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Sample records for two-dimensional droplet size

  1. Exact solutions for the static dewetting of two-dimensional charged conducting droplets on a substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowdy, Darren

    2015-06-01

    A one parameter family of analytical solutions for the equilibrium shapes of two-dimensional charged conducting droplets on a substrate with 90° contact angle is presented. The solutions exhibit the tendency to dewet at the droplet centre as the electrostatic stress increases. Such electrostatic deformations are believed to underlie the recently observed stick-slip dynamics of nanodroplets on substrates. Our theoretical results complement a number of other recent analytical and numerical studies of this phenomenon.

  2. Size-dispersity effects in two-dimensional melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Satoshi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of size dispersity on two-dimensional melting transitions, hard-disk systems with equimolar bidispersity are studied by means of particle dynamics simulations. From the nonequilibrium relaxation behaviors of bond-orientational order parameters, we find that (i) there is a critical dispersity at which the melting transition of the hexagonal solid vanishes and (ii) the quadratic structure is metastable in a certain region of the dispersity-density parameter space. These results suggest that the dispersity not only destroys order but produces new structures under certain specific conditions.

  3. Spontaneous assembly of chemically encoded two-dimensional coacervate droplet arrays by acoustic wave patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liangfei; Martin, Nicolas; Bassindale, Philip G.; Patil, Avinash J.; Li, Mei; Barnes, Adrian; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Mann, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    The spontaneous assembly of chemically encoded, molecularly crowded, water-rich micro-droplets into periodic defect-free two-dimensional arrays is achieved in aqueous media by a combination of an acoustic standing wave pressure field and in situ complex coacervation. Acoustically mediated coalescence of primary droplets generates single-droplet per node micro-arrays that exhibit variable surface-attachment properties, spontaneously uptake dyes, enzymes and particles, and display spatial and time-dependent fluorescence outputs when exposed to a reactant diffusion gradient. In addition, coacervate droplet arrays exhibiting dynamical behaviour and exchange of matter are prepared by inhibiting coalescence to produce acoustically trapped lattices of droplet clusters that display fast and reversible changes in shape and spatial configuration in direct response to modulations in the acoustic frequencies and fields. Our results offer a novel route to the design and construction of `water-in-water' micro-droplet arrays with controllable spatial organization, programmable signalling pathways and higher order collective behaviour.

  4. Droplets pinned at chemically inhomogenous substrates: A simulation study of the two-dimensional Ising case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Binder, Kurt

    2016-05-01

    As a simplified model of a liquid nanostripe adsorbed on a chemically structured substrate surface, a two-dimensional Ising system with two boundaries at which surface fields act is studied. At the upper boundary, the surface field is uniformly negative, while at the lower boundary (a distance L apart), the surface field is negative only outside a range of extension b , where a positive surface stabilizes a droplet of the phase with positive magnetization for temperatures T exceeding the critical temperature Tw of the wetting transition of this model. We investigate the local order parameter profiles across the droplet, both in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the substrate, varying both b and T . Also, precursor effects to droplet formation as T approaches Tw from below are studied. In accord with theoretical predictions, for T >Tw the droplet is found to have the shape of a semiellipse, where the width (distance of the interface from the substrate) scale is proportional to b (b1 /2). So, the area of the droplet is proportional to b3 /2, and the temperature dependence of the corresponding prefactor, which also involves the interfacial stiffness, is studied.

  5. The intrinsic two-dimensional size of Sagittarius A*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Geoffrey C. [Academica Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics (ASIAA), 645 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Markoff, Sera [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Brunthaler, Andreas; Falcke, Heino [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Law, Casey [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, UC Berkeley, B-20 Hearst Field Annex, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Maitra, Dipankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766 (United States); Clavel, M.; Goldwurm, A. [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, F-75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Morris, M. R.; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A. M., E-mail: grower@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array observations at a wavelength of 7 mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major-axis size 35.4 × 12.6 R{sub S} in position angle 95° east of north. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95°. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major-axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports the conclusion that NIR and X-ray flares are primarily due to electron excitation and not to an enhanced accretion rate onto the black hole.

  6. The Intrinsic Two-Dimensional Size of Sagittarius A*

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Geoffrey C; Brunthaler, Andreas; Law, Casey; Falcke, Heino; Maitra, Dipankar; Clavel, M; Goldwurm, A; Morris, M R; Witzel, Gunther; Meyer, Leo; Ghez, A M

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection of the two-dimensional structure of the radio source associated with the Galactic Center black hole, Sagittarius A*, obtained from Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at a wavelength of 7mm. The intrinsic source is modeled as an elliptical Gaussian with major axis size 35.4 x 12.6 R_S in position angle 95 deg East of North. This morphology can be interpreted in the context of both jet and accretion disk models for the radio emission. There is supporting evidence in large angular-scale multi-wavelength observations for both source models for a preferred axis near 95 deg. We also place a maximum peak-to-peak change of 15% in the intrinsic major axis size over five different epochs. Three observations were triggered by detection of near infrared (NIR) flares and one was simultaneous with a large X-ray flare detected by NuSTAR. The absence of simultaneous and quasi-simultaneous flares indicates that not all high energy events produce variability at radio wavelengths. This supports...

  7. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. I. Droplet Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2013-11-01

    This is the first in a series of two papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for a two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion, also known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model, in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In that model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. We focus on the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In this paper we show that an appropriate setting for Γ-convergence in the considered parameter regime is via weak convergence of the suitably normalized charge density in the sense of measures. We prove that, after a suitable rescaling, the Ohta-Kawasaki energy functional Γ-converges to a quadratic energy functional of the limit charge density generated by the screened Coulomb kernel. A consequence of our results is that minimizers (or almost minimizers) of the energy have droplets which are almost all asymptotically round, have the same radius and are uniformly distributed in the domain. The proof relies mainly on the analysis of the sharp interface version of the energy, with the connection to the original diffuse interface model obtained via matching upper and lower bounds for the energy. We thus also obtain an asymptotic characterization of the energy minimizers in the diffuse interface model.

  8. [Development of a droplet-interfaced high performance liquid chromatography-capillary electrophoresis two dimensional separation platform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Linquan; Wu, Qingshi; Dai, Simin; Xiao, Zhiliang; Zhang, Bo

    2011-09-01

    Proteomics demands high resolution multidimensional separation techniques due to its extremely high complexity. Droplet microfluidics provides a series of unique advantages in manipulating micro and nanolitre samples, such as micro-volume operation, limited diffusion and none cross-contaminating, therefore has the potential to be an ideal interface strategy for multidimensional separation. Using the microchips of different structures, functions such as "droplet generation" and "oil depletion" can be realized. Based on these functions, samples can be transferred from continuous flow to segmented flow and then back to continuous flow. In this way, different separation modes can be combined. In this study, droplet technology was utilized as a novel interface strategy in combining high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Using tryptic peptides mixture as a sample, this two dimensional HPLC-CE system provided high resolution separation with a peak capacity over 3000. This proof-of-principle study has demonstrated the usefulness of droplet interface technology in multidimensional separation.

  9. The Γ-Limit of the Two-Dimensional Ohta-Kawasaki Energy. Droplet Arrangement via the Renormalized Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Dorian; Muratov, Cyrill B.; Serfaty, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    This is the second in a series of papers in which we derive a Γ-expansion for the two-dimensional non-local Ginzburg-Landau energy with Coulomb repulsion known as the Ohta-Kawasaki model in connection with diblock copolymer systems. In this model, two phases appear, which interact via a nonlocal Coulomb type energy. Here we focus on the sharp interface version of this energy in the regime where one of the phases has very small volume fraction, thus creating small "droplets" of the minority phase in a "sea" of the majority phase. In our previous paper, we computed the Γ-limit of the leading order energy, which yields the averaged behavior for almost minimizers, namely that the density of droplets should be uniform. Here we go to the next order and derive a next order Γ-limit energy, which is exactly the Coulombian renormalized energy obtained by Sandier and Serfaty as a limiting interaction energy for vortices in the magnetic Ginzburg-Landau model. The derivation is based on the abstract scheme of Sandier-Serfaty that serves to obtain lower bounds for 2-scale energies and express them through some probabilities on patterns via the multiparameter ergodic theorem. Thus, without appealing to the Euler-Lagrange equation, we establish for all configurations which have "almost minimal energy" the asymptotic roundness and radius of the droplets, and the fact that they asymptotically shrink to points whose arrangement minimizes the renormalized energy in some averaged sense. Via a kind of Γ-equivalence, the obtained results also yield an expansion of the minimal energy and a characterization of the zero super-level sets of the minimizers for the original Ohta-Kawasaki energy. This leads to the expectation of seeing triangular lattices of droplets as energy minimizers.

  10. Integrated microfluidic system capable of size-specific droplet generation with size-dependent droplet separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangmin; Hong, Seok Jun; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2013-06-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is receiving much attention in biomedical research area due to its advantage in uniform size droplet generation. Our previous results have reported that droplet size plays an important role in drug delivery actuated by flagellated bacteria. Recently, many research groups have been reported the size-dependent separation of emulsion droplets by a microfluidic system. In this paper, an integrated microfluidic system is proposed to produce and sort specificsized droplets sequentially. Operation of the system relies on two microfluidic transport processes: initial generation of droplets by hydrodynamic focusing and subsequent separation of droplets by a T-junction channel. The microfluidic system is fabricated by the SU-8 rapid prototyping method and poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) replica molding. A biodegradable polymer, poly-capro-lactone (PCL), is used for the droplet material. Using the proposed integrated microfluidic system, specific-sized droplets which can be delivered by flagellated bacteria are successfully generated and obtained.

  11. Two-Dimensional Echo-cardiographic Estimation of the Size of the Mitral Valve Annulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigenobu,Masaharu

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of the mitral annulus as measured on the long axis by two-dimensional echocardiogram was found to correlate well with the size of the sewing ring used to replace the mitral valve in 35 consecutive patients. The size of the prosthesis which was used could be predicted within 1 mm of error in 83% of the mitral stenosis (MS patients and in 76% of the mitral regurgitation (MR patients in the study. Preoperative echocardiographic estimation of the size of the mitral valve annulus and prediction of the sewing ring size of the prosthetic valve used could reduce the incidence of valve prosthesis-patient mismatch.

  12. Retrieving the size of particles with rough and complex surfaces from two-dimensional scattering patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulanowski, Z.; Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Greenaway, R.

    2012-12-01

    Scattered intensity measurement is a commonly used method for determining the size of small particles. However, it requires calibration and is subject to errors due to changes in incident irradiance or detector sensitivity. Analysis of two-dimensional scattering patterns offers an alternative approach. We test morphological image processing operations on patterns from a diverse range of particles with rough surfaces and/or complex structure, including mineral dust, spores, pollen, ice analogs and sphere clusters from 4 to 88 μm in size. It is found that the median surface area of intensity peaks is the most robust measure, and it is inversely proportional to particle size. The trend holds well for most particle types, as long as substantial roughness or complexity is present. One important application of this technique is the sizing of atmospheric particles, such as ice crystals.

  13. Estimation of drug particle size in intact tablets by two dimensional X-ray diffractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Seema; Thakral, Naveen K; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2017-09-09

    The average grain size of a crystalline material can be determined from the γ-profile of Debye rings in two-dimensional X-ray diffraction (2D XRD) frames. Our objectives were to: (i) validate the method for organic powders and use it to determine the grain size in intact tablets, and (ii) demonstrate the pharmaceutical application of this technique by determining the grain size of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in marketed formulations. Six sieve fractions of sucrose were prepared and the particle size distribution was confirmed by laser diffraction. Their average grain size was determined from the 2D XRD frames by the γ-profile method. For particles size determined by the three methods were in good agreement. When these particles were compressed, there was no discernible change in the sucrose grain size in tablets. When the particles were > 250 μm, compression resulted in a mixture of large grains and fine powder. The grain size of acetaminophen in eleven marketed tablet formulations was determined to be either ∼ 35 μm or ∼ 80 μm. This non-destructive technique can therefore be potentially useful to estimate the grain size of crystalline formulation components in intact tablets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Determination of phytate in high molecular weight, charged organic matrices by two-dimensional size exclusion-ion chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-dimensional chromatography method for analyzing anionic targets (specifically phytate) in complex matrices is described. Prior to quantification by anion exchange chromatography, the sample matrix was prepared by size exclusion chromatography, which removed the majority of matrix complexities....

  15. A Ternary Solvent Method for Large-Sized Two-Dimensional Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junnian; Gan, Lin; Zhuge, Fuwei; Li, Huiqiao; Song, Jizhong; Zeng, Haibo; Zhai, Tianyou

    2017-02-20

    Recent reports demonstrate that a two-dimensional (2D) structural characteristic can endow perovskites with both remarkable photoelectric conversion efficiency and high stability, but the synthesis of ultrathin 2D perovskites with large sizes by facile solution methods is still a challenge. Reported herein is the controlled growth of 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites by a chlorobenzene-dimethylformide-acetonitrile ternary solvent method. The critical factors, including solvent volume ratio, crystallization temperature, and solvent polarity on the growth dynamics were systematically studied. Under optimum reaction condition, 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBr4 perovskites, with the largest lateral dimension of up to 40 μm and smallest thickness down to a few nanometers, were fabricated. Furthermore, various iodine doped 2D (C4 H9 NH3 )2 PbBrx I4-x perovskites were accessed to tune the optical properties rationally.

  16. Size Effect of a Negatively Charged Exciton in a Two-Dimensional Quantum Dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chao; XIE Wen-Fang

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study a negatively charged exciton (NCE), which is trapped by a two-dimensional (2D) parabolic potential.By using matrix diagonalization techniques, the correlation energies of the low-lying states with L = O, 1, and 2 are calculated as a function of confinement strength.We find that the size effects of different states are different.This phenomenon can be explained as a hidden symmetry, which is originated purely from symmetry.Based on symmetry, the features of the low-lying states are discussed in the influence of the 2D parabolic potential well.It is found that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states.It is shown that the effect of quantum confinement on the binding energy of the heavy hole is stronger than that of a light hole.

  17. Size effect on brittle and ductile fracture of two-dimensional interlinked carbon nanotube network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuhang; Aluru, N. R.

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties of two-dimensional (2D) interlinked carbon nanotube (CNT) network are investigated using ab initio calculation and molecular dynamics simulations (MD) with Reaxff force field. The simulation results show that bulk 2D interlinked CNT network has good mechanical properties along the axial direction which can be comparable to that of single-walled CNT and graphene, but has better ductility along the radial direction than single-walled CNT and graphene. In addition, the mechanical properties of 2D interlinked CNT network ribbon along the radial direction depend strongly on the size of the ribbon. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio decrease as the size increases while the fracture strain increases with the size increasing. By analyzing the atomic structural (both bond length and atomic von Mises stress) evolution of the ribbons, the mechanism of a brittle-to-ductile transition is revealed. The exploration of the mechanical properties of the 2D interlinked CNT network paves the way for application of the relevant devices that can benefit from the high Young's modulus, high tensile strength, and good ductility.

  18. Slip or not slip? A methodical examination of the interface formation model using two-dimensional droplet spreading on a horizontal planar substrate as a prototype system

    CERN Document Server

    Sibley, David N; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2012-01-01

    We consider the spreading of a thin two-dimensional droplet on a planar substrate as a prototype system to compare the contemporary model for contact line motion based on interface formation of Shikhmurzaev [Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 19, 589 (1993)], to the more commonly used continuum fluid dynamical equations augmented with the Navier-slip condition. Considering quasistatic droplet evolution and using the method of matched asymptotics, we find that the evolution of the droplet radius using the interface formation model reduces to an equivalent expression for a slip model, where the prescribed microscopic dynamic contact angle has a velocity dependent correction to its static value. This result is found for both the original interface formation model formulation and for a more recent version, where mass transfer from bulk to surface layers is accounted for through the boundary conditions. Various features of the model, such as the pressure behaviour and rolling motion at the contact line, and their relevance, ...

  19. Size from Specular Highlights for Analyzing Droplet Size Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, Andrei C.; Westenberg, Michel A.; Grooten, Mart H. M.

    In mechanical engineering, heat-transfer models by dropwise condensation are under development. The condensation process is captured by taking many pictures, which show the formation of droplets, of which the size distribution and area coverage are of interest for model improvement. The current analysis method relies on manual measurements, which is time consuming. In this paper, we propose an approach to automatically extract the positions and radii of the droplets from an image. Our method relies on specular highlights that are visible on the surfaces of the droplets. We show that these highlights can be reliably extracted, and that they provide sufficient information to infer the droplet size. The results obtained by our method compare favorably with those obtained by laborious and careful manual measurements. The processing time per image is reduced by two orders of magnitude.

  20. Wafer-sized multifunctional polyimine-based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with high mechanical stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabudeen, Hafeesudeen; Qi, Haoyuan; Glatz, Bernhard Alexander; Tranca, Diana; Dong, Renhao; Hou, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Kuttner, Christian; Lehnert, Tibor; Seifert, Gotthard; Kaiser, Ute; Fery, Andreas; Zheng, Zhikun; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    One of the key challenges in two-dimensional (2D) materials is to go beyond graphene, a prototype 2D polymer (2DP), and to synthesize its organic analogues with structural control at the atomic- or molecular-level. Here we show the successful preparation of porphyrin-containing monolayer and multilayer 2DPs through Schiff-base polycondensation reaction at an air–water and liquid–liquid interface, respectively. Both the monolayer and multilayer 2DPs have crystalline structures as indicated by selected area electron diffraction. The monolayer 2DP has a thickness of∼0.7 nm with a lateral size of 4-inch wafer, and it has a Young's modulus of 267±30 GPa. Notably, the monolayer 2DP functions as an active semiconducting layer in a thin film transistor, while the multilayer 2DP from cobalt-porphyrin monomer efficiently catalyses hydrogen generation from water. This work presents an advance in the synthesis of novel 2D materials for electronics and energy-related applications. PMID:27849053

  1. Wafer-sized multifunctional polyimine-based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with high mechanical stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabudeen, Hafeesudeen; Qi, Haoyuan; Glatz, Bernhard Alexander; Tranca, Diana; Dong, Renhao; Hou, Yang; Zhang, Tao; Kuttner, Christian; Lehnert, Tibor; Seifert, Gotthard; Kaiser, Ute; Fery, Andreas; Zheng, Zhikun; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-11-01

    One of the key challenges in two-dimensional (2D) materials is to go beyond graphene, a prototype 2D polymer (2DP), and to synthesize its organic analogues with structural control at the atomic- or molecular-level. Here we show the successful preparation of porphyrin-containing monolayer and multilayer 2DPs through Schiff-base polycondensation reaction at an air-water and liquid-liquid interface, respectively. Both the monolayer and multilayer 2DPs have crystalline structures as indicated by selected area electron diffraction. The monolayer 2DP has a thickness of~0.7 nm with a lateral size of 4-inch wafer, and it has a Young's modulus of 267+/-30 GPa. Notably, the monolayer 2DP functions as an active semiconducting layer in a thin film transistor, while the multilayer 2DP from cobalt-porphyrin monomer efficiently catalyses hydrogen generation from water. This work presents an advance in the synthesis of novel 2D materials for electronics and energy-related applications.

  2. Determination of grain-size distribution function using two-dimensional Fourier transforms of tone-pulse-encoded images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1988-01-01

    Microstructural images may be tone pulse encoded and subsequently Fourier transformed to determine the two-dimensional density of frequency components. A theory is developed relating the density of frequency components to the density of length components. The density of length components corresponds directly to the actual grain-size distribution function from which the mean grain shape, size, and orientation can be obtained.

  3. Determination of grain size distribution function using two-dimensional Fourier transforms of tone pulse encoded images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, E. R.

    1986-01-01

    Microstructural images may be tone pulse encoded and subsequently Fourier transformed to determine the two-dimensional density of frequency components. A theory is developed relating the density of frequency components to the density of length components. The density of length components corresponds directly to the actual grain size distribution function from which the mean grain shape, size, and orientation can be obtained.

  4. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  5. Droplet size influences division of mammalian cell factories in droplet microfluidic cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem Kumar; Joensson, Haakan N.; Svahn, Helene Andersson

    2017-01-01

    The potential of using droplet microfluidics for screening mammalian cell factories has been limited by the difficulty in achieving continuous cell division during cultivation in droplets. Here, we report the influence of droplet size on mammalian cell division and viability during cultivation...... in droplets. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the most widely used mammalian host cells for biopharmaceuticals production were encapsulated and cultivated in 33, 180 and 320 pL droplets for 3 days. Periodic monitoring of the droplets during incubation showed that the cell divisions in 33 pL droplets stopped...... after 24 h, whereas continuous cell division was observed in 180 and 320 pL droplets for 72 h. The viability of the cells cultivated in the 33 pL droplets also dropped to about 50% in 72 h. In contrast, the viability of the cells in the larger droplets was above 90% even after 72 h of cultivation...

  6. Droplet size influences division of mammalian cell factories in droplet microfluidic cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periyannan Rajeswari, Prem Kumar; Joensson, Haakan N; Andersson-Svahn, Helene

    2017-01-01

    The potential of using droplet microfluidics for screening mammalian cell factories has been limited by the difficulty in achieving continuous cell division during cultivation in droplets. Here, we report the influence of droplet size on mammalian cell division and viability during cultivation in droplets. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the most widely used mammalian host cells for biopharmaceuticals production were encapsulated and cultivated in 33, 180 and 320 pL droplets for 3 days. Periodic monitoring of the droplets during incubation showed that the cell divisions in 33 pL droplets stopped after 24 h, whereas continuous cell division was observed in 180 and 320 pL droplets for 72 h. The viability of the cells cultivated in the 33 pL droplets also dropped to about 50% in 72 h. In contrast, the viability of the cells in the larger droplets was above 90% even after 72 h of cultivation, making them a more suitable droplet size for 72-h cultivation. This study shows a direct correlation of microfluidic droplet size to the division and viability of mammalian cells. This highlights the importance of selecting suitable droplet size for mammalian cell factory screening assays. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Møller-Sonnergaard, Jørn; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution. Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions. The multivariate data analysis was proven to be an efficient tool for evaluating the full information contained in a distribution.

  8. Droplet size distribution in homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlekar, Prasad; Biferale, Luca; Sbragaglia, Mauro; Srivastava, Sudhir; Toschi, Federico

    2012-06-01

    We study the physics of droplet breakup in a statistically stationary homogeneous and isotropic turbulent flow by means of high resolution numerical investigations based on the multicomponent lattice Boltzmann method. We verified the validity of the criterion proposed by Hinze [AIChE J. 1, 289 (1955)] for droplet breakup and we measured the full probability distribution function of droplets radii at different Reynolds numbers and for different volume fractions. By means of a Lagrangian tracking we could follow individual droplets along their trajectories, define a local Weber number based on the velocity gradients, and study its cross-correlation with droplet deformation.

  9. Fabrication of Two-Dimensional Arrays of Micron-Sized Gold Rings Based on Preferential Nucleation at Reentrant Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Wen; GUO Xiang; WANG Si-Zhen; WANG Zhen-Lin; MING Nai-Ben

    2008-01-01

    @@ A templating method for fabricating two-dimensional (2D) arrays of micron-sized gold rings is reported. The microstructures are formed by electroless plating in a through-porous polymer membrane on a silicon substrate obtained from a closed-packed silica colloidal crystal. Our results show that the sizes of gold rings can be altered by varying electroless plating conditions for the porous polystyrene membranes. Moreover, we explain the growth mechanism of gold rings using the classical crystal growth theory that is preferential nucleation at reentrant sites.

  10. Finite size scaling study of dynamical phase transitions in two dimensional models: ferromagnet, symmetric and non symmetric spin glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.U.; Derrida, B.

    1988-10-01

    We study the time evolution of two configurations submitted to the same thermal noise for several two dimensional models (Ising ferromagnet, symmetric spin glass, non symmetric spin glass). For all these models, we find a non zero critical temperature above which the two configurations always meet. Using finite size scaling ideas, we determine for these three models this dynamical phase transition and some of the critical exponents. For the ferromagnet, the transition T/sub c/ approx. = 2.25 coincides with the Curie temperature whereas for the two spin glass models +- J distribution of bonds) we obtain T/sub c/ approx. = 1.5-1.7.

  11. Size reduction of the transfer matrix of two-dimensional Ising and Potts models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghaemi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available  A new algebraic method is developed to reduce the size of the transfer matrix of Ising and three-state Potts ferromagnets on strips of width r sites of square and triangular lattices. This size reduction has been set up in such a way that the maximum eigenvalues of both the reduced and the original transfer matrices became exactly the same. In this method we write the original transfer matrix in a special blocked form in such a way that the sums of row elements of a block of the original transfer matrix be the same. The reduced matrix is obtained by replacing each block of the original transfer matrix with the sum of the elements of one of its rows. Our method results in significant matrix size reduction which is a crucial factor in determining the maximum eigenvalue.

  12. Finite size scaling analysis of intermittency moments in the two dimensional Ising model

    CERN Document Server

    Burda, Z; Peschanski, R; Wosiek, J

    1993-01-01

    Finite size scaling is shown to work very well for the block variables used in intermittency studies on a 2-d Ising lattice. The intermittency exponents so derived exhibit the expected relations to the magnetic critical exponent of the model. Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  13. Modulation on the collective response behavior by the system size in two-dimensional coupled cell systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jiqian; SHEN; Chuansheng; CUI; Zhifeng

    2006-01-01

    By the intracellular calcium ionic minimal model proposed by Berridge, we investigated the collective response of two-dimensional (N×N) coupled cell systems to the external stimulation using numerical simulation methods. With a coupled intensity fixed and an appropriate coupled cell number chosen, the kinetic system size resonance was discovered. At the same time, it was found that the system size responding to the external stimulation for different coupled intensities transferred too, especially when the coupled intensity increased, the range of the corresponding system size extended. These phenomena illustrate that the coupled cell number and the coupled intensity can play constructive roles in noisy coupled systems, by which the biology system would probably improve its capability to respond to the external stimulation.

  14. Sensitive and predictable separation of microfluidic droplets by size using in-line passive filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ruihua; Ung, W Lloyd; Heyman, John A; Weitz, David A

    2017-01-01

    Active manipulation of droplets is crucial in droplet microfluidics. However, droplet polydispersity decreases the accuracy of active manipulation. We develop a microfluidic "droplet filter" that accurately separates droplets by size. The droplet filter has a sharp size cutoff and is capable of distinguishing droplets differing in volume by 20%. A simple model explains the behavior of the droplets as they pass through the filter. We show application of the filter in improving dielectric sorting efficiency.

  15. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose....... Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions....... The multivariate data analysis was proven to be an efficient tool for evaluating the full information contained in a distribution. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc....

  16. Determination of phytate in high molecular weight, charged organic matrices by two-dimensional size exclusion-ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, Kyle R; Slingsby, Rosanne; Bryant, Ray B

    2016-08-15

    A two-dimensional chromatography method for analyzing phytate or other ionic targets in matrices containing high molecular weight, charged organic species is described. Prior to quantification by anion exchange chromatography, the sample matrix was prepared by size exclusion chromatography, which removed the majority of the matrix. Quantification of phytate on the AS11-HC was sensitive (0.25µM, 0.17mg/l) and reproducible (4.6% RSD) allowing this method to provide baseline separation of phytate from a manure extract within 14min. The method is simple, requiring only sample filtering, reproducible (between-run variation 5% RSD) and linear from 0.38 to 76µM (0.25-50mg/l). The method is suitable for routine determination of phytate in high organic matrices such as manure extracts.

  17. Size-Dependent Biexciton Quantum Yields and Carrier Dynamics of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Core/Shell Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuedan; Diroll, Benjamin T; Cho, Wooje; Fedin, Igor; Schaller, Richard D; Talapin, Dmitri V; Gray, Stephen K; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Gosztola, David J

    2017-09-05

    Quasi-two-dimensional nanoplatelets (NPLs) possess fundamentally different excitonic properties from zero-dimensional quantum dots. We study lateral size-dependent photon emission statistics and carrier dynamics of individual NPLs using second-order photon correlation (g((2))(τ)) spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) intensity-dependent lifetime analysis. Room-temperature radiative lifetimes of NPLs can be derived from maximum PL intensity periods in PL time traces. It first decreases with NPL lateral size and then stays constant, deviating from the electric dipole approximation. Analysis of the PL time traces further reveals that the single exciton quantum yield in NPLs decreases with NPL lateral size and increases with protecting shell thickness, indicating the importance of surface passivation on NPL emission quality. Second-order photon correlation (g((2))(τ)) studies of single NPLs show that the biexciton quantum yield is strongly dependent on the lateral size and single exciton quantum yield of the NPLs. In large NPLs with unity single exciton quantum yield, the corresponding biexciton quantum yield can reach unity. These findings reveal that by careful growth control and core-shell material engineering, NPLs can be of great potential for light amplification and integrated quantum photonic applications.

  18. CdTe magic-sized clusters and the use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional nanoplatelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hu; Hou, Yumei; Zhang, Hua

    2017-06-01

    A facile one-pot noninjection synthesis of CdTe magic-sized clusters (MSCs) and their use as building blocks for assembling two-dimensional (2D) quantum confined nanoplatelets (NPLs) are reported. Four distinct MSC families, with the first exciton absorption peaks at 447 nm (F447), 485 nm (F485), 535 nm (F535), and 555 nm (F555), are synthesized by the reaction between cadmium oleate and trioctylphosphine tellurium (TOP-Te) in octadecene media containing primary amine and TOP at appropriate intermediate temperatures. Especially, F447 is obtained in pure form and can self-assemble in situ into 2D NPLs in the reaction solution. The formation, growth, and transformation of CdTe MSCs are monitored mainly by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The pure F447 and its assembled 2D NPLs are further characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of various experimental variables, including reaction temperature, the nature, and amount of capping ligands, on the stability and growth kinetics of the obtained MSC families has been systematically investigated. Experimental results indicate that the appropriate reaction temperature and the presence of long hydrocarbon chain primary amines play a crucial role in the formation of MSCs and the subsequent assembly into 2D NPLs. Primary amines can also promote ultra-small sized CdTe regular nanocrystals to transform into MSCs, and therefore, CdTe MSCs can be obtained indirectly from regularly sized nanocrystals. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Correction of raindrop size distributions measured by Parsivel disdrometers, using a two-dimensional video disdrometer as a reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Raupach

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The raindrop size distribution (DSD quantifies the microstructure of rainfall and is critical to studying precipitation processes. We present a method to improve the accuracy of DSD measurements from Parsivel (particle size and velocity disdrometers, using a two-dimensional video disdrometer (2DVD as a reference instrument. Parsivel disdrometers bin raindrops into velocity and equivolume diameter classes, but may misestimate the number of drops per class. In our correction method, drop velocities are corrected with reference to theoretical models of terminal drop velocity. We define a filter for raw disdrometer measurements to remove particles that are unlikely to be plausible raindrops. Drop concentrations are corrected such that on average the Parsivel concentrations match those recorded by a 2DVD. The correction can be trained on and applied to data from both generations of OTT Parsivel disdrometers, and indeed any disdrometer in general. The method was applied to data collected during field campaigns in Mediterranean France for a network of first- and second-generation Parsivel disdrometers, and on a first-generation Parsivel in Payerne, Switzerland. We compared the moments of the resulting DSDs to those of a collocated 2DVD, and the resulting DSD-derived rain rates to collocated rain gauges. The correction improved the accuracy of the moments of the Parsivel DSDs, and in the majority of cases the rain rate match with collocated rain gauges was improved. In addition, the correction was shown to be similar for two different climatologies, suggesting its general applicability.

  20. Optical droplet vaporization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon droplets and their photoacoustic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael

    2011-03-01

    An acoustic and photoacoustic characterization of micron-sized perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets is presented. PFC droplets are currently being investigated as acoustic and photoacoustic contrast agents and as cancer therapy agents. Pulse echo measurements at 375 MHz were used to determine the diameter, ranging from 3.2 to 6.5 μm, and the sound velocity, ranging from 311 to 406 m/s of nine droplets. An average sound velocity of 379 +/- 18 m/s was calculated for droplets larger than the ultrasound beam width of 4.0 μm. Optical droplet vaporization, where vaporization of a single droplet occurred upon laser irradiation of sufficient intensity, was verified using pulse echo acoustic methods. The ultrasonic backscatter amplitude, acoustic impedance and attenuation increased after vaporization, consistent with a phase change from a liquid to gas core. Photoacoustic measurements were used to compare the spectra of three droplets ranging in diameter from 3.0 to 6.2 μm to a theoretical model. Good agreement in the spectral features was observed over the bandwidth of the 375 MHz transducer.

  1. Droplet size measurements for spray dryer scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, Pia; Hovgaard, Lars; Andersen, Sune Klint; Lindeløv, Jesper Saederup

    2008-01-01

    This study was dedicated to facilitate scale-up in spray drying from an atomization standpoint. The purpose was to investigate differences in operating conditions between a pilot and a production scale nozzle. The intension was to identify the operating ranges in which the two nozzles produced similar droplet size distributions. Furthermore, method optimization and validation were also covered. Externally mixing two-fluid nozzles of similar designs were used in this study. Both nozzles are typically used in commercially available spray dryers, and they have been characterized with respect to droplet size distributions as a function of liquid type, liquid flow rate, atomization gas flow rate, liquid orifice diameter, and atomization gas orifice diameter. All droplet size measurements were carried out by using the Malvern Spraytec with nozzle operating conditions corresponding to typical settings for spray drying. This gave droplets with Sauter Mean Diameters less than 40 microm and typically 5-20 microm. A model previously proposed by Mansour and Chigier was used to correlate the droplet size to the operating parameters. It was possible to make a correlation for water incorporating the droplet sizes for both the pilot scale and the production scale nozzle. However, a single correlation was not able to account properly for the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the droplet size distributions of ethanol could not be adequately predicted on the basis of the water data. This study has shown that it was possible to scale up from a pilot to production scale nozzle in a systematic fashion. However, a prerequisite was that the nozzles were geometrically similar. When externally mixing two-fluid nozzles are used as atomizers, the results obtained from this study could be a useful guideline for selecting appropriate operating conditions when scaling up the spray-drying process.

  2. Evaporation of Droplets on Superhydrophobic Surfaces: Surface Roughness and Small Droplet Size Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Ma, Ruiyuan; Li, Jintao; Hao, Chonglei; Guo, Wei; Luk, B. L.; Li, Shuai Cheng; Yao, Shuhuai; Wang, Zuankai

    2012-09-01

    Evaporation of a sessile droplet is a complex, nonequilibrium phenomenon. Although evaporating droplets upon superhydrophobic surfaces have been known to exhibit distinctive evaporation modes such as a constant contact line (CCL), a constant contact angle (CCA), or both, our fundamental understanding of the effects of surface roughness on the wetting transition remains elusive. We show that the onset time for the CCL-CCA transition and the critical base size at the Cassie-Wenzel transition exhibit remarkable dependence on the surface roughness. Through global interfacial energy analysis we reveal that, when the size of the evaporating droplet becomes comparable to the surface roughness, the line tension at the triple line becomes important in the prediction of the critical base size. Last, we show that both the CCL evaporation mode and the Cassie-Wenzel transition can be effectively inhibited by engineering a surface with hierarchical roughness.

  3. Self-Assembled Two-Dimensional Array of Gold Nanoparticles with Different Size for the Sensing Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Chao; Park, Sang-Eun; Kim, Jongsung; Lee, Sang-Wha

    2009-06-01

    Self-assembled two-dimensional array of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on the glass substrate was systematically investigated in terms of glass cleaning, K2CO3 addition, GNP size, and pH of gold colloids. An ambient-air plasma treatment produced a highly-activated glass surface with the lowest air/water contact angles and K2CO3 addition is very effective to preserve the optical properties of gold nanoparticles for a long time. Small GNPs (≤40 nm) was uniformly arrayed on the amine-functionalized glass through the optimization process of electrostatic attractions between positively-charged glass and negatively-charged gold nanoparticles. For large GNPs (≥50 nm) that resulted in discrete (or loosely-packed) array on the glass substrate, pH adjustment of gold colloids (from pH 11 to 9) produced more densely-packed array of GNPs with less void areas, probably due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsion forces between large gold nanoparticles.

  4. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography analysis of synthetic polymers using fast size exclusion chromatography at high column temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyuhyun; Park, Hae-Woong; Lee, Sekyung; Chang, Taihyun

    2009-05-22

    In recent years, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) has been used increasingly for the analysis of synthetic polymers. A 2D-LC analysis provides richer information than a single chromatography analysis at the cost of longer analysis time. The time required for a comprehensive 2D-LC analysis is essentially proportional to the analysis time of the second dimension separation. Many of 2D-LC analyses of synthetic polymers have employed size exclusion chromatography (SEC) for the second-dimension analysis due to the relatively short analysis time in addition to the wide use in the polymer analysis. Nonetheless, short SEC columns are often used for 2D-LC analyses to reduce the separation time, which inevitably deteriorates the resolution. In this study, we demonstrated that high temperature SEC can be employed as an efficient second-LC in the 2D-LC separation of synthetic polymers. By virtue of high temperature operation (low solvent viscosity and high diffusivity of the polymer molecules), a normal length SEC column can be used at high flow rate with little loss in resolution.

  5. Hydrophobic and Ionic Interactions in Nano-sized Water Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Vaitheeswaran, S

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the solvation of methane and methane decorated with charges in spherically confined water droplets. Free energy profiles for a single methane molecule in droplets, ranging in diameter D, from 1 to 4 nm, show that the droplet surfaces are strongly favorable as compared to the interior. From the temperature dependence of the free energy in D=3 nm, we show that this effect is entropically driven. The potentials of mean force (PMFs) between two methane molecules show that the solvent separated minimum in the bulk is completely absent in confined water, independent of the droplet size since the solute particles are primarily associated with the droplet surface. The tendency of methanes with charges (Mq+ and Mq- with q+ = q- = 0.4e, where e is the electronic charge) to be pinned at the surface depends dramatically on the size of the water droplet. When D=4 nm, the ions prefer the interior whereas for D<4 nm the ions are localized at the surface, but with much less tendency than for methanes. Incre...

  6. Electrostatic Method to Measure the Size of the Sprayed Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuna-Broniowski, M.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the new method the measurement of the main parameters the atomised stream of liquid. This method base on the measurement of the electric charge carried by water drops charged by high voltage. The electrostatic sensor to measure of the droplets size, is associated with precision mechanic system scanning the sprayed surface. The amplified and conditioned signals from electrostatic sensor are send to the computer system equipped in virtual instrument to analyse the size and spatial distribution of droplets. The virtual instrument control also the scanning system.

  7. Measuring Spray Droplet Size from Agricultural Nozzles Using Laser Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Bradley K; Hoffmann, W Clint

    2016-09-16

    When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels. The work presented here describes methods used in making spray droplet size measurements with laser diffraction equipment for both ground and aerial application scenarios that can be used to ensure inter- and intra-laboratory precision while minimizing sampling bias associated with laser diffraction systems. Maintaining critical measurement distances and concurrent airflow throughout the testing process is key to this precision. Real time data quality analysis is also critical to preventing excess variation in the data or extraneous inclusion of erroneous data. Some limitations of this method include atypical spray nozzles, spray solutions or application conditions that result in spray streams that do not fully atomize within the measurement distances discussed. Successful adaption of this method can provide a highly efficient method for evaluation of the performance of agrochemical spray application nozzles under a variety of operational settings. Also discussed are potential experimental design considerations that can be included to enhance functionality of the data collected.

  8. Volumetric Collection Efficiency and Droplet Sizing Accuracy of Rotary Impactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    slide. The DropVision software returns results in the form of DV50, DV10, and DV90 as well as, the cu ‐ mulative droplet size distribution and coverage...field samplers for monitoring spray drift. Crop Prot. 15(3): 249‐257. Fox, R. D., R. C. Derksen, H. Zhu, R. A. Downer, and R. D. Brazee . 2004. Airborne

  9. Predicting the size of droplets produced through Laplace pressure induced snap-off

    CERN Document Server

    Barkley, Solomon; Weeks, Eric R; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Laplace pressure driven snap-off is a technique that is used to produce droplets for emulsions and microfluidics purposes. Previous predictions of droplet size have assumed a quasi-equilibrium low flow limit. We present a simple model to predict droplet sizes over a wide range of flow rates, demonstrating a rich landscape of droplet stability depending on droplet size and growth rate. The model accounts for the easily adjusted experimental parameters of geometry, interfacial tension, and the viscosities of both phases.

