimensional Si gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueke Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A graphene/Si system, which is composed of a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon gratings and a graphene sheet, is designed to realize the complete band gap in infrared region for graphene surface plasmons (GSPs theoretically. The complete band gap originates from the strong scatterings, which is caused by the periodical distribution of effective refractive index. The band structure has been calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and full wave numerical simulations are conducted by finite element method. Thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene, the band structure can be easily tuned, which provides a way to manipulate in-plane GSPs’ propagation.

  10. Two-Dimensional Electron System in Electromagnetic Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungu, Radu Paul; Manolescu, Andrei

    We consider a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a monochromatic linear polarized electromagnetic field, within the Floquet formalism. The Floquet states have a simple relation with the energy eigenstates in the absence of the field. Therefore the single-particle and the two-particle Green functions of the many-body system with Coulomb interactions, in the radiation field, can be formally calculated by the standard diagrammatic techniques, as for the conservative system. We derive the elementary excitations of quasi-particle type, the plasma dispersion relation, and the ground state quasi-energy, and we relate them to the corresponding results for the conservative system.

  11. Saddle-points of a two dimensional random lattice theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertermann, D.

    1985-07-01

    A two dimensional random lattice theory with a free massless scalar field is considered. We analyse the field theoretic generating functional for any given choice of positions of the lattice sites. Asking for saddle-points of this generating functional with respect to the positions we find the hexagonal lattice and a triangulated version of the hypercubic lattice as candidates. The investigation of the neighbourhood of a single lattice site yields triangulated rectangles and regular polygons extremizing the above generating functional on the local level. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supersymmetry is one of the possible scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. The building blocks of this scenario are supersymmetric gauge theories. In our work we study the N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills (SYM theory with gauge group SU(2 dimensionally reduced to two-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory. In our lattice formulation we break supersymmetry and chiral symmetry explicitly while preserving R symmetry. By fine tuning the bar-mass of the fermions in the Lagrangian we construct a supersymmetric continuum theory. To this aim we carefully investigate mass spectra and Ward identities, which both show a clear signal of supersymmetry restoration in the continuum limit.

  13. Two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein spaces and gravitational instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new class of solutions of the euclidean Einstein equations with Λ-term ( A-class ) is found by solving the complex two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein equations with the following realization of complex metrics. The A-Class includes two gravitational instantons already known: the CP 2 and the Eguchi-Hanson metric, and allows a U(1)-generalized spin structure. It is shown that all Einstein euclidean two-axial Bianchi type IX metrics are exhausted by the Taub-NUT-de Sitter family and the A-class. (orig.)

  14. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  15. Thermal neutron diffraction on two-dimensional lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, T.

    1974-06-01

    This thesis deals with the problem of neutron diffraction from a two-dimensional lattice. The neutron spin is not taken into account. Firstly the scalar wave field is treated by means of differential equations (Helmholtz) and secondly by the equivalent integral equation formulation (Kirchoff-Weber). Finally, using the methods of the Green function, the reflected and transmitted wave fields are represented as integral transformations of a certain source function. In respect to the calculation of the amplitudes of the diffraction waves the third method seems to be the best one for the purpose of the physical interpretation and the applicability of numerical methods. (C.R.)

  16. Stable corrugated state of the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Moreno, R.M.; Moreno, M.; Ortiz, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    A corrugated and stable ground state is found for the two-dimensional electron gas in both the normal paramagnetic and the fully polarized phases. The self-consistent Hartree-Fock method is used with a modulated set of trial wave functions within the deformable jellium model. The results for high metallic densities reproduce the usual noncorrugated ferromagnetic electron-gas behavior. A transition to a paramagnetic corrugated state for values of r s ∼6.5 is predicted. At lower densities r s ∼30, a second transition to a corrugated ferromagnetic phase is suggested

  17. Quantum wells physics and electronics of two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Shik, A

    1998-01-01

    This invaluable book is devoted to the physics, technology and device applications of semiconductor structures with ultrathin layers where the electronic properties are governed by the quantum-mechanical laws. Such structures called quantum wells or structures with the two-dimensional electron gas, have become one of the most actively investigated objects in modern solid state physics. Electronic properties of quantum wells differ dramatically from those of bulk semiconductors, which allows one to observe new types of physical phenomena, such as the quantum Hall effect and many other so-far-un

  18. Pattern formation in two-dimensional square-shoulder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornleitner, Julia; Kahl, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    Using a highly efficient and reliable optimization tool that is based on ideas of genetic algorithms, we have systematically studied the pattern formation of the two-dimensional square-shoulder system. An overwhelming wealth of complex ordered equilibrium structures emerge from this investigation as we vary the shoulder width. With increasing pressure three structural archetypes could be identified: cluster lattices, where clusters of particles occupy the sites of distorted hexagonal lattices, lane formation, and compact particle arrangements with high coordination numbers. The internal complexity of these structures increases with increasing shoulder width.

  19. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    OpenAIRE

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...

  20. The Penalty Cost Functional for the Two-Dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Onomza WAZIRI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs the penalty cost functional for optimizing the two-dimensional control operator of the energized wave equation. In some multiplier methods such as the Lagrange multipliers and Pontrygean maximum principle, the cost of merging the constraint equation to the integral quadratic objective functional to obtain an unconstraint equation is normally guessed or obtained from the first partial derivatives of the unconstrained equation. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method (ECGM necessitates that the penalty cost be sequentially obtained algebraically. The ECGM problem contains a functional which is completely given in terms of state and time spatial dependent variables.

  1. Quasi-integrability and two-dimensional QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.; Mohayaee, R.

    1996-10-01

    The notion of integrability in two-dimensional QCD is discussed. We show that in spite of an infinite number of conserved charges, particle production is not entirely suppressed. This phenomenon, which we call quasi-integrability, is explained in terms of quantum corrections to the combined algebra of higher-conserved and spectrum-generating currents. We predict the qualitative form of particle production probabilities and verify that they are in agreement with numerical data. We also discuss four-dimensional self-dual Yang-Mills theory in the light of our results. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  2. Two-dimensional fermionic correlations in topologically nontrivial backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manias, M.V.; Naon, C.M.; Trobo, M.L. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Casilla de Correo No. 67, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina))

    1993-04-15

    By using a path-integral approach to the study of two-dimensional massless fermionic models in nontrivial sectors, we compute certain special correlation functions which are nonvanishing only when nontrivial topology is taken into account. In particular, we derive the first explicit expression for the so-called nonminimal Green's function. We introduce one specific topological charge distribution for which this correlation function takes a simple form. We also comment on the application of our results to the analysis of massive fermions in topological backgrounds.

  3. On bosonization ambiguities of two dimensional quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, S.A.; Silva Neto, M.B.

    1996-02-01

    We study bosonization ambiguities in two dimensional quantum electrodynamics in the presence and in the absence of topologically charged gauge fields. The computation of fermionic correlation functions gives us a mechanism to fix the ambiguities in nontrivial topologies, provided that we do not allow changes of sector as we evaluate functional integrals. This removes an infinite arbitrariness from the theory. In the case of trivial topologies, we find upper and lower bounds for the Jackiw-Rajaraman parameter, corresponding to the limiting cases of regularizations which preserve gauge or chiral symmetry. (author). 19 refs.

  4. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančal T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.

  5. Two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases beyond weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Guilherme; LeClair, André; Squires, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Using a formalism based on the two-body S-matrix we study two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Approximate analytic expressions, valid at weak coupling and beyond, are developed and applied to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We successfully recover the correct logarithmic functional form of the critical chemical potential and density for the Bose gas. For fermions, the BKT critical temperature is calculated in BCS and BEC regimes through consideration of Tan’s contact.

  6. Mass/Count Variation: A Mereological, Two-Dimensional Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R Sutton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We argue that two types of context are central to grounding the semantics for the mass/count distinction. We combine and develop the accounts of Rothstein (2010 and Landman (2011, which emphasize (non-overlap at a context. We also adopt some parts of Chierchia’s (2010 account which uses precisifying contexts. We unite these strands in a two-dimensional semantics that covers a wide range of the puzzling variation data in mass/count lexicalization. Most importantly, it predicts where we should expect to find such variation for some classes of nouns but not for others, and also explains why.

  7. Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-02-15

    We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.

  8. Minimal quantization of two-dimensional models with chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gauge models with chiral anomalies - ''left-handed'' QED and the chiral Schwinger model, are quantized consistently in the frames of the minimal quantization method. The choice of the cone time as a physical time for system of quantization is motivated. The well-known mass spectrum is found but with a fixed value of the regularization parameter a=2. Such a unique solution is obtained due to the strong requirement of consistency of the minimal quantization that reflects in the physically motivated choice of the time axis

  9. Magnetism and pairing of two-dimensional trapped fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Simone; Varney, Christopher N; Rigol, Marcos; Scalettar, Richard T

    2011-01-21

    The emergence of local phases in a trapped two-component Fermi gas in an optical lattice is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We treat temperatures that are comparable to or lower than those presently achievable in experiments and large enough systems that both magnetic and paired phases can be detected by inspection of the behavior of suitable short-range correlations. We use the latter to suggest the interaction strength and temperature range at which experimental observation of incipient magnetism and d-wave pairing are more likely and evaluate the relation between entropy and temperature in two-dimensional confined fermionic systems.

  10. Cavalier perspective plots of two-dimensional matrices. Program Stereo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program Stereo allows representation of a two-dimensional matrix containing numerical data, in the form of a cavalier perspective, isometric or not, with an angle variable between 0 deg and 180 deg. The representation is in histogram form for each matrix row and those curves which fall behind higher curves and therefore would not be seen are suppressed. It has been written in Fortran V for a Calcomp-936 digital plotter operating off-line with a Univac 1106 computer. Drawing method, subroutine structure and running instructions are described in this paper. (author)

  11. A Chain-Detection Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Bonham, Paul; Iqbal, Azlan

    2016-01-01

    We describe a general method of detecting valid chains or links of pieces on a two-dimensional grid. Specifically, using the example of the chess variant known as Switch-Side Chain-Chess (SSCC). Presently, no foolproof method of detecting such chains in any given chess position is known and existing graph theory, to our knowledge, is unable to fully address this problem either. We therefore propose a solution implemented and tested using the C++ programming language. We have been unable to fi...

  12. Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)

  13. Stable two-dimensional dispersion-managed soliton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, Fatkhulla Kh.; Baizakov, Bakhtiyor B.; Salerno, Mario

    2003-01-01

    The existence of a dispersion-managed soliton in two-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation with periodically varying dispersion has been explored. The averaged equations for the soliton width and chirp are obtained which successfully describe the long time evolution of the soliton. The slow dynamics of the soliton around the fixed points for the width and chirp are investigated and the corresponding frequencies are calculated. Analytical predictions are confirmed by direct partial differential equation (PDE) and ordinary differential equation (ODE) simulations. Application to a Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattice is discussed. The existence of a dispersion-managed matter-wave soliton in such system is shown

  14. Development of a Two-Dimensional Array of Individually Addressable Micro-Mirrors for NGST Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S. B.; Mott, D. B.; Allen, C. A.; Ewin, A. J.; Jhabvala, M. D.; Kotecki, C. A.; Kuhn, J. L.; MacKenty, J. W.

