Sensitivity analysis of numerical results of one- and two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motoyama, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobuatsu
2005-01-01
Numerical simulation has been playing an increasingly important role in the fields of science and engineering. However, every numerical result contains errors such as modeling, truncation, and computing errors, and the magnitude of the errors that are quantitatively contained in the results is unknown. This situation causes a large design margin in designing by analyses and prevents further cost reduction by optimizing design. To overcome this situation, we developed a new method to numerically analyze the quantitative error of a numerical solution by using the sensitivity analysis method and modified equation approach. If a reference case of typical parameters is calculated once by this method, then no additional calculation is required to estimate the results of other numerical parameters such as those of parameters with higher resolutions. Furthermore, we can predict the exact solution from the sensitivity analysis results and can quantitatively evaluate the error of numerical solutions. Since the method incorporates the features of the conventional sensitivity analysis method, it can evaluate the effect of the modeling error as well as the truncation error. In this study, we confirm the effectiveness of the method through some numerical benchmark problems of one- and two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems. (author)
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1995-01-01
The existing 2-D alpha-mu scheme and alpha-epsilon scheme based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element, which were constructed for solving the linear 2-D unsteady advection-diffusion equation and unsteady advection equation, respectively, are tested. Also, the alpha-epsilon scheme is modified to become the V-E scheme for solving the nonlinear 2-D inviscid Burgers equation. Numerical solutions of six test problems are presented in comparison with their exact solutions or numerical solutions obtained by traditional finite-difference or finite-element methods. It is demonstrated that the 2-D alpha-mu, alpha-epsilon, and nu-epsilon schemes can be used to obtain numerical results which are more accurate than those based on some of the traditional methods but without using any artificial tuning in the computation. Similar to the previous 1-D test problems, the high accuracy and simplicity features of the space-time conservation element and solution element method have been revealed again in the present 2-D test results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Rodolfo Silva Zabadal
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados métodos híbridos para solução de problemas difusivos relativos à dispersão de poluentes em meio aquático. Estes métodos aplicam variáveis complexas a fim de executar mapeamentos sobre a equação diferencial a ser resolvida bem como sobre o domínio considerado. O mapeamento sobre a equação diferencial converte o operador laplaciano bidimensional em uma derivada cruzada de segunda ordem na variável espacial. O mapeamento do domínio transforma regiões de formato complexo em regiões retangulares. Ambos mapeamentos são usados a fim de reduzir o tempo total requerido de processamento para solução de problemas difusivos não-homogêneos. Resultados numéricos são apresentados.In this work hybrid methods for solving diffusion problems related to pollutants dispersion in water bodies are presented. These methods employ complex variables in order to perform mappings over the differential equation to be solved as well as over the considered domain. The mapping over the differential equation converts the two dimensional laplacian operator into a second order mixed derivative in the complex variables. The mapping of the domain transforms complex-shaped regions into rectangular ones. Both mappings are used in order to reduce the total time proccessing required for solving non-homogeneous diffusion problems. Numerical results are reported.
Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid
2003-01-01
The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method
Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves
Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.
2008-01-01
The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.
Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.
1990-05-01
The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs
Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toppozini Laura
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarenga, M.A.B.
1980-12-01
An analytical procedure to solve the neutron diffusion equation in two dimensions and two energy groups was developed. The response matrix method was used coupled with an expansion of the neutron flux in finite Fourier series. A computer code 'MRF2D' was elaborated to implement the above mentioned procedure for PWR reactor core calculations. Different core symmetry options are allowed by the code, which is also flexible enough to allow for improvements by means of algorithm optimization. The code performance was compared with a corner mesh finite difference code named TVEDIM by using a International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standard problem. Computer processing time 12,7% smaller is required by the MRF2D code to reach the same precision on criticality eigenvalue. (Author) [pt
Inverse radiative transfer problems in two-dimensional heterogeneous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal
2001-01-01
The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)
On the Initial Singularity Problem in Two Dimensional Quantum Cosmology
Gamboa, J.
1995-01-01
The problem of how to put interactions in two-dimensional quantum gravity in the strong coupling regime is studied. It shows that the most general interaction consistent with this symmetry is a Liouville term that contain two parameters $(\\alpha, \\beta)$ satisfying the algebraic relation $2\\beta - \\alpha =2$ in order to assure the closure of the diffeomorphism algebra. The model is classically soluble and it contains as general solution the temporal singularity. The theory is quantized and we...
Two-dimensional simulation of reactive diffusion in binary systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Svoboda, Jiří; Stopka, J.; Fischer, F. D.
2014-01-01
Roč. 95, DEC (2014), s. 309-315 ISSN 0927-0256 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-24252S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Phase transformation * Diffusion-controlled interface migration * Reactive diffusion * Multiphase system * Intermetallic compounds Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014
Theory of collective diffusion in two-dimensional colloidal suspensions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Chvoj, Zdeněk; Lahtinen, J. M.; Ala-Nissila, T.
-, - (2004), s. 1-8 ISSN 1742-5468 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : surface diffusion * Brownian motion * fluctuations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics
Two Dimensional Drug Diffusion Between Nanoparticles and Fractal Tumors
Samioti, S. E.; Karamanos, K.; Tsiantis, A.; Papathanasiou, A.; Sarris, I.
2017-11-01
Drug delivery methods based on nanoparticles are some of the most promising medical applications in nanotechnology to treat cancer. It is observed that drug released by nanoparticles to the cancer tumors may be driven by diffusion. A fractal tumor boundary of triangular Von Koch shape is considered here and the diffusion mechanism is studied for different drug concentrations and increased fractality. A high order Finite Elements method based on the Fenics library is incorporated in fine meshes to fully resolve these irregular boundaries. Drug concentration, its transfer rates and entropy production are calculated in an up to forth order fractal iteration boundaries. We observed that diffusion rate diminishes for successive prefractal generations. Also, the entropy production around the system changes greatly as the order of the fractal curve increases. Results indicate with precision where the active sites are, in which most of the diffusion takes place and thus drug arrives to the tumor.
Covariance problem in two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagen, C.R.
1979-01-01
The problem of covariance in the field theory of a two-dimensional non-Abelian gauge field is considered. Since earlier work has shown that covariance fails (in charged sectors) for the Schwinger model, particular attention is given to an evaluation of the role played by the non-Abelian nature of the fields. In contrast to all earlier attempts at this problem, it is found that the potential covariance-breaking terms are identical to those found in the Abelian theory provided that one expresses them in terms of the total (i.e., conserved) current operator. The question of covariance is thus seen to reduce in all cases to a determination as to whether there exists a conserved global charge in the theory. Since the charge operator in the Schwinger model is conserved only in neutral sectors, one is thereby led to infer a probable failure of covariance in the non-Abelian theory, but one which is identical to that found for the U(1) case
Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hlatky, L.
1985-11-01
A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs
Schimming, C. D.; Durian, D. J.
2017-09-01
For dry foams, the transport of gas from small high-pressure bubbles to large low-pressure bubbles is dominated by diffusion across the thin soap films separating neighboring bubbles. For wetter foams, the film areas become smaller as the Plateau borders and vertices inflate with liquid. So-called "border-blocking" models can explain some features of wet-foam coarsening based on the presumption that the inflated borders totally block the gas flux; however, this approximation dramatically fails in the wet or unjamming limit where the bubbles become close-packed spheres and coarsening proceeds even though there are no films. Here, we account for the ever-present border-crossing flux by a new length scale defined by the average gradient of gas concentration inside the borders. We compute that it is proportional to the geometric average of film and border thicknesses, and we verify this scaling by numerical solution of the diffusion equation. We similarly consider transport across inflated vertices and surface Plateau borders in quasi-two-dimensional foams. And we show how the d A /d t =K0(n -6 ) von Neumann law is modified by the appearance of terms that depend on bubble size and shape as well as the concentration gradient length scales. Finally, we use the modified von Neumann law to compute the growth rate of the average bubble area, which is not constant.
Alignment dynamics of diffusive scalar gradient in a two-dimensional model flow
Gonzalez, M.
2018-04-01
The Lagrangian two-dimensional approach of scalar gradient kinematics is revisited accounting for molecular diffusion. Numerical simulations are performed in an analytic, parameterized model flow, which enables considering different regimes of scalar gradient dynamics. Attention is especially focused on the influence of molecular diffusion on Lagrangian statistical orientations and on the dynamics of scalar gradient alignment.
Solutions of diffusion equations in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by series expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohtani, Nobuo
1976-01-01
A solution of the multi-group multi-regional diffusion equation in two-dimensional cylindrical (rho-z) geometry is obtained in the form of a regionwise double series composed of Bessel and trigonometrical functions. The diffusion equation is multiplied by weighting functions, which satisfy the homogeneous part of the diffusion equation, and the products are integrated over the region for obtaining the equations to determine the fluxes and their normal derivatives at the region boundaries. Multiplying the diffusion equation by each function of the set used for the flux expansion, then integrating the products, the coefficients of the double series of the flux inside each region are calculated using the boundary values obtained above. Since the convergence of the series thus obtained is slow especially near the region boundaries, a method for improving the convergence has been developed. The double series of the flux is separated into two parts. The normal derivative at the region boundary of the first part is zero, and that of the second part takes the value which is obtained in the first stage of this method. The second part is replaced by a continuous function, and the flux is represented by the sum of the continuous function and the double series. A sample critical problem of a two-group two-region system is numerically studied. The results show that the present method yields very accurately the flux integrals in each region with only a small number of expansion terms. (auth.)
A two-dimensional transport-problem in magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sigmar, D.J.; Adam, G.; Hittmair, O.
1975-01-01
It is shown that by a generalization of the classical theory for a cylindrical plasma the expression for the so-called banana-diffusion in a toroidal plasma may be deduced. The ratio of the coefficient of the banana-diffusion to the one of classical diffusion is discussed. (Auth.)
Moghaderi, Hamid; Dehghan, Mehdi; Donatelli, Marco; Mazza, Mariarosa
2017-12-01
Fractional diffusion equations (FDEs) are a mathematical tool used for describing some special diffusion phenomena arising in many different applications like porous media and computational finance. In this paper, we focus on a two-dimensional space-FDE problem discretized by means of a second order finite difference scheme obtained as combination of the Crank-Nicolson scheme and the so-called weighted and shifted Grünwald formula. By fully exploiting the Toeplitz-like structure of the resulting linear system, we provide a detailed spectral analysis of the coefficient matrix at each time step, both in the case of constant and variable diffusion coefficients. Such a spectral analysis has a very crucial role, since it can be used for designing fast and robust iterative solvers. In particular, we employ the obtained spectral information to define a Galerkin multigrid method based on the classical linear interpolation as grid transfer operator and damped-Jacobi as smoother, and to prove the linear convergence rate of the corresponding two-grid method. The theoretical analysis suggests that the proposed grid transfer operator is strong enough for working also with the V-cycle method and the geometric multigrid. On this basis, we introduce two computationally favourable variants of the proposed multigrid method and we use them as preconditioners for Krylov methods. Several numerical results confirm that the resulting preconditioning strategies still keep a linear convergence rate.
Chen, Hao; Lv, Wen; Zhang, Tongtong
2018-05-01
We study preconditioned iterative methods for the linear system arising in the numerical discretization of a two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equation. Our approach is based on a formulation of the discrete problem that is shown to be the sum of two Kronecker products. By making use of an alternating Kronecker product splitting iteration technique we establish a class of fixed-point iteration methods. Theoretical analysis shows that the new method converges to the unique solution of the linear system. Moreover, the optimal choice of the involved iteration parameters and the corresponding asymptotic convergence rate are computed exactly when the eigenvalues of the system matrix are all real. The basic iteration is accelerated by a Krylov subspace method like GMRES. The corresponding preconditioner is in a form of a Kronecker product structure and requires at each iteration the solution of a set of discrete one-dimensional fractional diffusion equations. We use structure preserving approximations to the discrete one-dimensional fractional diffusion operators in the action of the preconditioning matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.
Two-Dimensional Crystallography Introduced by the Sprinkler Watering Problem
De Toro, Jose A.; Calvo, Gabriel F.; Muniz, Pablo
2012-01-01
The problem of optimizing the number of circular sprinklers watering large fields is used to introduce, from a purely elementary geometrical perspective, some basic concepts in crystallography and comment on a few size effects in condensed matter physics. We examine square and hexagonal lattices to build a function describing the, so-called, dry…
Statistical problem of ideal gas in general two-dimensional regions
Song, Ci; Li, Wen-Du; Mwansa, Pardon; Zhang, Ping
2015-09-01
In this paper, based on the conformal mapping method and the perturbation theory, we develop a method to solve the statistical problem within general two-dimensional regions. We consider some examples and the numerical results and fitting results are given. We also give the thermodynamic quantities of the general two-dimensional regions, and compare the thermodynamic quantities of the different regions.
Two-dimensional finite element neutron diffusion analysis using hierarchic shape functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpenter, D.C.
1997-01-01
Recent advances have been made in the use of p-type finite element method (FEM) for structural and fluid dynamics problems that hold promise for reactor physics problems. These advances include using hierarchic shape functions, element-by-element iterative solvers and more powerful mapping techniques. Use of the hierarchic shape functions allows greater flexibility and efficiency in implementing energy-dependent flux expansions and incorporating localized refinement of the solution space. The irregular matrices generated by the p-type FEM can be solved efficiently using element-by-element conjugate gradient iterative solvers. These solvers do not require storage of either the global or local stiffness matrices and can be highly vectorized. Mapping techniques based on blending function interpolation allow exact representation of curved boundaries using coarse element grids. These features were implemented in a developmental two-dimensional neutron diffusion program based on the use of hierarchic shape functions (FEM2DH). Several aspects in the effective use of p-type analysis were explored. Two choices of elemental preconditioning were examined--the proper selection of the polynomial shape functions and the proper number of functions to use. Of the five shape function polynomials tested, the integral Legendre functions were the most effective. The serendipity set of functions is preferable over the full tensor product set. Two global preconditioners were also examined--simple diagonal and incomplete Cholesky. The full effectiveness of the finite element methodology was demonstrated on a two-region, two-group cylindrical problem but solved in the x-y coordinate space, using a non-structured element grid. The exact, analytic eigenvalue solution was achieved with FEM2DH using various combinations of element grids and flux expansions
Two-dimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion for pyramidally textured silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Fa-Jun; Duttagupta, Shubham; Shetty, Kishan Devappa; Meng, Lei; Hoex, Bram; Peters, Ian Marius; Samudra, Ganesh S.
2014-01-01
Multidimensional numerical simulation of boron diffusion is of great relevance for the improvement of industrial n-type crystalline silicon wafer solar cells. However, surface passivation of boron diffused area is typically studied in one dimension on planar lifetime samples. This approach neglects the effects of the solar cell pyramidal texture on the boron doping process and resulting doping profile. In this work, we present a theoretical study using a two-dimensional surface morphology for pyramidally textured samples. The boron diffusivity and segregation coefficient between oxide and silicon in simulation are determined by reproducing measured one-dimensional boron depth profiles prepared using different boron diffusion recipes on planar samples. The established parameters are subsequently used to simulate the boron diffusion process on textured samples. The simulated junction depth is found to agree quantitatively well with electron beam induced current measurements. Finally, chemical passivation on planar and textured samples is compared in device simulation. Particularly, a two-dimensional approach is adopted for textured samples to evaluate chemical passivation. The intrinsic emitter saturation current density, which is only related to Auger and radiative recombination, is also simulated for both planar and textured samples. The differences between planar and textured samples are discussed
A numerical method for two-dimensional anisotropic transport problem in cylindrical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Du Mingsheng; Feng Tiekai; Fu Lianxiang; Cao Changshu; Liu Yulan
1988-01-01
The authors deal with the triangular mesh-discontinuous finite element method for solving the time-dependent anisotropic neutron transport problem in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry. A prior estimate of the numerical solution is given. Stability is proved. The authors have computed a two dimensional anisotropic neutron transport problem and a Tungsten-Carbide critical assembly problem by using the numerical method. In comparision with DSN method and the experimental results obtained by others both at home and abroad, the method is satisfactory
Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Georg
2012-01-01
Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...
Flow-induced symmetry reduction in two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system
Hu, Hai Xiang; Li, Xiao Chun; Li, Qian Shu
2009-03-01
The influence of uniform flow on the pattern formation is investigated in a two-dimensional reaction-diffusion system. It is found that the convective flow plays a key role on pattern modulation. Both traveling and stationary periodic patterns are obtained. At moderate flow rates, the perfect hexagon, phase-shifted hexagon and stable square, which are essentially unstable in unperturbed reaction-diffusion systems, are obtained. These patterns move downstream. If the flow rate is increased further, the stationary flow-oriented stripes develop and compete with the spots. If the flow rate exceeds some critical value, the system is convectively unstable and the stationary stripes prevail against the traveling spots. The above patterns all have the same critical wavenumber associated with Turing bifurcation, which indicates that Turing instability produces the patterns while the flow induces the symmetry reduction, i.e., from six-fold symmetry to four-fold one, and to two-fold one ultimately.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; McMurray, J. S.; Williams, C. C.; Slinkman, J.
1998-01-01
We report the results of a 2-step two-dimensional (2D) diffusion study by Scanning Capacitance Microscopy (SCM) and 2D TSUPREM IV process simulation. A quantitative 2D dopant profile of gate-like structures consisting heavily implanted n+ regions separated by a lighter doped n-type region underneath 0.56 μm gates is measured with the SCM. The SCM is operated in the constant-change-in-capacitance mode. The 2-D SCM data is converted to dopant density through a physical model of the SCM/silicon interaction. This profile has been directly compared with 2D TSUPREM IV process simulation and used to calibrate the simulation parameters. The sample is then further subjected to an additional diffusion in a furnace for 80 minutes at 1000C. The SCM measurement is repeated on the diffused sample. This final 2D dopant profile is compared with a TSUPREM IV process simulation tuned to fit the earlier profile with no change in the parameters except the temperature and time for the additional diffusion. Our results indicate that there is still a significant disagreement between the two profiles in the lateral direction. TSUPREM IV simulation considerably underestimates the diffusion under the gate region
Cassandre : a two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code for reactor transient analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arien, B.; Daniels, J.
1986-12-01
CASSANDRE is a two-dimensional (x-y or r-z) finite element neutronics code with thermohydraulics feedback for reactor dynamics prior to the disassembly phase. It uses the multigroup neutron diffusion theory. Its main characteristics are the use of a generalized quasistatic model, the use of a flexible multigroup point-kinetics algorithm allowing for spectral matching and the use of a finite element description. The code was conceived in order to be coupled with any thermohydraulics module, although thermohydraulics feedback is only considered in r-z geometry. In steady state criticality search is possible either by control rod insertion or by homogeneous poisoning of the coolant. This report describes the main characterstics of the code structure and provides all the information needed to use the code. (Author)
A two-dimensional problem of a mode-I crack in a rotating fibre ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 43; Issue 1. A two-dimensional problem of a mode-I crack in a rotating fibre-reinforced isotropic thermoelastic medium under dual-phase-lag model. AHMED E ABOUELREGAL S M ABO-DAHAB. Volume 43 Issue 1 January 2018 Article ID 13 ...
Tayebi, A.; Shekari, Y.; Heydari, M. H.
2017-07-01
Several physical phenomena such as transformation of pollutants, energy, particles and many others can be described by the well-known convection-diffusion equation which is a combination of the diffusion and advection equations. In this paper, this equation is generalized with the concept of variable-order fractional derivatives. The generalized equation is called variable-order time fractional advection-diffusion equation (V-OTFA-DE). An accurate and robust meshless method based on the moving least squares (MLS) approximation and the finite difference scheme is proposed for its numerical solution on two-dimensional (2-D) arbitrary domains. In the time domain, the finite difference technique with a θ-weighted scheme and in the space domain, the MLS approximation are employed to obtain appropriate semi-discrete solutions. Since the newly developed method is a meshless approach, it does not require any background mesh structure to obtain semi-discrete solutions of the problem under consideration, and the numerical solutions are constructed entirely based on a set of scattered nodes. The proposed method is validated in solving three different examples including two benchmark problems and an applied problem of pollutant distribution in the atmosphere. In all such cases, the obtained results show that the proposed method is very accurate and robust. Moreover, a remarkable property so-called positive scheme for the proposed method is observed in solving concentration transport phenomena.
Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.
2013-03-01
We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation
On Riemann boundary value problems for null solutions of the two dimensional Helmholtz equation
Bory Reyes, Juan; Abreu Blaya, Ricardo; Rodríguez Dagnino, Ramón Martin; Kats, Boris Aleksandrovich
2018-01-01
The Riemann boundary value problem (RBVP to shorten notation) in the complex plane, for different classes of functions and curves, is still widely used in mathematical physics and engineering. For instance, in elasticity theory, hydro and aerodynamics, shell theory, quantum mechanics, theory of orthogonal polynomials, and so on. In this paper, we present an appropriate hyperholomorphic approach to the RBVP associated to the two dimensional Helmholtz equation in R^2 . Our analysis is based on a suitable operator calculus.
An analytical approach for a nodal scheme of two-dimensional neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barichello, L.B.; Cabrera, L.C.; Prolo Filho, J.F.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → Nodal equations for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem. → Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method. → Numerical results compared with the literature. - Abstract: In this work, a solution for a two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in cartesian geometry, is proposed, on the basis of nodal schemes. In this context, one-dimensional equations are generated by an integration process of the multidimensional problem. Here, the integration is performed for the whole domain such that no iterative procedure between nodes is needed. The ADO method is used to develop analytical discrete ordinates solution for the one-dimensional integrated equations, such that final solutions are analytical in terms of the spatial variables. The ADO approach along with a level symmetric quadrature scheme, lead to a significant order reduction of the associated eigenvalues problems. Relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown fluxes at the boundary are introduced as the usually needed, in nodal schemes, auxiliary equations. Numerical results are presented and compared with test problems.
The ADO-nodal method for solving two-dimensional discrete ordinates transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barichello, L.B.; Picoloto, C.B.; Cunha, R.D. da
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Two-dimensional discrete ordinates neutron transport. • Analytical Discrete Ordinates (ADO) nodal method. • Heterogeneous media fixed source problems. • Local solutions. - Abstract: In this work, recent results on the solution of fixed-source two-dimensional transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, are reported. Homogeneous and heterogeneous media problems are considered in order to incorporate the idea of arbitrary number of domain division into regions (nodes) when applying the ADO method, which is a method of analytical features, to those problems. The ADO-nodal formulation is developed, for each node, following previous work devoted to heterogeneous media problem. Here, however, the numerical procedure is extended to higher number of domain divisions. Such extension leads, in some cases, to the use of an iterative method for solving the general linear system which defines the arbitrary constants of the general solution. In addition to solve alternative heterogeneous media configurations than reported in previous works, the present approach allows comparisons with results provided by other metodologies generated with refined meshes. Numerical results indicate the ADO solution may achieve a prescribed accuracy using coarser meshes than other schemes.
An equivalent domain integral method in the two-dimensional analysis of mixed mode crack problems
Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.
1990-01-01
An equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for calculating J-integrals for two-dimensional cracked elastic bodies is presented. The details of the method and its implementation are presented for isoparametric elements. The EDI method gave accurate values of the J-integrals for two mode I and two mixed mode problems. Numerical studies showed that domains consisting of one layer of elements are sufficient to obtain accurate J-integral values. Two procedures for separating the individual modes from the domain integrals are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, S.; Costillo, S.; Dalton, K.; Hensel, E.
1990-01-01
A study is conducted of the finite element solution of the partial differential equations governing two-dimensional electromagnetic field scattering problems on a SIMD computer. A nodal assembly technique is introduced which maps a single node to a single processor. The physical domain is first discretized in parallel to yield the node locations of an O-grid mesh. Next, the system of equations is assembled and then solved in parallel using a conjugate gradient algorithm for complex-valued, non-symmetric, non-positive definite systems. Using this technique and Thinking Machines Corporation's Connection Machine-2 (CM-2), problems with more than 250k nodes are solved. Results of electromagnetic scattering, governed by the 2-d scalar Hemoholtz wave equations are presented in this paper. Solutions are demonstrated for a wide range of objects. A summary of performance data is given for the set of test problems
Basic problems solving for two-dimensional discrete 3 × 4 order hidden markov model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Guo-gang; Gan, Zong-liang; Tang, Gui-jin; Cui, Zi-guan; Zhu, Xiu-chang
2016-01-01
A novel model is proposed to overcome the shortages of the classical hypothesis of the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model. In the proposed model, the state transition probability depends on not only immediate horizontal and vertical states but also on immediate diagonal state, and the observation symbol probability depends on not only current state but also on immediate horizontal, vertical and diagonal states. This paper defines the structure of the model, and studies the three basic problems of the model, including probability calculation, path backtracking and parameters estimation. By exploiting the idea that the sequences of states on rows or columns of the model can be seen as states of a one-dimensional discrete 1 × 2 order hidden Markov model, several algorithms solving the three questions are theoretically derived. Simulation results further demonstrate the performance of the algorithms. Compared with the two-dimensional discrete hidden Markov model, there are more statistical characteristics in the structure of the proposed model, therefore the proposed model theoretically can more accurately describe some practical problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jobert, Patrice; Beghein, Claudine; Sergent, Anne [LEPTAB, Universite de La Rochelle (France); Le Quere, Patrick [LIMSI, CNRS, Orsay (France); Collignan, Bernard; Couturier, Stephane [CSTB, Marne La Vallee (France); Glockner, Stephane; Vincent, Stephane [MASTER, ENSCPB, Pessac (France); Groleau, Dominique; Lubin, Pierre [CERMA, CNRS, Nantes (France)
2005-04-01
We present the results of a numerical exercise aimed at comparing the predictions of different conventional turbulent modelling approaches for natural convection at Rayleigh numbers characteristic of applications such as energy savings, fire safety or thermal comfort. A two-dimensional configuration was considered that consists of two adjacent rooms separated by a lintel in which natural convection is induced through heating on their opposite sides and subjected to diffusion of a pollutant from one room to the other. Seven contributions are available. The comparison is carried out, in terms of local or global quantities, for the mean thermal and dynamic fields and for the unsteady diffusion of the pollutant from one room to the other. Characteristic differences between steady RANS and unsteady two-dimensional DNS and LES approaches are observed and discussed. (authors)
Wagner, H; Menk, R H; Orthen, A; Sarvestani, A; Walenta, Albert H; Walliser, H
2002-01-01
An essential part of the MicroCAT detector is its interpolating readout concept. A theoretical description of the charge diffusion process on the two-dimensional resistive readout structure and its influence on the position reconstruction is carried out. The corresponding inhomogeneous, time-dependent diffusion equation, with the geometric boundary conditions of the readout cells taken properly into account, is solved numerically. Signals realistically distributed in space and time are used as input to simulate the detector response. The time development of two-dimensional charge distributions is investigated. Charge losses to neighbouring cells and distortions due to the linear four-node-encoding algorithm used for reconstructing the impact position of a photon are considered. Since the thermal noise of the resistive layer leads to a limited position accuracy, the spatial resolution is calculated as a function of the integration time, the event position and the gas gain for different resistivities of the rea...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Goh
Full Text Available Over the last few decades, cubic splines have been widely used to approximate differential equations due to their ability to produce highly accurate solutions. In this paper, the numerical solution of a two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equation is treated by a specific cubic spline approximation in the x-direction and finite difference in the y-direction. A four point explicit group (EG iterative scheme with an acceleration tool is then applied to the obtained system. The formulation and implementation of the method for solving physical problems are presented in detail. The complexity of computational is also discussed and the comparative results are tabulated to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Raju, I. S.; Shivakumar, K. N.
1989-01-01
An equivalent domain integral (EDI) method for calculating J-intergrals for two-dimensional cracked elastic bodies is presented. The details of the method and its implementation are presented for isoparametric elements. The total and product integrals consist of the sum of an area of domain integral and line integrals on the crack faces. The line integrals vanish only when the crack faces are traction free and the loading is either pure mode 1 or pure mode 2 or a combination of both with only the square-root singular term in the stress field. The EDI method gave accurate values of the J-integrals for two mode I and two mixed mode problems. Numerical studies showed that domains consisting of one layer of elements are sufficient to obtain accurate J-integral values. Two procedures for separating the individual modes from the domain integrals are presented. The procedure that uses the symmetric and antisymmetric components of the stress and displacement fields to calculate the individual modes gave accurate values of the integrals for all problems analyzed. The EDI method when applied to a problem of an interface crack in two different materials showed that the mode 1 and mode 2 components are domain dependent while the total integral is not. This behavior is caused by the presence of the oscillatory part of the singularity in bimaterial crack problems. The EDI method, thus, shows behavior similar to the virtual crack closure method for bimaterial problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Siddique
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Parabolic partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary conditions arise in modeling of a wide range of important application areas such as chemical diffusion, thermoelasticity, heat conduction process, control theory and medicine science. In this paper, we present the implementation of positivity- preserving Padé numerical schemes to the two-dimensional diffusion equation with nonlocal time dependent boundary condition. We successfully implemented these numerical schemes for both Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous cases. The numerical results show that these Padé approximation based numerical schemes are quite accurate and easily implemented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milioli, F.E.
1985-01-01
In this research work a numerical model for the solution of two-dimensional natural convection problems in arbitrary cavities of a Boussinesq fluid is presented. The conservation equations are written in a general curvilinear coordinate system which matches the irregular boundaries of the domain. The nonorthogonal system is generated by a suitable system of elliptic equations. The momentum and continuity equations are transformed from the Cartesian system to the general curvilinear system keeping the Cartesian velocity components as the dependent variables in the transformed domain. Finite difference equations are obtained for the contravariant velocity components in the transformed domain. The numerical calculations are performed in a fixed rectangular domain and both the Cartesian and the contravariant velocity components take part in the solutiomn procedure. The dependent variables are arranged on the grid in a staggered manner. The numerical model is tested by solving the driven flow in a square cavity with a moving side using a nonorthogoanl grid. The natural convenction in a square cavity, using an orthogonal and a nonorthogonal grid, is also solved for the model test. Also, the solution for the buoyancy flow between a square cylinder placed inside a circular cylinder is presented. The results of the test problems are compared with those available in the specialized literature. Finally, in order to show the generality of the model, the natural convection problem inside a very irregular cavity is presented. (Author) [pt
Tracer particles in two-dimensional elastic networks diffuse logarithmically slow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lizana, Ludvig; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lomholt, Michael A
2017-01-01
Several experiments on tagged molecules or particles in living systems suggest that they move anomalously slow—their mean squared displacement (MSD) increase slower than linearly with time. Leading models aimed at understanding these experiments predict that the MSD grows as a power law with a growth exponent that is smaller than unity. However, in some experiments the growth is so slow (fitted exponent ∼0.1–0.2) that they hint towards other mechanisms at play. In this paper, we theoretically demonstrate how in-plane collective modes excited by thermal fluctuations in a two dimensional membrane lead to logarithmic time dependence for the the tracer particle’s MSD. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woznicki, Z.