  10. Thermophoresis of microemulsion droplets: size dependence of the Soret effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, Daniele; Brambilla, Giovanni; Piazza, Roberto

    2007-04-01

    Thermophoresis, akin to thermal diffusion in simple fluid mixtures, consists of particle drift induced by a temperature gradient. Notwithstanding its practical interest, the dependence of thermophoretic effects on particle size R is still theoretically and experimentally debated. By performing measurements of water-in-oil microemulsion droplets with tunable size, we show that the thermal diffusion coefficient, at least for a suspension of small particles in a nonpolar solvent, does not appreciably depend on R .

  11. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  12. LES of certain droplet size effects in fuel sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    This thesis belongs to the field of mechanical engineering, more precisely to computational fluid dynamics and fuel injection modelling. This type of problems have been extensively studied because of their practical importance, for example, in combustion processes of automotive industry. Novel challenges are reduction of exhaust gas emissions in the present diesel fuel-based and also in bio diesel-based concepts. The problem studied in this work is of generic nature and it can be related to many real world problems. A model problem of droplet-laden jet is studied to emulate a fuel spray. The most essential parameter that is studied is fuel droplet size. More precisely, the ratio of droplet timescale and fluid timescale i.e. the Stokes number. Mathematically, the studied system can be formulated in terms of the Navier-Stokes equation with a spray momentum source term at low Mach number regime. A feature characteristic to this study is to use large scale computer simulation to simulate the system. For adequate modelling, this work makes use of a method called Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to simulate the motion of the turbulent gas and Lagrangian Particle Tracking (LPT) to simulate the motion of the droplets. The main computational tool used in this work is the OpenFOAM software. In fact, the present work is one of the first computational studies on LES/LPT diesel spray modeling in which droplet-level phenomena are discussed in light of the global behavior of the spray jet in an extensive manner. In view of the literature on this topic the results of the work seem to be realistic. The dependence of spray shape on droplet size (Stokes number) is studied and differences between the shapes are consistently explained. It is noted that mixing inside the spray depends significantly on the fuel droplet size. Quantitative and statistical analysis methods are developed in order to explain the connection between spray shape and mixing. The presented analysis explains the results

  13. Mean droplet size and local velocity in horizontal isothermal free jets of air and water, respectively, viscous liquid in quiescent ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Rabadi, S.; Friedel, L. [Fluid Mechanics Institute, Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg (Germany); Al Salaymeh, A. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Jordan (Jordan)

    2007-01-15

    Measurements using two-dimensional Phase Doppler Anemometry as well as high speed cinematography in free jets at several nozzle exit pressures and mass flow rates, show that the Sauter mean droplet diameter decreases with increasing air and liquid-phase mass flow ratio due to the increase of the air stream impact on the liquid phase. This leads to substantial liquid fragmentation, respectively primary droplet breakup, and hence, satellite droplet formation with small sizes. This trend is also significant in the case of a liquid viscosity higher than that of water. The increased liquid viscosity stabilizes the droplet formation and breakup by reducing the rate of surface perturbations and consequently droplet distortions, ultimately also leading, in total, to the formation of smaller droplets. The droplet velocity decreases with the nozzle downstream distance, basically due to the continual air entrainment and due to the collisions between the droplets. The droplet collisions may induce further liquid fragmentation and, hence, formation of a number of relatively smaller droplets respectively secondary breakup, or may induce agglomeration to comparatively larger liquid fragments that may rain out of the free jet. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  14. Arrested of coalescence of emulsion droplets of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbanga, Badel L.; Burke, Christopher; Blair, Donald W.; Atherton, Timothy J.

    2013-03-01

    With applications ranging from food products to cosmetics via targeted drug delivery systems, structured anisotropic colloids provide an efficient way to control the structure, properties and functions of emulsions. When two fluid emulsion droplets are brought in contact, a reduction of the interfacial tension drives their coalescence into a larger droplet of the same total volume and reduced exposed area. This coalescence can be partially or totally hindered by the presence of nano or micron-size particles that coat the interface as in Pickering emulsions. We investigate numerically the dependance of the mechanical stability of these arrested shapes on the particles size, their shape anisotropy, their polydispersity, their interaction with the solvent, and the particle-particle interactions. We discuss structural shape changes that can be induced by tuning the particles interactions after arrest occurs, and provide design parameters for the relevant experiments.

  15. Investigation of the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhen; Liu, Yonghong; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Yang; Ji, Renjie; Cai, Baoping

    2013-02-01

    The charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets have attracted more and more attentions due to the development of the microfluidics technology since the electrophoretic motion of a charged droplet can be used as the droplet actuation method. This work proposed a novel method of investigating the charging characteristics of micrometer sized aqueous droplets based on parallel plate capacitor model. With this method, the effects of the electric field strength, electrolyte concentration, and ion species on the charging characteristics of the aqueous droplets was investigated. Experimental results showed that the charging characteristics of micrometer sized droplets can be investigated by this method.

  16. Hidden zero-temperature bicritical point in the two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model: Monte Carlo simulations and proper finite-size scaling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chenggang; Landau, D. P.; Schulthess, Thomas C.

    2006-01-01

    By considering the appropriate finite-size effect, we explain the connection between Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a field and the early renormalization group calculation for the bicritical point in $2+\\epsilon$ dimensions. We found that the long length scale physics of the Monte Carlo simulations is indeed captured by the anisotropic nonlinear $\\sigma$ model. Our Monte Carlo data and analysis confirm that the bicritical point in two dime...

  17. Size-isolation of ultrasound-mediated phase change perfluorocarbon droplets using differential centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Karla P; Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Stewart, Kyle; Snider, Lindsay; Ryan, Devin; Haworth, Kevin J

    2016-05-01

    Perfluorocarbon droplets that are capable of an ultrasound-mediated phase transition have applications in diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound. Techniques to modify the droplet size distribution are of interest because of the size-dependent acoustic response of the droplets. Differential centrifugation has been used to isolate specific sizes of microbubbles. In this work, differential centrifugation was employed to isolate droplets with diameters between 1 and 3 μm and 2 and 5 μm from an initially polydisperse distribution. Further, an empirical model was developed for predicting the droplet size distribution following differential centrifugation and to facilitate the selection of centrifugation parameters for obtaining desired size distributions.

  18. Optofluidics based lab-on-chip device for in situ measurement of mean droplet size and droplet size distribution of an emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, P. K.; Prabhakar, A.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    There is an urgent need for a cost-effective, precise, and portable device for rapid and in situ measurement of the critical properties of an emulsion. Here, we report the development of such an optofluidic device for the measurement of mean droplet size ({{d}\\text{Mean}} ) and droplet size distribution (DSD) of a water-in-oil emulsion. We formulated and detected water-in-oil droplets of much smaller dimensions (15 μ \\text{m} ) compared to the detection of larger droplets or plugs (100 μ \\text{m} to 300 μ \\text{m} ) reported in the literature, employing a cost effective and portable in-house built optical detection system. Use of the device for the measurement of the frequency of droplets from an on-chip droplet generator is demonstrated and validated using microscopy with excellent accuracy (2%). In addition, we provide some insight into the relatively high uncertainty in the collected signal in case of smaller droplets. The droplet size {{d}\\text{D}} is characterized in terms of forward scatter signal {{v}\\text{FSC}} and residence time τ . We further argue that normalized residence time τ of droplets in the detection zone which correlates linearly with droplet size {{d}\\text{D}} is a better parameter to measure droplet size {{d}\\text{D}} , compared to the forward scatter signal {{v}\\text{FSC}} which correlates nonlinearly with {{d}\\text{D}} . Finally, the device is used to count the number of droplets of different size to predict {{d}\\text{Mean}} and DSD of emulsions. The results were compared with that obtained from traditional microscopy and a very good match (10–13%) was found, in contrast to previously reported non-portable off-chip methods that are 20–44% accurate. Thus, the reported device possesses high potential for accurate measurement of {{d}\\text{Mean}} and DSD of emulsions in practical applications.

  19. In situ analysis of size distribution of nano-particles in reactive plasmas using two dimensional laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamataki, K.; Morita, Y.; Shiratani, M.; Koga, K.; Uchida, G.; Itagaki, N.

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a simple in-situ method for measuring the size distribution (the mean size (mean diameter) and size dispersion) of nano-particles generated in reactive plasmas using the 2 dimensional laser light scattering (2DLLS) method. The principle of the method is based on thermal coagulation of the nano-particles, which occurs after the discharge is turned off, and the size and density of the nano-particles can then be deduced. We first determined the 2D spatial distribution of the density and size of the nano-particles in smaller particle size (a few nm) range than ones deduced from the conventional 2DLLS method. From this 2D dataset, we have for the first time been able to determine the size distribution of nano-particles generated in a reactive plasma without ex-situ measurements.

  20. Performance of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of infarct size and left ventricular function in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozawa E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although echocardiography has been used in rats, few studies have determined its efficacy for estimating myocardial infarct size. Our objective was to estimate the myocardial infarct size, and to evaluate anatomic and functional variables of the left ventricle. Myocardial infarction was produced in 43 female Wistar rats by ligature of the left coronary artery. Echocardiography was performed 5 weeks later to measure left ventricular diameter and transverse area (mean of 3 transverse planes, infarct size (percentage of the arc with infarct on 3 transverse planes, systolic function by the change in fractional area, and diastolic function by mitral inflow parameters. The histologic measurement of myocardial infarction size was similar to the echocardiographic method. Myocardial infarct size ranged from 4.8 to 66.6% when determined by histology and from 5 to 69.8% when determined by echocardiography, with good correlation (r = 0.88; P < 0.05; Pearson correlation coefficient. Left ventricular diameter and mean diastolic transverse area correlated with myocardial infarct size by histology (r = 0.57 and r = 0.78; P < 0.0005. The fractional area change ranged from 28.5 ± 5.6 (large-size myocardial infarction to 53.1 ± 1.5% (control and correlated with myocardial infarct size by echocardiography (r = -0.87; P < 0.00001 and histology (r = -0.78; P < 00001. The E/A wave ratio of mitral inflow velocity for animals with large-size myocardial infarction (5.6 ± 2.7 was significantly higher than for all others (control: 1.9 ± 0.1; small-size myocardial infarction: 1.9 ± 0.4; moderate-size myocardial infarction: 2.8 ± 2.3. There was good agreement between echocardiographic and histologic estimates of myocardial infarct size in rats.

  1. Performance of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of infarct size and left ventricular function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, E; Kanashiro, R M; Murad, N; Carvalho, A C C; Cravo, S L D; Campos, O; Tucci, P J F; Moises, V A

    2006-05-01

    Although echocardiography has been used in rats, few studies have determined its efficacy for estimating myocardial infarct size. Our objective was to estimate the myocardial infarct size, and to evaluate anatomic and functional variables of the left ventricle. Myocardial infarction was produced in 43 female Wistar rats by ligature of the left coronary artery. Echocardiography was performed 5 weeks later to measure left ventricular diameter and transverse area (mean of 3 transverse planes), infarct size (percentage of the arc with infarct on 3 transverse planes), systolic function by the change in fractional area, and diastolic function by mitral inflow parameters. The histologic measurement of myocardial infarction size was similar to the echocardiographic method. Myocardial infarct size ranged from 4.8 to 66.6% when determined by histology and from 5 to 69.8% when determined by echocardiography, with good correlation (r = 0.88; P echocardiography (r = -0.87; P rats.

  2. Fabrication of large-sized two-dimensional ordered surface array with well-controlled structure via colloidal particle lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xinping; Ye, Lei; Qiu, Dong

    2014-06-17

    Epoxy resin coated glass slides were used for colloidal particle lithography, in order to prepare well-defined 2D surface arrays. Upon the assistance of a large-sized 2D colloidal single crystal as template, centimeter-sized ordered surface arrays of bowl-like units were obtained. Systematic studies revealed that the parameters of obtained surface arrays could be readily controlled by some operational factors, such as temperature, epoxy resin layer thickness, and template particle size. With epoxy resin substituting for normal linear polymer, the height/diameter ratio of bowls in the formed surface arrays can be largely increased. With further reactive plasma etching, the parameters of ordered surface arrays could be finely tuned through controlling etching time. This study provides a facile way to prepare large-sized 2D surface arrays with tunable parameters.

  3. Performance of two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography for the assessment of infarct size and left ventricular function in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nozawa E.; Kanashiro R.M.; Murad N.; Carvalho A.C.C.; Cravo S.L.D.; Campos O.; Tucci P.J.F.; Moises V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Although echocardiography has been used in rats, few studies have determined its efficacy for estimating myocardial infarct size. Our objective was to estimate the myocardial infarct size, and to evaluate anatomic and functional variables of the left ventricle. Myocardial infarction was produced in 43 female Wistar rats by ligature of the left coronary artery. Echocardiography was performed 5 weeks later to measure left ventricular diameter and transverse area (mean of 3 transverse planes), i...

  4. Domain and droplet sizes in emulsions stabilized by colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Stefan; Günther, Florian; Harting, Jens

    2014-10-01

    Particle-stabilized emulsions are commonly used in various industrial applications. These emulsions can present in different forms, such as Pickering emulsions or bijels, which can be distinguished by their different topologies and rheology. We numerically investigate the effect of the volume fraction and the uniform wettability of the stabilizing spherical particles in mixtures of two fluids. For this, we use the well-established three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method, extended to allow for the added colloidal particles with non-neutral wetting properties. We obtain data on the domain sizes in the emulsions by using both structure functions and the Hoshen-Kopelman (HK) algorithm, and we demonstrate that both methods have their own (dis)advantages. We confirm an inverse dependence between the concentration of particles and the average radius of the stabilized droplets. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effect of particles detaching from interfaces on the emulsion properties and domain-size measurements.

  5. Comparison of sprinkler droplet size and velocity measurements using a laser precipitation meter and photographic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic energy of water droplets has a substantial effect on development of a soil surface seal and infiltration rate of bare soil. Methods for measuring sprinkler droplet size and velocity needed to calculate droplet kinetic energy have been developed and tested over the past 50 years, each with ad...

  6. Two-Dimensional Flow Nanometry of Biological Nanoparticles for Accurate Determination of Their Size and Emission Intensity

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Stephan; Lundgren, Anders; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Höök, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Biological nanoparticles (BNPs) are of high interest due to their key role in various biological processes and use as biomarkers. BNP size and molecular composition are decisive for their functions, but simultaneous determination of both properties with high accuracy remains challenging, which is a severe limitation. Surface-sensitive microscopy allows one to precisely determine fluorescence or scattering intensity, but not the size of individual BNPs. The latter is better determined by tracking their random motion in bulk, but the limited illumination volume for tracking this motion impedes reliable intensity determination. We here show that attaching BNPs (specifically, vesicles and functionalized gold NPs) to a supported lipid bilayer, subjecting them to a hydrodynamic flow, and tracking their motion via surface-sensitive imaging enable to determine their diffusion coefficients and flow-induced drift velocities and to accurately quantify both BNP size and emission intensity. For vesicles, the high accuracy...

  7. Two-dimensional flow nanometry of biological nanoparticles for accurate determination of their size and emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Stephan; Fast, Björn Johansson; Lundgren, Anders; Zhdanov, Vladimir P.; Höök, Fredrik

    2016-09-01

    Biological nanoparticles (BNPs) are of high interest due to their key role in various biological processes and use as biomarkers. BNP size and composition are decisive for their functions, but simultaneous determination of both properties with high accuracy remains challenging. Optical microscopy allows precise determination of fluorescence/scattering intensity, but not the size of individual BNPs. The latter is better determined by tracking their random motion in bulk, but the limited illumination volume for tracking this motion impedes reliable intensity determination. Here, we show that by attaching BNPs to a supported lipid bilayer, subjecting them to hydrodynamic flows and tracking their motion via surface-sensitive optical imaging enable determination of their diffusion coefficients and flow-induced drifts, from which accurate quantification of both BNP size and emission intensity can be made. For vesicles, the accuracy of this approach is demonstrated by resolving the expected radius-squared dependence of their fluorescence intensity for radii down to 15 nm.

  8. Dependence of the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional graphite nanoplatelet-based composites on the nanoparticle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Ramesh, Palanisamy; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Bekyarova, Elena; Haddon, Robert C.

    2010-08-01

    We report the thermal conductivities of graphite nanoplatelet-epoxy composites prepared by exfoliation of natural graphite flakes of varying lateral sizes. We found that utilization of natural graphite flakes of the optimum lateral dimensions (~200-400 µm) as a starting material for exfoliation significantly enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composite. In order to understand this enhancement we developed a procedure for evaluation of the particle size distribution of graphite nanoplatelets and correlated the measured distributions with the resulting thermal conductivities. In order to expand the scope of our study we applied our statistical and thermal analysis to commercially available graphite nanoplatelet materials.

  9. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional XY model at zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.

  10. Interferometric laser imaging for in-flight cloud droplet sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunker, Christina; Roloff, Christoph; Grassmann, Arne

    2016-12-01

    A non-intrusive particle sizing method with a high spatial distribution is used to estimate cloud droplet spectra during flight test campaigns. The interferometric laser imaging for droplet sizing (ILIDS) method derives particle diameters of transparent spheres by evaluating the out-of-focus image patterns. This sizing approach requires a polarized monochromatic light source, a camera including an objective lens with a slit aperture, a synchronization unit and a processing tool for data evaluation. These components are adapted to a flight test environment to enable the microphysical investigation of different cloud genera. The present work addresses the design and specifications of ILIDS system, flight test preparation and selected results obtained in the lower and middle troposphere. The research platform was a Dornier Do228-101 commuter aircraft at the DLR Flight Operation Center in Braunschweig. It was equipped with the required instrumentation including a high-energy laser as the light source. A comprehensive data set of around 71 800 ILIDS images was acquired over the course of five flights. The data evaluation of the characteristic ILIDS fringe patterns relies, among other things, on a relationship between the fringe spacing and the diameter of the particle. The simplest way to extract this information from a pattern is by fringe counting, which is not viable for such an extensive number of data. A brief contrasting comparison of evaluation methods based on frequency analysis by means of fast Fourier transform and on correlation methods such as minimum quadratic difference is used to encompass the limits and accuracy of the ILIDS method for such applications.

  11. Size-Dependent Transition to High-Dimensional Chaotic Dynamics in a Two-Dimensional Excitable Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Strain, M C; Strain, Matthew C.; Greenside, Henry S.

    1997-01-01

    The spatiotemporal dynamics of an excitable medium with multiple spiral defects is shown to vary smoothly with system size from short-lived transients for small systems to extensive chaos for large systems. A comparison of the Lyapunov dimension density with the average spiral defect density suggests an average dimension per spiral defect varying between three and seven. We discuss some implications of these results for experimental studies of ventricular fibrillation.

  12. Highly sensitive size discrimination of sub-micron objects using optical Fourier processing based on two-dimensional Gabor filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternack, Robert M; Qian, Zhen; Zheng, Jing-Yi; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Boustany, Nada N

    2009-07-06

    We use optical Gabor-like filtering implemented with a digital micromirror device to achieve nanoscale sensitivity to changes in the size of finite and periodic objects imaged at low resolution. The method consists of applying an optical Fourier filter bank consisting of Gabor-like filters of varying periods and extracting the optimum filter period that maximizes the filtered object signal. Using this optimum filter period as a measure of object size, we show sensitivity to a 7.5 nm change in the period of a chirped phase mask with period around 1 microm. We also show 30 nm sensitivity to change in the size of polystyrene spheres with diameters around 500 nm. Unlike digital post-processing our optical processing method retains its sensitivity when implemented at low magnification in undersampled images. Furthermore, the optimum Gabor filter period found experimentally is linearly related to sphere diameter over the range 0.46 microm-1 microm and does not rely on a predictive scatter model such as Mie theory. The technique may have applications in high throughput optical analysis of subcellular morphology to study organelle function in living cells.

  13. Critical size ratio for coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Ruixin; Liang, Qianqing; Jiang, Rui; Zheng, Yi; Lan, Zhong; Ma, Xuehu

    2017-08-01

    The mechanism of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on superhydrophobic surfaces has been relatively well-established over the years. Most of the related studies are only considering the coalescence process of equal-sized water droplets. However, the coalescence of droplets with different sizes is actually more frequently encountered and the effect of the size ratio on droplet jumping is very crucial to the hydrodynamics of this process. In this work, the effect of the initial droplet size ratio on coalescence-induced jumping of two water droplets is investigated experimentally and numerically. For the previously reported jumping droplet sizes (˜1-100 μm), it is found that the critical droplet size ratio below which the jumping does not occur is about 0.56. The results agree well with the experimental data as the size ratios of observed jumping events collapse into the predicted jumping regime. These findings will gain insights into droplet jumping which has great potential in a number of industrial processes.

  14. Universal anisotropic finite-size critical behavior of the two-dimensional Ising model on a strip and of d-dimensional models on films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastening, Boris

    2012-10-01

    Anisotropy effects on the finite-size critical behavior of a two-dimensional Ising model on a general triangular lattice in an infinite-strip geometry with periodic, antiperiodic, and free boundary conditions (bc) in the finite direction are investigated. Exact results are obtained for the scaling functions of the finite-size contributions to the free energy density. With ξ(>) the largest and ξ(temperature near criticality, we find that the dependence of these functions on the ratio ξ() and on the angle parametrizing the orientation of the correlation volume is of geometric nature. Since the scaling functions are independent of the particular microscopic realization of the anisotropy within the two-dimensional Ising model, our results provide a limited verification of universality. We explain our observations by considering finite-size scaling of free energy densities of general weakly anisotropic models on a d-dimensional film (i.e., in an L×∞(d-1) geometry) with bc in the finite direction that are invariant under a shear transformation relating the anisotropic and isotropic cases. This allows us to relate free energy scaling functions in the presence of an anisotropy to those of the corresponding isotropic system. We interpret our results as a simple and transparent case of anisotropic universality, where, compared to the isotropic case, scaling functions depend additionally on the shape and orientation of the correlation volume. We conjecture that this universality extends to cases where the geometry and/or the bc are not invariant under the shear transformation and argue in favor of validity of two-scale factor universality for weakly anisotropic systems.

  15. Reynolds number scaling to predict droplet size distribution in dispersed and undispersed subsurface oil releases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Weng, Linlu; Niu, Haibo; Robinson, Brian; King, Thomas; Conmy, Robyn; Lee, Kenneth; Liu, Lei

    2016-12-15

    This study was aimed at testing the applicability of modified Weber number scaling with Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude oil, and developing a Reynolds number scaling approach for oil droplet size prediction for high viscosity oils. Dispersant to oil ratio and empirical coefficients were also quantified. Finally, a two-step Rosin-Rammler scheme was introduced for the determination of droplet size distribution. This new approach appeared more advantageous in avoiding the inconsistency in interfacial tension measurements, and consequently delivered concise droplet size prediction. Calculated and observed data correlated well based on Reynolds number scaling. The relation indicated that chemical dispersant played an important role in reducing the droplet size of ANS under different seasonal conditions. The proposed Reynolds number scaling and two-step Rosin-Rammler approaches provide a concise, reliable way to predict droplet size distribution, supporting decision making in chemical dispersant application during an offshore oil spill.

  16. Spray pattern analysis for metered dose inhalers I: Orifice size, particle size, and droplet motion correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, H; Hickey, A J; Brace, G; Barbour, T; Gallion, J; Grove, J

    2006-10-01

    Factors that influence spray pattern measurements of pressurized, metered-dose inhalers have been evaluated. Spray patterns were correlated with changes in actuator orifice diameter, particle size profiles, and calculated estimates of particle-size dynamics of plumes during a spray. Spray patterns, regardless of actuator orifice size, were ellipsoid in the vertical direction. Measures of elliptical ratio, major axis, and minor axis were significantly influenced by orifice size in a non-linear fashion over the range of orifice sizes investigated. Spray patterns also correlated with particle size profile and spray geometry measurements. Spray distribution asymmetry may be related to droplet evaporation and sedimentation processes. However, the spray patterns did not appear sensitive to changes in gravitational force acting on the plume. Instead, it is postulated that elliptical spray patterns may have dependence on fluid dynamic processes within the inhaler actuator. Developing an understanding of these processes may provide a basis for developing spray pattern tests with relevance to product performance.

  17. Predictive model for the size of bubbles and droplets created in microfluidic T-junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steijn, Volkert; Kleijn, Chris R; Kreutzer, Michiel T

    2010-10-07

    We present a closed-form expression that allows the reader to predict the size of bubbles and droplets created in T-junctions without fitting. Despite the wide use of microfluidic devices to create bubbles and droplets, a physically sound expression for the size of bubbles and droplets, key in many applications, did not yet exist. The theoretical foundation of our expression comprises three main ingredients: continuity, geometrics and recently gained understanding of the mechanism which leads to pinch-off. Our simple theoretical model explains why the size of bubbles and droplets strongly depends on the shape of a T-junction, and teaches how the shape can be tuned to obtain the desired size. We successfully validated our model experimentally by analyzing the formation of gas bubbles, as well as liquid droplets, in T-junctions with a wide variety of shapes under conditions typical to multiphase microfluidics.

  18. Aerosol indirect effect from turbulence-induced broadening of cloud-droplet size distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; Cantrell, Will; Chang, Kelken; Ciochetto, David; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A; Yang, Fan

    2016-12-13

    The influence of aerosol concentration on the cloud-droplet size distribution is investigated in a laboratory chamber that enables turbulent cloud formation through moist convection. The experiments allow steady-state microphysics to be achieved, with aerosol input balanced by cloud-droplet growth and fallout. As aerosol concentration is increased, the cloud-droplet mean diameter decreases, as expected, but the width of the size distribution also decreases sharply. The aerosol input allows for cloud generation in the limiting regimes of fast microphysics ([Formula: see text]) for high aerosol concentration, and slow microphysics ([Formula: see text]) for low aerosol concentration; here, [Formula: see text] is the phase-relaxation time and [Formula: see text] is the turbulence-correlation time. The increase in the width of the droplet size distribution for the low aerosol limit is consistent with larger variability of supersaturation due to the slow microphysical response. A stochastic differential equation for supersaturation predicts that the standard deviation of the squared droplet radius should increase linearly with a system time scale defined as [Formula: see text], and the measurements are in excellent agreement with this finding. The result underscores the importance of droplet size dispersion for aerosol indirect effects: increasing aerosol concentration changes the albedo and suppresses precipitation formation not only through reduction of the mean droplet diameter but also by narrowing of the droplet size distribution due to reduced supersaturation fluctuations. Supersaturation fluctuations in the low aerosol/slow microphysics limit are likely of leading importance for precipitation formation.

  19. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: molecular-topology fractionation×size-exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edam, Rob; Mes, Edwin P C; Meunier, David M; Van Damme, Freddy A; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2014-10-31

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, the separation and the elution order of polymers are strongly affected by the flow rate. At low flow rates, the largest polymers are eluted last. At high flow rates, they are eluted first. By tuning the channel size and flow rate, conditions can be found where separation becomes independent of molar mass or size of linear polymers. Long-chain branched polymers did experience lower migration rates under these conditions and can be separated from linear polymers. This type of separation is referred to as molecular-topology fractionation (MTF) at critical conditions. Separation by comprehensive two-dimensional molecular-topology fractionation and size-exclusion chromatography (MTF×SEC) was used to study the retention characteristics of MTF. Branching selectivity was demonstrated for three- and four-arm "star" polystyrenes of 3-5×10(6)g/mol molar mass. Baseline separation could be obtained between linear polymer, Y-shaped molecules, and X-shaped molecules in a single experiment at constant flow rate. For randomly branched polymers, the branching selectivity inevitably results in an envelope of peaks, because it is not possible to fully resolve the huge numbers of different branched and linear polymers of varying molar mass. It was concluded that MTF involves partial deformation of polymer coils in solution. The increased coil density and resistance to deformation can explain the different retention behavior of branched molecules.

  20. Partitioned EDGE devices for high throughput production of monodisperse emulsion droplets with two distinct sizes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sahin, S.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel microfluidic EDGE (Edge based Droplet GEneration) device with regularly spaced micron-sized partitions, which is aimed at upscaling of o/w emulsion preparation. By this means, remarkably higher pressure stability was obtained, and two orders of magnitude higher droplet formation f

  1. Multilayered silicone oil droplets of narrow size distribution: preparation and improved deposition on hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Habiba; Wang, Lianyan; Lian, Guoping; Zhu, Shiping; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Guanghui

    2012-12-01

    Silicone oil droplets have limited deposition on hair due to electrostatic repulsion with negative surface charge of hair substrates. Aiming to improve silicone deposition on hair substrates, surface properties of uniform-sized silicone oil droplets (produced by membrane emulsification) were modified using layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition. By using this method, silicone oil droplets were coated with large molecular weight polymers, i.e. quaternized chitosan and alginate, and low molecular weight compounds, i.e. diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and glycerol to obtain six alternate layers of different surface charges. It was found that the dispersion of coated silicone oil droplets of narrow size distribution exhibited much improved mechanical strength and increased viscosity against shear compared to uncoated droplets. These multilayered silicone oil droplets were then added into model shampoos and conditioners to study the effect of charge and molecular weight of coating materials on silicone oil deposition on hair. The results clearly demonstrated that surface charge and charge density have significant influence on silicone oil deposition. Droplets with higher positive charge density resulted in increased deposition of silicone on hair due to electrostatic attraction. Characterization of the hair surface potential, wetting properties and friction certified the results further, showing reduced friction, decreased wetting angle and positive surface potential of high density positively charged silicone oil droplets. Therefore, LBL surface modification combined with membrane emulsification is a promising method for preparing multilayered silicone oil droplets of increased mechanical strength, viscosity and deposition on hair.

  2. Effects of the dispersed droplet sizes on the critical behavior of pseudobinary microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI HongLan; AN XueQin; SHEN WeiGuo

    2007-01-01

    The critical behavior of pseudobinary microemulsion systems {water/sodium di(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-decane} with various droplet sizes was studied by measurements of refractive index.It was found that the critical exponents β for all systems approach 0.327 in a region sufficiently close to the critical temperature, which is consistent with 3D-Ising universality class. The critical temperatures linearly decrease as the dispersed droplet sizes increase. The critical amplitude almost linearly increases with increasing the dispersed droplet sizes.

  3. Towards droplet size-aware biochemical application compilation for AM-EWOD biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Alistar, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. To simplify the compilation problem, researchers have assumed an abstract droplet size of one electrode. However......, the droplet size abstraction is not realistic and it impacts negatively the execution of the biochemical application, leading in most cases to its failure. Hence the existing compilation approaches have to be revisited to consider the size of the droplets. In this paper we take the first step towards...

  4. Comparing Ship Track Droplet Sizes Inferred from Terra and Aqua MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabataş, B.; Menzel, W. P.; Bilgili, A.; Gumley, L. E.

    2012-04-01

    The motivation of the study is to investigate cloud micro physics of ship tracks as a function of time. The paper describes how droplet effective radii retrieved from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery for a selected set of ship tracks appear to grow from the beginning of the track towards the end of the track. MODIS 1 km observations of morning (Terra) and afternoon (Aqua) passes were analyzed to estimate the droplet sizes (and their changes in time) of the aerosols that formed the ship tracks. Ship tracks are the low-level anthropogenic clouds that form around the exhaust released by ships. They modify the overlying cloud albedo by having high particle concentration and small droplet size and thus can be detected from higher reflectivity in near infrared imagery, especially in 2.13 µm observations where they appear as bright features. The MODIS Cloud Product (MOD06 from Terra and MYD06 from Aqua) is used to estimate droplet size change in ship exhaust plumes with time in case studies from different parts of the northern hemisphere. Ship track pairs were chosen both in Terra and Aqua MODIS images to estimate the droplet size change from morning to afternoon. Droplet size increased with time in the atmosphere as measured by distance from the ship. Terra and Aqua MODIS droplet size estimates were in good agreement and are found to be between 6 and 17 µm with droplet size increase at an average rate between 0.5 to 1 µm per hour. Terra and Aqua MODIS results are found to be 90±8% correlated with each other. The case studies further demonstrated stability of the MOD06 algorithm. Key words: Ship Tracks, Anthropogenic clouds, Remote sensing, MODIS, Droplet size

  5. Controlling micro-sized droplet generation using electrical pulses for studying liquid-liquid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandino, M.; La Forgia, N.; Vera, A. J.; Bjerknes, J.; Dorao, C. A.

    2014-04-01

    Water droplets removal from oil is a critical process in several industries, in particular in the oil and gas industry. Water/oil separation is commonly done in large gravitational sedimentation tanks, which are over dimensioned due to the lack of accurate models to allow for optimization. This can become challenging for off-shore and subsea processing installations. One of the bottlenecks to study droplet dynamics in the micron range, is the generation of droplets with less than 100μm in diameter. In this regard, one of the most promising techniques for controlling the generated droplet size is based on the use of a high voltage electrical signal or electro-hydrodynamic technique (EHD). Although much work on EHD and droplet generation can been found in the literature, many challenges still remain. One of this is the generation of droplets smaller than 100μm in diameter in a controllable, on-demand manner. In this work, the effect of the meniscus shape and the electric pulse characteristics on the size of the generated droplet is investigated. Both the meniscus height and width help to determine the droplet size, with the latter having a stronger effect. No significant influence of the pulse amplitude and pulse width was observed for the tested conditions.

  6. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relative roles of volume and surface nucleation in the freezing of water droplets. Nucleation experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled liquid water aerosols with radii between about 1 and 3 μ m. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rate between 234.8 and 236.2 K are derived with help of a microphysical model from aerosol compositions and size distributions based on infrared extinction measurements in the aerosol flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process and has implications for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models.

  7. Characterization and quantification of histidine degradation in therapeutic protein formulations by size exclusion-hydrophilic interaction two dimensional-liquid chromatography with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlei; Chen, Sike; Brailsford, John A; Yamniuk, Aaron P; Tymiak, Adrienne A; Zhang, Yingru

    2015-12-24

    Two dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) coupling size exclusion (SEC) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) is demonstrated as a useful tool to study polar excipients, such as histidine and its degradant, in protein formulation samples. The SEC-HILIC setup successfully removed interferences from complex sample matrices and enabled accurate mass measurement of the histidine degradation product, which was then determined to be trans-urocanic acid. Because the SEC effluent is a strong solvent for the second dimension HILIC, experimental parameters needed to be carefully chosen, i.e., small transferring loop, fast gradient at high flow rates for the second dimension gradient, in order to mitigate the solvent mismatch and to ensure good peak shapes for HILIC separations. In addition, the generation of trans-urocanic acid was quantified by single heart-cutting SEC-HILIC 2D-LC combined with stable-isotope labeling mass spectrometry. Compared with existing 2D quantification methods, the proposed approach is fast, insensitive to solvent mismatch between dimensions, and tolerant of small retention time shifts in the first dimension. Finally, the first dimension diode array detector was found to be a potential degradation source for photolabile analytes such as trans-urocanic acid.

  8. Solution of two-dimensional electromagnetic scattering problem by FDTD with optimal step size, based on a semi-norm analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monsefi, Farid [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås, Sweden and School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, IDT, Mälardalen University, MDH Väs (Sweden); Carlsson, Linus; Silvestrov, Sergei [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås (Sweden); Rančić, Milica [Division of Applied Mathematics, The School of Education, Culture and Communication, Mälardalen University, MDH, Västerås, Sweden and Department of Theoretical Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, University (Serbia); Otterskog, Magnus [School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, IDT, Mälardalen University, MDH Västerås (Sweden)

    2014-12-10

    To solve the electromagnetic scattering problem in two dimensions, the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is used. The order of convergence of the FDTD algorithm, solving the two-dimensional Maxwell’s curl equations, is estimated in two different computer implementations: with and without an obstacle in the numerical domain of the FDTD scheme. This constitutes an electromagnetic scattering problem where a lumped sinusoidal current source, as a source of electromagnetic radiation, is included inside the boundary. Confined within the boundary, a specific kind of Absorbing Boundary Condition (ABC) is chosen and the outside of the boundary is in form of a Perfect Electric Conducting (PEC) surface. Inserted in the computer implementation, a semi-norm has been applied to compare different step sizes in the FDTD scheme. First, the domain of the problem is chosen to be the free-space without any obstacles. In the second part of the computer implementations, a PEC surface is included as the obstacle. The numerical instability of the algorithms can be rather easily avoided with respect to the Courant stability condition, which is frequently used in applying the general FDTD algorithm.

  9. Growth and wetting of water droplet condensed between micron-sized particles and substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Tran Si Bui; Leong, Fong Yew; An, Hongjie; Tan, Beng Hau; Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    2016-08-01

    We study heterogeneous condensation growth of water droplets on micron-sized particles resting on a level substrate. Through numerical simulations on equilibrium droplet profiles, we find multiple wetting states towards complete wetting of the particle. Specifically, a partially wetting droplet could undergo a spontaneous transition to complete wetting during condensation growth, for contact angles above a threshold minimum. In addition, we find a competitive wetting behavior between the particle and the substrate, and interestingly, a reversal of the wetting dependence on contact angles during late stages of droplet growth. Using quasi-steady assumption, we simulate a growing droplet under a constant condensation flux, and the results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. As a geometric approximation for particle clusters, we propose and validate a pancake model, and with it, show that a particle cluster has greater wetting tendency compared to a single particle. Together, our results indicate a strong interplay between contact angle, capillarity and geometry during condensation growth.

  10. Terminal Liquid Mass Fractions and Terminal Mean Droplet Sizes in He Free-Jet Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, E. L.; Kornilov, O.; Toennies, J. P.

    2011-05-01

    The terminal liquid mass fraction in He free-jet expansions is deduced from time-of-flight measurements using conservation of energy. Both the present results and results from prior measurements are correlated using a scaling parameter which was used previously for correlating droplet size as a function of source conditions. Deduced values of the mass fraction range from 0.047 to 0.42. The terminal mean droplet size is determined using a novel technique based on a size-dependent attenuation of the beam droplets when impacted by electrons. The determined sizes are in agreement with sizes obtained previously by crossing the droplet beam with an atomic beam, confirming the suitability of the present technique, which is relatively simple in comparison with crossing the droplet beam with an atomic beam. Measured values of the terminal velocity of the droplets are compared with values calculated for a model in which real-fluid properties are used for the enthalpy in the source but conversion of heat of condensation into energy of directed motion is neglected. The deviations from perfect-gas behavior in free-jet expansions are shown to be due to real-fluid properties and condensation.

  11. Simultaneous measurement of droplet size and velocity field by an interferometric imaging technique in spray combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, N.; Hosokawa, A.; Tomimatsu, S. [Niigata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical and Production Engineering

    2003-08-01

    The present paper describes an experimental technique of droplet sizing and velocity measurement for application to a luminous flame in spray combustion. The size measurement of unburnt fuel droplets in combustion is carried out by using an interferometric imaging method, while the corresponding velocity field is measured by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) in combination with the rotary shutter to avoid the high intensity noise of the luminous flame in spray combustion. The measurements are successfully applied to the spray flow from a gun-type burner with and without combustion. The experimental results in spray combustion indicate that the smaller size of fuel droplets are almost burnt in the centre of the flame and the unburnt droplets of larger size remain in the outer region of the burner flow. It was found that the mean droplet velocity measured by the present PTV technique in combustion is almost independent of the droplet size and agrees closely with the gas velocity. However, the velocity magnitude with combustion is increased in comparison with the case without combustion, which suggests the influence of gas expansion at high temperatures. (author)

  12. Aerosol indirect effect from turbulence-induced broadening of cloud-droplet size distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrakar, Kamal Kant; Cantrell, Will; Chang, Kelken; Ciochetto, David; Niedermeier, Dennis; Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Shaw, Raymond A.; Yang, Fan

    2016-11-28

    The influence of aerosol concentration on cloud droplet size distribution is investigated in a laboratory chamber that enables turbulent cloud formation through moist convection. The experiments allow steady-state microphysics to be achieved, with aerosol input balanced by cloud droplet growth and fallout. As aerosol concentration is increased the cloud droplet mean diameter decreases as expected, but the width of the size distribution also decreases sharply. The aerosol input allows for cloud generation in the limiting regimes of fast microphysics (τc < τt) for high aerosol concentration, and slow microphysics (τc > τt) for low aerosol concentration; here, τc is the phase relaxation time and τt is the turbulence correlation time. The increase in the width of the droplet size distribution for the low aerosol limit is consistent with larger variability of supersaturation due to the slow microphysical response. A stochastic differential equation for supersaturation predicts that the standard deviation of the squared droplet radius should increase linearly with a system time scale defined as τs-1c-1 + τt-1, and the measurements are in excellent agreement with this finding. This finding underscores the importance of droplet size dispersion for the aerosol indirect effect: increasing aerosol concentration not only suppresses precipitation formation through reduction of the mean droplet diameter, but perhaps more importantly, through narrowing of the droplet size distribution due to reduced supersaturation fluctuations. Supersaturation fluctuations in the low aerosol / slow microphysics limit are likely of leading importance for precipitation formation.