    2000-05-01

    NASA's missions of the 21st century will use small, low cost, efficient instruments for Earth and Space Science studies. Development of technologies that accommodate these requirements is essential for space applications. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology development for sensors and actuators plays a major role in this effort. We are developing a two dimensional array of individually addressable, cryogenic micro-mirrors, a MEMS based component, specifically for application in the Multi Object Spectrometer (MOS) in NGST. Two-dimensional, individually addressable and tiltable aluminum micro-mirror-arrays (MMA) have been developed and prototype arrays of different sizes have been fabricated in the Detector Development Laboratory of NASA, GSFC. Each micro-mirror of the array has 100micronx100micron pixel size and is capable of tilting +/- 10 degrees by electrostatic actuation. We have completed extensive analytical studies and performed laboratory tests to compare model predictions with actual performance of a 3x3 array. The mirrors have been tested to operate at cryogenic temperature. Recently we have completed the integration of a CMOS based address and driver circuit for the MMA with its mechanical structure. Our goal is to extend the development to a 1024x1024 array, primarily for NGST and also for other imaging and spectroscopy applications. For NGST MOS, MMAs will be used as a reflective slit-mask at a focal plane of the spectrometer providing a large field of view together with diffraction limited angular resolution for a grating spectrometer. Selected areas of the mirror-array will be tilted to select portions of the scene so that observation of up to 1000 simultaneous spectra of sparse targets will be possible. This provides a factor of 100 improvement in observing speed over conventional spectrometers. Details of the technology development along with its application to NGST will be discussed. This work is supported by the GSFC Director

  15. Analysis of chaos in plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1996-01-01

    A two-dimensional slab model for resistive drift waves in plasmas consisting of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation phi is investigated. The drift waves are linearly unstable, and a quasi-stationary turbu......A two-dimensional slab model for resistive drift waves in plasmas consisting of two coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for the density perturbation n and the electrostatic potential perturbation phi is investigated. The drift waves are linearly unstable, and a quasi...

  16. Anode wire in cylindrical cathode tube : destabilizing electrostatic force

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2017-01-01

    A two-dimensional -- cross-sectional -- discussion suffices. The tube is offset, and the electrostatic potential is found analytically with perturbative methods. Then, the force is established with the Maxwell stress tensor. Alternatively, trying to find the force with energy methods, fails. Finally, finite element tests are performed in order to report on the degree of non-linearity for large offsets.

  17. The emergence of geometry: a two-dimensional toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Jorge; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D) X GL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zwei-bein is generated from a topological theory without any pre-existing metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several non-standard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared re...

  18. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  19. Two-dimensional theory and simulation of free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, T.J.T.; Cary, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two-dimensional homogeneous theory of free-electron lasers with a wiggler magnetic field of constant wavelength is formulated. It has been found from the theory that waves propagating obliquely with respect to the electron beam are always unstable with appreciable growth rates; therefore, mode competition among the on-axis and off-axis modes is an important consideration in the design of the free-electron laser. Furthermore, electromagnetic waves with group velocities opposite to the direction of electron beam propagation are absolutely unstable if k/sub o/v/sub o/ > ω/sub pe/(1/γ/sup 3/2/ + 1/γ/sup 1/2/). Due to strong nonlinear saturation levels of the low-frequency absolute instability, the dynamics of the electron beam and the generation of the high-frequency electromagnetic radiation can be severely affected. Two-dimensional particle simulations show that the efficiency of generation of the on-axis high-frequency electromagnetic wave decreases significantly due to instability of the off-axis modes. In addition, complete disruption of the electron beam and laser oscillation due to the onset of the absolute instability have been observed in simulations

  20. Growth and characterization of two-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Sancho, Oscar Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Two dimensional nanostructures of palladium, nickel, silver and gadolinium were grown by means of physical evaporation in atmospheres of high vacuum and ultra high vacuum. The qualitative characterization, in situ, of the nanostructures was carried out with techniques of surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The model for the quantification of contaminants in the nanostructures, was proposed by Seah and Shirley, and was made using the spectra XPS measured in situ in the atmospheres of vacuum. For the two-dimensional nanostructures of gadolinium of thicknesses 8 Å, 16 Å, 24 Å, 32 Å, 36 Å, 44 Å, 50 Å, 61 Å, 77 Å, 81 Å, 92 Å and 101 Å, were obtained optical spectra of transmission measured in situ. An band of absorption centered at approximately 2,40 eV is obtained by an increase in the dynamic conductivity from the optical constants, i.e. refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the nanostructure of gadolinium. In addition, the optical constants for the gadolinium nanostructures have presented a maximum of 80 Å of thickness and then it was continued a decreasing tendency toward the values that were reported in the literature for bulk of gadolinium. (author) [es

  1. Two-dimensional photonic crystal polarizer modulated by silicon resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chunhua; Huang, Xuguang

    2007-11-01

    Photonic crystals(PCs)have many potential applications because of their ability to control light-wave propagation. In this paper, we theoretically investigate the tunability of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides in two-dimensional photonic crystals with square lattices composed of heat-resistant silicon resin. Waveguides can be obtained by the infiltration of silicon resin into air regions in two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of air holes with square lattices of dielectric cylinders. The refractive index of silicon resin can be changed by manipulating the temperature of the sample. Numerical simulation by solving Maxwell's equations using the plane wave expansion(PWE) method shows that the band gaps can be continuously tuned by silicon resin, accordingly the light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides can be controlled. The band gap is analyzed in the temperature range of 20°C-120°C. In our work, the gap map for a square lattice of dielectric cylinders is also simulated. The method can separate TM- and TE-polarized modes in the waveguide. Such a mechanism of band gap adjustment should open up a new application for designing field-sensitive polarizer in photonic integrated circuits.

  2. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  3. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  4. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14 C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  5. Numerical method for two-dimensional unsteady reacting flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.

    1976-01-01

    A method that numerically solves the full two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations with species transport, mixing, and chemical reaction between species is presented. The generality of the formulation permits the solution of flows in which deflagrations, detonations, or transitions from deflagration to detonation are found. The solution procedure is embodied in the RICE computer program. RICE is an Eulerian finite difference computer code that uses the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique to solve the governing equations. One first presents the differential equations of motion and the solution procedure of the Rice program. Next, a method is described for artificially thickening the combustion zone to dimensions resolvable by the computational mesh. This is done in such a way that the physical flame speed and jump conditions across the flame front are preserved. Finally, the results of two example calculations are presented. In the first, the artificial thickening technique is used to solve a one-dimensional laminar flame problem. In the second, the results of a full two-dimensional calculation of unsteady combustion in two connected chambers are detailed

  6. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Geun Ho; Amani, Matin; Rasool, Haider; Lien, Der-Hsien; Mastandrea, James P; Ager Iii, Joel W; Dubey, Madan; Chrzan, Daryl C; Minor, Andrew M; Javey, Ali

    2017-09-20

    The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2 , respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.Strain engineering is an essential tool for modifying local electronic properties in silicon-based electronics. Here, Ahn et al. demonstrate control of biaxial strain in two-dimensional materials based on the growth substrate, enabling more complex low-dimensional electronics.

  7. Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, R; Hatayama, N; Takahashi, Y; Nakano, H

    2009-01-01

    Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal is investigated according to the recent theoretical development of magneto-volume effect for the three-dimensional weak ferromagnets. We particularly focus on the T 2 -linear thermal expansion of magnetic origin at low temperatures, so far disregarded by conventional theories. As the effect of thermal spin fluctuations we have found that the T-linear thermal expansion coefficient shows strong enhancement by assuming the double Lorentzian form of the non-interacting dynamical susceptibility justified in the small wave-number and low frequency region. It grows faster in proportional to y -1/2 as we approach the magnetic instability point than two-dimensional nearly antiferromagnetic metals with ln(1/y s ) dependence, where y and y s are the inverses of the reduced uniform and staggered magnetic susceptibilities, respectively. Our result is consistent with the Grueneisen's relation between the thermal expansion coefficient and the specific heat at low temperatures. In 2-dimensional electron gas we find that the thermal expansion coefficient is divergent with a finite y when the higher order term of non-interacting dynamical susceptibility is taken into account.

  8. Flexoelectricity in two-dimensional crystalline and biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpoor, Fatemeh; Sharma, Pradeep

    2015-10-01

    The ability of a material to convert electrical stimuli into mechanical deformation, i.e. piezoelectricity, is a remarkable property of a rather small subset of insulating materials. The phenomenon of flexoelectricity, on the other hand, is universal. All dielectrics exhibit the flexoelectric effect whereby non-uniform strain (or strain gradients) can polarize the material and conversely non-uniform electric fields may cause mechanical deformation. The flexoelectric effect is strongly enhanced at the nanoscale and accordingly, all two-dimensional membranes of atomistic scale thickness exhibit a strong two-way coupling between the curvature and electric field. In this review, we highlight the recent advances made in our understanding of flexoelectricity in two-dimensional (2D) membranes--whether the crystalline ones such as dielectric graphene nanoribbons or the soft lipid bilayer membranes that are ubiquitous in biology. Aside from the fundamental mechanisms, phenomenology, and recent findings, we focus on rapidly emerging directions in this field and discuss applications such as energy harvesting, understanding of the mammalian hearing mechanism and ion transport among others.

  9. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  10. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Davoodi, Pooya; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2012-01-01

    of the problem, the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits which can be preprocessed in O(N) time to support O(clog 2 c) query time. For c=O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using a data......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static m by n matrix (two dimensional array) A of size N=m⋅n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... the space and query time of the problem. We show that every algorithm enabled to access A during the query and using a data structure of size O(N/c) bits requires Ω(c) query time, for any c where 1≤c≤N. This lower bound holds for arrays of any dimension. In particular, for the one dimensional version...

  11. On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rao, S. Srinivasa

    2010-01-01

    , the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits additional space which can be preprocessed in O(N) time and achieves O(clog2 c) query time. For c = O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static two dimensional m by n array A of size N = m · n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... optimal O(N) bits additional space. For the case where queries can not probe A, we give a data structure of size O(N· min {m,logn}) bits with O(1) query time, assuming m ≤ n. This leaves a gap to the lower bound of Ω(Nlogm) bits for this version of the problem....

  12. Development of two dimensional electrophoresis method using single chain DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junichi; Hidaka, So

    1998-01-01

    By combining a separation method due to molecular weight and a method to distinguish difference of mono-bases, it was aimed to develop a two dimensional single chain DNA labeled with Radioisotope (RI). From electrophoretic pattern difference of parent and variant strands, it was investigated to isolate the root module implantation control gene. At first, a Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method using concentration gradient gel was investigated. As a result, it was formed that intervals between double chain and single chain DNAs expanded, but intervals of both single chain DNAs did not expand. On next, combination of non-modified acrylic amide electrophoresis method and Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method was examined. As a result, hybrid DNA developed by two dimensional electrophoresis arranged on two lines. But, among them a band of DNA modified by high concentration of urea could not be found. Therefore, in this fiscal year's experiments, no preferable result could be obtained. By the used method, it was thought to be impossible to detect the differences. (G.K.)