1979-06-01
This report presents the AGA two-sweep iterative methods belonging to the family of factorization techniques in their practical application in the HEXAGA-II two-dimensional programme to obtain the numerical solution to the multi-group, time-independent, (real and/or adjoint) neutron diffusion equations for a fine uniform triangular mesh. An arbitrary group scattering model is permitted. The report written for the users provides the description of input and output. The use of HEXAGA-II is illustrated by two sample reactor problems. (orig.) [de
Analytic structure and power series expansion of the Jost function for the two-dimensional problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rakityansky, S A; Elander, N
2012-01-01
For a two-dimensional quantum-mechanical problem, we obtain a generalized power series expansion of the S-matrix that can be done near an arbitrary point on the Riemann surface of the energy, similar to the standard effective-range expansion. In order to do this, we consider the Jost function and analytically factorize its momentum dependence that causes the Jost function to be a multi-valued function. The remaining single-valued function of the energy is then expanded in the power series near an arbitrary point in the complex energy plane. A systematic and accurate procedure has been developed for calculating the expansion coefficients. This makes it possible to obtain a semi-analytic expression for the Jost function (and therefore for the S-matrix) near an arbitrary point on the Riemann surface and use it, for example, to locate the spectral points (bound and resonant states) as the S-matrix poles. The method is applied to a model similar to those used in the theory of quantum dots. (paper)
Large deviations of the current in a two-dimensional diffusive system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez-Espigares, C.; Pozo, J. J. del; Garrido, P. L.; Hurtado, P. I.
2011-01-01
In this notes we study the large deviations of the time-averaged current in the two-dimensional (2D) Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of energy transport when subject to a boundary gradient. We use the tools of hydrodynamic fluctuation theory, supplemented with an appropriate generalization of the additivity principle. As compared to its one-dimensional counterpart, which amounts to assume that the optimal profiles responsible of a given current fluctuation are time-independent, the 2D additivity conjecture requires an extra assumption, i.e. that the optimal, divergence-free current vector field associated to a given fluctuation of the time-averaged current is in fact constant across the system. Within this context we show that the current distribution exhibits in general non-Gaussian tails. The ensuing optimal density profile can be either monotone for small current fluctuations, or non-monotone with a single maximum for large enough current deviations. Furthermore, this optimal profile remains invariant under arbitrary rotations of the current vector, providing a detailed example of the recently introduced Isometric Fluctuation Relation.
Gong, Chunye; Bao, Weimin; Tang, Guojian; Jiang, Yuewen; Liu, Jie
2014-01-01
It is very time consuming to solve fractional differential equations. The computational complexity of two-dimensional fractional differential equation (2D-TFDE) with iterative implicit finite difference method is O(M(x)M(y)N(2)). In this paper, we present a parallel algorithm for 2D-TFDE and give an in-depth discussion about this algorithm. A task distribution model and data layout with virtual boundary are designed for this parallel algorithm. The experimental results show that the parallel algorithm compares well with the exact solution. The parallel algorithm on single Intel Xeon X5540 CPU runs 3.16-4.17 times faster than the serial algorithm on single CPU core. The parallel efficiency of 81 processes is up to 88.24% compared with 9 processes on a distributed memory cluster system. We do think that the parallel computing technology will become a very basic method for the computational intensive fractional applications in the near future.
Two-dimensional effects in the problem of tearing modes control by electron cyclotron current drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comisso, L.; Lazzaro, E.
2010-01-01
The design of means to counteract robustly the classical and neoclassical tearing modes in a tokamak by localized injection of an external control current requires an ever growing understanding of the physical process, beyond the Rutherford-type zero-dimensional models. Here a set of extended magnetohydrodynamic nonlinear equations for four continuum fields is used to investigate the two-dimensional effects in the response of the reconnecting modes to specific inputs of the localized external current. New information is gained on the space- and time-dependent effects of the external action on the two-dimensional structure of magnetic islands, which is very important to formulate applicable control strategies.
Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I
2014-04-01
We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.
Curved low order angular elements in two-dimensional neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvennoinen, P.; Tuominen, J.
1974-01-01
A two-dimensional finite element scheme is presented. The angular discretization is based on curved rather than rectangular elements. Numerical computations performed indicate improved accuracy as compared to rectangular methods of a same order. No ray effects are found even in low order results. In addition to linear trial functions the paper is concerned with higher degree polynomials. (author)
Density reduction and diffusion in driven two-dimensional colloidal systems through microchannels
Henseler, P.; Erbe, A.; Köppl, M.; Leiderer, P.; Nielaba, P.
2010-04-01
The behavior of particles driven through a narrow constriction is investigated in experiment and simulation. The system of particles adapts to the confining potentials and the interaction energies by a self-consistent arrangement of the particles. It results in the formation of layers throughout the channel and of a density gradient along the channel. The particles accommodate to the density gradient by reducing the number of layers one by one when it is energetically favorable. The position of the layer reduction zone fluctuates with time while the particles continuously pass this zone. The flow behavior of the particles is studied in detail. The velocities of the particles and their diffusion behavior reflect the influence of the self-organized order of the system.
Thermal Diffusion Dynamic Behavior of Two-Dimensional Ag-SMALL Clusters on Ag(1 1 1) Surface
Zakirur-Rehman; Hayat, Sardar Sikandar
2015-07-01
In this paper, the thermal diffusion behavior of small two-dimensional Ag-islands on Ag(1 1 1) surface has been explored using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The approach is based on semi-empirical potentials. The key microscopic processes responsible for the diffusion of Ag1-5 adislands on Ag(1 1 1) surface are identified. The hopping and zigzag concerted motion along with rotation are observed for Ag one-atom to three-atom islands while single-atom and multi-atom processes are revealed for Ag four-atom and five-atom islands, during the diffusion on Ag(1 1 1) surface. The same increasing/decreasing trend in the diffusion coefficient and effective energy barrier is observed in both the self learning kinetic Monte Carlo (SLKMC) and MD calculations, for the temperature range of 300-700 K. An increase in the value of effective energy barrier is noticed with corresponding increase in the number of atoms in Ag-adislands. A reasonable linear fit is observed for the diffusion coefficient for studied temperatures (300, 500 and 700 K). For the observed diffusion mechanisms, our findings are in good agreement with ab initio density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for Al/Al(1 1 1) while the energy barrier values are in same range as the experimental values for Cu/Ag(1 1 1) and the theoretical values using ab initio DFT supplemented with embedded-atom method for Ag/Ag(1 1 1).
Deng, Mengmeng; Kwac, Kijeong; Li, Meng; Jung, Yousung; Park, Hyung Gyu
2017-04-12
Two-dimensional (2D) subnanometer channels allow unique mass transport promising for molecular sieving. New 2D channels of MoS 2 nanosheets allow one to understand molecular transmission and separation, unlike the graphene oxide counterpart containing various defects and cationic metal contaminants. Membranes from layered MoS 2 platelets show extraordinary stability in an aqueous environment and compatibility with polymer filters, both beneficial to efficient manufacturing. Sharing gas-tightness and unimpeded water vapor permeation with a graphene oxide membrane, our lamellar MoS 2 membrane demonstrates a molecular sieving property for organic vapor for the first time. The MoS 2 membrane also reveals diffusion selectivity of aqueous ions, attributable to the energy penalty in bulk-to-2D dimensional transition. These newly revealed properties of the lamellar membrane full of angstrom-sized 2D channels point to membrane technology applications for energy and environment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tito, Mariella Janette Berrocal
2001-01-01
The analysis of inverse problems in participating media where emission, absorption and scattering take place has several relevant applications in engineering and medicine. Some of the techniques developed for the solution of inverse problems have as a first step the solution of the direct problem. In this work the discrete ordinates method has been used for the solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation in two dimensional cartesian geometry. The Levenberg - Marquardt method has been used for the solution of the inverse problem of internal source and absorption and scattering coefficient estimation. (author)
Basic problems and solution methods for two-dimensional continuous 3 × 3 order hidden Markov model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Guo-gang; Tang, Gui-jin; Gan, Zong-liang; Cui, Zi-guan; Zhu, Xiu-chang
2016-01-01
A novel model referred to as two-dimensional continuous 3 × 3 order hidden Markov model is put forward to avoid the disadvantages of the classical hypothesis of two-dimensional continuous hidden Markov model. This paper presents three equivalent definitions of the model, in which the state transition probability relies on not only immediate horizontal and vertical states but also immediate diagonal state, and in which the probability density of the observation relies on not only current state but also immediate horizontal and vertical states. The paper focuses on the three basic problems of the model, namely probability density calculation, parameters estimation and path backtracking. Some algorithms solving the questions are theoretically derived, by exploiting the idea that the sequences of states on rows or columns of the model can be viewed as states of a one-dimensional continuous 1 × 2 order hidden Markov model. Simulation results further demonstrate the performance of the algorithms. Because there are more statistical characteristics in the structure of the proposed new model, it can more accurately describe some practical problems, as compared to two-dimensional continuous hidden Markov model.
Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Li, Jiao; Zhou, Zhongxing; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng
2016-04-01
We present a generalized strategy for direct reconstruction in pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) with CT-analogous scanning mode, which can accomplish one-step reconstruction of the indocyanine-green pharmacokinetic-rate images within in vivo small animals by incorporating the compartmental kinetic model into an adaptive extended Kalman filtering scheme and using an instantaneous sampling dataset. This scheme, compared with the established indirect and direct methods, eliminates the interim error of the DFT inversion and relaxes the expensive requirement of the instrument for obtaining highly time-resolved date-sets of complete 360 deg projections. The scheme is validated by two-dimensional simulations for the two-compartment model and pilot phantom experiments for the one-compartment model, suggesting that the proposed method can estimate the compartmental concentrations and the pharmacokinetic-rates simultaneously with a fair quantitative and localization accuracy, and is well suitable for cost-effective and dense-sampling instrumentation based on the highly-sensitive photon counting technique.
Two dimensional heat transfer problem in flow boiling in a rectangular minichannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents mathematical modelling of flow boiling heat transfer in a rectangular minichannel asymmetrically heated by a thin and one-sided enhanced foil. Both surfaces are available for observations due to the openings covered with glass sheets. Thus, changes in the colour of the plain foil surface can be registered and then processed. Plain side of the heating foil is covered with a base coat and liquid crystal paint. Observation of the opposite, enhanced surface of the minichannel allows for identification of the gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns and vapour quality. A two-dimensional mathematical model of heat transfer in three subsequent layers (sheet glass, heating foil, liquid was proposed. Heat transfer in all these layers was described with the respective equations: Laplace equation, Poisson equation and energy equation, subject to boundary conditions corresponding to the observed physical process. The solutions (temperature distributions in all three layers were obtained by Trefftz method. Additionally, the temperature of the boiling liquid was obtained by homotopy perturbation method (HPM combined with Trefftz method. The heat transfer coefficient, derived from Robin boundary condition, was estimated in both approaches. In comparison, the results by both methods show very good agreement especially when restricted to the thermal sublayer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neng Wan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Filho, J. F. P. [Institute de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Av. Italia, s/n, 96203-900 Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barichello, L. B. [Institute de Matematica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91509-900 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)
2013-07-01
In this work, an analytical discrete ordinates method is used to solve a nodal formulation of a neutron transport problem in x, y-geometry. The proposed approach leads to an important reduction in the order of the associated eigenvalue systems, when combined with the classical level symmetric quadrature scheme. Auxiliary equations are proposed, as usually required for nodal methods, to express the unknown fluxes at the boundary introduced as additional unknowns in the integrated equations. Numerical results, for the problem defined by a two-dimensional region with a spatially constant and isotropically emitting source, are presented and compared with those available in the literature. (authors)
Leach, P. G. L.; Nucci, M. C.
2004-09-01
The classical MICZ-Kepler problem is shown to be reducible to an isotropic two-dimensional system of linear harmonic oscillators and a conservation law in terms of new variables related to the Ermanno-Bernoulli constants and the components of the Poincaré vector. An algorithmic route to linearization is shown based on Lie symmetry analysis and the reduction method [ Nucci, J. Math. Phys. 37, 1772 (1996) ]. First integrals are also obtained by symmetry analysis and the reduction method [ Marcelli and Nucci,J. Math. Phys. 44, 2111 (2002) ].
Okawa, Shinpei; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Ishihara, Miya
2017-12-01
Quantitative photoacoustic tomography (QPAT) employing a light propagation model will play an important role in medical diagnoses by quantifying the concentration of hemoglobin or a contrast agent. However, QPAT by the light propagation model with the three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer equation (RTE) requires a huge computational load in the iterative forward calculations involved in the updating process to reconstruct the absorption coefficient. The approximations of the light propagation improve the efficiency of the image reconstruction for the QPAT. In this study, we compared the 3D/two-dimensional (2D) photon diffusion equation (PDE) approximating 3D RTE with the Monte Carlo simulation based on 3D RTE. Then, the errors in a 2D PDE-based linearized image reconstruction caused by the approximations were quantitatively demonstrated and discussed in the numerical simulations. It was clearly observed that the approximations affected the reconstructed absorption coefficient. The 2D PDE-based linearized algorithm succeeded in the image reconstruction of the region with a large absorption coefficient in the 3D phantom. The value reconstructed in the phantom experiment agreed with that in the numerical simulation, so that it was validated that the numerical simulation of the image reconstruction predicted the relationship between the true absorption coefficient of the target in the 3D medium and the reconstructed value with the 2D PDE-based linearized algorithm. Moreover, the the true absorption coefficient in 3D medium was estimated from the 2D reconstructed image on the basis of the prediction by the numerical simulation. The estimation was successful in the phantom experiment, although some limitations were revealed.
A two-dimensional problem for a fibre-reinforced anisotropic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The theory of thermoelasticity with energy dissipation is employed to study plane waves in a ﬁbre-reinforced anisotropic thermoelastic half-space. We apply a thermal shock on the surface of the half-space which is taken to be traction free. The problem is solved numerically using a ﬁnite element method. Moreover, the ...
Two-dimensional Riemann problem for rigid representations on an elliptic curve
Matveeva, A. A.; Poberezhny, V. A.
2017-04-01
We consider a generalization of Riemann-Hilbert problem on elliptic curves. For a given elliptic curve and irreducible representation of free group with two generators we construct explicitly a semistable vector bundle of degree zero obeying a logarithmic connection such that its monodromy over fundamental parallelogram is equivalent to given free group representation, monodromy along a-cycle is trivial and monodromy along b-cycle belong to certain orbit.
A Two-Dimensional Unsteady Method of Characteristics Analysis of Fluid Flow Problems - MCDU 43
1975-07-01
N)>ZBN(KtLfHnt .(RBHIK.L+ltMJ-RBHfK.LtN))) ZPR«-(RMA-RBM(KvLtP))*SINtANGLEU .(ZMA-ZBH(KtLtMn*COS(ANGLE) BPp = (PMA-RPMIK,L,M))*CCS(ANr,LFI*(ZMA...as a standard the exact solution of Sedov’s cylindrical-blast-wave problem, see -4 Ref. F7 . An initial time-plane is chosen at a time of 1.591 x 10... F7 . Chou, P.C., and Karpp, R.R., "Solution of Blast Waves by the Method of Characteristics", DIT Report No. 125-7, Drexel Institute of Technology
MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko
1997-10-01
A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Castillo, John J.; Torres, Mary H.; Molina, Daniel R.
2012-01-01
A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate that was......A conjugate between single-walled carbon nanotubes, chitosan and folic acid has been prepared. It was characterized by diffusion ordered two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy which revealed the presence of a conjugate...... that was generated by the linkage between the carboxyl moiety of the folic acid and the amino group of the chitosan, which in turn was non-covalently bound to the single-walled carbon nanotubes. The obtained diffusion coefficient values demonstrated that free folic acid diffused more rapidly than the folic acid...... conjugated to single-walled carbon nanotubes-chitosan. The values of the proton signal of hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and two-dimensional hydrogen-1 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy further confirmed that the folic acid was conjugated to the chitosan, wrapping the single...
Yang, Zhaochen; Liao, Shijun
2017-12-01
In this paper, a new analytic approach, namely the wavelet homotopy analysis method (wHAM), is developed for boundary value problems (BVPs) governed by nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), which successfully combines the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and the generalized Coiflet-type wavelet. To improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a section-based wavelet approximation for partial derivatives is proposed. The two-dimensional Bratu equation is used as an example to illustrate its basic ideas of the wHAM. Numerical results verify the validity as well as great advantages of the wHAM. Compared with the normal HAM, the wHAM possesses not only larger freedom to choose the auxiliary linear operator, but also better convergence property and higher computational efficiency. In addition, the iteration approach can greatly accelerate convergence.
An investigation on a two-dimensional problem of Mode-I crack in a thermoelastic medium
Kant, Shashi; Gupta, Manushi; Shivay, Om Namha; Mukhopadhyay, Santwana
2018-04-01
In this work, we consider a two-dimensional dynamical problem of an infinite space with finite linear Mode-I crack and employ a recently proposed heat conduction model: an exact heat conduction with a single delay term. The thermoelastic medium is taken to be homogeneous and isotropic. However, the boundary of the crack is subjected to a prescribed temperature and stress distributions. The Fourier and Laplace transform techniques are used to solve the problem. Mathematical modeling of the present problem reduces the solution of the problem into the solution of a system of four dual integral equations. The solution of these equations is equivalent to the solution of the Fredholm's integral equation of the first kind which has been solved by using the regularization method. Inverse Laplace transform is carried out by using the Bellman method, and we obtain the numerical solution for all the physical field variables in the physical domain. Results are shown graphically, and we highlight the effects of the presence of crack in the behavior of thermoelastic interactions inside the medium in the present context, and its results are compared with the results of the thermoelasticity of type-III.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Prolo Filho, Joao Francisco [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica, Estatistica e Fisica; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei; Basso Barichello, Liliane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst de Matematica
2014-04-15
In this work a study of two-dimensional fixed-source neutron transport problems, in Cartesian geometry, is reported. The approach reduces the complexity of the multidimensional problem using a combination of nodal schemes and the Analytical Discrete Ordinates Method (ADO). The unknown leakage terms on the boundaries that appear from the use of the derivation of the nodal scheme are incorporated to the problem source term, such as to couple the one-dimensional integrated solutions, made explicit in terms of the x and y spatial variables. The formulation leads to a considerable reduction of the order of the associated eigenvalue problems when combined with the usual symmetric quadratures, thereby providing solutions that have a higher degree of computational efficiency. Reflective-type boundary conditions are introduced to represent the domain on a simpler form than that previously considered in connection with the ADO method. Numerical results obtained with the technique are provided and compared to those present in the literature. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanna, S.R.
1976-01-01
It is hoped that urban diffusion models of air pollutants can eventually confidently be used to make major decisions, such as in planning the layout of a new industrial park, determining the effects of a new highway on air quality, or estimating the results of a new automobile emissions exhaust system. The urban diffusion model itself should be able to account for point, line, and area sources, and the local aerodynamic effects of street canyons and building wakes. Removal or transformations due to dry or wet deposition and chemical reactions are often important. It would be best if the model included meteorological parameters such as wind speed and temperature as dependent variables, since these parameters vary significantly when air passes from rural surfaces over urban surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woznicki, Z.
1976-05-01
This report presents the AGA two-sweep iterative methods belonging to the family of factorization techniques in their practical application in the HEXAGA-II two-dimensional programme to obtain the numerical solution to the multi-group, time-independent, (real and/or adjoint) neutron diffusion equations for a fine uniform triangular mesh. An arbitrary group scattering model is permitted. The report written for the users provides the description of input and output. The use of HEXAGA-II is illustrated by two sample reactor problems. (orig.) [de
Wen, Baole; Chini, Gregory P.; Kerswell, Rich R.; Doering, Charles R.
2015-10-01
An alternative computational procedure for numerically solving a class of variational problems arising from rigorous upper-bound analysis of forced-dissipative infinite-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, including the Navier-Stokes and Oberbeck-Boussinesq equations, is analyzed and applied to Rayleigh-Bénard convection. A proof that the only steady state to which this numerical algorithm can converge is the required global optimal of the relevant variational problem is given for three canonical flow configurations. In contrast with most other numerical schemes for computing the optimal bounds on transported quantities (e.g., heat or momentum) within the "background field" variational framework, which employ variants of Newton's method and hence require very accurate initial iterates, the new computational method is easy to implement and, crucially, does not require numerical continuation. The algorithm is used to determine the optimal background-method bound on the heat transport enhancement factor, i.e., the Nusselt number (Nu), as a function of the Rayleigh number (Ra), Prandtl number (Pr), and domain aspect ratio L in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries (Rayleigh's original 1916 model of convection). The result of the computation is significant because analyses, laboratory experiments, and numerical simulations have suggested a range of exponents α and β in the presumed Nu˜PrαRaβ scaling relation. The computations clearly show that for Ra≤1010 at fixed L =2 √{2 },Nu≤0.106 Pr0Ra5/12 , which indicates that molecular transport cannot generally be neglected in the "ultimate" high-Ra regime.
Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.
2017-12-01
For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal (100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN˜ N-β with β =3 /2 . However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N mediated diffusion with small β moderate sizes 9 ≤N ≤O (102) ; the same also applies for N =Np+3 , Np+ 4 , ... (iii) facile diffusion but with large β >2 for N =Np+1 and Np+2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤N ≤O (102) ; (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲β moderate size regime where we show that diffusivity cycles quasiperiodically from the slowest branch for Np+3 (not Np) to the fastest branch for Np+1 . Behavior is quantified by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate stochastic lattice-gas model. However, precise analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground-state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prinja, A.K.
1998-09-01
In this work, it has been shown that, for the given sets of parameters (transport coefficients), the Tangent-Predictor (TP) continuation method, which was used in the coarsest grid, works remarkably well. The problems in finding an initial guess that resides well within Newton`s method radius of convergence are alleviated by correcting the initial guess by the predictor step of the TP method. The TP method works well also in neutral gas puffing and impurity simulations. The neutral gas puffing simulation is performed by systematically increasing the fraction of puffing rate according to the TP method until it reaches a desired condition. Similarly, the impurity simulation characterized by using the fraction of impurity density as the continuation parameter, is carried out in line with the TP method. Both methods show, as expected, a better performance than the classical embedding (CE) method. The convergence criteria {epsilon} is set to be 10{sup {minus}9} based on the fact that lower value of {epsilon} does not alter the solution significantly. Correspondingly, the number of Newton`s iterations in the corrector step of the TP method decrease substantially, an extra point in terms of code speed. The success of the TP method enlarges the possibility of including other sets of parameters (operations and physics). With the availability of the converged coarsest grid solution, the next forward step to the multigrid cycle becomes possible. The multigrid method shows that the memory storage problems that plagued the application of Newton`s method on fine grids, are of no concern. An important result that needs to be noted here is the performance of the FFCD model. The FFCD model is relatively simple and is based on the overall results the model has shown to predict different divertor plasma parameters. The FFCD model treats exactly the implementation of the deep penetration of energetic neutrals emerging from the divertor plate. The resulting ionization profiles are
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prinja, A.K.
1998-01-01
In this work, it has been shown that, for the given sets of parameters (transport coefficients), the Tangent-Predictor (TP) continuation method, which was used in the coarsest grid, works remarkably well. The problems in finding an initial guess that resides well within Newton's method radius of convergence are alleviated by correcting the initial guess by the predictor step of the TP method. The TP method works well also in neutral gas puffing and impurity simulations. The neutral gas puffing simulation is performed by systematically increasing the fraction of puffing rate according to the TP method until it reaches a desired condition. Similarly, the impurity simulation characterized by using the fraction of impurity density as the continuation parameter, is carried out in line with the TP method. Both methods show, as expected, a better performance than the classical embedding (CE) method. The convergence criteria ε is set to be 10 -9 based on the fact that lower value of ε does not alter the solution significantly. Correspondingly, the number of Newton's iterations in the corrector step of the TP method decrease substantially, an extra point in terms of code speed. The success of the TP method enlarges the possibility of including other sets of parameters (operations and physics). With the availability of the converged coarsest grid solution, the next forward step to the multigrid cycle becomes possible. The multigrid method shows that the memory storage problems that plagued the application of Newton's method on fine grids, are of no concern. An important result that needs to be noted here is the performance of the FFCD model. The FFCD model is relatively simple and is based on the overall results the model has shown to predict different divertor plasma parameters. The FFCD model treats exactly the implementation of the deep penetration of energetic neutrals emerging from the divertor plate. The resulting ionization profiles are relatively smooth as a
Numata, Munenori; Kozawa, Tomohiro
2014-05-19
Self-assembly of porphyrin molecules can be controlled kinetically to form structures with lengths extending from the nano- to the micrometer scale, through a programmed solvent-diffusion process in designed microflow spaces. Temporal solvent structures generated in the microflow were successfully transcribed into molecular architectures. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)
2015-10-26
A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.
Torres-Carbajal, Alexis; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón
2018-03-07
We report on the friction and diffusion of a single mobile nano-colloidal disk, whose size and mass are one and two orders of magnitude, respectively, greater than the molecules of the host solvent; all particles are restricted to move in a two-dimensional space. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the variation of the transport coefficients as a function of the thermodynamic state of the supporting fluid, in particular, around those states in the neighbourhood of the liquid-liquid phase coexistence, is investigated. The diffusion coefficient is determined through the fit of the mean-square displacement at long times and with the Green-Kubo relationship for the velocity autocorrelation function, whereas the friction coefficient is computed from the correlation of the fluctuating force. From the determination of the transport properties, the applicability of the Stokes-Einstein relation in two dimensions around the second critical point is discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weber, Christopher P.
2005-01-01
Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Christopher Phillip [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2005-01-01
Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tarasenko, Alexander; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Müller, T.
2007-01-01
Roč. 75, č. 8 (2007), 085401/1-085401/10 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100100563; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : surface diffusion * heterogeneous lattices * RSRG method * Monte Carlo simulations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.172, year: 2007
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Basso Barichello, Liliane; Dias da Cunha, Rudnei [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica; Becker Picoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica; Tres, Anderson [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Matematica Aplicada
2015-05-15
A nodal formulation of a fixed-source two-dimensional neutron transport problem, in Cartesian geometry, defined in a heterogeneous medium, is solved by an analytical approach. Explicit expressions, in terms of the spatial variables, are derived for averaged fluxes in each region in which the domain is subdivided. The procedure is an extension of an analytical discrete ordinates method, the ADO method, for the solution of the two-dimensional homogeneous medium case. The scheme is developed from the discrete ordinates version of the two-dimensional transport equation along with the level symmetric quadrature scheme. As usual for nodal schemes, relations between the averaged fluxes and the unknown angular fluxes at the contours are introduced as auxiliary equations. Numerical results are in agreement with results available in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai, King C.; Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, James W.
2017-01-01
For diffusion of two-dimensional homoepitaxial clusters of N atoms on metal(100) surfaces mediated by edge atom hopping, macroscale continuum theory suggests that the diffusion coefficient scales like DN ~ N -β with β = 3/2. However, we find quite different and diverse behavior in multiple size regimes. These include: (i) facile diffusion for small sizes N < 9; (ii) slow nucleation-mediated diffusion with small β < 1 for “perfect” sizes N = N p = L 2 or L(L+1), for L = 3, 4,… having unique ground state shapes, for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); the same also applies for N = N p +3, N p + 4,… (iii) facile diffusion but with large β > 2 for N = Np + 1 and N p + 2 also for moderate sizes 9 ≤ N ≤ O(10 2 ); (iv) merging of the above distinct branches and subsequent anomalous scaling with 1 ≲ β < 3/2, reflecting the quasi-facetted structure of clusters, for larger N = O(10 2 ) to N = O(10 3 ); and (v) classic scaling with β = 3/2 for very large N = O(103) and above. The specified size ranges apply for typical model parameters. We focus on the moderate size regime where show that diffusivity cycles quasi-periodically from the slowest branch for N p + 3 (not Np) to the fastest branch for Np + 1. Behavior is quantified by Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of an appropriate stochastic lattice-gas model. However, precise analysis must account for a strong enhancement of diffusivity for short time increments due to back-correlation in the cluster motion. Further understanding of this enhancement, of anomalous size scaling behavior, and of the merging of various branches, is facilitated by combinatorial analysis of the number of the ground state and low-lying excited state cluster configurations, and also of kink populations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saveliev, M.V.
1983-01-01
A method is proposed for classification of exactly and completely integrable embeddings of two dimensional manifoilds into Riemann or non-Riemann enveloping space, which are based on the algebraic approach to the integration of nonlinear dynamical systems.Here the grading conditions and spectral structure of the Lax-pair operators taking the values in a graded Lie algebra that pick out the integrable class of nonlinear systems are formulated 1n terms of a structure of the 3-d fundamental form tensors. Corresponding to every embedding of three-dimensional subalgebra sb(2) into a simple finite-dimensional (infinite-dimensional of finite growth) Lie algebra L is a definite class of exactly (completely) integrable embeddings of two dimensional manifold into the corresponding enveloping space supplied with the structure of L
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, A.I.M.; Wilson, D.J.