  13. Effect of droplet size on wetting behavior on laser textured SiC surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong; Bai, Shaoxian

    2015-10-01

    Effect of droplet size on wetting behavior on laser textured SiC surface was studied in this work. The micro-square-convex surface was processed on smooth surface with intrisinc contact angle 101°. Then contact angles were measured on both smooth and textured surface by sessile drop method using deionized water with different droplet volume. It was found that there was significant droplet size effect on wetting behaviors for the textured SiC surface. Contact angles on smooth surface kept stable for different water droplet volume with a variation amplitude 13°. However, contact angles increased significantly from 42.25° to 131.25° with increasing droplet volume from 0.001 μL to 1 μL, then remained unchanged when the droplet volume exceeds 1 μL. The correlation analysis shows that contact angles increase with the increasing ratio of base diameter and groove width, then keep stable when the ratio exceeds 25, which explains the wetting behavior for different droplet volume.

  14. Ultrasound emulsification: effect of ultrasonic and physicochemical properties on dispersed phase volume and droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Shashank G; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2008-04-01

    Ultrasonic emulsification of oil and water was carried out and the effect of irradiation time, irradiation power and physicochemical properties of oil on the dispersed phase volume and dispersed phase droplet size has been studied. The increase in the irradiation time increases the dispersed phase volume while decreases the dispersed phase droplets size. With an increase in the ultrasonic irradiation power, there is an increase in the fraction of volume of the dispersed phase while the droplet size of the dispersed phase decreases. The fractional volume of the dispersed phase increases for the case of groundnut oil-water system while it is low for paraffin (heavy) oil-water system. The droplet size of soyabean oil dispersed in water is found to be small while that of paraffin (heavy) oil is found to be large. These variations could be explained on the basis of varying physicochemical properties of the system, i.e., viscosity of oil and the interfacial tension. During the ultrasonic emulsification, coalescence phenomenon which is only marginal, has been observed, which can be attributed to the collision of small droplets when the droplet concentration increases beyond a certain number and the acoustic streaming strength increases.

  15. On the Development of Spray Submodels Based on Droplet Size Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, J. C.; Watkins, A. P.

    2002-11-01

    Hitherto, all polydisperse spray models have been based on discretising the liquid flow field into groups of equally sized droplets. The authors have recently developed a spray model that captures the full polydisperse nature of the spray flow without using droplet size classes (Beck, 2000, Ph.D thesis, UMIST; Beck and Watkins, 2001, Proc. R. Soc. London A). The parameters used to describe the distribution of droplet sizes are the moments of the droplet size distribution function. Transport equations are written for the two moments which represent the liquid mass and surface area, and two more moments representing the sum of drop radii and droplet number are approximated via use of a presumed distribution function, which is allowed to vary in space and time. The velocities to be used in the two transport equations are obtained by defining moment-average quantities and constructing further transport equations for the relevant moment-average velocities. An equation for the energy of the liquid phase and standard gas phase equations, including a k-ɛ turbulence model, are also solved. All the equations are solved in an Eulerian framework using the finite-volume approach, and the phases are coupled through source terms. Effects such as interphase drag, droplet breakup, and droplet-droplet collisions are also captured through the use of source terms. The development of the submodels to describe these effects is the subject of this paper. All the source terms for the hydrodynamics of the spray are derived in this paper in terms of the four moments of the droplet size distribution in order to find the net effect on the whole spray flow field. The development of similar submodels to describe heat and mass transfer effects between the phases is the subject of a further paper (Beck and Watkins, 2001, J. Heat Fluid Flow). The model has been applied to a wide variety of different sprays, including high-pressure diesel sprays, wide-angle solid-cone water sprays, hollow

  16. Optical Flow Cell for Measuring Size, Velocity and Composition of Flowing Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammer-ul Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Here an optical flow cell with two light paths is reported that can accurately quantify the size and velocity of droplets flowing through a microchannel. The flow cell can measure the time taken for droplets to pass between and through two conjoined light paths, and thereby is capable of measuring the velocities (0.2–5.45 mm/s and sizes of droplets (length > 0.8 mm. The composition of the droplet can also be accurately quantified via optical absorption measurements. The device has a small footprint and uses low-powered, low-cost components, which make it ideally suited for use in field-deployable and portable analytical devices.

  17. 3D Velocimetry and droplet sizing in the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, R.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Michałek, W. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) is a device currently used to generate local cooling. In general, the fluid that is injected into the RHVT is a single-phase gas. In this study, however, we have added a dispersed phase (water droplets) to the gas (nitrogen). By means of phase Doppler particle analysis, three velocity components, their higher order moments, and sizes of droplets were measured, showing high intensity velocity fluctuations in the core region of the main vortex. The frequency spectrum of the velocity is presented and reveals that wobbling of the vortex axis is the cause of the high intensity fluctuations. The wobbling motion reduces the influence of the droplet size on the radial droplet velocity.

  18. Calculation of Droplet Size and Formation Time in Electrohydrodynamic Based Pulsatile Drug Delivery System

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yi; Hu, Junqiang; Lin, Qiao

    2012-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) generation, a commonly used method in BioMEMS, plays a significant role in the pulsed-release drug delivery system for a decade. In this paper, an EHD based drug delivery system is well designed, which can be used to generate a single drug droplet as small as 2.83 nL in 8.5 ms with a total device of 2x2x3 mm^3, and an external supplied voltage of 1500 V. Theoretically, we derive the expressions for the size and the formation time of a droplet generated by EHD method, while taking into account the drug supply rate, properties of liquid, gap between electrodes, nozzle size, and charged droplet neutralization. This work proves a repeatable, stable and controllable droplet generation and delivery system based on EHD method.

  19. Confining capillary waves to control aerosol droplet size from surface acoustic wave nebulisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarzadeh, Elijah; Reboud, Julien; Wilson, Rab; Cooper, Jonathan M.

    Aerosols play a significant role in targeted delivery of medication through inhalation of drugs in a droplet form to the lungs. Delivery and targeting efficiencies are mainly linked to the droplet size, leading to a high demand for devices that can produce aerosols with controlled sizes in the range of 1 to 5 μm. Here we focus on enabling the control of the droplet size of a liquid sample nebulised using surface acoustic wave (SAW) generated by interdigitated transducers on a piezoelectric substrate (lithium niobate). The formation of droplets was monitored through a high-speed camera (600,000 fps) and the sizes measured using laser diffraction (Spraytec, Malvern Ltd). Results show a wide droplet size distribution (between 0.8 and 400 μm), while visual observation (at fast frame rates) revealed that the large droplets (>100 μm) are ejected due to large capillary waves (80 to 300 μm) formed at the free surface of liquid due to leakage of acoustic radiation of the SAWs, as discussed in previous literature (Qi et al. Phys Fluids, 2008). To negate this effect, we show that a modulated structure, specifically with feature sizes, typically 200 μm, prevents formation of large capillary waves by reducing the degrees of freedom of the system, enabling us to obtain a mean droplet size within the optimum range for drug delivery (<10 μm). This work was supported by an EPSRC grant (EP/K027611/1) and an ERC Advanced Investigator Award (340117-Biophononics).

  20. Chemical composition and droplet size distribution of cloud at the summit of Mount Tai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of 39 cloud samples and droplet size distributions in 24 cloud events were investigated at the summit of Mt. Tai from July to October 2014. Inorganic ions, organic acids, metals, HCHO, H2O2, sulfur(IV, organic carbon, and elemental carbon as well as pH and electrical conductivity were analyzed. The acidity of the cloud water significantly decreased from a reported value of pH 3.86 during 2007–2008 (Guo et al., 2012 to pH 5.87 in the present study. The concentrations of nitrate and ammonium were both increased since 2007–2008, but the overcompensation of ammonium led to an increase in the mean pH value. The microphysical properties showed that cloud droplets were smaller than 26.0 µm and most were in the range of 6.0–9.0 µm at Mt. Tai. The maximum droplet number concentration (Nd was associated with a droplet size of 7.0 µm. High liquid water content (LWC values could facilitate the formation of larger cloud droplets and broadened the droplet size distribution. Cloud droplets exhibited a strong interaction with atmospheric aerosols. Higher PM2. 5 levels resulted in higher concentrations of water-soluble ions and smaller sizes with increased numbers of cloud droplets. The lower pH values were likely to occur at higher PM2. 5 concentrations. Clouds were an important sink for soluble materials in the atmosphere. The dilution effect of cloud water should be considered when estimating concentrations of soluble components in the cloud phase.

  1. Effects of entrainment and mixing on droplet size distributions in warm cumulus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tölle, Merja H.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2014-06-01

    A long-standing problem in cloud physics is the broadening of the cloud droplet spectrum in warm cumulus clouds. To isolate the changes of the droplet size distribution (DSD) due to entrainment and turbulent mixing, we used the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model (EMPM). The EMPM explicitly represents spatial variability due to entrainment and turbulent mixing down to the smallest turbulence scales in a one-dimensional domain. Several thousand individual droplets evolve by condensation or evaporation according to their local environments. We used EMPM results to characterize the evolution of the DSD due to entrainment and isobaric mixing for a wide range of conditions in a 20 m domain, including variations in entrained environmental air fraction, the turbulence dissipation rate, the size of the entrained blobs, and the relative humidity of the entrained air. We found that the broadening of the DSD due to entrainment and isobaric mixing for a specific value of the entrained air relative humidity depends only on the eddy mixing time scale and the LWC after mixing. Broadening increases substantially as the evaporation time scale decreases due to decreasing relative humidity of the entrained air. Our results also show that it is possible to parameterize the effects of entrainment and mixing on the droplet number concentration. The comprehensive results obtained for one set of values of entrained air relative humidity, droplet size, and droplet concentration should be extended to other values.

  2. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  3. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  4. Chemical composition of coastal stratus clouds: Dependence on droplet size and distance from the coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monger, J. William; Collett, Jeff; Daube, Bruce; Hoffmann, Michael R.

    The aerosol at elevated sites in the South Coast Air Basin in California is a mixture of sea salt and pollution-derived secondary aerosol. The influence of sea salt declines with increasing distance from the coast. Nitric acid appears to react with the NaCl in sea salt aerosol to release HCl (g) and form NaNO 3 in the aerosol. At inland sites, aerosol concentrations differ during periods of onshore and offshore flow. The highest concentrations were observed during the day when the onshore flow transported pollutants to the sites, while lower concentrations were observed at night when drainage flows from nearby mountains influenced the sites. Variations, in liquid water content are a major influence on cloudwater ion concentrations. Comparisons of the ionic concentrations in two size-segregated fractions of cloudwater collected during several sampling intervals suggest that there is a large difference between the average composition of the smaller droplets and that of the larger droplets. The concentrations of Na +, Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ in the large-droplet fraction were observed to be higher than in the small-droplet fraction, while the concentrations of SO 42-, NO 3-, NH 4+ and H + were higher in the small-droplet fraction. Chloride concentrations were nearly equal in both fractions. Differences in the composition of size-fractionated cloudwater samples suggest that large droplets are formed on sea salt and soil dust, which are large aerosol, and small droplets are formed on small secondary aerosol composed primarily of (NH 4) 2SO 4 and NH 4NO 3. The concentrations of several components that exist partly in the gas phase (e.g. Cl -, HCOOH and CH 3COOH) appear to be independent of droplet size.

  5. Subsurface Droplet Size Distribution generated as breaking waves entrain an oil slick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Miller, Jesse; Katz, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    Breaking waves are a primary mechanism for entraining and dispersing oil spills. Knowledge of the resulting droplet size distribution is crucial for predicting the transport and fate of this oil. In this on-going experimental study, a controlled oil slick of varying viscosity (μd) , density (ρd), interfacial tension (σ) , and thickness δ = 0.5mm are entrained by waves of varying energy (Ew) . The changes to droplet size over time, from seconds to hours, are measured at several locations using multi-resolution holography, which covers sizes ranging from μm to mm. Using dispersants to reduce σ, the Webber number, We =Ew δ / σ , and Ohnesorge number, Oh =μd /(ρd δσ) 0 . 5 , are varied from 6 to 813 and from 0.09 to 0.95, respectively. Droplets smaller than the turbulence scale (2-30 μm - diameter), are generated by "micro-threading". Their size distribution becomes steeper and their total number increase substantially with decreasing interfacial tension. For slopes smaller than -3, measured for σ around 10-1 mN/m, the volumetric size distribution decreases with diameter, i.e. most of the oil breaks into micron-scale droplets. For high interfacial tension oil, the concentration of small droplets increases with wave energy, but this effect diminishes as σ decreases. Droplets larger than 100 μm are generated by turbulent shear. Hence, their number is impacted by μd and Ew. Increasing We from 6 to 15 (Oh from 0.09 to 2.95) increases the initial number of droplets by up to 5 times, but the distribution slopes remain largely similar. Supported by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  6. Dispersion of finite size droplets and solid particles in isotropic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Michele

    Turbulent disperse two-phase flows, of either fluid/fluid or fluid/solid type, are common in natural phenomena and engineering devices. Notable examples are atmospheric clouds, i.e. dispersed liquid water droplets and ice particles in a complex turbulent flow, and spray of fuel droplets in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. However, the physics of the interaction between a dispersed phase and turbulence is not yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to compare the dispersion of deformable finite size droplets with that of solid particles in a turbulent flow in the absence of gravity, by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The droplets and the particles have the same diameter, of the order of the Taylor's microscale of turbulence, and the same density ratio to the carrier flow. The solid particle-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a standard projection method with the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM). The solid particles are fully resolved in space and time without considering particle/particle collisions (two-way coupling). The liquid droplet-laden turbulence is simulated by coupling a variable-density projection method with the Accurate Conservative Level Set Method (ACLSM). The effect of the surface tension is accounted for by using the Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) in order to avoid any numerical smearing, while the discontinuities in the viscous term of the Navier-Stokes equation are smoothed out via the Continuum Surface Force approach. Droplet/droplet interactions are allowed (four-way coupling). The results presented here show that in isotropic turbulence the dispersion of liquid droplets in a given direction is larger than that of solid particles due to the reduced decay rate of turbulence kinetic energy via the four-way coupling effects of the droplets.

  7. Retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution parameters from polarized reflectance measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alexandrov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an algorithm for retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP measurements. The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS, which is due to be launched as part of the NASA Glory Project. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectances in 9 spectral channels with center wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2250 nm. For cloud droplet size retrievals we utilize the polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 140 and 170 degrees where they exhibit rainbow. The shape of the rainbow is determined mainly by single-scattering properties of the cloud particles, that simplifies the inversions and reduces retrieval uncertainties. The retrieval algorithm was tested using realistically simulated cloud radiation fields. Our retrievals of cloud droplet sizes from actual RSP measurements made during two recent field campaigns were compared with the correlative in situ observations.

  8. Rainfall droplet size distributions (DSD) parameterization: physics and sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, M. A.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)) is a Brazillian experiment that aims to understand the several cloud processes that occur in different precipitating regimes. At present, the CHUVA project has conducted 6 field campaigns, the last one being in Manaus jointly with GoAmazon, IARA and ACRIDICON. The main focus of the present study is to bring into perspective the different characteristics of precipitation that reaches the surface in Brazil over several locations. To do so, disdrometer data is analyzed in detail, employing a Gamma fit for each DSD measurement which provides the respective parameters to be studied. Those are disposed in a 3D space, each axis corresponding to one parameter, and the patterns are analyzed. A correlation between the Gamma parameters is defined as a parametric surface that fits the observations with errors smaller than 10% and R2 greater than 0.95. In this way, one parameter can be estimated with respect to the other two, reducing the degrees of freedom of the problem from 3 to 2. As the 3 parameters are defined over this surface, it's possible to obtain a surface representing integral DSD properties such as rainfall intensity (RI). Sensibilities tests are conducted on this estimation and also on other DSD characteristics such as total droplet concentrations and mean mass-weighted diameter. It's shown that the DSD integral properties are generally very sensitive to the Gamma parameters. Nonetheless, the sensibility varies over the surface, being higher in a region where the parameters are not balanced (i.e. a relatively high value in one parameter and low values on the other two). It's suggested that any study proposing parameterization/estimation of DSD properties should be aware of this region of high sensitivity. To further the collaboration with GoAmazon and ACRIDICON, the disdrometer results

  9. The regulation of lipid droplet size and phospholipid composition by stearoyl-CoA desaturase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Xun; Li, Juan; Zou, Xiaoju;

    2013-01-01

    desaturase mutants, independently, and in combination with mutants disrupted in conserved lipid metabolic pathways. C. elegans with impaired SCD activity displayed both reduced fat stores and decreased lipid droplet size. Mutants in the daf-2 (insulin-like growth factor receptor), rsks-1 (homolog of p70S6......Fatty acid desaturation regulates membrane function and fat storage in animals. To determine the contribution of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity on fat storage and development in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, we analyzed the lipid composition and lipid droplet size in the fat-6;fat-7...

  10. How Violent are the Collisions of Different Sized Droplets in a Turbulent Flow?

    CERN Document Server

    James, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We study the typical collisional velocities in a polydisperse suspension of droplets in two and three-dimensional turbulent flow and obtain precise theoretical estimates of the dependence of the impact velocity of particles-pairs on their relative sizes. These analytical results are validated against data from our direct numerical simulations. We show that the impact velocity saturates exponentially with the inverse of the particle-size ratios. Our results are important to model coalescence or fragmentation (depending on the impact velocities) and will be crucial, for example, in obtaining precise coalescence kernels to describe the growth of water droplets which trigger rain in warm clouds.

  11. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Yanan; Qiao, Li [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size, surfactant concentration, and the type of base fluid were varied. In general, nanosuspensions can last much longer than micron suspensions, and ethanol-based fuels were found to achieve much better suspension than n-decane-based fuels. Five distinctive stages (preheating and ignition, classical combustion, microexplosion, surfactant flame, and aluminum droplet flame) were identified for an n-decane/nano-Al droplet, while only the first three stages occurred for an n-decane/micron-Al droplet. For the same solid loading rate and surfactant concentration, the disruption and microexplosion behavior of the micron suspension occurred later with much stronger intensity. The intense droplet fragmentation was accompanied by shell rupture, which caused a massive explosion of particles, and most of them were burned during this event. On the contrary, for the nanosuspension, combustion of the large agglomerate at the later stage requires a longer time and is less complete because of formation of an oxide shell on the surface. This difference is mainly due to the different structure and characteristics of particle agglomerates formed during the early stage, which is a spherical, porous, and more-uniformly distributed aggregate for the nanosuspension, but it is a densely packed and impermeable shell for the micron suspension. A theoretical analysis was then conducted to understand the effect of particle size on particle collision mechanism and aggregation rate. The results show that for nanosuspensions, particle collision and aggregation are dominated by the random Brownian motion. For micron suspensions, however, they are dominated by fluid motion such as droplet surface regression, droplet expansion resulting from bubble formation, and internal circulation. And the Brownian motion is the least important. This theoretical analysis explains the

  12. Direct and accurate measurement of size dependent wetting behaviors for sessile water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jimin; Han, Hyung-Seop; Kim, Yu-Chan; Ahn, Jae-Pyeong; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jee-Wook; Cha, Pil-Ryung; Seok, Hyun-Kwang; Jeon, Hojeong

    2015-12-01

    The size-dependent wettability of sessile water droplets is an important matter in wetting science. Although extensive studies have explored this problem, it has been difficult to obtain empirical data for microscale sessile droplets at a wide range of diameters because of the flaws resulting from evaporation and insufficient imaging resolution. Herein, we present the size-dependent quantitative change of wettability by directly visualizing the three phase interfaces of droplets using a cryogenic-focused ion beam milling and SEM-imaging technique. With the fundamental understanding of the formation pathway, evaporation, freezing, and contact angle hysteresis for sessile droplets, microdroplets with diameters spanning more than three orders of magnitude on various metal substrates were examined. Wetting nature can gradually change from hydrophobic at the hundreds-of-microns scale to super-hydrophobic at the sub-μm scale, and a nonlinear relationship between the cosine of the contact angle and contact line curvature in microscale water droplets was demonstrated. We also showed that the wettability could be further tuned in a size-dependent manner by introducing regular heterogeneities to the substrate.

  13. 3D Droplet velocities and sizes in the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, R.; Zeegers, J. C. H.; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Michalek, W. R.

    2012-11-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a known device that is used to generate spot cooling. In this study, we experimentally investigate the behavior of small water droplets in the vortex tube by means of Phase Doppler Particle Analysis. In an experimental vortex tube, droplets were injected together with a carrier gas to form a fast rotating (up to 80.000 rpm) droplet-gas mixture. Droplet sizes, 3D velocity components, and turbulent properties were measured, showing high intensity isotropic turbulence in the core region. To investigate the cause of the high intensity turbulence, a frequency analysis was applied on the measured velocity. The frequency spectrum of the velocity is presented and indicates that wobbling of the vortex axis is the cause of the high turbulence intensity. It was expected that larger droplets have a higher radial velocity because of the larger centrifugal force. Results show, however, that small and lager droplets behave similar. This research is supported by the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, which is the applied science division of NWO, and the Technology Programme of the Ministry of Economic Affairs.

  14. Application of maximum entropy method for droplet size distribution prediction using instability analysis of liquid sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahednejad, E.; Ommi, F.; Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Chen, C. P.; Mahdavi, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the instability analysis of wave growth on liquid jet surface, and maximum entropy principle (MEP) for prediction of droplet diameter distribution in primary breakup region. The early stage of the primary breakup, which contains the growth of wave on liquid-gas interface, is deterministic; whereas the droplet formation stage at the end of primary breakup is random and stochastic. The stage of droplet formation after the liquid bulk breakup can be modeled by statistical means based on the maximum entropy principle. The MEP provides a formulation that predicts the atomization process while satisfying constraint equations based on conservations of mass, momentum and energy. The deterministic aspect considers the instability of wave motion on jet surface before the liquid bulk breakup using the linear instability analysis, which provides information of the maximum growth rate and corresponding wavelength of instabilities in breakup zone. The two sub-models are coupled together using momentum source term and mean diameter of droplets. This model is also capable of considering drag force on droplets through gas-liquid interaction. The predicted results compared favorably with the experimentally measured droplet size distributions for hollow-cone sprays.

  15. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  16. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  17. Droplet sorting in a loop of flat microfluidic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivar, Erfan; Herminghaus, Stephan; Brinkmann, Martin

    2013-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments, we numerically study the droplet traffic in microfluidic channels forming an asymmetric loop with a long and a short arm. The loop is connected to an inlet and an outlet channel by two right angled T-junctions. Assuming flat channels, we employ the boundary element method (BEM) to numerically solve the two-dimensional Darcy equation that governs two phase flow in the Hele-Shaw limit. The occurrence of different sorting regimes is summarized in sorting diagrams in terms of droplet size, distance between consecutive droplets in the inlet channel, and loop asymmetry for mobility ratios of the liquid phases larger and smaller than one. For large droplet distances, the traffic is regulated by the ratio of the total hydraulic resistances of the long and short arms. At high droplet densities and below a critical droplet size, droplet-droplet collisions are observed for both mobility ratios.

  18. Size dependence of volume and surface nucleation rates for homogeneous freezing of supercooled water droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kuhn

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relative roles of volume and surface nucleation were investigated for the homogeneous freezing of pure water droplets. Experiments were carried out in a cryogenic laminar aerosol flow tube using supercooled water aerosols with maximum volume densities at radii between 1 and 3 μm. Temperature- and size-dependent values of volume- and surface-based homogeneous nucleation rates between 234.8 and 236.2 K were derived using a microphysical model and aerosol phase compositions and size distributions determined from infrared extinction measurements in the flow tube. The results show that the contribution from nucleation at the droplet surface increases with decreasing droplet radius and dominates over nucleation in the bulk droplet volume for droplets with radii smaller than approximately 5 μm. This is interpreted in terms of a lowered free energy of ice germ formation in the surface-based process. The implications of surface nucleation for the parameterization of homogeneous ice nucleation in numerical models are considered.

  19. Reliable LIF/Mie droplet sizing in sprays using structured laser illumination planar imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Yogeshwar Nath; Kristensson, Elias; Berrocal, Edouard

    2014-02-24

    In this article, Structured Laser Illumination Planar Imaging (SLIPI) is used in combination with the LIF/Mie ratio technique for extracting a reliable two-dimensional mapping of the droplets Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). We show that even for the case of a fairly dilute spray, where single scattering events are in majority, the conventional LIF/Mie technique still remains largely affected by errors introduced by multiple light scattering. To remove this unwanted light intensity on both the LIF and Mie images SLIPI is used prior to apply the image ratio. For the first time, the SLIPI LIF/Mie results are calibrated and compared with measurement data from Phase Doppler Interferometry (PDI).

  20. The influence of droplet size and biodegradation on the transport of subsurface oil droplets during the Deepwater Horizon spill: a model sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Elizabeth W.; Adams, E. Eric; Thessen, Anne E.; Schlag, Zachary; He, Ruoying; Socolofsky, Scott A.; Masutani, Stephen M.; Peckham, Scott D.

    2015-02-01

    A better understanding of oil droplet formation, degradation, and dispersal in deep waters is needed to enhance prediction of the fate and transport of subsurface oil spills. This research evaluates the influence of initial droplet size and rates of biodegradation on the subsurface transport of oil droplets, specifically those from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. A three-dimensional coupled model was employed with components that included analytical multiphase plume, hydrodynamic and Lagrangian models. Oil droplet biodegradation was simulated based on first order decay rates of alkanes. The initial diameter of droplets (10-300 μm) spanned a range of sizes expected from dispersant-treated oil. Results indicate that model predictions are sensitive to biodegradation processes, with depth distributions deepening by hundreds of meters, horizontal distributions decreasing by hundreds to thousands of kilometers, and mass decreasing by 92-99% when biodegradation is applied compared to simulations without biodegradation. In addition, there are two- to four-fold changes in the area of the seafloor contacted by oil droplets among scenarios with different biodegradation rates. The spatial distributions of hydrocarbons predicted by the model with biodegradation are similar to those observed in the sediment and water column, although the model predicts hydrocarbons to the northeast and east of the well where no observations were made. This study indicates that improvement in knowledge of droplet sizes and biodegradation processes is important for accurate prediction of subsurface oil spills.

  1. Impact of Three-Dimensional Radiative Effects on Satellite Retrievals of Cloud Droplet Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshak, Alexander; Platnick, Steven; Varnai, Tamas; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2006-01-01

    There are several dozen papers that study the effects of cloud horizontal inhomogeneity on the retrievals of cloud optical thickness, but only a few of them deal with cloud droplet sizes. This paper is one of the first comprehensive attempts to fill this gap: It takes a close theoretical look at the radiative effects of cloud 3-D structure in retrievals of droplet effective radii. Under some general assumptions, it was found that ignoring subpixel (unresolved) variability produces a negative bias in the retrieved effective radius, while ignoring cloud inhomogeneity at scales larger than a pixel scale (resolved variability), on the contrary, leads to overestimation of the domain average droplet size. The theoretical results are illustrated with examples from Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of cumulus (Cu) and stratocumulus (Sc) cloud fields. The analysis of cloud drop size distributions retrieved from both LES fields confirms that ignoring shadowing in 1-D retrievals results in substantial overestimation of effective radii which is more pronounced for broken Cu than for Sc clouds. Collocated measurements of broken Cu clouds by Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) are used to check simulations and theory with observations. The analysis of ASTER and MODIS data and associated derived products recommends against blindly using retrieved effective radii for broken cloud fields, especially if one wants to relate aerosol amounts to cloud droplet sizes.

  2. Ultrasonic attenuation spectroscopy of emulsions with droplet sizes greater than 10 microm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andreas; Voigt, Tino; Ripperger, Siegfried

    2007-11-15

    Ultrasonic attenuation measurement is a frequently used tool for non-destructive determination of dispersion characteristics. Useful information like particle or droplet size and their concentration can be obtained, if the relation between size and attenuation of the dispersion is known. In this work, the theoretical model by Faran for the intermediate sound wave regime (IWR) is presented in combination with experimental data. In the IWR, the acoustic behavior is governed by elastic scattering rather than by dissipative effects. Experiments with emulsion of droplet sizes greater than 10 mum were carried out. Silicone oil, sunflower oil and olive oil were selected for the disperse phase of the oil-in-water emulsions. First, emulsions having droplets in the micrometer range were created. Afterwords, attenuation measurements of different concentrated emulsion were carried out. Some adjustments reflecting concentration influence were performed to outline the agreement between calculations and measurements. The validity of the model can be confirmed, if the volume fraction of the disperse phase is considered as a variable. Finally, droplet size distributions from theoretical attenuation spectra could be calculated based on a log-normal distribution.

  3. Numerical simulations and measurements of a droplet size distribution in a turbulent vortex street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Schmeyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A turbulent vortex street in an air flow interacting with a disperse droplet population is investigated in a wind tunnel. Non-intrusive measurement techniques are used to obtain data for the air velocity and the droplet velocity. The process is modeled with a population balance system consisting of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a population balance equation for the droplet size distribution. Numerical simulations are performed that rely on a variational multiscale method for turbulent flows, a direct discretization of the differential operator of the population balance equation, and a modern technique for the evaluation of the coalescence integrals. After having calibrated two unknown model parameters, a very good agreement of the experimental and numerical results can be observed.

  4. Towards droplet size-aware biochemical application compilation for AM-EWOD biochips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Alistar, Mirela

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic-based biochips are replacing the conventional biochemical analyzers, and are able to integrate onchip all the necessary functions for biochemical analysis using microfluidics. The digital microfluidic biochips are based on the manipulation of liquids not as a continuous flow......, but as discrete droplets on an array of electrodes. Microfluidic operations, such as transport, mixing, split, are performed on this array by routing the corresponding droplets on a series of electrodes. Several approaches have been proposed for the compilation of digital microfluidic biochips, which, starting...... from a biochemical application and a given biochip architecture, determine the allocation, resource binding, scheduling, placement and routing of the operations in the application. To simplify the compilation problem, researchers have assumed an abstract droplet size of one electrode. However...

  5. Oil Droplet Size Distribution and Optical Properties During Wave Tank Simulated Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, R. N.; Venosa, A.; Courtenay, S.; King, T.; Robinson, B.; Ryan, S.

    2013-12-01

    Fate and transport of spilled petroleum oils in aquatic environments is highly dependent upon oil droplet behavior which is a function of chemical composition, dispersibility (natural and chemically-enhanced) and droplet size distribution (DSD) of the oil. DSD is influenced by mixing energy, temperature, salinity, pressure, presence of dissolved and particulate materials, flow rate of release, and application of dispersants. To better understand DSD and droplet behavior under varying physical conditions, flask-scale experiments are often insufficient. Rather, wave tank simulations allow for scaling to field conditions. Presented here are experiment results from the Bedford Institute of Oceanography wave tank facility, where chemically-dispersed (Corexit 9500; DOR = 1:20) Louisiana Sweet crude, IFO-120 and ANS crude oil were exposed to mixing energies to achieve dispersant effectiveness observed in the field. Oil plumes were simulated, both surface and subsea releases with varying water temperature and flow rate. Fluorometers (Chelsea Technologies Group AQUATracka, Turner Designs Cyclops, WET Labs Inc ECO) and particle size analyzers (Sequoia LISST) were used to track the dispersed plumes in the tank and characterize oil droplets. Sensors were validated with known oil volumes (down to 300 ppb) and measured Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) and Benzene-Toluene-Ethylbenzene-Xylene (BTEX) values. This work has large implications for tracking surface and deep sea oil plumes with fluorescence and particle size analyzers, improved weathering and biodegradation estimates, and understanding the fate and transport of spill oil.

  6. Influence of Droplet Size on Exergy Destruction in Flow of Concentrated Non-Newtonian Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder Pal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of droplet size on exergy destruction rate in flow of highly concentrated oil-in-water emulsions was investigated experimentally in a cone and plate geometry. The oil concentration was fixed at 74.5% by volume. At this dispersed-phase (oil concentration, two different droplet size emulsions were prepared: fine and coarse emulsions. The fine and coarse emulsions were mixed in different proportions to vary the droplet size distribution. Although the dispersed and matrix phases of the emulsions were Newtonian in nature, the emulsions exhibited a non-Newtonian (shear-thinning behavior due to the high droplet concentration. The shear stress—shear rate data of the emulsions could be described adequately by a power law model. At low shear rates, the exergy destruction rate per unit volume of emulsion exhibited a minimum at a fine emulsion proportion of 35%. The results from the cone and plate geometry were used to simulate exergy loss in pipeline flow of emulsions. The pumping of emulsions becomes more efficient thermodynamically upon mixing of fine and coarse emulsions provided that the flow regime is maintained to be laminar and that the Reynolds number is kept at a low to moderate value. In the turbulent regime, the exergy loss generally increases upon mixing the fine and coarse emulsions.

  7. Effects of Droplet Size on Intrusion of Sub-Surface Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Eric; Chan, Godine; Wang, Dayang

    2014-11-01

    We explore effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion and transport in sub-surface oil spills. Negatively buoyant glass beads released continuously to a stratified ambient simulate oil droplets in a rising multiphase plume, and distributions of settled beads are used to infer signatures of surfacing oil. Initial tests used quiescent conditions, while ongoing tests simulate currents by towing the source and a bottom sled. Without current, deposited beads have a Gaussian distribution, with variance increasing with decreasing particle size. Distributions agree with a model assuming first order particle loss from an intrusion layer of constant thickness, and empirically determined flow rate. With current, deposited beads display a parabolic distribution similar to that expected from a source in uniform flow; we are currently comparing observed distributions with similar analytical models. Because chemical dispersants have been used to reduce oil droplet size, our study provides one measure of their effectiveness. Results are applied to conditions from the `Deep Spill' field experiment, and the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and are being used to provide ``inner boundary conditions'' for subsequent far field modeling of these events. This research was made possible by grants from Chevron Energy Technology Co., through the Chevron-MITEI University Partnership Program, and BP/The Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, GISR.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanodroplet spreading on solid surfaces, effect of droplet size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedighi, Nahid; Aggarwal, Suresh K [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Murad, Sohail [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)], E-mail: ska@uic.edu

    2010-06-15

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the spreading characteristics of nano-sized droplets on solid surfaces. The spreading behavior was analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the dynamic contact angle and spreading diameter for wettable, partially wettable and non-wettable surfaces. The computational model was validated through qualitative comparison with the measurements of Bayer and Megaridis, and through comparison with existing correlations. The comparison based on the ratio of relevant time scales indicated that for the conditions investigated, the spreading dynamics is governed by inertial and surface forces, with negligible influence of viscous forces. In addition, the simulation results indicated that the dynamic contact angle and spreading diameter, as well as the advancing and receding time periods, exhibit strong dependence on droplet size. These results were further analyzed to obtain correlations for the effect of droplet size on these spreading parameters. The correlations indicated that the normalized spreading diameter and contact angle scale with drop diameter as D{sub m} /D{sub 0} {approx}D{sub 0}{sup 0.5} and {theta}{sub R} {approx}D{sub 0}{sup 0.5}, while the advancing and receding time periods scale as t{approx}D{sub 0}{sup 2/3}. Global kinetic energy and surface energy considerations were used to provide a physical basis for these correlations. The correlations were also found to be generally consistent with the experimentally observed spreading behavior of macroscopic droplets.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations of nanodroplet spreading on solid surfaces, effect of droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Nahid; Murad, Sohail; Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    2010-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the spreading characteristics of nano-sized droplets on solid surfaces. The spreading behavior was analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the dynamic contact angle and spreading diameter for wettable, partially wettable and non-wettable surfaces. The computational model was validated through qualitative comparison with the measurements of Bayer and Megaridis, and through comparison with existing correlations. The comparison based on the ratio of relevant time scales indicated that for the conditions investigated, the spreading dynamics is governed by inertial and surface forces, with negligible influence of viscous forces. In addition, the simulation results indicated that the dynamic contact angle and spreading diameter, as well as the advancing and receding time periods, exhibit strong dependence on droplet size. These results were further analyzed to obtain correlations for the effect of droplet size on these spreading parameters. The correlations indicated that the normalized spreading diameter and contact angle scale with drop diameter as Dm /D0 ~D00.5 and θR ~D00.5, while the advancing and receding time periods scale as t~D02/3. Global kinetic energy and surface energy considerations were used to provide a physical basis for these correlations. The correlations were also found to be generally consistent with the experimentally observed spreading behavior of macroscopic droplets.

  10. Large Scale Behavior and Droplet Size Distributions in Crude Oil Jets and Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph; Murphy, David; Morra, David

    2013-11-01

    The 2010 Deepwater Horizon blowout introduced several million barrels of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico. Injected initially as a turbulent jet containing crude oil and gas, the spill caused formation of a subsurface plume stretching for tens of miles. The behavior of such buoyant multiphase plumes depends on several factors, such as the oil droplet and bubble size distributions, current speed, and ambient stratification. While large droplets quickly rise to the surface, fine ones together with entrained seawater form intrusion layers. Many elements of the physics of droplet formation by an immiscible turbulent jet and their resulting size distribution have not been elucidated, but are known to be significantly influenced by the addition of dispersants, which vary the Weber Number by orders of magnitude. We present experimental high speed visualizations of turbulent jets of sweet petroleum crude oil (MC 252) premixed with Corexit 9500A dispersant at various dispersant to oil ratios. Observations were conducted in a 0.9 m × 0.9 m × 2.5 m towing tank, where large-scale behavior of the jet, both stationary and towed at various speeds to simulate cross-flow, have been recorded at high speed. Preliminary data on oil droplet size and spatial distributions were also measured using a videoscope and pulsed light sheet. Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative (GoMRI).

  11. Droplet size prediction in the production of drug delivery microsystems by ultrasonic atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmoro, Annalisa; d'Amore, Matteo; Barba, Anna Angela

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation processes of drugs or other functional molecules are of great interest in pharmaceutical production fields. Ultrasonic assisted atomization is a new technique to produce microencapsulated systems by mechanical approach. It seems to offer several advantages (low level of mechanical stress in materials, reduced energy request, reduced apparatuses size) with respect to more conventional techniques. In this paper the groundwork of atomization is briefly introduced and correlations to predict droplet size starting from process parameters and material properties are presented.

  12. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect.

  13. Visual Measurements of Droplet Size in Gas Liquid Annular Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fore, L.B.; Ibrahim, B.B.; Beus, S.G.

    2000-07-01

    Drop size distributions have been measured for nitrogen-water annular flow in a 9.67 mm hydraulic diameter duct, at system pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and a temperature of 38 C. These new data extend the range of conditions represented by existing data in the open literature, primarily through an increase in system pressure. Since most existing correlations were developed from data obtained at lower pressures, it should be expected that the higher-pressure data presented in this paper would not necessarily follow those correlations. The correlation of Tatterson, et al. (1977) does not predict the new data very well, while the correlation of Kataoka, et al. (1983) only predicts those data taken at the lower pressure of 3.4 atm. However, the maximum drop size correlation of Kocamustafaogullari, et al. (1994) does predict the current data to a reasonable approximation. Similarly, their correlation for the Sauter mean diameter can predict the new data, provided the coefficient in the equation is adjusted.

  14. A laser extinction based sensor for simultaneous droplet size and vapor measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiang Sun; David J. Ewing; Lin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Multiphase flows involving liquid droplets in association with gas flow occur in many industrial and scientific applications.Recent work has demonstrated the feasibility of using optical techniques based on laser extinction to simultaneously measure vapor concentration and temperature and droplet size and loading.This work introduces the theoretical background for the optimal design of such laser extinction techniques,termed WMLE (wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction).This paper focuses on the development of WMLE and presents a systematic methodology to guide the selection of suitable wavelengths and optimize the performance of WMLE for specific applications.WMLE utilizing wavelengths from 0.5to 10 μm is illustrated for droplet size and vapor concentration measurements in an example of water spray,and is found to enable unique and sensitive Sauter mean diameter measurement in the range of ~1-15μm along with accurate vapor detection.A vapor detection strategy based on differential absorption is developed to extend accurate measurement to a significantly wider range of droplet loading and vapor concentration as compared to strategies based on direct fixed-wavelength absorption.Expected performance of the sensor is modeled for an evaporating spray.This work is expected to lay the groundwork for implementing optical sensors based on WMLE in a variety of research and industrial applications involving multi-phase flows.