  13. Coherent Structures in Numerically Simulated Plasma Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed-Hansen, O.; Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1989-01-01

    Low level electrostatic ion acoustic turbulence generated by the ion-ion beam instability was investigated numerically. The fluctuations in potential were investigated by a conditional statistical analysis revealing propagating coherent structures having the form of negative potential wells which...

  14. Interchange turbulence simulations for JET relevant parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Rasmussen, J.J.; Fundamenski, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The two dimensional, electrostatic edge-SOL turbulence code ESEL simulates the perpendicular dynamics of transport events in the SOL at the outboard midplane. Profiles of density n, electron temperature T e , and vorticity are evolved together with the fluctuations, without making a scale separation-ansatz, i.e., allowing relative fluctuation levels of order unity and profile variations by many orders of magnitude. Parallel losses in the SOL are described by the classical sub-sonic advection and Spitzer-Haearm diffusion, and are dependent on local values of n and T e , while perpendicular collisional dissipation is approximated by Pfirsch-Schlueter neoclassical diffusivities. ESEL simulations were performed with input parameters corresponding to high density JET ohmic discharges: n 0 = 10 19 m -3 , T e,0 = 45 eV, T i,0 = 80 eV, R 0 = 3 m, B 0 = 1.5 T, q 95 = 2.7. The resulting density, n = and temperature profiles, T = , where denotes a poloidal and temporal average, is shown, indicating a stronger decay of the profiles close to the separatrix than further outwards. Steeper temperature profiles reflect the slower loss of particles to the divertor as compared to loss of electron energy. Figure (b) depicts the radial profiles of the turbulent perpendicular energy fluxes in normalized units, split up into conductive 5/2n(bar) e v r >, convective 5/2 T e r > and fluctuating parts 5/2 r >, with T e and n being fluctuating parts of the two fields, respectively. Figure (c) displays the two effective diffusivities; the particle diffusivity part; D eff n(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r n and the heat diffusivity; 5/2D eff T(perpen.) = - r >/∂ r T. The corresponding effective velocities, v eff n(perpen.) = r >/n and v eff n(perpen.) = r >/T, are found to be nearly constant all over the SOL region with the values of 200 m/s and 300 m/s for the particle and heat velocities, respectively. The ESEL simulations for JET further predict parallel Mach numbers M ∼ 0.2 in agreement with

  15. Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless transition and two-dimensional melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhov, V. N.; Tareyeva, E. E.; Fomin, Yu D.; Tsiok, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    The main aspects of the theory of phase transitions in two-dimensional degenerate systems (Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless, or BKT, transitions) are reviewed in detail, including the transition mechanism, the renormalization group as a tool for describing the transition, and how the transition scenario can possibly depend on the core energy of topological defects (in particular, in thin superconducting films). Various melting scenarios in two-dimensional systems are analyzed, and the current status of actual experiments and computer simulations in the field is examined. Whereas in three dimensions melting always occurs as a single first-order transition, in two dimensions, as shown by Halperin, Nelson, and Young, melting via two continuous BKT transitions with an intermediate hexatic phase characterized by quasi-long-range orientational order is possible. But there is also a possibility for a first-order phase transition to occur. Recently, one further melting scenario, different from that occurring in the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless–Halperin–Nelson–Young theory, has been proposed, according to which a solid can melt in two stages: a continuous BKT-type solid–hexatic transition and then a first-order hexatic-phase–isotropic-liquid phase transition. Particular attention is given to the melting scenario as a function of the potential shape and to the random pinning effect on two-dimensional melting. In particular, it is shown that random pinning can alter the melting scenario fundamentally in the case of a first-order transition. Also considered is the melting of systems with potentials having a negative curvature in the repulsion region–potentials that are successfully used in describing the anomalous properties of water in two dimensions. This review is an extended version of the report “Old and new in the physics of phase transitions” presented at the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of

  16. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  17. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  18. Two-dimensional numerical investigation of a normal shock wave boundary layer interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlin, Miranda P.

    Shock wave boundary layer interactions (SWBLIs) occur when a shock wave meets a boundary layer. This study aims to isolate the interaction through numerical investigation of a normal SWBLI and build knowledge of the computational fluid dynamics software, Wind-US 3.0. The test geometry, based on the experimental work of Bruce et al [16], contains a two-dimensional duct split into upper and lower channels by a shock holding plate. The boundary conditions were based on experimental conditions, and include: an inlet Mach number of 1.6; inlet total pressure and temperature of 62.5 psi and 522 degrees R, respectively; and viscous walls on all physical surfaces. Downstream boundary conditions are varied in attempts to produce a correct shock structure throughout the domain. This study uses two-dimensional structured grids containing approximately 832,000 elements. Wind-US solves the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations using Roe's second-order upwind-biased flux-difference splitting algorithm with a total variation diminishing (TVD) limiting parameter. The turbulence model selected for this study was the Menter SST k-o model. Attempts to produce the correct shock structure have included varying the downstream boundary conditions, changing the number of cycles and associated Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy, TVD, and grid sequencing parameters. This study used several tutorial files available through the NPARC Alliance to establish the analysis settings needed to produce a shock wave in the lower channel. This enables progress to be made on the next step of this project which is to simulate and analyze the interaction of a normal SWBLI in two dimensions. Results illustrate the correct combination of boundary conditions necessary to generate a shock in the expected location. In addition, an appropriate zonal configuration has been determined to eliminate the horizontal zone interfaces which can cause non-physical behavior in those locations.

  19. Intruder Motion in Two-Dimensional Shaken Granular Beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Huan-Ping; Lv Yong-Jun; Zheng Ning; Shi Qing-Fan; Li Liang-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of an intruder immersed in a two-dimensional shaken granular bed is experimentally investigated. With two types of background particles, f−Γ phase diagrams depicting the intruder's motion are measured and compared. It is found that even with the same size and density ratio of the intruder to the background particles, the intruder exhibits a distinct behavior at given vibrational conditions: rising behavior in one granular bed; sinking behavior in another granular bed. We slightly tune the size and density ratio to confirm the reliability of the experimental results. In addition, we examine the influences of interstitial air, convection and the initial position on the intruder's motion, speculating that the opposite motion could be traced to the material properties of the background particles

  20. Two-dimensional neutron scintillation detector with optimal gamma discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyo, M.; Reinartz, R.; Schelten, J.; Mueller, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    The gamma sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation neutron detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2387 PM) has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by ±25% a discrimination unit was developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. By this method narrow discriminator windows can be used to reduce the gamma background drastically without effecting the neutron sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method and its performance tested by neutron measurements will be described. Experimental results concerning spatial resolution and γ-sensitivity are presented

  1. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... and pharmaceutical applications, e.g., drug development. The technique results in an image, where the proteins appear as dark spots on a bright background. However, the analysis of these images is very time consuming and requires a large amount of manual work so there is a great need for fast, objective, and robust...... methods based on image analysis techniques in order to significantly accelerate this key technology. The methods described and developed fall into three categories: image segmentation, point pattern matching, and a unified approach simultaneously segmentation the image and matching the spots. The main...

  2. On wakefields with two-dimensional planar geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.

    1996-10-01

    In order to reach higher acceleration gradients in linear accelerators, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerating RF frequency, which in turn requires smaller accelerating structures. As the structure size becomes smaller, rectangular structures become increasingly interesting because they are easier to construct than cylindrically symmetric ones. One drawback of small structures, however, is that the wakefields generated by the beam in such structures tend to be strong. Recently, it has been suggested that one way of ameliorating this problem is to use rectangular structures that are very flat and to use flat beams. In the limiting case of a very flat planar geometry, the problem resembles a purely two-dimensional (2-D) problem, the wakefields of which have been studied

  3. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Savran, Mona Meral; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...

  4. Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of right ventricular infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy, B.; Nanda, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time, two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction who had clinical features suggestive of right ventricular involvement. All patients showed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In the four-chamber view, seven patients showed akinesis of the entire right ventricular diaphragmatic wall and three showed akinesis of segments of the diaphragmatic wall. Segmental dyskinetic areas involving the right ventricular free wall were identified in four patients. One patient showed a large right ventricular apical aneurysm. Other echocardiographic features included enlargement of the right ventricle in eight cases, paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven cases, tricuspid incompetence in eight cases, dilation of the stomach in four cases and localized pericardial effusion in two cases. Right ventricular infarction was confirmed by radionuclide methods in seven patients, at surgery in one patient and at autopsy in two patients

  5. Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoruk, O

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)

  6. Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method

  7. Suspension and simple optical characterization of two-dimensional membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast, David B.; Knobel, Robert G.

    2018-03-01

    We report on a method for suspending two-dimensional crystal materials in an electronic circuit using an only photoresists and solvents. Graphene and NbSe2 are suspended tens of nanometers above metal electrodes with clamping diameters of several microns. The optical cavity formed from the membrane/air/metal structures enables a quick method to measure the number of layers and the gap separation using comparisons between the expected colour and optical microscope images. This characterization technique can be used with just an illuminated microscope with a digital camera which makes it adaptable to environments where other means of characterization are not possible, such as inside nitrogen glove boxes used in handling oxygen-sensitive materials.

  8. Two-dimensional void reconstruction by neutron transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaib, G.D.; Harms, A.A.; Vlachopoulos, J.

    1978-01-01

    Contemporary algebraic reconstruction methods are utilized in investigating the two-dimensional void distribution in a water analog from neutron transmission measurements. It is sought to ultimately apply these techniques to the determination of time-averaged void distribution in two-phase flow systems as well as for potential usage in neutron radiography. Initially, projection data were obtained from a digitized model of a hypothetical two-phase representation and later from neutron beam traverses across a voided methacrylate plastic model. From 10 to 15 views were incorporated, and decoupling of overlapped measurements was utilized to afford greater resolution. In general, the additive Algebraic Reconstruction Technique yielded the best reconstructions, with others showing promise for noisy data. Results indicate the need for some further development of the method in interpreting real data

  9. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Andrew J; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R; Hersam, Mark C; Guisinger, Nathan P

    2015-12-18

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Selective growth of two-dimensional phosphorene on catalyst surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, L; Dong, J C; Ding, F

    2018-02-01

    Although the study of black phosphorene (BP) and its isomers has attracted enormous attention, the method of synthesizing high-quality samples in a large area is still pending. Here we explore the potential of using the chemical vapor deposition method to synthesize large-area two-dimensional (2D) phosphorene films on metal surfaces. Our ab initio calculations show that BP can be synthesized by using tin (Sn) as a catalyst, while one of its isomers, blue phosphorene (BLP), is very possible to be synthesized by using most other metals, such as Ag and Au. Besides, our study also suggests that the large binding energy between the 2D phosphorene and the active metal substrate may prohibit the exfoliation of the 2D phosphorene for real applications and, therefore, tin, silver and gold are predicted to be the most suitable catalysts for the synthesis of BP and BLP.