1984-12-01
A multigroup diffusion code has been used to predict the count rate from a neutron moisture meter for a range of values of soil water content ω, thermal neutron absorption cross section Ssub(a) (defined as Σsub(a)/rho) of the soil matrix and soil matrix density rho. Two dimensions adequately approximated the geometry of the source, detector and soil surrounding the detector. Seven energy groups, the data for which were condensed from 128 group data set over the neutron energy spectrum appropriate to the soil-water mixture under study, proved adequate to describe neutron slowing-down and diffusion. The soil-water mixture was an SiO 2 →water mixture, with the absorption cross section of SiO 2 increased to cover the range of Σsub(a) required. The response to changes in matrix density is, in general, linear but the response to changes in water content is not linear over the range of parameter values investigated. Tabular results are presented which allow interpolation of the response for a particular ω, Ssub(a) and rho. It is shown that R(ω, Ssub(a), rho) rho M(Ssub(a)) + C(ω) is a crude representation of the response over a very limited range of variation of ω, and Ssub(a). As the response is a slowly varying function of rho, Ssub(a) and ω, a polynomial fit will provide a better estimate of the response for values of rho, Ssub(a) and ω not tabulated
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Pellegrini, Yves-Patrick; Lazar, Markus
2015-01-01
The two-dimensional elastodynamic Green tensor is the primary building block of solutions of linear elasticity problems dealing with nonuniformly moving rectilinear line sources, such as dislocations. Elastodynamic solutions for these problems involve derivatives of this Green tensor, which stand as hypersingular kernels. These objects, well defined as distributions, prove cumbersome to handle in practice. This paper, restricted to isotropic media, examines some of their representations in th...
Bradley, R. Mark
2009-12-01
Diffusion in a narrow two-dimensional channel with a midline that need not be straight and a width that may vary is reduced to an effective one-dimensional equation of motion. This equation takes the form of the Fick-Jacobs equation with a spatially varying effective diffusivity. The effective diffusivity includes a contribution that comes from the slope of the midline as well as the usual term stemming from variations in the channel width along the length of the channel. Our derivation of our equation of motion is completely rigorous and is based on an asymptotic expansion in a small dimensionless parameter that characterizes the channel width. For a channel that has a straight midline or wall, our equation of motion reduces to Zwanzig’s equation [R. Zwanzig, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992)]. Our derivation therefore provides a rigorous proof of the validity of the latter equation. Finally, the equation of motion is solved analytically for channels with curved midline and constant width.
Two-dimensional ferroelectrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)
2000-03-31
The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1991-01-01
This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Neustupa, Jiří; Siginer, D.
123-124, August (2015), s. 68-88 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-00522S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Bernard problem * Navier-Stokes equations * boussinesq approximation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.125, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X15001169
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šremr, Jiří
2007-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 3 (2007), s. 263-295 ISSN 0862-7959 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/04/P183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : system of functional differential equations with monotone operators * initial value problem * unique solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves Filho, O.J.A.
1987-01-01
This work aims to describe the computer code EVP2D developed for the elastoviscoplastic-damage analysis of mettalic components, with particular emphasis dedicated to the problem of creep damage and rupture. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts and procedures of Continuum Damage Mechanics, the constitutive equations implemented are presented. Next, the finite element approximation proposed for solution of the initial boundary value problem of interest is discussed, particularly the numerical algorithms used for time integration of the creep strain rate and damage rate equations, and the numerical procedures adopted for dealing with the presense of partially or fully ruptured finite elements in the mesh. As a pratical application, the rupture behaviour of a biaxially tension loaded plate containing a central circular hole is examined. Finally, future developments of the code, which include as prioritiesthe treatment of ciyclic loads and the description of the anisotropic feature of creep damage evolution, are briefly introduced. (author) [pt
Spagnol, S.; Wolanski, E.; Deleersnijder, E.; Brinkman, R.; McAllister, F.; Cushman-Roisin, B.; Hanert, E.
2002-01-01
The flushing time of reef lagoons estimated over recent years by 2-dimensional Lagrangian algorithms may have been significantly overestimated. This is due to a numerical artefact, leading to spurious accumulation of particles in regions where the water depth or the diffusivity is smallest. The nature of this numerical problem has remained largely unknown in the coral reef modelling community, although it was described, along with an efficient remedy, in several studies which are about a deca...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jang, K.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lee, S.J.; Lee, M.W.; Choi, D.; Kim, K.M.
2014-01-01
Aim: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of gastric cancer in comparison with that of two-dimensional (2D) multidetector row computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: The study included 189 patients with 170 surgically confirmed gastric cancers and 19 patients without gastric cancer, all of whom underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI with diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, and multidetector contrast-enhanced abdominal CT imaging. Two observers independently analysed three sets of images (CT set, conventional MRI set, and combined conventional and DW MRI set). A five-point scale for likelihood of gastric cancer was used. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were evaluated. Quantitative [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) analyses with Mann–Whitney U-test were conducted for gastric cancers and the nearby normal gastric wall. Results: The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer were significantly higher on combined conventional and DW MRI set (77.8–78.3%; 75.3–75.9%) than the CT imaging set (67.7–71.4%; 64.1–68.2%) or the conventional MRI set (72–73%; 68.8–70%; p < 0.01). In particular, for gastric cancers with pT2 and pT3, the combined conventional and DW MRI set (91.6–92.6%) yielded significantly higher sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer than did the CT imaging set (76.8–81.1%) by both observers (p < 0.01). The mean ADC of gastric cancer lesions (1 ± 0.23 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s) differed significantly from that of normal gastric wall (1.77 ± 0.25 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Abdominal MRI with DW imaging was more sensitive for the detection of gastric cancer than 2D-multidetector row CT or conventional MRI alone. - Highlights: • The sensitivity for detection of gastric cancer is high on abdominal MR imaging. • DW imaging is helpful for
Multigrid Approaches to Non-linear Diffusion Problems on Unstructured Meshes
2001-02-01
The efficiency of three multigrid methods for solving highly non-linear diffusion problems on two-dimensional unstructured meshes is examined. The...three multigrid methods differ mainly in the manner in which the non-linearities of the governing equations are handled. These comprise a non-linear
Integrable two dimensional supersystems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathy, K.C.; Tripathy, L.K.
1988-08-01
The integrability of two dimensional time-dependent classical systems is examined in N=2 superspace using Dirac's second class constraints. The invariants involving quadratic powers in velocities for super harmonic oscillator and super Kepler potentials have been derived. (author). 5 refs
Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems
Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.
2015-03-01
In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.
Nyadong, Leonard; Harris, Glenn A; Balayssac, Stéphane; Galhena, Asiri S; Malet-Martino, Myriam; Martino, Robert; Parry, R Mitchell; Wang, May Dongmei; Fernández, Facundo M; Gilard, Véronique
2009-06-15
During the past decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of reported cases involving counterfeit medicines in developing and developed countries. Particularly, artesunate-based antimalarial drugs have been targeted, because of their high demand and cost. Counterfeit antimalarials can cause death and can contribute to the growing problem of drug resistance, particularly in southeast Asia. In this study, the complementarity of two-dimensional diffusion-ordered (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D DOSY (1)H NMR) with direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry (DART MS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI MS) was assessed for pharmaceutical forensic purposes. Fourteen different artesunate tablets, representative of what can be purchased from informal sources in southeast Asia, were investigated with these techniques. The expected active pharmaceutical ingredient was detected in only five formulations via both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) methods. Common organic excipients such as sucrose, lactose, stearate, dextrin, and starch were also detected. The graphical representation of DOSY (1)H NMR results proved very useful for establishing similarities among groups of samples, enabling counterfeit drug "chemotyping". In addition to bulk- and surface-average analyses, spatially resolved information on the surface composition of counterfeit and genuine antimalarial formulations was obtained using DESI MS that was performed in the imaging mode, which enabled one to visualize the homogeneity of both genuine and counterfeit drug samples. Overall, this study suggests that 2D DOSY (1)H NMR, combined with ambient MS, comprises a powerful suite of instrumental analysis methodologies for the integral characterization of counterfeit antimalarials.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Finite element method for neutron diffusion problems in hexagonal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, T.Y.C.; Hansen, K.F.
1975-06-01
The use of the finite element method for solving two-dimensional static neutron diffusion problems in hexagonal reactor configurations is considered. It is investigated as a possible alternative to the low-order finite difference method. Various piecewise polynomial spaces are examined for their use in hexagonal problems. The central questions which arise in the design of these spaces are the degree of incompleteness permissible and the advantages of using a low-order space fine-mesh approach over that of a high-order space coarse-mesh one. There is also the question of the degree of smoothness required. Two schemes for the construction of spaces are described and a number of specific spaces, constructed with the questions outlined above in mind, are presented. They range from a complete non-Lagrangian, non-Hermite quadratic space to an incomplete ninth order space. Results are presented for two-dimensional problems typical of a small high temperature gas-cooled reactor. From the results it is concluded that the space used should at least include the complete linear one. Complete spaces are to be preferred to totally incomplete ones. Once function continuity is imposed any additional degree of smoothness is of secondary importance. For flux shapes typical of the small high temperature gas-cooled reactor the linear space fine-mesh alternative is to be preferred to the perturbation quadratic space coarse-mesh one and the low-order finite difference method is to be preferred over both finite element schemes
Tikhonov, A. M.
2017-11-01
The molecular structure of neutral n-triacontanol mesophases at the n-hexane-water interface has been studied by diffuse X-ray scattering using synchrotron radiation. According to the experimental data, a transition to the multilayer adsorption of alkanol occurs at a temperature below the transition from a gas phase to a liquid Gibbs monolayer.
Problems with Discontinuous Diffusion/Dispersion Coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Ferraris
2012-01-01
accurate on smooth solutions and based on a special numerical treatment of the diffusion/dispersion coefficients that makes its application possible also when such coefficients are discontinuous. Numerical experiments confirm the convergence of the numerical approximation and show a good behavior on a set of benchmark problems in two space dimensions.
Lempert, W.; Kumar, V.; Glesk, I.; Miles, R.; Diskin, G.
1991-01-01
The use of a tunable ArF laser at 193.26 nm to record simultaneous single-laser-shot, planar images of molecular hydrogen and hot oxygen in a turbulent H2-air diffusion flame. Excitation spectra of fuel and oxidant-rich flame zones confirm a partial overlap of the two-photon H2 and single-photon O2 Schumann-Runge absorption bands. UV Rayleigh scattering images of flame structure and estimated detection limits for the H2 two-photon imaging are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loebel, Ulrike; Sedlacik, Jan; Sabin, Noah D.; Hillenbrand, Claudia M.; Patay, Zoltan; Kocak, Mehmet; Broniscer, Alberto
2010-01-01
We compared the sensitivity and specificity of T2*-weighted gradient-echo imaging (T2*-GRE) and susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in determining prevalence and cumulative incidence of intratumoral hemorrhages in children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) undergoing antiangiogenic and radiation therapy. Patients were recruited from an institutional review board-approved prospective phase I trial of vandetanib administered in combination with radiation therapy. Patient consent was obtained before enrollment. Consecutive T2*-GRE and SWI exams of 17 patients (F/M: 9/8; age 3-17 years) were evaluated. Two reviewers (R1 and R2) determined the number and size of hemorrhages at baseline and multiple follow-ups (92 scans, mean 5.4/patient). Statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, graphical tools, and mixed-effects Poisson regression models. Prevalence of hemorrhages at diagnosis was 41% and 47%; the cumulative incidences of hemorrhages at 6 months by T2*-GRE and SWI were 82% and 88%, respectively. Hemorrhages were mostly petechial; 9.7% of lesions on T2*-GRE and 5.2% on SWI were hematomas (>5 mm). SWI identified significantly more hemorrhages than T2*-GRE did. Lesions were missed or misinterpreted in 36/39 (R1/R2) scans by T2*-GRE and 9/3 scans (R1/R2) by SWI. Hemorrhages had no clinically significant neurological correlates in patients. SWI is more sensitive than T2*-GRE in detecting hemorrhages and differentiating them from calcification, necrosis, and artifacts. Also, petechial hemorrhages are more common in DIPG at diagnosis than previously believed and their number increases during the course of treatment; hematomas are rare. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morganroth, J.; Jones, R.H.; Chen, C.C.; Naito, M.; Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pa.; Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, N.C.)
1980-01-01
The mitral valve prolapse syndrome may present with a variety of clinical manifestations and has proved to be a common cause of nonspecific cardiac symptoms in clinical practice. Primary and secondary forms must be distinguished. Myxomatous degeneration appears to be the common denominator of the primary form. The diagnostic standard of this form has not previously been defined because the detection of mitral leaflet tissue in the left atrium (prolapse) on physical examination or angiography is nonspecific. M mode echocardiography has greatly enhanced the recognition of this syndrome but has not proved to be the best diagnostic standard because of its limited view of mitral valve motion. The advent of two-dimensional echocardiography has provided the potential means for specific identification of the mitral leaflet motion in systole and can be considered the diagnostic standard for this syndrome. Primary myxomatous degeneration with leaflet prolapse is not localized to the mitral valve. Two-dimensional echocardiography has detected in preliminary studies tricuspid valve prolapse in up to 50% and aortic valve prolapse in about 20% of patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morganroth, J.; Jones, R.H.; Chen, C.C.; Naito, M.
1980-12-18
The mitral valve prolapse syndrome may present with a variety of clinical manifestations and has proved to be a common cause of nonspecific cardiac symptoms in clinical practice. Primary and secondary forms must be distinguished. Myxomatous degeneration appears to be the common denominator of the primary form. The diagnostic standard of this form has not previously been defined because the detection of mitral leaflet tissue in the left atrium (prolapse) on physical examination or angiography is nonspecific. M mode echocardiography has greatly enhanced the recognition of this syndrome but has not proved to be the best diagnostic standard because of its limited view of mitral valve motion. The advent of two-dimensional echocardiography has provided the potential means for specific identification of the mitral leaflet motion in systole and can be considered the diagnostic standard for this syndrome. Primary myxomatous degeneration with leaflet prolapse is not localized to the mitral valve. Two-dimensional echocardiography has detected in preliminary studies tricuspid valve prolapse in up to 50% and aortic valve prolapse in about 20% of patients with idiopathic mitral valve prolapse.
Chang, Sin-Chung; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1994-01-01
A new numerical discretization method for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially in both concept and methodology from the well-established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element, and spectral methods. It is motivated by several important physical/numerical considerations and designed to avoid several key limitations of the above traditional methods. As a result of the above considerations, a set of key principles for the design of numerical schemes was put forth in a previous report. These principles were used to construct several numerical schemes that model a 1-D time-dependent convection-diffusion equation. These schemes were then extended to solve the time-dependent Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of a perfect gas. It was shown that the above schemes compared favorably with the traditional schemes in simplicity, generality, and accuracy. In this report, the 2-D versions of the above schemes, except the Navier-Stokes solver, are constructed using the same set of design principles. Their constructions are simplified greatly by the use of a nontraditional space-time mesh. Its use results in the simplest stencil possible, i.e., a tetrahedron in a 3-D space-time with a vertex at the upper time level and other three at the lower time level. Because of the similarity in their design, each of the present 2-D solvers virtually shares with its 1-D counterpart the same fundamental characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the present Euler solver is capable of generating highly accurate solutions for a famous 2-D shock reflection problem. Specifically, both the incident and the reflected shocks can be resolved by a single data point without the presence of numerical oscillations near the discontinuity.
A multilevel in space and energy solver for multigroup diffusion eigenvalue problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben C. Yee
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new multilevel in space and energy diffusion (MSED method for solving multigroup diffusion eigenvalue problems. The MSED method can be described as a PI scheme with three additional features: (1 a grey (one-group diffusion equation used to efficiently converge the fission source and eigenvalue, (2 a space-dependent Wielandt shift technique used to reduce the number of PIs required, and (3 a multigrid-in-space linear solver for the linear solves required by each PI step. In MSED, the convergence of the solution of the multigroup diffusion eigenvalue problem is accelerated by performing work on lower-order equations with only one group and/or coarser spatial grids. Results from several Fourier analyses and a one-dimensional test code are provided to verify the efficiency of the MSED method and to justify the incorporation of the grey diffusion equation and the multigrid linear solver. These results highlight the potential efficiency of the MSED method as a solver for multidimensional multigroup diffusion eigenvalue problems, and they serve as a proof of principle for future work. Our ultimate goal is to implement the MSED method as an efficient solver for the two-dimensional/three-dimensional coarse mesh finite difference diffusion system in the Michigan parallel characteristics transport code. The work in this paper represents a necessary step towards that goal.
Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters
van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt
A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of
A balancing domain decomposition method by constraints for advection-diffusion problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tu, Xuemin; Li, Jing
2008-12-10
The balancing domain decomposition methods by constraints are extended to solving nonsymmetric, positive definite linear systems resulting from the finite element discretization of advection-diffusion equations. A pre-conditioned GMRES iteration is used to solve a Schur complement system of equations for the subdomain interface variables. In the preconditioning step of each iteration, a partially sub-assembled finite element problem is solved. A convergence rate estimate for the GMRES iteration is established, under the condition that the diameters of subdomains are small enough. It is independent of the number of subdomains and grows only slowly with the subdomain problem size. Numerical experiments for several two-dimensional advection-diffusion problems illustrate the fast convergence of the proposed algorithm.
Theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional continuous energy lattice physics code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zerkle, M.L.; Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Ott, M.W.; Winwood, J.P.
1997-01-01
The theory and application of the RAZOR two-dimensional, continuous energy lattice physics code are discussed. RAZOR solves the continuous energy neutron transport equation in one- and two-dimensional geometries, and calculates equivalent few-group diffusion theory constants that rigorously account for spatial and spectral self-shielding effects. A dual energy resolution slowing down algorithm is used to reduce computer memory and disk storage requirements for the slowing down calculation. Results are presented for a 2D BWR pin cell depletion benchmark problem
Quasi-two-dimensional holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.
1980-01-01
The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de
Two dimensional plasma simulation code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazak, G.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, Sh.; Oreg, J.
1977-03-01
An electrostatic two-dimensional particle code for plasma simulation is described. Boundary conditions which take into account the finiteness of the system are presented. An analytic solution for the case of crossed fields plasma acceleration is derived. This solution serves as a check on a computer test run
Chang, Sin-Chung; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1995-01-01
A nontraditional numerical method for solving conservation laws is being developed. The new method is designed from a physicist's perspective, i.e., its development is based more on physics than numerics. Even though it uses only the simplest approximation techniques, a 2D time-marching Euler solver developed recently using the new method is capable of generating nearly perfect solutions for a 2D shock reflection problem used by Helen Yee and others. Moreover, a recent application of this solver to computational aeroacoustics (CAA) problems reveals that: (1) accuracy of its results is comparable to that of a 6th order compact difference scheme even though nominally the current solver is only of 2nd-order accuracy; (2) generally, the non-reflecting boundary condition can be implemented in a simple way without involving characteristic variables; and (3) most importantly, the current solver is capable of handling both continuous and discontinuous flows very well and thus provides a unique numerical tool for solving those flow problems where the interactions between sound waves and shocks are important, such as the noise field around a supersonic over- or under-expansion jet.
Two dimensional image correlation processor
Yao, Shi-Kai
1992-06-01
Two dimensional images are converted into a very long 1-dimensional data stream by means of raster scan. It is shown that the 1-dimensional correlation function of such long data streams is equivalent to the raster scan converted data of 2-dimensional correlation function of images. Real time correlation of high resolution two-dimensional images has been demonstrated using commercially available components. The advantages of this approach includes programmable electronics reference images, easy interface to objects of interest using conventional image collection optics, real time operation with high resolution images using off-the shelf components, and usefulness in the form of either black and white or full colored images. Such system would be versatile enough for robotics vision, optical inspection, and other pattern recognition and identification applications.
Two-dimensional topological photonics
Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady
2017-12-01
Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maciejewska Beata
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the boiling heat transfer coefficient for the cooling liquid flow in a rectangular minichannel with asymmetric heating. The main part of the test section is made up of a vertical minichannel of 1.0 mm depth. The heating foil on the side of the fluid flowing in the minichannel is singlesided enhanced on the selected area. The experiment is carried out with FC-72. The investigations focus on the transition from single-phase forced convection to nucleate boiling, that is, from the zone of boiling incipience further to developed boiling. Owing to the liquid crystal layer located on the heating surface contacting the glass, it is possible to measure the heating wall temperature distribution while increasing the heat flux transferred to the liquid flowing in the minichannel. The objective of the calculations is to evaluate a heat transfer model and numerical approach to solving the inverse boundary problem, and to calculate the heat transfer coefficient. This problem has been solved by means the finite element method in combination with Trefftz functions (FEMT. Trefftz functions are used to construct base functions in Hermite space of the finite element.
Two-dimensional critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saleur, H.
1987-09-01
Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr
Liu, Xunchen; Zhang, Guoyong; Huang, Yan; Wang, Yizun; Qi, Fei
2018-04-01
We present a multi-line flame thermometry technique based on mid-infrared direct absorption spectroscopy of carbon dioxide at its v_3 fundamental around 4.2 μm that is particularly suitable for sooting flames. Temperature and concentration profiles of gas phase molecules in a flame are important characteristics to understand its flame structure and combustion chemistry. One of the standard laboratory flames to analyze polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot formation is laminar non-premixed co-flow flame, but PAH and soot introduce artifact to most non-contact optical measurements. Here we report an accurate diagnostic method of the temperature and concentration profiles of CO2 in ethylene diffusion flames by measuring its v_3 vibrational fundamental. An interband cascade laser was used to probe the R-branch bandhead at 4.2 μm, which is highly sensitive to temperature change, free from soot interference and ambient background. Calibration measurement was carried out both in a low-pressure Herriott cell and an atmospheric pressure tube furnace up to 1550 K to obtain spectroscopic parameters for high-temperature spectra. In our co-flow flame measurement, two-dimensional line-of-sight optical depth of an ethylene/N2 laminar sooting flame was recorded by dual-beam absorption scheme. The axially symmetrical attenuation coefficient profile of CO2 in the co-flow flame was reconstructed from the optical depth by Abel inversion. Spatially resolved flame temperature and in situ CO2 volume fraction profiles were derived from the calibrated CO2 spectroscopic parameters and compared with temperature profiles measured by two-line atomic fluorescence.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong Woon
2012-01-01
A 2-dimensional computational fluid dynamic analysis program DG2LBM by using Lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE) with momentum exchange boundary conditions is developed and it is applied to a feasibility study of nuclear reactor safety component such as a reactor building floor weir (RBFW), a simple as well as an effective option to sediment particulate materials generated after loss of coolant accident of a nuclear power plant and. The program is benchmarked against a standard problem of a flow past a cylinder at relatively low Reynolds numbers, the RBFW is simulated for diverse parametric conditions such as height, inclination angle, number of weirs (1 or 2) and the distance between two weirs. The weir performance is measured by the area of quiescent and/or downward reverse flow region where particles have more chance to sediment. It is found a wake causing reverse downward flow behind the weir mainly contributes to generating the quiescent flow region. And the most effective option in terms of particle sedimentation performance is found to be relatively tall double weirs separated by 2 weir heights. (orig.)
Complex of two-dimensional multigroup programs for neutron-physical computations of nuclear reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karpov, V.A.; Protsenko, A.N.
1975-01-01
Briefly stated mathematical aspects of the two-dimensional multigroup method of neutron-physical computation of nuclear reactor. Problems of algorithmization and BESM-6 computer realisation of multigroup diffuse approximations in hexagonal and rectangular calculated lattices are analysed. The results of computation of fast critical assembly having complicated composition of the core are given. The estimation of computation accuracy of criticality, neutron fields distribution and efficiency of absorbing rods by means of computer programs developed is done. (author)
Study of ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacson Simsen
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this work we study ODE limit problems for reaction-diffusion equations for large diffusion and we study the sensitivity of nonlinear ODEs with respect to initial conditions and exponent parameters. Moreover, we prove continuity of the flow and weak upper semicontinuity of a family of global attractors for reaction-diffusion equations with spatially variable exponents when the exponents go to 2 in \\(L^{\\infty}(\\Omega\\ and the diffusion coefficients go to infinity.
Nonlinear diffusion problem arising in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.; Holland, C.J.
1978-01-01
In earlier studies of plasma diffusion with Okuda-Dawson scaling (D approx. n/sup -1/2/), perturbation theory indicated that arbitrary initial data should evolve rapidly toward the separation solution of the relevant nonlinear diffusion equation. Now a Lyapunov functional has been found which is strictly decreasing in time and bounded below. The rigorous proof that arbitrary initial data evolve toeard the separable solution is summarized. Rigorous bounds on the decay time are also presented
Some Problems in Using Diffusion Models for New Products.
Bernhardt, Irwin; Mackenzie, Kenneth D.
This paper analyzes some of the problems of using diffusion models to formulate marketing strategies for new products. Though future work in this area appears justified, many unresolved problems limit its application. There is no theory for adoption and diffusion processes; such a theory is outlined in this paper. The present models are too…
Observing diffusion problems defined on cantor sets in different coordinate systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Xiao-Jun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the two- and three-dimensional diffusions defined on Cantor sets with local fractional differential operator were discussed in different coordinate systems. The two-dimensional diffusion in Cantorian coordinate system can be converted into the symmetric diffusion defined on Cantor sets. The three-dimensional diffusions in Cantorian-coordinate system can be observed in the Cantor-type cylindrical- and spherical-coordinate methods.
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2017-06-12
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Stability analysis of two-dimensional digital recursive filters
Alexander, W. E.; Pruess, S. A.
1980-01-01
A new approach to the stability problem for the two-dimensional digital recursive filter is presented. The bivariate difference equation representation of the two-dimensional recursive digital filter is converted to a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) system similar to the state-space representation of the one-dimensional digital recursive filter. In this paper, a pseudo-state representation is used and three coefficient matrices are obtained. A general theorem for stability of two-dimensional digital recursive filters is derived and a very useful theorem is presented which expresses sufficient requirements for instability in terms of the spectral radii of these matrices.
A new analytical solution to the diffusion problem: Fourier series ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper reviews briefly the origin of Fourier Series Method. The paper then gives a vivid description of how the method can be applied to solve a diffusion problem, subject to some boundary conditions. The result obtained is quite appealing as it can be used to solve similar examples of diffusion equations. JONAMP Vol.
Two-dimensional Quantum Gravity
Rolf, Juri
1998-10-01
This Ph.D. thesis pursues two goals: The study of the geometrical structure of two-dimensional quantum gravity and in particular its fractal nature. To address these questions we review the continuum formalism of quantum gravity with special focus on the scaling properties of the theory. We discuss several concepts of fractal dimensions which characterize the extrinsic and intrinsic geometry of quantum gravity. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Dimitrij Boulatov, Jakob L. Nielsen and Yoshiyuki Watabiki (1997). The other goal is the discussion of the discretization of quantum gravity and to address the so called quantum failure of Regge calculus. We review dynamical triangulations and show that it agrees with the continuum theory in two dimensions. Then we discuss Regge calculus and prove that a continuum limit cannot be taken in a sensible way and that it does not reproduce continuum results. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Jakob L. Nielsen and George Savvidy (1997).
Total variation regularization for a backward time-fractional diffusion problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jijun
2013-01-01
Consider a two-dimensional backward problem for a time-fractional diffusion process, which can be considered as image de-blurring where the blurring process is assumed to be slow diffusion. In order to avoid the over-smoothing effect for object image with edges and to construct a fast reconstruction scheme, the total variation regularizing term and the data residual error in the frequency domain are coupled to construct the cost functional. The well posedness of this optimization problem is studied. The minimizer is sought approximately using the iteration process for a series of optimization problems with Bregman distance as a penalty term. This iteration reconstruction scheme is essentially a new regularizing scheme with coupling parameter in the cost functional and the iteration stopping times as two regularizing parameters. We give the choice strategy for the regularizing parameters in terms of the noise level of measurement data, which yields the optimal error estimate on the iterative solution. The series optimization problems are solved by alternative iteration with explicit exact solution and therefore the amount of computation is much weakened. Numerical implementations are given to support our theoretical analysis on the convergence rate and to show the significant reconstruction improvements. (paper)
Reprint of Domain decomposition multigrid methods for nonlinear reaction-diffusion problems
Arrarás, A.; Gaspar, F. J.; Portero, L.; Rodrigo, C.
2015-04-01
In this work, we propose efficient discretizations for nonlinear evolutionary reaction-diffusion problems on general two-dimensional domains. The spatial domain is discretized through an unstructured coarse triangulation, which is subsequently refined via regular triangular grids. Following the method of lines approach, we first consider a finite element spatial discretization, and then use a linearly implicit splitting time integrator related to a suitable decomposition of the triangulation nodes. Such a procedure provides a linear system per internal stage. The equations corresponding to those nodes lying strictly inside the elements of the coarse triangulation can be decoupled and solved in parallel using geometric multigrid techniques. The method is unconditionally stable and computationally efficient, since it avoids the need for Schwarz-type iteration procedures. In addition, it is formulated for triangular elements, thus yielding much flexibility in the discretization of complex geometries. To illustrate its practical utility, the algorithm is shown to reproduce the pattern-forming dynamics of the Schnakenberg model.
Diffusion-synthetic acceleration methods for discrete-ordinates problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, E.W.
1984-01-01
The diffusion-synthetic acceleration (DSA) method is an iterative procedure for obtaining numerical solutions of discrete-ordinates problems. The DSA method is operationally more complicated than the standard source-iteration (SI) method, but if encoded properly it converges much more rapidly, especially for problems with diffusion-like regions. In this article we describe the basic ideas behind the DSA method and give a (roughly chronological) review of its long development. We conclude with a discussion which covers additional topics, including some remaining open problems an the status of current efforts aimed at solving these problems
A tutorial on inverse problems for anomalous diffusion processes
Jin, Bangti; Rundell, William
2015-03-01
Over the last two decades, anomalous diffusion processes in which the mean squares variance grows slower or faster than that in a Gaussian process have found many applications. At a macroscopic level, these processes are adequately described by fractional differential equations, which involves fractional derivatives in time or/and space. The fractional derivatives describe either history mechanism or long range interactions of particle motions at a microscopic level. The new physics can change dramatically the behavior of the forward problems. For example, the solution operator of the time fractional diffusion diffusion equation has only limited smoothing property, whereas the solution for the space fractional diffusion equation may contain weak singularity. Naturally one expects that the new physics will impact related inverse problems in terms of uniqueness, stability, and degree of ill-posedness. The last aspect is especially important from a practical point of view, i.e., stably reconstructing the quantities of interest. In this paper, we employ a formal analytic and numerical way, especially the two-parameter Mittag-Leffler function and singular value decomposition, to examine the degree of ill-posedness of several ‘classical’ inverse problems for fractional differential equations involving a Djrbashian-Caputo fractional derivative in either time or space, which represent the fractional analogues of that for classical integral order differential equations. We discuss four inverse problems, i.e., backward fractional diffusion, sideways problem, inverse source problem and inverse potential problem for time fractional diffusion, and inverse Sturm-Liouville problem, Cauchy problem, backward fractional diffusion and sideways problem for space fractional diffusion. It is found that contrary to the wide belief, the influence of anomalous diffusion on the degree of ill-posedness is not definitive: it can either significantly improve or worsen the conditioning of
Logarithmic Superdiffusion in Two Dimensional Driven Lattice Gases
Krug, J.; Neiss, R. A.; Schadschneider, A.; Schmidt, J.