  15. Influence of palmitoyl pentapeptide and Ceramide III B on the droplet size of nanoemulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondari, Dewi; Haryono, Agus; Harmami, Sri Budi; Randy, Ahmad

    2010-05-01

    The influence of the Palmitoyl Pentapeptide (PPp) and Ceramide IIIB (Cm III B) as active ingredients on the droplet size of nano-emulsion was studied using different kinds of oil (avocado oil, sweet almond oil, jojoba oil, mineral oil and squalene). The formation of nano-emulsions were prepared in water mixed non ionic surfactant/oils system using the spontaneous emulsification mechanism. The aqueous solution, which consist of water and Tween® 20 as a hydrophilic surfactant was mixed homogenously. The organic solution, which consist of oil and Span® 80 as a lipophilic surfactant was mixed homogenously in ethanol. Ethanol was used as a water miscible solvent, which can help the formation of nano-emulsion. The oil phase (containing the blend of surfactant Span® 80, ethanol, oil and active ingredient) and the aqueous phase (containing water and Tween® 20) were separately prepared at room temperatures. The oil phase was slowly added into aqueous phase under continuous mechanical agitation (18000 rpm). All samples were subsequently homogenized with Ultra-Turrax for 30 minutes. The characterizations of nano-emulsion were carried out using photo-microscope and particle size analyzer. Addition of active ingredients on the formation of nano-emulsion gave smallest droplet size compared without active ingredients addition on the formation of nano-emulsion. Squalene oil with Palmitoyl Pentapeptide (PPm) and Ceramide IIIB (Cm IIIB) gave smallest droplet size (184.0 nm) compared without Palmitoyl Pentapeptide and Ceramide IIIB (214.9 nm), however the droplets size of the emulsion prepared by the other oils still in the range of nano-emulsion (below 500 nm). The stability of nano-emulsion was observed using two methods. In one method, the stability of nano-emulsion was observed for three months at temperature of 5°C and 50°C, while in the other method, the stability nano-emulsion was observed by centrifuged at 12000 rpm for 30 minutes. Nanoemulsion with active ingredient

  16. Size Controlled Two-dimensional Co3O4 with Exposure of {111} Plane: Synthesis and Catalytic Properties for Photooxidation of Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size controlled 2D hexagonal structured Co3O4 with exposure of the {111} plane was fabricated, and the catalytic properties for photooxidation of organics using as-prepared samples were investigated. 2D hexagonal structured Co3O4 with the size of 3 m displays higher photocat...

  17. Branched polymers characterized by comprehensive two-dimensional separations with fully orthogonal mechanisms: Molecular-topology fractionation x size-exclusion chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Edam; E.P.C. Mes; D.M. Meunier; F.A. van Damme; P.J. Schoenmakers

    2014-01-01

    Polymer separations under non-conventional conditions have been explored to obtain a separation of long-chain branched polymers from linear polymers with identical hydrodynamic size. In separation media with flow-through channels of the same order as the size of the analyte molecules in solution, th

  18. Size Controlled Two-dimensional Co3O4 with Exposure of {111} Plane: Synthesis and Catalytic Properties for Photooxidation of Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The size controlled 2D hexagonal structured Co3O4 with exposure of the {111} plane was fabricated, and the catalytic properties for photooxidation of organics using as-prepared samples were investigated. 2D hexagonal structured Co3O4 with the size of 3 m displays higher photocat...

  19. Size prediction of κ-carrageenan droplets formed in co-flowing immiscible liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Yee Leong; Tek-Kaun Lim; Ravindra Pogaku; Eng-Seng Chan

    2011-01-01

    The formation of κ-carrageenan droplets in channel emulsification was experimentally investigated.The dispersed phase was vertically injected into co-flowing immiscible palm oil in the direction of gravity.This study focused on predicting κ-carrageenan drop size using force balance analysis.The force balance model considers the interfacial tension to be the solitary attaching force,while a combination of the drag force from the co-flowing palm oil and the body force of the extruding κ-carrageenan liquid act as the detaching forces.The conventional model gave poor predictions for droplet size,with an average relative deviation of 23%.This large deviation could be attributed to necking phenomena and an underestimation of the drag force generated on the shear-thinning κ-carrageenan solution.By incorporating correction factors,the average relative deviation of the force balance model dropped to 4%.

  20. Micrometer-sized water droplet impingement dynamics and evaporation on a flat dry surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Alejandro M; Ervin, Jamie S; Putnam, Shawn A; Byrd, Larry W; Gschwender, Lois

    2010-08-17

    A comprehensive numerical and experimental investigation on micrometer-sized water droplet impact dynamics and evaporation on an unheated, flat, dry surface is conducted from the standpoint of spray-cooling technology. The axisymmetric time-dependent governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy, and species are solved. Surface tension, wall adhesion effect, gravitational body force, contact line dynamics, and evaporation are accounted for in the governing equations. The explicit volume of fluid (VOF) model with dynamic meshing and variable-time stepping in serial and parallel processors is used to capture the time-dependent liquid-gas interface motion throughout the computational domain. The numerical model includes temperature- and species-dependent thermodynamic and transport properties. The contact line dynamics and the evaporation rate are predicted using Blake's and Schrage's molecular kinetic models, respectively. An extensive grid independence study was conducted. Droplet impingement and evaporation data are acquired with a standard dispensing/imaging system and high-speed photography. The numerical results are compared with measurements reported in the literature for millimeter-size droplets and with current microdroplet experiments in terms of instantaneous droplet shape and temporal spread (R/D(0) or R/R(E)), flatness ratio (H/D(0)), and height (H/H(E)) profiles, as well as temporal volume (inverted A) profile. The Weber numbers (We) for impinging droplets vary from 1.4 to 35.2 at nearly constant Ohnesorge number (Oh) of approximately 0.025-0.029. Both numerical and experimental results show that there is air bubble entrapment due to impingement. Numerical results indicate that Blake's formulation provides better results than the static (SCA) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) approach in terms of temporal evolution of R/D(0) and H/D(0) (especially at the initial stages of spreading) and equilibrium flatness ratio (H(E)/D(0)). Blake's contact line

  1. Deformation and fracture of emulsion-filled gels: Effect of gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Vliet, van T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the ratio between the modulus of the oil droplets and that of the gel matrix (varied by changing gelling agent concentration and oil droplet size) on the large deformation properties of gelatine, ¿-carrageenan and whey protein isolate (WPI) gels was studied at different compression spe

  2. Effects of Spray Mixtures on Droplet Size Under Aerial Application Conditions and Implications on Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Keywords. Aerial application, Glyphosate , Spray adjuvant, Droplet size, Spray drift, AGDISP. pray drift, which the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...environmental and human health protection through drift reduction by accelerating the acceptance and use of improved and cost‐effective application...Louis, Mo.) EPA Reg. No. 524‐549, Active ingredient: Glyphosate : N‐(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in the form of its potassium salt: 1 quart/acre rate

  3. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  4. Size-dependent contact angle and the wetting and drying transition of a droplet adsorbed onto a spherical substrate: Line-tension effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamatsu, Masao

    2016-10-01

    The size-dependent contact angle and the drying and wetting morphological transition are studied with respect to the volume change for a spherical cap-shaped droplet placed on a spherical substrate. The line-tension effect is included using the rigorous formula for the Helmholtz free energy in the droplet capillary model. A morphological drying transition from a cap-shaped to a spherical droplet occurs when the substrate is hydrophobic and the droplet volume is small, similar to the transition predicted on a flat substrate. In addition, a morphological wetting transition from a cap-shaped to a wrapped spherical droplet occurs for a hydrophilic substrate and a large droplet volume. The contact angle depends on the droplet size: it decreases as the droplet volume increases when the line tension is positive, whereas it increases when the line tension is negative. The spherical droplets and wrapped droplets are stable when the line tension is positive and large.

  5. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional X Y model at zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G.; Niedermayer, F.; Rácz, Z.; Riveros, A.; Zambrano, D.

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical X Y model on an L ×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution ΦL(y ) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of ΦL(y ) , and the limit distribution ΦL →∞(y ) =Φ0(y ) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections ΦL(y ) -Φ0(y ) ≈a1(L ) Φ1(y ) +a2(L ) Φ2(y ) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a1(L ) scales as ln(L /L0) /L2 and the shape correction function Φ1(y ) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ1(y ) =[yΦ0(y ) +Φ0'(y ) ] ' . Thus, Φ1(y ) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a2(L ) ∝1 /L2 and one finds that a2Φ2(y ) ≪a1Φ1(y ) already for small system size (L >10 ). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the X Y model at low temperatures, including T =0 .

  6. Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.

  7. Effect of drop size on the impact thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet in aircraft icing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Supercooled large droplet (SLD), which can cause abnormal icing, is a well-known issue in aerospace engineering. Although efforts have been exerted to understand large droplet impact dynamics and the supercooled feature in the film/substrate interface, respectively, the thermodynamic effect during the SLD impact process has not received sufficient attention. This work conducts experimental studies to determine the effects of drop size on the thermodynamics for supercooled large droplet impingement. Through phenomenological reproduction, the rapid-freezing characteristics are observed in diameters of 400, 800, and 1300 μm. The experimental analysis provides information on the maximum spreading rate and the shrinkage rate of the drop, the supercooled diffusive rate, and the freezing time. A physical explanation of this unsteady heat transfer process is proposed theoretically, which indicates that the drop size is a critical factor influencing the supercooled heat exchange and effective heat transfer duration between the film/substrate interface. On the basis of the present experimental data and theoretical analysis, an impinging heating model is developed and applied to typical SLD cases. The model behaves as anticipated, which underlines the wide applicability to SLD icing problems in related fields.

  8. Effect of oil droplet size on the oxidative stability of spray-dried flaxseed oil powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Loon Neoh, Tze; Ninomiya, Ai; Adachi, Sae; Pasten, Ignacio Lopez; Adachi, Shuji; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the size of oil droplets on the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil in spray-dried powders was investigated. Maltodextrin with a dextrose equivalent of 25 was used as a wall material, and sodium caseinate and transglutaminase-polymerized sodium caseinate were used as emulsifiers. The oxidative stability of flaxseed oil encapsulated in the spray-dried powders was evaluated using lipid oxidation and conductometric determination tests at 105 °C. The powders containing larger oil droplets exhibited higher surface oil content after spray drying, and higher peroxide value and conductivity after storage at 105 °C. Removal of the surface oil from the powders by washing with hexane significantly decreased the conductivity. The results indicated that the surface oil of the spray-dried flaxseed oil powders affected the oxidation stability.

  9. Study on Droplet Size and Velocity Distributions of a Pressure Swirl Atomizer Based on the Maximum Entropy Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A predictive model for droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer has been proposed based on the maximum entropy formalism (MEF. The constraint conditions of the MEF model include the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy. The effects of liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio on the droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer are investigated. Results show that model based on maximum entropy formalism works well to predict droplet size and velocity distributions under different spray conditions. Liquid swirling strength, Weber number, gas-to-liquid axial velocity ratio and gas-to-liquid density ratio have different effects on droplet size and velocity distributions of a pressure swirl atomizer.

  10. The role of the particle size distribution in assessing aerosol composition effects on simulated droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Ward

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Variations in the chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols alter their hygroscopicity and can lead to changes in the cloud-active fraction of the aerosols, or cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number concentration. To investigate the importance of this effect under different atmospheric conditions, cloud droplet formation was simulated with a Lagrangian parcel model. Initial values of updraft speed and temperature were systematically varied along with aerosol number concentration, size and hygroscopicity (represented by the hygroscopicity parameter, κ. A previous study classifies the sensitivity of CCN activity to compositional changes based on the supersaturation reached in the parcel model. We found that these classifications could not be generalized to a range of aerosol size distribution median radii. Instead, variations in sensitivity with size depend on the location of the dry critical radius for droplet activation relative to the size distribution median radius. The parcel model output was used to construct droplet activation lookup tables based on κ that were implemented in the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS microphysical scheme. As a first application of this system, aerosol hygroscopicity and size were varied in a series of RAMS mesoscale simulations designed to investigate the sensitivity of a mixed-phase orographic cloud case to the parameter variations. Observations from a recent field campaign in northwestern Colorado provided the basis for the aerosol field initializations. Model results show moderate sensitivity in the distribution of total case precipitation to extreme changes in κ, and minimal sensitivity to observed changes in estimated κ. The impact of varying aerosol hygroscopicity diminished with increasing median radius, as expected from the parcel model results. The conclusions drawn from these simulations could simplify similar research in other cloud regimes by defining the need, or lack of need, for

  11. Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuolei Xiao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.

  12. Two-Dimensional Mapping of the Calculated Fission Power for the Full-Size Fuel Plate Experiment Irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, G. S.; Lillo, M. A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administrations (NNSA) Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program assigned to the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the responsibility of developing and demonstrating high uranium density research reactor fuel forms to enable the use of low enriched uranium (LEU) in research and test reactors around the world. A series of full-size fuel plate experiments have been proposed for irradiation testing in the center flux trap (CFT) position of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). These full-size fuel plate tests are designated as the AFIP tests. The AFIP nominal fuel zone is rectangular in shape having a designed length of 21.5-in (54.61-cm), width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), and uniform thickness of 0.014-in (0.03556-cm). This gives a nominal fuel zone volume of 0.482 in3 (7.89 cm3) per fuel plate. The AFIP test assembly has two test positions. Each test position is designed to hold 2 full-size plates, for a total of 4 full-size plates per test assembly. The AFIP test plates will be irradiated at a peak surface heat flux of about 350 W/cm2 and discharged at a peak U-235 burn-up of about 70 at.%. Based on limited irradiation testing of the monolithic (U-10Mo) fuel form, it is desirable to keep the peak fuel temperature below 250°C to achieve this, it will be necessary to keep plate heat fluxes below 500 W/cm2. Due to the heavy U-235 loading and a plate width of 1.6-in (4.064-cm), the neutron self-shielding will increase the local-to-average-ratio (L2AR) fission power near the sides of the fuel plates. To demonstrate that the AFIP experiment will meet the ATR safety requirements, a very detailed 2-dimensional (2D) Y-Z fission power profile was evaluated in order to best predict the fuel plate temperature distribution. The ability to accurately predict fuel plate power and burnup are essential to both the design of the AFIP tests as well as evaluation of the irradiated fuel performance. To support this need, a detailed MCNP Y

  13. The effect of dispersed Petrobaltic oil droplet size on photosynthetically active radiation in marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haule, Kamila; Freda, Włodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Oil pollution in seawater, primarily visible on sea surface, becomes dispersed as an effect of wave mixing as well as chemical dispersant treatment, and forms spherical oil droplets. In this study, we examined the influence of oil droplet size of highly dispersed Petrobaltic crude on the underwater visible light flux and the inherent optical properties (IOPs) of seawater, including absorption, scattering, backscattering and attenuation coefficients. On the basis of measured data and Mie theory, we calculated the IOPs of dispersed Petrobaltic crude oil in constant concentration, but different log-normal size distributions. We also performed a radiative transfer analysis, in order to evaluate the influence on the downwelling irradiance Ed, remote sensing reflectance Rrs and diffuse reflectance R, using in situ data from the Baltic Sea. We found that during dispersion, there occurs a boundary size distribution characterized by a peak diameter d0  = 0.3 μm causing a maximum E d increase of 40% within 0.5-m depth, and the maximum Ed decrease of 100% at depths below 5 m. Moreover, we showed that the impact of size distribution on the "blue to green" ratios of Rrs and R varies from 24% increase to 27% decrease at the same crude oil concentration.

  14. Computational Analysis of Droplet Mass and Size Effect on Mist/Air Impingement Cooling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglei Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impingement cooling has been widely employed to cool gas turbine hot components such as combustor liners, combustor transition pieces, turbine vanes, and blades. A promising technology is proposed to enhance impingement cooling with water droplets injection. However, previous studies were conducted on blade shower head film cooling, and less attention was given to the transition piece cooling. As a continuous effort to develop a realistic mist impingement cooling scheme, this paper focuses on simulating mist impingement cooling under typical gas turbine operating conditions of high temperature and pressure in a double chamber model. Furthermore, the paper presents the effect of cooling effectiveness by changing the mass and size of the droplets. Based on the heat-mass transfer analogy, the results of these experiments prove that the mass of 3E – 3 kg/s droplets with diameters of 5–35 μm could enhance 90% cooling effectiveness and reduce 122 K of wall temperature. The results of this paper can provide guidance for corresponding experiments and serve as the qualification reference for future more complicated studies with convex surface cooling.

  15. Open-atmosphere sustenance of highly volatile attoliter-size droplets on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliker, Patrick; Schneider, Julian; Rüthemann, Lukas; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2013-08-13

    The controlled formation and handling of minute liquid volumes on surfaces is essential to the success of microfluidics in biology, chemistry, and materials applications. Even though current methods have demonstrated their potential in a variety of experimental assays, there remain significant difficulties concerning breadth of applicability, standardization, throughput, and economics. Here we introduce a unique microfluidic paradigm in which microscopic volatile droplets are formed, sustained, and manipulated in size and content at any desired spot on unpatterned substrates. Their sustainability is warranted by continuous replacement of the rapidly vaporizing sessile fluid through controlled equivalent volume deposition of smaller discrete liquid entities by an electrohydrodynamic nanodripping process. Using nanoparticle inks we show that the concentration of solutes in so-stabilized droplets can be linearly increased at isochoric conditions and user-defined rates. An intriguing insensitivity of the droplet shape toward surface heterogeneities ensures robustness and experimental reproducibility, even when handling attoliter quantities. The unique capabilities and technical simplicity of the presented method introduce a high degree of flexibility and make it pertinent to a diverse range of applications.

  16. Equilibrium molecular theory of two-dimensional adsorbate drops on surfaces of heterogeneous adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovbin, Yu. K.

    2016-08-01

    A molecular statistical theory for calculating the linear tension of small multicomponent droplets in two-dimensional adsorption systems is developed. The theory describes discrete distributions of molecules in space (on a scale comparable to molecular size) and continuous distributions of molecules (at short distances inside cells) in their translational and vibrational motions. Pair intermolecular interaction potentials (the Mie type potential) in several coordination spheres are considered. For simplicity, it is assumed that distinctions in the sizes of mixture components are slight and comparable to the sizes of adsorbent adsorption centers. Expressions for the pressure tensor components inside small droplets on the heterogeneous surface of an adsorbent are obtained, allowing calculations of the thermodynamic characteristics of a vapor-fluid interface, including linear tension. Problems in refining the molecular theory are discussed: describing the properties of small droplets using a coordination model of their structure, considering the effect an adsorbate has on the state of a near-surface adsorbent region, and the surface heterogeneity factor in the conditions for the formation of droplets.

  17. Volume-of-fluid simulations in microfluidic T-junction devices: Influence of viscosity ratio on droplet size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Mehdi; Vanapalli, Siva A.

    2017-03-01

    We used volume-of-fluid (VOF) method to perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of droplet formation of Newtonian fluids in microfluidic T-junction devices. To evaluate the performance of the VOF method we examined the regimes of drop formation and determined droplet size as a function of system parameters. Comparison of the simulation results with four sets of experimental data from the literature showed good agreement, validating the VOF method. Motivated by the lack of adequate studies investigating the influence of viscosity ratio (λ) on the generated droplet size, we mapped the dependence of drop volume on capillary number (0.001 1. In addition, we find that at a given capillary number, the size of droplets does not vary appreciably when λ 1. We develop an analytical model for predicting the droplet size that includes a viscosity-dependent breakup time for the dispersed phase. This improved model successfully predicts the effects of the viscosity ratio observed in simulations. Results from this study are useful for the design of lab-on-chip technologies and manufacture of microfluidic emulsions, where there is a need to know how system parameters influence the droplet size.

  18. Rapid monitoring of cell size, vitality and lipid droplet development in the oleaginous yeast Waltomyces lipofer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, D; Knorr, D

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this work was the development of rapid methods suitable for monitoring the growth of the oleaginous yeast Waltomyces lipofer by means of cell size, vitality and the development of internal lipid droplets throughout different growth phases. Oleaginous yeasts are of interest for the industrial production of lipids and therefore precise monitoring of growth characteristics is needed. This paper provides information about both the method development as well as about examples for their use in monitoring applications. Cell size and shape were determined using FPIA (Flow Particle Image Analysis). Vitality and internal lipid droplets were measured using two independent staining methods for Flow Cytometry. Double staining with cFDA & PI was used for the distinction between "vital", "sublethal" and "dead" subpopulations, whereas Nile Red allowed the monitoring of lipid accumulation. In this approach the method for vitality measurement was optimized focussing on the staining buffer. An addition of 25 mM citric acid and pH 4.8 revealed to be optimal. The cells in the growth experiment showed a constantly high vitality, which was always above 90%, but slowly decreasing over time. In the course of lipid droplet development it could be seen that the cell size and the Nile Red fluorescence intensity increased. It was demonstrated that the tested method combination provides a powerful tool for rapid fermentation monitoring of the oleaginous yeast W. lipofer, which allows gaining information about the desired growth characteristics in less than 45 min. Further applications for the two methods will be discussed in this article.

  19. Confined dissipative droplet solitons in spin-valve nanowires with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacocca, Ezio; Dumas, Randy K; Bookman, Lake; Mohseni, Majid; Chung, Sunjae; Hoefer, Mark A; Akerman, Johan

    2014-01-31

    Magnetic dissipative droplets are localized, strongly nonlinear dynamical modes excited in nanocontact spin valves with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. These modes find potential application in nanoscale structures for magnetic storage and computation, but dissipative droplet studies have so far been limited to extended thin films. Here, numerical and asymptotic analyses are used to demonstrate the existence and properties of novel solitons in confined structures. As a nanowire's width is decreased with a nanocontact of fixed size at its center, the observed modes undergo transitions from a fully localized two-dimensional droplet into a two-dimensional droplet edge mode and then a pulsating one-dimensional droplet. These solitons are interpreted as dissipative versions of classical, conservative solitons, allowing for an analytical description of the modes and the mechanisms of bifurcation. The presented results open up new possibilities for the study of low-dimensional solitons and droplet applications in nanostructures.

  20. Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM

    CERN Document Server

    Narayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.

  1. Study of droplet size and velocity of fuel containing CO2 spray by means of PDA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; QIAO Xinqi; HUANG Zhen; FANG Junhua

    2004-01-01

    Injection of fuel containing CO2 has potential to reduce NOx and soot emissions in a diesel engine. This paper presents an experimental study on the spray characteristics of fuel containing CO2 as measured by phase doppler anemometry (PDA). Experiments were performed under atmospheric conditions on diesel hole-type nozzles at constant injection pressure. Effects of CO2 concentration in diesel fuel on the spray pattern, droplet size and velocity were measured. Experimental results show that fuel atomization will improve greatly when the concentration of dissolved CO2 in the fuel exceeds the critical value. The axial and radial velocity of the fuel spray containing CO2 is larger than that of conventional diesel fuel spray near the nozzle exit due to flash boiling phenomena. Downstream of the spray, the radial velocity and droplet size of fuel containing CO2 is much more uniform and smaller than that of pure diesel spray. It is attributed to the greatly enhanced liquid-gas mixing resulting from flash separation of CO2 from the liquid. New insight into the atomization of the fuel containing CO2 was obtained and a possible mechanism to explain the phenomena was proposed. The method may be developed into a new technique for controlling diesel combustion and exhaust emissions.

  2. Accuracy Assessments of Cloud Droplet Size Retrievals from Polarized Reflectance Measurements by the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail Dmitrievic; Cairns, Brian; Emde, Claudia; Ackerman, Andrew S.; vanDiedenhove, Bastiaan

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution parameters (effective radius and variance) from the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) measurements. The RSP is an airborne prototype for the Aerosol Polarimetery Sensor (APS), which was on-board of the NASA Glory satellite. This instrument measures both polarized and total reflectance in 9 spectral channels with central wavelengths ranging from 410 to 2260 nm. The cloud droplet size retrievals use the polarized reflectance in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg, where they exhibit the sharply defined structure known as the rain- or cloud-bow. The shape of the rainbow is determined mainly by the single scattering properties of cloud particles. This significantly simplifies both forward modeling and inversions, while also substantially reducing uncertainties caused by the aerosol loading and possible presence of undetected clouds nearby. In this study we present the accuracy evaluation of our algorithm based on the results of sensitivity tests performed using realistic simulated cloud radiation fields.

  3. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  4. Discrimination of micrometre-sized ice and super-cooled droplets in mixed-phase cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, E.; Kaye, P. H.; Greenaway, R. S.; Field, P.; Johnson, D. W.

    Preliminary experimental results are presented from an aircraft-mounted probe designed to provide in situ data on cloud particle shape, size, and number concentration. In particular, the probe has been designed to facilitate discrimination between super-cooled water droplets and ice crystals of 1-25 μm size within mixed-phase clouds and to provide information on cloud interstitial aerosols. The probe acquires spatial light scattering data from individual particles at throughput rates of several thousand particles per second. These data are logged at 100 ms intervals to allow the distribution and number concentration of each particle type to be determined with 10 m spatial resolution at a typical airspeed of 100 m s -1. Preliminary results from flight data recorded in altocumulus castellanus, showing liquid water phase, mixed phase, and ice phase are presented to illustrate the probe's particle discrimination capabilities.

  5. A comparison of two-dimensional and real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography and angiography for assessing the left atrial appendage anatomy for sizing a left atrial appendage occlusion system: impact of volume loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kassou, Baravan; Tzikas, Apostolos; Stock, Friederike; Neikes, Fabian; Völz, Alexander; Omran, Heyder

    2017-04-20

    Correct sizing of a left atrial appendage (LAA) closure system is important to avoid redeployment of the device and peri-device leaks. The aims of this study were to assess the significance of two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE), real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) and angiography for measuring the size of the LAA landing zone and to determine the impact on sizing an LAA closure device. Furthermore, we investigated the relevance of volume loading on LAA size. In a prospective study, 46 patients underwent 2D-TEE and RT 3D-TEE 24 hours prior to LAA closure, at the beginning of the procedure and just before the procedure after volume loading with an average of 1,035±246 ml. Angiography was performed immediately before the implantation. Maximal diameter (2.2±0.4 versus 2.3±0.4 cm; pcorrelation (R) between measurements and LAA device size was found for RT 3D-TEE-derived perimeter (R=0.97) and area (R=0.96), whereas the maximal diameter (R=0.78) measured by 2D-TEE and angiography (R=0.76) correlated less closely. Sizing based on an RT 3D-TEE-measured perimeter resulted only in 4% of undersizing the implanted device. Peri-device leaks occurred in seven cases (15%) and were associated with a lower compression of LAA devices (7±1.3% versus 14±3.2% for patients without leaks, pcorrelation to LAA closure device size than 2D-TEE or angiographic measurements.

  6. Tight coupling of particle size, number and composition in atmospheric cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The substantial uncertainty in the indirect effect of aerosol particles on radiative forcing in large part arises from the influences of atmospheric aerosol particles on (i the brightness of clouds, exerting significant shortwave cooling with no appreciable compensation in the long wave, and on (ii their ability to precipitate, with implications for cloud cover and lifetime.

    Predicting the ambient conditions at which aerosol particles may become cloud droplets is largely reliant on an equilibrium relationship derived by Köhler (1936. However, the theoretical basis of the relationship restricts its application to particles solely comprising involatile compounds and water, whereas a substantial fraction of particles in the real atmosphere will contain potentially thousands of semi-volatile organic compounds in addition to containing semi-volatile inorganic components such as ammonium nitrate.

    We show that equilibration of atmospherically reasonable concentrations of organic compounds with a growing particle as the ambient humidity increases has potentially larger implications on cloud droplet formation than any other equilibrium compositional dependence, owing to inextricable linkage between the aerosol composition, a particles size and concentration under ambient conditions.

    Whilst previous attempts to account for co-condensation of gases other than water vapour have been restricted to one inorganic condensate, our method demonstrates that accounting for the co-condensation of any number of organic compounds substantially decreases the saturation ratio of water vapour required for droplet activation. This effect is far greater than any other compositional dependence; more so even than the unphysical effect of surface tension reduction in aqueous organic mixtures, ignoring differences in bulk and surface surfactant concentrations.

  7. Canopy-atmosphere interactions under foggy condition—Size-resolved fog droplet fluxes and their implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Madany, T. S.; Walk, J. B.; Deventer, M. J.; Degefie, D. T.; Chang, S.-C.; Juang, J.-Y.; Griessbaum, F.; Klemm, O.

    2016-03-01

    Microphysical processes of fog and their spatial and temporal pattern are a challenge to study under natural conditions. This work focuses on the development of bidirectional fluxes of fog droplets above a forest canopy in northeastern Taiwan. Bidirectional fluxes occurred regularly, start from the smallest droplet class (<2.66 µm diameter), and subsequently extend to larger droplets up to 7.41 µm diameter. The development of the bidirectional fluxes with positive (upward) fluxes of smaller droplets and downward fluxes of larger fluxes is associated with a temperature gradient and with the activation of fog droplets according to the Köhler theory. Small fog droplets develop close to the canopy as result of evapotranspiration and subsequent condensation. The rapid growth of small fog droplets and the accelerated growth of activated droplets, a process which is more likely to occur at higher levels of the fog layer, lead to a sink of small droplets and a source of larger droplets within the fog. This is in accordance with the observation that positive droplet number fluxes of small fog droplets outnumber the negative fluxes from the larger fog droplets. For liquid water, the net flux is negative.

  8. Measurement of droplet size distribution in core region of high-speed spray by micro-probe L2F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daisaku Sakaguchi; Oluwo le Amida; Hironobu Ueki; Masahiro Ishida

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the distribution of droplet sizes in the core region of diesel fuel spray, instantaneous measurement of droplet sizes was conducted by an advanced laser 2-focus velocimeter (L2F). The micro-scale probe of the L2F is made up of two foci and the distance between them is 36 μm. The tested nozzle had a 0.2 mm diameter single-hole. The measurements of injection pressure, needle lift, and crank angle were synchronized with the measurement by the L2F at the position 10 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. It is clearly shown that the droplet near the spray axis is larger than that in the off-axis region under the needle full lift condition and that the spatial distribution of droplet sizes varies temporally. It is found that the probability density distribution of droplet sizes in the spray core region can be fitted to the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution in most injection periods.

  9. Molecular Dynamics Study for Channel Size Dependence of Shear Stress Between Droplet and Wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Akinori; Mima, Toshiki; Kinefuchi, Ikuya; Tokumasu, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the channel size dependence of the shear stress between water droplets and solid walls in nm-order channel was analyzed. We considered a several different-sized and highly hydrophobic channel whose macroscopic contact angle was about 150 degrees. We have evaluated the shear stress and the normal pressure by molecular dynamics simulation. Analyzing shear stress and normal pressure based on the macroscopic model, we have discussed the difference between the macroscopic model based on hydrodynamics and the microscopic model. As a result, in the high hydrophobic case, it became clear that the shear stress depends on the channel size due to the large Laplace pressure. Furthermore, in the case that the channel size was less than 50 A, the normal pressure by the molecular simulation didn't agree with the expected value from the Young-Laplace equation. From this study it was clear that molecular simulation is needed when the channel size is less than 40 A.

  10. Remote sensing of water cloud droplet size distributions using the backscatter glory: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud single scattering properties are mainly determined by the effective radius of the droplet size distribution. There are only few exceptions where the shape of the size distribution affects the optical properties, in particular the rainbow and the glory directions of the scattering phase function. Using observations by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI in 180° backscatter geometry, we found that high angular resolution aircraft observations of the glory provide unique new information which is not available from traditional remote sensing techniques: Using only one single wavelength, 753nm, we were able to determine not only optical thickness and effective radius, but also the width of the size distribution at cloud top. Applying this novel technique to the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN experiment, we found that the size distributions were much narrower than usually assumed in radiation calculations which is in agreement with in-situ observations during this campaign. While the shape of the size distribution has only little relevance for the radiative properties of clouds, it is extremely important for understanding their formation and evolution.

  11. Remote sensing of water cloud droplet size distributions using the backscatter glory: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mayer

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Cloud single scattering properties are mainly determined by the effective radius of the droplet size distribution. There are only few exceptions where the shape of the size distribution affects the optical properties, in particular the rainbow and the glory directions of the scattering phase function. Using observations by the Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI in 180° backscatter geometry, we found that high angular resolution aircraft observations of the glory provide unique new information which is not available from traditional remote sensing techniques: Using only one single wavelength, 753 nm, we were able to determine not only optical thickness and effective radius, but also the width of the size distribution at cloud top. Applying this novel technique to the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN experiment, we found that the size distributions were much narrower than usually assumed in radiation calculations which is in agreement with in-situ observations during this campaign. While the shape of the size distribution has only little relevance for the radiative properties of clouds, it is extremely important for understanding their formation and evolution.

  12. A conserved role for atlastin GTPases in regulating lipid droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Robin W; Norton, Justin P; Cole, Ronald A; Li, Chen S; Park, Seong H; Crane, Matthew M; Li, Liying; Jin, Diana; Boye-Doe, Alexandra; Liu, Tina Y; Shibata, Yoko; Lu, Hang; Rapoport, Tom A; Farese, Robert V; Blackstone, Craig; Guo, Yi; Mak, Ho Yi

    2013-05-30

    Lipid droplets (LDs) are the major fat storage organelles in eukaryotic cells, but how their size is regulated is unknown. Using genetic screens in C. elegans for LD morphology defects in intestinal cells, we found that mutations in atlastin, a GTPase required for homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, cause not only ER morphology defects, but also a reduction in LD size. Similar results were obtained after depletion of atlastin or expression of a dominant-negative mutant, whereas overexpression of atlastin had the opposite effect. Atlastin depletion in Drosophila fat bodies also reduced LD size and decreased triglycerides in whole animals, sensitizing them to starvation. In mammalian cells, co-overexpression of atlastin-1 and REEP1, a paralog of the ER tubule-shaping protein DP1/REEP5, generates large LDs. The effect of atlastin-1 on LD size correlates with its activity to promote membrane fusion in vitro. Our results indicate that atlastin-mediated fusion of ER membranes is important for LD size regulation.

  13. Velocity and Size of Droplets in Dense Region of Diesel Fuel Spray on Transient Needle Opening Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hironobu UEKI; Masahiro ISHIDA; Daisaku SAKAGUCHI

    2005-01-01

    @@ In order to investigate the effect of transient needle opening on early stage of spray behavior, simultaneous measurements of velocity and size of droplet were conducted by a newly developed laser 2-focus velocimeter (L2F). The micro-scale probe of the L2F was consisted of two foci with a distance of 36 μm. The tested nozzle had a single hole with a diameter of 0.2 mm. The measurements of injection pressure, needle lift, and crank angle were synchronized with the spray measurement by the L2F at the position 10 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. It has been clearly shown that the velocity and size of droplet increase with needle valve opening and that the probability density distribution of droplet size can be fitted to the Nukiyama-Tanasawa distribution under the transient needle opening condition.

  14. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  15. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  16. Droplet breakup in subsea oil releases--part 2: predictions of droplet size distributions with and without injection of chemical dispersants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Øistein; Brandvik, Per Johan; Farooq, Umer

    2013-08-15

    A new method for prediction of droplet size distributions from subsea oil and gas releases is presented in this paper. The method is based on experimental data obtained from oil droplet breakup experiments conducted in a new test facility at SINTEF. The facility is described in a companion paper, while this paper deals with the theoretical basis for the model and the empirical correlations used to derive the model parameters from the available data from the test facility. A major issue dealt with in this paper is the basis for extrapolation of the data to full scale (blowout) conditions. Possible contribution from factors such as buoyancy flux and gas void fraction are discussed and evaluated based on results from the DeepSpill field experiment.

  17. Size and Velocity Characteristics of Droplets Generated by Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchaca M, J. I.; Castillejos E, A. H.; Acosta G, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Direct spray impingement of high temperature surfaces, 1473 K to 973 K (1200 °C to 700 °C), plays a critical role in the secondary cooling of continuously cast thin steel slabs. It is known that the spray parameters affecting the local heat flux are the water impact flux w as well as the droplet velocity and size. However, few works have been done to characterize the last two parameters in the case of dense mists ( i.e., mists with w in the range of 2 to 90 L/m2s). This makes it difficult to rationalize how the nozzle type and its operating conditions must be selected to control the cooling process. In the present study, particle/droplet image analysis was used to determine the droplet size and velocity distributions simultaneously at various locations along the major axis of the mist cross section at a distance where the steel strand would stand. The measurements were carried out at room temperature for two standard commercial air-assisted nozzles of fan-discharge type operating over a broad range of conditions of practical interest. To achieve statistically meaningful samples, at least 6000 drops were analyzed at each location. Measuring the droplet size revealed that the number and volume frequency distributions were fitted satisfactorily by the respective log-normal and Nukiyama-Tanasawa distributions. The correlation of the parameters of the distribution functions with the water- and air-nozzle pressures allowed for reasonable estimation of the mean values of the size of the droplets generated. The ensemble of measurements across the mist axis showed that the relationship between the droplet velocity and the diameter exhibited a weak positive correlation. Additionally, increasing the water flow rate at constant air pressure caused a decrease in the proportion of the water volume made of finer droplets, whereas the volume proportion of faster droplets augmented until the water flow reached a certain value, after which it decreased. Diminishing the air

  18. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  19. Two Dimensional Nucleation Process by Monte Carlo Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    T., Irisawa; K., Matsumoto; Y., Arima; T., Kan; Computer Center, Gakushuin University; Department of Physics, Gakushuin University

    1997-01-01

    Two dimensional nucleation process on substrate is investigated by Monte Carlo simulation, and the critical nucleus size and its waiting time are measured with a high accuracy. In order to measure the critical nucleus with a high accuracy, we calculate the attachment and the detachment rate to the nucleus directly, and define the critical nucleus size when both rate are equal. Using the kinematical nucleation theory by Nishioka, it is found that, our obtained kinematical two dimensional criti...

  20. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  1. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  2. Development of high effectiveness droplet heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, W. J., III; Sekins, K. M.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental and analytical investigation has been carried out to assess the feasibility of developing high effectiveness, high temperature droplet heat exchangers and to identify practical applications for this type of direct contact heat exchanger. The droplet heat exchanger (DHX) concept studies uses a counterflowing gas and droplet configuration, uniformly sized droplets or particles, and a uniform dispersion of droplets in gas to achieve high heat exchanger effectiveness. Direct contact between the heat transfer media eliminates the solid heat transfer surfaces that are used in conventional heat exchangers and is expected to make very high temperature heat transfer practical. Low temperature simulation tests and analysis have been used to demonstrate that uniformly sized droplets can be generated over a wide range of fluid properties and operating conditions appropriate for high temperature droplet heat exchanger applications. One- and two-dimensional, two-phase flow and heat transfer computer models have been developed and used to characterize both individual component configurations and overall DHX heat transfer rates and effectiveness. The computer model and test data began to diverge as the operating pressure was increased, indicating a need for more general transport rate correlations and a better understanding of the two-phase flows that govern DHX operation.

  3. Modeling of finite-size droplets and particles in multiphase flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Khare

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The conventional point-particle approach for treating the dispersed phase in a continuous flowfield is extended by taking into account the effect of finite particle size, using a Gaussian interpolation from Lagrangian points to the Eulerian field. The inter-phase exchange terms in the conservation equations are distributed over the volume encompassing the particle size, as opposed to the Dirac delta function generally used in the point-particle approach. The proposed approach is benchmarked against three different flow configurations in a numerical framework based on large eddy simulation (LES turbulence closure. First, the flow over a circular cylinder is simulated for a Reynolds number of 3900 at 1 atm pressure. Results show good agreement with experimental data for the mean streamwise velocity and the vortex shedding frequency in the wake region. The calculated flowfield exhibits correct physics, which the conventional point-particle approach fails to capture. The second case deals with diesel jet injection in quiescent environment over a pressure range of 1.1–5.0 MPa. The calculated jet penetration depth closely matches measurements. It decreases with increasing chamber pressure, due to enhanced drag force in a denser fluid environment. Finally, water and acetone jet injection normal to air crossflow is studied at 1 atm. The calculated jet penetration and Sauter mean diameter of liquid droplets compare very well with measurements.