  11. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  12. Cooperation in two-dimensional mixed-games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Marco A; Silva, Jafferson K L da; Wardil, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory is a common framework to study the evolution of cooperation, where it is usually assumed that the same game is played in all interactions. Here, we investigate a model where the game that is played by two individuals is uniformly drawn from a sample of two different games. Using the master equation approach we show that the random mixture of two games is equivalent to play the average game when (i) the strategies are statistically independent of the game distribution and (ii) the transition rates are linear functions of the payoffs. We also use Monte-Carlo simulations in a two-dimensional lattice and mean-field techniques to investigate the scenario when the two above conditions do not hold. We find that even outside of such conditions, several quantities characterizing the mixed-games are still the same as the ones obtained in the average game when the two games are not very different. (paper)

  13. Charge ordering in two-dimensional ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Aurélien; Urbic, Tomaz

    2018-04-01

    The structural properties of model two-dimensional (2D) ionic liquids are examined, with a particular focus on the charge ordering process, with the use of computer simulation and integral equation theories. The influence of the logarithmic form of the Coulomb interaction, versus that of a 3D screened interaction form, is analysed. Charge order is found to hold and to be analogous for both interaction models, despite their very different form. The influence of charge ordering in the low density regime is discussed in relation to well known properties of 2D Coulomb fluids, such as the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and criticality. The present study suggests the existence of a stable thermodynamic labile cluster phase, implying the existence of a liquid-liquid "transition" above the liquid-gas binodal. The liquid-gas and Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions would then take place inside the predicted cluster phase.

  14. Spin precession in inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, M.-H.; Chang, C.-R.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theoretical method to calculate the expectation value of spin in an inversion-asymmetric two-dimensional (2D) system with respect to an arbitrarily spin-polarized electron state, injected via an ideal point contact. The 2D system is confined in a [0 0 1]-grown quantum well, where both the Rashba and the Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings are taken into account. The obtained analytical results allow more concrete description of the spatial behaviors of the spin precession caused individually by the Rashba and the Dresselhaus terms. Applying the calculation on the Datta-Das spin-FET, whose original design considers only the Rashba effect inside the channel, we investigate the possible influence due to the Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Concluded solution is the choice of ±[1±10], in particular [1 1 0], as the channel direction

  15. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  16. Thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui; Niu, Qian

    Thermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional Rashba systems is studied using the analytical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation. To highlight the effects of inter-band scattering, we assume point-like potential impurities, and obtain the band-and energy-dependent transport relaxation times. Unconventional transport behaviors arise when the Fermi level lies near or below the band crossing point (BCP), such as the non-Drude electrical conducivity below the BCP, the failure of the standard Mott relation linking the Peltier coefficient to the electrical conductivity near the BCP, the enhancement of diffusion thermopower and figure of merit below the BCP, the zero-field Hall coefficient which is not inversely proportional to and not a monotonic function of the carrier density, the enhanced Nernst coefficient below the BCP, and the enhanced current-induced spin-polarization efficiency.

  17. Advancements of two dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein researches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yanchun; Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping

    2018-05-15

    The developments of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applications in protein studies are discussed, especially for the past two decades. The powerful utilities of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies are summarized. The emphasis is on the vibration spectroscopic techniques including IR, NIR, Raman and optical activity (ROA), as well as vibration circular dichroism (VCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, some new developments, such as hetero-spectral 2DCOS, moving-window correlation, and model based correlation, are also reviewed for their utility in the investigation of the secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein. Finally, the new possibility and challenges of 2DCOS in protein research are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sample preparation guidelines for two-dimensional electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Anton

    2014-12-01

    Sample preparation is one of the key technologies for successful two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Due to the great diversity of protein sample types and sources, no single sample preparation method works with all proteins; for any sample the optimum procedure must be determined empirically. This review is meant to provide a broad overview of the most important principles in sample preparation in order to avoid a multitude of possible pitfalls. Sample preparation protocols from the expert in the field were screened and evaluated. On the basis of these protocols and my own comprehensive practical experience important guidelines are given in this review. The presented guidelines will facilitate straightforward protocol development for researchers new to gel-based proteomics. In addition the available choices are rationalized in order to successfully prepare a protein sample for 2DE separations. The strategies described here are not limited to 2DE and can also be applied to other protein separation techniques.

  19. Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao

    2016-10-20

    Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C 1-x N x alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.

  20. Topological Valley Transport in Two-dimensional Honeycomb Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuting; Jiang, Hua; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2018-01-25

    Two-dimensional photonic crystals, in analogy to AB/BA stacking bilayer graphene in electronic system, are studied. Inequivalent valleys in the momentum space for photons can be manipulated by simply engineering diameters of cylinders in a honeycomb lattice. The inequivalent valleys in photonic crystal are selectively excited by a designed optical chiral source and bulk valley polarizations are visualized. Unidirectional valley interface states are proved to exist on a domain wall connecting two photonic crystals with different valley Chern numbers. With the similar optical vortex index, interface states can couple with bulk valley polarizations and thus valley filter and valley coupler can be designed. Our simple dielectric PC scheme can help to exploit the valley degree of freedom for future optical devices.

  1. Two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals in dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Weili; Dong Lifang; Zhang Xinchun

    2010-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals have been obtained by filaments' self-organization in atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge with two water electrodes, which undergo the transition from square to square superlattice and finally to the hexagon. The spatio-temporal behaviors of the plasma photonic crystals in nanosecond scale have been studied by optical method, which show that the plasma photonic crystal is actually an integration of different transient sublattices. The photonic band diagrams of the transverse electric (TE) mode and transverse magnetic mode for each sublattice of these plasma photonic crystals have been investigated theoretically. A wide complete band gap is formed in the hexagonal plasma photonic crystal with the TE mode. The changes of the band edge frequencies and the band gap widths in the evolvement of different structures are studied. A kind of tunable plasma photonic crystal which can be controlled both in space and time is suggested.

  2. Nematic Equilibria on a Two-Dimensional Annulus

    KAUST Repository

    Lewis, A. H.

    2017-01-16

    We study planar nematic equilibria on a two-dimensional annulus with strong and weak tangent anchoring, in the Oseen–Frank theoretical framework. We analyze a radially invariant defect-free state and compute analytic stability criteria for this state in terms of the elastic anisotropy, annular aspect ratio, and anchoring strength. In the strong anchoring case, we define and characterize a new spiral-like equilibrium which emerges as the defect-free state loses stability. In the weak anchoring case, we compute stability diagrams that quantify the response of the defect-free state to radial and azimuthal perturbations. We study sector equilibria on sectors of an annulus, including the effects of weak anchoring and elastic anisotropy, giving novel insights into the correlation between preferred numbers of boundary defects and the geometry. We numerically demonstrate that these sector configurations can approximate experimentally observed equilibria with boundary defects.

  3. Self-organized defect strings in two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Wolfgang; Polster, David; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter; Dellago, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Using experiments with single-particle resolution and computer simulations we study the collective behavior of multiple vacancies injected into two-dimensional crystals. We find that the defects assemble into linear strings, terminated by dislocations with antiparallel Burgers vectors. We show that these defect strings propagate through the crystal in a succession of rapid one-dimensional gliding and rare rotations. While the rotation rate decreases exponentially with the number of defects in the string, the diffusion constant is constant for large strings. By monitoring the separation of the dislocations at the end points, we measure their effective interactions with high precision beyond their spontaneous formation and annihilation, and we explain the double-well form of the dislocation interaction in terms of continuum elasticity theory.

  4. Stopping power of two-dimensional spin quantum electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Jiang, Wei; Yi, Lin

    2015-04-01

    Quantum effects can contribute significantly to the electronic stopping powers in the interactions between the fast moving beams and the degenerate electron gases. From the Pauli equation, the spin quantum hydrodynamic (SQHD) model is derived and used to calculate the stopping power and the induced electron density for protons moving above a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas with considering spin effect under an external in-plane magnetic field. In our calculation, the stopping power is not only modulated by the spin direction, but also varied with the strength of the spin effect. It is demonstrated that the spin effect can obviously enhance or reduce the stopping power of a 2D electron gas within a laboratory magnetic field condition (several tens of Tesla), thus a negative stopping power appears at some specific proton velocity, which implies the protons drain energy from the Pauli gas, showing another significant example of the low-dimensional physics.

  5. Photostrictive Two-Dimensional Materials in the Monochalcogenide Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleoot, Raad; Paillard, Charles; Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Mehboudi, Mehrshad; Xu, Bin; Bellaiche, L.; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador

    2017-06-01

    Photostriction is predicted for group-IV monochalcogenide monolayers, two-dimensional ferroelectrics with rectangular unit cells (the lattice vector a1 is larger than a2) and an intrinsic dipole moment parallel to a1. Photostriction is found to be related to the structural change induced by a screened electric polarization (i.e., a converse piezoelectric effect) in photoexcited electronic states with either px or py (in-plane) orbital symmetry that leads to a compression of a1 and a comparatively smaller increase of a2 for a reduced unit cell area. The structural change documented here is 10 times larger than that observed in BiFeO3 , making monochalcogenide monolayers an ultimate platform for this effect. This structural modification should be observable under experimentally feasible densities of photexcited carriers on samples that have been grown already, having a potential usefulness for light-induced, remote mechano-optoelectronic applications.

  6. Surface Ship Shock Modeling and Simulation: Two-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Shin

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and simulation of the response of a surface ship system to underwater explosion requires an understanding of many different subject areas. These include the process of underwater explosion events, shock wave propagation, explosion gas bubble behavior and bubble-pulse loading, bulk and local cavitation, free surface effect, fluid-structure interaction, and structural dynamics. This paper investigates the effects of fluid-structure interaction and cavitation on the response of a surface ship using USA-NASTRAN-CFA code. First, the one-dimensional Bleich-Sandler model is used to validate the approach, and second, the underwater shock response of a two-dimensional mid-section model of a surface ship is predicted with a surrounding fluid model using a constitutive equation of a bilinear fluid which does not allow transmission of negative pressures.

  7. Superconductivity in engineered two-dimensional electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubukov, Andrey V.; Kivelson, Steven A.

    2017-11-01

    We consider Kohn-Luttinger mechanism for superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas confined to a narrow well between two grounded metallic planes with two occupied subbands with Fermi momenta kF L>kF S . On the basis of a perturbative analysis, we conclude that non-s -wave superconductivity emerges even when the bands are parabolic. We analyze the conditions that maximize Tc as a function of the distance to the metallic planes, the ratio kF L/kF S , and rs, which measures the strength of Coulomb correlations. The largest attraction is in p -wave and d -wave channels, of which p wave is typically the strongest. For rs=O (1 ) we estimate that the dimensionless coupling λ ≈10-1 , but it likely continues increasing for larger rs (where we lose theoretical control).

  8. Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.

    2017-08-01

    The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.