2018-03-01
The spreading of density fluctuations in two-dimensional driven diffusive systems is marginally anomalous. Mode coupling theory predicts that the diffusivity in the direction of the drive diverges with time as (ln t)^{2/3} with a prefactor depending on the macroscopic current-density relation and the diffusion tensor of the fluctuating hydrodynamic field equation. Here we present the first numerical verification of this behavior for a particular version of the two-dimensional asymmetric exclusion process. Particles jump strictly asymmetrically along one of the lattice directions and symmetrically along the other, and an anisotropy parameter p governs the ratio between the two rates. Using a novel massively parallel coupling algorithm that strongly reduces the fluctuations in the numerical estimate of the two-point correlation function, we are able to accurately determine the exponent of the logarithmic correction. In addition, the variation of the prefactor with p provides a stringent test of mode coupling theory.
Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday Augustus REJU
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.
Matrix-dependent multigrid-homogenization for diffusion problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knapek, S. [Institut fuer Informatik tu Muenchen (Germany)
1996-12-31
We present a method to approximately determine the effective diffusion coefficient on the coarse scale level of problems with strongly varying or discontinuous diffusion coefficients. It is based on techniques used also in multigrid, like Dendy`s matrix-dependent prolongations and the construction of coarse grid operators by means of the Galerkin approximation. In numerical experiments, we compare our multigrid-homogenization method with homogenization, renormalization and averaging approaches.
Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.
Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two- dimensional eigenvalue problem. Keywords. Vibrations; piezoelectricity ...
Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1995-01-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
A novel boundary element method for nonuniform neutron diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itagaki, Masafumi; Nisiyama, Shusuke; Tomioka, Satoshi; Enoto, Takeaki
1999-01-01
An advanced boundary element formulation has been proposed to solve the neutron diffusion equation (NDE) for a 'nonuniform' system. The continuous spatial distribution of a nuclear constant is assumed to be described using a polynomial function. Part of the constant term in the polynomial is left on the left-hand-side of the NDE, while the reminding is added to the fission source term on the right-hand-side to create a fictitious source. When the neutron flux is also expanded using a polynomial, the boundary integral equation corresponding to the NDE contains a domain integral related to the polynomial source. This domain integral is transformed into an infinite series of boundary integrals, by repeated application of the particular solution for a Poisson-type equation with the polynomial source. In two-dimensional, one-group test calculations for rectangular domains, the orthogonality of Legendre polynomials was used to determine the polynomial expansion coefficients. The results show good agreement with those obtained from finite difference computations in which the nonuniformity was approximated by a large number of material regions. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishino, Y.; Kojima, T.; Oiwa, N.; Yamaguchi, S. (Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan))
1993-11-25
The acoustic excitation of a plane diffusion flame enhances the periodicity of organized eddy controlled combustion. In this study, to clarify an effectiveness of application of active combustion control, phase characteristics of the excited eddy flames with high periodicity have been examined. A computer-aided phase-locked averaging method was employed to obtain graphical two-dimensional contour maps of the instantaneous profiles of temperature and CH emission. Both maps consisting of eight consecutive phases indicated clearly not only the periodic behavior of the organized eddy flame, but also the gas dynamic properties peculiar to those flames with coherent structure. In addition, the profiles of local contribution of the sound field to the combustion process were examined by calculating the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index. Calculation results of the two-dimensional distribution of the local Rayleigh index indicated that the organized eddy flames have high sensitivity to sound, and play an important role in an interaction of sound and flame. 6 refs., 9 figs.
Reaction-diffusion problems in the physics of hot plasmas
Wilhelmsson, H
2000-01-01
The physics of hot plasmas is of great importance for describing many phenomena in the universe and is fundamental for the prospect of future fusion energy production on Earth. Nontrivial results of nonlinear electromagnetic effects in plasmas include the self-organization and self-formation in the plasma of structures compact in time and space. These are the consequences of competing processes of nonlinear interactions and can be best described using reaction-diffusion equations. Reaction-Diffusion Problems in the Physics of Hot Plasmas is focused on paradigmatic problems of a reaction-diffusion type met in many branches of science, concerning in particular the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic fields with plasmas.
Effective mass of two-dimensional He3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boronat, J.; Casulleras, J.; Grau, V.; Krotscheck, E.; Springer, J.
2003-01-01
We use structural information from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations for two-dimensional He 3 to calculate the effective mass. Static effective interactions are constructed from the density and spin-structure functions using sum rules. We find that both spin and density fluctuations contribute about equally to the effective mass. Our results show, in agreement with recent experiments, a flattening of the single-particle self-energy with increasing density, which eventually leads to a divergent effective mass
Spontaneous spiral formation in two-dimensional oscillatory media
Kettunen, Petteri; Amemiya, Takashi; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko
1999-08-01
Computational studies of pattern formation in a modified Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is described. Initially inactive two-dimensional reaction media with an immobilized catalyst is connected to a reservoir of fresh reactants through a set of discrete points distributed randomly over the interphase surface. It is shown that the diffusion of reactants combined with oscillatory reaction kinetics can give rise to spontaneous spiral formation and phase waves.
Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul
2005-01-01
A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem
An Adaptive Approach to Variational Nodal Diffusion Problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hui; Lewis, E.E.
2001-01-01
An adaptive grid method is presented for the solution of neutron diffusion problems in two dimensions. The primal hybrid finite elements employed in the variational nodal method are used to reduce the diffusion equation to a coupled set of elemental response matrices. An a posteriori error estimator is developed to indicate the magnitude of local errors stemming from the low-order elemental interface approximations. An iterative procedure is implemented in which p refinement is applied locally by increasing the polynomial order of the interface approximations. The automated algorithm utilizes the a posteriori estimator to achieve local error reductions until an acceptable level of accuracy is reached throughout the problem domain. Application to a series of X-Y benchmark problems indicates the reduction of computational effort achievable by replacing uniform with adaptive refinement of the spatial approximations
An inverse diffusivity problem for the helium production–diffusion equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Gang; Xu, Xiang
2012-01-01
Thermochronology is a technique for the extraction of information about the thermal history of rocks. Such information is crucial for determining the depth below the surface at which rocks were located at a given time (Bao G et al 2011 Commun. Comput. Phys. 9 129). Mathematically, extracting the time–temperature path can be formulated as an inverse diffusivity problem for the helium production–diffusion equation which is the underlying process of thermochronology. In this paper, to reconstruct the diffusivity which depends on space only and accounts for the structural information of rocks, a local Hölder conditional stability is obtained by a Carleman estimate. A uniqueness result is also proven for extracting the thermal history, i.e. identifying the time-dependant part of the diffusion coefficient, provided that it is analytical with respect to time. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed regularization scheme. (paper)
Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular ...
Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...
Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koberle, R.
1980-01-01
Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt
Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.
1994-01-01
In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging
Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip
2012-01-01
We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....
Development of Two-Dimensional NMR
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...
Conoscopic holography: two-dimensional numerical reconstructions.
Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y; Charlot, D
1993-01-01
Conoscopic holography is an incoherent light holographic technique based on the properties of crystal optics. We present experimental results of the numerical reconstruction of a two-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram.
Multiple Scale Reaction-Diffusion-Advection Problems with Moving Fronts
Nefedov, Nikolay
2016-06-01
In this work we discuss the further development of the general scheme of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities to investigate stability and motion of sharp internal layers (fronts) for nonlinear singularly perturbed parabolic equations, which are called in applications reaction-diffusion-advection equations. Our approach is illustrated for some new important cases of initial boundary value problems. We present results on stability and on the motion of the fronts.
Domain decomposition methods for the neutron diffusion problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guerin, P.; Baudron, A. M.; Lautard, J. J.
2010-01-01
The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, simplified transport (SPN) or diffusion approximations are often used. The MINOS solver developed at CEA Saclay uses a mixed dual finite element method for the resolution of these problems. and has shown his efficiency. In order to take into account the heterogeneities of the geometry, a very fine mesh is generally required, and leads to expensive calculations for industrial applications. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose here two domain decomposition methods based on the MINOS solver. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains: several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is an iterative method based on a non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, we solve the problem on each sub-domain with the interface conditions given by the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains estimated at the previous iteration. Numerical results on parallel computers are presented for the diffusion model on realistic 2D and 3D cores. (authors)
Dispersion in two dimensional channels—the Fick-Jacobs approximation revisited
Mangeat, M.; Guérin, T.; Dean, D. S.
2017-12-01
We examine the dispersion of Brownian particles in a symmetric two dimensional channel, this classical problem has been widely studied in the literature using the so called Fick-Jacobs’ approximation and its various improvements. Most studies rely on the reduction to an effective one dimensional diffusion equation, here we derive an explicit formula for the diffusion constant which avoids this reduction. Using this formula the effective diffusion constant can be evaluated numerically without resorting to Brownian simulations. In addition, a perturbation theory can be developed in \\varepsilon = h_0/L where h 0 is the characteristic channel height and L the period. This perturbation theory confirms the results of Kalinay and Percus (2006 Phys. Rev. E 74 041203), based on the reduction, to one dimensional diffusion are exact at least to {{ O}}(\\varepsilon^6) . Furthermore, we show how the Kalinay and Percus pseudo-linear approximation can be straightforwardly recovered. The approach proposed here can also be exploited to yield exact results in the limit \\varepsilon \\to ∞ , we show that here the diffusion constant remains finite and show how the result can be obtained with a simple physical argument. Moreover, we show that the correction to the effective diffusion constant is of order 1/\\varepsilon and remarkably has some universal characteristics. Numerically we compare the analytic results obtained with exact numerical calculations for a number of interesting channel geometries.
The Fisher-KPP problem with doubly nonlinear diffusion
Audrito, Alessandro; Vázquez, Juan Luis
2017-12-01
The famous Fisher-KPP reaction-diffusion model combines linear diffusion with the typical KPP reaction term, and appears in a number of relevant applications in biology and chemistry. It is remarkable as a mathematical model since it possesses a family of travelling waves that describe the asymptotic behaviour of a large class solutions 0 ≤ u (x , t) ≤ 1 of the problem posed in the real line. The existence of propagation waves with finite speed has been confirmed in some related models and disproved in others. We investigate here the corresponding theory when the linear diffusion is replaced by the "slow" doubly nonlinear diffusion and we find travelling waves that represent the wave propagation of more general solutions even when we extend the study to several space dimensions. A similar study is performed in the critical case that we call "pseudo-linear", i.e., when the operator is still nonlinear but has homogeneity one. With respect to the classical model and the "pseudo-linear" case, the "slow" travelling waves exhibit free boundaries.
Robust L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis.
Li, Chun-Na; Shao, Yuan-Hai; Deng, Nai-Yang
2015-05-01
In this paper, we propose an L1-norm two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis (L1-2DLDA) with robust performance. Different from the conventional two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with L2-norm (L2-2DLDA), where the optimization problem is transferred to a generalized eigenvalue problem, the optimization problem in our L1-2DLDA is solved by a simple justifiable iterative technique, and its convergence is guaranteed. Compared with L2-2DLDA, our L1-2DLDA is more robust to outliers and noises since the L1-norm is used. This is supported by our preliminary experiments on toy example and face datasets, which show the improvement of our L1-2DLDA over L2-2DLDA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array
Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane
Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.
2017-11-01
We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Numerical approach to the inverse convection-diffusion problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, X-H; She, D-X; Li, J-Q
2008-01-01
In this paper, the inverse problem on source term identification in convection-diffusion equation is transformed into an optimization problem. To reduce the computational cost and improve computational accuracy for the optimization problem, a new algorithm, chaos real-coded hybrid-accelerating evolution algorithm (CRHAEA), is proposed, in which an initial population is generated by chaos mapping, and new chaos mutation and simplex evolution operation are used. With the shrinking of searching range, CRHAEA gradually directs to an optimal result with the excellent individuals obtained by real-coded evolution algorithm. Its convergence is analyzed. Its efficiency is demonstrated by 15 test functions. Numerical simulation shows that CRHAEA has some advantages over the real-coded accelerated evolution algorithm, the chaos algorithm and the pure random search algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, C.
1988-08-01
This report describes numerical tests with various difference schemes to solve the convection-diffusion equation. Starting point of this investigation has been a scheme proposed by the author, the so-called 'LECUSSO-scheme', which is of order O(Δx 2 ) and avoids unphysical spatial oscillations meaning that this scheme does not suffer from any mesh-Reynolds-number-restriction. To test this scheme a previously described example introduced by Beier et al. with known analytical solution was adoptd and numerically solved using a variety of difference schemes. This is done for a wide range of Reynolds-numbers (20 ≤ Re' ≤ 5000) and equidistant meshes of different size, the comparison being done with respect to the space-dependent error and to the maximum spatial error of the numerical solution. The results of the numerical tests may be summarized as follows: Flows with boundary layers, as the most interesting case are very favourably calculated using upwind methods of second or higher order in conservation form with respect to the absolute value of the maximum spatial error. The amount of this error is near 1/3 of the error obtained with standard schemes unless these schemes not yet produced obsolete results since a mesh-Reynolds-number condition had been violated. As to the increased amount of work (additional 5th point, two different additional types of modified difference approximations with fewer points near the boundary), LSUDS-C (in conservation form) is not better than LECUSSO-C and QUICK-PLUS. The reduced errors of the upwind methods of higher order enable us to proceed to the numerical calculation of flows with higher Reynolds-numbers than before. (orig./GL [de
Dipolar vortices in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter
1996-01-01
The dynamics of dipolar vortex solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations is studied. A new type of nonlinear dipole is found and its dynamics in a slightly viscous system is compared with the dynamics of the Lamb dipole. The evolution of dipolar structures from an initial turbulent patch...
Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...
Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
ADOWIE PERE
ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...
Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons.
Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.
2004-01-01
We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability
Two-dimensional membranes in motion
Davidovikj, D.
2018-01-01
This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina
2007-01-01
We study countable sums of two dimensional modules for the continuous complex functions on a compact metric space and show that it is possible to construct a spectral triple which gives the original metric back. This spectral triple will be finitely summable for any positive parameter. We also co...
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carmen, A. del; Ferreri, J.C.
1998-01-01
This paper presents a method for the numerical solution of non-linear diffusion problems using finite-differences in moving grids. Due to the presence of steep fronts in the solution domain and to the presence of advective terms originating in the grid movement, an implicit TVD scheme, first order in time and second order in space has been developed. Some algebraic details of the derivation are given. Results are shown for the pure advection of a scalar as a test case and an example dealing with the slow spreading of viscous fluids over plane surfaces. The agreement between numerical and analytical solutions is excellent. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs
Parallel preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm applied to neutron diffusion problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, A.; Martin, W.R.
1992-01-01
Numerical solution of the neutron diffusion problem requires solving a linear system of equations such as Ax = b, where A is an n x n symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrix; x and b are vectors with n components. The preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) algorithm is an efficient iterative method for solving such a linear system of equations. In this paper, the authors describe the implementation of a parallel PCG algorithm on a shared memory machine (BBN TC2000) and on a distributed workstation (IBM RS6000) environment created by the parallel virtual machine parallelization software
A novel family of DG methods for diffusion problems
Johnson, Philip; Johnsen, Eric
2017-11-01
We describe and demonstrate a novel family of numerical schemes for handling elliptic/parabolic PDE behavior within the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) framework. Starting from the mixed-form approach commonly applied for handling diffusion (examples include Local DG and BR2), the new schemes apply the Recovery concept of Van Leer to handle cell interface terms. By applying recovery within the mixed-form approach, we have designed multiple schemes that show better accuracy than other mixed-form approaches while being more flexible and easier to implement than the Recovery DG schemes of Van Leer. While typical mixed-form approaches converge at rate 2p in the cell-average or functional error norms (where p is the order of the solution polynomial), many of our approaches achieve order 2p +2 convergence. In this talk, we will describe multiple schemes, including both compact and non-compact implementations; the compact approaches use only interface-connected neighbors to form the residual for each element, while the non-compact approaches add one extra layer to the stencil. In addition to testing the schemes on purely parabolic PDE problems, we apply them to handle the diffusive flux terms in advection-diffusion systems, such as the compressible Navier-Stokes equations.
Variational methods applied to problems of diffusion and reaction
Strieder, William
1973-01-01
This monograph is an account of some problems involving diffusion or diffusion with simultaneous reaction that can be illuminated by the use of variational principles. It was written during a period that included sabbatical leaves of one of us (W. S. ) at the University of Minnesota and the other (R. A. ) at the University of Cambridge and we are grateful to the Petroleum Research Fund for helping to support the former and the Guggenheim Foundation for making possible the latter. We would also like to thank Stephen Prager for getting us together in the first place and for showing how interesting and useful these methods can be. We have also benefitted from correspondence with Dr. A. M. Arthurs of the University of York and from the counsel of Dr. B. D. Coleman the general editor of this series. Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction and Preliminaries . 1. 1. General Survey 1 1. 2. Phenomenological Descriptions of Diffusion and Reaction 2 1. 3. Correlation Functions for Random Suspensions 4 1. 4. Mean Free ...
Two-dimensional simulation of the MHD stability, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, Gen-ichi; Amano, Tsuneo.
1976-03-01
The two-dimensional computer code has been prepared to study MHD stability of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with and without the surrounding vacuum region. It also includes the effect of magnetic surfaces with non-circular cross sections. The linearized equations of motion are solved as an initial value problem. The results by computer simulation are compared with those by the theory for the cylindrical plasma; they are in good agreement. (auth.)
Analysis of two dimensional signals via curvelet transform
Lech, W.; Wójcik, W.; Kotyra, A.; Popiel, P.; Duk, M.
2007-04-01
This paper describes an application of curvelet transform analysis problem of interferometric images. Comparing to two-dimensional wavelet transform, curvelet transform has higher time-frequency resolution. This article includes numerical experiments, which were executed on random interferometric image. In the result of nonlinear approximations, curvelet transform obtains matrix with smaller number of coefficients than is guaranteed by wavelet transform. Additionally, denoising simulations show that curvelet could be a very good tool to remove noise from images.
Network patterns in exponentially growing two-dimensional biofilms
Zachreson, Cameron; Yap, Xinhui; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos
2017-10-01
Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments. The underlying mechanism relies on path formation through physical deformation of the enclosing environment.
An incompressible two-dimensional multiphase particle-in-cell model for dense particle flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snider, D.M. [SAIC, Albuquerque, NM (United States); O`Rourke, P.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Andrews, M.J. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
1997-06-01
A two-dimensional, incompressible, multiphase particle-in-cell (MP-PIC) method is presented for dense particle flows. The numerical technique solves the governing equations of the fluid phase using a continuum model and those of the particle phase using a Lagrangian model. Difficulties associated with calculating interparticle interactions for dense particle flows with volume fractions above 5% have been eliminated by mapping particle properties to a Eulerian grid and then mapping back computed stress tensors to particle positions. This approach utilizes the best of Eulerian/Eulerian continuum models and Eulerian/Lagrangian discrete models. The solution scheme allows for distributions of types, sizes, and density of particles, with no numerical diffusion from the Lagrangian particle calculations. The computational method is implicit with respect to pressure, velocity, and volume fraction in the continuum solution thus avoiding courant limits on computational time advancement. MP-PIC simulations are compared with one-dimensional problems that have analytical solutions and with two-dimensional problems for which there are experimental data.
Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.
1979-05-01
A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito
2010-01-01
Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)
Toward two-dimensional search engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D
2012-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)
Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors
Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee
2014-01-01
A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr
1998-01-01
This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out
Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors
Galbova, O
2002-01-01
The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...
Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)
2016-01-04
Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.
The stability of a two-dimensional rising bubble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, Q.; Tanveer, S.
1995-01-01
The stability of an inviscid two-dimensional bubble subject to two-dimensional disturbances is considered and the bubbles are found to be linearly stable for all Weber numbers, for which a steady solution is known. Certain aspects of the nonlinear initial value problem are also studied. An initial condition that consists of a superposition of a suitable symmetric eigenmode (of the linear stability operator) on a steady state is found to result in pinching of the bubble neck as it tends to oscillate about the steady state. An estimate of the threshold amplitude of such a disturbance needed to cause breakup of a large aspect ratio bubble is obtained. The presence of gravity appears to inhibit this pinching process
Performance modeling of parallel algorithms for solving neutron diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azmy, Y.Y.; Kirk, B.L.
1995-01-01
Neutron diffusion calculations are the most common computational methods used in the design, analysis, and operation of nuclear reactors and related activities. Here, mathematical performance models are developed for the parallel algorithm used to solve the neutron diffusion equation on message passing and shared memory multiprocessors represented by the Intel iPSC/860 and the Sequent Balance 8000, respectively. The performance models are validated through several test problems, and these models are used to estimate the performance of each of the two considered architectures in situations typical of practical applications, such as fine meshes and a large number of participating processors. While message passing computers are capable of producing speedup, the parallel efficiency deteriorates rapidly as the number of processors increases. Furthermore, the speedup fails to improve appreciably for massively parallel computers so that only small- to medium-sized message passing multiprocessors offer a reasonable platform for this algorithm. In contrast, the performance model for the shared memory architecture predicts very high efficiency over a wide range of number of processors reasonable for this architecture. Furthermore, the model efficiency of the Sequent remains superior to that of the hypercube if its model parameters are adjusted to make its processors as fast as those of the iPSC/860. It is concluded that shared memory computers are better suited for this parallel algorithm than message passing computers
Iso-geometric analysis for neutron diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, S. K.; Eaton, M. D.; Williams, M. M. R.
2012-01-01
Iso-geometric analysis can be viewed as a generalisation of the finite element method. It permits the exact representation of a wider range of geometries including conic sections. This is possible due to the use of concepts employed in computer-aided design. The underlying mathematical representations from computer-aided design are used to capture both the geometry and approximate the solution. In this paper the neutron diffusion equation is solved using iso-geometric analysis. The practical advantages are highlighted by looking at the problem of a circular fuel pin in a square moderator. For this problem the finite element method requires the geometry to be approximated. This leads to errors in the shape and size of the interface between the fuel and the moderator. In contrast to this iso-geometric analysis allows the interface to be represented exactly. It is found that, due to a cancellation of errors, the finite element method converges more quickly than iso-geometric analysis for this problem. A fuel pin in a vacuum was then considered as this problem is highly sensitive to the leakage across the interface. In this case iso-geometric analysis greatly outperforms the finite element method. Due to the improvement in the representation of the geometry iso-geometric analysis can outperform traditional finite element methods. It is proposed that the use of iso-geometric analysis on neutron transport problems will allow deterministic solutions to be obtained for exact geometries. Something that is only currently possible with Monte Carlo techniques. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. A. Fetisov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved
Performance Characteristics of Plane Wall Two Dimensional Diffusers
1953-02-01
die Umsetzung von Wässergeschwindigkeit in Druck . Mitt. Forsch.-Arb. Geb. Ing.-Wes., Heft 76, 1909. k6 NACA TN 2888 12. Hochschild, Heinrich...Wi 0 2/ .75 ■ /5.2s A //.00 D 7.75 • 5. 3D & \\\\ /2 /e Z d, &&3 20 24 Figure 15.- Variation of pressure efficiency with divergence angle
A symmetrized quasi-diffusion method for solving multidimensional transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miften, M.M.; Larsen, E.W.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the authors propose a 'symmetrized' QD (SQD) method in which the non-self-adjoint QD diffusion problem is replaced by two self-adjoint diffusion problems. These problems are more easily discretized and more efficiently solved than in the standard QD method. They also give SQD calculational results for transport problems in x-y geometry
Procedures for two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tollaksen, S.L.; Giometti, C.S.
1996-10-01
High-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of proteins, using isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the second, was first described in 1975. In the 20 years since those publications, numerous modifications of the original method have evolved. The ISO-DALT system of 2DE is a high-throughput approach that has stood the test of time. The problem of casting many isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-PAGE slab gels (up to 20) in a reproducible manner has been solved by the use of the techniques and equipment described in this manual. The ISO-DALT system of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis originated in the late 1970s and has been modified many times to improve its high-resolution, high-throughput capabilities. This report provides the detailed procedures used with the current ISO-DALT system to prepare, run, stain, and photograph two-dimensional gels for protein analysis.
Gyroscope with two-dimensional optomechanical mirror
Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Kai; Li, Yong
2017-11-01
We propose an application of two-dimensional optomechanical oscillator as a gyroscope by detecting the Coriolis force which is modulated at the natural frequency of the optomechanical oscillator. Dependence of gyroscope's sensitivity on shot noise, back-action noise, thermal noise, and input laser power is studied. At optimal input laser power, the gyroscope's sensitivity can be improved by increasing the mass or by decreasing the temperature and decay rate of the mechanical oscillator. When the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation number, n th, is zero, sensitivity improves with decrease in frequency of the mechanical oscillator. For {n}{{th}}\\gg 1, the sensitivity is independent of the mechanical oscillator's frequency.
Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.
Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Koutoulis, Anthony; Whittock, Simon P; Shellie, Robert A
2017-11-17
We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ( 1 D) and second-dimension ( 2 D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules. Precise carrier gas flow control at the junction of the 1 D and 2 D columns permits independent control of flow conditions in each separation column. The 2GC×2GC approach provides two entirely independent GC×GC separations for each injection. Analysis of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils is used to demonstrate the capability of the approach. The analytical performance of each GC×GC separation in the 2GC×2GC experiment is comparable to individual GC×GC separation with matching column configurations. The peak capacity of 2GC×2GC is about 2 times than that of single GC×GC system. The dual 2D chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary separations and additional identification information by harnessing different selectivity provided by the four separation columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams.
Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael
2006-11-01
For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.
Blind deconvolution of two-dimensional complex data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.
1994-01-01
Inspired by the work of Lane and Bates on automatic multidimensional deconvolution, the authors have developed a systematic approach and an operational code for performing the deconvolution of multiply-convolved two-dimensional complex data sets in the absence of noise. They explain, in some detail, the major algorithmic steps, where noise or numerical errors can cause problems, their approach in dealing with numerical rounding errors, and where special noise-mitigating techniques can be used toward making blind deconvolution practical. Several examples of deconvolved imagery are presented, and future research directions are noted.
Thermal neutron diffraction on two-dimensional lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, T.
1974-06-01
This thesis deals with the problem of neutron diffraction from a two-dimensional lattice. The neutron spin is not taken into account. Firstly the scalar wave field is treated by means of differential equations (Helmholtz) and secondly by the equivalent integral equation formulation (Kirchoff-Weber). Finally, using the methods of the Green function, the reflected and transmitted wave fields are represented as integral transformations of a certain source function. In respect to the calculation of the amplitudes of the diffraction waves the third method seems to be the best one for the purpose of the physical interpretation and the applicability of numerical methods. (C.R.)
The Penalty Cost Functional for the Two-Dimensional
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Onomza WAZIRI
2006-07-01
Full Text Available This paper constructs the penalty cost functional for optimizing the two-dimensional control operator of the energized wave equation. In some multiplier methods such as the Lagrange multipliers and Pontrygean maximum principle, the cost of merging the constraint equation to the integral quadratic objective functional to obtain an unconstraint equation is normally guessed or obtained from the first partial derivatives of the unconstrained equation. The Extended Conjugate Gradient Method (ECGM necessitates that the penalty cost be sequentially obtained algebraically. The ECGM problem contains a functional which is completely given in terms of state and time spatial dependent variables.
A Chain-Detection Algorithm for Two-Dimensional Grids
Bonham, Paul; Iqbal, Azlan
2016-01-01
We describe a general method of detecting valid chains or links of pieces on a two-dimensional grid. Specifically, using the example of the chess variant known as Switch-Side Chain-Chess (SSCC). Presently, no foolproof method of detecting such chains in any given chess position is known and existing graph theory, to our knowledge, is unable to fully address this problem either. We therefore propose a solution implemented and tested using the C++ programming language. We have been unable to fi...
Two-dimensional theory of ionization waves in the contracted discharge of noble gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golubovskij, Ju.B.; Kolobov, V.I.; Tsendin, L.D.
1985-01-01
The mechanism of instability generating ionization waves in contracted neon and argon discharges is connected to its two-dimensional structure. The two-dimensional perturbations of sausage-type may have the most increment. The numerical solution of the ambipolar diffusion equation and qualitative asymptotic solutions showed that the situation differs greatly from diffuse discharges at low pressure, where the waves of large wave number are instable. In the case discussed, there is a wave number interval of unstable waves. (D.Gy.)
Organization and diffusion in biological and material fabrication problems
Mangan, Niall Mari
This thesis is composed of two problems. The first is a systems level analysis of the carbon concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. The second presents a theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser melting for the purpose of hyperdoping silicon with sulfur. While these systems are very distant, they are both relevant to the development of alternative energy (production of biofuels and methods for fabricating photovoltaics respectively). Both problems are approached through analysis of the underlying diffusion equations. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria with a unique carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) which enhances carbon fixation. A greater understanding of this mechanism would offer new insights into the basic biology and methods for bioengineering more efficient biochemical reactions. The molecular components of the CCM have been well characterized in the last decade, with genetic analysis uncovering both variation and commonalities in CCMs across cyanobacteria strains. Analysis of CCMs on a systems level, however, is based on models formulated prior to the molecular characterization. We present an updated model of the cyanobacteria CCM, and analytic solutions in terms of the various molecular components. The solutions allow us to find the parameter regime (expression levels, catalytic rates, permeability of carboxysome shell) where carbon fixation is maximized and oxygenation is minimized. Saturation of RuBisCO, maximization of the ratio of CO2 to O2, and staying below or at the saturation level for carbonic anhydrase are all needed for maximum efficacy. These constraints limit the parameter regime where the most effective carbon fixation can occur. There is an optimal non-specific carboxysome shell permeability, where trapping of CO2 is maximized, but HCO3 - is not detrimentally restricted. The shell also shields carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 → HCO3- conversion at the thylakoid and cell membrane from one another. Co-localization of carbonic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrieux, Chantal
1976-03-01
The neutronic evolution of the reacteur Sena during the first and second cycles is presented. The experimental power distributions, obtained from the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE are compared with the theoretical powers calculated with the two-dimensional diffusion-evolution code EVOE. The CIRCE code allows: the study of the evolution of the principal parameters of the core, the comparison of the results of measured and theoretical estimates. Therefore this study has a great interest for the knowledge of the neutronic evolution of the core, as well as the validation of the refinement of theoretical estimation methods. The core calculation methods and requisite data for the evaluation of the measurements are presented after a brief description of the SENA core and its inner instrumentation. The principle of the in-core instrumentation evaluation code CIRCE, and calculation of the experimental power distributions and nuclear core parameters are then exposed. The results of the evaluation are discussed, with a comparison of the theoretical and experimental results. Taking account of the approximations used, these results, as far as the first and second cycles at SENA are concerned, are satisfactory, the deviations between theoretical and experimental power distributions being lower than 3% at the middle of the reactor and 9% at the periphery [fr
On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Davoodi, Pooya; Rao, S. Srinivasa
2012-01-01
of the problem, the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits which can be preprocessed in O(N) time to support O(clog 2 c) query time. For c=O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using a data......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static m by n matrix (two dimensional array) A of size N=m⋅n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... the space and query time of the problem. We show that every algorithm enabled to access A during the query and using a data structure of size O(N/c) bits requires Ω(c) query time, for any c where 1≤c≤N. This lower bound holds for arrays of any dimension. In particular, for the one dimensional version...
Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.
1987-01-01
Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Fengqiu
2017-01-01
As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)
Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.
1989-11-01
The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs
Ward identities in two-dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polchinski, J.
1991-01-01
We study the decoupling of null states in two-dimensional gravity, using methods of critical string theory. We identify a family of null states which fail to decouple due to curvature and boundary terms. This gives relations involving amplitudes at different genus. At genus zero, these determine certain operator product coefficients. At genus one, they determine the partition function. At higher genus, we obtain a relation similar in form to the Painleve equation, but due to an incomplete understanding of a certain ghost/curvature term we do not have a closed relation for the partition function. Our results appear to correspond to the L 0 and L 1 equations in the topological and matrix model approaches. (orig.)
Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions
Pires, A. S. T.
2018-04-01
We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.
Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra
Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary
2017-06-01
Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.
Modified black holes in two dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammedi, N.
1991-11-01
The SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZWN model is modified by a topological term and the accompanying change in the geometry of the two dimensional target space is determined. The possibility of this additional term arises from a symmetry in the general formalism of gauging an isometry subgroup of a non-linear sigma model with an antisymmetric tensor. It is shown, in particular, that the space-time exhibits some general singularities for which the recently found black hole is just a special case. From a conformal field theory point of view and for special values of the unitary representation of SL(2,R), this topological term can be interpreted as a small perturbation by a (1,1) conformal operator of the gauged WZWN action. (author). 26 refs
Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Gang; Zhang Yong-Wei
2017-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS 2 and WS 2 ), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS 2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS 2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator. (topical reviews)
Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene
Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.
2018-01-01
In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.
Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.
2011-01-01
Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)
Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories
Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.
2014-03-01
Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.
Thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui; Niu, Qian
Thermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional Rashba systems is studied using the analytical solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation. To highlight the effects of inter-band scattering, we assume point-like potential impurities, and obtain the band-and energy-dependent transport relaxation times. Unconventional transport behaviors arise when the Fermi level lies near or below the band crossing point (BCP), such as the non-Drude electrical conducivity below the BCP, the failure of the standard Mott relation linking the Peltier coefficient to the electrical conductivity near the BCP, the enhancement of diffusion thermopower and figure of merit below the BCP, the zero-field Hall coefficient which is not inversely proportional to and not a monotonic function of the carrier density, the enhanced Nernst coefficient below the BCP, and the enhanced current-induced spin-polarization efficiency.
Self-organized defect strings in two-dimensional crystals.
Lechner, Wolfgang; Polster, David; Maret, Georg; Keim, Peter; Dellago, Christoph
2013-12-01
Using experiments with single-particle resolution and computer simulations we study the collective behavior of multiple vacancies injected into two-dimensional crystals. We find that the defects assemble into linear strings, terminated by dislocations with antiparallel Burgers vectors. We show that these defect strings propagate through the crystal in a succession of rapid one-dimensional gliding and rare rotations. While the rotation rate decreases exponentially with the number of defects in the string, the diffusion constant is constant for large strings. By monitoring the separation of the dislocations at the end points, we measure their effective interactions with high precision beyond their spontaneous formation and annihilation, and we explain the double-well form of the dislocation interaction in terms of continuum elasticity theory.
Effective-range dependence of two-dimensional Fermi gases
Schonenberg, L. M.; Verpoort, P. C.; Conduit, G. J.
2017-08-01
The Feshbach resonance provides precise control over the scattering length and effective range of interactions between ultracold atoms. We propose the ultratransferable pseudopotential to model effective interaction ranges -1.5 ≤kF2Reff2≤0 , where Reff is the effective range and kF is the Fermi wave vector, describing narrow to broad Feshbach resonances. We develop a mean-field treatment and exploit the pseudopotential to perform a variational and diffusion Monte Carlo study of the ground state of the two-dimensional Fermi gas, reporting on the ground-state energy, contact, condensate fraction, momentum distribution, and pair-correlation functions as a function of the effective interaction range across the BEC-BCS crossover. The limit kF2Reff2→-∞ is a gas of bosons with zero binding energy, whereas ln(kFa )→-∞ corresponds to noninteracting bosons with infinite binding energy.
Two dimensional analysis of a high temperature gaseous radiation receiver
Mcfall, K. A.; Mattick, A. T.
1992-01-01
The characteristics of the Flowing Gas Radiation Receiver (FGRR), a device that absorbs solar radiation volumetrically in a gas to produce high temperatures for space propulsion and power applications, are analyzed using a two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model of the flow and radiation fields within a diffusely reflecting channel. The results show that an FGRR system is capable of generating temperatures in excess of 3000 K with collection efficiencies of approximately 75 percent for a channel with a reflectivity of 0.9. For a collinear radiation source, outflow temperatures of 3193 and 3092 K were achieved for axial and radial flow inputs, respectively, with receiver efficiencies of 0.82 and 0.76.
Two - Dimensional Mathematical Model of Water Flow in Open ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The irrotational flow condition is used for simplification of the system of the governing shallow water equations and the final nonlinear differential equation is solved for the unknown energy head using the finite element method. A one - dimensional problem was solved with diffusion hydraulic model (DHM), energy diffusion ...
Tracer dispersion in two-dimensional rough fractures.
Drazer, G; Koplik, J
2001-05-01
Tracer diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in two-dimensional fractures with self-affine roughness are studied by analytic and numerical methods. Numerical simulations were performed via the lattice-Boltzmann approach, using a boundary condition for tracer particles that improves the accuracy of the method. The reduction in the diffusive transport, due to the fractal geometry of the fracture surfaces, is analyzed for different fracture apertures. In the limit of small aperture fluctuations we derive the correction to the diffusive coefficient in terms of the tortuosity, which accounts for the irregular geometry of the fractures. Dispersion is studied when the two fracture surfaces are simply displaced normally to the mean fracture plane and when there is a lateral shift as well. Numerical results are analyzed using the Lambda parameter, related to convective transport within the fracture, and simple arguments based on lubrication approximation. At very low Péclet number, in the case where fracture surfaces are laterally shifted, we show using several different methods that convective transport reduces dispersion.
On wakefields with two-dimensional planar geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.
1996-10-01
In order to reach higher acceleration gradients in linear accelerators, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerating RF frequency, which in turn requires smaller accelerating structures. As the structure size becomes smaller, rectangular structures become increasingly interesting because they are easier to construct than cylindrically symmetric ones. One drawback of small structures, however, is that the wakefields generated by the beam in such structures tend to be strong. Recently, it has been suggested that one way of ameliorating this problem is to use rectangular structures that are very flat and to use flat beams. In the limiting case of a very flat planar geometry, the problem resembles a purely two-dimensional (2-D) problem, the wakefields of which have been studied
The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya
2013-01-01
In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...
On Space Efficient Two Dimensional Range Minimum Data Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davoodi, Pooya; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Rao, S. Srinivasa
2010-01-01
, the lower bound is tight up to a constant factor. In two dimensions, we complement the lower bound with an indexing data structure of size O(N/c) bits additional space which can be preprocessed in O(N) time and achieves O(clog2 c) query time. For c = O(1), this is the first O(1) query time algorithm using......The two dimensional range minimum query problem is to preprocess a static two dimensional m by n array A of size N = m · n, such that subsequent queries, asking for the position of the minimum element in a rectangular range within A, can be answered efficiently. We study the trade-off between...... optimal O(N) bits additional space. For the case where queries can not probe A, we give a data structure of size O(N· min {m,logn}) bits with O(1) query time, assuming m ≤ n. This leaves a gap to the lower bound of Ω(Nlogm) bits for this version of the problem....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel A. Akimov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.
Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
2016-12-15
The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng
2017-09-01
The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene
Kaul, Anupama B.
2014-06-01
Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.
Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: yilungmo@central.uh.edu [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
2014-07-28
Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos
Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel
2018-01-01
Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.
Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors
Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza
2014-03-01
Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.
Local Correlation during Ostwald ripening of two-dimensional islands on Ag(111)
Morgenstern, Karina; Rosenfeld, G.; Comsa, George
1999-01-01
Using two-dimensional Ag adatom islands on Ag(111) as a model system, we study the importance of local correlations in diffusion-limited Ostwald ripening. For the coverages studied (0.08, 0.21, and 0.3 ML), we find that the ripening can be surprisingly well described in a nearest neighbour model
Rigorous results in space-periodic two-dimensional turbulence
Kuksin, Sergei; Shirikyan, Armen
2017-12-01
We survey the recent advance in the rigorous qualitative theory of the 2d stochastic Navier-Stokes system that is relevant to the description of turbulence in two-dimensional fluids. After discussing briefly the initial-boundary value problem and the associated Markov process, we formulate results on the existence, uniqueness, and mixing of a stationary measure. We next turn to various consequences of these properties: strong law of large numbers, central limit theorem, and random attractors related to a unique stationary measure. We also discuss the Donsker-Varadhan and Freidlin-Wentzell type large deviations, the inviscid limit, and asymptotic results in 3d thin domains. We conclude with some open problems.
Coulomb interaction and phonons in doped semiconducting and metallic two-dimensional materials
Schönhoff, Gunnar
2017-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials present a rapidly developing field of research with sometimes highly unusual and uniquely two-dimensional physics. Starting with graphene, many recent studies have investigated 2D materials, with results for properties encompassing such different topics as Dirac electrons, charge ordering, and superconductivity. To get closer to a predictive theory of the phases of 2D materials, this thesis systematically tackles the previously unclear problem of the Coulomb int...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Columbia Univ., New York; Chudnovsky, G.V.; Columbia Univ., New York
1980-01-01
General algebraic and analytic formalism for derivation and solution of general two dimensional field theory equations of Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov type is presented. The examples presented show that this class of equations covers most of the known two-dimensional completely integrable equations. Possible generalizations for four dimensional systems require detailed analysis of Baecklund transformation of these equations. Baecklund transformation is presented in the form of Riemann problem and one special case of dual symmetry is worked out. (orig.)
Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Shuanhu [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1997-09-01
This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.
Numerical method for two-dimensional unsteady reacting flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Butler, T.D.; O'Rourke, P.J.
1976-01-01
A method that numerically solves the full two-dimensional, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations with species transport, mixing, and chemical reaction between species is presented. The generality of the formulation permits the solution of flows in which deflagrations, detonations, or transitions from deflagration to detonation are found. The solution procedure is embodied in the RICE computer program. RICE is an Eulerian finite difference computer code that uses the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique to solve the governing equations. One first presents the differential equations of motion and the solution procedure of the Rice program. Next, a method is described for artificially thickening the combustion zone to dimensions resolvable by the computational mesh. This is done in such a way that the physical flame speed and jump conditions across the flame front are preserved. Finally, the results of two example calculations are presented. In the first, the artificial thickening technique is used to solve a one-dimensional laminar flame problem. In the second, the results of a full two-dimensional calculation of unsteady combustion in two connected chambers are detailed
On the Quasi-Static Evolution of Two-Dimensional Plasmas : Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics
Zensho, YOSHIDA; Taijiro, UCHIDA; Nobuyuki, INOUE; Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences New York University; Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Tokyo; Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Tokyo
1984-01-01
The quasi-statics of current-carrying two-dimensional plasmas have been studied applying operator-theoretic methods in nonlinear functional analysis. A diffusion equation with a singular perturbation has been introduced as a model of the quasi-statics. Roughly speaking, the diffusion coefficient parallel to magnetic surfaces we show must become infinite; this is required by the equilibrium condition. In view of the singular perturbation, we have studied the free-boundary and the bifurcation o...
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles
Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón
2015-06-01
The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.
An inverse problem for a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion problem
Jin, Bangti
2012-06-26
We study an inverse problem of recovering a spatially varying potential term in a one-dimensional time-fractional diffusion equation from the flux measurements taken at a single fixed time corresponding to a given set of input sources. The unique identifiability of the potential is shown for two cases, i.e. the flux at one end and the net flux, provided that the set of input sources forms a complete basis in L 2(0, 1). An algorithm of the quasi-Newton type is proposed for the efficient and accurate reconstruction of the coefficient from finite data, and the injectivity of the Jacobian is discussed. Numerical results for both exact and noisy data are presented. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem | Okeke ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The effect of diffusion introduced through depth distribution is obvious as the solutions apparently depend strongly on the water depth in inverse form. Interestingly, this analysis strongly suggests that the peak for potential energy lies between second and third order solutions while that of kinetic energy attains the peak at ...
Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives
Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus
2017-12-01
In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Improvement in two-dimensional barcode
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
SONAM WASULE
ing devices uses red, green and blue sensing channels. This causes problem of intensity and depth variation during printing and scanning. The problem of colour ... and data security and compression, over the traditional black and white barcodes. The development of colour barcodes is still challenging since the intensity ...
A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bassem Barhoumi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Greenâs kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Greenâs function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources
Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lars
2002-01-01
This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... and pharmaceutical applications, e.g., drug development. The technique results in an image, where the proteins appear as dark spots on a bright background. However, the analysis of these images is very time consuming and requires a large amount of manual work so there is a great need for fast, objective, and robust...... methods based on image analysis techniques in order to significantly accelerate this key technology. The methods described and developed fall into three categories: image segmentation, point pattern matching, and a unified approach simultaneously segmentation the image and matching the spots. The main...
Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Stine D; Savran, Mona Meral; Konge, Lars
2016-01-01
were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...
Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydoruk, O
2013-01-01
Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)
Electromagnetic two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, D.; Rewoldt, G.
1984-11-01
A two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of the trapped-ion instability for the tokamak case with ..beta.. not equal to 0 has been made, based on previous work in the electrostatic limit. The quasineutrality condition and the component of Ampere's law along the equilibrium magnetic field are solved for the perturbed electrostatic potential and the component of the perturbed vector potential along the equilibrium magnetic field. The general integro-differential equations are converted into a matrix eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem by expanding in cubic B-spline finite elements in the minor radius and in Fourier harmonics in the poloidal angle. A model MHD equilibrium with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces and large aspect ratio is used which is consistent with our assemption that B << 1. The effect on the trapped-ion mode of including these electromagnetic extensions to the calculation is considered, and the temperature (and ..beta..) scaling of the mode frequency is shown and discussed.
Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.
Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood
2009-03-01
In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).
Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media
Quezada de Luna, Manuel
2014-09-16
We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.
A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kubota K
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady
Analysis of Diffusion Problems using Homotopy Perturbation and Variational Iteration Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barari, Amin; Poor, A. Tahmasebi; Jorjani, A.
2010-01-01
In this paper, variational iteration method and homotopy perturbation method are applied to different forms of diffusion equation. The diffusion equations have found wide applications in heat transfer problems, theory of consolidation and many other problems in engineering. The methods proposed...... to solve the diffusion equations herein have been applied to a variety of problems in the recent past, and have proved to yield highly accurate solutions. Comparison is made between the exact solutions and the results of the variational iteration method (VIM) and homotopy perturbation method (HPM) in order...
Two-dimensional maximum entropy image restoration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brolley, J.E.; Lazarus, R.B.; Suydam, B.R.; Trussell, H.J.
1977-07-01
An optical check problem was constructed to test P LOG P maximum entropy restoration of an extremely distorted image. Useful recovery of the original image was obtained. Comparison with maximum a posteriori restoration is made. 7 figures
Tetsu, Hiroyuki
2016-03-01
Observations favour a theoretical scenario in which fragmentation of radially contracting filaments takes place due to the breakdown of isothermality. On the other hand, although the filament formation and fragmentation of static filaments have been studied in detail, there is a theoretical gap between the radially contracting filament and the fragmentation. The purpose of this work is to fill and understand the theoretical gap in the context of uncovering the role of radiative transfer. First, in order to study the role of radiation in the radially contracting filaments, we perform radially one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) calculations with variable Eddington factor (VEF) method. The similar calculations have been performed; however, the analysis is insufficient and there are some problems in the numerical approach and assumed initial conditions. As a result of our careful calculations and detailed analysis, the critical density, which is analytically presented by Masunaga & Inutsuka (1999), and at which the isothermality is expected to break down, is confirmed qualitatively. However, we also find that the "break down of isothermality" is not instantaneous and when fragmentations appear cannot be known by only one-dimensional simulations. Therefore, in order to understand the fragmentation process, two-dimensional RHD calculations are needed. The VEF method is too computationally expensive to perform multi-dimensional RHD calculations; thus flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation, which is computationally lower-cost, should be chosen. However, the traditional numerical approach based on the Newton-Raphson (NR) method has a computational drawback of the stability especially in the optically thin regime. Therefore, as the second step, four schemes for implicitly solving for the nonlinear simultaneous equations in the RHD equations with FLD, namely the NR method, simply operator splitting (SOS), modified operator splitting presented by Douglas
Two-dimensional fully adaptive solutions of solid--solid alloying reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smooke, M.D.; Koszykowski, M.L.
1986-01-01
Solid--solid alloying reactions occur in a variety of pyrotechnical applications. They arise when a mixture of powders composed of appropriate oxidizing and reducing agents is heated. The large quantity of heat evolved produces a self-propagating reaction front that is often very narrow with sharp changes in both the temperature and the concentrations of the reacting species. Solution of problems of this type with an equispaced or mildly nonuniform grid can be extremely inefficient. In this paper we develop a two-dimensional fully adaptive method for solving problems of this class. The method adaptively adjusts the number of grid points needed to equidistribute a positive weight function over a given mesh interval in each direction at each time level. We monitor the solution from one time level to another to ensure that the local error per unti step associated with the time differencing method is below some specified tolerance. The method is applied to several examples involving exothermic, diffusion-controlled, self-propagating reactions in packed bed reactors
Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.
2010-01-01
The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.
A problem of atomic diffusion in a moving boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra, M.C.C.
1985-01-01
It is analysed the convergence of a numerical scheme for calculating approximate solutions of a model used for evaluating concentration of atoms in a diffusion process in the walls of nuclear reactors. The ion trapping process is admitted to be reversible and the wall corrosion process is also considered in the model so that must deal with a moving boundary. Some conditions for the motion of the boundary are established in such a way that convergence can be assured in more general settings than those of previous papers. (Author) [pt
De Meulemeester, Celine; Lowyck, Benedicte; Vermote, Rudi; Verhaest, Yannic; Luyten, Patrick
2017-12-01
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are characterized by problems in interpersonal functioning and their long-term social integration often remains problematic. Extant theories have linked identity diffusion to many of the interpersonal problems characteristic of BPD patients. Recent theoretical accounts have suggested that identity diffusion results from problems with mentalizing or reflective functioning, that is, the capacity to understand oneself and others in terms of intentional mental states. In this study we tested these assumptions, i.e., whether identity diffusion plays a mediating role in the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems, in a sample of 167 BPD patients. Highly significant correlations were found between mentalizing impairments, identity diffusion and interpersonal problems. Mediation analyses showed that identity diffusion fully mediated the relationship between mentalizing difficulties and interpersonal problems. This study provides preliminary evidence that impairments in mentalizing are related to identity diffusion, which in turn is related to interpersonal problems in BPD. Further longitudinal research is needed to further substantiate these conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A chaotic model for advertising diffusion problem with competition
Ip, W. H.; Yung, K. L.; Wang, Dingwei
2012-08-01
In this article, the author extends Dawid and Feichtinger's chaotic advertising diffusion model into the duopoly case. A computer simulation system is used to test this enhanced model. Based on the analysis of simulation results, it is found that the best advertising strategy in duopoly is to increase the advertising investment to reach the best Win-Win situation where the oscillation of market portion will not occur. In order to effectively arrive at the best situation, we define a synthetic index and two thresholds. An estimation method for the parameters of the index and thresholds is proposed in this research. We can reach the Win-Win situation by simply selecting the control parameters to make the synthetic index close to the threshold of min-oscillation state. The numerical example and computational results indicated that the proposed chaotic model is useful to describe and analyse advertising diffusion process in duopoly, it is an efficient tool for the selection and optimisation of advertising strategy.
Capel, H.W.; Pasmanter, R.A.
2000-01-01
It is shown: (1) that in two-dimensional, incompressible, viscous flows the vorticity-area distribution evolves according to an advection-diffusion equation with a negative, time dependent diffusion coefficient and (2) how to use the vorticity-stream function relations, i.e., the so-called
Image encryption using the two-dimensional logistic chaotic map
Wu, Yue; Yang, Gelan; Jin, Huixia; Noonan, Joseph P.
2012-01-01
Chaos maps and chaotic systems have been proved to be useful and effective for cryptography. In our study, the two-dimensional logistic map with complicated basin structures and attractors are first used for image encryption. The proposed method adopts the classic framework of the permutation-substitution network in cryptography and thus ensures both confusion and diffusion properties for a secure cipher. The proposed method is able to encrypt an intelligible image into a random-like one from the statistical point of view and the human visual system point of view. Extensive simulation results using test images from the USC-SIPI image database demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Security analysis results of using both the conventional and the most recent tests show that the encryption quality of the proposed method reaches or excels the current state-of-the-art methods. Similar encryption ideas can be applied to digital data in other formats (e.g., digital audio and video). We also publish the cipher MATLAB open-source-code under the web page https://sites.google.com/site/tuftsyuewu/source-code.
Organization and diffusion in biological and material fabrication problems
Mangan, Niall Mari
2013-01-01
This thesis is composed of two problems. The first is a systems level analysis of the carbon concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. The second presents a theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser melting for the purpose of hyperdoping silicon with sulfur. While these systems are very distant, they are both relevant to the development of alternative energy (production of biofuels and methods for fabricating photovoltaics respectively). Both problems are approached through analysis of the un...
Screening in two-dimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korcyl, Piotr; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron; Koren, Mateusz
2012-12-01
We analyze the problem of screening in 1+1 dimensional gauge theories. Using QED 2 as a warmup for the non-abelian models we show the mechanism of the string breaking, in particular the vanishing overlap of the Wilson loops to the broken-string ground state that has been conjectured in higher-dimensional analyses. We attempt to extend our analysis to non-integer charges in the quenched and unquenched cases, in pursuit of the numerical check of a renowned result for the string tension between arbitrarily-charged fermions in the massive Schwinger model.
Hall conductivity for two dimensional magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desbois, J.; Ouvry, S.; Texier, C.
1996-01-01
A Kubo inspired formalism is proposed to compute the longitudinal and transverse dynamical conductivities of an electron in a plane (or a gas of electrons at zero temperature) coupled to the potential vector of an external local magnetic field, with the additional coupling of the spin degree of freedom of the electron to the local magnetic field (Pauli Hamiltonian). As an example, the homogeneous magnetic field Hall conductivity is rederived. The case of the vortex at the origin is worked out in detail. A perturbative analysis is proposed for the conductivity in the random magnetic impurity problem (Poissonian vortices in the plane). (author)
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...
Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography
Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.
2018-01-01
Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular
Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion
Huggins, Elisha
2009-01-01
During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…
Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadeghi, J.
2008-01-01
We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon
Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei
2018-01-24
In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.
Persistence in a Two-Dimensional Moving-Habitat Model.
Phillips, Austin; Kot, Mark
2015-11-01
Environmental changes are forcing many species to track suitable conditions or face extinction. In this study, we use a two-dimensional integrodifference equation to analyze whether a population can track a habitat that is moving due to climate change. We model habitat as a simple rectangle. Our model quickly leads to an eigenvalue problem that determines whether the population persists or declines. After surveying techniques to solve the eigenvalue problem, we highlight three findings that impact conservation efforts such as reserve design and species risk assessment. First, while other models focus on habitat length (parallel to the direction of habitat movement), we show that ignoring habitat width (perpendicular to habitat movement) can lead to overestimates of persistence. Dispersal barriers and hostile landscapes that constrain habitat width greatly decrease the population's ability to track its habitat. Second, for some long-distance dispersal kernels, increasing habitat length improves persistence without limit; for other kernels, increasing length is of limited help and has diminishing returns. Third, it is not always best to orient the long side of the habitat in the direction of climate change. Evidence suggests that the kurtosis of the dispersal kernel determines whether it is best to have a long, wide, or square habitat. In particular, populations with platykurtic dispersal benefit more from a wide habitat, while those with leptokurtic dispersal benefit more from a long habitat. We apply our model to the Rocky Mountain Apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus).
Filtering and control for classes of two-dimensional systems
Wu, Ligang
2015-01-01
This book focuses on filtering, control and model-reduction problems for two-dimensional (2-D) systems with imperfect information. The time-delayed 2-D systems covered have system parameters subject to uncertain, stochastic and parameter-varying changes. After an initial introduction of 2-D systems and the ideas of linear repetitive processes, the text is divided into two parts detailing: · general theory and methods of analysis and optimal synthesis for 2-D systems; and · application of the general theory to the particular case of differential/discrete linear repetitive processes. The methods developed provide a framework for stability and performance analysis, optimal and robust controller and filter design and model approximation for the systems considered. Solutions to the design problems are couched in terms of linear matrix inequalities. For readers interested in the state of the art in linear filtering, control and model reduction, Filtering and Control for Classes of ...
Almost two-dimensional treatment of drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albert, J.M.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.
1990-01-01
The approximation of two-dimensionality is studied and extended for electrostatic drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional, magnetized plasma. It is argued on the basis of the direct interaction approximation that in the absence of parallel viscosity, purely 2-D solutions exist for which only modes with k parallel =0 are excited, but that the 2-D spectrum is unstable to perturbations at nonzero k parallel . A 1-D equation for the parallel profile g k perpendicular (k parallel ) of the saturated spectrum at steady state is derived and solved, allowing for parallel viscosity; the spectrum has finite width in k parallel , and hence finite parallel correlation length, as a result of nonlinear coupling. The enhanced energy dissipation rate, a 3-D effect, may be incorporated in the 2-D approximation by a suitable renormalization of the linear dissipation term. An algorithm is presented that reduces the 3-D problem to coupled 1- and 2-D problems. Numerical results from a 2-D spectral direct simulation, thus modified, are compared with the results from the corresponding 3-D (unmodified) simulation for a specific model of drift wave excitation. Damping at high k parallel is included. It is verified that the 1-D solution for g k perpendicular (k parallel ) accurately describes the shape and width of the 3-D spectrum, and that the modified 2-D simulation gives a good estimate of the 3-D energy saturation level and distribution E(k perpendicular )
Wang, Zhiheng
2014-12-10
A meshless local radial basis function method is developed for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The distributed nodes used to store the variables are obtained by the philosophy of an unstructured mesh, which results in two main advantages of the method. One is that the unstructured nodes generation in the computational domain is quite simple, without much concern about the mesh quality; the other is that the localization of the obtained collocations for the discretization of equations is performed conveniently with the supporting nodes. The algebraic system is solved by a semi-implicit pseudo-time method, in which the convective and source terms are explicitly marched by the Runge-Kutta method, and the diffusive terms are implicitly solved. The proposed method is validated by several benchmark problems, including natural convection in a square cavity, the lid-driven cavity flow, and the natural convection in a square cavity containing a circular cylinder, and very good agreement with the existing results are obtained.
Perlekar, Prasad; Pal, Nairita; Pandit, Rahul
2017-03-21
We study two-dimensional (2D) binary-fluid turbulence by carrying out an extensive direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the forced, statistically steady turbulence in the coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations. In the absence of any coupling, we choose parameters that lead (a) to spinodal decomposition and domain growth, which is characterized by the spatiotemporal evolution of the Cahn-Hilliard order parameter ϕ, and (b) the formation of an inverse-energy-cascade regime in the energy spectrum E(k), in which energy cascades towards wave numbers k that are smaller than the energy-injection scale kin j in the turbulent fluid. We show that the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes coupling leads to an arrest of phase separation at a length scale Lc, which we evaluate from S(k), the spectrum of the fluctuations of ϕ. We demonstrate that (a) Lc ~ LH, the Hinze scale that follows from balancing inertial and interfacial-tension forces, and (b) Lc is independent, within error bars, of the diffusivity D. We elucidate how this coupling modifies E(k) by blocking the inverse energy cascade at a wavenumber kc, which we show is ≃2π/Lc. We compare our work with earlier studies of this problem.
The statistics of molecular motor trajectories on different two-dimensional structures
Tabei, S. M. Ali; Jahanmiri-Nezhad, Faezeh; Martin, Michael; Lastine, Colten
Molecular motors move on a complex cytoskeleton network to transport material within the cell. In this talk, we investigate different scenarios of transport on two-dimensional network structures. We will study different statistical properties of an ensemble of simulated trajectories such as the frequency of directional changes and diffusion statistics. We will investigate how these statistical measures depend on the geometrical properties of the underlying structure.
Energy of N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions
Bazak, B.; Petrov, D. S.
2018-02-01
We derive an integral equation describing N two-dimensional bosons with zero-range interactions and solve it for the ground state energy B N by applying a stochastic diffusion Monte Carlo scheme for up to 26 particles. We confirm and go beyond the scaling B N ∝ 8.567 N predicted by Hammer and Son (2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 250408) in the large-N limit.