  4. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  5. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  6. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  7. EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT, TEMPERATURE AND AVERAGE DROPLET SIZE ON THE SETTLING VELOCITY OF WATER-IN-OIL EMULSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Souza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractWater-in-oil (W/O emulsions are complex mixtures generally found in crude oil production in reservoirs and processing equipment. Sedimentation studies of water-oil emulsions enable the analysis of the fluid dynamic behavior concerning separation of this system composed of two immiscible liquids. Gravitational settling was evaluated in this article for a model emulsion system consisting of water and a Brazilian crude oil diluted in a clear mineral oil as organic phase. The effects of water content and temperature were considered in the study of sedimentation velocity of water-oil emulsions. Water contents between 10% and 50 % and temperatures of 25, 40 and 60 ºC were evaluated, and a Richardson-Zaki type correlation was obtained to calculate settling velocities as a function of the process variables investigated. Water contents and average droplet sizes were monitored at different levels in the settling equipment, thus enabling identification of the effect of these variables on the phenomena of sedimentation and coalescence of the emulsions studied. The results showed that the emulsion stability during sedimentation was governed by the emulsion water content, which yielded high settling velocities at low water contents, even when very small droplets were present. A quantitative analysis of the combined effects of drop size and droplet concentration supports the conclusion that a stronger effect is produced by the higher concentration of particles, compared with the relatively smaller effect of increasing the size of the droplets.

  8. Examining the Roles of Emulsion Droplet Size and Surfactant in the Interfacial Instability-Based Fabrication Process of Micellar Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuxiang; Mei, Ling; Han, Ning; Ding, Xinyi; Yu, Caihao; Yang, Wenjuan; Ruan, Gang

    2017-06-01

    The interfacial instability process is an emerging general method to fabricate nanocrystal-encapsulated micelles (also called micellar nanocrystals) for biological detection, imaging, and therapy. The present work utilized fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots or QDs) as the model nanocrystals to investigate the interfacial instability-based fabrication process of nanocrystal-encapsulated micelles. Our experimental results suggest intricate and intertwined roles of the emulsion droplet size and the surfactant poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) used in the fabrication process of QD-encapsulated poly (styrene-b-ethylene glycol) (PS-PEG) micelles. When no PVA is used, no emulsion droplet and thus no micelle is successfully formed; Emulsion droplets with large sizes ( 25 μm) result in two types of QD-encapsulated micelles, one of which is colloidally stable QD-encapsulated PS-PEG micelles while the other of which is colloidally unstable QD-encapsulated PVA micelles; In contrast, emulsion droplets with small sizes ( 3 μm or smaller) result in only colloidally stable QD-encapsulated PS-PEG micelles. The results obtained in this work not only help to optimize the quality of nanocrystal-encapsulated micelles prepared by the interfacial instability method for biological applications but also offer helpful new knowledge on the interfacial instability process in particular and self-assembly in general.

  9. Rheological and droplet size analysis of W/O/W multiple emulsions containing low concentrations of polymeric emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGANA D. VASILJEVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple emulsions are complex dispersion systems which have many potential applications in pharmaceutics, cosmetics and the food industry. In practice, however, significant problems may arise because of their thermodynamic instability. In this study, W/O/W multiple emulsion systems containing low concentration levels of lipophilic polymeric primary emulsifiers cetyl dimethicone copolyol and PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate were evaluated. The concentrations of the primary emulsifiers were set at 1.6 and 2.4 % w/w in the final emulsions. Rheological and droplet size analysis of the investigated samples showed that the type and concentration of the primary lipophilic polymeric emulsifier markedly affected the characteristics of the multiple emulsions. The multiple emulsion prepared with 2.4 % w/w PEG–30 dipolyhydroxystearate as the primary emulsifier exhibited the highest apparent viscosity, yield stress and elastic modulus values, as well as the smallest droplet size. Furthermore, these parameters remained relatively constant over the study period, confirming the high stability of the investigated sample. The results obtained indicate that the changes observed in the investigated samples over time could be attributed to the swelling/breakdown mechanism of the multiple droplets. Such changes could be adequately monitored by rheological and droplet size analysis.

  10. 超声二维心肌应变的变化与心肌梗死范围的相关性研究%Relation between myocardial strain and infarction size detected by two-dimensional echocardiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅青; 王秋霜; 黄党生; 张丽伟; 欧阳巧红; 王宇玫; 安秀芝

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价心肌梗死患者超声二维心肌应变的变化与心肌梗死范围的相关性.方法 选择71例急性心肌梗死患者,于心肌梗死后3~6个月行超声心动图和单光子发射计算机断层摄影(SPECT)检查,根据心肌梗死面积将患者分为A组28例(心肌梗死面积<12%),B组43例(心肌梗死面积≥12%).所有患者行超声二维斑点追踪分析,测量心肌收缩期整体纵向应变(GLS)、收缩期整体径向应变(GRS)、收缩期整体圆周应变(GCS),对心肌应变与SPECT检测的左心室壁缺血坏死心肌的面积占左心室壁的百分比(Extent)进行相关分析,并应用ROC曲线评价3种心肌应变检测心肌梗死范围的价值.结果 B组的GLS、GCS及GRS均低于A组(P<0.05).GLS、GCS与Extent均相关(r=0.721、r=0.504,P<0.01),GLS、GCS及GRS的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.818、0.749、0.678,诊断心肌梗死面积≥12%对应的界值分别为-13.83%、-11.65%、26.64%,敏感性和特异性分别为72.7%、88.9%,63.6%、88.9%,81.8%、55.6%.结论 超声二维心肌应变的变化能够反映心肌梗死范围的改变,其中GLS能够较好地评价心肌梗死范围.%Objective To assess the relation between myocardial strain and infarction size detected by two-dimensional echocardiography in patients with myocardial infarction .Methods Seventy-one acute myocardial infarction patients ,who underwent echocardiography and single photon e-mission computed tomography (SPECT ) 3 -6 months after onset of the disease ,were divided into group A with its myocardial infarction size<12% (n=28)and group B with its myocardial infarction size≥l2% (n=43).Their cardiac global longitudinal strain (GLS ),global radial strain (GRS) and global circumference strain (GCS ) were detected by two-dimensional echocardiography and compared with the left ventricular ischemic size detected by SPECT .ROC curves were plotted for the GLS ,GCS and GRS .Results The incidence of GLS ,GCS and GRS was significantly

  11. Structural Transition of Actin Filament in a Cell-Sized Water Droplet with a Phospholipid Membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, M

    2005-01-01

    Actin filament, F-actin, is a semiflexible polymer with a negative charge, and is one of the main constituents on cell membranes. To clarify the effect of cross-talk between a phospholipid membrane and actin filaments in cells, we conducted microscopic observations on the structural changes in actin filaments in a cell-sized (several tens of micrometers in diameter) water droplet coated with a phospholipid membrane such as phosphatidylserine (PS; negatively-charged head group) or phosphatidylethanolamine (PE; neutral head group) as a simple model of a living cell membrane. With PS, actin filaments are distributed uniformly in the water phase without adsorption onto the membrane surface between 2 and 6 mM Mg2+, while between 6 and 12 mM Mg2+, actin filaments are adsorbed onto the inner membrane surface. With PE, actin filaments are uniformly adsorbed onto the inner membrane surface between 2 and 12 mM Mg2+. With both PS and PE membranes, at Mg2+ concentrations higher than 12 mM, thick bundles are formed in the...

  12. Design of Experiments to Study the Impact of Process Parameters on Droplet Size and Development of Non-Invasive Imaging Techniques in Tablet Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Thomas J; Smith, Julian; Hofmann, Michael P; Bland, Charlotte E; Badhan, Raj K; Al-Khattawi, Ali; Mohammed, Afzal R

    2016-01-01

    Atomisation of an aqueous solution for tablet film coating is a complex process with multiple factors determining droplet formation and properties. The importance of droplet size for an efficient process and a high quality final product has been noted in the literature, with smaller droplets reported to produce smoother, more homogenous coatings whilst simultaneously avoiding the risk of damage through over-wetting of the tablet core. In this work the effect of droplet size on tablet film coat characteristics was investigated using X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A quality by design approach utilising design of experiments (DOE) was used to optimise the conditions necessary for production of droplets at a small (20 μm) and large (70 μm) droplet size. Droplet size distribution was measured using real-time laser diffraction and the volume median diameter taken as a response. DOE yielded information on the relationship three critical process parameters: pump rate, atomisation pressure and coating-polymer concentration, had upon droplet size. The model generated was robust, scoring highly for model fit (R2 = 0.977), predictability (Q2 = 0.837), validity and reproducibility. Modelling confirmed that all parameters had either a linear or quadratic effect on droplet size and revealed an interaction between pump rate and atomisation pressure. Fluidised bed coating of tablet cores was performed with either small or large droplets followed by CLSM and XμCT imaging. Addition of commonly used contrast materials to the coating solution improved visualisation of the coating by XμCT, showing the coat as a discrete section of the overall tablet. Imaging provided qualitative and quantitative evidence revealing that smaller droplets formed thinner, more uniform and less porous film coats.

  13. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  14. Two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyue; Deng, Junkai; Chandrakumara, Ganaka G.; Yan, Wenyi; Liu, Jefferson Zhe

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the increasing demand for micro-/nano-technologies, stimuli-responsive shape memory materials at nanoscale have recently attracted great research interests. However, by reducing the size of conventional shape memory materials down to approximately nanometre range, the shape memory effect diminishes. Here, using density functional theory calculations, we report the discovery of a shape memory effect in a two-dimensional atomically thin graphene oxide crystal with ordered epoxy groups, namely C8O. A maximum recoverable strain of 14.5% is achieved as a result of reversible phase transition between two intrinsically stable phases. Our calculations conclude co-existence of the two stable phases in a coherent crystal lattice, giving rise to the possibility of constructing multiple temporary shapes in a single material, thus, enabling highly desirable programmability. With an atomic thickness, excellent shape memory mechanical properties and electric field stimulus, the discovery of a two-dimensional shape memory graphene oxide opens a path for the development of exceptional micro-/nano-electromechanical devices.

  15. Standardization of Field Methods for Determination of Insecticide Spray Droplet Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    1970). 12 Silicone treatment of a glass slide leaves an oleophobic layer that prevents irregular spreading of droplets. An impinging droplet spreads...determination of spread factors for oleophobic coatings. Most methods involve measurement of lens height and base diameter (May 1945, Yeomans 1949, and...Yeomans 1960). Teflon surfaces can be coated on glass slides and are commercially available. The teflon surface is more oleophobic than silicone

  16. Sensitivity of cloud albedo to aerosol concentration and spectral dispersion of cloud droplet size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorga, G. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)]. E-mail: giorga@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro; Stefan, S. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2007-07-15

    Both the enhancement of the aerosol number concentration and the relative dispersion of the cloud droplet size distribution (spectral dispersion) on a regional scale can modify the cloud reflectivity. This work is focused on the role that pre-cloud aerosol plays in cloud reflectivity. Log-normal aerosol size distributions were used to describe two aerosol types: marine and rural. The number of aerosols that activate to droplets was obtained based on Abdul-Razzak and Ghan's (2000) activation parameterization. The cloud albedo taking into account the spectral dispersion effect in the parameterization of cloud effective radius and in the scattering asymmetry factor has been estimated. Two different scaling factors to account for dispersion were used. The sensitivity of cloud albedo to spectral dispersion-cloud droplet number concentration relationship in connection to the changes in liquid water content (LWC), and the cloud droplet effective radius has been also investigated. We obtained higher values of effective radius when dispersion is taken into account, with respect to the base case (without considering dispersion). The inferred absolute differences in effective radius values between calculations with each of the scaling factors are below 0.8 {mu}m as LWC ranges between 0.1 and 1.0 g m-3. The optical depth decreased by up to 14% (marine), and up to 29% (continental) when dispersion is considered in both effective radius and asymmetry factor ({beta}LDR scaling factor). Correspondingly, the relative change in cloud albedo is up to 6% (marine) and up to 11% (continental) clouds. For continental clouds, the calculated effective radius when dispersion is considered fits well within the measured range of effective radius in SCAR-B project. The calculated cloud albedo when dispersion is considered shows better agreement with the estimated cloud albedo from measured effective radius in SCAR-B project than the cloud albedo calculated without dispersion. In cleaner

  17. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  18. Top-spray fluid bed coating: Scale-up in terms of relative droplet size and drying force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Peter Dybdahl; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    that none of the two parameters alone may be used for successful sealing. Morphology and microscope studies indicated that the coating layer is homogenous and has similar structures across scale only when both the drying force and the relative droplet size were fixed. Impact and attrition tests indicated......Top-spray fluid bed coating scale-up experiments have been performed in three scales in order to test the validity of two parameters as possible scaling parameters: The drying force and the relative droplet size. The aim was to be able to reproduce the degree of agglomeration as well...... as the mechanical properties of the coated granules across scale. Two types of placebo enzyme granule cores were tested being non-porous glass ballotini cores (180-350 mu m) and low porosity sodium sulphate cores (180-350 mu m). Both types of core materials were coated with aqueous solutions of Na2SO4 using Dextrin...

  19. Retrieval of Droplet size Density Distribution from Multiple field of view Cross polarized Lidar Signals: Theory and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    is derived to facilitate use of secondary polarization. The model is supported by exper- imental MFOV lidar measurements carried out in a controlled ...Retrieval of droplet-size density distribution from multiple-field-of- view cross-polarized lidar signals: theory and experimental validation...Gilles Roy, Luc Bissonnette, Christian Bastille, and Gilles Vallee Multiple-field-of- view (MFOV) secondary-polarization lidar signals are used to

  20. Spray pattern and droplet size analyses for high-shear viscosity determination of aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Justin; Pandey, Preetanshu; Tat, Henry; Willson, Jennifer; Donovan, Brent

    2008-09-01

    Aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays exhibit the rheological property of shear thinning, meaning they exhibit a decrease in viscosity upon application of shear. Most rheological methods are limited in the amount of shear that can be applied to samples (approximately 1,000 s(-1)) and thus can only approximate the viscosities at the high-shear conditions of nasal spray devices (approximately 10(5)-10(6) s(-1)). In the current work, spray area and droplet size were shown to demonstrate viscosity dependence. Three Newtonian fluids were used to determine equations to approximate viscosity at the spray nozzle from correlations to spray area and droplet size using a standard 100 microL Pfeiffer nasal spray pump. Several shear-thinning solutions, including four commercial aqueous suspension corticosteroid nasal sprays and three aqueous Avicel (1, 2, and 3%, wt/wt) samples, were analyzed to demonstrate the ability of spray area and droplet size analysis to estimate high-shear viscosities. The calculated viscosity values trend in accordance with the rheometer data along with the ability to distinguish differences between all samples analyzed.

  1. Wetting of two-dimensional physically patterned surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michael Scott

    An understanding of wetting phenomena is important, in part, due to the many practical applications of controlled wetting. Some of the most exciting applications involve superhydrophobic surfaces, on which water droplets exhibit contact angles larger than 150° and contact angle hysteresis less than 10°. These surfaces are notable for their low-drag, antifouling, and self-cleaning properties, among others. Wetting is known to be affected by both the chemistry and the physical patterning of a surface, with the chemistry affecting what is called the intrinsic contact angle, which is the contact angle displayed by a droplet on a smooth flat surface made of the given material. To date, the largest intrinsic contact angle observed for any material is only about 120°, which does not confer superhydrophobicity. Thus, physical patterning is a crucial component of any superhydrophobic surface. Interestingly, many natural examples of superhydrophobic surfaces exist, with one of the most notable being the lotus leaf. In designing such surfaces, scientists have turned to the natural examples for inspiration, and have found that most natural examples have multiple (usually two) scales of roughness, commonly referred to as hierarchical roughness. Though hierarchical roughness is ubiquitous in the superhydrophobic surfaces of the natural world, its precise role in conferring superhydrophobicity has so far remained elusive. In this work, we develop a thermodynamic model to study the wetting of two-dimensional physically patterned surfaces. Past models that have been developed for this purpose often make several assumptions: the drop must be much larger than the surface features while simultaneously being small enough that the effects of gravity are negligible. Many of these models ultimately rely on the older Cassie and Wenzel models, which themselves make assumptions about the drop size relative to the surface features--namely that the drop is again much larger than the surface

  2. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Shaikh; S S Desai; A K Patra

    2004-08-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons. The detector is tested with 0.5 bar 3He + 1.5 bar krypton gas mixture in active chamber and 2 bar 4He in compensating chamber. The pulse height spectrum recorded at an anode potential of 2000 V shows energy resolution of ∼ 25% for the 764 keV peak. A spatial resolution of 8 mm × 6 mm is achieved. The detector is suitable for SANS studies in the range of 0.02–0.25 Å-1.

  3. Spray droplet size, drift potential, and risks to nontarget organisms from aerially applied glyphosate for coca control in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Andrew J; Solomon, Keith R; Marshall, E J P

    2009-01-01

    A wind tunnel atomization study was conducted to measure the emission droplet size spectra for water and Glyphos (a glyphosate formulation sold in Colombia) + Cosmo-flux sprays for aerial application to control coca and poppy crops in Colombia. The droplet size spectra were measured in a wind tunnel for an Accu-Flo nozzle (with 16 size 0.085 [2.16 mm] orifices), under appropriate simulated aircraft speeds (up to 333 km/h), using a laser diffraction instrument covering a dynamic size range for droplets of 0.5 to 3,500 microm. The spray drift potential of the glyphosate was modeled using the AGDISP spray application and drift model, using input parameters representative of those occurring in Colombia for typical aerial application operations. The droplet size spectra for tank mixes containing glyphosate and Cosmo-Flux were considerably finer than water and became finer with higher aircraft speeds. The tank mix with 44% glyphosate had a D(v0.5) of 128 microm, while the value at the 4.9% glyphosate rate was 140 microm. These are classified as very fine to fine sprays. Despite being relatively fine, modeling showed that the droplets would not evaporate as rapidly as most similarly sized agricultural sprays because the nonvolatile proportion of the tank mix (active and inert adjuvant ingredients) was large. Thus, longer range drift is small and most drift that does occur will deposit relatively close to the application area. Drift will only occur downwind and, with winds of velocity less than the modeled maximum of 9 km/h, the drift distance would be substantially reduced. Spray drift potential might be additionally reduced through various practices such as the selection of nozzles, tank mix adjuvants, aircraft speeds, and spray pressures that would produce coarser sprays. Species sensitivity distributions to glyphosate were constructed for plants and amphibians. Based on modeled drift and 5th centile concentrations, appropriate no-spray buffer zones (distance from the

  4. Digitally controlled droplet microfluidic system based on electrophoretic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Do Jin; Yoo, Byeong Sun; Ahn, Myung Mo; Moon, Dustin; Kang, In Seok

    2012-11-01

    Most researches on direct charging and the subsequent manipulation of a charged droplet were focused on an on-demand sorting in microchannel where carrier fluid transports droplets. Only recently, an individual actuation of a droplet without microchannel and carrier fluid was tried. However, in the previous work, the system size was too large and the actuation voltage was too high (1.5 kV), which limits the applicability of the technology to mobile use. Therefore, in the current research, we have developed a miniaturized digital microfluidic system based on the electrophoresis of a charged droplet (ECD). By using a pin header socket for an array of electrodes, much smaller microfluidic system can be made from simple fabrication process with low cost. A full two dimensional manipulation (0.4 cm/s) of a droplet (300 nL) suspended in silicone oil (6 cSt) and multiple droplet actuation have been performed with reasonable actuation voltage (300 V). By multiple droplet actuation and coalescence, a practical biochemical application also has been demonstrated. We hope the current droplet manipulation method (ECD) can be a good alternative or complimentary technology to the conventional ones and therefore contributes to the development of droplet microfluidics. This work has been supported by BK21 program of the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) of Korea.

  5. Controlling negative and positive photothermal migration of centimeter-sized droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Takabatake, Fumi; Miura, Keitaro; Iwaki, Takafumi; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2013-07-01

    The photoinduced motion of an oil droplet on an aqueous solution under local irradiation by a green laser is reported. The results showed that a repulsive force is generated on pure water, while an attractive force is observed with an aqueous solution containing a surfactant. The driving force is discussed in terms of a thermal Marangoni effect. The switching on the photothermal effect is interpreted by taking into account the advection caused by the spatial gradient of the surface tension under local heating by a laser. A numerical model revealed that the geometrical profile of the surface tension around the droplet determines the mode of advection around the droplet and causes switching in the direction of migrations.

  6. Organized Assemblies of Colloids Formed at the Poles of Micrometer-Sized Droplets of Liquid Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoguang; Miller, Daniel S.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the formation of organized assemblies of 1 μm-in-diameter colloids (polystyrene (PS)) at the poles of water-dispersed droplets (diameters 7 - 20 μm) of nematic liquid crystal (LC). For 4-cyano-4′-pentylbiphenyl droplets decorated with two to five PS colloids, we found 32 distinct arrangements of the colloids to form at the boojums of bipolar droplet configurations. Significantly, all but one of these configurations (a ring comprised of five PS colloids) could be mapped onto a local (non-close packed) hexagonal lattice. To provide insight into the origin of the hexagonal lattice, we investigated planar aqueous—LC interfaces, and found that organized assemblies of PS colloids did not form at these interfaces. Experiments involving the addition of salts revealed that a repulsive interaction of electrostatic origin prevented formation of assemblies at planar interfaces, and that regions of high splay near the poles of the LC droplets generated cohesive interactions between colloids that could overcome the repulsion. Support for this interpretation was obtained from a model that included (i) a long-range attraction between adsorbed colloids and the boojum due to the increasing rate of strain (splay) of LC near the boojum (splay attraction), (ii) an attractive inter-colloid interaction that reflects the quadrupolar symmetry of the strain in the LC around the colloids, and (iii) electrostatic repulsion between colloids. The model predicts that electrostatic repulsion between colloids can lead to a ∼1,000 kBT energy barrier at planar interfaces of LC films, and that the repulsive interaction can be overcome by splay attraction of the colloids to the boojums of the LC droplets. Overall, the results reported in this paper advance our understanding of the directed assembly of colloids at interfaces of LC droplets. PMID:25284139

  7. Analysis of Droplet Size during the Ice Accumulation Phase Of Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric James

    2004-01-01

    weather data from certain flights and analyzing the type of precipitation that the plane is flying through. During flight tests there is a probe on the bottom of the aircraft that gathers information on the size and shape of the particles that it is flying through. The data can then be viewed on a computer. After grouping the weather into certain groups we can then pick certain groups which we think should be analyzed farther. The goal is to remove all the ice particles because they do not contribute to the icing on an aircraft. We use a 2D analyzer which measures the droplet size and categorizes the drops into bins of certain sizes. We can then look at what the characteristics of the weather that we were flying through such as the temperature and dew point and compare this with the size of the drops that the 2D analyzer measured. We can then look at what type and shape of ice that formed on the wing during this time period. Having this data will help us to reproduce these conditions using LEWICE and the wind tunnel. Having consistency among the tests will make things more accurate. With respect to weather forecasting we will be able to learn which conditions can lead to icing. Better accuracy in weather reporting will lead to fewer run-ins with icing which will also lead to fewer accidents.

  8. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  9. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  10. Size-resolved observations of refractory black carbon particles in cloud droplets at a marine boundary layer site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Schroder

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Size resolved observations of aerosol particles (including black carbon particles and cloud residuals were studied at a marine boundary layer site (251 m a.m.s.l. in La Jolla, CA during 2012. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to sample cloud residuals while a total inlet was used to sample both cloud residuals and interstitial particles. Two cloud events totaling ten hours of in-cloud sampling were analyzed. Since the CVI only sampled cloud droplets larger than ≈11 μm, less than 100% of the cloud droplets were sampled during the two cloud events (≈38% of the cloud droplets for the first cloud event and ≈24% of the cloud droplets for the second cloud were sampled. Back trajectories showed that air masses for both cloud events spent at least 96 h over the Pacific Ocean and traveled near, or over populated regions just before sampling. Based on bulk aerosol particle concentrations measured from the total inlet the two air masses sampled were classified as polluted marine air, a classification that was consistent with back trajectory analysis and the mass concentrations of refractory black carbon (rBC measured from the total inlet. The activated fraction of rBC, estimated from the measurements, ranged from 0.01 to 0.1 for core diameters ranging from 70 to 220 nm. Since the fraction of cloud droplets sampled by the CVI was less than 100%, the measured activated fractions of rBC should be considered as lower limits to the total fraction of rBC activated during the two cloud events. Size distributions of rBC sampled from the residual inlet show that sub-100 nm rBC cores were incorporated into the droplets in both clouds. The coating analysis shows that the rBC cores had average coating thicknesses of 75 nm for core diameters of 70 nm and 29 nm for core diameters of 220 nm. The presence of sub-100 nm rBC cores in the cloud residuals is consistent with kappa-Köhler theory and the measured coating thicknesses of the rBC cores.

  11. Approximate analytical descriptions of the stationary single-vortex Marangoni convection inside an evaporating sessile droplet of capillary size

    CERN Document Server

    Barash, L Yu

    2013-01-01

    Three versions of an approximate analytical description of the stationary single vortex Marangoni convection in an axially symmetrical sessile drop of capillary size are studied for arbitrary contact angle and compared with the results of numerical simulations. The first approach is heuristic extension of the well-known lubrication approximation. Two other descriptions are developed here and named n\\tau- and rz-description. They are free from most of restrictive assumptions of the lubrication approach. For droplets with large contact angles they result in better accuracy compared to the heuristic extension of the lubrication approach, which still gives reasonable results within the accuracy 10-30 per cent. For droplets with small contact angles all three analytical descriptions well agree with the numerical data.

  12. 3D Velocimetry and droplet sizing in the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liew, R.; Zeegers, J.C.H.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Michalek, W.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Ranque–Hilsch vortex tube (RHVT) is a device currently used to generate local cooling. In general, the fluid that is injected into the RHVT is a single-phase gas. In this study, however, we have added a dispersed phase (water droplets) to the gas (nitrogen). By means of phase Doppler particle an

  13. Silicon-based megahertz ultrasonic nozzles for production of monodisperse micrometer-sized droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C; Cheng, Chih H; Wang, Ning; Song, Yu L; Lee, Ching T; Tsai, Chen S

    2009-09-01

    Monodisperse ethanol droplets 2.4 microm and water droplets 4.5 microm in diameter have been produced in ultrasonic atomization using 1.5- and 1.0-MHz microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based silicon nozzles, respectively. The 1.5- and 1.0-MHz nozzles, each consisting of 3 Fourier horns in resonance, measured 1.20 cm x 0.15 cm x .11 cm and 1.79 cm x 0.21 cm x 0.11 cm, respectively, required electrical drive power as low as 0.25 W and could accommodate flow rates as high as 350 microl/min. As the liquid issues from the nozzle tip that vibrates longitudinally at the nozzle resonance frequency, a liquid film is maintained on the end face of the nozzle tip and standing capillary waves are formed on the free surface of the liquid film when the tip vibration amplitude exceeds a critical value due to Faraday instability. Temporal instability of the standing capillary waves, treated in terms of the unstable solutions (namely, time-dependant function with a positive Floquet exponent) to the corresponding Mathieu differential equation, is shown to be the underlying mechanism for atomization and production of such monodisperse droplets. The experimental results of nozzle resonance and atomization frequencies, droplet diameter, and critical vibration amplitude are all in excellent agreement with the predictions of the 3-D finite element simulation and the theory of Faraday instability responsible for atomization.

  14. Preparation of protein-loaded microspheres with size ≤10 μm by electrostatic droplet generation technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Weiming; LIU Xiudong; YU Weiting; MA Xiaojun

    2006-01-01

    The development of non-injection route for protein drugs, especially oral administration, has been the main focus of controlled release of drugs. To overcome obstacles unsolved such as enzyme degradation and penetration barrier of intestinal epithelium, technologies using microspheres as carrier of protein drugs have been proven potential to realize oral administration. It has been demonstrated that microspheres can not only protect proteins, but also facilitate the penetration and absorption through Peyer's patches when the size is smaller than 10 μm. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to prepare protein-loaded microspheres with size ≤10 μm. Electrostatic droplet generation technology was used with insulin and hemoglobin as drug models and sodium alginate as microsphere material. By decreasing the surface tension of feed solution by adding surfactant, and improving electric field distribution by changing the shape of container and electrode for gelation solution, protein-loaded microspheres with mean size less than 10 μm were successfully produced through needle with diameter of 400 μm. The microspheres showed good sphericity and narrow size distribution. The mean standard variance of size distribution was 1.61. The encapsulation efficiency of proteins was over 70%. Moreover, the significance analysis of factors influencing the size of protein loaded microspheres was carried out through orthogonal experiments, which showed that output voltage (U), needle diameter (D) and the distance between needle tips to the surface of gelation solution (δ ) influenced significantly the size of microspheres. Finally, the statistic analysis showed that when confidence level wasα=0.05, and α=0.1, confidence interval of microsphere size can be (6.2545, 10.1735) and (6.6022, 9.8258) correspondingly, suggesting that there is good repeatability and reliability for improving electrostatic droplet generation technology to prepare protein-loaded microspheres with size

  15. Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature

  16. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  17. Investigation of vortex clouds and droplet sizes in heated water spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M Y; Sulaiman, S A; Ariwahjoedi, B; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2013-01-01

    The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm), these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD) of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit.

  18. Investigation of Vortex Clouds and Droplet Sizes in Heated Water Spray Patterns Generated by Axisymmetric Full Cone Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Naz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm, these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit.

  19. Investigation of Vortex Clouds and Droplet Sizes in Heated Water Spray Patterns Generated by Axisymmetric Full Cone Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Ku Shaari, Ku Zilati

    2013-01-01

    The hot water sprays are an important part of many industrial processes, where the detailed knowledge of physical phenomena involved in jet transportation, interaction, secondary breakup, evaporation, and coalescence of droplets is important to reach more efficient processes. The objective of the work was to study the water spray jet breakup dynamics, vortex cloud formation, and droplet size distribution under varying temperature and load pressure. Using a high speed camera, the spray patterns generated by axisymmetric full cone nozzles were visualized as a function water temperature and load pressure. The image analysis confirmed that the spray cone angle and width do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases leading to increased macroscopic spray propagation. The formation and decay of semitorus like vortex clouds were also noticed in spray structures generated at near water boiling point temperature. For the nozzle with smallest orifice diameter (1.19 mm), these vortex clouds were very clear at 90°C heating temperature and 1 bar water load pressure. In addition, the sauter mean diameter (SMD) of the spray droplets was also measured by using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) at different locations downstream of the nozzle exit. It was noticed that SMD varies slightly w.r.t. position when measured at room temperature whereas at higher temperature values, it became almost constant at distance of 55 mm downstream of the nozzle exit. PMID:24307881

  20. Enhancement of lycopene bioaccessibility from tomato juice using excipient emulsions: Influence of lipid droplet size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvia-Trujillo, L; McClements, D J

    2016-11-01

    The use of excipient emulsions to increase the bioaccessibility of lycopene in tomato juice was studied by simulating gastrointestinal conditions. The influence of droplet diameter (d=0.17 or 19μm) and thermal treatment (90°C, 10min) on lycopene bioaccessibility was evaluated. Lycopene bioaccessibility was relatively low (lycopene bioaccessibility. Overall, this study shows that excipient emulsions may increase the bioaccessibility of carotenoids in tomato juices.

  1. Controlling negative and positive photothermal migration of centimeter-sized droplets

    OpenAIRE

    Ichikawa, Masatoshi; Takabatake, Fumi; Miura, Keitaro; Iwaki, Takafumi; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2013-01-01

    The photoinduced motion of an oil droplet on an aqueous solution under local irradiation by a green laser is reported. The results showed that a repulsive force is generated on pure water, while an attractive force is observed with an aqueous solution containing a surfactant. The driving force is discussed in terms of a thermal Marangoni effect. The switching on the photothermal effect is interpreted by taking into account the advection caused by the spatial gradient of the surface tension un...

  2. Tight coupling of particle size and composition in atmospheric cloud droplet activation

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, D; Mcfiggans, G.

    2011-01-01

    The substantial uncertainty in the indirect effect on radiative forcing in large part arises from the influences of atmospheric aerosol particles on (i) the brightness of clouds, exerting significant shortwave cooling with no appreciable compensation in the longwave, and on (ii) their ability to precipitate, with implications for cloud cover and lifetime.

    Predicting the ambient conditions at which aerosol particles may become cloud droplets is largely reliant on an eq...

  3. Tight coupling of particle size, number and composition in atmospheric cloud droplet activation

    OpenAIRE

    D. O. Topping; Mcfiggans, G.

    2012-01-01

    The substantial uncertainty in the indirect effect of aerosol particles on radiative forcing in large part arises from the influences of atmospheric aerosol particles on (i) the brightness of clouds, exerting significant shortwave cooling with no appreciable compensation in the long wave, and on (ii) their ability to precipitate, with implications for cloud cover and lifetime.

    Predicting the ambient conditions at which aerosol particles may become cloud droplets is largel...

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-Based Droplet Size Estimates in Emulsification Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Janssen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available While academic literature shows steady progress in combining multi-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD and population balance modelling (PBM of emulsification processes, the computational burden of this approach is still too large for routine use in industry. The challenge, thus, is to link a sufficiently detailed flow analysis to the droplet behavior in a way that is both physically relevant and computationally manageable. In this research article we propose the use of single-phase CFD to map out the local maximum stable droplet diameter within a given device, based on well-known academic droplet break-up studies in quasi-steady 2D linear flows. The results of the latter are represented by analytical correlations for the critical capillary number, which are valid across a wide viscosity ratio range. Additionally, we suggest a parameter to assess how good the assumption of quasi-steady 2D flow is locally. The approach is demonstrated for a common lab-scale rotor-stator device (Ultra-Turrax, IKA-Werke GmbH, Staufen, Germany. It is found to provide useful insights with minimal additional user coding and little increase in computational effort compared to the single-phase CFD simulations of the flow field, as such. Some suggestions for further development are briefly discussed.

  5. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  6. Improvement of the size estimation of 3D tracked droplets using digital in-line holography with joint estimation reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrier, N.; Grosjean, N.; Dib, E.; Méès, L.; Fournier, C.; Marié, J.-L.

    2016-04-01

    Digital holography is a valuable tool for three-dimensional information extraction. Among existing configurations, the originally proposed set-up (i.e. Gabor, or in-line holography), is reasonably immune to variations in the experimental environment making it a method of choice for studies of fluid dynamics. Nevertheless, standard hologram reconstruction techniques, based on numerical light back-propagation are prone to artifacts such as twin images or aliases that limit both the quality and quantity of information extracted from the acquired holograms. To get round this issue, the hologram reconstruction as a parametric inverse problem has been shown to accurately estimate 3D positions and the size of seeding particles directly from the hologram. To push the bounds of accuracy on size estimation still further, we propose to fully exploit the information redundancy of a hologram video sequence using joint estimation reconstruction. Applying this approach in a bench-top experiment, we show that it led to a relative precision of 0.13% (for a 60 μm diameter droplet) for droplet size estimation, and a tracking precision of {σx}× {σy}× {σz}=0.15× 0.15× 1~\\text{pixels} .

  7. Vortices in the Two-Dimensional Simple Exclusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodineau, T.; Derrida, B.; Lebowitz, Joel L.

    2008-06-01

    We show that the fluctuations of the partial current in two dimensional diffusive systems are dominated by vortices leading to a different scaling from the one predicted by the hydrodynamic large deviation theory. This is supported by exact computations of the variance of partial current fluctuations for the symmetric simple exclusion process on general graphs. On a two-dimensional torus, our exact expressions are compared to the results of numerical simulations. They confirm the logarithmic dependence on the system size of the fluctuations of the partial flux. The impact of the vortices on the validity of the fluctuation relation for partial currents is also discussed in an Appendix.

  8. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  9. Synthetic Hemozoin (β-Hematin) Crystals Nucleate at the Surface of Neutral Lipid Droplets that Control Their Sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambele, Melvin A; Sewell, B Trevor; Cummings, Franscious R; Smith, Peter J; Egan, Timothy J

    2013-10-02

    Emulsions of monopalmitoylglycerol (MPG) and of a neutral lipid blend (NLB), consisting of MPG, monostearoylglycerol, dipalmitoylglycerol, dioleoylglycerol and dilineoylglycerol (4:2:1:1:1), the composition associated with hemozoin from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, have been used to mediate the formation of β-hematin microcrystals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and electron spectroscopic imaging/electron energy loss spectroscopy (ESI/EELS) have been used to characterize both the lipid emulsion and β-hematin crystals. The latter have been compared with β-hematin formed at a pentanol/aqueous interface and with hemozoin both within P. falciparum parasites and extracted from the parasites. When lipid and ferriprotoporphyrin IX solutions in 1:9 v/v acetone/methanol were thoroughly pre-mixed either using an extruder or ultrasound, β-hematin crystals were found formed in intimate association with the lipid droplets. These crystals resembled hemozoin crystals, with prominent {100} faces. Lattice fringes in TEM indicated that these faces made contact with the lipid surface. The average length of these crystals was 0.62 times the average diameter of NLB droplets and their size distributions were statistically equivalent after 10 min incubation, suggesting that the lipid droplets also controlled the sizes of the crystals. This most closely resembles hemozoin formation in the helminth worm Schistosoma mansoni, while in P. falciparum, crystal formation appears to be associated with the much more gently curved digestive vacuole membrane which apparently leads to formation of much larger hemozoin crystals, similar to those formed at the flat pentanol-water interface.

  10. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

    2010-03-01

    We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

  11. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.

  12. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  13. An operational calculus framework to characterize droplet size populations from turbulent breakup by a small number of parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Rafael; Ganan-Calvo, Alfonso M, E-mail: amgc@us.e [Departamento de IngenierIa Aeroespacial y Mecanica de Fluidos, Universidad de Sevilla, e-41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-05-07

    A systematic operational calculus framework that characterizes droplet/bubble size distributions resulting from turbulent breakup of an immiscible fluid into a carrier one is presented. The proposed formulation is derived from dynamical arguments; a finite-difference formulation of the integro-differential continuous coagulation and fragmentation equation is shown to exhibit the same structure as a discrete sequence of Mellin convolutions between the probability distribution of the evolving dispersed phase and a generic kernel. This kernel may have its physical correspondence with the probability distribution resulting from a single breakup event, e.g. a liquid ligament breakup in a ligament-mediated spray formation. The number of convolution steps in the sequence can be reduced to a single parameter. As an illustration, this procedure is applied to the exponential and the gamma distributions, obtaining as a result the Frechet distribution earlier used by Rosin and Rammler (1934 Kolloid-Zeitschrift 67 16-26), and by Nukiyama and Tanasawa (1939 Trans. Soc. Mech. Eng. Japan 5 62-7). Thus, the framework introduced in this work provides a physical foundation for the success of the Frechet distribution in accurately fitting experimentally measured droplet size distributions in sprays and emulsions.

  14. Influence of pumpkin seed oil in continuous phase on droplet size and stability of water-in-oil emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolovski Branislava G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to contribute to the optimized production of water-in-oil emulsions with pumpkin seed oil in the oil phase using a high-speed homogenizer. Pumpkin seed oil is a valuable natural source of essential fatty acids and biologically active micronutrients that contribute to its nutritive value and medical uses, and reduce interfacial tension between water and the oil phases. Therefore, pumpkin seed oil can be considered as a prosperous oil phase whose use can possibly decrease the amount of some emulsifier that is normally involved in every emulsification process. A central composite rotatable experimental design was implemented to analyze the impact of the contents of polyglycerol polyricinoleate and pumpkin seed oil in the continuous phase, as well as water phase content in the emulsion on droplet size distribution and the response surface methodology was used to obtain optimal conditions for water-in-oil emulsion preparation. Mean size diameter of water droplets was in a range from 400 to 850 nm, with mean peak width of 100 to 220 nm, respectively. The influence of all three investigated factors on the emulsification was determined. Additionally, the emulsions prepared with pumpkin seed oil showed a higher stability during the storage time compared to the emulsions with sunflower oil.

  15. Simulation of Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Droplets and Droplet Nuclei between Two Standing Manikins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Y, Li,

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal transport of expiratory droplets and droplet nuclei constitutes a prerequisite for the transmission of pathogens as well as the transmission of respiratory diseases. Numerical simulations considering droplet evaporation and droplet nucleus sizes were carried out, using two detailed...