  9. Fluid dynamics of two-dimensional pollination in Ruppia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musunuri, Naga; Bunker, Daniel; Pell, Susan; Pell, Fischer; Singh, Pushpendra

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is to understand the physics underlying the mechanisms of two-dimensional aquatic pollen dispersal, known as hydrophily. We observed two mechanisms by which the pollen released from male inflorescences of Ruppia maritima is adsorbed on a water surface: (i) inflorescences rise above the surface and after they mature their pollen mass falls onto the surface as clumps and disperses on the surface; (ii) inflorescences remain below the surface and produce air bubbles which carry their pollen mass to the surface where it disperses. In both cases dispersed pollen masses combined under the action of capillary forces to form pollen rafts. This increases the probability of pollination since the capillary force on a pollen raft towards a stigma is much larger than on a single pollen grain. The presence of a trace amount of surfactant can disrupt the pollination process so that the pollen is not transported or captured on the water surface. National Science Foundation.

  10. Two-dimensional assemblies from crystallizable homopolymers with charged termini

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoming; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Boott, Charlotte E.; Harniman, Robert L.; Nazemi, Ali; Li, Xiaoyu; Winnik, Mitchell A.; Manners, Ian

    2017-04-01

    The creation of shaped, uniform and colloidally stable two-dimensional (2D) assemblies by bottom-up methods represents a challenge of widespread current interest for a variety of applications. Herein, we describe the utilization of surface charge to stabilize self-assembled planar structures that are formed from crystallizable polymer precursors by a seeded growth approach. Addition of crystallizable homopolymers with charged end-groups to seeds generated by the sonication of block copolymer micelles with crystalline cores yields uniform platelet micelles with controlled dimensions. Significantly, the seeded growth approach is characterized by a morphological memory effect whereby the origin of the seed, which can involve a quasi-hexagonal or rectangular 2D platelet precursor, dictates the observed 2D platelet shape. This new strategy is illustrated using two different polymer systems, and opens the door to the construction of 2D hierarchical structures with broad utility.

  11. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan

    1997-10-01

    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  12. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorić, G.; Maluckov, A.; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G. Ya; Malomed, B. A.

    2015-06-01

    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  13. Oscillation of Two-Dimensional Neutral Delay Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of nonlinear two-dimensional dynamic systems of the neutral type (x(t-a(tx(τ1(tΔ=p(tf1(y(t, yΔ(t=-q(tf2(x(τ2(t. We obtain sufficient conditions for all solutions of the system to be oscillatory. Our oscillation results when a(t=0 improve the oscillation results for dynamic systems on time scales that have been established by Fu and Lin (2010, since our results do not restrict to the case where f(u=u. Also, as a special case when =ℝ, our results do not require an to be a positive real sequence. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  14. The first principle calculation of two-dimensional Dirac materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin

    2017-12-01

    As the size of integrated device becoming increasingly small, from the last century, semiconductor industry is facing the enormous challenge to break the Moore’s law. The development of calculation, communication and automatic control have emergent expectation of new materials at the aspect of semiconductor industrial technology and science. In spite of silicon device, searching the alternative material with outstanding electronic properties has always been a research point. As the discovery of graphene, the research of two-dimensional Dirac material starts to express new vitality. This essay studied the development calculation of 2D material’s mobility and introduce some detailed information of some approximation method of the first principle calculation.

  15. Persistence of Precursor Waves in Two-dimensional Relativistic Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Masanori; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yosuke, E-mail: iwamoto@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the efficiency of coherent upstream large-amplitude electromagnetic wave emission via synchrotron maser instability in relativistic magnetized shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We considered a purely perpendicular shock in an electron–positron plasma. The coherent wave emission efficiency was measured as a function of the magnetization parameter σ , which is defined as the ratio of the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy flux. The wave amplitude was systematically smaller than that observed in one-dimensional simulations. However, it continued to persist, even at a considerably low magnetization rate, where the Weibel instability dominated the shock transition. The emitted electromagnetic waves were sufficiently strong to disturb the upstream medium, and transverse filamentary density structures of substantial amplitude were produced. Based on this result, we discuss the possibility of the wakefield acceleration model to produce nonthermal electrons in a relativistic magnetized ion–electron shock.

  16. Two-dimensional spectrophotometry of planetary nebulae by CCD imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, G.H.; Africano, J.L.; Quigley, R.J.; Western Washington Univ., Bellingham, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the electron temperature and density and the ionic abundances of O(+), O(2+), N(+), and S(+) have been derived from CCD images of the planetary nebulae NGC 40 and NGC 6826 taken in the important emission lines of forbidden O II, forbidden O III, H-beta, forbidden N II, and forbidden S II. The steps required in the derivation of the absolute fluxes, line, ratios, and ionic abundances are outlined and then discussed in greater detail. The results show that the CCD imaging technique for two-dimensional spectrophotometry can effectively compete with classical spectrophotometry, providing the added benefits of complete spatial coverage at seeing-disk spatial resolution. The multiplexing in the spatial dimension, however, results in a loss of spectral information, since only one emission line is observed at any one time. 37 references

  17. Flat Chern Band in a Two-Dimensional Organometallic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Mei, Jia-Wei; Wu, Yong-Shi; Liu, Feng

    2013-03-01

    By combining exotic band dispersion with nontrivial band topology, an interesting type of band structure, namely, the flat Chern band, has recently been proposed to spawn high-temperature fractional quantum Hall states. Despite the proposal of several theoretical lattice models, however, it remains doubtful whether such a “romance of flatland” could exist in a real material. Here, we present a first-principles design of a two-dimensional indium-phenylene organometallic framework that realizes a nearly flat Chern band right around the Fermi level by combining lattice geometry, spin-orbit coupling, and ferromagnetism. An effective four-band model is constructed to reproduce the first-principles results. Our design, in addition, provides a general strategy to synthesize topologically nontrivial materials by virtue of organic chemistry and nanotechnology.

  18. Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously

  19. Custom acetabular component design with interactive two-dimensional CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magid, D.; Millet, C.; Brooker, A.F. Jr.; Fishman, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a revision of failed acetabular components that must accommodate existing segmental and cavitary bone defects and global loss of bone stock. Two-dimensional CT can be used to determine which patients may benefit from a custom acetabulum and to design such a prosthesis. Ninety-one sequential failed hip arthroplasties were reviewed to find 12 potential custom cup candidates, of whom seven underwent CT assessment and subsequent cup design and placement. Coronal and sagittal CT was used to review existing bone stock and bone defects, to measure and map the contour of the defect into which the new cup must fit and to determine the precise placement, angulation, and depth of screw holes to provide purchase for the new cup. A template was produced for approval, followed by cup manufacture and placement

  20. Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).

  1. Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun

    2016-10-01

    A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).

  2. Efficient two-dimensional compressive sensing in MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Nafiseh; Abbasfar, Aliazam; Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has been a way to lower sampling rate leading to data reduction for processing in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems. In this paper, we further reduce the computational complexity of a pulse-Doppler collocated MIMO radar by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing. To do so, we first introduce a new 2D formulation for the compressed received signals and then we propose a new measurement matrix design for our 2D compressive sensing model that is based on minimizing the coherence of sensing matrix using gradient descent algorithm. The simulation results show that our proposed 2D measurement matrix design using gradient decent algorithm (2D-MMDGD) has much lower computational complexity compared to one-dimensional (1D) methods while having better performance in comparison with conventional methods such as Gaussian random measurement matrix.

  3. Two-dimensional fruit ripeness estimation using thermal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Intaravanne, Yuttana

    2013-06-01

    Some green fruits do not change their color from green to yellow when being ripe. As a result, ripeness estimation via color and fluorescent analytical approaches cannot be applied. In this article, we propose and show for the first time how a thermal imaging camera can be used to two-dimensionally classify fruits into different ripeness levels. Our key idea relies on the fact that the mature fruits have higher heat capacity than the immature ones and therefore the change in surface temperature overtime is slower. Our experimental proof of concept using a thermal imaging camera shows a promising result in non-destructively identifying three different ripeness levels of mangoes Mangifera indica L.

  4. Sieving hydrogen isotopes through two-dimensional crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Hidalgo, M; Hu, S; Marshall, O; Mishchenko, A; Grigorenko, A N; Dryfe, R A W; Radha, B; Grigorieva, I V; Geim, A K

    2016-01-01

    One-atom-thick crystals are impermeable to atoms and molecules, but hydrogen ions (thermal protons) penetrate through them. We show that monolayers of graphene and boron nitride can be used to separate hydrogen ion isotopes. Using electrical measurements and mass spectrometry, we found that deuterons permeate through these crystals much slower than protons, resulting in a separation factor of ≈10 at room temperature. The isotope effect is attributed to a difference of ≈60 milli-electron volts between zero-point energies of incident protons and deuterons, which translates into the equivalent difference in the activation barriers posed by two-dimensional crystals. In addition to providing insight into the proton transport mechanism, the demonstrated approach offers a competitive and scalable way for hydrogen isotope enrichment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Seismic isolation of buildings on two dimensional phononic crystal foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lin; Li, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Yan

    2017-11-01

    In order to realize the seismic isolation of buildings, we establish the two dimensional phononic crystal (PC) foundation which has the cell with the size close to the regular concrete test specimens, and is composed of the concrete base, rubber coating and lead cylindrical core. We study the in-plane band gap (BG) characteristics in it, through the analysis of the frequency dispersion relation and frequency response result. To lower the start BG frequency to the seismic frequency range, we also study the influences of material parameters (the elastic modulus of coating and density of cylindrical core) and geometry parameters (the thickness of coating, radius of cylindrical core and lattice constant) on BG ranges. The study could help to design the PC foundation for seismic isolation of building.

  6. Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photonic Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ke; Gao, Shanshan; Wu, Longlong; Wang, Geng; Liu, Xin; Chen, Gang; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have created enormous expectations for low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic devices. In prospect, future advancements may derive from reaping novel electrical and optical properties beyond pristine perovskites through microscopic structure design and engineering. Herein, we report the successful preparation of two-dimensional inverse-opal perovskite (IOP) photonic films, featuring unique nanostructures and vivid colors. Further compositional and structural managements promise optical property and energy level tunability of the IOP films. They are further functionalized in solar cells, resulting in colorful devices with respectable power conversion efficiency. Such concept has not been previously applied for perovskite-based solar cells, which could open a route for more versatile optoelectronic devices.

  7. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  8. Two dimensional tunable photonic crystals and n doped semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Hussein A. [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt); El-Naggar, Sahar A. [Dept. of Engineering Math. and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: arafa16@yahoo.com [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of the doping concentration on the properties of two dimensional semiconductor photonic band structures. We consider two structures; type I(II) that is composed of n doped semiconductor (air) rods arranged into a square lattice of air (n doped semiconductor). We consider three different shapes of rods. Our numerical method is based on the frequency dependent plane wave expansion method. The numerical results show that the photonic band gaps in type II are more sensitive to the changes in the doping concentration than those of type I. In addition, the width of the gap of type II is less sensitive to the shape of the rods than that of type I. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be strongly tuned by the doping concentrations. Our structures could be of technical use in optical electronics for semiconductor applications.