Global existence and blowup for free boundary problems of coupled reaction-diffusion systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianping Sun
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This article concerns a free boundary problem for a reaction-diffusion system modeling the cooperative interaction of two diffusion biological species in one space dimension. First we show the existence and uniqueness of a local classical solution, then we study the asymptotic behavior of the free boundary problem. Our results show that the free boundary problem admits a global solution if the inter-specific competitions are strong, while, if the inter-specific competitions are weak, there exist the blowup solution and a global fast solution.
Polyanin, A. D.; Sorokin, V. G.
2017-12-01
The paper deals with nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with one or several delays. We formulate theorems that allow constructing exact solutions for some classes of these equations, which depend on several arbitrary functions. Examples of application of these theorems for obtaining new exact solutions in elementary functions are provided. We state basic principles of construction, selection, and use of test problems for nonlinear partial differential equations with delay. Some test problems which can be suitable for estimating accuracy of approximate analytical and numerical methods of solving reaction-diffusion equations with delay are presented. Some examples of numerical solutions of nonlinear test problems with delay are considered.
A Series Solution of the Cauchy Problem for Turing Reaction-diffusion Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Päivärinta
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the series pattern solution of the Cauchy problem for Turing reaction-diffusion model is obtained by using the homotopy analysis method (HAM. Turing reaction-diffusion model is nonlinear reaction-diffusion system which usually has power-law nonlinearities or may be rewritten in the form of power-law nonlinearities. Using the HAM, it is possible to find the exact solution or an approximate solution of the problem. This technique provides a series of functions which converges rapidly to the exact solution of the problem. The efficiency of the approach will be shown by applying the procedure on two problems. Furthermore, the so-called homotopy-Pade technique (HPT is applied to enlarge the convergence region and rate of solution series given by the HAM.
Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.
Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J
2018-01-01
Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An idealised study of the effects of small scales on chemistry in a two-dimensional turbulent flow.
Chaalal, F. Ait; Bartello, P.; Bourqui, M.
2009-04-01
The non-linear nature of stratospheric chemical reactions makes them sensitive to mixing and diffusion. Most stratospheric Climate-Chemistry Models neglect the effects of sub-grid flow structures on chemistry. Several previous studies have pointed out that such unresolved small scales could significantly affect the chemistry. However this problem has not been thoroughly studied from a theoretical point of view. To fulfill this gap, we investigate the interactions between advection, diffusion and chemistry for a simple bimolecular reaction between two initially unmixed reactants, within the framework of two-dimensional isotropic and homogenous turbulence. This is a highly simplified representation of quasi-isentropic mixing in the stratosphere. Our goal here is to describe and understand how the production rate of the product species is affected by the size of the smallest scales of the tracer field, as determined by the tracer diffusion coefficient Î°. The spatial average of the prognostic equation for the product's concentration involves the covariance of the reactants. The time evolution of this covariance depends in turn on a dissipative term, and on second and third order chemical terms. The set of equations is not closed and any finite resolution model would need a parameterization of the dissipation and a closure hypothesis on the chemical terms. To study these terms, we perform ensembles of direct numerical simulations using a pseudo-spectral two-dimensional periodic model. The ensembles span different initial conditions of the flow and different tracer diffusion coefficients Î°. Our results show a strong dependence of the total production on the diffusion coefficient. This production scales like Î°p(t) , where p(t) is a positive decreasing function of time. This scaling is very similar to the one found by Tan et al. (1998) for atmospheric flows on the deactivation of chlorine by nitrogen oxide at the southern edge of the winter time polar vortex
Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.
1996-01-01
An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction
ONE-DIMENSIONAL AND TWO-DIMENSIONAL LEADERSHIP STYLES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikola Stefanović
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.
Numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms
Gehrmann, T
2002-01-01
The two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms $\\G(\\vec{a}(z);y)$, a generalization of the harmonic polylogarithms, themselves a generalization of Nielsen's polylogarithms, appear in analytic calculations of multi-loop radiative corrections in quantum field theory. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, with the two arguments $y,z$ varying in the triangle $0\\le y \\le 1$, $ 0\\le z \\le 1$, $\\ 0\\le (y+z) \\le 1$. This algorithm is implemented into a {\\tt FORTRAN} subroutine {\\tt tdhpl} to compute two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms up to weight 4.
Stationary states of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger model with disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Hendriksen, D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1998-01-01
Solitonlike excitations in the presence of disorder in the two-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation are analyzed. The continuum as well as the discrete problem are analyzed. In the continuum model, otherwise unstable excitations are stabilized in the presence of disorder...
New Approach for Segmentation and Quantification of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anjo, Antonio dos; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
2011-01-01
Motivation: Detection of protein spots in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images (2-DE) is a very complex task and current approaches addressing this problem still suffer from significant shortcomings. When quantifying a spot, most of the current software applications include a lot of backgro...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, M.V.
1988-01-01
Continual ''extensions'' of two-dimensional Toda lattices are proposed. They are described by integro-differential equations, generally speaking, with singular kernels, depending on new (third) variable. The problem of their integrability on the corresponding class of the initial discrete system solutions is discussed. The latter takes place, in particular, for the kernel coinciding with the causal function
Wang, Zhijie; Yu, Xiaoliang; He, Wenhui; Kaneti, Yusuf Valentino; Han, Da; Sun, Qi; He, Yan-Bing; Xiang, Bin
2016-12-14
Two-dimensional nanocarbons are intriguing functional materials for energy storage. However, the serious aggregation problems hinder their wider applications. To address this issue, we developed a unique two-dimensional hierarchical carbon architecture (2D-HCA) with ultrasmall graphene-like carbon nanosheets uniformly grown on hexagonal carbon nanoplates. The obtained 2D-HCA shows an interconnected porous structure and abundant heteroelement doping. When employed as anode for lithium ion batteries, it exhibits a high discharge capacity of 748 m Ah g -1 even after 400 cycles at 2 A g -1 .
Transport in two-dimensional scattering stochastic media: Simulations and models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.
1999-01-01
Classical monoenergetic transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, two-dimensional stochastic media is discussed. The work focuses on the effective representation of the stochastic media, as obtained by averaging over an ensemble of random realizations of the media. Results of transport simulations in two-dimensional stochastic media are presented and compared against results from several models. Problems for which this work is relevant range from transport through cracked or porous concrete shields and transport through boiling coolant of a nuclear reactor, to transport through stochastic stellar atmospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook
2011-01-01
An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.
Classical diffusion: theory and simulation codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grad, H.; Hu, P.N.
1977-01-01
The nonstandard mathematical and numerical problems which arise in classical diffusion theory upon reinsertion of the time derivative of the magnetic field (curl E not equal to 0) are discussed. The extension of classical diffusion theory to curl E not equal to 0 requires solution of a global boundary value problem before the surface averaged flux can be obtained. It also introduces coupling between plamsa diffusion and magnetic flux diffusion (the shin effect). The most effective method for treating Grad--Hogan classical diffusion was to introduce independent and dependent variables so as to eliminate the convection velocity (it can be computed afterwards). This procedure reduced the nonstandard, two dimensional problem to one with computation time only slightly more than for a one-dimensional diffusion problem. 23 references, 1 figure
The two-dimensional reactor dynamics program TINTE. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerwin, H.
1989-02-01
The TINTE code system deals with the nuclear and the thermal transient behaviour of the primary circuit of an HTGR taking into consideration the mutual feedback effects in two-dimensional r-z geometry. In Part One of this report (Juel-2167) the initial equations were compiled and methods of solution discussed. In an appendix to this second part they are completed by some supplementary points. The TINTE code construction and a detailed input description will be discussed in Part Three. The Part Two shows examples of application, especially a comparative calculation of dynamic experiments performed at the AVR. A good agreement between calculational and experimental results is found. Further examples show the flexibility of TINTE: first of all, individual moduli of TINTE are used to find a solution to a thermofluid problem. In addition TINTE is used to demonstrate the mutual feedback between nuclear and thermal processes in process heat reactors, including those with natural convective conditions, without any control rod movement. (orig.) [de
Noise Production of an Idealized Two-Dimensional Fish School
Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Moored, Keith; Jaworski, Justin
2017-11-01
The analysis of quiet bio-inspired propulsive concepts requires a rapid, unified computational framework that integrates the coupled fluid-solid dynamics of swimmers and their wakes with the resulting noise generation. Such a framework is presented for two-dimensional flows, where the fluid motion is modeled by an unsteady boundary element method with a vortex-particle wake. The unsteady surface forces from the potential flow solver are then passed to an acoustic boundary element solver to predict the radiated sound in low-Mach-number flows. The coupled flow-acoustic solver is validated against canonical vortex-sound problems. A diamond arrangement of four airfoils are subjected to traveling wave kinematics representing a known idealized pattern for a school of fish, and the airfoil motion and inflow values are derived from the range of Strouhal values common to many natural swimmers. The coupled flow-acoustic solver estimates and analyzes the hydrodynamic performance and noise production of the idealized school of swimmers.
A two dimensional model of undertow current over mud bed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mir Hammadul Azam; Abdul Aziz Ibrahim; Noraieni Hj, Mokhtar
1996-01-01
Coastal wave-current dynamics often causes severe erosion and this activity is more prominent within the surf zone. Turbulence generated by breaking wave is a complex phenomena and the degree of complexity increases to a higher degree when it happens over mud bed. A better understanding on wave and current is necessary to enrich the engineering hand to facilitate any coastal development work. Since physical model has certain deficiencies, such as high cost and scaling problem, the need for developing numerical models in such cases is significant. A time averaged two dimensional model has been developed to simulate the undertow over mud bed. A turbulent energy model also included which considers only the vertical variation of mixing length. Production of turbulent kinetic energy in the surf zone has been calculated from an hydraulic jump analogy. The result obtained shows an insignificant vertical variation of current. Further research is needed involving laboratory and field works to get sufficient data for comparing the model results
Parallel processing of two-dimensional Sn transport calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uematsu, M.
1997-01-01
A parallel processing method for the two-dimensional S n transport code DOT3.5 has been developed to achieve a drastic reduction in computation time. In the proposed method, parallelization is achieved with angular domain decomposition and/or space domain decomposition. The calculational speed of parallel processing by angular domain decomposition is largely influenced by frequent communications between processing elements. To assess parallelization efficiency, sample problems with up to 32 x 32 spatial meshes were solved with a Sun workstation using the PVM message-passing library. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements, for example, was found to be nine times as fast as that with one processing element. As for parallel processing by geometry segmentation, the influence of processing element communications on computation time is small; however, discontinuity at the segment boundary degrades convergence speed. To accelerate the convergence, an alternate sweep of angular flux in conjunction with space domain decomposition and a two-step rescaling method consisting of segmentwise rescaling and ordinary pointwise rescaling have been developed. By applying the developed method, the number of iterations needed to obtain a converged flux solution was reduced by a factor of 2. As a result, parallel calculation using 16 processing elements was found to be 5.98 times as fast as the original DOT3.5 calculation
Proteome research : two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rabilloud, Thierry, 1961
2000-01-01
"Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the central methodology in proteome research, and the state of the art is described in detail in this text, together with extensive coverage of the detection methods available...
1/f noise in two-dimensional fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cable, S.B.; Tajima, T.
1994-10-01
We derive an exact result on the velocity fluctuation power spectrum of an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. Employing the fluctuation-dissipation relationship and the enstrophy conversation, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a 1/f form
Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...
Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.
1979-01-01
For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations
Paul, Jagannath
Advent of ultrashort lasers made it possible to probe various scattering phenomena in materials that occur in a time scale on the order of few femtoseconds to several tens of picoseconds. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques, such as pump-probe, transient four wave mixing (TFWM), etc., are very common to study the carrier dynamics in various material systems. In time domain, the transient FWM uses several ultrashort pulses separated by time delays to obtain the information of dephasing and population relaxation times, which are very important parameters that govern the carrier dynamics of materials. A recently developed multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy is an enhanced version of TFWM which keeps track of two time delays simultaneously and correlate them in the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform in a two dimensional map. Using this technique, the nonlinear complex signal field is characterized both in amplitude and phase. Furthermore, this technique allows us to identify the coupling between resonances which are rather difficult to interpret from time domain measurements. This work focuses on the study of the coherent response of a two dimensional electron gas formed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well both at zero and at high magnetic fields. In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the inter- actions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the formation of Mahan excitons, which is also referred to as Fermi edge singularity (FES). Polarization and temperature dependent rephasing 2DFT spectra in combination with TI-FWM measurements, provides insight into the dephasing mechanism of the heavy hole (HH) Mahan exciton. In addition to that strong quantum coherence between the HH and LH Mahan excitons is observed, which is rather surprising at this high doping concentration. The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly
Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.
1996-01-01
Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)
The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity
Lemos, José P. S.; Sá, Paulo M.
1993-01-01
General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.
Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.
1979-01-01
The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern.......The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....
Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.
The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olvera de la C, M.
1981-01-01
An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)
Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seba Sara Varghese
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.
Ye, Boyong; Han, Xiaoxue; Yan, Mengdie; Zhang, Huanhuan; Xi, Fengna; Dong, Xiaoping; Liu, Jiyang
2017-12-01
Semiconductor photocatalysis currently suffered three main problems, low solar energy utilization, high photo-generated charge recombination rate and the heavy metal ions release by the photo-corrosion. Herein, we developed a visible-light-driven homojunction photocatalyst with the metal-free two-dimensional (2D) graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (CNNS). By employing liquid exfoliation and chemical blowing approaches, we obtained two kinds of CNNS materials (le-CNNS and cb-CNNS) with different band structures, and subsequently fabricated the homojunction photocatalyst. This 2D/2D nanocomposited homojunction photocatalyst exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performance compared to these individual 2D nanosheets materials. Moreover, its well universality and reusability were also demonstrated by photo-degradation of various organic pollutants and five successive runs. By studying the optical properties and the electrochemical behavior, the band alignment of this homojunction was illustrated and the possible mechanism was proposed, where the transmitted electrons on the conduction band (CB) of le-CNNS would transport to the CB of cb-CNNS, and the holes on the valence band (VB) of cb-CNNS transferred to the VB of le-CNNS, therefore promoting the photo-induced carrier separation. Additionally, the photoluminescence, electrochemical impendence and photocurrent measurements further demonstrated that the recombination of photo-excited electron-hole pairs had been efficiently suppressed in the homojunction and were respectively collected on different CNNS components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An Improved Zero Potential Circuit for Readout of a Two-Dimensional Resistive Sensor Array
Jian-Feng Wu; Feng Wang; Qi Wang; Jian-Qing Li; Ai-Guo Song
2016-01-01
With one operational amplifier (op-amp) in negative feedback, the traditional zero potential circuit could access one element in the two-dimensional (2-D) resistive sensor array with the shared row-column fashion but it suffered from the crosstalk problem for the non-scanned elements? bypass currents, which were injected into array?s non-scanned electrodes from zero potential. Firstly, for suppressing the crosstalk problem, we designed a novel improved zero potential circuit with one more op-...
Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Cephalometry Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scans.
Cassetta, Michele; Michele, Cassetta; Altieri, Federica; Federica, Altieri; Di Giorgio, Roberto; Roberto, Di Giorgio; Silvestri, Alessandro; Alessandro, Silvestri
2015-06-01
Lateral cephalometric radiograph produces a two-dimensional image with several drawbacks. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows obtaining a three-dimensional representation of the craniofacial structures and seems to overcome the problems of superimposition and magnification, providing more precision than two-dimensional methods. The aim of the current study was to test the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of linear and angular measurements performed on two-dimensional conventional cephalometric images and CBCT-generated cephalograms, and to evaluate if there is a statistically significant difference between the 2 methods of measurements. The sample group consisted of 24 adolescents with a pretreatment digital lateral radiograph and a corresponding CBCT image. A total of 16 cephalometric landmarks were identified and 17 widely used measurements (9 angular and 8 linear) were recorded by 2 independent observers. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were assessed by calculating Pearson correlation coefficient. Student t-test was used to compare the 2 methods. The threshold for significance was set at P ≤ 0.05.Concerning the intraobserver and interobserver reliability, data showed a statistically significant correlation between all two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements. The linear and angular measurements of two-dimensional and three-dimensional cephalometry were not statistically different. The results of the current study showed the reliability of both conventional two-dimensional and three-dimensional cephalometry. Linear and angular measurements from CBCT were found also to be similar to conventional measurements. Considering that conventional images deliver the lowest radiation doses to patients, the use of CBCT for orthodontic purposes should be limited.
Coexistence problem for two competing species models with density-dependent diffusion
Mimura, Masayasu; Nishiura, Yasumasa; Tesei, Alberto; Tsujikawa, Tohru
1984-01-01
We study the pattern formation of the Gause-Lotka-Volterra system of competition and nonlinear diffusion. This problem is related to segregation patterns between two competing species. It is shown that coexistence is possible by the effect of cross-population pressure in the situation where the inter-specific competition is stronger than the intra-specific one.
Discrete maximum principle for FE solutions of the diffusion-reaction problem on prismatic meshes
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hannukainen, A.; Korotov, S.; Vejchodský, Tomáš
2009-01-01
Roč. 226, č. 2 (2009), s. 275-287 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : diffusion-reaction problem * maximum principle * prismatic finite elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.292, year: 2009
Why does renewable energy diffuse so slowly? A review of innovation system problems
Negro, S.O.; Alkemade, F.; Hekkert, M.P.
2012-01-01
In this paper we present a literature review of studies that have analysed the troublesome trajectory of different renewable energy technologies (RETs) development and diffusion in different, mainly European countries. We present an overview of typical systemic problems in the development of
Le Tallec, Patrick; Tidriri, Moulay D.
1994-01-01
Projet MENUSIN; The aim of this paper is to study the convergence properties of a Time Marching Algorithm solving Advection-Diffusion problems on two domains using incompatible discretizations. The basic algorithm is first presented, and theoretical or numerical results illustrate its convergence properties. This study is based on spectral theory, a priori estimates and a Di-Giorgi-Nash maximum principle .
A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-09-15
A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.
Numerical simulation of potato slices drying using a two-dimensional finite element model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beigi Mohsen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the process of potato slices drying. For simulating the moisture transfer in the samples and predict the dehydration curves, a two-dimensional finite element model was developed and programmed in Compaq Visual Fortran, version 6.5. The model solved the Fick’s second law for slab in a shrinkage system to calculate the unsteady two-dimensional moisture transmission in rectangular coordinates (x,y. Moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient were determined by minimizing the sum squares of residuals between experimental and numerical predicted data. Shrinkage kinetics of the potato slices during dehydration was determined experimentally and found to be a linear function of removed moisture. The determined parameters were used in the mathematical model. The predicted moisture content values were compared to the experimental data and the validation results demonstrated that the dynamic drying curves were predicted by the methodology very well.
Nucleation of two-dimensional islands on Si (111) during high-temperature epitaxial growth
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sitnikov, S. V., E-mail: sitnikov@isp.nsc.ru; Kosolobov, S. S.; Latyshev, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
The process of two-dimensional island nucleation at the surface of ultra large Si (111) during hightemperature epitaxial growth is studied by in situ ultrahigh-vacuum reflection electron microscopy. The critical terrace size D{sub crit}, at which a two-dimensional island is nucleated in the center, is measured in the temperature range 900–1180°C at different silicon fluxes onto the surface. It is found that the parameter D{sub crit}{sup 2} is a power function of the frequency of island nucleation, with the exponent χ = 0.9 ± 0.05 in the entire temperature range under study. It is established that the kinetics of nucleus formation is defined by the diffusion of adsorbed silicon atoms at temperatures of up to 1180°C and the minimum critical nucleus size corresponds to 12 silicon atoms.
Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit
Lucking, Michael C.; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S. B.
2018-02-01
Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.
Two-dimensional silicon: the advent of silicene
Grazianetti, Carlo; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Molle, Alessandro
2016-03-01
Silicene is sometimes thought of as the Si alter ego of graphene. However, experimental evidence indicates that silicene is substantially different from graphene in terms of its stability, atomic structure, electronic properties, and device process issues. Some of these aspects hamper the feasibility of silicene for practical application, but at the same time they may offer routes to engineer or functionalize silicene as a complementary material to graphene if a good control of the material can be achieved. As such, the research on silicene runs along the cutting edge between unsurmountable limitation and pioneering opportunities. In the present review, we examine the issues that are representative of this dual edge and try to make a preliminary balance of the state-of-the-art features of this material. Each relevant topic will be explored in a dedicated section. We start with the introduction of ‘experimental’ silicene in the so-called ’flatland’ from the point of view of technology drivers and of its conceptual precursor, freestanding silicene. We then explore the following: specific aspects of the silicene on substrates; the tendency of silicene to have multiple structural forms (what we call the polymorphic nature of silicene) the role of the strong hybridization with the substrate in the electronic band structure of silicene; the Raman spectrum of silicene, and silicene processing and integration into a transistor. Finally we conclude by proposing an investigation into silicene’s emerging contemporaries in the realm of elementary two-dimensional materials. Mindful of ongoing discussions and current issues, we try to go to the heart of the problems by treating each topic objectively and scientifically and we then provide our personal views in the discussion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahmoud, K.S.; Szatmary, Z.
2005-01-01
An iterative method was developed for the numerical solution of the coupled two-dimensional time dependent multigroup diffusion equation and delayed precursor equations. Both forward (Explicit) and backward (Implicit) schemes were used. The second scheme was found to be numerically stable, while the first scheme requires that Δt -10 sec. for stability. An example is given for the second method. (authors)
Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition
Edwards, Thomas R.
1988-01-01
Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.
Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehud Altman
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.
Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.
Pavlov, Maxim V
2014-12-08
In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.
A nonperturbative treatment of two-dimensional quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A.
1990-01-01
We propose a nonperturbative definition of two-dimensional quantum gravity, based on a double scaling limit of the random matrix model. We develop an operator formalism for utilizing the method of orthogonal polynomials that allows us to solve the matrix models to all orders in the genus expansion. Using this formalism we derive an exact differential equation for the partition function of two-dimensional gravity as a function of the string coupling constant that governs the genus expansion of two-dimensional surfaces, and discuss its properties and consequences. We construct and discuss the correlation functions of an infinite set of pointlike and loop operators to all orders in the genus expansion. (orig.)
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphous...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savel'ev, M.V.
1985-01-01
Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations
Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Bobev, Nikolay [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Crichigno, P. Marcos [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)
2016-07-05
We find a large class of two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N=1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS{sub 3} solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of four-dimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.
Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Los Arcos Merino, J.M.
1978-01-01
Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)
Quantum melting of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal
Dolgopolov, V. T.
2017-10-01
The paper reviews theoretical predictions about the behavior of two-dimensional low-density electron systems at nearly absolute zero temperatures, including the formation of an electron (Wigner) crystal, crystal melting at a critical electron density, and transitions between crystal modifications in more complex (for example, two-layer) systems. The paper presents experimental results obtained from real two-dimensional systems in which the nonconducting (solid) state of the electronic system with indications of collective localization is actually realized. Experimental methods for detecting a quantum liquid–solid phase interface are discussed.
Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank
2014-01-01
We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....
Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.
1985-01-01
The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt
Recent advances in computational-analytical integral transforms for convection-diffusion problems
Cotta, R. M.; Naveira-Cotta, C. P.; Knupp, D. C.; Zotin, J. L. Z.; Pontes, P. C.; Almeida, A. P.
2017-10-01
An unifying overview of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique (GITT) as a computational-analytical approach for solving convection-diffusion problems is presented. This work is aimed at bringing together some of the most recent developments on both accuracy and convergence improvements on this well-established hybrid numerical-analytical methodology for partial differential equations. Special emphasis is given to novel algorithm implementations, all directly connected to enhancing the eigenfunction expansion basis, such as a single domain reformulation strategy for handling complex geometries, an integral balance scheme in dealing with multiscale problems, the adoption of convective eigenvalue problems in formulations with significant convection effects, and the direct integral transformation of nonlinear convection-diffusion problems based on nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Then, selected examples are presented that illustrate the improvement achieved in each class of extension, in terms of convergence acceleration and accuracy gain, which are related to conjugated heat transfer in complex or multiscale microchannel-substrate geometries, multidimensional Burgers equation model, and diffusive metal extraction through polymeric hollow fiber membranes. Numerical results are reported for each application and, where appropriate, critically compared against the traditional GITT scheme without convergence enhancement schemes and commercial or dedicated purely numerical approaches.
Numerical solution of a diffusion problem by exponentially fitted finite difference methods.
D'Ambrosio, Raffaele; Paternoster, Beatrice
2014-01-01
This paper is focused on the accurate and efficient solution of partial differential differential equations modelling a diffusion problem by means of exponentially fitted finite difference numerical methods. After constructing and analysing special purpose finite differences for the approximation of second order partial derivatives, we employed them in the numerical solution of a diffusion equation with mixed boundary conditions. Numerical experiments reveal that a special purpose integration, both in space and in time, is more accurate and efficient than that gained by employing a general purpose solver.
A Boundary Element-Response Matrix method for criticality diffusion problems in xyz geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cossa, G.; Giusti, V.; Montagnini, B.
2010-01-01
The Boundary Element-Response Matrix (BERM) method shown in the paper aims to represent an alternative to the Finite Element method in order to solve 3D multigroup diffusion (criticality) problems in xyz geometry. The theory extends the previous work on the diffusion equations in two dimensions and new techniques for the evaluation of the integrals involved in the boundary integral equations, as well as new procedures for solving the resulting linear system, have greatly enhanced the performances of the method. Results show that BERM can achieve an excellent accuracy, still keeping a good computational efficiency.
Multi-level nonlinear diffusion acceleration method for multigroup transport k-Eigenvalue problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anistratov, Dmitriy Y.
2011-01-01
The nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) method is an efficient and flexible transport iterative scheme for solving reactor-physics problems. This paper presents a fast iterative algorithm for solving multigroup neutron transport eigenvalue problems in 1D slab geometry. The proposed method is defined by a multi-level system of equations that includes multigroup and effective one-group low-order NDA equations. The Eigenvalue is evaluated in the exact projected solution space of smallest dimensionality, namely, by solving the effective one- group eigenvalue transport problem. Numerical results that illustrate performance of the new algorithm are demonstrated. (author)
Nefedov, Nikolay
2017-02-01
This is an extended variant of the paper presented at MURPHYS-HSFS 2016 conference in Barcelona. We discuss further development of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities to investigate existence and stability of sharp internal layers (fronts) for nonlinear singularly perturbed periodic parabolic problems and initial boundary value problems with blow-up of fronts for reaction-diffusion-advection equations. In particular, we consider periodic solutions with internal layer in the case of balanced reaction. For the initial boundary value problems we prove the existence of fronts and give their asymptotic approximation including the new case of blowing-up fronts. This case we illustrate by the generalised Burgers equation.
Development of a coarse mesh code for the solution of two group static diffusion problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, R.C. de.
1985-01-01
This new coarse mesh code designed for the solution of 2 and 3 dimensional static diffusion problems, is based on an alternating direction method which consists in the solution of one dimensional problem along each coordinate direction with leakage terms for the remaining directions estimated from previous interactions. Four versions of this code have been developed: AD21 - 2D - 1/4, AD21 - 2D - 4/4, AD21 - 3D - 1/4 and AD21 - 3D - 4/4; these versions have been designed for 2 and 3 dimensional problems with or without 1/4 symmetry. (Author) [pt
The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in the multigroup neutron diffusion theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woznicki, Z.I.
1994-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iteration within global iterations. Particular interactive strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 32 figs, 15 tabs
The numerical analysis of eigenvalue problem solutions in multigroup neutron diffusion theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woznicki, Z.I.
1995-01-01
The main goal of this paper is to present a general iteration strategy for solving the discrete form of multidimensional neutron diffusion equations equivalent mathematically to an eigenvalue problem. Usually a solution method is based on different levels of iterations. The presented matrix formalism allows us to visualize explicitly how the used matrix splitting influences the matrix structure in an eigenvalue problem to be solved as well as the interdependence between inner and outer iterations within global iterations. Particular iterative strategies are illustrated by numerical results obtained for several reactor problems. (author). 21 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs
Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations
Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim
2016-10-01
Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.
Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The dynamical properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation ...
Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Superconformal field theory; free field realization; string theory; AdS-CFT correspon- dence. PACS Nos 11.25.Hf; 11.25.-w; 11.30.Ly; 11.30.Pb. Conformal symmetries in two space-time dimensions have been very extensively studied owing to their applications both in string theory and two-dimensional statistical systems.
Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators
Menezes Silva Da Costa, Natália; Palumbo, Giandomenico; de Morais Smith, Cristiane
2017-01-01
It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this
Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).
Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence
Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.
2017-11-01
We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.
2004-01-01
We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface i...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....
Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-09-13
Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...
Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.
Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...
(Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylami
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
Fountoulakis M, Schuller E, Hardmeier R, Berndt P and Lubec. G 1999 Rat brain proteins: Two-dimensional protein data- base and variation in the expression level; Electrophoresis 20. 3527–3579. Hiroshi Fujii, Junji Tochinara, Yutaka Kawaguchi and Sakagu- chi B 1988 Existence of carotenoids binding protein in larval.
Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Aly R Seadawy
2017-09-13
Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.
Polaron dynamics in a two-dimensional anharmonic Holstein model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1998-01-01
A generalized two-dimensional semiclassical :Holstein model with a realistic on-site potential that contains anharmonicity is studied. More precisely, the lattice subsystem of anharmonic on-site oscillators is supposed to have a restricting core. The core plays the role of an effective saturation...
Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls
Nayfeh, A. H.
1974-01-01
The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.
Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.
Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2 ... CdSe quantum wells; 2D electron gas; magneto-electronic transport. Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are ...
g Algebra and two-dimensional quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
g2 algebra via one special representation in the x–y two-dimensional space. Then, by choosing an appropriate set of ..... Gen. 40, 212 (2005). [3] S Grigorian and S T Yau, Commun. Math. Phys. 287, 459 (2009). [4] L Fernandez-Jambrina and L M Gonzalez-Romero, Class. Quant. Grav. 16, 953 (1999). [5] A Belhaj, J. Phys.
Two-Dimensional Light Diffraction from an EPROM Chip
Ekkens, Tom
2018-01-01
In introductory physics classes, a laser pointer and a compact disc are all the items required to illustrate diffraction of light in a single dimension. If a two-dimensional diffraction pattern is desired, double axis diffraction grating material is available or a CCD sensor can be extracted from an unused electronics device. This article presents…
Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-07-21
Jul 21, 2014 ... used, as an alternative for costly 2DE-quantification kits. Our designed protocols are ..... 7 IPG 17 cm strips: (i) made by OP then DNase/RNase treated and (ii) made by OP with optimized IEF. (D) 2DE image of (i) E. coli ..... Proteomic analysis of human saliva from lung cancer patients using two-dimensional ...
Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of
Two-dimensional generalized harmonic oscillators and their Darboux partners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulze-Halberg, Axel
2011-01-01
We construct two-dimensional Darboux partners of the shifted harmonic oscillator potential and of an isotonic oscillator potential belonging to the Smorodinsky–Winternitz class of superintegrable systems. The transformed solutions, their potentials and the corresponding discrete energy spectra are computed in explicit form. (paper)
Two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on eight vertices
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We explicitly determine all the two-dimensional weak pseudomanifolds on 8 vertices. We prove that there are (up to isomorphism) exactly 95 such weak pseudomanifolds, 44 of which are combinatorial 2-manifolds. These 95 weak pseudomanifolds triangulate 16 topological spaces. As a consequence, we prove that there ...
Inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Masahiro; Takemori, Tadashi; Yoshizaki, Ryozo; Sakudo, Tunetaro; Ohtaka, Kazuo
1987-01-01
The authors point out the possibility that the high transition temperatures of the recently discovered oxide superconductors are dominantly caused by the inter-layer Cooper pairing of two-dimensional electrons that are coupled through the exchange of three-dimensional phonons. (author)
Symmetry Reductions of Two-Dimensional Variable Coefficient Burgers Equation
Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Li, Biao
2005-05-01
By use of a direct method, we discuss symmetries and reductions of the two-dimensional Burgers equation with variable coefficient (VCBurgers). Five types of symmetry-reducing VCBurgers to (1+1)-dimensional partial differential equation and three types of symmetry reducing VCBurgers to ordinary differential equation are obtained.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2009-01-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.
Interior design of a two-dimensional semiclassical black hole
Levanony, Dana; Ori, Amos
2009-10-01
We look into the inner structure of a two-dimensional dilatonic evaporating black hole. We establish and employ the homogenous approximation for the black-hole interior. Two kinds of spacelike singularities are found inside the black hole, and their structure is investigated. We also study the evolution of spacetime from the horizon to the singularity.
Two-dimensional microwave band-gap structures of different ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We report the use of low dielectric constant materials to form two- dimensional microwave band-gap structures for achieving high gap-to-midgap ratio. The variable parameters chosen are the lattice spacing and the geometric structure. The se- lected geometries are square and triangular and the materials chosen ...
Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials
Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.
2017-01-01
Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Analysis of Helicopter Flyover Noise
SantaMaria, Odilyn L.; Farassat, F.; Morris, Philip J.
1999-01-01
A method to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise from a helicopter in flight is explored. Being the sum of two periodic signals of disproportionate, or incommensurate frequencies, helicopter noise is neither periodic nor stationary. The single Fourier transform divides signal energy into frequency bins of equal size. Incommensurate frequencies are therefore not adequately represented by any one chosen data block size. A two-dimensional Fourier analysis method is used to separate main rotor and tail rotor noise. The two-dimensional spectral analysis method is first applied to simulated signals. This initial analysis gives an idea of the characteristics of the two-dimensional autocorrelations and spectra. Data from a helicopter flight test is analyzed in two dimensions. The test aircraft are a Boeing MD902 Explorer (no tail rotor) and a Sikorsky S-76 (4-bladed tail rotor). The results show that the main rotor and tail rotor signals can indeed be separated in the two-dimensional Fourier transform spectrum. The separation occurs along the diagonals associated with the frequencies of interest. These diagonals are individual spectra containing only information related to one particular frequency.
Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...
Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...
Optical properties of two-dimensional magnetoelectric point scattering lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Lunnemann; Sersic, Ivana; Koenderink, A. Femius
2013-01-01
We explore the electrodynamic coupling between a plane wave and an infinite two-dimensional periodic lattice of magnetoelectric point scatterers, deriving a semianalytical theory with consistent treatment of radiation damping, retardation, and energy conservation. We apply the theory to arrays...
Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of. CdSe are calculated with a numerical iterative technique in the framework of Fermi–Dirac statistics. Lattice scatterings due to polar-mode longitudinal ...
Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2010-01-01
A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...... constraints on the evolution of divorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics....
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for two-dimensional disk. AKIRA SUZUKI1, RANABIR DUTT2 and RAJAT K BHADURI1,3. 1Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo 162-8601, Japan. 2Department of Physics, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan 731 235, India. 3Department of Physics and ...
Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities
Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.
1997-01-01
We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects
Noninteracting beams of ballistic two-dimensional electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spector, J.; Stormer, H.L.; Baldwin, K.W.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; West, K.W.
1991-01-01
We demonstrate that two beams of two-dimensional ballistic electrons in a GaAs-AlGaAs heterostructure can penetrate each other with negligible mutual interaction analogous to the penetration of two optical beams. This allows electrical signal channels to intersect in the same plane with negligible crosstalk between the channels
Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs
Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.
1982-05-04
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Protein mapping by two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography
Wagner, K.; Racaityte, K.; Unger, K.K.; Miliotis, T.; Edholm, L.E.; Bischoff, Rainer; Marko-Varga, G
2000-01-01
Current developments in drug discovery in the pharmaceutical industry require highly efficient analytical systems for protein mapping providing high resolution, robustness, sensitivity, reproducibility and a high throughput of samples. The potential of two-dimensional (2D) HPLC as a complementary
Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
These were reported to lead to a variety of novel self-organized colloidal structures, such as linear chains [5,6], periodic lattices [7], anisotropic clusters [3], and cellular structures [8] that are stabilized, in general, by topological defects. More recently, two-dimensional (2D) inverted nematic emulsions were also stud- ied and ...
Tagging multiphoton ionization events by two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy
de Groot, Mattijs; Broos, Jaap; Buma, Wybren Jan
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to supply process-specific labels to multiphoton ionization events. Employing these tags, the authors can construct excitation and photoelectron spectra along predefined excitation routes in the neutral manifold and ionization routes to the
A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping, namely electrolytic tank model, for graduate and post graduate level physics stu- dents is given here. Laplace's equation is solved for the above and the results are compared with the experiment. The agreement· is so good that this is extended to complex ...
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...
Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials. Qing-Hai Wang. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 pp ... Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the P T symmetry, the ...
Weakly nonlinear analysis of two dimensional sheared granular flow
Saitoh, K.; Hayakawa, Hisao
2011-01-01
Weakly nonlinear analysis of a two dimensional sheared granular flow is carried out under the Lees-Edwards boundary condition. We derive the time dependent Ginzburg–Landau equation of a disturbance amplitude starting from a set of granular hydrodynamic equations and discuss the bifurcation of the
Fermi liquid of two-dimensional polar molecules
Lu, Z.K; Shlyapnikov, G.V.
2012-01-01
We study Fermi-liquid properties of a weakly interacting two-dimensional gas of single-component fermionic polar molecules with dipole moments d oriented perpendicularly to the plane of their translational motion. This geometry allows the minimization of inelastic losses due to chemical reactions
Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas
Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.
2013-01-01
We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of different parts of Panax quinquefolius L. root. ... From these results it was concluded that proteomic analysis method was an effective way to identify the different parts of quinquefolius L. root. These findings may contribute to further understanding of the physiological ...
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle– ..... ment, we need less than 75 MB of RAM for a simulation with 10242 particles on a. 10242 grid.
Two-dimensional, time dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer over a 48-hour period
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haschke, D.; Gassmann, F.; Rudin, F.
1978-06-01
This report presents results of a two-dimensional time-dependent simulation of the planetary boundary layer for a 48-hour period. These calculations are a continuation and expansion of one-dimensional simulations of the planetary boundary layer as described previously. The time-dependent evolution of a weather situation was simulated. It could be demonstrated that the main features of local ventilation systems can be simulated correctly. Two case studies are presented to show qualitatively, how local circulation systems can be influenced. One case assumes introduction of a hypothetical city, the other case uses arbitrarily introduced coverage of the sky as a pertubrbation. The problems connected with the verification of two-dimensional simulations using experimental data are discussed. Furthermore, proposals for a methodology to solve problems of model verification are discussed. (Auth.)
On the origins of vortex shedding in two-dimensional incompressible flows
Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.
2016-12-01
An exegesis of a novel mechanism leading to vortex splitting and subsequent shedding that is valid for two-dimensional incompressible, inviscid or viscous, and external or internal or wall-bounded flows, is detailed in this research. The mechanism, termed the vortex shedding mechanism (VSM) is simple and intuitive, requiring only two coincident conditions in the flow: (1) the existence of a location with zero momentum and (2) the presence of a net force having a positive divergence. Numerical solutions of several model problems illustrate causality of the VSM. Moreover, the VSM criteria is proved to be a necessary and sufficient condition for a vortex splitting event in any two-dimensional, incompressible flow. The VSM is shown to exist in several canonical problems including the external flow past a circular cylinder. Suppression of the von Kármán vortex street is demonstrated for Reynolds numbers of 100 and 400 by mitigating the VSM.
Rheological properties of the soft-disk model of two-dimensional foams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langlois, Vincent; Hutzler, Stefan; Weaire, Denis
2008-01-01
The soft-disk model previously developed and applied by Durian [D. J. Durian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4780 (1995)] is brought to bear on problems of foam rheology of longstanding and current interest, using two-dimensional systems. The questions at issue include the origin of the Herschel-Bulkley re......The soft-disk model previously developed and applied by Durian [D. J. Durian, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4780 (1995)] is brought to bear on problems of foam rheology of longstanding and current interest, using two-dimensional systems. The questions at issue include the origin of the Herschel......-Bulkley relation, normal stress effects (dilatancy), and localization in the presence of wall drag. We show that even a model that incorporates only linear viscous effects at the local level gives rise to nonlinear (power-law) dependence of the limit stress on strain rate. With wall drag, shear localization...
Two-dimensional analytical solution for nodal calculation of nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Adilson C.; Pessoa, Paulo O.; Silva, Fernando C.; Martinez, Aquilino S.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A proposal for a coarse mesh nodal method is presented. • The proposal uses the analytical solution of the two-dimensional neutrons diffusion equation. • The solution is performed homogeneous nodes with dimensions of the fuel assembly. • The solution uses four average fluxes on the node surfaces as boundary conditions. • The results show good accuracy and efficiency. - Abstract: In this paper, the two-dimensional (2D) neutron diffusion equation is analytically solved for two energy groups (2G). The spatial domain of reactor core is divided into a set of nodes with uniform nuclear parameters. To determine iteratively the multiplication factor and the neutron flux in the reactor we combine the analytical solution of the neutron diffusion equation with an iterative method known as power method. The analytical solution for different types of regions that compose the reactor is obtained, such as fuel and reflector regions. Four average fluxes in the node surfaces are used as boundary conditions for analytical solution. Discontinuity factors on the node surfaces derived from the homogenization process are applied to maintain averages reaction rates and the net current in the fuel assembly (FA). To validate the results obtained by the analytical solution a relative power density distribution in the FAs is determined from the neutron flux distribution and compared with the reference values. The results show good accuracy and efficiency.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danon, M.J.; Giometti, C.S.; Manaligod, J.R.; Perurena, O.H.; Skosey, J.L.
1981-12-01
A 65-year-old woman with progressive muscle weakness and a diffuse rash of three years' duration was examined. Muscle tissue was studied with histochemical techniques, phase-contrast microscopy, electron microscopy, and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Histochemical studies showed numerous nemaline rods, with a normal ratio of types I and II fibers. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed abnormalities in the myosin light chain and tropomyosin protein patterns when compared with normal and diseased muscle biopsy samples, including those from two patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis.
Semiclassical statistical mechanics of two-dimensional hard-body fluids.
Karki, Shanker S; Karki, Bimal P; Dey, Tarun K; Sinha, Suresh K
2005-01-01
The problem of calculating the thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional semiclassical hard-body fluids is studied. Explicit expressions are given for the first-order quantum corrections to the free energy, equation of state, and virial coefficients. The numerical results are calculated for the planar hard dumbbell fluid. Significant features are the increase in quantum corrections with increasing eta and increasing L*=L/sigma(0). (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics.
Harnad, J.; Loutsenko, I.; Yermolayeva, O.
2005-11-01
Finite-dimensional reductions of the two-dimensional dispersionless Toda hierarchy constrained by the "string equation" are studied. These include solutions determined by polynomial, rational, or logarithmic functions, which are of interest in relation to the "Laplacian growth" or Hele-Shaw problem governing interface dynamics. The consistency of such reductions is proved, and the Hamiltonian structure of the reduced dynamics is derived. The Poisson structure of the rationally reduced dispersionless Toda hierarchies is also derived.
Graphene as a Prototypical Model for Two-Dimensional Continuous Mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Lambin
2017-08-01
Full Text Available This paper reviews a few problems where continuous-medium theory specialized to two-dimensional media provides a qualitatively correct picture of the mechanical behavior of graphene. A critical analysis of the parameters involved is given. Among other results, a simple mathematical description of a folded graphene sheet is proposed. It is also shown how the graphene–graphene adhesion interaction is related to the cleavage energy of graphite and its C 33 bulk elastic constant.
Formulation and validation of a two-dimensional steady-state model of desiccant wheels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin R.
2015-01-01
systems. A steady-state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented, aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times with the purpose of inclusion in complete system models. The model includes mass and energy balances and correlations for heat and mass transfer based on empirical...... relations from the scientific literature. Convective heat and mass transfer coefficients are computed locally accounting for the entrance length effects. Mass diffusion inside the desiccant material is neglected. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces...
Kelly, Kathleen
Materials that take advantage of the exceptional properties of nano-meter sized aggregates of atoms are poised to play an important role in future technologies. Prime examples for such nano-materials that have an extremely large surface to volume ratio and thus are physically determined by surface related effects are quantum dots (qdots) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The production of such manmade nano-objects has by now become routine and even commercialized. However, the controlled assembly of individual nano-sized building blocks into larger structures of higher geometric and functional complexity has proven to be much more challenging. Yet, this is exactly what is required for many applications that have transformative potential for new technologies. If the tedious procedure to sequentially position individual nano-objects is to be forgone, the assembly of such objects into larger structures needs to be implicitly encoded and many ways to bestow such self-assembly abilities onto nano objects are being developed. Yet, as overall size and complexity of such self-assembled structures increases, kinetic and geometric frustration begin to prevent the system to achieve the desired configuration. In nature, this problem is solved by relying on guided or forced variants of the self-assembly approach. To translate such concepts into the realm of man-made nano-technology, ways to dynamically manipulate nano-materials need to be devised. Thus, in the first part of this work, I provide a proof of concept that supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) that exhibit free lateral diffusion of their constituents can be utilized as a two-dimensional platform for active nano-material manipulation. We used streptavidin coated quantum dots (Q-dots) as a model nano-building-block. Q-dots are 0-dimensional nanomaterials engineered to be fluorescent based solely on their diameter making visualization convenient. Biotinylated lipids were used to tether Q-dots to a SLB and we observed that the 2
A subgrid viscosity Lagrance-Galerkin method for convection-diffusion problems
Bermejo Bermejo, Rodolfo; Galan Del Sastre, Pedro; Saavedra Lago, Laura
2014-01-01
We present and analyze a subgrid viscosity Lagrange-Galerk in method that combines the subgrid eddy viscosity method proposed in W. Layton, A connection between subgrid scale eddy viscosity and mixed methods. Appl. Math. Comp., 133: 14 7-157, 2002, and a conventional Lagrange-Galerkin method in the framework of P1⊕ cubic bubble finite elements. This results in an efficient and easy to implement stabilized method for convection dominated convection diffusion reaction problems. Numeric...
Moving-boundary problems for the time-fractional diffusion equation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabrina D. Roscani
2017-02-01
Full Text Available We consider a one-dimensional moving-boundary problem for the time-fractional diffusion equation. The time-fractional derivative of order $\\alpha\\in (0,1$ is taken in the sense of Caputo. We study the asymptotic behaivor, as t tends to infinity, of a general solution by using a fractional weak maximum principle. Also, we give some particular exact solutions in terms of Wright functions.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ainsworth, M.; Vejchodský, Tomáš
2011-01-01
Roč. 119, č. 2 (2011), s. 219-243 ISSN 0029-599X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/0496 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : a posteriori error estimates * singularly perturbed problems * reaction-diffusion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.321, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/d384608709584278/
Sano, Jennifer; Ganguly, Jibamitra; Hervig, Richard; Dohmen, Ralf; Zhang, Xiaoyu
2011-08-01
We have determined the Nd 3+ diffusion kinetics in natural enstatite crystals as a function of temperature, f(O 2) and crystallographic direction at 1 bar pressure and applied these data to several terrestrial and planetary problems. The diffusion is found to be anisotropic with the diffusion parallel to the c-axial direction being significantly greater than that parallel to a- and b-axis. Also, D(// a) is likely to be somewhat greater than D(// b). Diffusion experiments parallel to the b-axial direction as a function of f(O 2) do not show a significant dependence of D(Nd 3+) on f(O 2) within the range defined by the IW buffer and 1.5 log unit above the WM buffer. The observed diffusion anisotropy and weak f(O 2) effect on D(Nd 3+) may be understood by considering the crystal structure of enstatite and the likely diffusion pathways. Using the experimental data for D(Nd 3+), we calculated the closure temperature of the Sm-Nd geochronological system in enstatite during cooling as a function of cooling rate, grain size and geometry, initial (peak) temperature and diffusion direction. We have also evaluated the approximate domain of validity of closure temperatures calculated on the basis of an infinite plane sheet model for finite plane sheets showing anisotropic diffusion. These results provide a quantitative framework for the interpretation of Sm-Nd mineral ages of orthopyroxene in planetary samples. We discuss the implications of our experimental data to the problems of melting and subsolidus cooling of mantle rocks, and the resetting of Sm-Nd mineral ages in mesosiderites. It is found that a cooling model proposed earlier [Ganguly J., Yang H., Ghose S., 1994. Thermal history of mesosiderites: Quantitative constraints from compositional zoning and Fe-Mg ordering in orthopyroxene. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58, 2711-2723] could lead to the observed ˜90 Ma difference between the U-Pb age and Sm-Nd mineral age for mesosiderites, thus obviating the need for a model of
Solution of the two- dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nurcan BAYKUŞ SAVAŞANERİL
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Laplace equation is a fundamental equation of applied mathematics. Important phenomena in engineering and physics, such as steady-state temperature distribution, electrostatic potential and fluid flow, are modeled by means of this equation. The Laplace equation which satisfies boundary values is known as the Dirichlet problem. The solutions to the Dirichlet problem form one of the most celebrated topics in the area of applied mathematics. In this study, a novel method is presented for the solution of two-dimensional heat equation for a rectangular plate. In this alternative method, the solution function of the problem is based on the Green function, and therefore on elliptic functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, M.G.
1980-01-01
The multigroup neutron diffusion equations with the constraint of specified power distributions are investigated by the application of the straight-line method which can be considered as the limiting case of zero mesh space in the finite difference method. The standard partial differential form of the diffusion equation is reduced to sets of ordinary differential equations and then converted into sets of integral equations by using Green's functions defined on the pseudo straight lines. Coupling of each straight line to the adjacent lines arises from the application of a three-point central difference formula. The interfaces encountered between two regions are taken into account by imposing the continuity conditions for the grown fluxes and net currents with Taylor expansions of internal fluxes at the interface positions. A few sample problems are selected to test the validity of the method. It is found that the proposed method of solution is similar to the finite Fourier sine transform. Numerical results for the solutions obtained by the method of straight lines are compared with the results of the exact analytical solutions for simple geometries. These comparisons indicate that the proposed method is compatible with the analytical method, and in some problems considered the straight-line solutions are much more efficient than the exact solutions. The method is also extended to the reactor kinetics problem by expressing the kinetics parameters in terms of the basis functions which are used to obtain the solutions of the steady-state neutron diffusion equations
Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions
Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping
2018-01-01
We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.
Entanglement Entropy in Two-Dimensional String Theory.
Hartnoll, Sean A; Mazenc, Edward A
2015-09-18
To understand an emergent spacetime is to understand the emergence of locality. Entanglement entropy is a powerful diagnostic of locality, because locality leads to a large amount of short distance entanglement. Two-dimensional string theory is among the very simplest instances of an emergent spatial dimension. We compute the entanglement entropy in the large-N matrix quantum mechanics dual to two-dimensional string theory in the semiclassical limit of weak string coupling. We isolate a logarithmically large, but finite, contribution that corresponds to the short distance entanglement of the tachyon field in the emergent spacetime. From the spacetime point of view, the entanglement is regulated by a nonperturbative "graininess" of space.
Duality-invariant class of two-dimensional field theories
Sfetsos, K
1999-01-01
We construct a new class of two-dimensional field theories with target spaces that are finite multiparameter deformations of the usual coset G/H-spaces. They arise naturally, when certain models, related by Poisson-Lie T-duality, develop a local gauge invariance at specific points of their classical moduli space. We show that canonical equivalences in this context can be formulated in loop space in terms of parafermionic-type algebras with a central extension. We find that the corresponding generating functionals are non-polynomial in the derivatives of the fields with respect to the space-like variable. After constructing models with three- and two-dimensional targets, we study renormalization group flows in this context. In the ultraviolet, in some cases, the target space of the theory reduces to a coset space or there is a fixed point where the theory becomes free.
Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique
Konishi, Tadashi; Naka, Syuji; Ito, Akihiko; Saito, Kozo
1997-11-01
We propose a nonintrusive experimental technique, the transient fuel-concentration measurement technique (TFMT), that is capable of being used to measure two-dimensional profiles of transient fuel concentrations over an open liquid fuel surface. The TFMT is based on single-wavelength holographic interferometry; its response time is less than 1 s and spatial resolution is 0.1 mol. % /0.1 mm. It was applied to measure both methanol vapor and n-propanol vapor concentrations. To assess the accuracy of the technique, our results were compared with steady-state methanol and n-propanol fuel-vapor concentrations measured by other researchers with a microsampling technique combined with gas chromatography. We found the TFMT to be accurate for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional profiles of fuel-vapor concentrations.
Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe
Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.
2018-01-01
Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.
Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor
Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.
2018-02-01
This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.
Recombination in one- and two-dimensional fitness landscapes.
Avetisyan, Zh; Saakian, David B
2010-05-01
We consider many-site mutation-recombination models of molecular evolution, where fitness is a function of a Hamming distance from one (one-dimensional case) or two (two-dimensional case) sequences. For the one-dimensional case, we calculate the population distribution dynamics for a model with zero fitness and an arbitrary symmetric initial distribution and find an error threshold transition point in the single-peak fitness model for a given initial symmetric distribution. We calculate the recombination period in the case of a single-peak fitness function, when the original population is located at one sequence, at some Hamming distance from the peak configuration. Steady-state fitness is calculated with finite genome length corrections. We derive analytical equations for the two-dimensional mutation-recombination model.
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...
Two-dimensional Simulations of Correlation Reflectometry in Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeo, E.J.; Kramer, G.J.; Nazikian, R.
2001-01-01
A two-dimensional wave propagation code, developed specifically to simulate correlation reflectometry in large-scale fusion plasmas is described. The code makes use of separate computational methods in the vacuum, underdense and reflection regions of the plasma in order to obtain the high computational efficiency necessary for correlation analysis. Simulations of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasma with internal transport barriers are presented and compared with one-dimensional full-wave simulations. It is shown that the two-dimensional simulations are remarkably similar to the results of the one-dimensional full-wave analysis for a wide range of turbulent correlation lengths. Implications for the interpretation of correlation reflectometer measurements in fusion plasma are discussed
Vortex annihilation and inverse cascades in two dimensional superfluid turbulence
Lucas, Andrew; Chesler, Paul M.
2015-03-01
The dynamics of a dilute mixture of vortices and antivortices in a turbulent two-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature is well described by first order Hall-Vinen-Iordanskii equations, or dissipative point vortex dynamics. These equations are governed by a single dimensionless parameter: the ratio of the strength of drag forces to Magnus forces on vortices. When this parameter is small, we demonstrate using numerical simulations that the resulting superfluid enjoys an inverse energy cascade where small scale stirring leads to large scale vortex clustering. We argue analytically and numerically that the vortex annihilation rate in a laminar flow may be parametrically smaller than the rate in a turbulent flow with an inverse cascade. This suggests a new way to detect inverse cascades in experiments on two-dimensional superfluid turbulence using cold atomic gases, where traditional probes of turbulence such as the energy spectrum are not currently accessible.
Two-dimensional turbulence in three-dimensional flows
Xia, H.; Francois, N.
2017-11-01
This paper presents a review of experiments performed in three-dimensional flows that show behaviour associated with two-dimensional turbulence. Experiments reveal the presence of the inverse energy cascade in two different systems, namely, flows in thick fluid layers driven electromagnetically and the Faraday wave driven flows. In thick fluid layers, large-scale coherent structures can shear off the vertical eddies and reinforce the planarity of the flow. Such structures are either self-generated or externally imposed. In the Faraday wave driven flows, a seemingly three-dimensional flow is shown to be actually two-dimensional when it is averaged over several Faraday wave periods. In this system, a coupling between the wave motion and 2D hydrodynamic turbulence is uncovered.
CORPORATE VALUATION USING TWO-DIMENSIONAL MONTE CARLO SIMULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Toth Reka
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.
Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine
2004-01-01
Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...
Two-dimensional cephalometry and computerized orthognathic surgical treatment planning.
Kusnoto, Budi
2007-07-01
Cephalometric radiographs provide for standardized skull/facial views that allow for comparison over time to assess growth in an individual, and to compare that individual against standardized population norms. Cephalometric analysis and surgical prediction are done by robust cephalometric imaging software that can rapidly analyze the radiograph, and retrace and recalculate the analysis for a variety of possible surgical outcomes; however, the validity of the prediction depends on the accuracy of the records, the algorithm specific to the software, and the specifics of the patient population. Three-dimensional digital imaging to replace conventional two-dimensional photographic images and CT scans, with corresponding cephalometric analysis to replace two-dimensional cephalometric films, is already on the horizon.
Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases
Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.
2018-03-01
Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.
Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonit Hochberg
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.
Directional detection of dark matter with two-dimensional targets
Hochberg, Yonit; Kahn, Yonatan; Lisanti, Mariangela; Tully, Christopher G.; Zurek, Kathryn M.
2017-09-01
We propose two-dimensional materials as targets for direct detection of dark matter. Using graphene as an example, we focus on the case where dark matter scattering deposits sufficient energy on a valence-band electron to eject it from the target. We show that the sensitivity of graphene to dark matter of MeV to GeV mass can be comparable, for similar exposure and background levels, to that of semiconductor targets such as silicon and germanium. Moreover, a two-dimensional target is an excellent directional detector, as the ejected electron retains information about the angular dependence of the incident dark matter particle. This proposal can be implemented by the PTOLEMY experiment, presenting for the first time an opportunity for directional detection of sub-GeV dark matter.
Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna; Freire Soler, Victor M.; Brökers, Lara; Ban-d'Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning; Schleberger, Marika
2014-01-01
Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS 2 and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS 2 does not
Folding two dimensional crystals by swift heavy ion irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ochedowski, Oliver; Bukowska, Hanna [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Freire Soler, Victor M. [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Departament de Fisica Aplicada i Optica, Universitat de Barcelona, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Brökers, Lara [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Ban-d' Etat, Brigitte; Lebius, Henning [CIMAP (CEA-CNRS-ENSICAEN-UCBN), 14070 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Schleberger, Marika, E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de [Fakultät für Physik and CENIDE, Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2014-12-01
Ion irradiation of graphene, the showcase model of two dimensional crystals, has been successfully applied to induce various modifications in the graphene crystal. One of these modifications is the formation of origami like foldings in graphene which are created by swift heavy ion irradiation under glancing incidence angle. These foldings can be applied to locally alter the physical properties of graphene like mechanical strength or chemical reactivity. In this work we show that the formation of foldings in two dimensional crystals is not restricted to graphene but can be applied for other materials like MoS{sub 2} and hexagonal BN as well. Further we show that chemical vapour deposited graphene forms foldings after swift heavy ion irradiation while chemical vapour deposited MoS{sub 2} does not.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baykal, Cüneyt; Ergin, Ayşen; Güler, Işikhan
2014-01-01
This study presents an application of a two-dimensional beach evolution model to a shoreline change problem at the Kizilirmak River mouth, which has been facing severe coastal erosion problems for more than 20 years. The shoreline changes at the Kizilirmak River mouth have been thus far...
Constraints and hidden symmetry in two-dimensional gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barcelos-Neto, J. (Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil))
1994-01-15
We study the hidden symmetry of Polyakov two-dimensional gravity by means of first-class constraints. These are obtained from the combination of Fourier mode expansions of the usual (second-class) constraints of the theory. We show that, more than the usual SL(2,[ital R]), there is a hidden Virasoro symmetry in the theory. The results of the above analysis are also confirmed from the point of view of a geometrical symplectic treatment.
Decaying Two-Dimensional Turbulence in a Circular Container
Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie
2005-01-01
We present direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional decaying turbulence at initial Reynolds number 5×104 in a circular container with no-slip boundary conditions. Starting with random initial conditions the flow rapidly exhibits self-organization into coherent vortices. We study their formation and the role of the viscous boundary layer on the production and decay of integral quantities. The no-slip wall produces vortices which are injected into the bulk flow and tend to compensate the...
An energy principle for two-dimensional collisionless relativistic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Otto, A.; Schindler, K.
1984-01-01
Using relativistic Vlasov theory an energy principle for two-dimensional plasmas is derived, which provides a sufficient and necessary criterion for the stability of relativistic plasma equilibria. This energy principle includes charge separating effects since the exact Poisson equation was taken into consideration. Applying the variational principle to the case of the relativistic plane plasma sheet, the same marginal wave length is found as in the non-relativistic case. (author)
New Two-Dimensional Polynomial Failure Criteria for Composite Materials
Zhao, Shi Yang; Xue, Pu
2014-01-01
The in-plane damage behavior and material properties of the composite material are very complex. At present, a large number of two-dimensional failure criteria, such as Chang-Chang criteria, have been proposed to predict the damage process of composite structures under loading. However, there is still no good criterion to realize it with both enough accuracy and computational performance. All these criteria cannot be adjusted by experimental data. Therefore, any special properties of composit...
Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature
Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaposnik, F.A.
1990-01-01
In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model
Pseudospectral reduction of incompressible two-dimensional turbulence
Bowman, John C.; Roberts, Malcolm
2012-05-01
Spectral reduction was originally formulated entirely in the wavenumber domain as a coarse-grained wavenumber convolution in which bins of modes interact with enhanced coupling coefficients. A Liouville theorem leads to inviscid equipartition solutions when each bin contains the same number of modes. A pseudospectral implementation of spectral reduction which enjoys the efficiency of the fast Fourier transform is described. The model compares well with full pseudospectral simulations of the two-dimensional forced-dissipative energy and enstrophy cascades.
Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra
2016-01-01
Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.
Stability theory for a two-dimensional channel
Troshkin, O. V.
2017-08-01
A scheme for deriving conditions for the nonlinear stability of an ideal or viscous incompressible steady flow in a two-dimensional channel that is periodic in one direction is described. A lower bound for the main factor ensuring the stability of the Reynolds-Kolmogorov sinusoidal flow with no-slip conditions (short wavelength stability) is improved. A condition for the stability of a vortex strip modeling Richtmyer-Meshkov fluid vortices (long wavelength stability) is presented.
SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2017-02-01
Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic method for mapping DNA replicons.
Nawotka, K A; Huberman, J A
1988-01-01
We describe in detail a method which allows determination of the directions of replication fork movement through segments of DNA for which cloned probes are available. The method uses two-dimensional neutral-alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis followed by hybridization with short probe sequences. The nascent strands of replicating molecules form an arc separated from parental and nonreplicating strands. The closer a probe is to its replication origin or to the origin-proximal end of its rest...
On Two-Dimensional Quaternion Wigner-Ville Distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mawardi Bahri
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present the two-dimensional quaternion Wigner-Ville distribution (QWVD. The transform is constructed by substituting the Fourier transform kernel with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT kernel in the classical Wigner-Ville distribution definition. Based on the properties of quaternions and the QFT kernel we obtain three types of the QWVD. We discuss some useful properties of various definitions for the QWVD, which are extensions of the classical Wigner-Ville distribution properties.
Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es
2009-01-15
Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.
Negative differential Rashba effect in two-dimensional hole systems
Habib, B.; Tutuc, E.; Melinte, S.; Shayegan, M.; Wasserman, D.; Lyon, S. A.; Winkler, R.
2004-01-01
We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that two-dimensional (2D) heavy hole systems in single heterostructures exhibit a \\emph{decrease} in spin-orbit interaction-induced spin splitting with an increase in perpendicular electric field. Using front and back gates, we measure the spin splitting as a function of applied electric field while keeping the density constant. Our results are in contrast to the more familiar case of 2D electrons where spin splitting increases with electric field.
Canard solutions of two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Xianfeng [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)]. E-mail: chenxf@sjtu.edu.cn; Yu Pei [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario London, Ont., N6A 5B7 (Canada); Han Maoan [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang Weijiang [Department of Mathematics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
2005-02-01
In this paper, some new lemmas on asymptotic analysis are established. We apply an asymptotic method to study generalized two-dimensional singularly perturbed systems with one parameter, whose critical manifold has an m-22 th-order degenerate extreme point. Certain sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence of canard solutions, which are the extension and correction of some existing results. Finally, one numerical example is given.
Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn
2017-04-25
We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.
Observations of two-dimensional monolayer zinc oxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, Trilochan, E-mail: trilochansahoo@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Nayak, Sanjeev K. [Institute of Physics, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Von Seckendorff Platz 1, 06120 Halle (Germany); Chelliah, Pandian [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603203 Tamilnadu (India); Rath, Manasa K.; Parida, Bhaskar [Division of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561756 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
Highlights: • Synthesis of planer ZnO nanostructure. • Observation of multilayered and monolayer ZnO. • DFT calculation of (10-10), (11-20) and (0 0 0 1) planes of ZnO. • Stability of non-polar (10-10) and (11-20) planes of ZnO. - Abstract: This letter reports the observations of planar two-dimensional ZnO synthesized using the hydrothermal growth technique. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the formation of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice and aggregated structures of layered ZnO. The nonpolar (10-10) and (11-20) planes were present in the X-ray diffraction patterns, but the characteristic (0 0 0 1) peak of bulk ZnO was absent. The study found that nonpolar freestanding ZnO structures composed of a single or few layers may be more stable and may have a higher probability of formation than their polar counterparts. The stability of the nonpolar two-dimensional hexagonal ZnO slabs is supported by density functional theory studies.
Two-Dimensional Identification of Fetal Tooth Germs.
Seabra, Mariana; Vaz, Paula; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana; Felino, António
2017-03-01
To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of two-dimensional ultrasonography in the identification of tooth germs and in the assessment of potential pathology. Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho-Empresa Pública in Portugal. A total of 157 white pregnant women (median age, 32 years; range, 14 to 47 years) undergoing routine ultrasound exams. Description of the fetal tooth germs, as visualized by two-dimensional ultrasonography, including results from prior fetal biometry and detailed screening for malformations. In the first trimester group, ultrasonography identified 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 10 tooth germs in the mandible in all fetuses except for one who presented eight maxillary tooth germs. This case was associated with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 13) with a bilateral cleft palate. In the second and third trimesters group, ultrasonography identified a larger range of tooth germs: 81.2% of fetuses showed 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 85.0% of fetuses had 10 tooth germs in the mandible. Hypodontia was more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, which led us to use qualitative two-dimensional ultrasonography to analyze the possible association between hypodontia and other variables such as fetal pathology, markers, head, nuchal, face, and spine. We recommend using this method as the first exam to evaluate fetal morphology and also to help establish accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in pregnancy.
H₂ sensing properties of two-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures.
Tonezzer, Matteo; Iannotta, Salvatore
2014-05-01
In this work we have grown particular zinc oxide two-dimensional nanostructures which are essentially a series of hexagonal very thin sheets. The hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure gives them their peculiar shape, whose dimensions are few microns wide, with a thickness in the order of 25 nm. Such kind of nanostructure, grown by thermal oxidation of evaporated metallic zinc on a silica substrate, has been used to fabricate conductometric gas sensors, investigated then for hydrogen gas detection. The "depletion layer sensing mechanism" is clarified, explaining how the geometrical factors of one- and two-dimensional nanostructures affect their sensing parameters. The comparison with one-dimensional ZnO nanowires based structures shows that two-dimensional nanostructures are ideal for gas sensing, due to their tiny thickness, which is comparable to the depletion-layer thickness, and their large cross-section, which increases the base current, thus lowering the limit of detection. The response to H₂ has been found good even to sub-ppm concentrations, with response and recovery times shorter than 18s in the whole range of H₂ concentrations investigated (500 ppb-10 ppm). The limit of detection has been found around 200 ppb for H₂ gas even at relatively low working temperature (175 °C). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Analysis techniques for two-dimensional infrared data
Winter, E. M.; Smith, M. C.
1978-01-01
In order to evaluate infrared detection and remote sensing systems, it is necessary to know the characteristics of the observational environment. For both scanning and staring sensors, the spatial characteristics of the background may be more of a limitation to the performance of a remote sensor than system noise. This limitation is the so-called spatial clutter limit and may be important for systems design of many earth application and surveillance sensors. The data used in this study is two dimensional radiometric data obtained as part of the continuing NASA remote sensing programs. Typical data sources are the Landsat multi-spectral scanner (1.1 micrometers), the airborne heat capacity mapping radiometer (10.5 - 12.5 micrometers) and various infrared data sets acquired by low altitude aircraft. Techniques used for the statistical analysis of one dimensional infrared data, such as power spectral density (PSD), exceedance statistics, etc. are investigated for two dimensional applicability. Also treated are two dimensional extensions of these techniques (2D PSD, etc.), and special techniques developed for the analysis of 2D data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, Richard
1977-01-01
A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the Interface Current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones which are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is made by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: the first uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion; the second uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark pr
Kinetics of two-dimensional electron plasma, interacting with fluctuating potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boiko, I.I.; Sirenko, Y.M.
1990-01-01
In this paper, from the first principles, after the fashion of Klimontovich, the authors derive quantum kinetic equation for electron gas, inhomogeneous in z-direction and homogeneous in XY-plane. Special attention is given to the systems with quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2 DEG), which are widely explored now. Both interaction between the particles of 2 DEG (in general, of several sorts), and interaction with an external system (phonons, impurities, after change carries etc.) are considered. General theory is used to obtain energy and momentum balance equations and relaxation frequencies for 2 DEG in the basis of plane waves. The case of crossed electric and magnetic fields is also treated. As an illustration the problems of 2 DEG scattering on semibounded three-dimensional electron gas and on two-dimensional hole gas are considered; transverse conductivity of nondegenerate 2 DEG, scattered by impurities in ultraquantum magnetic field, is calculated
Analytical solutions of the two-dimensional Dirac equation for a topological channel intersection
Anglin, J. R.; Schulz, A.
2017-01-01
Numerical simulations in a tight-binding model have shown that an intersection of topologically protected one-dimensional chiral channels can function as a beam splitter for noninteracting fermions on a two-dimensional lattice [Qiao, Jung, and MacDonald, Nano Lett. 11, 3453 (2011), 10.1021/nl201941f; Qiao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 206601 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.206601]. Here we confirm this result analytically in the corresponding continuum k .p model, by solving the associated two-dimensional Dirac equation, in the presence of a "checkerboard" potential that provides a right-angled intersection between two zero-line modes. The method by which we obtain our analytical solutions is systematic and potentially generalizable to similar problems involving intersections of one-dimensional systems.
The simulation of two-dimensional migration patterns - a novel approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villar, Heldio Pereira
1997-01-01
A novel approach to the problem of simulation of two-dimensional migration of solutes in saturated soils is presented. In this approach, the two-dimensional advection-dispersion equation is solved by finite-differences in a stepwise fashion, by employing the one-dimensional solution first in the direction of flow and then perpendicularly, using the same time increment in both cases. As the results of this numerical model were to be verified against experimental results obtained by radioactive tracer experiments, an attenuation factor, to account for the contribution of the gamma rays emitted by the whole plume of tracer to the readings of the adopted radiation detectors, was introduced into the model. The comparison between experimental and simulated concentration contours showed good agreement, thus establishing the feasibility of the approach proposed herein. (author)
Analysis of the Scramjet inlet flow field using two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations
Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.
1982-01-01
A computer code was developed to solve the full two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in a scramjet inlet. The analysis uses a numerical coordinate transformation which generates a set of boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinates. The explicit finite difference algorithm of MacCormack is used to solve the governing equations. A two-layer eddy viscosity model is used for the turbulent flow. The code can analyze both inviscid and viscous flows with multiple struts in the flow field. Detailed results are presented for two model problems and two scramjet inlets with one and two struts. The application of the two dimensional analysis in the preliminary design of the actual scramjet inlet is briefly discussed.
An inverse problem for one-dimensional diffusion equation in optical tomography
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Addam
2019-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the one-dimensional inverse problem for the diffusion equation based optical tomography. The objective of the present work is a mathematical and numerical analysis concerning one-dimensional inverse problem. In the first stage, the forward diffusion equation with boundary conditions is solved using an intermediate elliptic equation. We give the existence and the uniqueness results of the solution. An approximation of the photon density in frequency-domain is proposed using a Splines Galerkin method. In the second stage, we give theoretical results such as the stability and lipschitz-continuity of the forward solution and the Fréchet differentiability of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann nonlinear map with respect to the optical parameters. The Fréchet derivative is used to linearize the considered inverse problem. The Newton method based on the regularization technique will allow us to compute the approximate solutions of the inverse problem. Several test examples are used to verify high accuracy, effectiveness and good resolution properties for smooth and discontinuous optical property solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zanette, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Matemática Aplicada; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Tavares, Matheus G., E-mail: rodrigozanette@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudiopetersen@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: matheus.gulartetavares@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Matemática
2017-07-01
We describe in this work the application of the modified power method for solve the multigroup neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem in slab geometry considering two-dimensions for nuclear reactor global calculations. It is well known that criticality calculations can often be best approached by solving eigenvalue problems. The criticality in nuclear reactors physics plays a relevant role since establishes the ratio between the numbers of neutrons generated in successive fission reactions. In order to solve the eigenvalue problem, a modified power method is used to obtain the dominant eigenvalue (effective multiplication factor (K{sub eff})) and its corresponding eigenfunction (scalar neutron flux), which is non-negative in every domain, that is, physically relevant. The innovation of this work is solving the neutron diffusion equation in analytical form for each new iteration of the power method. For solve this problem we propose to apply the Finite Fourier Sine Transform on one of the spatial variables obtaining a transformed problem which is resolved by well-established methods for ordinary differential equations. The inverse Fourier transform is used to reconstruct the solution for the original problem. It is known that the power method is an iterative source method in which is updated by the neutron flux expression of previous iteration. Thus, for each new iteration, the neutron flux expression becomes larger and more complex due to analytical solution what makes propose that it be reconstructed through an polynomial interpolation. The methodology is implemented to solve a homogeneous problem and the results are compared with works presents in the literature. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunal Pathak
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The calcium signaling plays a crucial role in expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This calcium signaling is achieved by calcium diffusion, buffering mechanisms and influx in cardiac myocytes. The various calcium distribution patterns required for achieving calcium signaling in myocytes are still not well understood. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a model of calcium distribution in myocytes incorporating diffusion of calcium, point source and excess buffer approximation. The model has been developed for a two dimensional unsteady state case. Appropriate boundary conditions and initial condition have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers and source amplitude on calcium distribution in myocytes.
Two-dimensional analysis of axial segregation in batchwise and continuous Czochralski process
Hoe Wang, Jong; Hyun Kim, Do; Yoo, Hak-Do
1999-03-01
Transient two-dimensional convection-diffusion model has been developed to simulate the segregation phenomena in batchwise and continuous Czochralski process. Numerical simulations have been performed using the finite element method and implicit Euler time integration. The mesh deformation due to the change of the melt depth in batchwise Czochralski process was considered. Experimental values of the growth and system parameters for Czochralski growth of boron-doped, 4-in silicon single crystal were used in the numerical calculations. The experimental axial segregation in batchwise Czochralski process can be described successfully using convection-diffusion model. It has been demonstrated with this model that silicon single crystal with uniform axial dopant concentration can be grown and radial segregation can be suppressed in the continuous Czochralski process.
Turing instability for a two-dimensional Logistic coupled map lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, L.; Zhang, G.; Han, B.; Zhang, L.; Li, M.F.; Han, Y.T.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, stability analysis is applied to a two-dimensional Logistic coupled map lattice with the periodic boundary conditions. The conditions of Turing instability are obtained, and various patterns can be exhibited by numerical simulations in the Turing instability region. For example, space-time periodic structures, periodic or quasiperiodic traveling wave solutions, stationary wave solutions, spiral waves, and spatiotemporal chaos, etc. have been observed. In particular, the different pattern structures have also been observed for same parameters and different initial values. That is, pattern structures also depend on the initial values. The similar patterns have also been seen in relevant references. However, the present Letter owes to pattern formation via diffusion-driven instabilities because the system is stable in the absence of diffusion.
The measurement problem on classical diffusion process: inverse method on stochastic processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bigerelle, M.; Iost, A.
2004-01-01
In a high number of diffusive systems, measures are processed to calculate material parameters such as diffusion coefficients, or to verify the accuracy of mathematical models. However, the precision of the parameter determination or of the model relevance depends on the location of the measure itself. The aim of this paper is first to analyse, for a mono-dimensional system, the precision of the measure in relation with its location by an inverse problem algorithm and secondly to examine the physical meaning of the results. Statistical mechanic considerations show that, passing over a time-distance criterion, measurement becomes uncertain whatever the initial conditions. The criterion proves that this chaotic mode is related to the production of anti-entropy at a mesoscopique scale that is in violation to quantum theory about measurement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sumit Gupta
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present a user friendly numerical algorithm based on homotopy perturbation transform method for solving various linear and nonlinear convection-diffusion problems arising in physical phenomena where particles, energy, or other physical quantities are transferred inside a physical system due to two processes: diffusion and convection. The homotopy perturbation transform method is a combined form of the homotopy perturbation method and Laplace transform method. The nonlinear terms can be easily obtained by the use of He’s polynomials. The technique presents an accurate methodology to solve many types of partial differential equations The approximate solutions obtained by proposed scheme in a wide range of the problem’s domain were compared with those results obtained from the actual solutions. The comparison shows a precise agreement between the results.
Solution verification, goal-oriented adaptive methods for stochastic advection–diffusion problems
Almeida, Regina C.
2010-08-01
A goal-oriented analysis of linear, stochastic advection-diffusion models is presented which provides both a method for solution verification as well as a basis for improving results through adaptation of both the mesh and the way random variables are approximated. A class of model problems with random coefficients and source terms is cast in a variational setting. Specific quantities of interest are specified which are also random variables. A stochastic adjoint problem associated with the quantities of interest is formulated and a posteriori error estimates are derived. These are used to guide an adaptive algorithm which adjusts the sparse probabilistic grid so as to control the approximation error. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the methodology for a specific model problem. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samba, G.
1985-04-01
It is often desirable to solve the two dimensional multigroup transport equation for (r-z) geometries directly given by hydrodynamic calculations. Usually, only Monte-Carlo codes are able to compute α or k eigenvalues on such geometries. Most deterministic codes use an orthogonal mesh or restrict the mesh to a regular triangular grid. Other methods were developed in C.E.A. and Los Alamos but do not solve the problem of sliding between two Lagrangian blocks. Thus, we have developed a production code which solves these problems and is able to get α or k eigenvalues with a good accuracy for such geometries
Bayones, F. S.; Abd-Alla, A. M.
This paper is devoted to two-dimensional problem of thermoelasticity dealing with thermoelastic wave propagation in a rotating medium with magnetic field effects and a time-dependent heat source effect due to thermomechanical source. The normal mode analysis and eigenvalue approach techniques are applied to solve the problem. The expressions of displacement, mean value of normal stress, dilatation and temperature are obtained in the domain. Numerical simulated results are depicted graphically to show the effect of magnetic field and rotation on resulting quantities. The results indicate that the effect of magnetic field, rotation, frequency, wave number and time are very pronounced.
Stabilizing local boundary conditions for two-dimensional shallow water equations
Dia, Ben Mansour
2018-03-27
In this article, we present a sub-critical two-dimensional shallow water flow regulation. From the energy estimate of a set of one-dimensional boundary stabilization problems, we obtain a set of polynomial equations with respect to the boundary values as a requirement for the energy decrease. Using the Riemann invariant analysis, we build stabilizing local boundary conditions that guarantee the stability of the hydrodynamical state around a given steady state. Numerical results for the controller applied to the nonlinear problem demonstrate the performance of the method.
Two Dimensional Temperature Distributions in Plate Heat Exchangers: An Analytical Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Reza Ansari Dezfoli
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Analytical solutions are developed to work out the two-dimensional (2D temperature changes of flow in the passages of a plate heat exchanger in parallel flow and counter flow arrangements. Two different flow regimes, namely, the plug flow and the turbulent flow are considered. The mathematical formulation of problems coupled at boundary conditions are presented, the solution procedure is then obtained as a special case of the two region Sturm-Liouville problem. The results obtained for two different flow regimes are then compared with experimental results and with each other. The agreement between the analytical and experimental results is an indication of the accuracy of solution method.
REMOVAL OF SPECTRO-POLARIMETRIC FRINGES BY TWO-DIMENSIONAL PATTERN RECOGNITION
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casini, R.; Judge, P. G.; Schad, T. A.
2012-01-01
We present a pattern-recognition-based approach to the problem of the removal of polarized fringes from spectro-polarimetric data. We demonstrate that two-dimensional principal component analysis can be trained on a given spectro-polarimetric map in order to identify and isolate fringe structures from the spectra. This allows us, in principle, to reconstruct the data without the fringe component, providing an effective and clean solution to the problem. The results presented in this paper point in the direction of revising the way that science and calibration data should be planned for a typical spectro-polarimetric observing run.
A discontinuous Galerkin method for two-dimensional PDE models of Asian options
Hozman, J.; Tichý, T.; Cvejnová, D.
2016-06-01
In our previous research we have focused on the problem of plain vanilla option valuation using discontinuous Galerkin method for numerical PDE solution. Here we extend a simple one-dimensional problem into two-dimensional one and design a scheme for valuation of Asian options, i.e. options with payoff depending on the average of prices collected over prespecified horizon. The algorithm is based on the approach combining the advantages of the finite element methods together with the piecewise polynomial generally discontinuous approximations. Finally, an illustrative example using DAX option market data is provided.
Two-dimensional dynamics of elasto-inertial turbulence and its role in polymer drag reduction
Sid, S.; Terrapon, V. E.; Dubief, Y.
2018-02-01
The goal of the present study is threefold: (i) to demonstrate the two-dimensional nature of the elasto-inertial instability in elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT), (ii) to identify the role of the bidimensional instability in three-dimensional EIT flows, and (iii) to establish the role of the small elastic scales in the mechanism of self-sustained EIT. Direct numerical simulations of viscoelastic fluid flows are performed in both two- and three-dimensional straight periodic channels using the Peterlin finitely extensible nonlinear elastic model (FENE-P). The Reynolds number is set to Reτ=85 , which is subcritical for two-dimensional flows but beyond the transition for three-dimensional ones. The polymer properties selected correspond to those of typical dilute polymer solutions, and two moderate Weissenberg numbers, Wiτ=40 ,100 , are considered. The simulation results show that sustained turbulence can be observed in two-dimensional subcritical flows, confirming the existence of a bidimensional elasto-inertial instability. The same type of instability is also observed in three-dimensional simulations where both Newtonian and elasto-inertial turbulent structures coexist. Depending on the Wi number, one type of structure can dominate and drive the flow. For large Wi values, the elasto-inertial instability tends to prevail over the Newtonian turbulence. This statement is supported by (i) the absence of typical Newtonian near-wall vortices and (ii) strong similarities between two- and three-dimensional flows when considering larger Wi numbers. The role of small elastic scales is investigated by introducing global artificial diffusion (GAD) in the hyperbolic transport equation for polymers. The aim is to measure how the flow reacts when the smallest elastic scales are progressively filtered out. The study results show that the introduction of large polymer diffusion in the system strongly damps a significant part of the elastic scales that are necessary to feed
On one model problem for the reaction-diffusion-advection equation
Davydova, M. A.; Zakharova, S. A.; Levashova, N. T.
2017-09-01
The asymptotic behavior of the solution with boundary layers in the time-independent mathematical model of reaction-diffusion-advection arising when describing the distribution of greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer is studied. On the basis of the asymptotic method of differential inequalities, the existence of a boundary-layer solution and its asymptotic Lyapunov stability as a steady-state solution of the corresponding parabolic problem is proven. One of the results of this work is the determination of the local domain of the attraction of a boundary-layer solution.
[Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].
Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V
2011-01-01
The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.
Higher-order discrete maximum principle for 1D diffusion-reaction problems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vejchodský, Tomáš
2010-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 4 (2010), s. 486-500 ISSN 0168-9274. [Conference in Numerical Analysis (NumAn 2008). Kalamata, 01.09.2008-05.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100760702; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : discrete maximum principle * discrete Green's function * diffusion-reaction problem * higher-order finite element method * hp-FEM * M-matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168927409001731
Exact and approximate interior corner problem in neutron diffusion by integral transform methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bareiss, E.H.; Chang, K.S.J.; Constatinescu, D.A.
1976-09-01
The mathematical solution of the neutron diffusion equation exhibits singularities in its derivatives at material corners. A mathematical treatment of the nature of these singularities and its impact on coarse network approximation methods in computational work is presented. The mathematical behavior is deduced from Green's functions, based on a generalized theory for two space dimensions, and the resulting systems of integral equations, as well as from the Kontorovich--Lebedev Transform. The effect on numerical calculations is demonstrated for finite difference and finite element methods for a two-region corner problem.
Experiment study on the characteristics of two-dimensional line scale working standard
Sun, Shuanghua; Xue, Zi; Wang, Heyan
2015-02-01
National working standard of two-dimensional line scale based on laser two-coordinate standard device was set up to solve the problem of the calibration and traceability of 2-D line scale optical standard and high precision photomask. The operating principle and system composition of the working standard device were introduced. The characteristics were test in special experiments. A high precision differential laser interferometer system was used for a length standard, a high magnification optical microvision system was used for precision optical positioning feedback. In order to improve the measuring accuracy, several high precision sensors were installed to measure environmental parameters for compensating the laser wavelength in atmosphere according to the empirical Edlén equation. High resolution CCD modeling and calibrating based on two-dimensional nanoscale positioning movable platform and laser interferometer were adopted to improve the pointing accuracy. Two-dimensional line scale working standard could be used to measure line spacing, point spacing, and coordinates of 2-D optical standard or photomask, with measurement range 300mm × 300mm, measurement uncertainty U=(0.1~0.3)μm, k=2. Some experiments were carried out to identify the characteristics of length measurement error, probing error, measurement repeatability and measurement reproducibility of the working standard, and measurement uncertainty was validated by the measurement experiments.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine
2012-01-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of intracellular proteins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ojima, N.; Sakamoto, T.; Yamashita, M.
1996-01-01
Since two-dimensional electrophoresis was established by O'Farrell for analysis of intracellular proteins of Escherichia coli, it has been applied to separation of proteins of animal cells and tissues, and especially to identification of stress proteins. Using this technique, proteins are separated by isoelectric focusing containing 8 m urea in the first dimension and by SDS-PAGE in the second dimension. The gels are stained with Coomassie Blue R-250 dye, followed by silver staining. In the case of radio-labeled proteins, the gels are dried and then autoradiographed. In order to identify a specific protein separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, a technique determining the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein has been developed recently. After the proteins in the gel were electrotransferred to a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane, the membrane was stained for protein with Commassie Blue and a stained membrane fragment was applied to a protein sequencer. Our recent studies demonstrated that fish cells newly synthesized various proteins in response to heat shock, cold nd osmotic stresses. For example, when cellular proteins extracted from cold-treated rainbow trout cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, the 70 kDa protein was found to be synthesized during the cold-treatment. N-Terminal sequence analysis showed that the cold-inducible protein was a homolog of mammalian valosin-containing protein and yeast cell division cycle gene product CDC48p. Furthermore, the sequence data were useful for preparing PCR primers and a rabbit antibody against a synthetic peptide to analyze a role for the protein in the function of trout cells and mechanisms for regulation
Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Bablich
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.
Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications
Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a
Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment
Schoellhamer, David H.
1988-01-01
A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.
Two-dimensional collapse calculations of cylindrical clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastien, P.; Mitalas, R.
1979-01-01
A two-dimensional hydrodynamic computer code has been extensively modified and expanded to study the collapse of non-rotating interstellar clouds. The physics and the numerical methods involved are discussed. The results are presented and discussed in terms of the Jeans number. The critical Jeans number for collapse of non-rotating cylindrical clouds whose length is the same as their diameter is 1.00. No evidence for fragmentation has been found for these clouds, but fragmentation seems quite likely for more elongated cylindrical clouds. (author)
Focused two-dimensional antiscatter grid for mammography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makarova, O.V.; Moldovan, N.; Tang, C.-M.; Mancini, D.C.; Divan, R.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Ryding, D.C.; Yaeger, J.; Liu, C.
2002-01-01
We are developing freestanding high-aspect-ratio, focused, two-dimensional antiscatter grids for mammography using deep x-ray lithography and copper electroforming. The exposure is performed using x-rays from bending magnet beamline 2-BM at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory. A 2.8-mm-thick prototype freestanding copper antiscatter grid with 25 (micro)m-wide parallel cell walls and 550 (micro)m periodicity has been fabricated. The progress in developing a dynamic double-exposure technique to create the grid with the cell walls aligned to a point x-ray source of the mammography system is discussed
Optical Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of Layered Metal Dichalcogenides
Dey, P.; Paul, J.; Stevens, C. E.; Kovalyuk, Z. D.; Kudrynskyi, Z. R.; Romero, A. H.; Cantarero, A.; Hilton, D. J.; Shan, J.; Karaiskaj, D.; Z. D. Kovalyuk; Z. R. Kudrynskyi Collaboration; A. H. Romero Collaboration; A. Cantarero Collaboration; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. Shan Collaboration
2015-03-01
Nonlinear two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) measurements were used to study the mechanism of excitonic dephasing and probe the electronic structure of the excitonic ground state in layered metal dichalcogenides. Temperature-dependent 2DFT measurements were performed to probe exciton-phonon interactions. Excitation density dependent 2DFT measurements reveal exciton-exciton and exciton-carrier scattering, and the lower limit for the homogeneous linewidth of excitons on positively and negatively doped samples. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0012635.
Quantum computation with two-dimensional graphene quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jie-Sen; Li Zhi-Bing; Yao Dao-Xin
2012-01-01
We study an array of graphene nano sheets that form a two-dimensional S = 1/2 Kagome spin lattice used for quantum computation. The edge states of the graphene nano sheets are used to form quantum dots to confine electrons and perform the computation. We propose two schemes of bang-bang control to combat decoherence and realize gate operations on this array of quantum dots. It is shown that both schemes contain a great amount of information for quantum computation. The corresponding gate operations are also proposed. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
Quantum algebras for two-dimensional Cayley-Klein Geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herranz, F.J.; Ballesteros, A.; Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.
1993-01-01
Simultaneous quantization of the quasi-simple groups of motions of the nine two-dimensional Cayley-Klein geometries is obtained by defining a deformed Hopf structure on their enveloping algebras. The spaces of points and lines of the classical CK geometries are homogeneous spaces of their motion groups. Both the well known classical non-euclidean geometries and the (1+1) kinematical geometries are included within this scheme. Their corresponding quantum algebras preserve a scheme of contractions, symmetries and dualities based on the classical one. (Author)
Graphene surface plasmon bandgap based on two dimensional Si gratings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueke Wang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A graphene/Si system, which is composed of a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon gratings and a graphene sheet, is designed to realize the complete band gap in infrared region for graphene surface plasmons (GSPs theoretically. The complete band gap originates from the strong scatterings, which is caused by the periodical distribution of effective refractive index. The band structure has been calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and full wave numerical simulations are conducted by finite element method. Thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene, the band structure can be easily tuned, which provides a way to manipulate in-plane GSPs’ propagation.