  16. Morphology and Size Evolution of Interlamellar Two-Dimensional Pores in Plasma-Sprayed La2Zr2O7 Coatings During Thermal Exposure at 1300 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Luo, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Xu; Yang, Guan-Jun; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu

    2015-06-01

    La2Zr2O7 (LZO) is widely expected to be one of the promising thermal barrier coating materials for application in high-temperature conditions (1200 °C). However, high-temperature exposure causes sintering which heals interlamellar two-dimensional (2D) pores and intrasplat pores. This sintering effect increases the stiffness and thermal conductivity of thermal barrier coatings, consequently reducing their durability. In this study, to reveal the possible critical opening of 2D pores above which they are free from sintering, LZO coating and splat were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying and were exposed to 1300 °C for different durations. Thereafter, the evolution of the parameters of residual 2D pores in the coating and the surface morphology of LZO splat were characterized. It was found that there is a critical opening width for 2D pores above which grain bridging does not occur across the gaps. Accordingly, pores with an opening larger than this critical width are free from sintering across the 2D pores despite surface roughening of splats, whereas pores with an opening less than the critical width sinter rapidly at the early stage of thermal exposure through the formation of grain bridges.

  17. TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-20

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.

  18. Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan

    2015-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.

  19. Image processing obtained by out of focus tomography: droplet sizing measurement; Traitement d'images obtenues par tomographie defocalisee: mesure de diametres de gouttes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mounaim-Rouselle, Ch.; Higelin, P.; Pajot, O. [Orleans Univ., Lab. de Mecanique et d' Energetique, ESEM, 45 (France)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to show a droplet sizing technique. This method based on Mie Scattering interferometry, allows to easily get spatial droplets repartition in relatively sparse medium. It has been, in particular, applied inside an I.C. engine combustion chamber. Theoretical bases of the out-of-focus tomography are briefly reminded and also experimental limits. The image processing software is developed with Matlab and gives automatically sizing repartition for frame sequence, taken with same experimental set-up. (authors)

  20. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  1. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...

  2. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-12-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.

  3. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...

  4. Airship measurements of aerosol size distributions, cloud droplet spectra, and trace gas concentrations in the marine boundary layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frick, G.M.; Hoppel, W.A. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-11-01

    The use of an airship as a platform to conduct atmospheric chemistry, aerosol, and cloud microphysical research is described, and results from demonstration flights made off the Oregon coast are presented. The slow speed of the airship makes it an ideal platform to do high-spatial resolution profiling both vertically and horizontally, and to measure large aerosol and cloud droplet distributions without the difficulties caused by high-speed aircraft sampling. A unique set of data obtained during the demonstration flights show the effect that processing marine boundary layer aerosol through stratus clouds has on the aerosol size distribution. Evidence of new particle formation (nucleation of particles) was also observed on about half the days on which flights were made. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Topological defect motifs in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Radzvilavičius, A; 10.1088/0953-8984/23/38/385301

    2012-01-01

    The most energetically favourable arrangement of low-density electrons in an infinite two-dimensional plane is the ordered triangular Wigner lattice. However, in most instances of contemporary interest one deals instead with finite clusters of strongly interacting particles localized in potential traps, for example, in complex plasmas. In the current contribution we study distribution of topological defects in two-dimensional Coulomb clusters with parabolic lateral confinement. The minima hopping algorithm based on molecular dynamics is used to efficiently locate the ground- and low-energy metastable states, and their structure is analyzed by means of the Delaunay triangulation. The size, structure and distribution of geometry-induced lattice imperfections strongly depends on the system size and the energetic state. Besides isolated disclinations and dislocations, classification of defect motifs includes defect compounds --- grain boundaries, rosette defects, vacancies and interstitial particles. Proliferatio...

  6. On Dirichlet eigenvectors for neutral two-dimensional Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Miclo, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We consider a general class of discrete, two-dimensional Markov chains modeling the dynamics of a population with two types, without mutation or immigration, and neutral in the sense that type has no influence on each individual's birth or death parameters. We prove that all the eigenvectors of the corresponding transition matrix or infinitesimal generator \\Pi\\ can be expressed as the product of "universal" polynomials of two variables, depending on each type's size but not on the specific transitions of the dynamics, and functions depending only on the total population size. These eigenvectors appear to be Dirichlet eigenvectors for \\Pi\\ on the complement of triangular subdomains, and as a consequence the corresponding eigenvalues are ordered in a specific way. As an application, we study the quasistationary behavior of finite, nearly neutral, two-dimensional Markov chains, absorbed in the sense that 0 is an absorbing state for each component of the process.

  7. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng, E-mail: smeng@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-11-14

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  8. Transport behavior of water molecules through two-dimensional nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqin; Li, Hui; Meng, Sheng

    2014-11-01

    Water transport through a two-dimensional nanoporous membrane has attracted increasing attention in recent years thanks to great demands in water purification and desalination applications. However, few studies have been reported on the microscopic mechanisms of water transport through structured nanopores, especially at the atomistic scale. Here we investigate the microstructure of water flow through two-dimensional model graphene membrane containing a variety of nanopores of different size by using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results clearly indicate that the continuum flow transits to discrete molecular flow patterns with decreasing pore sizes. While for pores with a diameter ≥15 Å water flux exhibits a linear dependence on the pore area, a nonlinear relationship between water flux and pore area has been identified for smaller pores. We attribute this deviation from linear behavior to the presence of discrete water flow, which is strongly influenced by the water-membrane interaction and hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  9. A method of extending DPIV and its application in spray droplet size measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A field method for measuring particle size distribution within a spray was developed based on extending of digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) in this note. The size distribution of a water mist was successfully measured with this method, and the measured results were compared with the simply calculated ones.

  10. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M

    1993-01-01

    Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  11. Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175

    2009-01-01

    We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.

  12. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  13. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  14. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu

    2006-01-01

    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  15. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  16. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  17. Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, O.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of

  18. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  19. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  20. Dynamics of a Water Droplet over a Sessile Oil Droplet: Compound Droplets Satisfying a Neumann Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Dhiman, S; Sen, A K; Shen, Amy Q

    2017-06-13

    We report the dynamics of compound droplets with a denser liquid (water) droplet over a less dense sessile droplet (mineral oil) that satisfies the Neumann condition. For a fixed size of an oil droplet, depending on the size of the water droplet, either it attains the axisymmetric position or tends to migrate toward the edge of the oil droplet. For a water droplet-to-oil droplet at volume ratio Vw/Vo ≥ 0.05, stable axisymmetric configuration is achieved; for Vw/Vo droplet is observed. The stability and migration of water droplets of size above and below critical size, respectively, are explained using the force balance at the three-phase contact line and film tension. The larger and smaller droplets that initially attain the axisymmetric position or some radial position, respectively, evaporate continuously and thus migrate toward the edge of the oil droplet. The radial location and migration of the water droplets of different initial sizes with respect to time are studied. Experiments with water droplets on a flat oil-air interface did not show migration, which signified the role of the curved oil-air interface for droplet migration. Finally, coalescence of water droplets of size above the critical size at the axisymmetric position is demonstrated. Our compound droplet studies could be beneficial for applications involving droplet transport where contamination due to direct contact and pinning of droplets on solid surfaces is of concern. Migration and coalescence of water droplets on curved oil-air interfaces could open new frontiers in chemical and biological applications including multiphase processing and biological interaction of cells and atmospheric chemistry.

  1. Two-Dimensional Bipyramid Plasmonic Nanoparticle Liquid Crystalline Superstructure with Four Distinct Orientational Packing Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qianqian; Si, Kae Jye; Sikdar, Debabrata; Yap, Lim Wei; Premaratne, Malin; Cheng, Wenlong

    2016-01-26

    Anisotropic plasmonic nanoparticles have been successfully used as constituent elements for growing ordered nanoparticle arrays. However, orientational control over their spatial ordering remains challenging. Here, we report on a self-assembled two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticle liquid crystalline superstructure (NLCS) from bipyramid gold nanoparticles (BNPs), which showed four distinct orientational packing orders, corresponding to horizontal alignment (H-NLCS), circular arrangement (C-NLCS), slanted alignment (S-NLCS), and vertical alignment (V-NLCS) of constituent particle building elements. These packing orders are characteristic of the unique shape of BNPs because all four packing modes were observed for particles with various sizes. Nevertheless, only H-NLCS and V-NLCS packing orders were observed for the free-standing ordered array nanosheets formed from a drying-mediated self-assembly at the air/water interface of a sessile droplet. This is due to strong surface tension and the absence of particle-substrate interaction. In addition, we found the collective plasmonic coupling properties mainly depend on the packing type, and characteristic coupling peak locations depend on particle sizes. Interestingly, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancements were heavily dependent on the orientational packing ordering. In particular, V-NLCS showed the highest Raman enhancement factor, which was about 77-fold greater than the H-NLCS and about 19-fold greater than C-NLCS. The results presented here reveal the nature and significance of orientational ordering in controlling plasmonic coupling and SERS enhancements of ordered plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

  2. Hybrid soft-lithography/laser machined microchips for the parallel generation of droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, M; Issadore, D

    2013-12-21

    Microfluidic chips have been developed to generate droplets and microparticles with control over size, shape, and composition not possible using conventional methods. However, it has remained a challenge to scale-up production for practical applications due to the inherently limited throughput of micro-scale devices. To address this problem, we have developed a self-contained microchip that integrates many (N = 512) micro-scale droplet makers. This 3 × 3 cm(2) PDMS microchip consists of a two-dimensional array of 32 × 16 flow-focusing droplet makers, a network of flow channels that connect them, and only two inputs and one output. The key innovation of this technology is the hybrid use of both soft-lithography and direct laser-micromachining. The microscale resolution of soft lithography is used to fabricate flow-focusing droplet makers that can produce small and precisely defined droplets. Deeply engraved (h ≈ 500 μm) laser-machined channels are utilized to supply each of the droplet makers with its oil phase, aqueous phase, and access to an output channel. The engraved channels' low hydrodynamic resistance ensures that each droplet maker is driven with the same flow rates for highly uniform droplet formation. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, water droplets (d ≈ 80 μm) were generated in hexadecane on both 8 × 1 and 32 × 16 geometries.

  3. Size distribution of nanoparticles in the droplets ultrasonically atomized from Al2O3 suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Jihyang; Yeom, Jiyeong; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a recollection method only for particles below a certain size involving ultrasonic atomization was suggested. Nanoparticles were separately recollected by using the suggested method with the suspension made of alumina powder of 300 nm center diameter and the particle distributions in the recollected suspension were observed using an optical microscope. Furthermore, the size distribution of the recollected particles depending on the surface tension of the suspension was investigated. Results indicate that the sizes of the particles in the recollected suspension were reduced by decreasing the surface tension of the suspension. In the suggested method, the maximum diameter of the recollected nanoparticles could be controlled by changing the surface tension of the suspension.

  4. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  5. Phase separation under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwata, H

    2001-05-01

    The spinodal decomposition of a two-dimensional binary fluid under Poiseuille flow is studied by numerical simulation. We investigated time dependence of domain sizes in directions parallel and perpendicular to the flow. In an effective region of the flow, the power-law growth of a characteristic length in the direction parallel to the flow changes from the diffusive regime with the growth exponent alpha=1/3 to a new regime. The scaling invariance of the growth in the perpendicular direction is destroyed after the diffusive regime. A recurrent prevalence of thick and thin domains which determines log-time periodic oscillations has not been observed in our model. The growth exponents in the infinite system under two-dimensional Poiseuille flow are obtained by the renormalization group.

  6. Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the γ-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Waché, Y.; Bergmark, K.; Courthaudon, J.-L.; Aguedo, Mario; Nicaud, J.-M.; Belin, J.-M.

    2000-01-01

    Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into γ-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d 32 of 2.5 μm whereas it was 0.7 μm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 μm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytic...

  7. Medium-size droplets of methyl ricinoleate are reduced by cell-surface activity in the gamma-decalactone production by Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Y; Bergmark, K; Courthaudon, J L; Aguedo, M; Nicaud, J M; Belin, J M

    2000-03-01

    Size of methyl ricinoleate droplets during biotransformation into gamma-decalactone by Yarrowia lipolytica was measured in both homogenized and non-homogenized media. In non-homogenized but shaken medium, droplets had an average volume surface diameter d32 of 2.5 microm whereas it was 0.7 microm in homogenized and shaken medium. But as soon as yeast cells were inoculated, both diameters became similar at about 0.7 microm and did not vary significantly until the end of the culture. The growth of Y. lipolytica in both media was very similar except for the lag phase which was lowered in homogenized medium conditions.

  8. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi

    2014-10-01

    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  9. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  10. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2016-04-01

    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  11. Towards two-dimensional search engines

    CERN Document Server

    Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L

    2011-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  12. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2012-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.

  13. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  14. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  15. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  16. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  17. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2013-05-07

    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Droplet size prediction in the production of drug delivery microsystems by ultrasonic atomization

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Microencapsulation processes of drugs or other functional molecules are of great interest in pharmaceutical production fields. Ultrasonic assisted atomization is a new technique to produce microencapsulated systems by mechanical approach. It seems to offer several advantages (low level of mechanical stress in materials, reduced energy request, reduced apparatuses size) with respect to more conventional techniques. In this paper the groundwork of atomization is briefly introduced and correlati...

  19. Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S

    1981-11-01

    With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choice in the detection, localization and differentiation of intraatrial masses.

  20. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  1. Solvent blends can control cationic reversed micellar interdroplet interactions. The effect of n-heptane:benzene mixture on BHDC reversed micellar interfacial properties: droplet sizes and micropolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agazzi, Federico M; Falcone, R Dario; Silber, Juana J; Correa, N Mariano

    2011-10-27

    We have investigated, for the first time, the effect of the composition of the nonpolar organic media on the benzyl-n-hexadecyl-dimethylammonium chloride (BHDC) reversed micelles (RMs) properties at fixed temperature. To achieve this goal we have used the solvatochromic behavior of 1-methyl-8-oxyquinolinium betaine (QB) as absorption probe and dynamic light scattering (DLS), to monitor droplet sizes, interfacial micropolarity, and sequestrated water structure of water/BHDC/n-heptane:benzene RMs. DLS results confirm the formation of the water/BHDC/n-heptane:benzene RMs at every n-heptane mole fraction (X(Hp)) investigated, that is, X(Hp) = 0.00, 0.13, 0.21, 0.30, and 0.38. Also, DLS was used to measure the RMs diffusion coefficient and to calculate the apparent droplet hydrodynamic diameter (d(App)) at different compositions of the nonpolar organic medium. The data suggest that as the n-heptane content increases, the interdroplet attractive interactions also increase with the consequent increment in the droplet size. Moreover, the interdroplet attractive interactions can be "switched on (increased)" or "switched off (decreased)" by formulation of appropriate n-heptane:benzene mixtures. Additionally, QB spectroscopy was used to obtain the "operational" critical micellar concentration (cmc) and to investigate both the RMs interfacial micropolarity and the sequestrated water structure in every RMs studied. The results show that BHDC RMs are formed at lower surfactant concentration when n-heptane or water content increases. When the interdroplet interaction "switches on", the RMs droplet sizes growth expelling benzene molecules from the RMs interface, favoring the water-BHDC interaction at the interface with the consequent increases in the interfacial micropolarity. Therefore, changing the solvent blend is possible to affect dramatically the interfacial micropolarity, the droplet sizes and the structure of the entrapped water.

  2. Experimental evaluation and modeling of liquid jet penetration to estimate droplet size in a three-phase riser reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Akbar Jamali; Shahrokh Shahhosseini; Yaghoub Behjat

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the effects of injecting an evaporating liquid jet into solid–gas flow are experimentally investigated. A new model (SHED model) and a supplementary model (spray model) have also been proposed to investigate some flow-field characteristics in three-phase fluidized bed with the mean relative error 4.3%between model and measured results. Some experiments were conducted to study the influences of flow-field parameters such as liquid volumetric flow rate, injection velocity, jet angle and gas superficial velocity as well as solid mass flux on the jet penetration depth (JPD). In addition, independent variables were experimentally employed to propose two empirical correlations for JPD by using multiple regression method and spray cone angle (SCA) by using dimensional analysis technique. The mean relative errors between the JPD and SCA correlations versus ex-perimental data were 7.5%and 3.9%, respectively. In addition, in order to identify the variable effect, a parametric study was carried out. Applying the proposed model can avoid direct use of expensive devices to measure JPD and to predict droplet size.

  3. Remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions in DC3 with the UMBC-LACO Rainbow Polarimetric Imager (RPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczkowski, S.; Martins, J.; Fernandez-Borda, R.; Cieslak, D.; Hall, J.

    2013-12-01

    The UMBC Rainbow Polarimetric Imager is a small form factor VIS imaging polarimeter suitable for use on a number of platforms. An optical system based on a Phillips prism with three Bayer filter color detectors, each detecting a separate polarization state, allows simultaneous detection of polarization and spectral information. A Mueller matrix-like calibration scheme corrects for polarization artifacts in the optical train and allows retrieval of the polarization state of incoming light to better than 0.5%. Coupled with wide field of view optics (~90°), RPI can capture images of cloudbows over a wide range of aircraft headings and solar zenith angles for retrieval of cloud droplet size distribution (DSD) parameters. In May-June 2012, RPI was flown in a nadir port on the NASA DC-8 during the DC3 field campaign. We will show examples of cloudbow DSD parameter retrievals from the campaign to demonstrate the efficacy of such a system to terrestrial atmospheric remote sensing. RPI image from DC3 06/15/2012 flight. Left panel is raw image from the RPI 90° camera. Middle panel is Stokes 'q' parameter retrieved from full three camera dataset. Right panel is a horizontal cut in 'q' through the glory. Both middle and right panels clearly show cloudbow features which can be fit to infer cloud DSD parameters.

  4. Experimental determination of the nucleation rates of undercooled micron-sized liquid droplets based on fast chip calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Christian, E-mail: ch.simon@uni-muenster.de; Peterlechner, Martin; Wilde, Gerhard

    2015-03-10

    Highlights: • Fast scanning calorimeter calibration with position dependence. • Calibration of fast scanning calorimeter during cooling. • Quantitative determination of nucleation rates by treating the undercooling as stochastic parameter - Abstract: Accurate thermal analyzes and calorimetry measurements depend on careful calibration measurements. For conventional differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) the calibration procedure is well known. The melting point of different pure metals is measured and compared with literature data to adjust the temperature reading of the calorimeter. Likewise, the measured melting enthalpies of standard reference substances serve for enthalpy calibration. Yet for fast chip calorimetry, new procedures need to be established. For the medium-area and large-area calorimeter chips, this procedure needs to be modified, because the calibration behavior depends on the position of the sample on the measurement area. Additionally, a way to calibrate the calorimeter for measurements performed during cooling will also be shown. For this second aspect, the athermal and diffusionless martensitic phase transformation of Ni{sub 49.9}–Ti{sub 50.1} at% was used. The well-calibrated sensor chips are ideally suited to perform nucleation rate density analyzes based on a statistical approach. Here, the nucleation rate densities of micron-sized pure Sn droplets that had been coated with a non-catalytic coating have been determined by experimental analysis of the statistical variance of the undercooling response.

  5. Response of the Nevzorov hot wire probe in Arctic clouds dominated by very large droplet sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schwarzenboeck

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During the airborne research mission ASTAR 2004 (Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosols, Clouds and Radiation performed over the island of Svalbard in the Arctic a constant-temperature hot-wire Nevzorov Probe designed for aircraft measurements, has been used onboard the aircraft POLAR 2. The Nevzorov probe measured liquid water (LWC and total condensed water content (TWC in supercooled liquid and partly mixed phase clouds, respectively. As for other hotwire probes the calculation of LWC and/or TWC (and thus the ice water content IWC has to take into account the collection efficiencies of the two separate sensors for LWC and TWC which both react differently with respect to cloud phase and what is even more difficult to quantify with respect to the size of ice and liquid cloud particles. The study demonstrates that during pure liquid cloud sequences the ASTAR data set of the Nevzorov probe allowed to improve the quantification of the collection efficiency, particularly of the LWC probe part with respect to water. The improved quantification of liquid water content should lead to improved retrievals of IWC content. Simultaneous retrievals of LWC and IWC are correlated with the asymmetry factor derived from the Polar Nephelometer instrument.

  6. Weakly disordered two-dimensional Frenkel excitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Zettili, Nouredine

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of studies of the optical properties of weakly disordered two- dimensional Frenkel excitons in the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA). An approximate complex Green's function for a square lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is used in the self-consistent equation to determine the coherent potential. It is shown that the Density of States is very much affected by the logarithmic singularities in the Green's function. Our CPA results are in excellent agreement with previous investigations by Schreiber and Toyozawa using the Monte Carlo simulation.

  7. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  8. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhirov, A O; Shepelyansky, D L

    2010-01-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists {\\it ab aeterno}. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. We analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  9. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  10. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly......, the Dixmier trace induces a multiple of the Lebesgue integral but the growth of the number of eigenvalues is different from the one found for the standard differential operator on the unit interval....

  11. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  12. Dynamics of film. [two dimensional continua theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The general theory of films as two-dimensional continua are elaborated upon. As physical realizations of such a model this paper examines: inextensible films, elastic films, and nets. The suggested dynamic equations have enabled us to find out the characteristic speeds of wave propagation of the invariants of external and internal geometry and formulate the criteria of instability of their shape. Also included herein is a detailed account of the equation describing the film motions beyond the limits of the shape stability accompanied by the formation of wrinkles. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  13. Two-dimensional gauge theoretic supergravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangemi, D.; Leblanc, M.

    1994-05-01

    We investigate two-dimensional supergravity theories, which can be built from a topological and gauge invariant action defined on an ordinary surface. One is the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model presented by Chamseddine in a superspace formalism. We complement the proof of Montano, Aoaki and Sonnenschein that this extension is topological and gauge invariant, based on the graded de Sitter algebra. Not only do the equations of motion correspond to the supergravity ones and do gauge transformations encompass local supersymmetries, but we also identify the ∫-theory with the superfield formalism action written by Chamseddine. Next, we show that the N = 1 supersymmetric extension of string-inspired two-dimensional dilaton gravity put forward by Park and Strominger cannot be written as a ∫-theory. As an alternative, we propose two topological and gauge theories that are based on a graded extension of the extended Poincaré algebra and satisfy a vanishing-curvature condition. Both models are supersymmetric extensions of the string-inspired dilaton gravity.

  14. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  15. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  16. Electronic Transmission Properties of Two-Dimensional Quasi-Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志林; 傅秀军; 刘有延

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the tight binding model, the electronic transmission properties of two-dimensional Penrose lattices with free boundary conditions are studied using the generalized eigenfunction method (Phys. Rev. B 60(1999)13444). The electronic transmission coefficients for Penrose lattices with different sizes and widths are calculated, and the result shows strong energy dependence because of the quasiperiodic structure and quantum coherent effect. Around the Fermi level E = 0, there is an energy region with zero transmission amplitudes,which suggests that the studied systems are insulating. The spatial distributions of several typical electronic states with different transmission coefficients are plotted to display the propagation process.

  17. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monclús, M. A.; Molina-Aldareguía, J. M., E-mail: jon.molina@imdea.org [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Zheng, S. J.; Mayeur, J. R.; Beyerlein, I. J.; Mara, N. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Polcar, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Technická 2, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Llorca, J. [IMDEA Materials Institute, C/Eric Kandel 2, 28906 Getafe, Madrid (Spain); Department of Materials Science, Polytechnic University of Madrid, E. T. S. de Ingenieros de Caminos, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  18. Optimum high temperature strength of two-dimensional nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Monclús

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature nanoindentation was used to reveal nano-layer size effects on the hardness of two-dimensional metallic nanocomposites. We report the existence of a critical layer thickness at which strength achieves optimal thermal stability. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical bicrystal calculations show that this optimum arises due to a transition from thermally activated glide within the layers to dislocation transmission across the layers. We demonstrate experimentally that the atomic-scale properties of the interfaces profoundly affect this critical transition. The strong implications are that interfaces can be tuned to achieve an optimum in high temperature strength in layered nanocomposite structures.

  19. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  20. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  1. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

  2. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  3. A Solar Reflectance Method for Retrieving Cloud Optical Thickness and Droplet Size Over Snow and Ice Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, S.; Li, J. Y.; King, M. D.; Gerber, H.; Hobbs, P. V.

    1999-01-01

    Cloud optical thickness and effective radius retrievals from solar reflectance measurements are traditionally implemented using a combination of spectral channels that are absorbing and non-absorbing for water particles. Reflectances in non-absorbing channels (e.g., 0.67, 0.86, 1.2 micron spectral window bands) are largely dependent on cloud optical thickness, while longer wavelength absorbing channels (1.6, 2. 1, and 3.7 micron window bands) provide cloud particle size information. Cloud retrievals over ice and snow surfaces present serious difficulties. At the shorter wavelengths, ice is bright and highly variable, both characteristics acting to significantly increase cloud retrieval uncertainty. In contrast, reflectances at the longer wavelengths are relatively small and may be comparable to that of dark open water. A modification to the traditional cloud retrieval technique is devised. The new algorithm uses only a combination of absorbing spectral channels for which the snow/ice albedo is relatively small. Using this approach, retrievals have been made with the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) imager flown aboard the NASA ER-2 from May - June 1998 during the Arctic FIRE-ACE field deployment. Data from several coordinated ER-2 and University of Washington CV-580 in situ aircraft observations of liquid water stratus clouds are examined. MAS retrievals of optical thickness, droplet effective radius, and liquid water path are shown to be in good agreement with the in situ measurements. The initial success of the technique has implications for future operational satellite cloud retrieval algorithms in polar and wintertime regions.

  4. Optimal excitation of two dimensional Holmboe instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Constantinou, Navid C

    2010-01-01

    Highly stratified shear layers are rendered unstable even at high stratifications by Holmboe instabilities when the density stratification is concentrated in a small region of the shear layer. These instabilities may cause mixing in highly stratified environments. However these instabilities occur in tongues for a limited range of parameters. We perform Generalized Stability analysis of the two dimensional perturbation dynamics of an inviscid Boussinesq stratified shear layer and show that Holmboe instabilities at high Richardson numbers can be excited by their adjoints at amplitudes that are orders of magnitude larger than by introducing initially the unstable mode itself. We also determine the optimal growth that obtains for parameters for which there is no instability. We find that there is potential for large transient growth regardless of whether the background flow is exponentially stable or not and that the characteristic structure of the Holmboe instability asymptotically emerges for parameter values ...

  5. Phonon hydrodynamics in two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepellotti, Andrea; Fugallo, Giorgia; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Michele; Mauri, Francesco; Marzari, Nicola

    2015-03-06

    The conduction of heat in two dimensions displays a wealth of fascinating phenomena of key relevance to the scientific understanding and technological applications of graphene and related materials. Here, we use density-functional perturbation theory and an exact, variational solution of the Boltzmann transport equation to study fully from first-principles phonon transport and heat conductivity in graphene, boron nitride, molybdenum disulphide and the functionalized derivatives graphane and fluorographene. In all these materials, and at variance with typical three-dimensional solids, normal processes keep dominating over Umklapp scattering well-above cryogenic conditions, extending to room temperature and more. As a result, novel regimes emerge, with Poiseuille and Ziman hydrodynamics, hitherto typically confined to ultra-low temperatures, characterizing transport at ordinary conditions. Most remarkably, several of these two-dimensional materials admit wave-like heat diffusion, with second sound present at room temperature and above in graphene, boron nitride and graphane.

  6. Probabilistic Universality in two-dimensional Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lyubich, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we continue to explore infinitely renormalizable H\\'enon maps with small Jacobian. It was shown in [CLM] that contrary to the one-dimensional intuition, the Cantor attractor of such a map is non-rigid and the conjugacy with the one-dimensional Cantor attractor is at most 1/2-H\\"older. Another formulation of this phenomenon is that the scaling structure of the H\\'enon Cantor attractor differs from its one-dimensional counterpart. However, in this paper we prove that the weight assigned by the canonical invariant measure to these bad spots tends to zero on microscopic scales. This phenomenon is called {\\it Probabilistic Universality}. It implies, in particular, that the Hausdorff dimension of the canonical measure is universal. In this way, universality and rigidity phenomena of one-dimensional dynamics assume a probabilistic nature in the two-dimensional world.

  7. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  8. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  9. Janus Spectra in Two-Dimensional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory T.; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-09-01

    In large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows, and other two-dimensional flows, the exponent of the turbulent energy spectra, α , may theoretically take either of two distinct values, 3 or 5 /3 , but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed α =3 . Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which α transitions from 3 to 5 /3 for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to 3 for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows.

  10. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  13. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  14. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Jinyang, E-mail: huangjy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Xiaoming, E-mail: sunxm@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  15. Droplet Sizing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-15

    breadboard used previously. A schematic of this breadboard is shown on -Al Figure 1. A helium- neon laser provides the light source with wavelength of 6328 A. A...2 Is = 210 K (dnO,,XP)Gl exp[- 2)(x +y )][I + cos 2 !x.x V] ,(3) boI ", and I 02 K 2(d,n,,S2,,S)G2 exp [(- )] , (4)2 02 b 0 where K is the scattering...Figure 4 shows the optical setup used for the PIMAX system. A big beam. helium- neon laser provides the light source of wavelength 6328 A. A I he

  16. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  17. Bioaccessibility and Cellular Uptake of β-Carotene Encapsulated in Model O/W Emulsions: Influence of Initial Droplet Size and Emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Lu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the initial emulsion structure (droplet size and emulsifier on the properties of β-carotene-loaded emulsions and the bioavailability of β-carotene after passing through simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT digestion were investigated. Exposure to GIT significantly changed the droplet size, surface charge and composition of all emulsions, and these changes were dependent on their initial droplet size and the emulsifiers used. Whey protein isolate (WPI-stabilized emulsion showed the highest β-carotene bioaccessibility, while sodium caseinate (SCN-stabilized emulsion showed the highest cellular uptake of β-carotene. The bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated β-carotene based on the results of bioaccessibility and cellular uptake showed the same order with the results of cellular uptake being SCN > TW80 > WPI. An inconsistency between the results of bioaccessibility and bioavailability was observed, indicating that the cellular uptake assay is necessary for a reliable evaluation of the bioavailability of emulsion-encapsulated compounds. The findings in this study contribute to a better understanding of the correlation between emulsion structure and the digestive fate of emulsion-encapsulated nutrients, which make it possible to achieve controlled or potential targeted delivery of nutrients by designing the structure of emulsion-based carriers.

  18. Stability assessment of injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulsifier films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilvanan, S; Kumar, B Ajith; Senthilkumar, S R; Baskar, Raj; Sekharan, T Raja

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.

  19. Simulation of Interpersonal Transport of Expiratory Droplets and Droplet Nuclei between Two Standing Manikins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Y, Li,

    2012-01-01

    Interpersonal transport of expiratory droplets and droplet nuclei constitutes a prerequisite for the transmission of pathogens as well as the transmission of respiratory diseases. Numerical simulations considering droplet evaporation and droplet nucleus sizes were carried out, using two detailed...... the existence of direct spray route of the interpersonal transport of expiratory droplets....

  20. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    CERN Document Server

    Khoukaz, Alfons; Grieser, Silke; Hergemöller, Ann-Katrin; Köhler, Esperanza; Täschner, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCP) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This inf...

  1. Shape evolution of a single liquid-crystal droplet immersed in an isotropic matrix under transient and steady flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Youjun; Yu, Wei; Zhou, Chixing; Xu, Yuanze

    2007-04-01

    The morphology evolution of immiscible polymer-liquid crystal systems is quite different from flexible polymer-polymer mixtures due to the anisotropic properties of liquid crystals. The deformation and retraction of a single low molar mass liquid crystal 4' -pentyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (5CB) droplet and 4' -octyl-4-biphenylcarbonitrile (8CB) dispersed in polydimethyl-siloxane under two-dimensional linear flow was investigated by a computer-controlled four-roll mill, which is equipped with an optical microscope and a digital camera. The deformation parameter and orientation angle during deformation versus capillary number was obtained and compared with calculations using the Maffettone-Minale (MM) model and the Yu-Zhou liquid-crystal (YZ-LC) model. The MM model can describe the behavior of a Newtonian droplet in another Newtonian matrix whereas the YZ-LC model can describe the behavior of a LC droplet in a Newtonian matrix. The results showed that the deformation and rotation of a LC droplet is more difficult than viscoelastic droplets, possibly because of the resistance of the nematic elastic energy induced by the nematic mesogens deformation and orientation under flow field. Furthermore, the different behavior between flow-aligning 5CB and flow-tumbling 8CB droplets and the influence of droplet size of LC on deformation and retraction were discussed by experiment and calculation; the results reveal that the different size LC droplets show different evolution curves.

  2. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja

    2016-02-01

    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.

  3. Atom-Based Geometrical Fingerprinting of Conformal Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehboudi, Mehrshad

    The shape of two-dimensional materials plays a significant role on their chemical and physical properties. Two-dimensional materials are basic meshes that are formed by mesh points (vertices) given by atomic positions, and connecting lines (edges) between points given by chemical bonds. Therefore the study of local shape and geometry of two-dimensional materials is a fundamental prerequisite to investigate physical and chemical properties. Hereby the use of discrete geometry to discuss the shape of two-dimensional materials is initiated. The local geometry of a surface embodied in 3D space is determined using four invariant numbers from the metric and curvature tensors which indicates how much the surface is stretched and curved under a deformation as compared to a reference pre-deformed conformation. Many different disciplines advance theories on conformal two-dimensional materials by relying on continuum mechanics and fitting continuum surfaces to the shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. However two-dimensional materials are inherently discrete. The continuum models are only applicable when the size of two-dimensional materials is significantly large and the deformation is less than a few percent. In this research, the knowledge of discrete differential geometry was used to tell the local shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. Three kind of two-dimensional materials are discussed: 1) one atom thickness structures such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride; 2) high and low buckled 2D meshes like stanene, leadene, aluminum phosphate; and, 3) multi layer 2D materials such as Bi2Se3 and WSe2. The lattice structures of these materials were created by designing a mechanical model - the mechanical model was devised in the form of a Gaussian bump and density-functional theory was used to inform the local height; and, the local geometries are also discussed.

  4. On numerical evaluation of two-dimensional phase integrals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lessow, H.; Rusch, W.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1975-01-01

    The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated.......The relative advantages of several common numerical integration algorithms used in computing two-dimensional phase integrals are evaluated....

  5. Jamming patterns in a two-dimensional hopper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kiwing To

    2005-06-01

    We report experimental studies of jamming phenomenon of monodisperse metal disks falling through a two-dimensional hopper when the hopper opening is larger than three times the size of the disks. For each jamming event, the configuration of the arch formed at the hopper opening is studied. The cumulative distribution functions () for hoppers of opening size d are measured. (Here is the horizontal component of the arch vector, which is defined as the displacement vector from the center of the first disk to the center of the last disk in the arch.) We found that the distribution of () can be collasped into a master curve () = ()() that decays exponentially for > 4. The scaling factor () is a decreasing function of d and is approximately proportional to the jamming probability.

  6. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.

    2014-03-01

    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  7. Material line fluctuations slaved to bulk correlations in two-dimensional turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odijk, Theo

    2017-02-01

    An analogy is pointed out between a polymer chain fluctuating in a two-dimensional nematic background and a freely floating material line buffeted by a two-dimensional turbulent fluid in the inertial (Kraichnan) regime. Under certain conditions, the back-reaction of the line on the turbulent flow may be neglected. The fractal exponent related to the size-contour relation of the material line is connected to a "nematic" correlation function in the bulk.

  8. Critical phenomena in the majority voter model on two-dimensional regular lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Lara, Ana L; Sastre, Francisco; Vargas-Arriola, José Raúl

    2014-05-01

    In this work we studied the critical behavior of the critical point as a function of the number of nearest neighbors on two-dimensional regular lattices. We performed numerical simulations on triangular, hexagonal, and bilayer square lattices. Using standard finite-size scaling theory we found that all cases fall in the two-dimensional Ising model universality class, but that the critical point value for the bilayer lattice does not follow the regular tendency that the Ising model shows.

  9. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  10. Janus spectra in two-dimensional flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chien-Chia; Chakraborty, Pinaki

    2016-01-01

    In theory, large-scale atmospheric flows, soap-film flows and other two-dimensional flows may host two distinct types of turbulent energy spectra---in one, $\\alpha$, the spectral exponent of velocity fluctuations, equals $3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the small scales, and in the other, $\\alpha=5/3$ and the fluctuations are dissipated at the large scales---but measurements downstream of obstacles have invariably revealed $\\alpha = 3$. Here we report experiments on soap-film flows where downstream of obstacles there exists a sizable interval in which $\\alpha$ has transitioned from $3$ to $5/3$ for the streamwise fluctuations but remains equal to $3$ for the transverse fluctuations, as if two mutually independent turbulent fields of disparate dynamics were concurrently active within the flow. This species of turbulent energy spectra, which we term the Janus spectra, has never been observed or predicted theoretically. Our results may open up new vistas in the study of turbulence and geophysical flows...

  11. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  12. Two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Hieu Nguyen, Van

    2016-12-01

    The rapid and successful development of the research on graphene and graphene-based nanostructures has been substantially enlarged to include many other two-dimensional hexagonal semiconductors (THS): phosphorene, silicene, germanene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, WSe2 as well as the van der Waals heterostructures of various THSs (including graphene). The present article is a review of recent works on THSs beyond graphene and van der Waals heterostructures composed of different pairs of all THSs. One among the priorities of new THSs compared to graphene is the presence of a non-vanishing energy bandgap which opened up the ability to fabricate a large number of electronic, optoelectronic and photonic devices on the basis of these new materials and their van der Waals heterostructures. Moreover, a significant progress in the research on TMDCs was the discovery of valley degree of freedom. The results of research on valley degree of freedom and the development of a new technology based on valley degree of freedom-valleytronics are also presented. Thus the scientific contents of the basic research and practical applications os THSs are very rich and extremely promising.

  13. Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals: Disorder Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Markus R; Graczykowski, Bartlomiej; Reparaz, Juan Sebastian; El Sachat, Alexandros; Sledzinska, Marianna; Alzina, Francesc; Sotomayor Torres, Clivia M

    2016-09-14

    The design and fabrication of phononic crystals (PnCs) hold the key to control the propagation of heat and sound at the nanoscale. However, there is a lack of experimental studies addressing the impact of order/disorder on the phononic properties of PnCs. Here, we present a comparative investigation of the influence of disorder on the hypersonic and thermal properties of two-dimensional PnCs. PnCs of ordered and disordered lattices are fabricated of circular holes with equal filling fractions in free-standing Si membranes. Ultrafast pump and probe spectroscopy (asynchronous optical sampling) and Raman thermometry based on a novel two-laser approach are used to study the phononic properties in the gigahertz (GHz) and terahertz (THz) regime, respectively. Finite element method simulations of the phonon dispersion relation and three-dimensional displacement fields furthermore enable the unique identification of the different hypersonic vibrations. The increase of surface roughness and the introduction of short-range disorder are shown to modify the phonon dispersion and phonon coherence in the hypersonic (GHz) range without affecting the room-temperature thermal conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we suggest a criteria for predicting phonon coherence as a function of roughness and disorder.

  14. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  15. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  18. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  19. Airspeed and orifice size affect spray droplet spectra from an aerial electrostatic nozzle for rotary-wing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerial electrostatic spraying system patented by the USDA-ARS is a unique aerial application system which inductively charges spray droplets for the purpose of increasing deposition and efficacy. While this system has many potential benefits, no published data exits which describe how changes i...

  20. Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A Sobral

    Full Text Available The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.

  1. Unpacking of a Crumpled Wire from Two-Dimensional Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Thiago A; Gomes, Marcelo A F; Machado, Núbia R; Brito, Valdemiro P

    2015-01-01

    The physics of tightly packed structures of a wire and other threadlike materials confined in cavities has been explored in recent years in connection with crumpled systems and a number of topics ranging from applications to DNA packing in viral capsids and surgical interventions with catheter to analogies with the electron gas at finite temperature and with theories of two-dimensional quantum gravity. When a long piece of wire is injected into two-dimensional cavities, it bends and originates in the jammed limit a series of closed structures that we call loops. In this work we study the extraction of a crumpled tightly packed wire from a circular cavity aiming to remove loops individually. The size of each removed loop, the maximum value of the force needed to unpack each loop, and the total length of the extracted wire were measured and related to an exponential growth and a mean field model consistent with the literature of crumpled wires. Scaling laws for this process are reported and the relationship between the processes of packing and unpacking of wire is commented upon.