  9. Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media

    KAUST Repository

    Quezada de Luna, Manuel

    2014-09-16

    We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.

  10. Internal optical bistability of quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevyanchuk, Oleksandr V.; Kramar, Natalia K.; Kramar, Valeriy M.

    2018-01-01

    We represent the results of numerical computations of the frequency and temperature domains of possible realization of internal optical bistability in flat quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor nanoheterostructures with a single quantum well (i.e., nanofilms). Particular computations have been made for a nanofilm of layered semiconductor PbI2 embedded in dielectric medium, i.e. ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA) copolymer. It is shown that an increase in the nanofilm's thickness leads to a long-wave shift of the frequency range of the manifestation the phenomenon of bistability, to increase the size of the hysteresis loop, as well as to the expansion of the temperature interval at which the realization of this phenomenon is possible.

  11. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  12. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio

    2014-12-01

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  13. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose, E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.e [Wave Phenomena Group, Departamento de Ingenieria Electronica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s.n., E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sanchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  14. Acoustic metamaterials for new two-dimensional sonic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera sn, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    It has been shown that two-dimensional arrays of rigid or fluidlike cylinders in a fluid or a gas define, in the limit of large wavelengths, a class of acoustic metamaterials whose effective parameters (sound velocity and density) can be tailored up to a certain limit. This work goes a step further by considering arrays of solid cylinders in which the elastic properties of cylinders are taken into account. We have also treated mixtures of two different elastic cylinders. It is shown that both effects broaden the range of acoustic parameters available for designing metamaterials. For example, it is predicted that metamaterials with perfect matching of impedance with air are now possible by using aerogel and rigid cylinders equally distributed in a square lattice. As a potential application of the proposed metamaterial, we present a gradient index lens for airborne sound (i.e. a sonic Wood lens) whose functionality is demonstrated by multiple scattering simulations.

  15. Acoustic resonances in two-dimensional radial sonic crystal shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sánchez-Dehesa, José

    2010-07-01

    Radial sonic crystals (RSC) are fluidlike structures infinitely periodic along the radial direction that verify the Bloch theorem and are possible only if certain specially designed acoustic metamaterials with mass density anisotropy can be engineered (see Torrent and Sánchez-Dehesa 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 064301). A comprehensive analysis of two-dimensional (2D) RSC shells is reported here. A given shell is in fact a circular slab with a central cavity. These finite crystal structures contain Fabry-Perot-like resonances and modes strongly localized at the central cavity. Semi-analytical expressions are developed to obtain the quality factors of the different resonances, their symmetry features and their excitation properties. The results reported here are completely general and can be extended to equivalent 3D spherical shells and to their photonic counterparts.

  16. The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya

    2013-01-01

    In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...

  17. Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of right ventricular infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Arcy, B. (University of Rochester School of Medicine, NY); Nanda, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time, two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction who had clinical features suggestive of right ventricular involvement. All patients showed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In the four-chamber view, seven patients showed akinesis of the entire right ventricular diaphragmatic wall and three showed akinesis of segments of the diaphragmatic wall. Segmental dyskinetic areas involving the right ventricular free wall were identified in four patients. One patient showed a large right ventricular apical aneurysm. Other echocardiographic features included enlargement of the right ventricle in eight cases, paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven cases, tricuspid incompetence in eight cases, dilation of the stomach in four cases and localized pericardial effusion in two cases. Right ventricular infarction was confirmed by radionuclide methods in seven patients, at surgery in one patient and at autopsy in two patients.

  18. Global geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical geometry of charged black holes is studied in the context of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model where effects due to pair-creation of charged particles can be included in a systematic way. The classical mass-inflation instability of the Cauchy horizon is amplified and we find that gravitational collapse of charged matter results in a spacelike singularity that precludes any extension of the spacetime geometry. At the classical level, a static solution describing an eternal black hole has timelike singularities and multiple asymptotic regions. The corresponding semiclassical solution, on the other hand, has a spacelike singularity and a Penrose diagram like that of an electrically neutral black hole. Extremal black holes are destabilized by pair-creation of charged particles. There is a maximally charged solution for a given black hole mass but the corresponding geometry is not extremal. Our numerical data exhibits critical behavior at the threshold for black hole formation

  19. Unruly topologies in two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    A sum over histories formulation of quantum geometry could involve sums over different topologies as well as sums over different metrics. In classical gravity a geometry is a manifold with a metric, but it is difficult to implement a sum over manifolds in quantum gravity. In this difficulty, motivation is found for including in the sum over histories, geometries defined on more general objects than manifolds-unruly topologies. In simplicial two-dimensional quantum gravity a class of simplicial complexes is found to which the gravitational action can be extended, for which sums over the class are straightforwardly defined, and for which a manifold dominates the sum in the classical limit. The situation in higher dimensions is discussed. (author)

  20. The two-dimensional reactor dynamic program TINTE. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, H.

    1987-11-01

    The TINTE code deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of an HTR taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in two-dimensional r-z-geometry. Initial equations, approximations and solution procedures are compiled in this first part of the description. This involves the following subproblems: Time-dependent neutron flux calculation. Time-dependent heat source distribution (local and non-local fractions). Time-dependent heat transport from the fuel to the fuel element surface. Time-dependent global temperature distribution. Glas-flow even under natural circulation conditions for both a given total mass flow and a given pressure difference. Convection and its feedback to the circulation. The iterations of subproblem solutions, necessary because of the separate treatment, are discussed for both the transient case and of the determination of the steady initial state. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaporation effect on two-dimensional wicking in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Eric M; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2018-03-15

    We analyze the effect of evaporation on expanding capillary flow for losses normal to the plane of a two-dimensional porous medium using the potential flow theory formulation of the Lucas-Washburn method. Evaporation induces a finite steady state liquid flux on capillary flows into fan-shaped domains which is significantly greater than the flux into media of constant cross section. We introduce the evaporation-capillary number, a new dimensionless quantity, which governs the frontal motion when multiplied by the scaled time. This governing product divides the wicking behavior into simple regimes of capillary dominated flow and evaporative steady state, as well as the intermediate regime of evaporation influenced capillary driven motion. We also show flow dimensionality and evaporation reduce the propagation rate of the wet front relative to the Lucas-Washburn law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Two dimensional analysis of a high temperature gaseous radiation receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfall, K. A.; Mattick, A. T.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the Flowing Gas Radiation Receiver (FGRR), a device that absorbs solar radiation volumetrically in a gas to produce high temperatures for space propulsion and power applications, are analyzed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model of the flow and radiation fields within a diffusely reflecting channel. The results show that an FGRR system is capable of generating temperatures in excess of 3000 K with collection efficiencies of approximately 75 percent for a channel with a reflectivity of 0.9. For a collinear radiation source, outflow temperatures of 3193 and 3092 K were achieved for axial and radial flow inputs, respectively, with receiver efficiencies of 0.82 and 0.76.

  3. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-10-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  4. Incoherent control and entanglement for two-dimensional coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Raffaele; D'Alessandro, Domenico

    2006-01-01

    We investigate accessibility and controllability of a quantum system S coupled to a quantum probe P, both described by two-dimensional Hilbert spaces, under the hypothesis that the external control affects only P. In this context accessibility and controllability properties describe to what extent it is possible to drive the state of the system S by acting on P and using the interaction between the two systems. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for these properties and we discuss the relation with the entangling capability of the interaction between S and P. In particular, we show that controllability can be expressed in terms of the SWAP and √(SWAP) operators acting on the composite system

  5. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra

    2016-07-02

    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  6. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  7. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G

    2011-03-23

    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  8. The effect of small-scale forcing on large-scale structures in two-dimensional flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekhlov, Alexei; Orszag, Steven A.; Sukoriansky, Semion; Galperin, Boris; Staroselsky, Ilya

    The effect of small-scale forcing on large-scale structures in β-plane two-dimensional (2D) turbulence is studied using long-term direct numerical simulations (DNS). We find that nonlinear effects remain strong at all times and for all scales and establish an inverse energy cascade that extends to the largest scales available in the system. The large-scale flow develops strong spectral anisotropy: k - {5}/{3} Kolmogorov scaling holds for almost all φ, φ = arctan( {k y}/{k x}) except in the small vicinity of kx = 0, where Rhines's k-5 scaling prevails. Due to the k-5 scaling, the spectral evolution of β-plane turbulence becomes extremely slow which, perhaps, explains why this scaling law has never before been observed in DNS. Simulations with different values of β indicate that the β-effect diminishes at small scales where the flow is nearly isotropic. Thus, for simulations of β-plane turbulence forced at small scales sufficiently removed from the scales where β-effect is strong, large eddy simulation (LES) can be used. A subgrid scale (SGS) parameterization for such LES must account for the small-scale forcing that is not explicitly resolved and correctly accommodate two inviscid conservation laws, viz. energy and enstrophy. This requirement gives rise to a new anisotropic stabilized negative viscosity (SNV) SGS representation which is discussed in the context of LES of isotropic 2D turbulence.

  9. Charged Point Defects in the Flatland: Accurate Formation Energy Calculations in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Berseneva, Natalia; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; Nieminen, Risto M.

    2014-07-01

    Impurities and defects frequently govern materials properties, with the most prominent example being the doping of bulk semiconductors where a minute amount of foreign atoms can be responsible for the operation of the electronic devices. Several computational schemes based on a supercell approach have been developed to get insights into types and equilibrium concentrations of point defects, which successfully work in bulk materials. Here, we show that many of these schemes cannot directly be applied to two-dimensional (2D) systems, as formation energies of charged point defects are dominated by large spurious electrostatic interactions between defects in inhomogeneous environments. We suggest two approaches that solve this problem and give accurate formation energies of charged defects in 2D systems in the dilute limit. Our methods, which are applicable to all kinds of charged defects in any 2D system, are benchmarked for impurities in technologically important h-BN and MoS2 2D materials, and they are found to perform equally well for substitutional and adatom impurities.

  10. Charged Point Defects in the Flatland: Accurate Formation Energy Calculations in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu-Pekka Komsa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Impurities and defects frequently govern materials properties, with the most prominent example being the doping of bulk semiconductors where a minute amount of foreign atoms can be responsible for the operation of the electronic devices. Several computational schemes based on a supercell approach have been developed to get insights into types and equilibrium concentrations of point defects, which successfully work in bulk materials. Here, we show that many of these schemes cannot directly be applied to two-dimensional (2D systems, as formation energies of charged point defects are dominated by large spurious electrostatic interactions between defects in inhomogeneous environments. We suggest two approaches that solve this problem and give accurate formation energies of charged defects in 2D systems in the dilute limit. Our methods, which are applicable to all kinds of charged defects in any 2D system, are benchmarked for impurities in technologically important h-BN and MoS_{2} 2D materials, and they are found to perform equally well for substitutional and adatom impurities.

  11. Mesoscopic Field-Effect-Induced Devices in Depleted Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachsoliani, N.; Platonov, S.; Wieck, A. D.; Ludwig, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoelectronic devices embedded in the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) of a GaAs /(Al ,Ga )As heterostructure enable a large variety of applications ranging from fundamental research to high-speed transistors. Electrical circuits are thereby commonly defined by creating barriers for carriers by the selective depletion of a preexisting 2DES. We explore an alternative approach: we deplete the 2DES globally by applying a negative voltage to a global top gate and screen the electric field of the top gate only locally using nanoscale gates placed on the wafer surface between the plane of the 2DES and the top gate. Free carriers are located beneath the screen gates, and their properties can be controlled by means of geometry and applied voltages. This method promises considerable advantages for the definition of complex circuits by the electric-field effect, as it allows us to reduce the number of gates and simplify gate geometries. Examples are carrier systems with ring topology or large arrays of quantum dots. We present a first exploration of this method pursuing field effect, Hall effect, and Aharonov-Bohm measurements to study electrostatic, dynamic, and coherent properties.

  12. Lipid-bilayer-assisted two-dimensional self-assembly of DNA origami nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Self-assembly is a ubiquitous approach to the design and fabrication of novel supermolecular architectures. Here we report a strategy termed ‘lipid-bilayer-assisted self-assembly' that is used to assemble DNA origami nanostructures into two-dimensional lattices. DNA origami structures are electrostatically adsorbed onto a mica-supported zwitterionic lipid bilayer in the presence of divalent cations. We demonstrate that the bilayer-adsorbed origami units are mobile on the surface and self-assembled into large micrometre-sized lattices in their lateral dimensions. Using high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging, a variety of dynamic processes involved in the formation of the lattice, such as fusion, reorganization and defect filling, are successfully visualized. The surface modifiability of the assembled lattice is also demonstrated by in situ decoration with streptavidin molecules. Our approach provides a new strategy for preparing versatile scaffolds for nanofabrication and paves the way for organizing functional nanodevices in a micrometer space. PMID:26310995

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Plasma and Fluid Turbulence: Theory and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, A.; Itoh, S. I.; Itoh, K.

    2003-03-01

    extensive description of dynamo theory in Magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. This area has applications both in geophysics and plasma confinement by magnetic fields. The most well known example being the reversed field pinch. This part is fundamental in several respects and the principle of relaxation of the turbulence to quasi stationary states that can be predicted theoretically is very elegant. The problem of rotation of magnetized plasmas and its importance for obtaining internal transport barriers is also treated here. This part is entirely described by the one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. The next part deals with plasma turbulence. It starts from the Braginskii collisional fluid equations. These are then reduced for typical cases of quasi two dimensional plasma turbulence where the magnetic perturbations can be described by a vector potential which is parallel to the unperturbed magnetic field. Also a couple of well known sets of nonlinear electrostatic systems for drift waves are presented as well as a gyro-averaged kinetic description for inhomogeneous plasmas. Then, several low frequency eigenmodes in magnetized plasmas are described and finally the quasilinear theory of transport is presented. The following part deals with strongly nonlinear phenomena in inhomogeneous plasma turbulence. Here, concepts of importance for confinement such as convective cells, zonal flows and streamers are presented. As a natural continuation, renormalization and scale invariance methods for strongly nonlinear plasmas are given. Also non-Markovian properties are discussed. This is natural since turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas typically has a rather large real eigenfrequency leading to memory of the wave phase. The next part deals with plasma turbulence driven by inhomogeneities. This is followed by a new part on flows where the flows this time are generated by the turbulence which is driven by plasma inhomogeneities. In particular flows driven by such instabilities can

  14. Topotactic transformations of superstructures: from thin films to two-dimensional networks to nested two-dimensional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Jianming; Tang, Haoying; Guo, Shengming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2011-06-01

    Design and synthesis of super-nanostructures is one of the key and prominent topics in nanotechnology. Here we propose a novel methodology for synthesizing complex hierarchical superstructures using sacrificial templates composed of ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures through lattice-directed topotactic transformations. The fabricated superstructures are nested 2D orthogonal Bi(2)S(3) networks composed of nanorods. Further investigation indicates that the lattice matching between the product and sacrificial template is the dominant mechanism for the formation of the superstructures, which agrees well with the simulation results based on an anisotropic nucleation and growth analysis. Our approach may provide a promising way toward a lattice-directed nonlithographic nanofabrication technique for making functional porous nanoarchitectures and electronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) GCPEX dataset was collected by the Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data, which was...

  16. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) NSSTC V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) NSSTC dataset was collected by the Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD), which uses two high...

  17. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinopoulou, Stavroula [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  18. Numerical Simulation of Two Dimensional Flows in Yazidang Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lingxiao; Liu, Libo; Sun, Xuehong; Zheng, Lanxiang; Jing, Hefang; Zhang, Xuande; Li, Chunguang

    2018-01-01

    This paper studied the problem of water flow in the Yazid Ang reservoir. It built 2-D RNG turbulent model, rated the boundary conditions, used the finite volume method to discrete equations and divided the grid by the advancing-front method. It simulated the two conditions of reservoir flow field, compared the average vertical velocity of the simulated value and the measured value nearby the water inlet and the water intake. The results showed that the mathematical model could be applied to the similar industrial water reservoir.

  19. A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota K

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady

  20. SIMION, Electrostatic Lens Analysis and Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, David A.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SIMION is an electrostatic lens analysis and design program. In SIMION an electrostatic lens is defined as a two-dimensional electrostatic potential array containing both electrode and non-electrode points. The potential array is refined using over-relaxation methods allowing voltage contours and ion trajectories to be computed and plotted. Planar and cylindrical symmetry assumptions allow the two-dimensional fields to support three-dimensional ion trajectory calculations. In addition, the user has the option of writing simple programs which can among other actions control field scale factors, dynamically adjust electrodes, and define explicit three-dimensional field functions (e.g. a quadrupole) used in lieu of array fields in specified portions of the potential array. Magnetic fields can be specified for computing ion trajectories in many electrostatic and magnetic field environments. An interactive graphics interface that uses a high resolution color display and mouse allows the user to view electrodes, trajectories, and contours on the screen prior to plotting, and a memory zoom feature permits expansion of selected areas in the current view. The mouse can be operated to edit the potential array, initialize voltage gradients, or resize the potential array. 2 - Method of solution: SIMION is designed to model the electrostatic fields and forces created by a collection of shaped electrodes given certain symmetry assumptions. The electrostatic fields are modeled as boundary value problem solutions of a Laplace elliptical partial differential equation. A finite difference technique called dynamically self-adjusting over-relaxation is applied to the two-dimensional potential array of points representing electrode and non-electrode regions to obtain a best estimate of the voltages for those points within the array that depict non-electrode regions. A standard fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used for numerical integration of

  1. Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisley, M. F.

    1997-09-01

    A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.

  2. Development of two-dimensional interdigitated center of pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional (2D) flexible patch sensor to detect and monitor the center of pressure (CoP) location and the total magnitude of a spatially distributed pressure to the specific surface areas of engineering structures. The CoP sensor with the contact mode induced by a pressure distribution was formulated by force sensitive resistor technology and was mainly composed of a thin conductive polymer layer, adhesive spacers, and two interdigitated patterned electrode films with unique sensing aperture shadings. By properly mapping the interdigitated electrode patterns to the top and bottom surfaces of the conductive polymer, the proposed sensor ideally enables to measure an overall applied pressure level and its centroid location within a predetermined sensing region in real-time. The CoP sensor containing 36 sensing sections within a dimension of around 3 × 3 inches was prototyped and experimentally investigated to verify its capability to identify the CoP location and magnitude due to the presence of a permanent magnet-based local pressure distribution. Only five electric wires connected to the CoP sensor to inspect the pressure-sensing positions of 36 segments. The evaluation results of the measured sensor data demonstrate good agreements with the actual test parameters such as the total pressure and its centroid position with about 5% locational error. However, to provide accurate information on the overall pressure range, the compensation factors must be determined and applied to the individual sensing sections of the sensor.

  3. Coherent and radiative couplings through two-dimensional structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galve, F.; Zambrini, R.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent and radiative interactions induced among two or more quantum units by coupling them to two-dimensional (2D) lattices acting as structured environments. This model can be representative of atoms trapped near photonic crystal slabs, trapped ions in Coulomb crystals, or to surface acoustic waves on piezoelectric materials, cold atoms on state-dependent optical lattices, or even circuit QED architectures, to name a few. We compare coherent and radiative contributions for the isotropic and directional regimes of emission into the lattice, for infinite and finite lattices, highlighting their differences and existing pitfalls, e.g., related to long-time or large-lattice limits. We relate the phenomenon of directionality of emission with linear-shaped isofrequency manifolds in the dispersion relation, showing a simple way to disrupt it. For finite lattices, we study further details such as the scaling of resonant number of lattice modes for the isotropic and directional regimes, and relate this behavior with known van Hove singularities in the infinite lattice limit. Furthermore, we export the understanding of emission dynamics with the decay of entanglement for two quantum, atomic or bosonic, units coupled to the 2D lattice. We analyze in some detail completely subradiant configurations of more than two atoms, which can occur in the finite lattice scenario, in contrast with the infinite lattice case. Finally, we demonstrate that induced coherent interactions for dark states are zero for the finite lattice.

  4. Edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated anisotropic two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juntan; Wang, Yi; Li, Yinfeng; Gao, Huajian; Chai, Yang; Yao, Haimin

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical exfoliation is an approach widely applied to prepare high-quality two-dimensional (2D) materials for investigating their intrinsic physical properties. During mechanical exfoliation, in-plane cleavage results in new edges whose orientations play an important role in determining the properties of the as-exfoliated 2D materials especially those with high anisotropy. Here, we systematically investigate the factors affecting the edge orientation of 2D materials obtained by mechanical exfoliation. Our theoretical study manifests that the fractured direction during mechanical exfoliation is determined synergistically by the tearing direction and material anisotropy of fracture energy. For a specific 2D material, our theory enables us to predict the possible edge orientations of the exfoliated flakes as well as their occurring probabilities. The theoretical prediction is experimentally verified by examining the inter-edge angles of the exfoliated flakes of four typical 2D materials including graphene, MoS2, PtS2, and black phosphorus. This work not only sheds light on the mechanics of exfoliation of the 2D materials but also provides a new approach to deriving information of edge orientations of mechanically exfoliated 2D materials by data mining of their macroscopic geometric features.

  5. Universality of modular symmetries in two-dimensional magnetotransport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K. S.; Limseth, H. S.; Lütken, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    We analyze experimental quantum Hall data from a wide range of different materials, including semiconducting heterojunctions, thin films, surface layers, graphene, mercury telluride, bismuth antimonide, and black phosphorus. The fact that these materials have little in common, except that charge transport is effectively two-dimensional, shows how robust and universal the quantum Hall phenomenon is. The scaling and fixed point data we analyzed appear to show that magnetotransport in two dimensions is governed by a small number of universality classes that are classified by modular symmetries, which are infinite discrete symmetries not previously seen in nature. The Hall plateaux are (infrared) stable fixed points of the scaling-flow, and quantum critical points (where the wave function is delocalized) are unstable fixed points of scaling. Modular symmetries are so rigid that they in some cases fix the global geometry of the scaling flow, and therefore predict the exact location of quantum critical points, as well as the shape of flow lines anywhere in the phase diagram. We show that most available experimental quantum Hall scaling data are in good agreement with these predictions.