  2. Two Dimensional Connectivity for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Farivar, Masoud; Ashtiani, Farid

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on two-dimensional connectivity in sparse vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). In this respect, we find thresholds for the arrival rates of vehicles at entrances of a block of streets such that the connectivity is guaranteed for any desired probability. To this end, we exploit a mobility model recently proposed for sparse VANETs, based on BCMP open queuing networks and solve the related traffic equations to find the traffic characteristics of each street and use the results to compute the exact probability of connectivity along these streets. Then, we use the results from percolation theory and the proposed fast algorithms for evaluation of bond percolation problem in a random graph corresponding to the block of the streets. We then find sufficiently accurate two dimensional connectivity-related parameters, such as the average number of intersections connected to each other and the size of the largest set of inter-connected intersections. We have also proposed lower bounds for the case ...

  3. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  4. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided.

  5. Cloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. van Pinxteren

    2015-09-01

    the deviations being mainly caused by systematic differences and limitations of the approaches (such as outgassing of dissolved gases during residual particle sampling. Scavenging efficiencies (SEs of aerosol constituents were 0.56–0.94, 0.79–0.99, 0.71–98, and 0.67–0.92 for SO42−, NO3−, NH4+, and DOC, respectively, when calculated as event means with in-cloud data only. SEs estimated using data from an upwind site were substantially different in many cases, revealing the impact of gas-phase uptake (for volatile constituents and mass losses across Mt. Schmücke likely due to physical processes such as droplet scavenging by trees and/or entrainment. Drop size-resolved cloud water concentrations of major ions SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ revealed two main profiles: decreasing concentrations with increasing droplet size and "U"-shapes. In contrast, profiles of typical coarse particle mode minor ions were often increasing with increasing drop size, highlighting the importance of a species' particle concentration size distribution for the development of size-resolved solute concentration patterns. Concentration differences between droplet size classes were typically < 2 for major ions from the 3-stage collector and somewhat more pronounced from the 5-stage collector, while they were much larger for minor ions. Due to a better separation of droplet populations, the 5-stage collector was capable of resolving some features of solute size dependencies not seen in the 3-stage data, especially sharp concentration increases (up to a factor of 5–10 in the smallest droplets for many solutes.

  6. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.

  7. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  8. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2015-08-01

    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  9. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire......This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...

  10. Intensity Coding in Two-Dimensional Excitable Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Copelli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In the light of recent experimental findings that gap junctions are essential for low level intensity detection in the sensory periphery, the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automaton is employed to model the response of a two-dimensional sensory network to external stimuli. We show that excitable elements (sensory neurons) that have a small dynamical range are shown to give rise to a collective large dynamical range. Therefore the network transfer (gain) function (which is Hill or Stevens law-like) is an emergent property generated from a pool of small dynamical range cells, providing a basis for a "neural psychophysics". The growth of the dynamical range with the system size is approximately logarithmic, suggesting a functional role for electrical coupling. For a fixed number of neurons, the dynamical range displays a maximum as a function of the refractory period, which suggests experimental tests for the model. A biological application to ephaptic interactions in olfactory nerve fascicles is proposed.

  11. Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2016-08-01

    We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.

  12. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  13. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  14. Infant milk fat droplet size and coating affect postprandial responses in healthy adult men: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, S; van de Heijning, B J M; Acton, D; Mensink, R P

    2017-09-01

    Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control). Postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations tended to increase faster after intake of Concept IMF (P=0.054), but peaked 3 h after intakes at similar concentrations. ApoB48 increased steadily and peaked 3 h after consumption. Increases in plasma glucose concentrations were comparable, but peak concentrations were reached faster after consumption of Concept IMF (PIMF, causing a sharper decremental glucose rebound (PIMF. Satiety scores and changes in the satiety hormones ghrelin and peptide YY were comparable, while cholecystokinin responses were earlier and higher after consumption of Control IMF (PIMF with larger and phospholipid-coated fat droplets are more rapidly absorbed than those from the current IMF.

  15. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  16. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoukaz, A., E-mail: khoukaz@uni-muenster.de; Bonaventura, D.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.-K.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.

    2014-01-21

    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in a vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCPs) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images is dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of σ≈100μm. -- Highlights: • We present a MCP system for a 2D real time visualization of cluster target beams. • With this device the vertex region of storage ring experiments can be investigated. • Time resolved 2D information about the target thickness distribution is accessible. • A spatial resolution of the MCP device of 0.1 mm was achieved. • The presented MCP system also allows for measurements on cluster masses.

  17. Compact triplexer in two-dimensional hexagonal lattice photonic crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongliang Ren; Jianping Ma; Hao Wen; Yali Qin; Zhefu Wu; Weisheng Hu; Chun Jiang; Yaohui Jin

    2011-01-01

    We design a contpact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs). A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides. Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained. The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finites-difference time-domain method. The footprint of the triplexer is about 12× 9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -4O dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device ii future fiber-to-the-home networks.%@@ We design a compact triplexer based on two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal lattice photonic crystals (PCs).A folded directional coupler (FDC) is introduced in the triplexer beside the point-defect micro-cavities and line-defect waveguides.Because of the reflection feedback of the FDC, high channel drop efficiency can be realized and a compact size with the order of micrometers can be maintained.The proposed device is analyzed using the plane wave expansion method, and its transmission characteristics are calculated using the finite-difference time-domain method.The footprint of the triplexer is about 12×9 μm, and its extinction ratios are less than -20 dB for 1310 nm, approximately -20 dB for 1490 nm, and under -40 dB for 1550 nm, making it a potentially essential device in future fiber-to-the-home networks.

  18. Fast acoustic tweezers for the two-dimensional manipulation of individual particles in microfluidic channels

    CERN Document Server

    Tran, S B Q; Thibault, Pierre; 10.1063/1.4751348

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device that implements standing surface acoustic waves in order to handle single cells, droplets, and generally particles. The particles are moved in a very controlled manner by the two-dimensional drifting of a standing wave array, using a slight frequency modulation of two ultrasound emitters around their resonance. These acoustic tweezers allow any type of motion at velocities up to few 10mm/s, while the device transparency is adapted for optical studies. The possibility of automation provides a critical step in the development of lab-on-a-chip cell sorters and it should find applications in biology, chemistry, and engineering domains.

  19. Characterization of the Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) for size-resolved quantitative measurements of ice nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Ryan; Si, Meng; Li, Jixiao; Huffman, J. Alex; McCluskey, Christina; Levin, Ezra; Irish, Victoria; Chou, Cédric; Hill, Thomas; Ladino, Luis; Yakobi, Jacqueline; Schiller, Corinne; Abbatt, Jon; DeMott, Paul; Bertram, Allan

    2014-05-01

    Ice formation within a cloud system can significantly modify its lifetime and radiative forcing. Many current instruments for measuring atmospheric concentrations of ice nuclei (IN) are not capable of providing size-resolved information. Such knowledge is useful in identifying the sources of IN and predicting their transport in the atmosphere. Furthermore, those that use size-discrimination to identify IN typically exclude particles with an aerodynamic diameter greater than 2.5 μm from analysis. Several studies have indicated this may be an important size regime for IN, particularly with those activating at warmer temperatures. The recently developed Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) addresses these limitations through combining sample collection by a model of cascade impactor with an established immersion freezing apparatus. Here we present a characterization of the MOUDI-DFT and the development of a modified technique which address experimental uncertainties arising from sample deposit inhomogeneity and the droplet freezing method. An intercomparison with a continuous-flow diffusion chamber (CFDC) was performed. We also show preliminary results from a campaign undertaken in a remote coastal region of western Canada. Correlations between atmospheric IN concentrations and the abundance of suspended submicron and supermicron particles, biological aerosols, carbonaceous aerosols, and prevailing meteorological conditions were investigated.

  20. A passive microfluidic system based on step emulsification allows the generation of libraries of nanoliter-sized droplets from microliter droplets of varying and known concentrations of a sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, W; Kaminski, T S; Garstecki, P

    2017-03-29

    We present a novel geometry of microfluidic channels that allows us to passively generate monodisperse emulsions of hundreds of droplets smaller than 1 nL from collections of larger (ca. 0.4 μL) mother droplets. We introduce a new microfluidic module for the generation of droplets via passive break-up at a step. The module alleviates a common problem in step emulsification with efficient removal of the droplets from the vicinity of the step. In our solution, the droplets are pushed away from the step by a continuous liquid that bypasses the mother droplets via specially engineered bypasses that lead to the step around the main channel. We show that the bypasses tighten the distribution of volume of daughter droplets and eliminate subpopulations of daughter droplets. Clearing away the just produced droplets from the vicinity of the step provides for similar conditions of break-up for every subsequent droplet and, consequently, leads to superior monodispersity of the generated emulsions. Importantly, this function is realized autonomously (passively) in a protocol in which only a sequence of large mother droplets is forced through the module. Our system features the advantage of step emulsification systems in that the volumes of the generated droplets depend very weakly on the rate of flow through the module - an increase in the flow rate by 300% causes only a slight increase of the average diameter of generated droplets by less than 5%. We combined our geometry with a simple T-junction and a simple trap-based microdroplet dilutor to produce a collection of libraries of droplets of gradually changing and known concentrations of a sample. The microfluidic system can be operated with only two syringe pumps set at constant rates of flow during the experiment.

  1. Droplets Evaporation on Heated Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misyura S. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modes of evaporation in a wide range of droplet sizes and wall temperatures have been investigated in the present work. For any initial drop size there are three typical boiling regime: 1 the nucleate boiling; 2 the transitional regime; 3 the film boiling. The width of the transition region of boiling crisis increases with increasing the initial volume V0. Evaporation of large droplets at high superheat depends on the initial droplet shape.

  2. Influences of Droplet Size Distribution on Demulsification Effect of Cavitation Water Jet%液滴粒径分布对空化射流破乳效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    管金发; 邓松圣; 雷传超; 舒丹

    2016-01-01

    建立了空化射流破乳实验系统,确定了分析液滴粒径分布对空化射流破乳效果影响的实验方法,研究了液滴粒径分布对空化射流破乳效果的影响规律。结果表明:空化射流处理存在破乳和乳化两种相反的作用。对于含有较多大粒径液滴的模型乳化油废水而言,空化射流处理主要使模型乳化油废水进一步乳化,空化射流方法应用于含有较多大粒径液滴的模型乳化油废水破乳是不可行的;对于液滴粒径普遍较小的虹吸模型乳化油废水而言,空化射流处理能促进液滴的碰撞聚并,从而有利于虹吸模型乳化油废水的破乳,空化射流方法应用于液滴粒径普遍较小的虹吸模型乳化油废水的破乳具有一定的效果。%With the establishment of demulsification experiment system for cavitation water jet, the experimental method of analysis of droplet size distribution on demulsification effect of cavitation water jetis determined, followed by the experimental study of droplet size distribution on demulsification effect of cavitation water jet. Results show that there are two kinds of contrary effects for cavitation water jet treatment, named as demulsificationand emulsification, respectively. As far as the model emulsified oil waste⁃water containing a lot of large droplet size droplets is concerned, cavitation water jet treatment emulsifies it more fully. Namely, cavi⁃tation water jet method is inapplicable to demulsification of the model emulsified oil wastewater containing a lot of large droplet size droplets. As far as the siphoning model emulsified oil wastewater in which there are most small droplet size droplets is concerned, cavitation water jet treatment promotes the collision and coalescence of droplets and is good for the demulsification of siphoning model emulsified oil wastewater. And cavitation water jet method has a demulsification effect for siphoning model emulsified oil

  3. The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG CHI

    2013-01-01

    In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.

  4. Cloud Droplet Size and Liquid Water Path Retrievals From Zenith Radiance Measurements: Examples From the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program and the Aerosol Robotic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J. C.; Marshak, A.; Huang, C.-H.; Varnai, T.; Hogan, R. J.; Giles, D. M.; Holben, B. N.; Knyazikhin, Y.; O'Connor, E. J.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The ground-based Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) and NASA Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) routinely monitor clouds using zenith radiances at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Using the transmittance calculated from such measurements, we have developed a new retrieval method for cloud effective droplet size and conducted extensive tests for non-precipitating liquid water clouds. The underlying principle is to combine a water-absorbing wavelength (i.e. 1640 nm) with a nonwater-absorbing wavelength for acquiring information on cloud droplet size and optical depth. For simulated stratocumulus clouds with liquid water path less than 300 g/sq m and horizontal resolution of 201m, the retrieval method underestimates the mean effective radius by 0.8 m, with a root-mean-squared error of 1.7 m and a relative deviation of 13 %. For actual observations with a liquid water path less than 450 gm.2 at the ARM Oklahoma site during 2007-2008, our 1.5 min-averaged retrievals are generally larger by around 1 m than those from combined ground-based cloud radar and microwave radiometer at a 5min temporal resolution. We also compared our retrievals to those from combined shortwave flux and microwave observations for relatively homogeneous clouds, showing that the bias between these two retrieval sets is negligible, but the error of 2.6 m and the relative deviation of 22% are larger than those found in our simulation case. Finally, the transmittance-based cloud effective droplet radii agree to better than 11% with satellite observations and have a negative bias of 1 m. Overall, the retrieval method provides reasonable cloud effective radius estimates, which can enhance the cloud products of both ARM and AERONET.

  5. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  6. Cloud water composition during HCCT-2010: Scavenging efficiencies, solute concentrations, and droplet size dependence of inorganic ions and dissolved organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, Dominik; Wadinga Fomba, Khanneh; Mertes, Stephan; Müller, Konrad; Spindler, Gerald; Schneider, Johannes; Lee, Taehyoung; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    differences and limitations of the approaches (such as outgassing of dissolved gases during residual particle sampling). Scavenging efficiencies (SEs) of aerosol constituents were 0.56-0.94, 0.79-0.99, 0.71-98, and 0.67-0.92 for SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and DOC respectively when calculated as event means with in-cloud data only. SEs estimated using data from an upwind site were substantially different in many cases, revealing the impact of gas-phase uptake (for volatile constituents) and mass losses across Mt. Schmücke likely due to physical processes such as droplet scavenging by trees and/or entrainment. Drop size-resolved cloud water concentrations of major ions SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ revealed two main profiles: decreasing concentrations with increasing droplet size and "U" shapes. In contrast, profiles of typical coarse particle mode minor ions were often increasing with increasing drop size, highlighting the importance of a species' particle concentration size distribution for the development of size-resolved solute concentration patterns. Concentration differences between droplet size classes were typically concentration increases (up to a factor of 5-10) in the smallest droplets for many solutes.

  7. Dynamic Properties of Two-Dimensional Polydisperse Granular Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We propose a two-dimensional model of polydisperse granular mixtures with a power-law size distribution in the presence of stochastic driving. A fractal dimension D is introduced as a measurement of the inhomogeneity of the size distribution of particles. We define the global and partial granular temperatures of the multi-component mixture. By direct simulation Monte Carlo, we investigate how the inhomogeneity of the size distribution influences the dynamic properties of the mixture, focusing on the granular temperature, dissipated energy, velocity distribution, spatial clusterization, and collision time. We get the following results: a single granular temperature does not characterize a multi-component mixture and each species attains its own "granular temperature"; The velocity deviation from Gaussian distribution becomes more and more pronounced and the partial density of the assembly is more inhomogeneous with the increasing value of the fractal dimension D; The global granular temperature decreases and average dissipated energy per particle increases as the value of D augments.

  8. Quantifying leaf venation patterns: two-dimensional maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle; Amin, Mira; Pakulska, Malgosia

    2009-01-01

    The leaf vasculature plays crucial roles in transport and mechanical support. Understanding how vein patterns develop and what underlies pattern variation between species has many implications from both physiological and evolutionary perspectives. We developed a method for extracting spatial vein pattern data from leaf images, such as vein densities and also the sizes and shapes of the vein reticulations. We used this method to quantify leaf venation patterns of the first rosette leaf of Arabidopsis thaliana throughout a series of developmental stages. In particular, we characterized the size and shape of vein network areoles (loops), which enlarge and are split by new veins as a leaf develops. Pattern parameters varied in time and space. In particular, we observed a distal to proximal gradient in loop shape (length/width ratio) which varied over time, and a margin-to-center gradient in loop sizes. Quantitative analyses of vein patterns at the tissue level provide a two-way link between theoretical models of patterning and molecular experimental work to further explore patterning mechanisms during development. Such analyses could also be used to investigate the effect of environmental factors on vein patterns, or to compare venation patterns from different species for evolutionary studies. The method also provides a framework for gathering and overlaying two-dimensional maps of point, line and surface morphological data.

  9. Flow of foams in two-dimensional disordered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollet, Benjamin; Geraud, Baudouin; Jones, Sian A.; Meheust, Yves; Cantat, Isabelle; Institut de Physique de Rennes Team; Geosciences Rennes Team

    2015-11-01

    Liquid foams are a yield stress fluid with elastic properties. When a foam flow is confined by solid walls, viscous dissipation arises from the contact zones between soap films and walls, giving very peculiar friction laws. In particular, foams potentially invade narrow pores much more efficiently than Newtonian fluids, which is of great importance for enhanced oil recovery. To quantify this effect, we study experimentally flows of foam in a model two-dimensional porous medium, consisting of an assembly of circular obstacles placed randomly in a Hele-Shaw cell, and use image analysis to quantify foam flow at the local scale. We show that bubbles split as they flow through the porous medium, by a mechanism of film pinching during contact with an obstacle, yielding two daughter bubbles per split bubble. We quantify the evolution of the bubble size distribution as a function of the distance along the porous medium, the splitting probability as a function of bubble size, and the probability distribution function of the daughter bubbles. We propose an evolution equation to model this splitting phenomenon and compare it successfully to the experiments, showing how at long distance, the porous medium itself dictates the size distribution of the foam.

  10. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  11. Pseudo-two-dimensional random dimer lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naether, U., E-mail: naether@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mejía-Cortés, C.; Vicencio, R.A. [Departamento de Física and MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-06-05

    We study the long-time wave transport in correlated and uncorrelated disordered 2D arrays. When a separation of dimensions is applied to the model, we find that the previously predicted 1D random dimer phenomenology also appears in so-called pseudo-2D arrays. Therefore, a threshold behavior is observed in terms of the effective size for eigenmodes, as well as in long-time dynamics. A minimum system size is required to observe this threshold, which is very important when considering a possible experimental realization. For the long-time evolution, we find that for correlated lattices a super-diffusive long-range transport is observed. For completely uncorrelated disorder 2D transport becomes sub-diffusive within the localization length and for random binary pseudo-2D arrays localization is observed.

  12. Effects of rainfall on oil droplet size and the dispersion of spilled oil with application to Douglas Channel, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yongsheng; Hannah, Charles G; Thupaki, Pramod; Mo, Ruping; Law, Brent

    2017-01-15

    Raindrops falling on the sea surface produce turbulence. The present study examined the influence of rain-induced turbulence on oil droplet size and dispersion of oil spills in Douglas Channel in British Columbia, Canada using hourly atmospheric data in 2011-2013. We examined three types of oils: a light oil (Cold Lake Diluent - CLD), and two heavy oils (Cold Lake Blend - CLB and Access Western Blend - AWB). We found that the turbulent energy dissipation rate produced by rainfalls is comparable to what is produced by wind-induced wave breaking in our study area. With the use of chemical dispersants, our results indicate that a heavy rainfall (rain rate>20mmh(-1)) can produce the maximum droplet size of 300μm for light oil and 1000μm for heavy oils, and it can disperse the light oil with fraction of 22-45% and the heavy oils of 8-13%, respectively. Heavy rainfalls could be a factor for the fate of oil spills in Douglas Channel, especially for a spill of light oil and the use of chemical dispersants.

  13. Size and phospholipid coating of lipid droplets in the diet of young mice modify body fat accumulation in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Annemarie; Kegler, Diane; Wopereis, Harm J; Teller, Inga C; van de Heijning, Bert J M; Verkade, Henkjan J; van der Beek, Eline M

    2012-10-01

    In addition to contemporary lifestyle factors that contribute to the increased obesity prevalence worldwide, early nutrition is associated with sustained effects on later life obesity. We hypothesized that physical properties of dietary lipids contribute to this nutritional programming. We developed a concept infant formula (IMF) with large, phospholipid-coated lipid droplets (Nuturis; Danone Research, Paris, France) and investigated its programming effect on metabolic phenotype later in life. Male C57Bl/6j mice were fed a control formula (Control IMF) or Nuturis (Concept IMF) diet between postnatal day (PN)16 and PN42. All mice were subsequently fed a Western-style diet (WSD) until PN126. Body composition was monitored repeatedly by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry between PN42 and PN126. Concept IMF slightly increased lean body mass as compared with Control IMF at PN42 but did not affect fat mass. Upon 84 d of WSD feeding, the Concept IMF group showed reduced fat accumulation as compared with Control IMF. In addition, fasting plasma leptin, resistin, glucose, and lipids were significantly lower in the Concept IMF group. Large phospholipid-coated lipid droplets in young mice reduced fat accumulation and improved metabolic profile in adulthood. These data emphasize that physical properties of early dietary lipids contribute to metabolic programming.

  14. Swimming Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Corinna C.; Krüger, Carsten; Herminghaus, Stephan; Bahr, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Swimming droplets are artificial microswimmers based on liquid droplets that show self-propelled motion when immersed in a second liquid. These systems are of tremendous interest as experimental models for the study of collective dynamics far from thermal equilibrium. For biological systems, such as bacterial colonies, plankton, or fish swarms, swimming droplets can provide a vital link between simulations and real life. We review the experimental systems and discuss the mechanisms of self-propulsion. Most systems are based on surfactant-stabilized droplets, the surfactant layer of which is modified in a way that leads to a steady Marangoni stress resulting in an autonomous motion of the droplet. The modification of the surfactant layer is caused either by the advection of a chemical reactant or by a solubilization process. Some types of swimming droplets possess a very simple design and long active periods, rendering them promising model systems for future studies of collective behavior.

  15. Dancing Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2013-11-01

    Inspired by the observation of intricate and beautifully dynamic patterns generated by food coloring on corona treated glass slides, we have investigated the behavior of propylene glycol and water droplets on clean glass surfaces. These droplets exhibit a range of interesting behaviors including long distance attraction or repulsion, and chasing/fleeing upon contact. We present explanations for each of these behaviors, and propose a detailed model for the long distance interactions based on vapor facilitated coupling. Finally we use our understanding to create several novel devices which: passively sort droplets by surface tension, spontaneously align droplets, drive droplets in circles, and cause droplets to bounce on a vertical surface. The simplicity of this system lends it particularly well to application as a toy model for physical systems with force fields and biological systems such as chemotaxis and motility.

  16. The Chandrasekhar's Equation for Two-Dimensional Hypothetical White Dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    De, Sanchari

    2014-01-01

    In this article we have extended the original work of Chandrasekhar on the structure of white dwarfs to the two-dimensional case. Although such two-dimensional stellar objects are hypothetical in nature, we strongly believe that the work presented in this article may be prescribed as Master of Science level class problem for the students in physics.

  17. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2009-01-01

    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  18. Spatiotemporal surface solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2007-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal light localization in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices and demonstrate the existence of two-dimensional surface light bullets localized in the lattice corners or the edges. We study the families of the spatiotemporal surface solitons and their properties such as bistability and compare them with the modes located deep inside the photonic lattice.

  19. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine;

    2004-01-01

    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  20. Mechanics of Apparent Horizon in Two Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Rong-Gen

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we give a definition of apparent horizon in a two dimensional general dilaton gravity theory. With this definition, we construct the mechanics of the apparent horizon by introducing a quasi-local energy of the theory. Our discussion generalizes the apparent horizons mechanics in general spherically symmetric spactimes in four or higher dimensions to the two dimensional dilaton gravity case.

  1. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong

    2009-01-01

    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  2. Formation of melt droplets, melt fragments, and accretionary impact lapilli during a hypervelocity impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a model that describes the formation of melt droplets, melt fragments, and accretionary impact lapilli during a hypervelocity impact. Using the iSALE hydrocode, coupled to the ANEOS equation of state for silica, we create high-resolution two-dimensional impact models to track the motion of impact ejecta. We then estimate the size of the ejecta products using simple analytical expressions and information derived from our hydrocode models. Ultimately, our model makes predictions of how the size of the ejecta products depends on impactor size, impact velocity, and ejection velocity. In general, we find that larger impactor sizes result in larger ejecta products and higher ejection velocities result in smaller ejecta product sizes. We find that a 10 km diameter impactor striking at a velocity of 20 km/s creates millimeter scale melt droplets comparable to the melt droplets found in the Chicxulub ejecta curtain layer. Our model also predicts that melt droplets, melt fragments, and accretionary impact lapilli should be found together in well preserved ejecta curtain layers and that all three ejecta products can form even on airless bodies that lack significant volatile content. This prediction agrees with observations of ejecta from the Sudbury and Chicxulub impacts as well as the presence of accretionary impact lapilli in lunar breccia.

  3. Ionic solutions of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick L.; Cox, Kathleen M.; Bin Subhan, Mohammed K.; Picco, Loren; Payton, Oliver D.; Buckley, David J.; Miller, Thomas S.; Hodge, Stephen A.; Skipper, Neal T.; Tileli, Vasiliki; Howard, Christopher A.

    2016-11-01

    Strategies for forming liquid dispersions of nanomaterials typically focus on retarding reaggregation, for example via surface modification, as opposed to promoting the thermodynamically driven dissolution common for molecule-sized species. Here we demonstrate the true dissolution of a wide range of important 2D nanomaterials by forming layered material salts that spontaneously dissolve in polar solvents yielding ionic solutions. The benign dissolution advantageously maintains the morphology of the starting material, is stable against reaggregation and can achieve solutions containing exclusively individualized monolayers. Importantly, the charge on the anionic nanosheet solutes is reversible, enables targeted deposition over large areas via electroplating and can initiate novel self-assembly upon drying. Our findings thus reveal a unique solution-like behaviour for 2D materials that enables their scalable production and controlled manipulation.

  4. WAVE PROPAGATION IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISORDERED PIEZOELECTRIC PHONONIC CRYSTALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinqiang Li; Fengming Li; Yuesheng Wang; Kikuo Kishimoto

    2008-01-01

    The wave propagation is studied in two-dimensional disordered piezoelectric phononie crystals using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For different eases of disorder,the transmission coefficients are calculated. The influences of disorders on band gaps are investigated. The results show that the disorder in the piezoelectric phononic crystals has more significant influences on the band gap in the low frequency regions than in the high frequency ones. The relation between the width of band gap and the direction of position disorder is also discussed. When the position disorder is along the direction perpendicular to the wave transmission, the piezoelectric phononic crystals have wider band gaps at low frequency regions than the case of position disorder being along the wave transmission direction. It can also be found that the effect of. size disorder on band gaps is analogous to that of location disorder. When the perturbation coefficient is big, it has more pronounced effects on the pass bands in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with both size and location disorders than in the piezoelectric phononic crystals with single disorder.In higher frequency regions the piezoelectric effect reduces the transmission coefficients. But for larger disorder degree, the effects of the piezoelectricity will be reduced.

  5. On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.

  6. Stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhang; Dong, Baojuan; Guo, Huaihong; Yang, Teng; Zhu, Zhen; Hu, Gan; Saito, Riichiro; Zhang, Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    Based on ab initio density functional calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of two-dimensional indium iodide (InI). The calculated results show that monolayer and few-layer InI can be as stable as its bulk counterpart. The stability of the monolayer structure is further supported by examining the electronic and dynamic stability. The interlayer interaction is found to be fairly weak (˜160 meV/atom) and mechanical exfoliation to obtain monolayer and few-layer structures will be applicable. A direct band gap of 1.88 eV of the bulk structure is obtained from the hybrid functional method, and is comparable to the experimental one (˜2.00 eV). The electronic structure can be tuned by layer stacking and external strain. The size of the gap is a linear function of an inverse number of layers, suggesting that we can design few-layer structures for optoelectronic applications in the visible optical range. In-plane tensile or hydrostatic compressive stress is found to be useful not only in varying the gap size to cover the whole visible optical range, but also in inducing a semiconductor-metal transition with an experimentally accessible stress. The present result strongly supports the strategy of broadening the scope of group-V semiconductors by looking for isoelectronic III-VII atomic-layered materials.

  7. Invariant Subspaces of the Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop the symmetry-related methods to study invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear differential operators. The conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetry and Lie point symmetry methods are used to construct invariant subspaces of two-dimensional differential operators. We first apply the multiple conditional Lie–Bäcklund symmetries to derive invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional operators. As an application, the invariant subspaces for a class of two-dimensional nonlinear quadratic operators are provided. Furthermore, the invariant subspace method in one-dimensional space combined with the Lie symmetry reduction method and the change of variables is used to obtain invariant subspaces of the two-dimensional nonlinear operators.

  8. Droplets size measurement of upward sprinkling nozzle based on photography%基于摄影法的上喷式喷头水滴粒径测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟辉; 陈国华; 李运泉

    2015-01-01

    Sprinkling system plays an important role in many areas of industrial application, and the droplet size is the one of key parameter for analyzing sprinkling system. This study aimed to establish a method for droplet size measurement by upward sprinkling system. According to the industrial application, in the purpose of investigating upward sprinkling system, an experimental platform was created at the South China University of Technology in June of 2015. It consisted of water supply facilities, control valves, indicating instruments, sprinkling nozzle and camcorder devices. Based on the direct photography method, the DSLR camera Canon EOS 7D Mark II was used for photos collection, and the scaling between real sizes and image pixels was determined on the basis of optical propagation model. The image color histogram adjustment and regional segmentation were implemented by the Image Pro Plus software, and statistic data of droplets size were analyzed. What’s more, four basic dimension parameters including length, width, minimum radius, maximum radium and three dimensionless parameters including uniformity, roundness, and ellipticity were quantitated for the data filtration of out-of-focus droplets image based on the morphology. Results showed that a hair in diameter of 0.20 mm and a lead rod with diameter of 0.90 mm could be well identified respectively by the Canon EOS 7D Mark II from 3.5 m away, and the relative errors based on the present method were 4% and 0.6%, respectively. Moving droplets of upward sprinkling system could be imaged clearly. Based on morphological technique, four basic dimension parameters of length, width, minimum radius, and maximum radium were set as 3-20, 1-10, 5-40, and 3-15 pixel, respectively, and three dimensionless parameters of uniformity, roundness, and ellipticity were set as 0.1-0.2, 1-1.05, and 1-1.1, respectively. Then blurring and shadowy sports, which were invalid interference data, could be filtered by the Image Pro Plus

  9. Experimental and numerical study of spread and sorption of VX sessile droplets into medium grain-size sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Terrence G; Navaz, Homayun K; Markicevic, Bojan; Mantooth, Brent A; Sumpter, Kenneth B

    2010-03-02

    The experimental measurement and modeling of liquid chemical agent spread and sorption on a porous substrate are described. Experimental results with the nerve agent O-ethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothiolate (VX) demonstrate that the wetted imprint volume increases, even after the sessile drop volume is exhausted. This indicates the wetted imprint is only partially saturated, and a multiphase flow problem formulation is needed to predict the VX fate in porous substrates. Three characteristics and their changes in time: (i) sessile volume remaining, (ii) wetted imprint area on the sand surface where the droplet is deposited, and (iii) VX penetration depth into sand, are computed numerically and compared to experimentally measured values. A very good qualitative and quantitative agreement was found between the numerical and experimental results. These numerical and experimental methods can be used to determine the spread and sorption of hazardous materials into a variety of substrates.

  10. Black Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    Black droplets and black funnels are gravitational duals to states of a large N, strongly coupled CFT on a fixed black hole background. We numerically construct black droplets corresponding to a CFT on a Schwarzchild background with finite asymptotic temperature. We find two branches of such droplet solutions which meet at a turning point. Our results suggest that the equilibrium black droplet solution does not exist, which would imply that the Hartle-Hawking state in this system is dual to the black funnel constructed in \\cite{Santos:2012he}. We also compute the holographic stress energy tensor and match its asymptotic behaviour to perturbation theory.

  11. Rapidly pulsed helium droplet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentlehner, Dominik; Riechers, Ricarda; Dick, Bernhard; Slenczka, Alkwin [Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Even, Uzi; Lavie, Nachum; Brown, Raviv; Luria, Kfir [Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Chemistry, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    A pulsed valve connected to a closed-cycle cryostat was optimized for producing helium droplets. The pulsed droplet beam appeared with a bimodal size distribution. The leading part of the pulse consists of droplets suitable for doping with molecules. The average size of this part can be varied between 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} helium atoms, and the width of the distribution is smaller as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source. The system has been tested in a single pulse mode and at repetition rates of up to 500 Hz with almost constant intensity. The droplet density was found to be increased by more than an order of magnitude as compared to a continuous-flow droplet source.

  12. Lattice gas dynamics: application to driven vortices in two dimensional superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotcheva, Violeta; Wang, Albert T J; Teitel, S

    2004-06-18

    A continuous time Monte Carlo lattice gas dynamics is developed to model driven steady states of vortices in two dimensional superconducting networks. Dramatic differences are found when compared to a simpler Metropolis dynamics. Subtle finite size effects are found at low temperature, with a moving smectic that becomes unstable to an anisotropic liquid on sufficiently large length scales.

  13. Characterization of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) using comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiderer, A.; Steeneken, L.; Aalbers, T.; Vivó-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Various hydroxyl-propylmethylcellulose (HPMC) polymers were characterized according to size and compositional distributions (percentage of methoxyl and hydroxyl-propoxyl substitution) by means of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) using reversed-phase (RP) liquid chromatog

  14. Free energy and structure of dislocation cores in two-dimensional crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bladon, P.B.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of the melting transition in two dimensions is critically dependent on the core energy of dislocations. In this paper, we report calculations of the core free energy and the core size of dislocations in two-dimensional solids of systems interacting via square well, hard disk, and r-12

  15. Mapping of 34 minisatellite loci resolved by two-dimensional DNA typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Nyegaard, Mette; Kvistgaard, AB

    1997-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing is based on electrophoretic separation of genomic DNA fragments in two dimensions according to independent criteria (size and base-pair sequence), followed by hybridization analysis using multilocus probes. The technique allows simultaneous visualization of severa...

  16. An Efficient N-3-Scaling Propagation Scheme for Simulating Two-Dimensional Infrared and Visible Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Chungwen; Jansen, Thomas L. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop and test a new approximate propagation scheme for calculating two-dimensional infrared and visible spectra. The new scheme scales one order more efficiently with the system size than the existing schemes. A Trotter type of approximation is used for the matrix exponent that

  17. Signatures of beta-sheet secondary structures in linear and two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheatum, CM; Tokmakoff, A; Knoester, J

    2004-01-01

    Using idealized models for parallel and antiparallel beta sheets, we calculate the linear and two-dimensional infrared spectra of the amide I vibration as a function of size and secondary structure. The model assumes transition-dipole coupling between the amide I oscillators in the sheet and account

  18. Two-dimensional discrete gap breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Quan; QIANG Tian

    2009-01-01

    We study the existence and stability of two-dimensional discrete breathers in a two-dimensional discrete diatomic Klein-Gordon lattice consisting of alternating light and heavy atoms, with nearest-neighbor harmonic coupling.Localized solutions to the corresponding nonlinear differential equations with frequencies inside the gap of the linear wave spectrum, i.e. two-dimensional gap breathers, are investigated numerically. The numerical results of the corresponding algebraic equations demonstrate the possibility of the existence of two-dimensional gap breathers with three types of symmetries, i.e., symmetric, twin-antisymmetric and single-antisymmetric. Their stability depends on the nonlinear on-site potential (soft or hard), the interaction potential (attractive or repulsive)and the center of the two-dimensional gap breather (on a light or a heavy atom).

  19. Small droplets on superhydrophobic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Varnik, Fathollah; Raabe, Dierk; Steinbach, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the wetting behavior of liquid droplets on rough hydrophobic substrates for the case of droplets that are of comparable size to the surface asperities. Using a simple three-dimensional analytical free-energy model, we have shown in a recent letter [M. Gross, F. Varnik, and D. Raabe, EPL 88, 26002 (2009)] that, in addition to the well-known Cassie-Baxter and Wenzel states, there exists a further metastable wetting state where the droplet is immersed into the texture to a finite depth, yet not touching the bottom of the substrate. Due to this new state, a quasistatically evaporating droplet can be saved from going over to the Wenzel state and instead remains close to the top of the surface. In the present paper, we give an in-depth account of the droplet behavior based on the results of extensive computer simulations and an improved theoretical model. In particular, we show that releasing the assumption that the droplet is pinned at the outer edges of the pillars improves the analytical results for larger droplets. Interestingly, all qualitative aspects, such as the existence of an intermediate minimum and the "reentrant transition," remain unchanged. We also give a detailed description of the evaporation process for droplets of varying sizes. Our results point out the role of droplet size for superhydrophobicity and give hints for achieving the desired wetting properties of technically produced materials.

  20. Dancing Droplets

    CERN Document Server

    Cira, Nate J

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the observation of intricate and beautifully dynamic patterns generated by food coloring on clean glass slides, we have investigated the behavior of propylene glycol and water droplets on high energy surfaces. In this fluid dynamics video we show a range of interesting behaviors including long distance attraction, and chasing/fleeing upon contact. We present explanations for each of these behaviors including a mechanism for the long distance interactions based on vapor facilitated coupling. Finally we use our understanding to create several novel devices which: spontaneously align droplets, drive droplets in circles, cause droplets to bounce on a vertical surface, and passively sort droplets by surface tension. The simplicity of this system lends it particularly well to application as a toy model for physical systems with force fields and biological systems such as chemotaxis and motility.

  1. Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2 -2 0 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway C oa st al a n d H yd ra u lic s La b or at...distribution is unlimited. ERDC/CHL TR-12-20 September 2012 Two Dimensional Hydrodynamic Analysis of the Moose Creek Floodway Stephen H. Scott, Jeremy A...A two-dimensional Adaptive Hydraulics (AdH) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the Moose Creek Floodway. The Floodway is located

  2. RESEARCH ON TWO-DIMENSIONAL LDA FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Ke; Zhu Xiuchang

    2006-01-01

    The letter presents an improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method for feature extraction. Compared with the current two-dimensional methods for feature extraction, the improved two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis method makes full use of not only the row and the column direction information of face images but also the discriminant information among different classes. The method is evaluated using the Nanjing University of Science and Technology (NUST) 603 face database and the Aleix Martinez and Robert Benavente (AR) face database. Experimental results show that the method in the letter is feasible and effective.

  3. ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  4. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  5. Two Dimensional Heat Transfer around Penetrations in Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wesley L.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Jumper, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this task was to quantify thermal losses involving integrating MLI into real life situations. Testing specifically focused on the effects of penetrations (including structural attachments, electrical conduit/feedthroughs, and fluid lines) through MLI. While there have been attempts at quantifying these losses both analytically and experimentally, none have included a thorough investigation of the methods and materials that could be used in such applications. To attempt to quantify the excess heat load coming into the system due to the integration losses, a calorimeter was designed to study two dimensional heat transfer through penetrated MLI. The test matrix was designed to take as many variables into account as was possible with the limited test duration and system size. The parameters varied were the attachment mechanism, the buffer material (for buffer attachment mechanisms only), the thickness of the buffer, and the penetration material. The work done under this task is an attempt to measure the parasitic heat loads and affected insulation areas produced by system integration, to model the parasitic loads, and from the model produce engineering equations to allow for the determination of parasitic heat loads in future applications. The methods of integration investigated were no integration, using a buffer to thermally isolate the strut from the MLI, and temperature matching the MLI on the strut. Several materials were investigated as a buffer material including aerogel blankets, aerogel bead packages, cryolite, and even an evacuated vacuum space (in essence a no buffer condition).