  6. Engineering the Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Rohit; Kabir, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    Correlated interaction between dilute localized impurity electrons and the itinerant host conduction electrons in metals gives rise to the conventional many-body Kondo effect below sufficiently low temperature. In sharp contrast to these conventional Kondo systems, we report an intrinsic, robust, and high-temperature Kondo state in two-dimensional semiconducting phosphorene. While absorbed at a thermodynamically stable lattice defect, Cr impurity triggers an electronic phase transition in phosphorene to provide conduction electrons, which strongly interact with the localized moment generated at the Cr site. These manifest into the intrinsic Kondo state, where the impurity moment is quenched in multiple stages and at temperatures in the 40-200 K range. Further, along with a much smaller extension of the Kondo cloud, the predicted Kondo state is shown to be robust under uniaxial strain and layer thickness, which greatly simplifies its future experimental realization. We predict the present study will open up new avenues in Kondo physics and trigger further theoretical and experimental studies.

  7. Persistence in a Two-Dimensional Moving-Habitat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Austin; Kot, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Environmental changes are forcing many species to track suitable conditions or face extinction. In this study, we use a two-dimensional integrodifference equation to analyze whether a population can track a habitat that is moving due to climate change. We model habitat as a simple rectangle. Our model quickly leads to an eigenvalue problem that determines whether the population persists or declines. After surveying techniques to solve the eigenvalue problem, we highlight three findings that impact conservation efforts such as reserve design and species risk assessment. First, while other models focus on habitat length (parallel to the direction of habitat movement), we show that ignoring habitat width (perpendicular to habitat movement) can lead to overestimates of persistence. Dispersal barriers and hostile landscapes that constrain habitat width greatly decrease the population's ability to track its habitat. Second, for some long-distance dispersal kernels, increasing habitat length improves persistence without limit; for other kernels, increasing length is of limited help and has diminishing returns. Third, it is not always best to orient the long side of the habitat in the direction of climate change. Evidence suggests that the kurtosis of the dispersal kernel determines whether it is best to have a long, wide, or square habitat. In particular, populations with platykurtic dispersal benefit more from a wide habitat, while those with leptokurtic dispersal benefit more from a long habitat. We apply our model to the Rocky Mountain Apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus).

  8. Adaptation and timing recovery for two-dimensional optical storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Andre H.; Riani, Jamal; van Beneden, Steven; Bergmans, Jan; Ciacci, Massimo; Nowbakht Irani, Ali; Coene, Wim; van der Lee, Alexander; Bruls, Dominique

    2004-09-01

    This paper discusses several issues related to adaptation and timing recovery for two-dimensional (2D) optical storage. In the TwoDOS format bits are stored on a 2D hexagonal lattice which is formed by recording multiple bit rows with a fixed phase relation in a so-called broad spiral or meta-spiral. Besides a large increase in data rate by reading out with multiple spots, also a density increase by a factor of two compared to Blu-ray Disc is targeted. To increase the storage density, 2D signal processing is proposed including 2D PRML detection in the form of a stripe-wise Viterbi detector. This detector introduces an increasing detection delay when going from the outer rows towards the center of the broad spiral. For fast control loops in a decision-directed mode, special measures are needed to avoid instability due to this delay. Another issue is the large span of the 2D inter-symbol interference at higher densities and tilt, leading to a large 2D equalizer. Furthermore, in case the broad spiral is recorded with a multiple-pass mastering technology (e.g. for ROM TwoDOS discs), write-channel imperfections such as time-varying lattice distortion require independent timing recovery on each row within the broad spiral.

  9. Simulations of two-dimensional electronic correlation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin; Jeon, Seung Joon

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation method, which generates the synchronous and the asynchronous 2D spectrum by complex cross correlation of the Fourier transformed spectra, is an analysis method for the changes of the sample spectrum induced by various perturbations. In the present work, the 2D electronic correlation spectra have been simulated for the cases where the sample spectrum composed of two gaussian bands changes linearly. When only the band amplitudes of the sample spectrum change, the synchronous spectrum shows strong peaks at the band centers of the sample spectrum, but the asynchronous spectrum does not make peaks. When the sample spectrum shifts without changing intensity and width, the synchronous spectrum shows peaks around the initial and final positions of the band maximum and the asynchronous spectrum shows long peaks spanning the shifting range. The band width change produces the complex 2D correlation spectra. When the sample spectrum shifts with band broadening, the width change by 50 % of full width at half maximum (FWHM) does not give so large an effect on the correlation spectrum as the spectral shift by one half of FWHM of the sample spectrum

  10. Covariance problem in two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of covariance in the field theory of a two-dimensional non-Abelian gauge field is considered. Since earlier work has shown that covariance fails (in charged sectors) for the Schwinger model, particular attention is given to an evaluation of the role played by the non-Abelian nature of the fields. In contrast to all earlier attempts at this problem, it is found that the potential covariance-breaking terms are identical to those found in the Abelian theory provided that one expresses them in terms of the total (i.e., conserved) current operator. The question of covariance is thus seen to reduce in all cases to a determination as to whether there exists a conserved global charge in the theory. Since the charge operator in the Schwinger model is conserved only in neutral sectors, one is thereby led to infer a probable failure of covariance in the non-Abelian theory, but one which is identical to that found for the U(1) case

  11. Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.

    2004-12-01

    New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.

  12. One and two dimensional simulations on beat wave acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, W.; Joshi, C.; Dawson, J.M.; Forslund, D.W.; Kindel, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of fast-large-amplitude plasma waves as the basis for a high energy particle accelerator. In these schemes, lasers are used to create the plasma wave. To date the few simulation studies on this subject have been limited to one-dimensional, short rise time simulations. Here the authors present results from simulations in which more realistic parameters are used. In addition, they present the first two dimensional simulations on this subject. One dimensional simulations on a 2 1/2-D relativistic electromagnetic particle code, in which only a few cells were used in one direction, on colinear optical mixing are presented. In these simulations the laser rise time, laser intensity, plasma density, plasma temperature and system size were varied. The simulations indicate that the theory of Rosenbluth and Liu is applicable over a wide range of parameters. In addition, simulations with a DC magnetic field are presented in order to study the ''Surfatron'' concept

  13. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan

    2016-11-30

    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 , and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  14. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-Yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2018-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling. Thus far, atomically thin p-n junctions, metal-semiconductor contacts, and metal-insulator barriers have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic band structure of these 1D channels offers the promise of carrier confinement in a direct-gap material and the charge separation needed to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  15. The two-dimensional reactor dynamics program TINTE. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, H.

    1989-02-01

    The TINTE code system deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of the primary circuit of an HTGR taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in two-dimensional r-z geometry. In Part One of this report (Juel-2167) the initial equations were compiled and methods of solution discussed. In an appendix to this second part they are completed by some supplementary points. The TINTE code construction and a detailed input description will be discussed in Part Three. The Part Two shows examples of application, especially a comparative calculation of dynamic experiments performed at the AVR. A good agreement between calculational and experimental results is found. Further examples show the flexibility of TINTE: first of all, individual moduli of TINTE are used to find a solution to a thermofluid problem. In addition TINTE is used to demonstrate the mutual feedback between nuclear and thermal processes in process heat reactors, including those with natural convective conditions, without any control rod movement. (orig.) [de

  16. Terahertz spectroscopy of two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Abul K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chen, Houtong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Hara, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Jiaguang [OSU; Lu, Xinchao [OSU; Zhang, Weili [OSU

    2009-01-01

    The fascinating properties of plasmonic structures have had significant impact on the development of next generation ultracompact photonic and optoelectronic components. We study two-dimensional plasmonic structures functioning at terahertz frequencies. Resonant terahertz response due to surface plasmons and dipole localized surface plasmons were investigated by the state-of-the-art terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) using both transmission and reflection configurations. Extraordinary terahertz transmission was demonstrated through the subwavelength metallic hole arrays made from good conducting metals as well as poor metals. Metallic arrays m!lde from Pb, generally a poor metal, and having optically thin thicknesses less than one-third of a skin depth also contributed in enhanced THz transmission. A direct transition of a surface plasmon resonance from a photonic crystal minimum was observed in a photo-doped semiconductor array. Electrical controls of the surface plasmon resonances by hybridization of the Schottkey diode between the metallic grating and the semiconductor substrate are investigated as a function of the applied reverse bias. In addition, we have demonstrated photo-induced creation and annihilation of surface plasmons with appropriate semiconductors at room temperature. According to the Fano model, the transmission properties are characterized by two essential contributions: resonant excitation of surface plasmons and nonresonant direct transmission. Such plasmonic structures may find fascinating applications in terahertz imaging, biomedical sensing, subwavelength terahertz spectroscopy, tunable filters, and integrated terahertz devices.

  17. Tracer dispersion in two-dimensional rough fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazer, G; Koplik, J

    2001-05-01

    Tracer diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in two-dimensional fractures with self-affine roughness are studied by analytic and numerical methods. Numerical simulations were performed via the lattice-Boltzmann approach, using a boundary condition for tracer particles that improves the accuracy of the method. The reduction in the diffusive transport, due to the fractal geometry of the fracture surfaces, is analyzed for different fracture apertures. In the limit of small aperture fluctuations we derive the correction to the diffusive coefficient in terms of the tortuosity, which accounts for the irregular geometry of the fractures. Dispersion is studied when the two fracture surfaces are simply displaced normally to the mean fracture plane and when there is a lateral shift as well. Numerical results are analyzed using the Lambda parameter, related to convective transport within the fracture, and simple arguments based on lubrication approximation. At very low Péclet number, in the case where fracture surfaces are laterally shifted, we show using several different methods that convective transport reduces dispersion.

  18. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  19. Thermal analysis of two-dimensional structures in fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pierin

    Full Text Available The structural materials, as reinforced concrete, steel, wood and aluminum, when heated have their mechanical proprieties degraded. In fire, the structures are subject to elevated temperatures and consequently the load capacity of the structural elements is reduced. The Brazilian and European standards show the minimal dimensions for the structural elements had an adequate bearing capacity in fire. However, several structural checks are not contemplated in methods provided by the standards. In these situations, the knowledge of the temperature distributions inside of structural elements as function of time of exposition is required. The aim of this paper is present software developed by the authors called ATERM. The software performs the thermal transient analysis of two-dimensional structures. The structure may be formed of any material and heating is provided by means of a curve of temperature versus time. The data input and the visualization of the results is performed thought the GiD software. Several examples are compared with software Super TempCalc and ANSYS. Some conclusions and recommendations about the thermal analysis are presented

  20. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.