  6. Two-dimensional screening of the Wageningen chicken BAC library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooijmans, R P; Vrebalov, J; Dijkhof, R J; van der Poel, J J; Groenen, M A

    2000-05-01

    We have constructed a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library that provides 5.5-fold redundant coverage of the chicken genome. The library was made by cloning partial HindIII-digested high-molecular-weight (HMW) DNA of a female White Leghorn chicken into the HindIII site of the vector pECBAC1. Several modifications of standard protocols were necessary to clone efficiently large partial HindIII DNA fragments. The library consists of 49,920 clones arranged in 130 384-well plates. An average insert size of 134 kb was estimated from the analysis of 152 randomly selected BAC clones. The average number of NotI restriction sites per clone was 0.77. After individual growth, DNA was isolated of the pooled clones of each 384-well plate, and subsequently DNA of each plate was isolated from the individual row and column pools. Screening of the Wageningen chicken BAC library was performed by two-dimensional PCR with 125 microsatellite markers. For 124 markers at least one BAC clone was obtained. FISH experiments of 108 BAC clones revealed chimerism in less than 1%. The number of different BAC clones per marker present in the BAC library was examined for 35 markers which resulted in a total of 167 different BAC clones. Per marker the number of BAC clones varied from 1 to 11, with an average of 4.77. The chicken BAC library constitutes an invaluable tool for positional cloning and for comparative mapping studies.

  7. Two dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding in face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meng; Jiang, Jifeng; Lin, Chuang; Wang, Binghui

    2015-03-01

    One of the key issues of face recognition is to extract the features of face images. In this paper, we propose a novel method, named two-dimensional discriminant neighborhood preserving embedding (2DDNPE), for image feature extraction and face recognition. 2DDNPE benefits from four techniques, i.e., neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE), locality preserving projection (LPP), image based projection and Fisher criterion. Firstly, NPE and LPP are two popular manifold learning techniques which can optimally preserve the local geometry structures of the original samples from different angles. Secondly, image based projection enables us to directly extract the optimal projection vectors from twodimensional image matrices rather than vectors, which avoids the small sample size problem as well as reserves useful structural information embedded in the original images. Finally, the Fisher criterion applied in 2DDNPE can boost face recognition rates by minimizing the within-class distance, while maximizing the between-class distance. To evaluate the performance of 2DDNPE, several experiments are conducted on the ORL and Yale face datasets. The results corroborate that 2DDNPE outperforms the existing 1D feature extraction methods, such as NPE, LPP, LDA and PCA across all experiments with respect to recognition rate and training time. 2DDNPE also delivers consistently promising results compared with other competing 2D methods such as 2DNPP, 2DLPP, 2DLDA and 2DPCA.

  8. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  9. Direct-referencing Two-dimensional-array Digital Microfluidics Using Multi-layer Printed Circuit Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

    2008-01-01

    Digital (i.e. droplet-based) microfluidics, by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) mechanism, has shown great potential for a wide range of applications, such as lab-on-a-chip. While most reported EWOD chips use a series of electrode pads essentially in one-dimensional line pattern designed for specific tasks, the desired universal chips allowing user-reconfigurable paths would require the electrode pads in two-dimensional pattern. However, to electrically access the electrode pads independently, conductive lines need to be fabricated underneath the pads in multiple layers, raising a cost issue especially for disposable chip applications. In this article, we report the building of digital microfluidic plates based on a printed-circuit-board (PCB), in which multilayer electrical access lines were created inexpensively using mature PCB technology. However, due to its surface topography and roughness and resulting high resistance against droplet movement, as-fabricated PCB surfaces require unacceptably high (~500 V) voltages unless coated with or immersed in oil. Our goal is EWOD operations of aqueous droplets not only on oil-covered but also on dry surfaces. To meet varying levels of performances, three types of gradually complex post-PCB microfabrication processes are developed and evaluated. By introducing land-grid-array (LGA) sockets in the packaging, a scalable digital microfluidics system with reconfigurable and low-cost chip is also demonstrated. PMID:19234613

  10. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavroula Foteinopoulou

    2003-12-12

    In this dissertation, they have undertaken the challenge to understand the unusual propagation properties of the photonic crystal (PC). The photonic crystal is a medium where the dielectric function is periodically modulated. These types of structures are characterized by bands and gaps. In other words, they are characterized by frequency regions where propagation is prohibited (gaps) and regions where propagation is allowed (bands). In this study they focus on two-dimensional photonic crystals, i.e., structures with periodic dielectric patterns on a plane and translational symmetry in the perpendicular direction. They start by studying a two-dimensional photonic crystal system for frequencies inside the band gap. The inclusion of a line defect introduces allowed states in the otherwise prohibited frequency spectrum. The dependence of the defect resonance state on different parameters such as size of the structure, profile of incoming source, etc., is investigated in detail. For this study, they used two popular computational methods in photonic crystal research, the Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) and the Transfer Matrix Method (TMM). The results for the one-dimensional defect system are analyzed, and the two methods, FDTD and TMM, are compared. Then, they shift their attention only to periodic two-dimensional crystals, concentrate on their band properties, and study their unusual refractive behavior. Anomalous refractive phenomena in photonic crystals included cases where the beam refracts on the ''wrong'' side of the surface normal. The latter phenomenon, is known as negative refraction and was previously observed in materials where the wave vector, the electric field, and the magnetic field form a left-handed set of vectors. These materials are generally called left-handed materials (LHM) or negative index materials (NIM). They investigated the possibility that the photonic crystal behaves as a LHM, and how this behavior relates

  11. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  12. UPWIND DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHODS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL NEUTRON TRANSPORT EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁光伟; 沈智军; 闫伟

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the upwind discontinuous Galerkin methods with triangle meshes for two dimensional neutron transport equations will be studied.The stability for both of the semi-discrete and full-discrete method will be proved.

  13. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  14. Entanglement Entropy for time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Mazhari, N S; Myrzakulov, Kairat; Myrzakulov, R

    2016-01-01

    We studied entanglement entropy for a time dependent two dimensional holographic superconductor. We showed that the conserved charge of the system plays the role of the critical parameter to have condensation.

  15. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  16. Quantization of Two-Dimensional Gravity with Dynamical Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    1999-01-01

    We consider two-dimensional gravity with dynamical torsion in the Batalin - Vilkovisky and Batalin - Lavrov - Tyutin formalisms of gauge theories quantization as well as in the background field method.

  17. Spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Lederer, Falk; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-11-01

    We analyze spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in two-dimensional photonic lattices in the presence of gain and loss. In the framework of the continuous-discrete cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau model, we demonstrate the existence of novel classes of two-dimensional spatiotemporal dissipative lattice solitons, which also include surface solitons located in the corners or at the edges of the truncated two-dimensional photonic lattice. We find the domains of existence and stability of such spatiotemporal dissipative solitons in the relevant parameter space, for both on-site and intersite lattice solitons. We show that the on-site solitons are stable in the whole domain of their existence, whereas most of the intersite solitons are unstable. We describe the scenarios of the instability-induced dynamics of dissipative solitons in two-dimensional lattices.

  18. Bound states of two-dimensional relativistic harmonic oscillators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wen-Chao

    2004-01-01

    We give the exact normalized bound state wavefunctions and energy expressions of the Klein-Gordon and Dirac equations with equal scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials in the two-dimensional space.

  19. A two-dimensional polymer prepared by organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Patrick; Erni, Rolf; Schweizer, W Bernd; Rossell, Marta D; King, Benjamin T; Bauer, Thomas; Götzinger, Stephan; Schlüter, A Dieter; Sakamoto, Junji

    2012-02-05

    Synthetic polymers are widely used materials, as attested by a production of more than 200 millions of tons per year, and are typically composed of linear repeat units. They may also be branched or irregularly crosslinked. Here, we introduce a two-dimensional polymer with internal periodicity composed of areal repeat units. This is an extension of Staudinger's polymerization concept (to form macromolecules by covalently linking repeat units together), but in two dimensions. A well-known example of such a two-dimensional polymer is graphene, but its thermolytic synthesis precludes molecular design on demand. Here, we have rationally synthesized an ordered, non-equilibrium two-dimensional polymer far beyond molecular dimensions. The procedure includes the crystallization of a specifically designed photoreactive monomer into a layered structure, a photo-polymerization step within the crystal and a solvent-induced delamination step that isolates individual two-dimensional polymers as free-standing, monolayered molecular sheets.

  20. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra

    2003-10-01

    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  1. OCS in He droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebenev, V.

    2000-06-01

    Phenomenon of superfluidity of para-hydrogen (pH{sub 2}){sub 1-17} and helium {sup 4}He{sub 1-7000} systems doped with an OCS chromophore molecule was investigated in this work. The study of such systems became possible after the development of the depletion spectroscopy technique in helium droplets. The droplets can be easily created and doped with up to 100 particles such as OCS, para-hydrogen or ortho-hydrogen molecules and {sup 4}He atoms. The measured infrared depletion spectra give the information about the temperature of the droplets and their aggregate state. The depletion spectrum of OCS in pure {sup 4}He droplets was comprehensively studied. The rovibrational OCS spectrum shows well resolved narrow lines. The spectrum is shifted to the red relative to the corresponding gas phase spectrum and the rotational constant of OCS in {sup 4}He droplet is three times smaller than that for free molecule. Different models of OCS rotation in the helium environment were discussed. It was shown that the shapes of the rovibrational lines are defined mainly by inhomogeneous broadening due to the droplet size distribution. The sub-rotational structure of the OCS rovibrational lines was revealed in microwave-infrared double resonance experiments. This structure arises due to the interaction of the OCS with the He environment. However, the information obtained in the experiments was not enough to understand the nature of this interaction. (orig.)

  2. Extreme paths in oriented two-dimensional percolation

    OpenAIRE

    Andjel, E. D.; Gray, L. F.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A useful result about leftmost and rightmost paths in two dimensional bond percolation is proved. This result was introduced without proof in \\cite{G} in the context of the contact process in continuous time. As discussed here, it also holds for several related models, including the discrete time contact process and two dimensional site percolation. Among the consequences are a natural monotonicity in the probability of percolation between different sites and a somewha...

  3. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. Two-Dimensional Weak Pseudomanifolds on Eight Vertices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Basudeb Datta; Nandini Nilakantan

    2002-05-01

    We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there are exactly three 8-vertex two-dimensional orientable pseudomanifolds which allow degree three maps to the 4-vertex 2-sphere.

  5. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  6. Droplets Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Dahan, Raphael; Carmon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to their capillary resonances (Rayleigh, 1879) and their optical resonances (Ashkin, 1977), droplets acoustical resonances were rarely considered. Here we experimentally excite, for the first time, the acoustical resonances of a droplet that relies on sound instead of capillary waves. Droplets vibrations at 37 MHz rates and 100 quality factor are optically excited and interrogated at an optical threshold of 68 microWatt. Our vibrations span a spectral band that is 1000 times higher when compared with drops previously-studied capillary vibration.

  7. Produção e utilização de gotas com diâmetro uniforme The generation and use of uniformly sized droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Geraldo Corrêa

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available A execução da pesquisa com freqüência requer o desenvolvimento de aparelhagem específica. Para estudo dos parâmetros das populações de gotas produzidas por pulverizadores é necessário conhecer o fator de espalhamento de diversas formulações sobre superfícies de amostragem (papel kromekote, melamina (fórmica, vidro etc.. Essa determinação requer aparelhagem geradora de gotas com diâmetro uniforme. Com este objetivo principal, realizou-se o presente trabalho. Além de sua utilização para investigar o comportamento físico da pulverização, o aparelho poderá ter outras aplicações no campo da biologia, como a distribuição uniforme de esporos em dose determinada sobre superfícies vegetais, permitindo, também, observações sobre o efeito tóxico de determinadas doses de defensivos sobre vegetais e animais. O aparelho produziu gotas com diâmetro que, em média, apresentaram coeficiente de variação de 2,36%. o fator de espalhamento para solução aquosa de rodamina a 0,2% sobre papel kromekote apresentou a variação de 1,32 a 1,71 quando se usaram, respectivamente, gotas entre 98 e 325 micra. Para Malathion a 96% de principio ativo, sobre papel kromekote, as gotículas apresentaram fatores de espalhamento variando de 4,09 a 5,18 quando se utilizaram gotas entre 80 e 217 micra. A melamina branca (fórmica apresentou menores variações nesse fator quando lhe foi aplicado o Malathion.This paper deals with the construction and use of a spinning disc atomizer that produces uniformly sized droplets. The device has a special use in the determination of the spread factor on several sampling surfaces (Kromekote paper, glass, plastic etc.. Furthermore, it permits the study of spraying performance, the inoculation of known spore doses of fungi and observations about toxical effects of pesticides on vegetables and animals. The apparatus showed a narrow droplet size spectrum, with a coefficient of variation about 2.36%. The spread

  8. Energy Spectra of Vortex Distributions in Two-Dimensional Quantum Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton S. Bradley

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically explore key concepts of two-dimensional turbulence in a homogeneous compressible superfluid described by a dissipative two-dimensional Gross-Pitaeveskii equation. Such a fluid supports quantized vortices that have a size characterized by the healing length ξ. We show that, for the divergence-free portion of the superfluid velocity field, the kinetic-energy spectrum over wave number k may be decomposed into an ultraviolet regime (k≫ξ^{-1} having a universal k^{-3} scaling arising from the vortex core structure, and an infrared regime (k≪ξ^{-1} with a spectrum that arises purely from the configuration of the vortices. The Novikov power-law distribution of intervortex distances with exponent -1/3 for vortices of the same sign of circulation leads to an infrared kinetic-energy spectrum with a Kolmogorov k^{-5/3} power law, which is consistent with the existence of an inertial range. The presence of these k^{-3} and k^{-5/3} power laws, together with the constraint of continuity at the smallest configurational scale k≈ξ^{-1}, allows us to derive a new analytical expression for the Kolmogorov constant that we test against a numerical simulation of a forced homogeneous, compressible, two-dimensional superfluid. The numerical simulation corroborates our analysis of the spectral features of the kinetic-energy distribution, once we introduce the concept of a clustered fraction consisting of the fraction of vortices that have the same sign of circulation as their nearest neighboring vortices. Our analysis presents a new approach to understanding two-dimensional quantum turbulence and interpreting similarities and differences with classical two-dimensional turbulence, and suggests new methods to characterize vortex turbulence in two-dimensional quantum fluids via vortex position and circulation measurements.

  9. Effects of conidial densities and spray volume of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana fungal suspensions on conidial viability, droplet size and deposition coverage in bioassay using a novel bioassay spray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to study the conidial viability during bioassay spray with different suspensions of Metarhizium anisopliae ATCC 62176 and Beauveria bassiana NI8, and to investigate the effects of conidial density and spray volume on the distribution of droplet size and deposit coverage us...

  10. Two-dimensional DNA displays for comparisons of bacterial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloff Chad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed two whole genome-scanning techniques to aid in the discovery of polymorphisms as well as horizontally acquired genes in prokaryotic organisms. First, two-dimensional bacterial genomic display (2DBGD was developed using restriction enzyme fragmentation to separate genomic DNA based on size, and then employing denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE in the second dimension to exploit differences in sequence composition. This technique was used to generate high-resolution displays that enable the direct comparison of > 800 genomic fragments simultaneously and can be adapted for the high-throughput comparison of bacterial genomes. 2DBGDs are capable of detecting acquired and altered DNA, however, only in very closely related strains. If used to compare more distantly related strains (e.g. different species within a genus numerous small changes (i.e. small deletions and point mutations unrelated to the interesting phenotype, would encumber the comparison of 2DBGDs. For this reason a second method, bacterial comparative genomic hybridization (BCGH, was developed to directly compare bacterial genomes to identify gain or loss of genomic DNA. BCGH relies on performing 2DBGD on a pooled sample of genomic DNA from 2 strains to be compared and subsequently hybridizing the resulting 2DBGD blot separately with DNA from each individual strain. Unique spots (hybridization signals represent foreign DNA. The identification of novel DNA is easily achieved by excising the DNA from a dried gel followed by subsequent cloning and sequencing. 2DBGD and BCGH thus represent novel high resolution genome scanning techniques for directly identifying altered and/or acquired DNA.

  11. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  12. Nonstationarity of a two-dimensional perpendicular shock: Competing mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembège, Bertrand; Savoini, Philippe; Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.

    2009-03-01

    Two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used for analyzing in detail different nonstationary behaviors of a perpendicular supercritical shock. A recent study by Hellinger et al. (2007) has shown that the front of a supercritical shock can be dominated by the emission of large-amplitude whistler waves. These waves inhibit the self-reformation driven by the reflected ions; then, the shock front appears almost ``quasi-stationary.'' The present study stresses new complementary results. First, for a fixed β i value, the whistler waves emission (WWE) persists for high M A above a critical Mach number (i.e., M A >= M A WWE). The quasi-stationarity is only apparent and disappears when considering the full 3-D field profiles. Second, for lower M A , the self-reformation is retrieved and becomes dominant as the amplitude of the whistler waves becomes negligible. Third, there exists a transition regime in M A within which both processes compete each other. Fourth, these results are observed for a strictly perpendicular shock only as B 0 is within the simulation plane. When B 0 is out of the simulation plane, no whistler waves emission is evidenced and only self-reformation is recovered. Fifth, the occurrence and disappearance of the nonlinear whistler waves are well recovered in both 2-D PIC and 2-D hybrid simulations. The impacts on the results of the mass ratio (2-D PIC simulations), of the resistivity and spatial resolution (2-D hybrid simulations), and of the size of the simulation box along the shock front are analyzed in detail.

  13. Two-dimensional graphene as a matrix for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L; Schultz, Brian J; Destino, Joel F; Alivio, Theodore E G; Steet, Joseph R; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  14. Two-Dimensional Graphene as a Matrix for MALDI Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, William L.; Schultz, Brian J.; Destino, Joel F.; Alivio, Theodore E. G.; Steet, Joseph R.; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Wood, Troy D.

    2015-11-01

    Here, a matrix using two-dimensional (2D) graphene is demonstrated for the first time in the context of MALDI IMS using a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. Although graphene flakes have been used previously in MALDI, it is described here how a single 2D layer of graphene is applied directly on top of rat brain sections and soybean leaves. Several classes of molecules are desorbed and ionized off of the surface of the tissues examined using 2D graphene, with minimal background interference from the matrix. Moreover, no solvents are employed in application of 2D graphene, eliminating the potential for analyte diffusion in liquid droplets during matrix application. Because 2D graphene is an elemental form of carbon, an additional advantage is its high compatibility with the long duration needed for many IMS experiments.

  15. Tracking dynamics of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an analytically solvable model of two-dimensional continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs). The synaptic input and the neuronal response form Gaussian bumps in the absence of external stimuli, and enable the network to track external stimuli by its translational displacement in the two-dimensional space. Basis functions of the two-dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator in polar coordinates are introduced to describe the distortion modes of the Gaussian bump. The perturbative method is applied to analyze its dynamics. Testing the method by considering the network behavior when the external stimulus abruptly changes its position, we obtain results of the reaction time and the amplitudes of various distortion modes, with excellent agreement with simulation results.

  16. Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.

  17. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  18. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  19. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  20. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  1. Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue

    2012-12-01

    Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.

  2. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

  3. Fluoropolymer surface coatings to control droplets in microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, Carson T; Zhang, Chuchu; Gupta, Malancha; Malmstadt, Noah

    2014-06-07

    We have demonstrated the application of low surface energy fluoropolymer coatings onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices for droplet formation and extraction-induced merger of droplets. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was used to pattern fluoropolymer coatings within microchannels based on geometrical constraints. In a two-phase flow system, the range of accessible flow rates for droplet formation was greatly enhanced in the coated devices. The ability to controllably apply the coating only at the inlet facilitated a method for merging droplets. An organic spacer droplet was extracted from between a pair of aqueous droplets. The size of the organic droplet and the flow rate controlled the time to merge the aqueous droplets; the process of merging was independent of the droplet sizes. Extraction-induced droplet merging is a robust method for manipulating droplets that could be applied in translating multi-step reactions to microfluidic platforms.

  4. A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus

    1989-09-01

    manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.

  5. Two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchihashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in two-dimensional superconductors with atomic-scale thickness is reviewed mainly from the experimental point of view. The superconducting systems treated here involve a variety of materials and forms: elemental metal ultrathin films and atomic layers on semiconductor surfaces; interfaces and superlattices of heterostructures made of cuprates, perovskite oxides, and rare-earth metal heavy-fermion compounds; interfaces of electric-double-layer transistors; graphene and atomic sheets of transition metal dichalcogenide; iron selenide and organic conductors on oxide and metal surfaces, respectively. Unique phenomena arising from the ultimate two dimensionality of the system and the physics behind them are discussed.

  6. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  7. Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.

  8. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.

    1976-01-01

    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  9. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1995-01-01

    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  10. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    the two-dimensional mortality surface. Furthermore we look at aggregated synthetic population metrics as 'population life expectancy' and 'population survival probability'. For Danish women these metrics indicate decreasing mortality with respect to chronological time. The metrics can not directly be used......We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  11. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating couplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsboom, P.-P.; Frankena, H. J.

    1995-05-01

    A different technique was developed by which several two-dimensional dielectric optical gratings, consisting 100 or more corrugations, were treated in a numerical reliable approach. The numerical examples that were presented were restricted to gratings made up of sequences of waveguide sections symmetric about the x = 0 plane. The newly developed method was effectively used to investigate the field produced by a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. Focal-region fields were determined for three symmetrical gratings with 19, 50, and 124 corrugations. For focusing grating coupler with limited length, high-frequency intensity variations were noted in the focal region.

  12. Self-assembly of two-dimensional DNA crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Cheng; CHEN Yaqing; WEI Shuai; YOU Xiaozeng; XIAO Shoujun

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides into two-dimensional lattices presents a 'bottom-up' approach to the fabrication of devices on nanometer scale. We report the design and observation of two-dimensional crystalline forms of DNAs that are composed of twenty-one plane oligonucleotides and one phosphate-modified oligonucleotide. These synthetic sequences are designed to self-assemble into four double-crossover (DX) DNA tiles. The 'sticky ends' of these tiles that associate according to Watson-Crick's base pairing are programmed to build up specific periodic patterns upto tens of microns. The patterned crystals are visualized by the transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 a(c) ...The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...

  14. Two-dimensional assignment with merged measurements using Langrangrian relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, Mark; Maskell, Simon; Philpott, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Closely spaced targets can result in merged measurements, which complicate data association. Such merged measurements violate any assumption that each measurement relates to a single target. As a result, it is not possible to use the auction algorithm in its simplest form (or other two-dimensional assignment algorithms) to solve the two-dimensional target-to-measurement assignment problem. We propose an approach that uses the auction algorithm together with Lagrangian relaxation to incorporate the additional constraints resulting from the presence of merged measurements. We conclude with some simulated results displaying the concepts introduced, and discuss the application of this research within a particle filter context.

  15. Two-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffenberger, Werner; Hanslmeier, Arnold

    2002-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann model for the simulation of two-dimensional magnetohydro dynamic (MHD) flows. The model is an extension of a hydrodynamic lattice Boltzman model with 9 velocities on a square lattice resulting in a model with 17 velocities. Earlier lattice Boltzmann models for two-dimensional MHD used a bidirectional streaming rule. However, the use of such a bidirectional streaming rule is not necessary. In our model, the standard streaming rule is used, allowing smaller viscosities. To control the viscosity and the resistivity independently, a matrix collision operator is used. The model is then applied to the Hartmann flow, giving reasonable results.

  16. Quasinormal frequencies of asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Ortega, A

    2011-01-01

    We discuss whether the minimally coupled massless Klein-Gordon and Dirac fields have well defined quasinormal modes in single horizon, asymptotically flat two-dimensional black holes. To get the result we solve the equations of motion in the massless limit and we also calculate the effective potentials of Schrodinger type equations. Furthermore we calculate exactly the quasinormal frequencies of the Dirac field propagating in the two-dimensional uncharged Witten black hole. We compare our results on its quasinormal frequencies with other already published.

  17. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  18. Laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanjun; Zhu, Chongyue; Wang, Mingjun; Gong, Lei

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with the laser bistatic two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation of lambert cone. Two-dimensional imaging is called as planar imaging. It can reflect the shape of the target and material properties. Two-dimensional imaging has important significance for target recognition. The expression of bistatic laser scattering intensity of lambert cone is obtained based on laser radar eauqtion. The scattering intensity of a micro-element on the target could be obtained. The intensity is related to local angle of incidence, local angle of scattering and the infinitesimal area on the cone. According to the incident direction of laser, scattering direction and normal of infinitesimal area, the local incidence angle and scattering angle can be calculated. Through surface integration and the introduction of the rectangular function, we can get the intensity of imaging unit on the imaging surface, and then get Lambert cone bistatic laser two-dimensional scattering imaging simulation model. We analyze the effect of distinguishability, incident direction, observed direction and target size on the imaging. From the results, we can see that the scattering imaging simulation results of the lambert cone bistatic laser is correct.

  19. Two dimensional soft material: new faces of graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaemyung; Cote, Laura J; Huang, Jiaxing

    2012-08-21

    Graphite oxide sheets, now called graphene oxide (GO), can be made from chemical exfoliation of graphite by reactions that have been known for 150 years. Because GO is a promising solution-processable precursor for the bulk production of graphene, interest in this old material has resurged. The reactions to produce GO add oxygenated functional groups to the graphene sheets on their basal plane and edges, and this derivatization breaks the π-conjugated network, resulting in electrically insulating but highly water-dispersible sheets. Apart from making graphene, GO itself has many intriguing properties. Like graphene, GO is a two-dimensional (2D) sheet with feature sizes at two abruptly different length scales. The apparent thickness of the functionalized carbon sheet is approximately 1 nm, but the lateral dimensions can range from a few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers. Therefore, researchers can think of GO as either a single molecule or a particle, depending on which length scale is of greater interest. At the same time, GO can be viewed as an unconventional soft material, such as a 2D polymer, highly anisotropic colloid, membrane, liquid crystal, or amphiphile. In this Account, we highlight the soft material characteristics of GO. GO consists of nanographitic patches surrounded by largely disordered, oxygenated domains. Such structural characteristics effectively make GO a 2D amphiphile with a hydrophilic periphery and largely hydrophobic center. This insight has led to better understanding of the solution properties of GO for making thin films and new applications of GO as a surfactant. Changes in pH and sheet size can tune the amphiphilicity of GO, leading to intriguing interfacial activities. In addition, new all-carbon composites made of only graphitic nanostructures using GO as a dispersing agent have potential applications in photovoltaics and energy storage. On the other hand, GO can function as a 2D random diblock copolymer, one block graphitic and

  20. Significance of droplet-droplet interactions in droplet streams: Atmospheric to supercritical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Corinne Shirley

    In an effort to optimize liquid fuel combustion a considerable amount of research has been directed towards the atomization of large liquid masses into small droplets to increase the surface area available for vaporization. The current work uses a single linear array of moving droplets of uniform size and spacing to investigate the behavior of interacting droplets. A series of experiments, over a range of ambient conditions, demonstrate how a lead droplet alters the environment experienced by its trailing neighbor. This behavior is of particular interest for droplet groups under high pressure and temperature, where experimental data has been limited. Gas phase velocity and vapor concentration measurements show that as the space between adjacent droplets decreases entrainment of fluid towards the axis of motion is reduced. Trapped gases create a gaseous cylinder, composed of ambient gas and fuel vapor, which surrounds and moves with the droplet stream. As ambient pressure increase, the oscillatory behavior of the lead droplet wake begins to interfere with its trailing neighbor. Loss of stream stability and enhanced droplet stripping in part result from these oscillating wakes. However, acceleration of droplet stripping is mainly produced by liquid and gas density similarity, which increases the centrifugal stress and the growth rate of capillary waves. Further, injection of subcritical droplets into an ambient environment at temperatures and pressures above the liquid droplet critical point shows behavior not greatly different from the results obtained at high ambient pressures. The similarity results from thermal heatup times exceeding the breakup times generated from the severe aerodynamics encountered at high ambient density and high liquid-gas relative velocities.

  1. Two-dimensional self-organi-zation of 1-nonanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) ordered hexagonal close-packed structure, formed by 1-nonanethiol-capped gold nanoparticles, is reported. The structure was constructed only by dipping the gold nanoparticle colloidal solution on flat substrate. The gold nanoparticles were synthesized as follows: First, AuCl4-1 was transferred from aqueous solution to toluene by the phase-transfer reagent of tetraoctylammo-nium bromide. Then it was reduced with aqueous sodium borohydride in the presence of a given amount of 1-nonanethiol molecules which was used to control the nuclea-tion and growth of the gold nanoparticles for the desired size. The experimental techniques, such as UV-Vis, FT-IR, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), were employed to characterize the obtained product. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement demonstrated the size of the gold nanoparticle and the formation of two-dimensional ordered hexagonal close-packed gold nanoparticle structure.

  2. On some classes of two-dimensional local models in discrete two-dimensional monatomic FPU lattice with cubic and quartic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Quan; Tian Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the two-dimensional discrete monatomic Fermi-Pasta-Ulam lattice, by using the method of multiple-scale and the quasi-discreteness approach. By taking into account the interaction between the atoms in the lattice and their nearest neighbours, it obtains some classes of two-dimensional local models as follows: two-dimensional bright and dark discrete soliton trains, two-dimensional bright and dark line discrete breathers, and two-dimensional bright and dark discrete breather.

  3. Floating zone growth and magnetic properties of Y2C two-dimensional electride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shigeki; Hirata, Kazuto; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    The floating zone method was used to obtain single crystals several mm in size of the low-temperature rhombohedral form of Y2C rather than its typical rocksalt-type cubic form. This was achieved through optimization of the chemical compositions of the starting materials with the aim of producing a two-dimensional electride material. The crystals obtained exhibited a paramagnetic temperature-dependence at 1.8-300 K, with no trace of any obvious magnetic ordering.

  4. van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.

  5. An algorithm for multi-group two-dimensional neutron diffusion kinetics in nuclear reactor cores

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Schramm

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to introduce a new methodology for two{dimensional multi{ group neutron diffusion kinetics in a reactor core. The presented methodology uses a polyno- mial approximation in a rectangular homogeneous domain with non{homogeneous boundary conditions. As it consists on a truncated Taylor series, its error estimates varies with the size of the rectangle. The coefficients are obtained mainly by their relations with the independent term, which is determined by the dif...

  6. Universality class of the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, P H L; Plascak, J A

    2007-07-01

    In this work, we evaluate the probability distribution function of the order parameter for the two-dimensional site-diluted Ising model. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed for different spin concentrations p (0.70universality class of the diluted Ising model seems to be independent of the amount of dilution. Logarithmic corrections of the finite-size critical temperature behavior of the model can also be inferred even for such small lattices.

  7. Double-Humped Transverse Density Profile in Two-Dimensional Chute Flow with Rough Sidewalls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Guo-Qi; ZHANG Xun-Sheng; BAO De-Song; TANG Xiao-Wei

    2006-01-01

    @@ We study a two-dimensional granular rapid flow with rough sidewalls stuck with the same size discs by molecular dynamics simulation. A transient state of the double-humped density profile in the flowing process has been found, which appears and moves as travelling wave and is the same as the phenomena in the recent experiments [Acta Phys. Sin. 53 (2004) 3389 (in Chinese)].

  8. Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John

    2016-07-01

    Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.

  9. Droplet migration characteristics in confined oscillatory microflows

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhury, Kaustav; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the migration characteristics of a droplet in an oscillatory flow field in a parallel plate micro-confinement. Using phase filed formalism, we capture the dynamical evolution of the droplet over a wide range of the frequency of the imposed oscillation in the flow field, drop size relative to the channel gap, and the capillary number. The latter two factors imply the contribution of droplet deformability, commonly considered in the study of droplet migration under steady shear flow conditions. We show that the imposed oscillation brings in additional time complexity in the droplet movement, realized through temporally varying drop-shape, flow direction and the inertial response of the droplet. As a consequence, we observe a spatially complicated pathway of the droplet along the transverse direction, in sharp contrast to the smooth migration under a similar yet steady shear flow condition. Intuitively, the longitudinal component of the droplet movement is in tandem with the flow continuity and evolve...

  10. Self-propelled oil droplets consuming "fuel" surfactant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toyota, Taro; Maru, Naoto; Hanczyc, Martin M

    2009-01-01

    A micrometer-sized oil droplet of 4-octylaniline containing 5 mol % of an amphiphilic catalyst exhibited a self-propelled motion, producing tiny oil droplets, in an aqueous dispersion of an amphiphilic precursor of 4-octylaniline. The tiny droplets on the surface of the self-propelled droplet wer...

  11. The analysis of size-segregated cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC data and its implications for cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paramonov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient aerosol, CCN (cloud condensation nuclei and hygroscopic properties were measured with a size-segregated CCNC (cloud condensation nuclei counter in a boreal environment of southern Finland at the SMEAR (Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations II station. The instrumental setup operated at five levels of supersaturation S covering a range from 0.1–1% and measured particles with a size range of 20–300 nm; a total of 29 non-consecutive months of data are presented. The median critical diameter Dc ranged from 150 nm at S of 0.1% to 46 nm at S of 1.0%. The median aerosol hygroscopicity parameter κ ranged from 0.41 at S of 0.1% to 0.14 at S of 1.0%, indicating that ambient aerosol in Hyytiälä is less hygroscopic than the global continental or European continental averages. It is, however, more hygroscopic than the ambient aerosol in an Amazon rainforest, a European high Alpine site or a forested mountainous site. A fairly low hygroscopicity in Hyytiälä is likely a result of a large organic fraction present in the aerosol mass comparative to other locations within Europe. A considerable difference in particle hygroscopicity was found between particles smaller and larger than ~100 nm in diameter, possibly pointing out to the effect of cloud processing increasing κ of particles > 100 nm in diameter. The hygroscopicity of the smaller, ~50 nm particles did not change seasonally, whereas particles with a diameter of ~150 nm showed a decreased hygroscopicity in the summer, likely resulting from the increased VOC emissions of the surrounding boreal forest and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. For the most part, no diurnal patterns of aerosol hygroscopic properties were found. Exceptions to this were the weak diurnal patterns of small, ~50 nm particles in the spring and summer, when a peak in hygroscopicity around noon was observed. No difference in CCN activation and hygroscopic properties was found on days with or

  12. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Cole

    Full Text Available High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above, the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above, the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  13. A linear relationship between crystal size and fragment binding time observed crystallographically: implications for fragment library screening using acoustic droplet ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Krystal; Roessler, Christian G; Mulé, Elizabeth A; Benson-Xu, Emma J; Mullen, Jeffrey D; Le, Benjamin A; Tieman, Alanna M; Birone, Claire; Brown, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Neff, Sherry; Williams, Daniel; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M; Sweet, Robert M; Soares, Alexei S

    2014-01-01

    High throughput screening technologies such as acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) greatly increase the rate at which X-ray diffraction data can be acquired from crystals. One promising high throughput screening application of ADE is to rapidly combine protein crystals with fragment libraries. In this approach, each fragment soaks into a protein crystal either directly on data collection media or on a moving conveyor belt which then delivers the crystals to the X-ray beam. By simultaneously handling multiple crystals combined with fragment specimens, these techniques relax the automounter duty-cycle bottleneck that currently prevents optimal exploitation of third generation synchrotrons. Two factors limit the speed and scope of projects that are suitable for fragment screening using techniques such as ADE. Firstly, in applications where the high throughput screening apparatus is located inside the X-ray station (such as the conveyor belt system described above), the speed of data acquisition is limited by the time required for each fragment to soak into its protein crystal. Secondly, in applications where crystals are combined with fragments directly on data acquisition media (including both of the ADE methods described above), the maximum time that fragments have to soak into crystals is limited by evaporative dehydration of the protein crystals during the fragment soak. Here we demonstrate that both of these problems can be minimized by using small crystals, because the soak time required for a fragment hit to attain high occupancy depends approximately linearly on crystal size.

  14. Waiting Time Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Thomas L. C.; Knoester, Jasper

    We review recent work on the waiting time dynamics of coherent two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy. This dynamics can reveal chemical and physical processes that take place on the femto- and picosecond time scale, which is faster than the time scale that may be probed by, for example,

  15. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen

    1993-04-01

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.

  16. The partition function of two-dimensional string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

    1993-04-12

    We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity

  17. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko V.I.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.

  18. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  19. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  20. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  1. Piezoelectricity and Piezomagnetism: Duality in two-dimensional checkerboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fel, Leonid G.

    2002-05-01

    The duality approach in two-dimensional two-component regular checkerboards is extended to piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism. The relation between the effective piezoelectric and piezomagnetic moduli is found for a checkerboard with the p6'mm'-plane symmetry group (dichromatic triangle).

  2. Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...... of grid points in the wall jet region....

  3. Operator splitting for two-dimensional incompressible fluid equations

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge; Karper, Trygve K

    2011-01-01

    We analyze splitting algorithms for a class of two-dimensional fluid equations, which includes the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and the surface quasi-geostrophic equation. Our main result is that the Godunov and Strang splitting methods converge with the expected rates provided the initial data are sufficiently regular.

  4. Chaotic dynamics for two-dimensional tent maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumariño, Antonio; Ángel Rodríguez, José; Carles Tatjer, Joan; Vigil, Enrique

    2015-02-01

    For a two-dimensional extension of the classical one-dimensional family of tent maps, we prove the existence of an open set of parameters for which the respective transformation presents a strange attractor with two positive Lyapounov exponents. Moreover, periodic orbits are dense on this attractor and the attractor supports a unique ergodic invariant probability measure.

  5. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  6. Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent

  7. Numerical blowup in two-dimensional Boussinesq equations

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Zhaohua

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a three-stage numerical relay to investigate the finite time singularity in the two-dimensional Boussinesq approximation equations. The initial asymmetric condition is the middle-stage output of a $2048^2$ run, the highest resolution in our study is $40960^2$, and some signals of numerical blowup are observed.

  8. Exact two-dimensional superconformal R symmetry and c extremization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Francesco; Bobev, Nikolay

    2013-02-08

    We uncover a general principle dubbed c extremization, which determines the exact R symmetry of a two-dimensional unitary superconformal field theory with N=(0,2) supersymmetry. To illustrate its utility, we study superconformal theories obtained by twisted compactifications of four-dimensional N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory on Riemann surfaces and construct their gravity duals.

  9. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  10. Topology optimization of two-dimensional elastic wave barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hoorickx, C.; Sigmund, Ole; Schevenels, M.

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is a method that optimally distributes material in a given design domain. In this paper, topology optimization is used to design two-dimensional wave barriers embedded in an elastic halfspace. First, harmonic vibration sources are considered, and stiffened material is insert...

  11. Non perturbative methods in two dimensional quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Abdalla, Elcio; Rothe, Klaus D

    1991-01-01

    This book is a survey of methods used in the study of two-dimensional models in quantum field theory as well as applications of these theories in physics. It covers the subject since the first model, studied in the fifties, up to modern developments in string theories, and includes exact solutions, non-perturbative methods of study, and nonlinear sigma models.

  12. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Black-Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Nappi, Chiara R.; Pasquinucci, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    We explore the thermodynamics of a general class of two dimensional dilatonic black-holes. A simple prescription is given that allows us to compute the mass, entropy and thermodynamic potentials, with results in agreement with those obtained by other methods, when available.

  13. Influence of index contrast in two dimensional photonic crystal lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Christiansen, Mads Brøkner;

    2010-01-01

    The influence of index contrast variations for obtaining single-mode operation and low threshold in dye doped polymer two dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) lasers is investigated. We consider lasers made from Pyrromethene 597 doped Ormocore imprinted with a rectangular lattice PhC having a cavit...

  14. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  15. Dynamical phase transitions in the two-dimensional ANNNI model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, M.N.; Derrida, B.

    1988-06-01

    We study the phase diagram of the two-dimensional anisotropic next-nearest neighbor Ising (ANNNI) model by comparing the time evolution of two distinct spin configurations submitted to the same thermal noise. We clearly se several dynamical transitions between ferromagnetic, paramagnetic, antiphase, and floating phases. These dynamical transitions seem to occur rather close to the transition lines determined previously in the literature.

  16. Two-dimensional static black holes with pointlike sources

    CERN Document Server

    Melis, M

    2004-01-01

    We study the static black hole solutions of generalized two-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories generated by pointlike mass sources, in the hypothesis that the matter is conformally coupled. We also discuss the motion of test particles. Due to conformal coupling, these follow the geodesics of a metric obtained by rescaling the canonical metric with the dilaton.

  17. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  18. Two-Dimensional Chirality in Three-Dimensional Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintner, Claude E.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of two-dimensional chirality is used to enhance students' understanding of three-dimensional stereochemistry. This chirality is used as a key to teaching/understanding such concepts as enaniotropism, diastereotopism, pseudoasymmetry, retention/inversion of configuration, and stereochemical results of addition to double bonds. (JN)

  19. Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.

    1995-01-01

    The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal regi

  20. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting