Sample records for two-dimensional complexes based

  1. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  2. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-Ohsawa, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan)


    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  3. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira


    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Henon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front

  4. Grammatical complexity for two-dimensional maps (United States)

    Hagiwara, Ryouichi; Shudo, Akira


    We calculate the grammatical complexity of the symbol sequences generated from the Hénon map and the Lozi map using the recently developed methods to construct the pruning front. When the map is hyperbolic, the language of symbol sequences is regular in the sense of the Chomsky hierarchy and the corresponding grammatical complexity takes finite values. It is found that the complexity exhibits a self-similar structure as a function of the system parameter, and the similarity of the pruning fronts is discussed as an origin of such self-similarity. For non-hyperbolic cases, it is observed that the complexity monotonically increases as we increase the resolution of the pruning front.

  5. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Two-dimensional P T -symmetric quantum-mechanical systems with the complex cubic potential 12 = 2 + 2 + 2 and the complex Hénon–Heiles potential HH = 2 + 2 + (2 − 3/3) are investigated. Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both ...

  6. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. Two-dimensional NMR studies of allyl palladium complexes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    h3-Allyl complexes are intermediates in organic synthetic reactions such as allylic alkylation and amination. There is growing interest in understanding the structures of chiral h3-allyl intermediates as this would help to unravel the mechanism of enantioselective C–C bond forming reactions. Two-dimensional NMR study is a.

  8. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials. Qing-Hai Wang. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 pp ... Using numerical and perturbative methods, energy spectra are obtained to high levels. Although both potentials respect the P T symmetry, the ...

  9. Blind deconvolution of two-dimensional complex data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghiglia, D.C.; Romero, L.A.


    Inspired by the work of Lane and Bates on automatic multidimensional deconvolution, the authors have developed a systematic approach and an operational code for performing the deconvolution of multiply-convolved two-dimensional complex data sets in the absence of noise. They explain, in some detail, the major algorithmic steps, where noise or numerical errors can cause problems, their approach in dealing with numerical rounding errors, and where special noise-mitigating techniques can be used toward making blind deconvolution practical. Several examples of deconvolved imagery are presented, and future research directions are noted.

  10. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator admit quadratic complex invariants. The obtained invariants ..... where α, β, α1,α2,β1,β2,δ3 and δ4 are arbitrary constants of integration. Pramana – J. Phys. ..... An invariant for a shifted harmonic oscillator in complex plane can be derived by substi- tuting δ3 = 0,δ2 = −1.

  11. The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya


    In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...

  12. Tuning Interchain Interactions in Two-Dimensional Networks of Mn(III) Schiff-Base Complexes and Dicarboxylic Acids by Varying the Linker. (United States)

    Aono, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Hiroki; Katoh, Keiichi; Breedlove, Brian K; Kagesawa, Koichi; Yamashita, Masahiro


    Two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymers consisting of Mn(III) Schiff-base complexes and dicarboxylic acids, [{Mn(salen)}4(L1)](PF6)2·(CH3OH)2 (C4; H2L1 = adipid acid) and [{Mn(salen)}4(L2)](PF6)2·(CH3OH)4 (C4'; H2L2 = E,E-1,3-butadiene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid) (salen(2-) = N,N'-(ethylene)bis(salicylideneiminato), were synthesized by using a one-pot reaction and characterized by using single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. One-dimensional (1D) chains composed of Mn(salen) dimers, [Mn2], bridged by carboxylato ligands (-[Mn2]-OCO--[Mn2]-), were linked by dicarboxylato ligands with n-butyl (-C4H8-) (C4) and butadienyl aliphatic groups (-C4H4-) (C4'). From static magnetic measurements on both C4 and C4', there were ferromagnetic interactions between the Mn(III) ions through the phenoxo oxygen atoms of the salen(2-), and antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn(III) ions through carboxylato ligands (-OCO-). As a result, weak ferromagnetism occurred because of the zigzag-shaped chain structure of C4 and C4', and magnetic anisotropy for Mn(salen). In the magnetization curves for C4', weak interchain interactions (Jlinker) occurred through the π-conjugated butadienyl linkers in C4', which C4 did not have. In other words, changing from saturated to unsaturated aliphatic groups in the dicarboxylic acid linkers resulted in weak interactions between 1D-magnetic chain moieties. Therefore, in the case of only C4', antiferromagnetic phase transition appeared at 2.3 K. Both coordination polymers exhibited slow relaxation of the magnetizations, which originated from SCM moieties, because C4 and C4' showed magnetic correlations. It is noteworthy that alternating current (ac) susceptibilities for C4' are frequency-dependent around the Néel temperature. From analysis of the ac susceptibilities for C4, α (dispersion coefficient of the relaxation of magnetization) varied linearly with 1/T. This signifies that C4 behaved as an SCM with a single relaxation process. On

  13. A microprocessor based on a two-dimensional semiconductor (United States)

    Wachter, Stefan; Polyushkin, Dmitry K.; Bethge, Ole; Mueller, Thomas


    The advent of microcomputers in the 1970s has dramatically changed our society. Since then, microprocessors have been made almost exclusively from silicon, but the ever-increasing demand for higher integration density and speed, lower power consumption and better integrability with everyday goods has prompted the search for alternatives. Germanium and III-V compound semiconductors are being considered promising candidates for future high-performance processor generations and chips based on thin-film plastic technology or carbon nanotubes could allow for embedding electronic intelligence into arbitrary objects for the Internet-of-Things. Here, we present a 1-bit implementation of a microprocessor using a two-dimensional semiconductor--molybdenum disulfide. The device can execute user-defined programs stored in an external memory, perform logical operations and communicate with its periphery. Our 1-bit design is readily scalable to multi-bit data. The device consists of 115 transistors and constitutes the most complex circuitry so far made from a two-dimensional material.

  14. Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.

  15. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The two sets of numerical results clearly agree with each other. Surprisingly, up to the crossing points, the Padé expansions fit the numerical results very well. Although the Hamiltonian H12 has PT symmetry, some energy eigenvalues are complex. The imaginary parts of the eigenvalues by two numerical methods are.

  16. Consistent two-dimensional visualization of protein-ligand complex series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stierand Katrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The comparative two-dimensional graphical representation of protein-ligand complex series featuring different ligands bound to the same active site offers a quick insight in their binding mode differences. In comparison to arbitrary orientations of the residue molecules in the individual complex depictions a consistent placement improves the legibility and comparability within the series. The automatic generation of such consistent layouts offers the possibility to apply it to large data sets originating from computer-aided drug design methods. Results We developed a new approach, which automatically generates a consistent layout of interacting residues for a given series of complexes. Based on the structural three-dimensional input information, a global two-dimensional layout for all residues of the complex ensemble is computed. The algorithm incorporates the three-dimensional adjacencies of the active site residues in order to find an universally valid circular arrangement of the residues around the ligand. Subsequent to a two-dimensional ligand superimposition step, a global placement for each residue is derived from the set of already placed ligands. The method generates high-quality layouts, showing mostly overlap-free solutions with molecules which are displayed as structure diagrams providing interaction information in atomic detail. Application examples document an improved legibility compared to series of diagrams whose layouts are calculated independently from each other. Conclusions The presented method extends the field of complex series visualizations. A series of molecules binding to the same protein active site is drawn in a graphically consistent way. Compared to existing approaches these drawings substantially simplify the visual analysis of large compound series.

  17. Emerging terahertz photodetectors based on two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Qin, Hua; Zhang, Kai


    Inspired by the innovations in photonics and nanotechnology, the remarkable properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials have renewed interest for the development of terahertz (THz) photodetectors. The versatility of these materials enables ultrafast and ultrasensitive photodetection of THz radiation at room temperature. The atomically thin characteristic together with van der Waals interactions among the layers make it easy to scaling down and integrate with other 2D materials based devices, as well as silicon chips. Efforts have increased fast in the past decade in developing proof-of-concept and the further prospective THz photodetectors based on 2D materials. Here, the recent progress on the exploring of THz photodetectors based on 2D materials is reviewed. We summarized the THz photodetectors under different physical mechanism and introduced the state-of-the-art THz photodetectors based on various promising 2D materials, such as graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), black phosphorus (BP) and topological insulators (TIs). A brief discussion on the remaining challenges and a perspective of the 2D materials based THz photodetectors are also given.

  18. Complex Quasi-Two-Dimensional Crystalline Order Embedded in VO2 and Other Crystals (United States)

    Lovorn, Timothy; Sarker, Sanjoy K.


    Metal oxides such as VO2 undergo structural transitions to low-symmetry phases characterized by intricate crystalline order, accompanied by rich electronic behavior. We derive a minimal ionic Hamiltonian based on symmetry and local energetics which describes structural transitions involving all four observed phases, in the correct order. An exact analysis shows that complexity results from the symmetry-induced constraints of the parent phase, which forces ionic displacements to form multiple interpenetrating groups using low-dimensional pathways and distant neighbors. Displacements within each group exhibit independent, quasi-two-dimensional order, which is frustrated and fragile. This selective ordering mechanism is not restricted to VO2 : it applies to other oxides that show similar complex order.

  19. A heuristic two-dimensional presentation of microsatellite-based data applied to dogs and wolves. (United States)

    Veit-Kensch, Claudia E; Medugorac, Ivica; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; Bunevich, Aleksei N; Foerster, Martin


    Methods based on genetic distance matrices usually lose information during the process of tree-building by converting a multi-dimensional matrix into a phylogenetic tree. We applied a heuristic method of two-dimensional presentation to achieve a better resolution of the relationship between breeds and individuals investigated. Four hundred and nine individuals from nine German dog breed populations and one free-living wolf population were analysed with a marker set of 23 microsatellites. The result of the two-dimensional presentation was partly comparable with and complemented a model-based analysis that uses genotype patterns. The assignment test and the neighbour-joining tree based on allele sharing estimate allocated 99% and 97% of the individuals according to their breed, respectively. The application of the two-dimensional presentation to distances on the basis of the proportion of shared alleles resulted in comparable and further complementary insight into inferred population structure by multilocus genotype data. We expect that the inference of population structure in domesticated species with complex breeding histories can be strongly supported by the two-dimensional presentation based on the described heuristic method.

  20. A heuristic two-dimensional presentation of microsatellite-based data applied to dogs and wolves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foerster Martin


    Full Text Available Abstract Methods based on genetic distance matrices usually lose information during the process of tree-building by converting a multi-dimensional matrix into a phylogenetic tree. We applied a heuristic method of two-dimensional presentation to achieve a better resolution of the relationship between breeds and individuals investigated. Four hundred and nine individuals from nine German dog breed populations and one free-living wolf population were analysed with a marker set of 23 microsatellites. The result of the two-dimensional presentation was partly comparable with and complemented a model-based analysis that uses genotype patterns. The assignment test and the neighbour-joining tree based on allele sharing estimate allocated 99% and 97% of the individuals according to their breed, respectively. The application of the two-dimensional presentation to distances on the basis of the proportion of shared alleles resulted in comparable and further complementary insight into inferred population structure by multilocus genotype data. We expect that the inference of population structure in domesticated species with complex breeding histories can be strongly supported by the two-dimensional presentation based on the described heuristic method.

  1. Solution-Based Processing of Monodisperse Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials. (United States)

    Kang, Joohoon; Sangwan, Vinod K; Wood, Joshua D; Hersam, Mark C


    Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics. Much of the initial research on 2D nanomaterials has relied on micromechanical exfoliation, which yields high-quality 2D nanomaterial flakes that are suitable for fundamental studies but possesses limited scalability for real-world applications. In an effort to overcome this limitation, solution-processing methods for isolating large quantities of 2D nanomaterials have emerged. Importantly, solution processing results in 2D nanomaterial dispersions that are amenable to roll-to-roll fabrication methods that underlie lost-cost manufacturing of thin-film transistors, transparent conductors, energy storage devices, and solar cells. Despite these advantages, solution-based exfoliation methods typically lack control over the lateral size and thickness of the resulting 2D nanomaterial flakes, resulting in polydisperse dispersions with heterogeneous properties. Therefore, post-exfoliation separation techniques are needed to achieve 2D nanomaterial dispersions with monodispersity in lateral size, thickness, and properties. In this Account, we survey the latest developments in solution-based separation methods that aim to produce monodisperse dispersions and thin films of emerging 2D nanomaterials such as graphene, boron nitride, transition metal dichalcogenides, and black phosphorus. First, we motivate the need for precise thickness

  2. Graphene surface plasmon bandgap based on two dimensional Si gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueke Wang


    Full Text Available A graphene/Si system, which is composed of a two-dimensional subwavelength silicon gratings and a graphene sheet, is designed to realize the complete band gap in infrared region for graphene surface plasmons (GSPs theoretically. The complete band gap originates from the strong scatterings, which is caused by the periodical distribution of effective refractive index. The band structure has been calculated using the plane wave expansion method, and full wave numerical simulations are conducted by finite element method. Thanks to the tunable permittivity of graphene, the band structure can be easily tuned, which provides a way to manipulate in-plane GSPs’ propagation.

  3. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: glass tube-based IEF followed by SDS-PAGE. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Haniu, Hisao; Kurien, Biji T; Komori, Naoka


    The genome information combined with data derived from modern mass spectrometry enables us to determine the identity of a protein once it is isolated from a complex mixture. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis established more than three decades ago serves as a powerful protocol to isolate many proteins at once for such protein analysis. In the first two decades, the original procedure to use a glass tube-based isoelectric focusing (IEF) had been commonly used. Since an IEF in glass tubes is rather difficult to maneuver, a new method to use an IEF on a thin agarose slab backed by a plastic film (IPG Dry Strip) has been invented and is now widely used. In this chapter, we describe the original protocol that uses a glass tube-based IEF because, the capacity of protein loading and resolving power of this type of classic two-dimensional gel is still indispensible.

  4. Complex Path Integrals and Saddles in Two-Dimensional Gauge Theory. (United States)

    Buividovich, P V; Dunne, Gerald V; Valgushev, S N


    We study numerically the saddle point structure of two-dimensional lattice gauge theory, represented by the Gross-Witten-Wadia unitary matrix model. The saddle points are, in general, complex valued, even though the original integration variables and action are real. We confirm the trans-series and instanton gas structure in the weak-coupling phase, and we identify a new complex-saddle interpretation of nonperturbative effects in the strong-coupling phase. In both phases, eigenvalue tunneling refers to eigenvalues moving off the real interval, into the complex plane, and the weak-to-strong coupling phase transition is driven by saddle condensation.

  5. Discriminating image textures with the multiscale two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zunino, Luciano; Ribeiro, Haroldo V.


    The aim of this paper is to further explore the usefulness of the two-dimensional complexity-entropy causality plane as a texture image descriptor. A multiscale generalization is introduced in order to distinguish between different roughness features of images at small and large spatial scales. Numerically generated two-dimensional structures are initially considered for illustrating basic concepts in a controlled framework. Then, more realistic situations are studied. Obtained results allow us to confirm that intrinsic spatial correlations of images are successfully unveiled by implementing this multiscale symbolic information-theory approach. Consequently, we conclude that the proposed representation space is a versatile and practical tool for identifying, characterizing and discriminating image textures.

  6. Image Encryption Scheme Based on Balanced Two-Dimensional Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Zhang


    Full Text Available Cellular automata (CA are simple models of computation which exhibit fascinatingly complex behavior. Due to the universality of CA model, it has been widely applied in traditional cryptography and image processing. The aim of this paper is to present a new image encryption scheme based on balanced two-dimensional cellular automata. In this scheme, a random image with the same size of the plain image to be encrypted is first generated by a pseudo-random number generator with a seed. Then, the random image is evoluted alternately with two balanced two-dimensional CA rules. At last, the cipher image is obtained by operating bitwise XOR on the final evolution image and the plain image. This proposed scheme possesses some advantages such as very large key space, high randomness, complex cryptographic structure, and pretty fast encryption/decryption speed. Simulation results obtained from some classical images at the USC-SIPI database demonstrate the strong performance of the proposed image encryption scheme.

  7. Thermoelectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Molybdenum-based MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hyunho


    MXenes are an interesting class of 2D materials consisting of transition metal carbides and nitrides, which are currently a subject of extensive studies. Although there have been theoretical calculations estimating the thermoelectric properties of MXenes, no experimental measurements have been reported so far. In this report, three compositions of Mo-based MXenes (Mo2CTx, Mo2TiC2Tx, and Mo2Ti2C3Tx) have been synthesized and processed into free-standing binder-free papers by vacuum-assisted filtration, and their electrical and thermoelectric properties are measured. Upon heating to 800 K, these MXene papers exhibit high conductivity and n-type Seebeck coefficient. The thermoelectric power reaches 3.09×10-4 W m-1 K-2 at 803 K for the Mo2TiC2Tx MXene. While the thermoelectric properties of MXenes do not reach that of the best materials, they exceed their parent ternary and quaternary layered carbides. Mo2TiC2Tx shows the highest electrical conductivity in combination with the largest Seebeck coefficient of the three 2D materials studied.

  8. Separation of complex fringe patterns using two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. (United States)

    Pokorski, Krzysztof; Patorski, Krzysztof


    A method for processing fringe patterns containing additively superimposed multiple fringe sets is presented. It enables to analyze different fringe families present in a single image separately. The proposed method is based on a two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. A robust ridge extraction algorithm for a single fringe set extraction is presented. The method is fully automatic and requires no user interference. Spectral separation of fringe families is not required. Simulations are presented to verify performance and advantage of the proposed method over the Fourier transform based technique. Method validity has been confirmed using experimental images.

  9. Quantitative evaluation and modeling of two-dimensional neovascular network complexity: the surface fractal dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grizzi, Fabio; Russo, Carlo; Colombo, Piergiuseppe; Franceschini, Barbara; Frezza, Eldo E; Cobos, Everardo; Chiriva-Internati, Maurizio


    Modeling the complex development and growth of tumor angiogenesis using mathematics and biological data is a burgeoning area of cancer research. Architectural complexity is the main feature of every anatomical system, including organs, tissues, cells and sub-cellular entities. The vascular system is a complex network whose geometrical characteristics cannot be properly defined using the principles of Euclidean geometry, which is only capable of interpreting regular and smooth objects that are almost impossible to find in Nature. However, fractal geometry is a more powerful means of quantifying the spatial complexity of real objects. This paper introduces the surface fractal dimension (D s ) as a numerical index of the two-dimensional (2-D) geometrical complexity of tumor vascular networks, and their behavior during computer-simulated changes in vessel density and distribution. We show that D s significantly depends on the number of vessels and their pattern of distribution. This demonstrates that the quantitative evaluation of the 2-D geometrical complexity of tumor vascular systems can be useful not only to measure its complex architecture, but also to model its development and growth. Studying the fractal properties of neovascularity induces reflections upon the real significance of the complex form of branched anatomical structures, in an attempt to define more appropriate methods of describing them quantitatively. This knowledge can be used to predict the aggressiveness of malignant tumors and design compounds that can halt the process of angiogenesis and influence tumor growth

  10. Fast Estimation Method of Space-Time Two-Dimensional Positioning Parameters Based on Hadamard Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Li


    Full Text Available The estimation speed of positioning parameters determines the effectiveness of the positioning system. The time of arrival (TOA and direction of arrival (DOA parameters can be estimated by the space-time two-dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC algorithm for array antenna. However, this algorithm needs much time to complete the two-dimensional pseudo spectral peak search, which makes it difficult to apply in practice. Aiming at solving this problem, a fast estimation method of space-time two-dimensional positioning parameters based on Hadamard product is proposed in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB is also presented. Firstly, according to the channel frequency domain response vector of each array, the channel frequency domain estimation vector is constructed using the Hadamard product form containing location information. Then, the autocorrelation matrix of the channel response vector for the extended array element in frequency domain and the noise subspace are calculated successively. Finally, by combining the closed-form solution and parameter pairing, the fast joint estimation for time delay and arrival direction is accomplished. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity and guarantee that the estimation accuracy is not only better than estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and 2D matrix pencil (MP algorithm but also close to 2D-MUSIC algorithm. Moreover, the proposed algorithm also has certain adaptability to multipath environment and effectively improves the ability of fast acquisition of location parameters.

  11. Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems. (United States)

    Koppens, F H L; Mueller, T; Avouris, Ph; Ferrari, A C; Vitiello, M S; Polini, M


    Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms. The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies. Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides.

  12. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein post-translational modifications: a comparative two dimensional electrophoresis based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada


    Full Text Available Alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. A proteomic approach based on two dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting and staining of 2DE gels with dyes specific for post-translational modifications (PTMs such as glycosylation and phosphorylation has been used to evaluate the differential interspecific protein expression of AGP purified from human, bovine and ovine sera. By means of these techniques, several isoforms have been identified in the investigated species: they have been found to change both with regard to the number of isoforms expressed under physiological condition and with regard to the quality of PTMs (i.e. different oligosaccharidic chains, presence/absence of phosphorilations. In particular, it is suggested that bovine serum AGP may have one of the most complex pattern of PTMs among serum proteins of mammals studied so far.

  13. Two-dimensional gel-based protein standardization verified by western blot analysis. (United States)

    Haniu, Hisao; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kawashima, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki


    In data presentation of biochemical investigation the amount of a target protein is shown in the y-axis against the x-axis representing time, concentrations of various agents, or other parameters. Western blot is a versatile and convenient tool in such an analysis to quantify and display the amount of proteins. In western blot, so-called housekeeping gene product(s), or "housekeeping proteins," are widely used as internal standards. The rationale of using housekeeping proteins for standardization of western blot is based on the assumption that the expression of chosen housekeeping gene is always constant, which could be false under certain physiological or pathological conditions. We have devised a two-dimensional gel-based standardization method in which the protein content of each sample is determined by scanning the total protein density of two-dimensional gels and the expression of each protein is quantified as the density ratio of each protein divided by the density of the total proteins on the two-dimensional gel. The advantage of this standardization method is that it is not based on any presumed "housekeeping proteins" that are supposed to be being expressed constantly under all physiological conditions. We will show that the total density of a two-dimensional gel can render a reliable protein standardization parameter by running western blot analysis on one of the proteins analyzed by two-dimensional gels.

  14. Solution-Based Processing and Applications of Two-Dimensional Heterostructures (United States)

    Hersam, Mark

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics, but advances in scalable nanomanufacturing are required to exploit this potential in real-world technology. This talk will explore methods for improving the uniformity of solution-processed two-dimensional materials with an eye toward realizing dispersions and inks that can be deposited into large-area thin-films. In particular, density gradient ultracentrifugation allows the solution-based isolation of graphene, boron nitride, montmorillonite, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WS2, ReS2, MoSe2, WSe2) with homogeneous thickness down to the atomically thin limit. Similarly, two-dimensional black phosphorus is isolated in organic solvents or deoxygenated aqueous surfactant solutions with the resulting phosphorene nanosheets showing field-effect transistor mobilities and on/off ratios that are comparable to micromechanically exfoliated flakes. By adding cellulosic polymer stabilizers to these dispersions, the rheological properties can be tuned by orders of magnitude, thereby enabling two-dimensional material inks that are compatible with a range of additive manufacturing methods including inkjet, gravure, screen, and 3D printing. The resulting solution-processed two-dimensional heterostructures show promise in several device applications including photodiodes, anti-ambipolar transistors, gate-tunable memristors, and heterojunction photovoltaics.

  15. Coherence and population dynamics of chlorophyll excitations in FCP complex: Two-dimensional spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Valkunas, Leonas [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Augulis, Ramūnas [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Gall, Andrew; Robert, Bruno [Institut de Biologie et Technologies de Saclay, Bât 532, Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Büchel, Claudia [Institut für Molekulare Biowissenschaften, Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Straße 9, Frankfurt (Germany); Zigmantas, Donatas [Department of Chemical Physics, Lund University, P.O. Box 124, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Abramavicius, Darius, E-mail: [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio Ave. 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania)


    Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin–chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Q{sub y} transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Q{sub y} transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.

  16. Parallel Factor-Based Model for Two-Dimensional Direction Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Tayem


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D Direction-of-Arrivals (DOA estimation for elevation and azimuth angles assuming noncoherent, mixture of coherent and noncoherent, and coherent sources using extended three parallel uniform linear arrays (ULAs is proposed. Most of the existing schemes have drawbacks in estimating 2D DOA for multiple narrowband incident sources as follows: use of large number of snapshots, estimation failure problem for elevation and azimuth angles in the range of typical mobile communication, and estimation of coherent sources. Moreover, the DOA estimation for multiple sources requires complex pair-matching methods. The algorithm proposed in this paper is based on first-order data matrix to overcome these problems. The main contributions of the proposed method are as follows: (1 it avoids estimation failure problem using a new antenna configuration and estimates elevation and azimuth angles for coherent sources; (2 it reduces the estimation complexity by constructing Toeplitz data matrices, which are based on a single or few snapshots; (3 it derives parallel factor (PARAFAC model to avoid pair-matching problems between multiple sources. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Critical currents in ballistic two-dimensional InAs-based superconducting weak links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. van; Klapwijk, T.M.; Borghs, G.


    The critical supercurrent Ic carried by a short (0.3 to 0.8 µm) ballistic two-dimensional InAs-based electron gas between superconducting niobium electrodes is studied. In relating the maximum value to the resistance of the weak link in the normal state Rn a much lower value is found than

  18. Complexity-entropy causality plane as a complexity measure for two-dimensional patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Complexity measures are essential to understand complex systems and there are numerous definitions to analyze one-dimensional data. However, extensions of these approaches to two or higher-dimensional data, such as images, are much less common. Here, we reduce this gap by applying the ideas of the permutation entropy combined with a relative entropic index. We build up a numerical procedure that can be easily implemented to evaluate the complexity of two or higher-dimensional patterns. We work out this method in different scenarios where numerical experiments and empirical data were taken into account. Specifically, we have applied the method to [Formula: see text] fractal landscapes generated numerically where we compare our measures with the Hurst exponent; [Formula: see text] liquid crystal textures where nematic-isotropic-nematic phase transitions were properly identified; [Formula: see text] 12 characteristic textures of liquid crystals where the different values show that the method can distinguish different phases; [Formula: see text] and Ising surfaces where our method identified the critical temperature and also proved to be stable.

  19. Graph Grammar-Based Multi-Frontal Parallel Direct Solver for Two-Dimensional Isogeometric Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Kuźnik, Krzysztof


    This paper introduces the graph grammar based model for developing multi-thread multi-frontal parallel direct solver for two dimensional isogeometric finite element method. Execution of the solver algorithm has been expressed as the sequence of graph grammar productions. At the beginning productions construct the elimination tree with leaves corresponding to finite elements. Following sequence of graph grammar productions generates element frontal matri-ces at leaf nodes, merges matrices at parent nodes and eliminates rows corresponding to fully assembled degrees of freedom. Finally, there are graph grammar productions responsible for root problem solution and recursive backward substitutions. Expressing the solver algorithm by graph grammar productions allows us to explore the concurrency of the algorithm. The graph grammar productions are grouped into sets of independent tasks that can be executed concurrently. The resulting concurrent multi-frontal solver algorithm is implemented and tested on NVIDIA GPU, providing O(NlogN) execution time complexity where N is the number of degrees of freedom. We have confirmed this complexity by solving up to 1 million of degrees of freedom with 448 cores GPU.

  20. Critical behavior of a two-dimensional complex fluid: Macroscopic and mesoscopic views (United States)

    Choudhuri, Madhumita; Datta, Alokmay


    Liquid disordered (Ld) to liquid ordered (Lo) phase transition in myristic acid [MyA, CH3(CH2) 12COOH ] Langmuir monolayers was studied macroscopically as well as mesoscopically to locate the critical point. Macroscopically, isotherms of the monolayer were obtained across the 20 ∘C-38 ∘Ctemperature (T ) range and the critical point was estimated, primarily from the vanishing of the order parameter, at ≈38 ∘C. Mesoscopically, domain morphology in the Ld-Lo coexistence regime was imaged using the technique of Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) as a function of T and the corresponding power spectral density function (PSDF) obtained. Monolayer morphology passed from stable circular domains and a sharp peak in PSDF to stable dendritic domains and a divergence of the correlation length as the critical point was approached from below. The critical point was found to be consistent at ≈38 ∘Cfrom both isotherm and BAM results. In the critical regime the scaling behavior of the transition followed the two-dimensional Ising model. Additionally, we obtained a precritical regime, over a temperature range of ≈8 ∘C below Tc, characterized by fluctuations in the order parameter at the macroscopic scale and at the mesoscopic scale characterized by unstable domains of fingering or dendritic morphology as well as proliferation of a large number of small sized domains, multiple peaks in the power spectra, and a corresponding fluctuation in the peak q values with T . Further, while comparing temperature studies on an ensemble of MyA monolayers with those on a single monolayer, the system was found to be not strictly ergodic in that the ensemble development did not strictly match with the time development in the system. In particular, the critical temperature was found to be lowered in the latter. These results clearly show that the critical behavior in fatty acid monolayer phase transitions have features of both complex and nonequilibrium systems.

  1. A Novel Machine Learning Strategy Based on Two-Dimensional Numerical Models in Financial Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhen Xu


    Full Text Available Machine learning is the most commonly used technique to address larger and more complex tasks by analyzing the most relevant information already present in databases. In order to better predict the future trend of the index, this paper proposes a two-dimensional numerical model for machine learning to simulate major U.S. stock market index and uses a nonlinear implicit finite-difference method to find numerical solutions of the two-dimensional simulation model. The proposed machine learning method uses partial differential equations to predict the stock market and can be extensively used to accelerate large-scale data processing on the history database. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm reduces the prediction error and improves forecasting precision.

  2. Characterization of lipids in complex samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jover, E.; Adahchour, M.; Bayona, J.M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.


    Most lipids are a complex mixture of classes of compounds such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, diols, sterols and hydroxy acids. In this study, the suitability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-light mass spectrometer is studied for lipid characterization in

  3. A heuristic two-dimensional presentation of microsatellite-based data applied to dogs and wolves


    E. Veit-Kensch, Claudia; Medugorac, Ivica; Jedrzejewski, Włodzimierz; N. Bunevich, Aleksei; Foerster, Martin


    Abstract Methods based on genetic distance matrices usually lose information during the process of tree-building by converting a multi-dimensional matrix into a phylogenetic tree. We applied a heuristic method of two-dimensional presentation to achieve a better resolution of the relationship between breeds and individuals investigated. Four hundred and nine individuals from nine German dog breed populations and one free-living wolf population were analysed with a marker set of 23 microsatelli...

  4. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Ping; Ding, Chengyuan; Hu, Xiaoyong; Gong, Qihuang


    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed

  5. Tunable double-channel filter based on two-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ping [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ding, Chengyuan [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hu, Xiaoyong [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail:; Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)]. E-mail:


    A tunable double-channel filter is presented, which is based on a two-dimensional nonlinear ferroelectric photonic crystal made of cerium doped barium titanate. The filtering properties of the photonic crystal filter can be tuned by adjusting the defect structure or by a pump light. The influences of the structure disorders caused by the perturbations in the radius or the position of air holes on the filtering properties are also analyzed.

  6. Triazine-Based Graphitic Carbon Nitride: a Two-Dimensional Semiconductor


    Gerardo Algara-Siller; Nikolai Severin; Samantha Y. Chong; Torbjörn Björkman; Robert G. Palgrave; Andrea Laybourn; Markus Antonietti; Yaroslav Z. Khimyak; Arkady V. Krasheninnikov; J\\xfcrgen P. Rabe; Ute Kaiser; Andrew I. Cooper; Arne Thomas; Michael J. Bojdys


    Graphitic carbon nitride has been predicted to be structurally analogous to carbon-only graphite, yet with an inherent bandgap. We have grown, for the first time, macroscopically large crystalline thin films of triazine-based, graphitic carbon nitride (TGCN) using an ionothermal, interfacial reaction starting with the abundant monomer dicyandiamide. The films consist of stacked, two-dimensional (2D) crystals between a few and several hundreds of atomic layers in thickness. Scanning force and ...

  7. Curvature-tuned InAs-based shells containing two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutilin, S V; Vorobyova, Ju S; Vorob' ev, A B; Putyato, M A; Prinz, V Ya, E-mail: [AV Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, 630090, acad. Lavrentyev ave., 13, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    Conducting InAs/AlSb/GaSb shells of curvature radius {approx}10 {mu}m are fabricated on GaSb (1 0 0) substrates. In the InAs quantum well, the shells are shown to contain a two-dimensional electron gas. Controlled tuning of the curvature of the formed shells in excess of three times is demonstrated. The sequence of fabrication steps for forming curvature-tuned InAs-based shells with quantum well is described.

  8. Complex of two-dimensional multigroup programs for neutron-physical computations of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.A.; Protsenko, A.N.


    Briefly stated mathematical aspects of the two-dimensional multigroup method of neutron-physical computation of nuclear reactor. Problems of algorithmization and BESM-6 computer realisation of multigroup diffuse approximations in hexagonal and rectangular calculated lattices are analysed. The results of computation of fast critical assembly having complicated composition of the core are given. The estimation of computation accuracy of criticality, neutron fields distribution and efficiency of absorbing rods by means of computer programs developed is done. (author)

  9. Unusual two-dimensional behavior of iron-based superconductors with low anisotropy (United States)

    Kalenyuk, A. A.; Pagliero, A.; Borodianskyi, E. A.; Aswartham, S.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.; Chareev, D. A.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Krasnov, V. M.


    We study angular-dependent magnetoresistance in iron-based superconductors Ba1 -xNaxFe2As2 and FeTe1 -xSex . Both superconductors have relatively small anisotropies γ ˜2 and exhibit a three-dimensional (3D) behavior at low temperatures. However, we observe that they start to exhibit a profound two-dimensional behavior at elevated temperatures and in applied magnetic field parallel to the surface. We conclude that the unexpected two-dimensional (2D) behavior of the studied low-anisotropic superconductors is not related to layeredness of the materials, but is caused by appearance of surface superconductivity when magnetic field exceeds the upper critical field Hc 2(T ) for destruction of bulk superconductivity. We argue that the corresponding 3D-2D bulk-to-surface dimensional transition can be used for accurate determination of the upper critical field.

  10. Verification of the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model based on remote sensing (United States)

    Sazonov, Alexey; Mikhailukova, Polina; Krylenko, Inna; Frolova, Natalya; Kireeva, Mariya


    Mathematical modeling methods are used more and more actively to evaluate possible damage, identify potential flood zone and the influence of individual factors affecting the river during the passage of the flood. Calculations were performed by means of domestic software complex «STREAM-2D» which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional St. Venant equations. One of the major challenges in mathematical modeling is the verification of the model. This is usually made using data on water levels from hydrological stations: the smaller the difference of the actual level and the simulated one, the better the quality of the model used. Data from hydrological stations are not always available, so alternative sources of verification, such as remote sensing, are increasingly used. The aim of this work is to develop a method of verification of hydrodynamic model based on a comparison of actual flood zone area, which in turn is determined on the basis of the automated satellite image interpretation methods for different imaging systems and flooded area obtained in the course of the model. The study areas are Lena River, The North Dvina River, Amur River near Blagoveshchensk. We used satellite images made by optical and radar sensors: SPOT-5/HRG, Resurs-F, Radarsat-2. Flooded area were calculated using unsupervised classification (ISODATA and K-mean) for optical images and segmentation for Radarsat-2. Knowing the flow rate and the water level at a given date for the upper and lower limits of the model, respectively, it is possible to calculate flooded area by means of program STREAM-2D and GIS technology. All the existing vector layers with the boundaries of flooding are included in a GIS project for flood area calculation. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation, project no. 14-17-00155.

  11. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov complexity and an empirical validation of the Coding theorem method by compressibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Zenil


    Full Text Available We propose a measure based upon the fundamental theoretical concept in algorithmic information theory that provides a natural approach to the problem of evaluating n-dimensional complexity by using an n-dimensional deterministic Turing machine. The technique is interesting because it provides a natural algorithmic process for symmetry breaking generating complex n-dimensional structures from perfectly symmetric and fully deterministic computational rules producing a distribution of patterns as described by algorithmic probability. Algorithmic probability also elegantly connects the frequency of occurrence of a pattern with its algorithmic complexity, hence effectively providing estimations to the complexity of the generated patterns. Experiments to validate estimations of algorithmic complexity based on these concepts are presented, showing that the measure is stable in the face of some changes in computational formalism and that results are in agreement with the results obtained using lossless compression algorithms when both methods overlap in their range of applicability. We then use the output frequency of the set of 2-dimensional Turing machines to classify the algorithmic complexity of the space-time evolutions of Elementary Cellular Automata.

  12. Creation of High Mobility Two-Dimensional Electron Gases via Strain Induced Polarization at an Otherwise Nonpolar Complex Oxide Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Trier, Felix; Kasama, Takeshi


    The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3-based heterostructures provides new opportunities for nanoelectronics. Herein, we create a new type of oxide 2DEG by the epitaxial-strain-induced polarization at an otherwise nonpolar perovskite-type interface of CaZrO3/SrTiO3. Rem...

  13. Chemical warfare agent detection in complex environments with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E.; Ni, Mingtian; Kottapalli, Visweswara; Visvanathan, Arvind; Ledford, Edward B., Jr.; Oostdijk, John; Trap, Henk C.


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) is an emerging technology for chemical separation that provides an order-of-magnitude increase in separation capacity over traditional gas chromatography. GCxGC separates chemical species with two capillary columns interfaced by two-stage thermal desorption. Because GCxGC is comprehensive and has high separation capacity, it can perform multiple traditional analytical methods with a single analysis. GCxGC has great potential for a wide variety of environmental sensing applications, including detection of chemical warfare agents (CWA) and other harmful chemicals. This paper demonstrates separation of nerve agents sarin and soman from a matrix of gasoline and diesel fuel. Using a combination of an initial column separating on the basis of boiling point and a second column separating on the basis of polarity, GCxGC clearly separates the nerve agents from the thousands of other chemicals in the sample. The GCxGC data is visualized, processed, and analyzed as a two-dimensional digital image using a software system for GCxGC image processing developed at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln.

  14. Recent Advances in Electronic and Optoelectronic Devices Based on Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxiao Ye


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDCs offer several attractive features for use in next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. Device applications of TMDCs have gained much research interest, and significant advancement has been recorded. In this review, the overall research advancement in electronic and optoelectronic devices based on TMDCs are summarized and discussed. In particular, we focus on evaluating field effect transistors (FETs, photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs, photodetectors, lasers, and integrated circuits (ICs using TMDCs.

  15. 25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials. (United States)

    Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua


    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The implementation of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Shen, Wenjiang; Wu, Shengli; Zhou, Peng; He, Jiahui; Yu, Huijun


    Laser speckle on the screen of laser display system is due to the strong coherence characteristic of laser. In order to eliminate the influence of the speckle on image quality, the method of laser speckle reduction based on MEMS two-dimensional scanning mirror is proposed in this paper. The experimental results show that the speckle contrast can be reduced to 3.7%, which meets the requirement of laser display. And this system could be used in laser display field and improve the display performance.

  17. A binary motor imagery tasks based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Cao, Lei; Maysam, Oladazimi; Li, Jie; Xie, Hong; Su, Caixia; Birbaumer, Niels


    Objective. Two-dimensional movement control is a popular issue in brain–computer interface (BCI) research and has many applications in the real world. In this paper, we introduce a combined control strategy to a binary class-based BCI system that allows the user to move a cursor in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Users focus on a single moving vector to control 2D movement instead of controlling vertical and horizontal movement separately. Approach. Five participants took part in a fixed-target experiment and random-target experiment to verify the effectiveness of the combination control strategy under the fixed and random routine conditions. Both experiments were performed in a virtual 2D dimensional environment and visual feedback was provided on the screen. Main results. The five participants achieved an average hit rate of 98.9% and 99.4% for the fixed-target experiment and the random-target experiment, respectively. Significance. The results demonstrate that participants could move the cursor in the 2D plane effectively. The proposed control strategy is based only on a basic two-motor imagery BCI, which enables more people to use it in real-life applications.

  18. Multiple Attribute Group Decision-Making Methods Based on Trapezoidal Fuzzy Two-Dimensional Linguistic Partitioned Bonferroni Mean Aggregation Operators. (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Yang, Benshuo; Li, Xuemei


    In this paper, we investigate multiple attribute group decision making (MAGDM) problems where decision makers represent their evaluation of alternatives by trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional uncertain linguistic variable. To begin with, we introduce the definition, properties, expectation, operational laws of trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic information. Then, to improve the accuracy of decision making in some case where there are a sort of interrelationship among the attributes, we analyze partition Bonferroni mean (PBM) operator in trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional variable environment and develop two operators: trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLPBM) aggregation operator and trapezoidal fuzzy two-dimensional linguistic weighted partitioned Bonferroni mean (TF2DLWPBM) aggregation operator. Furthermore, we develop a novel method to solve MAGDM problems based on TF2DLWPBM aggregation operator. Finally, a practical example is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method and analyses the impact of different parameters on the results of decision-making.

  19. Two Dimensional Complex Wavenumber Dispersion Analysis using B-Spline Finite Elements Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mirbagheri


    Full Text Available  Grid dispersion is one of the criteria of validating the finite element method (FEM in simulating acoustic or elastic wave propagation. The difficulty usually arisen when using this method for simulation of wave propagation problems, roots in the discontinuous field which causes the magnitude and the direction of the wave speed vector, to vary from one element to the adjacent one. To solve this problem and improve the response accuracy, two approaches are usually suggested: changing the integration method and changing shape functions. The Finite Element iso-geometric analysis (IGA is used in this research. In the IGA, the B-spline or non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS functions are used which improve the response accuracy, especially in one-dimensional structural dynamics problems. At the boundary of two adjacent elements, the degree of continuity of the shape functions used in IGA can be higher than zero. In this research, for the first time, a two dimensional grid dispersion analysis has been used for wave propagation in plane strain problems using B-spline FEM is presented. Results indicate that, for the same degree of freedom, the grid dispersion of B-spline FEM is about half of the grid dispersion of the classic FEM.

  20. Two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites for photocatalytic energy generation and environmental remediation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel Kumar


    Full Text Available In the pursuit towards the use of sunlight as a sustainable source for energy generation and environmental remediation, photocatalytic water splitting and photocatalytic pollutant degradation have recently gained significant importance. Research in this field is aimed at solving the global energy crisis and environmental issues in an ecologically-friendly way by using two of the most abundant natural resources, namely sunlight and water. Over the past few years, carbon-based nanocomposites, particularly graphene and graphitic carbon nitride, have attracted much attention as interesting materials in this field. Due to their unique chemical and physical properties, carbon-based nanocomposites have made a substantial contribution towards the generation of clean, renewable and viable forms of energy from light-based water splitting and pollutant removal. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the recent research progress in the field of energy generation and environmental remediation using two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites. It begins with a brief introduction to the field, basic principles of photocatalytic water splitting for energy generation and environmental remediation, followed by the properties of carbon-based nanocomposites. Then, the development of various graphene-based nanocomposites for the above-mentioned applications is presented, wherein graphene plays different roles, including electron acceptor/transporter, cocatalyst, photocatalyst and photosensitizer. Subsequently, the development of different graphitic carbon nitride-based nanocomposites as photocatalysts for energy and environmental applications is discussed in detail. This review concludes by highlighting the advantages and challenges involved in the use of two-dimensional carbon-based nanocomposites for photocatalysis. Finally, the future perspectives of research in this field are also briefly mentioned.

  1. ASTROP2-LE: A Mistuned Aeroelastic Analysis System Based on a Two Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, Oral


    An aeroelastic analysis system for flutter and forced response analysis of turbomachines based on a two-dimensional linearized unsteady Euler solver has been developed. The ASTROP2 code, an aeroelastic stability analysis program for turbomachinery, was used as a basis for this development. The ASTROP2 code uses strip theory to couple a two dimensional aerodynamic model with a three dimensional structural model. The code was modified to include forced response capability. The formulation was also modified to include aeroelastic analysis with mistuning. A linearized unsteady Euler solver, LINFLX2D is added to model the unsteady aerodynamics in ASTROP2. By calculating the unsteady aerodynamic loads using LINFLX2D, it is possible to include the effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response in the analysis. The stability is inferred from an eigenvalue analysis. The revised code, ASTROP2-LE for ASTROP2 code using Linearized Euler aerodynamics, is validated by comparing the predictions with those obtained using linear unsteady aerodynamic solutions.

  2. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova


    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  3. Recent advances in electrochemical biosensors based on graphene two-dimensional nanomaterials. (United States)

    Song, Yang; Luo, Yanan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Li, He; Du, Dan; Lin, Yuehe


    Graphene as a star among two-dimensional nanomaterials has attracted tremendous research interest in the field of electrochemistry due to their intrinsic properties, including the electronic, optical, and mechanical properties associated with their planar structure. The marriage of graphene and electrochemical biosensors has created many ingenious biosensing strategies for applications in the areas of clinical diagnosis and food safety. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in the development of graphene based electrochemical biosensors. Special attention is paid to graphene-based enzyme biosensors, immunosensors, and DNA biosensors. Future perspectives on high-performance graphene-based electrochemical biosensors are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Observation of Electronic Excitation Transfer Through Light Harvesting Complex II Using Two-Dimensional Electronic-Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, NHC; Gruenke, NL; Oliver, TAA; Ballottari, M; Bassi, R; Fleming, GR


    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) serves a central role in light harvesting for oxygenic photosynthesis and is arguably the most important photosynthetic antenna complex. In this article, we present two-dimensional electronic–vibrational (2DEV) spectra of LHCII isolated from spinach, demonstrating the possibility of using this technique to track the transfer of electronic excitation energy between specific pigments within the complex. We assign the spectral bands via comparison with the 2DEV spectra of the isolated chromophores, chlorophyll a and b, and present evidence that excitation energy between the pigments of the complex are observed in these spectra. Lastly, we analyze the essential components of the 2DEV spectra using singular value decomposition, which makes it possible to reveal the relaxation pathways within this complex.

  5. Band Structures Analysis Method of Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals Using Wavelet-Based Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liu


    Full Text Available A wavelet-based finite element method (WFEM is developed to calculate the elastic band structures of two-dimensional phononic crystals (2DPCs, which are composed of square lattices of solid cuboids in a solid matrix. In a unit cell, a new model of band-gap calculation of 2DPCs is constructed using plane elastomechanical elements based on a B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI. Substituting the periodic boundary conditions (BCs and interface conditions, a linear eigenvalue problem dependent on the Bloch wave vector is derived. Numerical examples show that the proposed method performs well for band structure problems when compared with those calculated by traditional FEM. This study also illustrates that filling fractions, material parameters, and incline angles of a 2DPC structure can cause band-gap width and location changes.

  6. Two-Dimensional Semiconductor Optoelectronics Based on van der Waals Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Yoon Lee


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D semiconductors such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs and black phosphorous have drawn tremendous attention as an emerging optical material due to their unique and remarkable optical properties. In addition, the ability to create the atomically-controlled van der Waals (vdW heterostructures enables realizing novel optoelectronic devices that are distinct from conventional bulk counterparts. In this short review, we first present the atomic and electronic structures of 2D semiconducting TMDCs and their exceptional optical properties, and further discuss the fabrication and distinctive features of vdW heterostructures assembled from different kinds of 2D materials with various physical properties. We then focus on reviewing the recent progress on the fabrication of 2D semiconductor optoelectronic devices based on vdW heterostructures including photodetectors, solar cells, and light-emitting devices. Finally, we highlight the perspectives and challenges of optoelectronics based on 2D semiconductor heterostructures.

  7. A 3D Polymer Based Printed Two-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyman, H A; Yalcinkaya, A D; Gokdel, Y D; Ferhanoglu, O


    A two-dimensional (2D) polymer based scanning mirror with magnetic actuation is developed for imaging applications. Proposed device consists of a circular suspension holding a rectangular mirror and can generate a 2D scan pattern. Three dimensional (3D) printing technology which is used for implementation of the device, offers added flexibility in controlling the cross-sectional profile as well as the stress distribution compared to the traditional planar process technologies. The mirror device is developed to meet a portable, miniaturized confocal microscope application in mind, delivering 4.5 and 4.8 degrees of optical scan angles at 111 and 267 Hz, respectively. As a result of this mechanical performance, the resulting microscope incorporating the mirror is estimated to accomplish a field of view (FOV) of 350 µm × 350 µm. (paper)

  8. Triazine-based graphitic carbon nitride: a two-dimensional semiconductor. (United States)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Severin, Nikolai; Chong, Samantha Y; Björkman, Torbjörn; Palgrave, Robert G; Laybourn, Andrea; Antonietti, Markus; Khimyak, Yaroslav Z; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V; Rabe, Jürgen P; Kaiser, Ute; Cooper, Andrew I; Thomas, Arne; Bojdys, Michael J


    Graphitic carbon nitride has been predicted to be structurally analogous to carbon-only graphite, yet with an inherent bandgap. We have grown, for the first time, macroscopically large crystalline thin films of triazine-based, graphitic carbon nitride (TGCN) using an ionothermal, interfacial reaction starting with the abundant monomer dicyandiamide. The films consist of stacked, two-dimensional (2D) crystals between a few and several hundreds of atomic layers in thickness. Scanning force and transmission electron microscopy show long-range, in-plane order, while optical spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations corroborate a direct bandgap between 1.6 and 2.0 eV. Thus TGCN is of interest for electronic devices, such as field-effect transistors and light-emitting diodes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Graphene-based field effect transistor in two-dimensional paper networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cagang, Aldrine Abenoja; Abidi, Irfan Haider; Tyagi, Abhishek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong); Hu, Jie; Xu, Feng [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Lu, Tian Jian [Bioinspired Engineering and Biomechanics Center (BEBC), Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Luo, Zhengtang, E-mail: [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)


    We demonstrate the fabrication of a graphene-based field effect transistor (GFET) incorporated in a two-dimensional paper network format (2DPNs). Paper serves as both a gate dielectric and an easy-to-fabricate vessel for holding the solution with the target molecules in question. The choice of paper enables a simpler alternative approach to the construction of a GFET device. The fabricated device is shown to behave similarly to a solution-gated GFET device with electron and hole mobilities of ∼1256 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} and ∼2298 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} respectively and a Dirac point around ∼1 V. When using solutions of ssDNA and glucose it was found that the added molecules induce negative electrolytic gating effects shifting the conductance minimum to the right, concurrent with increasing carrier concentrations which results to an observed increase in current response correlated to the concentration of the solution used. - Highlights: • A graphene-based field effect transistor sensor was fabricated for two-dimensional paper network formats. • The constructed GFET on 2DPN was shown to behave similarly to solution-gated GFETs. • Electrolyte gating effects have more prominent effect over adsorption effects on the behavior of the device. • The GFET incorporated on 2DPN was shown to yield linear response to presence of glucose and ssDNA soaked inside the paper.

  10. Levi-flat Minimal Hypersurfaces in Two-dimensional Complex Space Forms


    Bryant, Robert L.


    The purpose of this article is to classify the real hypersurfaces in complex space forms of dimension 2 that are both Levi-flat and minimal. The main results are as follows: When the curvature of the complex space form is nonzero, there is a 1-parameter family of such hypersurfaces. Specifically, for each one-parameter subgroup of the isometry group of the complex space form, there is an essentially unique example that is invariant under this one-parameter subgroup. On the other hand, when th...

  11. Superdiffusion and viscoelastic vortex flows in a two-dimensional complex plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratynskaia, S.; Rypdal, K.; Knapek, C.


    Viscoelastic vortical fluid motion in a strongly coupled particle system has been observed experimentally. Optical tracking of particle motion in a complex plasma monolayer reveals high grain mobility and large scale vortex flows coexistent with partial preservation of the global hexagonal lattice...

  12. Laser sheet dropsizing based on two-dimensional Raman and Mie scattering. (United States)

    Malarski, Anna; Schürer, Benedikt; Schmitz, Ingo; Zigan, Lars; Flügel, Alexandre; Leipertz, Alfred


    The imaging and quantification of droplet sizes in sprays is a challenging task for optical scientists and engineers. Laser sheet dropsizing (LSDS) combines the two-dimensional information of two different optical processes, one that is proportional to the droplet volume and one that depends on the droplet surface, e.g., Mie scattering. Besides Mie scattering, here we use two-dimensional Raman scattering as the volume-dependent measurement technique. Two different calibration strategies are presented and discussed. Two-dimensional droplet size distributions in a spray have been validated in comparison with the results of point-resolved phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) measurements.

  13. Two-dimensional hole systems in indium-based quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loher, Josef


    The complex spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) systems - the relativistic coupling of the hole spin degree of freedom to their movement in an electric field - is of fundamental interest in spin physics due to its key role for spin manipulation in spintronic devices. In this work, we were able to evaluate the tunability of Rashba-SOI-related parameters in the 2DHG system of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAs:Mn quantum well heterostructures experimentally by analyzing the hole density evolution of quantum interference effects at low magnetic fields. We achieved to cover a significant range of hole densities by the joint action of the variation of the manganese modulation doping concentration during molecular beam epitaxy and external field-effect-mediated manipulation of the 2D carrier density in Hall bar devices by a metallic topgate. Within these magnetotransport experiments, a reproducible phenomenon of remarkable robustness emerged in the transverse Hall magnetoresistivity of the indium 2DHG systems which are grown on a special InAlAs step-graded metamorphic buffer layer structure to compensate crystal lattice mismatch. As a consequence of the strain relaxation process, these material systems are characterized by anisotropic properties along different crystallographic directions. We identify a puzzling offset phenomenon in the zero-field Hall magnetoresistance and demonstrate it to be a universal effect in systems with spatially anisotropic transport properties.

  14. User's manual for EVITS: a steady state fluids code for complex two-dimensional geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, H.M.


    A 2-D computer code, EVITS, has been developed for estimating steady state, incompressible, isothermal flow fields in complex geometries. A vorticity-stream function formulation is used along with a model to resolve viscous effects at solid boundaries. Sufficient geometry and boundary type options are included within the code so that a large number of flow situations can be specified without modifying the program. All instructions to the code are via an input dataset. Detailed instructions for preparing the user oriented input, along with examples, are included in this users' manual

  15. Supercapacitors based on two dimensional VO2 nanosheet electrodes in organic gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Rakhi, R.B.


    VO2 is a low band-gap semiconductor with relatively high conductivity among transition metal oxides, which makes it an interesting material for supercapacitor electrode applications. The performance of VO2 as supercapacitor electrode in organic electrolytes has never been reported before. Herein, two-dimensional nanosheets of VO2 are prepared by the simultaneous solution reduction and exfoliation from bulk V2O5 powder by hydrothermal method. A specific capacitance of 405 Fg−1 is achieved for VO2 based supercapacitor in an organic electrolyte, in three electrode configuration. The symmetric capacitor based on VO2 nanosheet electrodes and the liquid organic electrolyte exhibits an energy density of 46 Wh kg−1 at a power density of 1.4 kW kg−1 at a constant current density of 1 Ag−1. Furthermore, flexible solid-state supercapacitors are fabricated using same electrode material and Alumina-silica based gel electrolyte. The solid-state device delivers a specific capacitance of 145 Fg−1 and a device capacitance of 36 Fg−1 at a discharge current density of 1 Ag−1. Series combination of three solid state capacitors is capable of lighting up a red LED for more than 1 minute.

  16. Cascaded chirped narrow bandpass filter with flat-top based on two-dimensional photonic crystals. (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuyang; Chen, Heming; Ji, Ke


    We propose a structure of a cascaded chirped narrow bandpass filter with a flat-top based on two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals (PhCs). The filter discussed here consists of three filter units, each with a resonator and two reflectors. Coupled mode theory and transfer matrix method are methodologies applied in the analysis of the features. The calculations show that the bandwidth of the filter can be adjusted by changing the distances between resonators and reflectors, and based on this, a flat-top response can be achieved by chirped-cascading the filter units. According to the theoretical model, we design a narrow bandpass filter based on 2D PhCs with a triangular lattice of air holes, the parameters of which are calculated using the finite element method. The simulation results show that the filter has a center frequency of 193.40 THz, an insertion loss of 0.18 dB, a flat bandwidth of 40 GHz, and ripples of about 0.2 dB in the passband. The filter is suitable for dense-wavelength-division-multiplexed optical communication systems with 100 GHz channel spacing.

  17. Large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner based on voice coil actuators. (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Chen, Sihai; Chen, Wei; Yang, Minghui; Fu, Wen


    A large angle and high linearity two-dimensional laser scanner with an in-house ingenious deflection angle detecting system is developed based on voice coil actuators direct driving mechanism. The specially designed voice coil actuators make the steering mirror moving at a sufficiently large angle. Frequency sweep method based on virtual instruments is employed to achieve the natural frequency of the laser scanner. The response shows that the performance of the laser scanner is limited by the mechanical resonances. The closed-loop controller based on mathematical model is used to reduce the oscillation of the laser scanner at resonance frequency. To design a qualified controller, the model of the laser scanner is set up. The transfer function of the model is identified with MATLAB according to the tested data. After introducing of the controller, the nonlinearity decreases from 13.75% to 2.67% at 50 Hz. The laser scanner also has other advantages such as large deflection mirror, small mechanical structure, and high scanning speed.

  18. High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS 2 -Base Hot-Electron Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Torres, Carlos M.


    The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  19. Self-assembly of complex two-dimensional shapes from single-stranded DNA tiles. (United States)

    Wei, Bryan; Vhudzijena, Michelle K; Robaszewski, Joanna; Yin, Peng


    Current methods in DNA nano-architecture have successfully engineered a variety of 2D and 3D structures using principles of self-assembly. In this article, we describe detailed protocols on how to fabricate sophisticated 2D shapes through the self-assembly of uniquely addressable single-stranded DNA tiles which act as molecular pixels on a molecular canvas. Each single-stranded tile (SST) is a 42-nucleotide DNA strand composed of four concatenated modular domains which bind to four neighbors during self-assembly. The molecular canvas is a rectangle structure self-assembled from SSTs. A prescribed complex 2D shape is formed by selecting the constituent molecular pixels (SSTs) from a 310-pixel molecular canvas and then subjecting the corresponding strands to one-pot annealing. Due to the modular nature of the SST approach we demonstrate the scalability, versatility and robustness of this method. Compared with alternative methods, the SST method enables a wider selection of information polymers and sequences through the use of de novo designed and synthesized short DNA strands.

  20. Modeling of a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester based on two dimensional theory (United States)

    Yan, Zhi


    This work presents a two dimensional theory for a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic bilayer nanoplate in coupled extensional and flexural vibrations with both flexoelectric and surface effects. The magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) coupling equations are derived from three-dimensional equations and Kirchhoff plate theory. Based on the developed theory, a piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester is proposed, which can generate electricity under time-harmonic applied magnetic field. The approximate solutions for the mechanical responses and voltage of the energy harvester are obtained using the weighted residual method. Results show that the properties of the proposed energy harvester are size-dependent due to the flexoelectric and surface effects, and such effects are more pronounced when the bilayer thickness is reduced to dozens of nanometers. It is also found that the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient and power density of the energy harvester are sensitive to the load resistance, the thickness fraction of the piezoelectric or the piezomagnetic layer and damping ratios. Moreover, results indicate that the flexoelectric effect could be made use to build a dielectric/piezomagnetic nano energy harvester. This work provides modeling techniques and numerical methods for investigating the size-dependent properties of MEE nanoplate-based energy harvester and could be helpful for designing nano energy harvesters using the principle of flexoelectricity.

  1. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials. (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua


    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions.

  2. Quality Traceability System of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on Two Dimensional Barcode Using Mobile Intelligent Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cai

    Full Text Available Currently, the chemical fingerprint comparison and analysis is mainly based on professional equipment and software, it's expensive and inconvenient. This study aims to integrate QR (Quick Response code with quality data and mobile intelligent technology to develop a convenient query terminal for tracing quality in the whole industrial chain of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine. Three herbal medicines were randomly selected and their chemical two-dimensional barcode (2D barcodes fingerprints were constructed. Smartphone application (APP based on Android system was developed to read initial data of 2D chemical barcodes, and compared multiple fingerprints from different batches of same species or different species. It was demonstrated that there were no significant differences between original and scanned TCM chemical fingerprints. Meanwhile, different TCM chemical fingerprint QR codes could be rendered in the same coordinate and showed the differences very intuitively. To be able to distinguish the variations of chemical fingerprint more directly, linear interpolation angle cosine similarity algorithm (LIACSA was proposed to get similarity ratio. This study showed that QR codes can be used as an effective information carrier to transfer quality data. Smartphone application can rapidly read quality information in QR codes and convert data into TCM chemical fingerprints.

  3. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  4. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mario Agio


    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser

  5. MOCUM: A two-dimensional method of characteristics code based on constructive solid geometry and unstructured meshing for general geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xue; Satvat, Nader


    Highlight: ► A two-dimensional numerical code based on the method of characteristics is developed. ► The complex arbitrary geometries are represented by constructive solid geometry and decomposed by unstructured meshing. ► Excellent agreement between Monte Carlo and the developed code is observed. ► High efficiency is achieved by parallel computing. - Abstract: A transport theory code MOCUM based on the method of characteristics as the flux solver with an advanced general geometry processor has been developed for two-dimensional rectangular and hexagonal lattice and full core neutronics modeling. In the code, the core structure is represented by the constructive solid geometry that uses regularized Boolean operations to build complex geometries from simple polygons. Arbitrary-precision arithmetic is also used in the process of building geometry objects to eliminate the round-off error from the commonly used double precision numbers. Then, the constructed core frame will be decomposed and refined into a Conforming Delaunay Triangulation to ensure the quality of the meshes. The code is fully parallelized using OpenMP and is verified and validated by various benchmarks representing rectangular, hexagonal, plate type and CANDU reactor geometries. Compared with Monte Carlo and deterministic reference solution, MOCUM results are highly accurate. The mentioned characteristics of the MOCUM make it a perfect tool for high fidelity full core calculation for current and GenIV reactor core designs. The detailed representation of reactor physics parameters can enhance the safety margins with acceptable confidence levels, which lead to more economically optimized designs.

  6. Two-dimensional water acoustic waveguide based on pressure compensation method (United States)

    Zheng, Mingye; Chen, Yi; Liu, Xiaoning; Hu, Gengkai


    A two-dimensional (2D) waveguide is a basic facility for experiment measurement due to a much more simplified wave field pattern than that in free space. A waveguide for airborne sound is easily achieved with almost any solid plates. However, the design of a 2D water acoustic waveguide is still challenging because of unavailable solids with a sufficient large impedance difference from water. In this work, a new method of constructing a 2D water acoustic waveguide is proposed based on pressure compensation and has been verified by numerical simulation. A prototype of the water acoustic waveguide is fabricated and complemented by an acoustic pressure scanning system; the measured scattered pressure fields by air and aluminum cylinders both agree quite well with numerical simulations. Most acoustic pressure fields within a frequency range 7 kHz-15 kHz can be measured in this waveguide when the required scanning region is smaller than the aluminum plate area (1800 mm × 800 mm).

  7. Investigations on field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finge, T.; Riederer, F.; Grap, T.; Knoch, J. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Mueller, M.R. [Institute of Semiconductor Electronics, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Infineon Technologies, Villach (Austria); Kallis, K. [Intelligent Microsystems Chair, TU Dortmund University (Germany)


    In the present article, experimental and theoretical investigations regarding field-effect transistors based on two-dimensional (2D) materials are presented. First, the properties of contacts between a metal and 2D material are discussed. To this end, metal-to-graphene contacts as well to transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) are studied. Whereas metal-graphene contacts can be tuned with an appropriate back-gate, metal-TMD contacts exhibit strong Fermi level pinning showing substantially limited maximum possible drive current. Next, tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) field-effect transistors are presented. Employing buried-triple-gate substrates allows tuning source, channel and drain by applying appropriate gate voltages so that the device can be reconfigured to work as n-type, p-type and as so-called band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistor on the same WSe{sub 2} flake. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Forensic profiling of sassafras oils based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Schäffer, M; Gröger, T; Pütz, M; Zimmermann, R


    Safrole, the main compound in the essential oil of several plants of the Laurel family (Lauraceae), and its secondary product piperonylmethylketone are the predominantly used precursors for the illicit synthesis of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) which is, in turn, the most common active ingredient in Ecstasy tablets. Analytical methods with adequate capacity to identify links and origin of precursors, such as safrole, provide valuable information for drug-related police intelligence. Authentic sassafras oil samples from police seizures were subjected to comparative analysis based on their chemical profiles obtained by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The enhanced separation power and increased sensitivity of GC × GC allowed for the detection of minor compounds present in the essential oils which were of particular interest in case of very pure samples whose impurity profiles were not very pronounced. Discrimination of such samples was still possible even in the absence of characteristic main compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of melamine of milk based on two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Yang, Ren-jie; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin


    The adulteration of milk with harmful substances is a threat to public health and beyond question a serious crime. In order to develop a rapid, cost-effective, high-throughput analysis method for detecting of adulterants in milk, the discriminative analysis of melamine is established in milk based on the two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy in present paper. Pure milk samples and adulterated milk samples with different content of melamine were prepared. Then the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The characteristics of pure milk and adulterated milk were studied by one-dimensional spectra. The 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy were calculated under the perturbation of adulteration concentration. In the range from 1400 to 1800 cm-1, two strong autopeaks were aroused by melamine in milk at 1464 cm-1 and 1560 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum. At the same time, the 1560 cm-1 band does not share cross peak with the 1464 cm-1 band, which further confirm that the two bands have the same origin. Also in the range from 4200 to 4800 cm-1, the autopeak was shown at 4648 cm-1 in synchronous spectrum of melamine in milk. 2D NIR-IR hetero-spectral correlation analysis confirmed that the bands at 1464, 1560 and 4648 cm-1 had the same origin. The results demonstrated that the adulterant can be discriminated correctly by 2D correlation infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Four-dimensional \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory with boundary as a two-dimensional complex Toda theory (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Tan, Meng-Chwan; Vasko, Petr; Zhao, Qin


    We perform a series of dimensional reductions of the 6d, \\mathcal{N} = (2, 0) SCFT on S 2 × Σ × I × S 1 down to 2d on Σ. The reductions are performed in three steps: (i) a reduction on S 1 (accompanied by a topological twist along Σ) leading to a supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on S 2 × Σ × I, (ii) a further reduction on S 2 resulting in a complex Chern-Simons theory defined on Σ × I, with the real part of the complex Chern-Simons level being zero, and the imaginary part being proportional to the ratio of the radii of S 2 and S 1, and (iii) a final reduction to the boundary modes of complex Chern-Simons theory with the Nahm pole boundary condition at both ends of the interval I, which gives rise to a complex Toda CFT on the Riemann surface Σ. As the reduction of the 6d theory on Σ would give rise to an \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory on S 2 × I × S 1, our results imply a 4d-2d duality between four-dimensional \\mathcal{N} = 2 supersymmetric theory with boundary and two-dimensional complex Toda theory.

  11. Two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy of van der Waals complexes: fluorobenzene-Ar(n) (n = 1,2). (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R; Alexander, Ula N; Lawrance, Warren D


    The technique of two-dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) spectroscopy has been used to observe the van der Waals complexes fluorobenzene-Ar and fluorobenzene-Ar(2) in the region of their S(1)-S(0) electronic origins. The 2D-LIF spectral images reveal a number of features assigned to the van der Waals vibrations in S(0) and S(1). An advantage of 2D-LIF spectroscopy is that the LIF spectrum associated with a particular species may be extracted from an image. This is illustrated for fluorobenzene-Ar. The S(1) van der Waals modes observed in this spectrum are consistent with previous observations using mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionisation techniques. For S(0), the two bending modes previously observed using a Raman technique were observed along with three new levels. These agree exceptionally well with ab initio calculations. The Fermi resonance between the stretch and bend overtone has been analysed in both the S(0) and S(1) states, revealing that the coupling is stronger in S(0) than in S(1). For fluorobenzene-Ar(2) the 2D-LIF spectral image reveals the S(0) symmetric stretch van der Waals vibration to be 35.0 cm(-1), closely matching the value predicted based on the fluorobenzene-Ar van der Waals stretch frequency. Rotational band contour analysis has been performed on the fluorobenzene-Ar 0(0)(0) transition to yield a set of S(1) rotational constants A' = 0.05871 ± 0.00014 cm(-1), B' = 0.03803 ± 0.00010 cm(-1), and C' = 0.03103 ± 0.00003 cm(-1). The rotational constants imply that in the S(1) 0(0) level the Ar is on average 3.488 Å from the fluorobenzene centre of mass and displaced from it towards the centre of the ring at an angle of ~6° to the normal. The rotational contour for fluorobenzene-Ar(2) was predicted using rotational constants calculated on the basis of the fluorobenzene-Ar geometry and compared with the experimental contour. The comparison is poor which, while due in part to expected saturation effects, suggests

  12. A Novel Optoelectronic Device Based on Correlated Two-Dimensional Fermions (United States)

    Dianat, Pouya

    Conventional metallic contacts can be replicated by quantum two dimensional charge (of Fermion) systems (2DFS). Unlike metals, the particle concentration of these "unconventional" systems can be accurately controlled in an extensive range and by means of external electronic or optical stimuli. A 2DFS can, hence, transition from a high-density kinetic liquid into a dilute-but highly correlated-gas state, in which inter-particle Coulombic interactions are significant. Such interactions contribute negatively, by so-called exchange-correlation energies, to the overall energetics of the system, and are manifested as a series negative quantum capacitance. This dissertation investigates the capacitive performance of a class of unconventional devices based on a planar metal-semiconductor-metal structure with an embedded 2DFS. They constitute an opto-electronically controlled variable capacitor, with record breaking figures-of-merit in capacitance tuning ranges of up to 7000 and voltage sensitivities as large as 400. Internal eld manipulations by localized depletion of a dense 2DFS account for the enlarged maximum and reduced minimum capacitances. The capacitance-voltage characteristics of these devices incur an anomalous "Batman" shape capacitance enhancement (CE) of up to 200% that may be triggered optically. The CE is attributed to the release and storage of exchange-correlation energies; from the "unconventional" plate and in the dielectric, respectively. This process is enforced by density manipulation of the 2DFS by a hybrid of an external eld and light-generated carriers. Under moderate optical powers, the capacitance becomes 43 times greater than the dark value; thus a new capacitance-based photodetection method is offered. This new capacitance based photodetection method has a range of applications in optoelectronics, particularly in the next generation of photonic integrated systems.

  13. Two-dimensional fingerprinting approach for comparison of complex substances analysed by HPLC-UV and fluorescence detection. (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Liu, Ying; Kokot, Serge


    This work is concerned with the research and development of methodology for analysis of complex mixtures such as pharmaceutical or food samples, which contain many analytes. Variously treated samples (swill washed, fried and scorched) of the Rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae (RAM) traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as well as the common substitute, Rhizoma atractylodis (RA) TCM were chosen as examples for analysis. A combined data matrix of chromatographic 2-D HPLC-DAD-FLD (two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography with diode array and fluorescence detectors) fingerprint profiles was constructed with the use of the HPLC-DAD and HPLC-FLD individual data matrices; the purpose was to collect maximum information and to interpret this complex data with the use of various chemometrics methods e.g. the rank-ordering multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) PROMETHEE and GAIA, K-nearest neighbours (KNN), partial least squares (PLS), back propagation-artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) methods. The chemometrics analysis demonstrated that the combined 2-D HPLC-DAD-FLD data matrix does indeed provide more information and facilitates better performing classification/prediction models for the analysis of such complex samples as the RAM and RA ones noted above. It is suggested that this fingerprint approach is suitable for analysis of other complex, multi-analyte substances.

  14. The use of AES and EELS for complex analysis of two-dimensional coatings and their growth process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay I. Plusnin


    Full Text Available Additional possibilities for complex analysis of two-dimensional coatings (thickness <1 nm or <10 ML grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD on a single-crystal silicon substrate under two deposition regimes have been revealed: 1 low-temperature (at a low beam temperature and 2 high-temperature (at an elevated temperature of the beam, respectively. Coatings, including those in the form of pure metal and a silicide mixture, and their interface with the substrate have been analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and characteristic electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS. A technology of the deposition from a ribboned source has been developed to ensure both deposition regimes. The conventional uses of AES are limited to the characterization of elemental composition, electron energy structure and coating thickness. For EELS, the conventional uses are the determination of phase types (valence electron density and phase formation stages. The simultaneous use of the two methods and the choice of equal (and minimal probing depths, ~ 2.5 nm (primary electron energy 300 eV, provided new possibilities for studying subnanometric two-dimensional coatings, in particular, for comparison of coating composition and density. The chosen probing depth also made it possible to characterize the interface between the coating and the substrate. At the same time, the use of similar probing depths made allowed using the thickness of the coating obtained from AES data for analyzing EELS data. In addition, other possibilities have been considered, i.e., the use of the following dependences: a the energy of the plasmon satellite of the Auger peak vs the thickness of the coating for analyzing changes in the electron density in the near-interface layer of silicon; b the attenuation of the Auger signal generated by marker atoms at the interface between the coating and the substrate for localizing the adsorption sites of the deposited atoms; c the intensity and energy

  15. Two-dimensional material-based bionano platforms to control mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. (United States)

    Kang, Ee-Seul; Kim, Da-Seul; Suhito, Intan Rosalina; Lee, Wanhee; Song, Inbeom; Kim, Tae-Hyung


    In the past decade, stem cells, with their ability to differentiate into various types of cells, have been proven to be resourceful in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Despite the ability to repair damaged parts of organs and tissues, the use of stem cells still entails several limitations, such as low differentiation efficiency and difficulties in guiding differentiation. To address these limitations, nanotechnology approaches have been recently implemented in stem cell research. It has been discovered that stem cells, in combination with carbon-based functional materials, show enhanced regenerative performances in varying biophysical conditions. In particular, several studies have reported solutions to the conventional quandaries in biomedical engineering, using synergetic effects of nanohybrid materials, as well as further development of technologies to recover from diverse health conditions such as bone fracture and strokes. In this review, we discuss several prior studies regarding the application of various nanomaterials in controlling the behavior of stem cells. We focus on the potential of different types of nanomaterials, such as two-dimensional materials, gold nanoparticles, and three-dimensional nanohybrid composites, to control the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). These materials have been found to affect stem cell functions via the adsorption of growth/differentiation factors on the surfaces of nanomaterials and the activation of signaling pathways that are mostly related to cell adhesion and differentiation (e.g., FAK, Smad, Erk, and Wnt). Controlling stem cell differentiation using biophysical factors, especially the use of nanohybrid materials to functionalize underlying substrates wherein the cells attach and grow, is a promising strategy to achieve cells of interest in a highly efficient manner. We hope that this review will facilitate the use of other types of newly discovered and/or synthesized nanomaterials

  16. Pixel-based analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (color plots) of petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Søren; Hansen, Asger B.; Skov, Thomas


    We demonstrate how to process comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (GC × GC chromatograms) to remove nonsample information (artifacts), including background and retention time shifts. We also demonstrate how this, combined with further reduction of the influence of irrelevant informati...

  17. Molecular design toward highly efficient photovoltaic polymers based on two-dimensional conjugated benzodithiophene. (United States)

    Ye, Long; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Zhang, Maojie; Hou, Jianhui


    As researchers continue to develop new organic materials for solar cells, benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers have come to the fore. To improve the photovoltaic properties of BDT-based polymers, researchers have developed and applied various strategies leading to the successful molecular design of highly efficient photovoltaic polymers. Novel polymer materials composed of two-dimensional conjugated BDT (2D-conjugated BDT) have boosted the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs) to levels that exceed 9%. In this Account, we summarize recent progress related to the design and synthesis of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and discuss their applications in highly efficient photovoltaic devices. We introduce the basic considerations for the construction of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and systematic molecular design guidelines. For example, simply modifying an alkoxyl-substituted BDT to form an alkylthienyl-substituted BDT can improve the polymer hole mobilities substantially with little effect on their molecular energy level. Secondly, the addition of a variety of chemical moieties to the polymer can produce a 2D-conjugated BDT unit with more functions. For example, the introduction of a conjugated side chain with electron deficient groups (such as para-alkyl-phenyl, meta-alkoxyl-phenyl, and 2-alkyl-3-fluoro-thienyl) allowed us to modulate the molecular energy levels of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers. Through the rational design of BDT analogues such as dithienobenzodithiophene (DTBDT) or the insertion of larger π bridges, we can tune the backbone conformations of these polymers and modulate their photovoltaic properties. We also discuss the influence of 2D-conjugated BDT on polymer morphology and the blends of these polymers with phenyl-C61 (or C71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Finally, we summarize the various applications of the 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers in highly efficient PSC devices. Overall, this Account

  18. Two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by Keggin polyoxotungstate, Cu(II)-EDTA complex and sodium linker: Synthesis, crystal structures, and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hong; Xu Lin; Gao Guanggang; Li Fengyan; Yang Yanyan; Li Zhikui; Sun Yu


    Reaction of Keggin polyoxotungstate with copper(II)-EDTA (EDTA=ethylenediamine tetraacetate) complex under mild conditions led to the formation of hybrid inorganic-organic compounds Na 4 (OH)[(Cu 2 EDTA)PW 12 O 40 ].17H 2 O (1) and Na 4 [(Cu 2 EDTA)SiW 12 O 40 ].19H 2 O (2). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses reveal their two structural features: (1) one-dimensional chain structure consisting of Keggin polyoxotungstate and copper(II)-EDTA complex; (2) Two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by the one-dimensional chain structure and sodium linker. The results of magnetic measurements in the temperature range 300-2 K indicated the existence of ferromagnetic exchange interactions between the Cu II ions for both compounds. In addition, TGA analysis, IR spectra, and electrochemical properties were also investigated to well characterize these two compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new polyoxometalate-based hybrids, Na 4 (OH)[Cu 2 (EDTA)PW 12 O 40 ].17H 2 O (1) and Na 4 [Cu 2 (EDTA)SiW 12 O 40 ].19H 2 O (2), have been synthesized and structurally characterized, which consist of one-dimensional chain structure assembled by Keggin polyoxotungstate and copper(II)-EDTA complex. The chains are further connected to form two-dimensional layer architecture assembled by the one-dimensional chain structure and sodium linker

  19. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes. (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie


    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  20. Statistical analysis of two-dimensional cluster structures composed of ferromagnetic particles based on a flexible chain model. (United States)

    Morimoto, Hisao; Maekawa, Toru; Matsumoto, Yoichiro


    We investigate two-dimensional cluster structures composed of ferromagnetic colloidal particles, based on a flexible chain model, by the configurational-bias Monte Carlo method. We clarify the dependence of the probabilities of the creation of different types of clusters on the dipole-dipole interactive energy and the cluster size.

  1. Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Trilinear Decomposition-Based Monostatic Cross MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqing Wen


    Full Text Available A low complexity monostatic cross multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO radar scheme is proposed in this paper. The minimum-redundancy linear array (MRLA is introduced in the cross radar to improve the efficiency of the array elements. The two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation problem links to the trilinear model, which automatically pairs the estimated two-dimensional angles, requiring neither eigenvalue decomposition of received signal covariance matrix nor spectral peak searching. The proposed scheme performs better than the uniform linear arrays (ULA configuration under the same conditions, and the proposed algorithm has less computational complexity than that of multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our scheme.

  2. Quasilongitudinal soliton in a two-dimensional strongly coupled complex dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field. (United States)

    Ghosh, Samiran


    The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.

  3. Investigating vibrational anharmonic couplings in cyanide-bridged transition metal mixed valence complexes using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Slenkamp, Karla M.; Lynch, Michael S.; Van Kuiken, Benjamin E.; Brookes, Jennifer F.; Bannan, Caitlin C.; Daifuku, Stephanie L.; Khalil, Munira


    Using polarization-selective two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectroscopy, we measure anharmonic couplings and angles between the transition dipole moments of the four cyanide stretching (νCN) vibrations found in [(NH3)5RuIIINCFeII(CN)5]- (FeRu) dissolved in D2O and formamide and [(NC)5FeIICNPtIV(NH3)4NCFeII(CN)5]4- (FePtFe) dissolved in D2O. These cyanide-bridged transition metal complexes serve as model systems for studying the role of high frequency vibrational modes in ultrafast photoinduced charge transfer reactions. Here, we focus on the spectroscopy of the νCN modes in the electronic ground state. The FTIR spectra of the νCN modes of the bimetallic and trimetallic systems are strikingly different in terms of frequencies, amplitudes, and lineshapes. The experimental 2D IR spectra of FeRu and FePtFe and their fits reveal a set of weakly coupled anharmonic νCN modes. The vibrational mode anharmonicities of the individual νCN modes range from 14 to 28 cm-1. The mixed-mode anharmonicities range from 2 to 14 cm-1. In general, the bridging νCN mode is most weakly coupled to the radial νCN mode, which involves the terminal CN ligands. Measurement of the relative transition dipole moments of the four νCN modes reveal that the FeRu molecule is almost linear in solution when dissolved in formamide, but it assumes a bent geometry when dissolved in D2O. The νCN modes are modelled as bilinearly coupled anharmonic oscillators with an average coupling constant of 6 cm-1. This study elucidates the role of the solvent in modulating the molecular geometry and the anharmonic vibrational couplings between the νCN modes in cyanide-bridged transition metal mixed valence complexes.

  4. Two dimensional simulation of patternable conducting polymer electrode based organic thin film transistor (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Kathiresan, M.; Mukundan, T.


    Device characteristics of organic thin film transistor (OTFT) fabricated with conducting polyaniline:polystyrene sulphonic acid (PANi-PSS) electrodes, patterned by the Parylene lift-off method are systematically analyzed by way of two dimensional numerical simulation. The device simulation was performed taking into account field-dependent mobility, low mobility layer at the electrode-semiconductor interface, trap distribution in pentacene film and trapped charge at the organic/insulator interface. The electrical characteristics of bottom contact thin film transistor with PANi-PSS electrodes and pentacene active material is superior to those with palladium electrodes due to a lower charge injection barrier. Contact resistance was extracted in both cases by the transfer line method (TLM). The extracted charge concentration and potential profile from the two dimensional numerical simulation was used to explain the observed electrical characteristics. The simulated device characteristics not only matched the experimental electrical characteristics, but also gave an insight on the charge injection, transport and trap properties of the OTFTs as a function of different electrode materials from the perspectives of transistor operation.

  5. Solution-Processed Dielectrics Based on Thickness-Sorted Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jian; Kang, Joohoon; Kang, Junmo; Jariwala, Deep; Wood, Joshua D.; Seo, Jung-Woo T.; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Marks, Tobin J.; Hersam, Mark C.


    Gate dielectrics directly affect the mobility, hysteresis, power consumption, and other critical device metrics in high-performance nanoelectronics. With atomically flat and dangling bond-free surfaces, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has emerged as an ideal dielectric for graphene and related two-dimensional semiconductors. While high-quality, atomically thin h-BN has been realized via micromechanical cleavage and chemical vapor deposition, existing liquid exfoliation methods lack sufficient control over h-BN thickness and large-area film quality, thus limiting its use in solution-processed electronics. Here, we employ isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation for the preparation of monodisperse, thickness-sorted h-BN inks, which are subsequently layer-by-layer assembled into ultrathin dielectrics with low leakage currents of 3 × 10–9 A/cm2 at 2 MV/cm and high capacitances of 245 nF/cm2. The resulting solution-processed h-BN dielectric films enable the fabrication of graphene field-effect transistors with negligible hysteresis and high mobilities up to 7100 cm2 V–1 s–1 at room temperature. These h-BN inks can also be used as coatings on conventional dielectrics to minimize the effects of underlying traps, resulting in improvements in overall device performance. Overall, this approach for producing and assembling h-BN dielectric inks holds significant promise for translating the superlative performance of two-dimensional heterostructure devices to large-area, solution-processed nanoelectronics.

  6. A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelin Zhuang


    Full Text Available A NetCDF version of the two-dimensional energy balance model based on the full multigrid method in Fortran is introduced for both pedagogical and research purposes. Based on the land–sea–ice distribution, orbital elements, greenhouse gases concentration, and albedo, the code calculates the global seasonal surface temperature. A step-by-step guide with examples is provided for practice.

  7. All-electric spin modulator based on a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xianbo; Ai, Guoping [School of Computer Science, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004 (China); Liu, Ying; Yang, Shengyuan A., E-mail: [Research Laboratory for Quantum Materials, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372 (Singapore); Liu, Zhengfang [School of Science, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Zhou, Guanghui, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Structures and Quantum Manipulation (Ministry of Education), and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)


    We propose and investigate a spin modulator device consisting of two ferromagnetic leads connected by a two-dimensional topological insulator as the channel material. It exploits the unique features of the topological spin-helical edge states, such that the injected carriers with a non-collinear spin-polarization direction would travel through both edges and show interference effect. The conductance of the device can be controlled in a simple and all-electric manner by a side-gate voltage, which effectively rotates the spin-polarization of the carrier. At low voltages, the rotation angle is linear in the gate voltage, and the device can function as a good spin-polarization rotator by replacing the drain electrode with a non-magnetic material.

  8. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

  9. High-speed two-dimensional laser scanner based on Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive glass. (United States)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Arain, Muzammil A; Riza, Nabeel A


    A high-speed free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner with high-speed wavelength selection coupled with narrowband volume Bragg gratings stored in photothermorefractive (PTR) glass is reported. The proposed scanner with no moving parts has a modular design with a wide angular scan range, accurate beam pointing, low scanner insertion loss, and two-dimensional beam scan capabilities. We present a complete analysis and design procedure for storing multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures in a single PTR glass volume (for normal incidence) in an optimal fashion. Because the scanner design is modular, many PTR glass volumes (each having multiple tilted Bragg-grating structures) can be stacked together, providing an efficient throughput with operations in both the visible and the infrared (IR) regions. A proof-of-concept experimental study is conducted with four Bragg gratings in independent PTR glass plates, and both visible and IR region scanner operations are demonstrated.

  10. Dual cascade time-of-flight mass spectrometer basing on electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glikman, L. G.; Goloskokov, Yu. V.; Karetskaya, S.P.; Mit', A.G.


    In the report [1] we have suggested the scheme of time-of-flight spectrometer containing two electrostatic mirrors with two dimensional field that doesn't depend on one of the Cartesian coordinates). In the articles [2,3] there have been found conditions for obtaining high quality of time-of-flight and spatial focusing. One of basic advantages of this scheme - is availability of intermediate stigmatic image. In the plane where this image is it's possible to place controlled diaphragm that limits ion scatter along the energy if the scatter is too large. With the help of this diaphragm at the spectrometer you can register mass spectrum with the selected energy. Good focusing quality allows reducing of initial ion energy by this increasing the time of their flight and thus analyzers resolving ability. Ion source and receiver are spaced at rather a long distances. This can be useful to solve some practical tasks

  11. Optical microcavities based on surface modes in two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Qiu, M.


    Surface-mode optical microcavities based on two-dimensional photonic crystals and silicon-on-insulator photonic crystals are studied. We demonstrate that a high-quality-factor microcavity can be easily realized in these structures. With an increasing of the cavity length, the quality factor...... is gradually enhanced and the resonant frequency converges to that of the corresponding surface mode in the photonic crystals. These structures have potential applications such as sensing....

  12. Two-dimensional atom localization based on coherent field controlling in a five-level M-type atomic system. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Li, Jinjiang; Sun, Xiudong


    We study two-dimensional sub-wavelength atom localization based on the microwave coupling field controlling and spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) effect. For a five-level M-type atom, introducing a microwave coupling field between two upper levels and considering the quantum interference between two transitions from two upper levels to lower levels, the analytical expression of conditional position probability (CPP) distribution is obtained using the iterative method. The influence of the detuning of a spontaneously emitted photon, Rabi frequency of the microwave field, and the SGC effect on the CPP are discussed. The two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization with high-precision and high spatial resolution is achieved by adjusting the detuning and the Rabi frequency, where the atom can be localized in a region smaller thanλ/10×λ/10. The spatial resolution is improved significantly compared with the case without the microwave field.

  13. Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment (United States)

    Boultinghouse, Karlan D.; Schoeneman, J. Lee; Tise, Bertice L.


    A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroreflection. The projected rotating beam traverses each retroreflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute using three point resection, the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structured environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.

  14. Two-Dimensional Key Table-Based Group Key Distribution in Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woong Go


    Full Text Available A smart grid provides two-way communication by using the information and communication technology. In order to establish two-way communication, the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI is used in the smart grid as the core infrastructure. This infrastructure consists of smart meters, data collection units, maintenance data management systems, and so on. However, potential security problems of the AMI increase owing to the application of the public network. This is because the transmitted information is electricity consumption data for charging. Thus, in order to establish a secure connection to transmit electricity consumption data, encryption is necessary, for which key distribution is required. Further, a group key is more efficient than a pairwise key in the hierarchical structure of the AMI. Therefore, we propose a group key distribution scheme using a two-dimensional key table through the analysis result of the sensor network group key distribution scheme. The proposed scheme has three phases: group key predistribution, selection of group key generation element, and generation of group key.

  15. Computer-based training in two-dimensional echocardiography using an echocardiography simulator. (United States)

    Weidenbach, Michael; Wild, Florentine; Scheer, Kathrin; Muth, Gerhard; Kreutter, Stefan; Grunst, Gernoth; Berlage, Thomas; Schneider, Peter


    Two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography is a user-dependent technique that poses some inherent problems to the beginner. The first problem for beginners is spatial orientation, especially the orientation of the scan plane in reference to the 3-dimensional (3D) geometry of the heart. The second problem for beginners is steering of the ultrasound probe. We have designed a simulator to teach these skills. On a computer screen a side-by-side presentation of a 3D virtual reality scene on the right side and a 2D echocardiographic view on the left side is given. The virtual scene consists of a 3D heart and an ultrasound probe with scan plane. The 2D echocardiographic image is calculated from 3D echocardiographic data sets that are registered with the heart model to achieve spatial and temporal congruency. The displayed 2D echocardiographic image is defined and controlled by the orientation of the virtual scan plane. To teach hand-eye coordination we equipped a dummy transducer with a 3D tracking system and placed it on a dummy torso. We have evaluated the usability of the simulator in an introductory course for final-year medical students. The simulator was graded realistic and easy to use. According to a subjective self-assessment by a standardized questionnaire the aforementioned skills were imparted effectively.

  16. Evidence of molecular hydrogen trapped in two-dimensional layered titanium carbide-based MXene (United States)

    Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Gogotsi, Yury; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Mamontov, Eugene


    Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) are one of the largest and fastest growing families of materials. The presence of molecular hydrogen at ambient conditions in a MXene (T i3C2Tx , where Tx represents a surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) material is revealed here by inelastic and elastic neutron scatterings. The inelastic neutron-scattering spectrum measured at 5 K shows a peak at 14.6 meV, presenting a clear indication of the presence of parahydrogen in the MXene synthesized using 48 % hydrofluoric acid and annealed at 110 ∘C in vacuum prior to the measurement. An increase in the measurement temperature gradually reduces the peak intensity and increases the peak width due to the mobility of the molecular hydrogen in confinement. The presence of molecular hydrogen is confirmed further from the observed elastic intensity drop in a fixed energy-window scan of elastic intensity measurements in the temperature range of 10-35 K. Using milder etching conditions, ion intercalation, or an increase in the annealing temperature all result in the absence of the trapped hydrogen molecules in MXene. The results of this paper can guide the development of MXene materials with desired properties and improve our understanding of the behavior of MXenes in applications ranging from supercapacitors to hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis and hydrogen storage.

  17. Design for a spin-Seebeck diode based on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hua-Hua; Wu, Dan-Dan; Gu, Lei; Wu, Menghao; Wu, Ruqian


    Studies of the spin-Seebeck effect (SSE) are very important for the development of fundamental science and novel low-power-consumption technologies. The spin-Seebeck diode (SSD), in which the spin current can be driven by a forward temperature gradient but not by a reverse temperature gradient, is a key unit in spin caloritronic devices. Here, we propose a SSD design using two-dimensional (2D) materials such as silicene and phosphorene nanoribbons as the source and drain. Due to their unique band structures and magnetic states, thermally driven spin-up and spin-down currents flow in opposite directions. This mechanism is different from that of the previous one, which uses two permalloy circular disks [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 047203 (2014)], and the SSD in our design can be easily integrated with gate voltage control. Since the concept of this design is rather general and applicable to many 2D materials, it is promising for the realization and exploitation of SSDs in nanodevices.

  18. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N., E-mail:; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)


    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.

  19. Spatially correlated two-dimensional arrays of semiconductor and metal quantum dots in GaAs-based heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevedomskiy, V. N.; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R.


    A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix

  20. Feature Level Two -Dimensional Arrays Based Fusion in the Personal Authentication system using Physiological Biometric traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusalin Carol .J

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fingerprint, knuckle print and the retina are used to authenticate a person accurately because of the permanence in the features. These three biometric traits are fused for better security. The fingerprint and knuckle print images are pre-processed by morphological techniques and the features are extracted from the normalized image using gabor filter. The retinal image is converted to gray image and pre-processing is done using top hat and bottom hat filtering. Blood vessels are segmented and the features are extracted by locating the optic disk as the centre point. The extracted features from the fingerprint, knuckle print and the retina are fused together as one template and stored in the data base for authentication purpose, thus reducing the space and time complexity.

  1. Overview of online two-dimensional liquid chromatography based on cell membrane chromatography for screening target components from traditional Chinese medicines. (United States)

    Muhammad, Saqib; Han, Shengli; Xie, Xiaoyu; Wang, Sicen; Aziz, Muhammad Majid


    Cell membrane chromatography is a simple, specific, and time-saving technique for studying drug-receptor interactions, screening of active components from complex mixtures, and quality control of traditional Chinese medicines. However, the short column life, low sensitivity, low column efficiency (so cannot resolve satisfactorily mixture of compounds), low peak capacity, and inefficient in structure identification were bottleneck in its application. Combinations of cell membrane chromatography with multidimensional chromatography such as two-dimensional liquid chromatography and high sensitivity detectors like mass have significantly reduced many of the above-mentioned shortcomings. This paper provides an overview of the current advances in online two-dimensional-based cell membrane chromatography for screening target components from traditional Chinese medicines with particular emphasis on the instrumentation, preparation of cell membrane stationary phase, advantages, and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches. The last section of the review summarizes the applications of the online two-dimensional high-performance liquid chromatography based cell membrane chromatography reported since its emergence to date (2010-June 2016). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Remote epitaxy through graphene enables two-dimensional material-based layer transfer (United States)

    Kim, Yunjo; Cruz, Samuel S.; Lee, Kyusang; Alawode, Babatunde O.; Choi, Chanyeol; Song, Yi; Johnson, Jared M.; Heidelberger, Christopher; Kong, Wei; Choi, Shinhyun; Qiao, Kuan; Almansouri, Ibraheem; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.; Kong, Jing; Kolpak, Alexie M.; Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, Jeehwan


    Epitaxy—the growth of a crystalline material on a substrate—is crucial for the semiconductor industry, but is often limited by the need for lattice matching between the two material systems. This strict requirement is relaxed for van der Waals epitaxy, in which epitaxy on layered or two-dimensional (2D) materials is mediated by weak van der Waals interactions, and which also allows facile layer release from 2D surfaces. It has been thought that 2D materials are the only seed layers for van der Waals epitaxy. However, the substrates below 2D materials may still interact with the layers grown during epitaxy (epilayers), as in the case of the so-called wetting transparency documented for graphene. Here we show that the weak van der Waals potential of graphene cannot completely screen the stronger potential field of many substrates, which enables epitaxial growth to occur despite its presence. We use density functional theory calculations to establish that adatoms will experience remote epitaxial registry with a substrate through a substrate-epilayer gap of up to nine ångströms this gap can accommodate a monolayer of graphene. We confirm the predictions with homoepitaxial growth of GaAs(001) on GaAs(001) substrates through monolayer graphene, and show that the approach is also applicable to InP and GaP. The grown single-crystalline films are rapidly released from the graphene-coated substrate and perform as well as conventionally prepared films when incorporated in light-emitting devices. This technique enables any type of semiconductor film to be copied from underlying substrates through 2D materials, and then the resultant epilayer to be rapidly released and transferred to a substrate of interest. This process is particularly attractive in the context of non-silicon electronics and photonics, where the ability to re-use the graphene-coated substrates allows savings on the high cost of non-silicon substrates.

  3. Thermodynamic-based retention time predictions of endogenous steroids in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Silva, Aline C A; Ebrahimi-Najafadabi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Casilli, Alessandro; Pereira, Henrique M G; Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Harynuk, James J


    This work evaluates the application of a thermodynamic model to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for anabolic agent investigation. Doping control deals with hundreds of drugs that are prohibited in sports. Drug discovery in biological matrices is a challenging task that requires powerful tools when one is faced with the rapidly changing designer drug landscape. In this work, a thermodynamic model developed for the prediction of both primary and secondary retention times in GC × GC has been applied to trimethylsilylated hydroxyl (O-TMS)- and methoxime-trimethylsilylated carbonyl (MO-TMS)-derivatized endogenous steroids. This model was previously demonstrated on a pneumatically modulated GC × GC system, and is applied for the first time to a thermally modulated GC × GC system. Preliminary one-dimensional experiments allowed the calculation of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔC p ) which were successfully applied for the prediction of the analytes' interactions with the stationary phases of both the first-dimension column and the second-dimension column. The model was able to predict both first-dimension and second-dimension retention times with high accuracy compared with the GC × GC experimental measurements. Maximum differences of -8.22 s in the first dimension and 0.4 s in the second dimension were encountered for the O-TMS derivatives of 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11-ketoetiocholanolone, respectively. For the MO-TMS derivatives, the largest discrepancies were from testosterone (9.65 ) for the first-dimension retention times and 11-keto-etiocholanolone (0.4 s) for the second-dimension retention times.

  4. High-accuracy optical extensometer based on coordinate transform in two-dimensional digital image correlation (United States)

    Lv, Zeqian; Xu, Xiaohai; Yan, Tianhao; Cai, Yulong; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan


    In the measurement of plate specimens, traditional two-dimensional (2D) digital image correlation (DIC) is challenged by two aspects: (1) the slant optical axis (misalignment of the optical camera axis and the object surface) and (2) out-of-plane motions (including translations and rotations) of the specimens. There are measurement errors in the results measured by 2D DIC, especially when the out-of-plane motions are big enough. To solve this problem, a novel compensation method has been proposed to correct the unsatisfactory results. The proposed compensation method consists of three main parts: 1) a pre-calibration step is used to determine the intrinsic parameters and lens distortions; 2) a compensation panel (a rigid panel with several markers located at known positions) is mounted to the specimen to track the specimen's motion so that the relative coordinate transformation between the compensation panel and the 2D DIC setup can be calculated using the coordinate transform algorithm; 3) three-dimensional world coordinates of measuring points on the specimen can be reconstructed via the coordinate transform algorithm and used to calculate deformations. Simulations have been carried out to validate the proposed compensation method. Results come out that when the extensometer length is 400 pixels, the strain accuracy reaches 10 με no matter out-of-plane translations (less than 1/200 of the object distance) nor out-of-plane rotations (rotation angle less than 5°) occur. The proposed compensation method leads to good results even when the out-of-plane translation reaches several percents of the object distance or the out-of-plane rotation angle reaches tens of degrees. The proposed compensation method has been applied in tensile experiments to obtain high-accuracy results as well.

  5. A proposal of Fourier-Bessel expansion with optimized ensembles of bases to analyse two dimensional image (United States)

    Yamasaki, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.


    It is a critical issue to find the best set of fitting function bases in mode structural analysis of two dimensional images like plasma emission profiles. The paper proposes a method to optimize a set of the bases in the case of Fourier-Bessel function series, using their orthonormal property, for more efficient and precise analysis. The method is applied on a tomography image of plasma emission obtained with the Maximum-likelihood expectation maximization method in a linear cylindrical device. The result demonstrates the excellency of the method that realizes the smaller residual error and minimum Akaike information criterion using smaller number of fitting function bases.

  6. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow pattern visualization using the image-based computational fluid dynamics. (United States)

    Doost, Siamak N; Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Morsi, Yosry S


    The image-based computational fluid dynamics (IB-CFD) technique, as the combination of medical images and the CFD method, is utilized in this research to analyze the left ventricle (LV) hemodynamics. The research primarily aims to propose a semi-automated technique utilizing some freely available and commercial software packages in order to simulate the LV hemodynamics using the IB-CFD technique. In this research, moreover, two different physiological time-resolved 2D models of a patient-specific LV with two different types of aortic and mitral valves, including the orifice-type valves and integrated with rigid leaflets, are adopted to visualize the process of developing intraventricular vortex formation and propagation. The blood flow pattern over the whole cardiac cycle of two models is also compared to investigate the effect of utilizing different valve types in the process of the intraventricular vortex formation. Numerical findings indicate that the model with integrated valves can predict more complex intraventricular flow that can match better the physiological flow pattern in comparison to the orifice-type model.

  7. Two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis: a method to characterize single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA, and RNA-DNA hybrids in complex samples. (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gudmundur H; Gudmundsson, Bjarki; Thormar, Hans G; Alfredsson, Arni; Jonsson, Jon J


    We describe two-dimensional strandness-dependent electrophoresis (2D-SDE) for quantification and length distribution analysis of single-stranded (ss) DNA fragments, double-stranded (ds) DNA fragments, RNA-DNA hybrids, and nicked DNA fragments in complex samples. In the first dimension nucleic acid molecules are separated based on strandness and length in the presence of 7 M urea. After the first-dimension electrophoresis all nucleic acid fragments are heat denatured in the gel. During the second-dimension electrophoresis all nucleic acid fragments are single-stranded and migrate according to length. 2D-SDE takes about 90 min and requires only basic skills and equipment. We show that 2D-SDE has many applications in analyzing complex nucleic acid samples including (1) estimation of renaturation efficiency and kinetics, (2) monitoring cDNA synthesis, (3) detection of nicked DNA fragments, and (4) estimation of quality and in vitro damage of nucleic acid samples. Results from 2D-SDE should be useful to validate techniques such as complex polymerase chain reaction, subtractive hybridization, cDNA synthesis, cDNA normalization, and microarray analysis. 2D-SDE could also be used, e.g., to characterize biological nucleic acid samples. Information obtained with 2D-SDE cannot be readily obtained with other methods. 2D-SDE can be used for preparative isolation of ssDNA fragments, dsDNA fragments, and RNA-DNA hybrids.

  8. Fabrication of two-dimensional visible wavelength nanoscale plasmonic structures using hydrogen silsesquioxane based resist (United States)

    Smith, Kyle Z.; Gadde, Akshitha; Kadiyala, Anand; Dawson, Jeremy M.


    In recent years, the global market for biosensors has continued to increase in combination with their expanding use in areas such as biodefense/detection, home diagnostics, biometric identification, etc. A constant necessity for inexpensive, portable bio-sensing methods, while still remaining simple to understand and operate, is the motivation behind novel concepts and designs. Labeled visible spectrum bio-sensing systems provide instant feedback that is both simple and easy to work with, but are limited by the light intensity thresholds required by the imaging systems. In comparison, label-free bio-sensing systems and other detection modalities like electrochemical, frequency resonance, thermal change, etc., can require additional technical processing steps to convey the final result, increasing the system's complexity and possibly the time required for analysis. Further decrease in the detection limit can be achieved through the addition of plasmonic structures into labeled bio-sensing systems. Nano-structures that operate in the visible spectrum have feature sizes typically in the order of the operating wavelength, calling for high aspect ratio nanoscale fabrication capabilities. In order to achieve these dimensions, electron beam lithography (EBL) is used due to its accurate feature production. Hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) based electron beam resist is chosen for one of its benefits, which is after exposure to oxygen plasma, the patterned resist cures into silicon dioxide (SiO2). These cured features in conjunction with nanoscale gold particles help in producing a high electric field through dipole generation. In this work, a detailed process flow of the fabrication of square lattice of plasmonic structures comprising of gold coated silicon dioxide pillars designed to operate at 560 nm wavelength and produce an intensity increase of roughly 100 percent will be presented.

  9. Ultra-directional source of longitudinal acoustic waves based on a two-dimensional solid/solid phononic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvan, B.; Tinel, A.; Sainidou, R.; Rembert, P. [Laboratoire Ondes et Milieux Complexes, UMR CNRS 6294, Université du Havre, 75 rue Bellot, 76058 Le Havre (France); Vasseur, J. O.; Hladky-Hennion, A.-C. [Institut d' Electronique, de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie, UMR CNRS 8520, Cité Scientifique, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Swinteck, N.; Deymier, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)


    Phononic crystals (PC) can be used to control the dispersion properties of acoustic waves, which are essential to direct their propagation. We use a PC-based two-dimensional solid/solid composite to demonstrate experimentally and theoretically the spatial filtering of a monochromatic non-directional wave source and its emission in a surrounding water medium as an ultra-directional beam with narrow angular distribution. The phenomenon relies on square-shaped equifrequency contours (EFC) enabling self-collimation of acoustic waves within the phononic crystal. Additionally, the angular width of collimated beams is controlled via the EFC size-shrinking when increasing frequency.

  10. Development of a two-dimensional imaging detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, K; Oku, T; Morimoto, K; Shimizu, H M; Tokanai, F; Gorin, A; Manuilov, I V; Ryazantsev, A; Ino, T; Kuroda, K; Suzuki, J


    For evaluating neutron optical devices, a two-dimensional (2D) detector based on a neutron scintillator with wavelength-shifting fibers has been developed at RIKEN. We have investigated a ZnS(Ag)+LiF and a Li glass plate as neutron scintillators with the coding technique for realizing the large sensitive area of 50 x 50 mm sup 2. After fabricating the 2D detector, its performance was tested using cold neutrons at JAERI. As a result, a spatial resolution of propor to 1.0 mm was obtained. (orig.)

  11. A new method for information retrieval in two-dimensional grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Li; Gao Kun; Chen Jian; Ge Xin; Tian Yang-Chao; Wu Zi-Yu; Zhu Pei-Ping


    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be an extremely powerful phase-sensitive imaging technique. By using two-dimensional (2D) gratings, the observable contrast is extended to two refraction directions. Recently, we have developed a novel reverse-projection (RP) method, which is capable of retrieving the object information efficiently with one-dimensional (1D) grating-based phase contrast imaging. In this contribution, we present its extension to the 2D grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, named the two-dimensional reverse-projection (2D-RP) method, for information retrieval. The method takes into account the nonlinear contributions of two refraction directions and allows the retrieval of the absorption, the horizontal and the vertical refraction images. The obtained information can be used for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional phase gradient field, and for an improved phase map retrieval and reconstruction. Numerical experiments are carried out, and the results confirm the validity of the 2D-RP method

  12. Phase-matching-free parametric oscillators based on two dimensional semiconductors


    Ciattoni, A.; Marini, A.; Rizza, C.; Conti, C.


    Optical parametric oscillators are widely-used pulsed and continuous-wave tunable sources for innumerable applications, as in quantum technologies, imaging and biophysics. A key drawback is material dispersion imposing the phase-matching condition that generally entails a complex setup design, thus hindering tunability and miniaturization. Here we show that the burden of phase-matching is surprisingly absent in parametric micro-resonators adopting monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides as...

  13. Stationary Wavelet-based Two-directional Two-dimensional Principal Component Analysis for EMG Signal Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yi


    Full Text Available Discrete wavelet transform (WT followed by principal component analysis (PCA has been a powerful approach for the analysis of biomedical signals. Wavelet coefficients at various scales and channels were usually transformed into a one-dimensional array, causing issues such as the curse of dimensionality dilemma and small sample size problem. In addition, lack of time-shift invariance of WT coefficients can be modeled as noise and degrades the classifier performance. In this study, we present a stationary wavelet-based two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis (SW2D2PCA method for the efficient and effective extraction of essential feature information from signals. Time-invariant multi-scale matrices are constructed in the first step. The two-directional two-dimensional principal component analysis then operates on the multi-scale matrices to reduce the dimension, rather than vectors in conventional PCA. Results are presented from an experiment to classify eight hand motions using 4-channel electromyographic (EMG signals recorded in healthy subjects and amputees, which illustrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method for biomedical signal analysis.

  14. Tablet-based two-dimensional measurement for estimating the embryo area of brown rice (United States)

    Intaravanne, Yuttana; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Chaitavon, Kosom; Chanhorm, Sataporn; Pongsoon, Prasit; Prasertsak, Anchalee


    The embryo or germ of a rice seed is growing to the shoot and the root parts of a seedling. In the early stage, the germinated embryo directly receives food from the endosperm. How healthy of the seedling can be physically predicted by measuring the areas of the embryo and endosperm. In this work, we show for the first time how the embryo and endosperm areas of a brown rice can be spatially measured. Our key design is based on the utilization of a tablet equipped with our lens module for capturing the rice seed image under white light illumination. Our Windows-based program is developed to analyze and separate the image of the whole brown rice into the embryo and endosperm parts within 2 seconds per seed. Our tablet-based system is just 30×30×6 cm3 with 1 kilogram in weight, capable to easily carry to perform in the field.

  15. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  16. Two-dimensional gel-based alkaline proteome of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majumder, Avishek; Cai, Liyang; Ejby, Morten


    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) is a well‐documented probiotic bacterium isolated from human gut. Detailed 2D gel‐based NCFM proteomics addressed the so‐called alkaline range, i.e., pH 6–11. Proteins were identified in 150 of the 202 spots picked from the Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained 2D...

  17. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  18. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C.; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko


    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available. PMID:26599984

  19. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal. (United States)

    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Daiyin; Nie, Xin; Zhu, Zhaoda


    In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA) based on steppedchirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has validated the presented algorithm.

  20. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoda Zhu


    Full Text Available In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA based on steppedchirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has validated the presented algorithm.

  1. A Two Dimensional Overlapped Subaperture Polar Format Algorithm Based on Stepped-chirp Signal


    Mao, Xinhua; Zhu, Daiyin; Nie, Xin; Zhu, Zhaoda


    In this work, a 2-D subaperture polar format algorithm (PFA) based on stepped-chirp signal is proposed. Instead of traditional pulse synthesis preprocessing, the presented method integrates the pulse synthesis process into the range subaperture processing. Meanwhile, due to the multi-resolution property of subaperture processing, this algorithm is able to compensate the space-variant phase error caused by the radar motion during the period of a pulse cluster. Point target simulation has valid...

  2. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework. (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko


    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  3. Multi-robot task allocation based on two dimensional artificial fish swarm algorithm (United States)

    Zheng, Taixiong; Li, Xueqin; Yang, Liangyi


    The problem of task allocation for multiple robots is to allocate more relative-tasks to less relative-robots so as to minimize the processing time of these tasks. In order to get optimal multi-robot task allocation scheme, a twodimensional artificial swarm algorithm based approach is proposed in this paper. In this approach, the normal artificial fish is extended to be two dimension artificial fish. In the two dimension artificial fish, each vector of primary artificial fish is extended to be an m-dimensional vector. Thus, each vector can express a group of tasks. By redefining the distance between artificial fish and the center of artificial fish, the behavior of two dimension fish is designed and the task allocation algorithm based on two dimension artificial swarm algorithm is put forward. At last, the proposed algorithm is applied to the problem of multi-robot task allocation and comparer with GA and SA based algorithm is done. Simulation and compare result shows the proposed algorithm is effective.

  4. Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Membrane-Based Gas Separation. (United States)

    Peng, Yuan; Li, Yanshuo; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen


    Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets could serve as ideal building blocks of molecular sieve membranes owing to their structural diversity and minimized mass-transfer barrier. To date, discovery of appropriate MOF nanosheets and facile fabrication of high performance MOF nanosheet-based membranes remain as great challenges. A modified soft-physical exfoliation method was used to disintegrate a lamellar amphiprotic MOF into nanosheets with a high aspect ratio. Consequently sub-10 nm-thick ultrathin membranes were successfully prepared, and these demonstrated a remarkable H 2 /CO 2 separation performance, with a separation factor of up to 166 and H 2 permeance of up to 8×10 -7  mol m -2  s -1  Pa -1 at elevated testing temperatures owing to a well-defined size-exclusion effect. This nanosheet-based membrane holds great promise as the next generation of ultrapermeable gas separation membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Half-metallic ferromagnetism prediction in MoS2-based two-dimensional superlattice from first-principles (United States)

    Wen, Yan-Ni; Gao, Peng-Fei; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li


    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (HMFM) has great potential application in spin filter. However, it is extremely rare, especially in two-dimensional (2D) materials. At present, 2D materials have drawn international interest in spintronic devices. Here, we use ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the structural stability and electrical and magnetic properties of the MoS2-based 2D superlattice formed by inserting graphene hexagonal ring in 6 × 6 × 1 MoS2 supercell. Two kinds of structures with hexagonal carbon ring were predicted with structural stability and were shown HMFM. The two structures combine the spin transport capacity of graphene with the magnetism of the defective 2D MoS2. And they have strong covalent bonding between the C and S or Mo atoms near the interface. This work is very useful to help us to design reasonable MoS2-based spin filter.

  6. Development of Window-based program for analysis and visualization of two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichet Pinit


    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a Window-based framework for analyzing and visualizing two-dimensional stress field in digital photoelasticity. The program is implemented as stand-alone software. The program contains mainly two parts: computational part and visual part supplemented with several image-processing functions. The computation method used in the program for retrieval of photoelastic parameters (isoclinic and isochromatic parameters is the phase stepping method. The visualization links between the results and the user by a gray scale or color map of such parameters, which is very convenient to the user for physical interpretation. With the Windows-based framework, additional modules eithercomputation or visualization can be simply added to the program.

  7. Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement (United States)

    Richardson, John G.


    An apparatus and method for determining properties of a conductive film is disclosed. A plurality of probe locations selected around a periphery of the conductive film define a plurality of measurement lines between each probe location and all other probe locations. Electrical resistance may be measured along each of the measurement lines. A lumped parameter model may be developed based on the measured values of electrical resistance. The lumped parameter model may be used to estimate resistivity at one or more selected locations encompassed by the plurality of probe locations. The resistivity may be extrapolated to other physical properties if the conductive film includes a correlation between resistivity and the other physical properties. A profile of the conductive film may be developed by determining resistivity at a plurality of locations. The conductive film may be applied to a structure such that resistivity may be estimated and profiled for the structure's surface.

  8. Fringe-projection profilometry based on two-dimensional empirical mode decomposition. (United States)

    Zheng, Suzhen; Cao, Yiping


    In 3D shape measurement, because deformed fringes often contain low-frequency information degraded with random noise and background intensity information, a new fringe-projection profilometry is proposed based on 2D empirical mode decomposition (2D-EMD). The fringe pattern is first decomposed into numbers of intrinsic mode functions by 2D-EMD. Because the method has partial noise reduction, the background components can be removed to obtain the fundamental components needed to perform Hilbert transformation to retrieve the phase information. The 2D-EMD can effectively extract the modulation phase of a single direction fringe and an inclined fringe pattern because it is a full 2D analysis method and considers the relationship between adjacent lines of a fringe patterns. In addition, as the method does not add noise repeatedly, as does ensemble EMD, the data processing time is shortened. Computer simulations and experiments prove the feasibility of this method.

  9. Tomography for two-dimensional gas temperature distribution based on TDLAS (United States)

    Luo, Can; Wang, Yunchu; Xing, Fei


    Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), the tomography is used to reconstruct the combustion gas temperature distribution. The effects of number of rays, number of grids, and spacing of rays on the temperature reconstruction results for parallel ray are researched. The reconstruction quality is proportional to the ray number. The quality tends to be smoother when the ray number exceeds a certain value. The best quality is achieved when η is between 0.5 and 1. A virtual ray method combined with the reconstruction algorithms is tested. It is found that virtual ray method is effective to improve the accuracy of reconstruction results, compared with the original method. The linear interpolation method and cubic spline interpolation method, are used to improve the calculation accuracy of virtual ray absorption value. According to the calculation results, cubic spline interpolation is better. Moreover, the temperature distribution of a TBCC combustion chamber is used to validate those conclusions.

  10. Two-dimensional Al hydroxide interaction with cancerous cell membrane building units: Complexed free energy and orientation analysis (United States)

    Tsukanov, A. A.; Psakhie, S. G.


    The application of hierarchical nanoparticles based on metal hydroxides in biomedicine, including anticancer therapy and medical imaging, is a rapidly developing field. Low-dimensional aluminum oxyhydroxide nanomaterials (AlOOH-NM) are quite promising base to develop hybrid theranostic nano-agents with core-shell architecture, which is determined by AlOOH-NMs physicochemical properties such as: large specific surface area, pH-dependent charge, amphoteric behavior, high surface density of polar groups capable to form non-covalent bonds, low or null cytotoxicity and biocompatibility. Characterization of the system behavior within interface between NM and plasmatic membrane is crucial for the understanding of nano-agent—cell interaction. In the present work the complex in silico study including the free energy estimation and orientation analysis of phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (POPE) lipids interacting with AlOOH nanosheet was conducted to understand the effect of such nanomaterial on cancerous cell plasmatic membrane.

  11. Performance Analysis of Two-Dimensional Dead Reckoning Based on Vehicle Dynamic Sensors during GNSS Outages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong-hee Han


    Full Text Available Recently, to improve safety and convenience in driving, numerous sensors are mounted on cars to operate advanced driver assistant systems. Among various sensors, vehicle dynamic sensors can measure the vehicle motions such as speed and rotational angular speed for dead reckoning, which can be applied to develop a land vehicle positioning system to overcome the weaknesses of the GNSS technique. In this paper, three land vehicle positioning algorithms that integrate GNSS with vehicle dynamic sensors including a wheel speed sensor (WSS, a yaw rate sensor (YRS, and a steering angle sensor (SAS are implemented, and then a performance evaluation was conducted during GNSS outages. Using a loosely coupled strategy, three integration algorithms are designed, namely, GNSS/WSS, GNSS/WSS/YRS, and GNSS/WSS/YRS/SAS. The performance of the three types of integration algorithm is evaluated based on two data sets. The results indicate that both the GNSS/WSS/YRS integration and the GNSS/WSS/YRS/SAS integration could estimate the horizontal position with meter-level accuracy during 30-second GNSS outages. However, the GNSS/WSS integration would provide an unstable navigation solution during GNSS outages due to the accuracy limitation of the computed yaw rate using WSS.

  12. A Two-Dimensional Deflection Sensor Based on Force Sensing Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangqiang Guo


    Full Text Available A flexible deflection sensor for elastic shaft with the capability of measuring the amplitude and direction of bending is introduced in this paper. A thin force sensing resistors (FSR film is taken as its basic material, which is sandwiched by an elastomer layer and a printed circuit board (PCB with detecting electrode grids. Two fix rings are used to fix the three thin components perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the flexible shaft. When the shaft bends under forces, the fix rings will generate a normal pressure on FSR, which will cause the change of the resistance. Therefore, the amplitude of bending can be got based on the value of resistance. The electrode grid on the PCB is divided into four detection areas used to estimate the distribution of normal pressure on the FSR; thus the bending direction of shaft can also be obtained. Test results of a prototype (140 mm in length show that the amplitude of deflection can reach 30 mm and the sensitivities of sensor are 40.37, 32.8, 37.77, and 39.47 mV/mm in the four directions, respectively. The proposed flexible deflection sensor can be applied in continuum robots or other applications, which require rapid measurement of bending amplitude and direction.

  13. Principal Component Analysis Based Two-Dimensional (PCA-2D) Correlation Spectroscopy: PCA Denoising for 2D Correlation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Mee


    Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra

  14. A HAM-based wavelet approach for nonlinear partial differential equations: Two dimensional Bratu problem as an application (United States)

    Yang, Zhaochen; Liao, Shijun


    In this paper, a new analytic approach, namely the wavelet homotopy analysis method (wHAM), is developed for boundary value problems (BVPs) governed by nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), which successfully combines the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and the generalized Coiflet-type wavelet. To improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a section-based wavelet approximation for partial derivatives is proposed. The two-dimensional Bratu equation is used as an example to illustrate its basic ideas of the wHAM. Numerical results verify the validity as well as great advantages of the wHAM. Compared with the normal HAM, the wHAM possesses not only larger freedom to choose the auxiliary linear operator, but also better convergence property and higher computational efficiency. In addition, the iteration approach can greatly accelerate convergence.

  15. Measurement of left ventricular torsion using block-matching-based speckle tracking for two-dimensional echocardiography (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Rong; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Qiang; Yao, Gui-Hua; Zhang, Yun


    Left ventricular (LV) torsion is a sensitive and global index of LV systolic and diastolic function, but how to noninvasively measure it is challenging. Two-dimensional echocardiography and the block-matching based speckle tracking method were used to measure LV torsion. Main advantages of the proposed method over the previous ones are summarized as follows: (1) The method is automatic, except for manually selecting some endocardium points on the end-diastolic frame in initialization step. (2) The diamond search strategy is applied, with a spatial smoothness constraint introduced into the sum of absolute differences matching criterion; and the reference frame during the search is determined adaptively. (3) The method is capable of removing abnormal measurement data automatically. The proposed method was validated against that using Doppler tissue imaging and some preliminary clinical experimental studies were presented to illustrate clinical values of the proposed method.

  16. Acid-base equilibrium dynamics in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Lee, Chiho; Son, Hyewon; Park, Sungnam


    Two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy, which has been proven to be an excellent experimental method for studying thermally-driven chemical processes, was successfully used to investigate the acid dissociation equilibrium of HN3 in methanol (CH3OH) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for the first time. Our 2DIR experimental results indicate that the acid-base equilibrium occurs on picosecond timescales in CH3OH but that it occurs on much longer timescales in DMSO. Our results imply that the different timescales of the acid-base equilibrium originate from different proton transfer mechanisms between the acidic (HN3) and basic (N3(-)) species in CH3OH and DMSO. In CH3OH, the acid-base equilibrium is assisted by the surrounding CH3OH molecules which can directly donate H(+) to N3(-) and accept H(+) from HN3 and the proton migrates through the hydrogen-bonded chain of CH3OH. On the other hand, the acid-base equilibrium in DMSO occurs through the mutual diffusion of HN3 and N3(-) or direct proton transfer. Our 2DIR experimental results corroborate different proton transfer mechanisms in the acid-base equilibrium in protic (CH3OH) and aprotic (DMSO) solvents.

  17. Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrivals Estimation Based on One-Dimensional Search Using Rank Deficiency Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Gang Yan


    Full Text Available A novel efficient method for two-dimensional (2D direction-of-arrivals (DOAs estimation is proposed to reduce the computational complexity of conventional 2D multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC algorithm with uniform rectangular arrays (URAs. By introducing two electrical DOAs, the formula of 2D-MUSIC is transformed into a new one-dimensional (1D quadratic optimal problem. This 1D quadratic optimal problem is further proved equivalent to finding the conditions of noise subspace rank deficiency (NSRD, which can be solved by an efficient 1D spectral search, leading to a novel NSRD-MUSIC estimator accordingly. Unlike 2D-MUSIC with exhaustive 2D search, the proposed technique requires only an efficient 1D one. Compared with the estimation of signal parameter via rotation invariance techniques (ESPRIT, NSRD-MUSIC has a significantly improved accuracy. Moreover, the new algorithm requires no pair matching. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the efficiency of the new estimator.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Jansen, R. A.; Windhorst, R. A.; Eskridge, P. B.; Cohen, S. H.


    We present the results of a study of the late-type spiral galaxy NGC 0959, before and after application of the pixel-based dust extinction correction described in Tamura et al. (Paper I). Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-UV, and near-UV, ground-based Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, UBVR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm images are studied through pixel color-magnitude diagrams and pixel color-color diagrams (pCCDs). We define groups of pixels based on their distribution in a pCCD of (B - 3.6 μm) versus (FUV - U) colors after extinction correction. In the same pCCD, we trace their locations before the extinction correction was applied. This shows that selecting pixel groups is not meaningful when using colors uncorrected for dust. We also trace the distribution of the pixel groups on a pixel coordinate map of the galaxy. We find that the pixel-based (two-dimensional) extinction correction is crucial for revealing the spatial variations in the dominant stellar population, averaged over each resolution element. Different types and mixtures of stellar populations, and galaxy structures such as a previously unrecognized bar, become readily discernible in the extinction-corrected pCCD and as coherent spatial structures in the pixel coordinate map.

  19. Multi-kW high-brightness fiber coupled diode laser based on two dimensional stacked tailored diode bars (United States)

    Bayer, Andreas; Unger, Andreas; Köhler, Bernd; Küster, Matthias; Dürsch, Sascha; Kissel, Heiko; Irwin, David A.; Bodem, Christian; Plappert, Nora; Kersten, Maik; Biesenbach, Jens


    The demand for high brightness fiber coupled diode laser devices in the multi kW power region is mainly driven by industrial applications for materials processing, like brazing, cladding and metal welding, which require a beam quality better than 30 mm x mrad and power levels above 3kW. Reliability, modularity, and cost effectiveness are key factors for success in the market. We have developed a scalable and modular diode laser architecture that fulfills these requirements through use of a simple beam shaping concept based on two dimensional stacking of tailored diode bars mounted on specially designed, tap water cooled heat sinks. The base element of the concept is a tailored diode laser bar with an epitaxial and lateral structure designed such that the desired beam quality in slow-axis direction can be realized without using sophisticated beam shaping optics. The optical design concept is based on fast-axis collimator (FAC) and slow-axis collimator (SAC) lenses followed by only one additional focusing optic for efficient coupling into a 400 μm fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.12. To fulfill the requirements of scalability and modularity, four tailored bars are populated on a reduced size, tap water cooled heat sink. The diodes on these building blocks are collimated simply via FAC and SAC. The building blocks can be stacked vertically resulting in a two-dimensional diode stack, which enables a compact design of the laser source with minimum beam path length. For a single wavelength, up to eight of these building blocks, implying a total of 32 tailored bars, can be stacked into a submodule, polarization multiplexed, and coupled into a 400 μm, 0.12NA fiber. Scalability into the multi kW region is realized by wavelength combining of replaceable submodules in the spectral range from 900 - 1100 nm. We present results of a laser source based on this architecture with an output power of more than 4 kW and a beam quality of 25 mm x mrad.

  20. Two Dimensional Array Based Overlay Network for Balancing Load of Peer-to-Peer Live Video Streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimy, Abdullah Faruq Ibn; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibrahimy, Muhammad Ibn


    The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper

  1. A molecular dynamics study on the structural and electronic properties of two-dimensional icosahedral B12 cluster based structures (United States)

    Kah, Cherno Baba; Yu, M.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.


    Our previous study on one-dimensional icosahedral B12 cluster (α-B12) based chain [Bulletin of APS Annual Meeting, p265 (2013)] and ring structures has prompted us to study the two-dimensional (2D) α-B12 based structures. Recently, we have carried out a systematic molecular dynamics study on the structural stabilities and electronic properties of the 2D α-B12 based structures using the SCED-LCAO method [PRB 74, 15540 (2006)]. We have considered several types of symmetry for these 2D structures such as δ3, δ4, δ6 (flat triangular), and α' types. We have found that the optimized structures are energetically in the order of δ6 < α' < δ3 < δ4 which is different from the energy order of α'< δ6 < δ4 < δ3 found in the 2D boron monolayer sheets [ACS Nano 6, 7443 (2012)]. A detailed discussion of this study will be presented. The first author acknowledges the McSweeny Fellowship for supporting his research in this work.

  2. Dual-band and polarization-independent infrared absorber based on two-dimensional black phosphorus metamaterials. (United States)

    Wang, Jiao; Jiang, Yannan; Hu, Zhirun


    Two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP) with direct band gap, bridges the characteristics of graphene with a zero or near-zero band gap and transition metal dichalcogenides with a wide band gap. In the infrared (IR) regime, 2D BP materials can attenuate electromagnetic energy due to losses derived from its surface conductivity. This paper proposes an IR absorber based on 2D BP metamaterials. It consists of multi-layer BP-based nano-ribbon pairs, each formed by two orthogonally stacked nano-ribbons. The multi-layer BP metamaterials and bottom gold mirror together form a Fabry-Perot resonator that could completely inhibit light transmission to create strong absorption through the BP metamaterials. Unlike previously reported BP metamaterial absorbers, this new structure can operate at two frequency bands with absorption > 90% in each owning to the first-order and second-order Fabry-Perot resonant frequencies. It is also polarization independent due to the fourfold rotational structural symmetry. To our best knowledge, this is the first report on using BP metamaterials in an absorber that operates independent of polarization and in dual bands.

  3. An Improved Pathological Brain Detection System Based on Two-Dimensional PCA and Evolutionary Extreme Learning Machine. (United States)

    Nayak, Deepak Ranjan; Dash, Ratnakar; Majhi, Banshidhar


    Pathological brain detection has made notable stride in the past years, as a consequence many pathological brain detection systems (PBDSs) have been proposed. But, the accuracy of these systems still needs significant improvement in order to meet the necessity of real world diagnostic situations. In this paper, an efficient PBDS based on MR images is proposed that markedly improves the recent results. The proposed system makes use of contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) to enhance the quality of the input MR images. Thereafter, two-dimensional PCA (2DPCA) strategy is employed to extract the features and subsequently, a PCA+LDA approach is used to generate a compact and discriminative feature set. Finally, a new learning algorithm called MDE-ELM is suggested that combines modified differential evolution (MDE) and extreme learning machine (ELM) for segregation of MR images as pathological or healthy. The MDE is utilized to optimize the input weights and hidden biases of single-hidden-layer feed-forward neural networks (SLFN), whereas an analytical method is used for determining the output weights. The proposed algorithm performs optimization based on both the root mean squared error (RMSE) and norm of the output weights of SLFNs. The suggested scheme is benchmarked on three standard datasets and the results are compared against other competent schemes. The experimental outcomes show that the proposed scheme offers superior results compared to its counterparts. Further, it has been noticed that the proposed MDE-ELM classifier obtains better accuracy with compact network architecture than conventional algorithms.

  4. Ab initio electronic transport study of two-dimensional silicon carbide-based p-n junctions (United States)

    Zhou, Hanming; Lin, Xiao; Guo, Hongwei; Lin, Shisheng; Sun, Yiwei; Xu, Yang


    Two-dimensional silicon carbide (2d-SiC) is a viable material for next generation electronics due to its moderate, direct bandgap with huge potential. In particular, its potential for p-n junctions is yet to be explored. In this paper, three types of 2d-SiC-based p-n junctions with different doping configuration are modeled. The doping configurations refer to partially replacing carbon with boron or nitrogen atoms along the zigzag or armchair direction, respectively. By employing density functional theory, we calculate the transport properties of the SiC based p-n junctions and obtain negative differential resistance and high rectification ratio. We also find that the junction along the zigzag direction with lower doping density exhibits optimized rectification performance. Our study suggests that 2d-SiC is a promising candidate as a material platform for future nano-devices. Project supported by the National Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474099, 61674127) and the ZJ-NSF (No. Z17F04003).

  5. Difluorobenzothiadiazole based two-dimensional conjugated polymers with triphenylamine substituted moieties as pendants for bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Lee


    Full Text Available Three donor/acceptor (D/A-type two-dimensional polythiophenes (PTs; PBTFA13, PBTFA12, PBTFA11 featuring difluorobenzothiadiazole (DFBT derivatives as the conjugated (acceptor units in the polymer backbone and tertbutyl–substituted triphenylamine (tTPA-containing moieties as (donor pendants have been synthesized and characterized. These PTs exhibited good thermal stabilities, broad absorption spectra, and narrow optical band gaps. The cutoff wavelength of the UV–Vis absorption band was red-shifted upon increasing the content of the DFBT units in the PTs. Bulk heterojunction solar cells having an active layer comprising blends of the PTs and fullerene derivatives [6,6] phenyl-C61/71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM/PC71BM were fabricated; their photovoltaic performance was strongly dependent on the content of the DFBT derivative in the PT. Incorporating a suitable content of the DFBT derivative in the polymer backbone enhanced the solar absorption ability and conjugation length of the PTs. The photovoltaic properties of the PBTFA13-based solar cells were superior to those of the PBTFA11- and PBTFA12-based solar cells.

  6. Feasibility of the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons based on two-dimensional fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Yang, Renjie; Dong, Guimei; Sun, Xueshan; Yang, Yanrong; Yu, Yaping; Liu, Haixue; Zhang, Weiyu


    A new approach for quantitative determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environment was proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in conjunction with multivariate method. 40 mixture solutions of anthracene and pyrene were prepared in the laboratory. Excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectra of all samples were collected. And 2D fluorescence correlation spectra were calculated under the excitation perturbation. The N-way partial least squares (N-PLS) models were developed based on 2D fluorescence correlation spectra, showing a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 3.50 μg L- 1 and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 4.42 μg L- 1 for anthracene and of 3.61 μg L- 1 and 4.29 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. Also, the N-PLS models were developed for quantitative analysis of anthracene and pyrene using EEM fluorescence spectra. The RMSEC and RMSEP were 3.97 μg L- 1 and 4.63 μg L- 1 for anthracene, 4.46 μg L- 1 and 4.52 μg L- 1 for pyrene, respectively. It was found that the N-PLS model using 2D fluorescence correlation spectra could provide better results comparing with EEM fluorescence spectra because of its low RMSEC and RMSEP. The methodology proposed has the potential to be an alternative method for detection of PAHs in environment.

  7. A two-dimensional continuum model of biofilm growth incorporating fluid flow and shear stress based detachment

    KAUST Repository

    Duddu, Ravindra


    We present a two-dimensional biofilm growth model in a continuum framework using an Eulerian description. A computational technique based on the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) and the level set method is used to simulate the growth of the biofilm. The model considers fluid flow around the biofilm surface, the advection-diffusion and reaction of substrate, variable biomass volume fraction and erosion due to the interfacial shear stress at the biofilm-fluid interface. The key assumptions of the model and the governing equations of transport, biofilm kinetics and biofilm mechanics are presented. Our 2D biofilm growth results are in good agreement with those obtained by Picioreanu et al. (Biotechnol Bioeng 69(5):504-515, 2000). Detachment due to erosion is modeled using two continuous speed functions based on: (a) interfacial shear stress and (b) biofilm height. A relation between the two detachment models in the case of a 1D biofilm is established and simulated biofilm results with detachment in 2D are presented. The stress in the biofilm due to fluid flow is evaluated and higher stresses are observed close to the substratum where the biofilm is attached. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. SAS6. User's guide. A two-dimensional depletion and criticality analysis code package based on the SCALE-4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leege, P.F.A. de; Li, J.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.


    This users' guide gives a description of the functionality and the requested input of the SAS6 code sequence which can be used to perform burnup and criticality calculations based on functional modules from the SCALE-4 code system and libraries. The input file for the SAS6 control module is very similar to that of the other SAS and CSAS control modules available in the SCALE-4 system. Especially the geometry input of SAS6 is quite similar to that of SAS2H. However, the functionality of SAS6 is different from that of SAS2H. The geometry of the reactor lattice can be treated in more detail because use is made of the two-dimensional lattice code WIMS-D/IRI (An adapted version of WIMS-D/4) instead of the one-dimensional transport code XSDRNPM-S. Also the neutron absorption and production rates of nuclides not explicitly specified in the input can be accounted for by six pseudo nuclides. Furthermore, the centre pin can be subdivided into maximal 10 zones to improve the burnup calculation of the centre pin and to obtain more accurate k-infinite values for the assembly. Also the time step specification is more flexible than in the SAS2H sequence. (orig.)

  9. Over 50% reduction in the formation energy of Co-based Heusler alloy films by two-dimensional crystallisation (United States)

    Sagar, James; Fleet, Luke R.; Walsh, Michael; Lari, Leonardo; Boyes, Edward D.; Whear, Oliver; Huminiuc, Teodor; Vick, Andrew; Hirohata, Atsufumi


    Crystalline formation of high magnetic-moment thin films through low-temperature annealing processes compatible with current semiconductor technologies is crucial for the development of next generation devices, which can utilise the spin degree of freedom. Utilising in-situ aberration corrected electron microscopy, we report a 235 °C crystallisation process for a Co-based ternary Heusler-alloy film whose initial nucleation is initiated by as few as 27 unit cells. The crystallisation occurs preferentially in the ⟨111⟩ crystalline directions via a two-dimensional (2D) layer-by-layer growth mode; resulting in grains with [110] surface normal and [111] plane facets. This growth process was found to reduce the crystallisation energy by more than 50% when compared to bulk samples whilst still leading to the growth of highly ordered grains expected to give a high degree of spin-polarisation. Our findings suggest that the 2D layer-by-layer growth minimises the crystallisation energy allowing for the possible implementation of highly spin-polarised alloy films into current chip and memory technologies.

  10. All Fiber-Coupled OH Planar Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (OH-PLIF)-Based Two-Dimensional Thermometry. (United States)

    Hsu, Paul S; Jiang, Naibo; Patnaik, Anil K; Katta, Vish; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R


    Two-color, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF)-based two-dimensional (2D) thermometry techniques for reacting flows, which are typically developed in the laboratory conditions, face a stiff challenge in their practical implementation in harsh environments such as combustion rigs. In addition to limited optical access, the critical experimental conditions (i.e., uncontrolled humidity, vibration, and large thermal gradients) often restrict sensitive laser system operation and cause difficulties maintaining beam-overlap. Thus, an all fiber-coupled, two-color OH-PLIF system has been developed, employing two long optical fibers allowing isolation of the laser and signal-collection systems. Two OH-excitation laser beams (∼283 nm and ∼286 nm) are delivered through a common 6 m long, 400 µm core, deep ultraviolet (UV)-enhanced multimode fiber. The fluorescence signal (∼310 nm) is collected by a 3 m long, UV-grade imaging fiber. Proof-of-principle temperature measurements are demonstrated in atmospheric pressure, near adiabatic, CH 4 /O 2 /N 2 jet flames. The effects of the excitation pulse interval on fiber transmission are investigated. The proof-of-principle measurements show significant promise for thermometry in harsh environments such as gas turbine engine tests.

  11. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)


    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  12. Integrable two dimensional supersystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, K.C.; Tripathy, L.K.


    The integrability of two dimensional time-dependent classical systems is examined in N=2 superspace using Dirac's second class constraints. The invariants involving quadratic powers in velocities for super harmonic oscillator and super Kepler potentials have been derived. (author). 5 refs

  13. Two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE analysis of whole cell lysate protein complexes of rice in response to salt stress. (United States)

    Hashemi, Amenehsadat; Gharechahi, Javad; Nematzadeh, Ghorbanali; Shekari, Faezeh; Hosseini, Seyed Abdollah; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini


    To understand the biology of a plant in response to stress, insight into protein-protein interactions, which almost define cell behavior, is thought to be crucial. Here, we provide a comparative complexomics analysis of leaf whole cell lysate of two rice genotypes with contrasting responses to salt using two-dimensional blue native/SDS-PAGE (2D-BN/SDS-PAGE). We aimed to identify changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein complexes elicited by salt. Using mild detergent for protein complex solubilization, we were able to identify 9 protein assemblies as hetero-oligomeric and 30 as homo-oligomeric complexes. A total of 20 proteins were identified as monomers in the 2D-BN/SDS-PAGE gels. In addition to identifying known protein complexes that confirm the technical validity of our analysis, we were also able to discover novel protein-protein interactions. Interestingly, an interaction was detected for glycolytic enzymes enolase (ENO1) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) and also for a chlorophyll a-b binding protein and RuBisCo small subunit. To show changes in subunit composition and stoichiometry of protein assemblies during salt stress, the differential abundance of interacting proteins was compared between salt-treated and control plants. A detailed exploration of some of the protein complexes provided novel insight into the function, composition, stoichiometry and dynamics of known and previously uncharacterized protein complexes in response to salt stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated digital inverters based on two-dimensional anisotropic ReS2 field-effect transistors (United States)

    Liu, Erfu; Fu, Yajun; Wang, Yaojia; Feng, Yanqing; Liu, Huimei; Wan, Xiangang; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Baigeng; Shao, Lubin; Ho, Ching-Hwa; Huang, Ying-Sheng; Cao, Zhengyi; Wang, Laiguo; Li, Aidong; Zeng, Junwen; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Xinran; Shi, Yi; Yuan, Hongtao; Hwang, Harold Y.; Cui, Yi; Miao, Feng; Xing, Dingyu


    Semiconducting two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides are emerging as top candidates for post-silicon electronics. While most of them exhibit isotropic behaviour, lowering the lattice symmetry could induce anisotropic properties, which are both scientifically interesting and potentially useful. Here we present atomically thin rhenium disulfide (ReS2) flakes with unique distorted 1T structure, which exhibit in-plane anisotropic properties. We fabricated monolayer and few-layer ReS2 field-effect transistors, which exhibit competitive performance with large current on/off ratios (∼107) and low subthreshold swings (100 mV per decade). The observed anisotropic ratio along two principle axes reaches 3.1, which is the highest among all known two-dimensional semiconducting materials. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated an integrated digital inverter with good performance by utilizing two ReS2 anisotropic field-effect transistors, suggesting the promising implementation of large-scale two-dimensional logic circuits. Our results underscore the unique properties of two-dimensional semiconducting materials with low crystal symmetry for future electronic applications. PMID:25947630

  15. Two-dimensional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol for increased key rate fiber-based quantum communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Lio, Beatrice; Bacco, Davide; Ding, Yunhong


    We experimentally prove a novel two-dimensional QKD scheme, relying on differential phasetime shifting (DPTS) of strongly attenuated weak coherent pulses. We demonstrate QKD transmission up to 170 km standard fiber, and even include a classical channel up to 90 km....

  16. Two-dimensional knowledge-based volumetric reconstruction of the right ventricle documents short-term improvement in pulmonary hypertension. (United States)

    Schwaiger, Johannes P; Knight, Daniel S; Kaier, Thomas; Gallimore, Adele; Denton, Christopher P; Schreiber, Benjamin E; Handler, Clive; Coghlan, John G


    Data are scarce about short-term right ventricular changes in pulmonary hypertension. Two-dimensional knowledge-based reconstruction of the right ventricle with 2D echocardiography (2DKBR) has been shown to be a valid alternative to Cardiac MRI. In this longitudinal study 25 pulmonary hypertension patients underwent 2DKBR of the right ventricle, assessment of NT-proBNP levels and functional class at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 6.1 months. Patients were followed up clinically for a further mean of 8.2 months. The majority of patients had connective tissue disease (CTD) associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (n=15) or chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH; n=6). A total of 15 patients underwent an intervention, either new targeted therapy, escalation of targeted therapy or pulmonary endarterectomy. A total of 10 clinically stable patients were routinely followed up without any change in therapy. There were significant improvements in the right ventricular end-diastolic volume index (111±29 mL/m² vs 100±36 mL/m²; P=.038), end-systolic volume index (72±23 mL/m² vs 61±25 mL/m²; P=.001), and ejection fraction (35±10% vs 40±9%; P=.030). Changes in NT-proBNP levels correlated strongest with changes in end-systolic volume index (r=-.77; P=right ventricle was associated with clinical worsening. In a CTD and CTEPH dominated patient population significant reverse remodeling and improvement of ejection fraction occurred despite a short follow-up and was paralleled by significant changes in NT-proBNP levels. Further right ventricular dilatation was associated with worse clinical outcome. 2DKBR is a feasible substitute for Cardiac MRI to follow-up right ventricular indices in pulmonary hypertension. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Aluminum-based one- and two-dimensional micro fin array structures: high-throughput fabrication and heat transfer testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primeaux, Philip A; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoman; Miller, Jacob; Meng, W J; KC, Pratik; Moore, Arden L


    Microscale fin array structures were replicated onto surfaces of aluminum 1100 and aluminum 6061 alloy (Al1100/Al6061) sheet metals through room-temperature instrumented roll molding. Aluminum-based micro fin arrays were replicated at room temperature, and the fabrication process is one with high throughput and low cost. One-dimensional (1D) micro fin arrays were made through one-pass rolling, while two-dimensional (2D) micro fin arrays were made by sequential 90° cross rolling with the same roller sleeve. For roll molding of 1D micro fins, fin heights greater than 600 µ m were achieved and were shown to be proportional to the normal load force per feature width. At a given normal load force, the fin height was further shown to scale inversely with the hardness of the sheet metal. For sequential 90° cross rolling, morphologies of roll molded 2D micro fin arrays were examined, which provided clues to understand how plastic deformation occurred under cross rolling conditions. A series of pool boiling experiments on low profile Al micro fin array structures were performed within Novec 7100, a widely used commercial dielectric coolant. Results for both horizontal and vertical surface orientations show that roll molded Al micro fin arrays can increase heat flux at fixed surface temperature as compared to un-patterned Al sheet. The present results further suggest that many factors beyond just increased surface area can influence heat transfer performance, including surface finish and the important multiphase transport mechanisms in and around the fin geometry. These factors must also be considered when designing and optimizing micro fin array structures for heat transfer applications. (paper)

  18. A no-go theorem for a two-dimensional self-correcting quantum memory based on stabilizer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara


    We study properties of stabilizer codes that permit a local description on a regular D-dimensional lattice. Specifically, we assume that the stabilizer group of a code (the gauge group for subsystem codes) can be generated by local Pauli operators such that the support of any generator is bounded by a hypercube of size O(1). Our first result concerns the optimal scaling of the distance d with the linear size of the lattice L. We prove an upper bound d=O(L D-1 ) which is tight for D=1, 2. This bound applies to both subspace and subsystem stabilizer codes. Secondly, we analyze the suitability of stabilizer codes for building a self-correcting quantum memory. Any stabilizer code with geometrically local generators can be naturally transformed to a local Hamiltonian penalizing states that violate the stabilizer condition. A degenerate ground state of this Hamiltonian corresponds to the logical subspace of the code. We prove that for D=1, 2, different logical states can be mapped into each other by a sequence of single-qubit Pauli errors such that the energy of all intermediate states is upper bounded by a constant independent of the lattice size L. The same result holds if there are unused logical qubits that are treated as 'gauge qubits'. It demonstrates that a self-correcting quantum memory cannot be built using stabilizer codes in dimensions D=1, 2. This result is in sharp contrast with the existence of a classical self-correcting memory in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnet. Our results leave open the possibility for a self-correcting quantum memory based on 2D subsystem codes or on 3D subspace or subsystem codes.

  19. A two-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer based on mixed dimethyl succinate and bipyridine ligands: synthesis, structure, thermostability and luminescence properties. (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Feng, Yong Lan; Fu, Wei Wei


    From the viewpoint of crystal engineering, the construction of crystalline polymeric materials requires a rational choice of organic bridging ligands for the self-assembly process. Multicarboxylate ligands are of particular interest due to their strong coordination activity towards metal ions, as well as their various coordination modes and versatile conformations. The structural chemistry of dicarboxylate-based coordination polymers of transition metals has been developed through the grafting of N-containing organic linkers into carboxylate-bridged transition metal networks. A new luminescent two-dimensional zinc(II) coordination polymer containing bridging 2,2-dimethylsuccinate and 4,4'-bipyridine ligands, namely poly[[aqua(μ2-4,4'-bipyridine-κ(2)N:N')bis(μ3-2,2-dimethylbutanedioato)-κ(4)O(1),O(1'):O(4):O(4');κ(5)O(1):O(1),O(4):O(4),O(4')-dizinc(II)] dihydrate], {[Zn2(C6H8O4)2(C10H8N2)(H2O)]·2H2O}n, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and elemental, IR and thermogravimetric analyses. In the structure, the 2,2-dimethylsuccinate ligands link linear tetranuclear Zn(II) subunits into one-dimensional chains along the c axis. 4,4'-Bipyridine acts as a tethering ligand expanding these one-dimensional chains into a two-dimensional layered structure. Hydrogen-bonding interactions between the water molecules (both coordinated and free) and carboxylate O atoms strengthen the packing of the layers. Furthermore, the luminescence properties of the complex were investigated. The compound exhibits a blue photoluminescence in the solid state at room temperature and may be a good candidate for potential hybrid inorganic-organic photoactive materials.

  20. Correlation of acidic and basic carrier ampholyte and immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns based on mass spectrometric protein identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nawrocki, A; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Podtelejnikov, A V


    Separation of proteins on either carrier ampholyte-based or immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional (2-D) gels gives rise to electrophoretic patterns that are difficult to compare visually. In this paper we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI...

  1. Two-dimensional higher-diffraction-order optical beam splitter based on phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer (United States)

    Gong, Dewei; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Liu, Hongpeng; Wang, Jian; Gao, Hongyue


    A two-dimensional optical beam splitter has been realized that uses the higher diffraction orders of a refractive-index grating. Gratings were recorded experimentally with light from a semiconductor laser incident at a small angle on phenanthrenequinone-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer. The incident signal beam, which was made up of three different wavelengths (632.8, 532.0, and 488.0 nm), was split by the grating into multiple output beams with nearly equal size and separation. Results are given for when the sample grating was placed behind, in front of, and in the focal plane of a Fourier lens. The properties of higher-order-diffraction images have been discussed. The discussion shows that a two-dimensional higher-diffraction-order optical beam splitter provides a practical method for splitting a signal beam.

  2. Effect of the defect on the focusing in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal-based flat lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhifang; Wang Xiuguo; Li Zhiyuan; Zhang Daozhong


    We have investigated in detail the influence of defect on the focusing of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional photonic-crystal flat lens by using the finite-difference time-domain method. The result shows that many focusings can be observed at the symmetrical positions when a defect is introduced into the lens. Furthermore, the wave-guides in the lens can confine the transmission wave effectively and improve the quality of the focusing

  3. Development of new two-dimensional spectral/spatial code based on dynamic cyclic shift code for OCDMA system (United States)

    Jellali, Nabiha; Najjar, Monia; Ferchichi, Moez; Rezig, Houria


    In this paper, a new two-dimensional spectral/spatial codes family, named two dimensional dynamic cyclic shift codes (2D-DCS) is introduced. The 2D-DCS codes are derived from the dynamic cyclic shift code for the spectral and spatial coding. The proposed system can fully eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) by using the MAI cancellation property. The effect of shot noise, phase-induced intensity noise and thermal noise are used to analyze the code performance. In comparison with existing two dimensional (2D) codes, such as 2D perfect difference (2D-PD), 2D Extended Enhanced Double Weight (2D-Extended-EDW) and 2D hybrid (2D-FCC/MDW) codes, the numerical results show that our proposed codes have the best performance. By keeping the same code length and increasing the spatial code, the performance of our 2D-DCS system is enhanced: it provides higher data rates while using lower transmitted power and a smaller spectral width.

  4. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong


    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  5. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert


    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  6. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv’s Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulong Jing


    Full Text Available For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which needs to be addressed. In this paper, by employing a novel multi-scale parametric symmetric self-correlation function (PSSF and modified scaled Fourier transform (mSFT, an effective parameter estimation algorithm is proposed—referred to as the Two-Dimensional product modified Lv’s distribution (2D-PMLVD—for QFM signals. The 2D-PMLVD is simple and can be easily implemented by using fast Fourier transform (FFT and complex multiplication. These measures are analyzed in the paper, including the principle, the cross term, anti-noise performance, and computational complexity. Compared to the other three representative methods, the 2D-PMLVD can achieve better anti-noise performance. The 2D-PMLVD, which is free of searching and has no identifiability problems, is more suitable for multicomponent situations. Through several simulations and analyses, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation algorithm is verified.

  7. Visualization of Excitonic Structure in the Fenna-Matthews-OlsonPhotosynthetic Complex by Polarization-Dependent Two-DimensionalElectronic Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Department of Chemistry, The University of Chicago; Department of Biology, Department of Chemistry, Washington University; Fleming, Graham; Read, Elizabeth L.; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Engel, Gregory S.; Wen, Jianzhong; Blankenship, Robert E.; Fleming, Graham R.


    Photosynthetic light-harvesting proceeds by the collection and highly efficient transfer of energy through a network of pigment-protein complexes. Inter-chromophore electronic couplings and interactions between pigments and the surrounding protein determine energy levels of excitonic states and dictate the mechanism of energy flow. The excitonic structure (orientation of excitonic transition dipoles) of pigment-protein complexes is generally deduced indirectly from x-ray crystallography in combination with predictions of transition energies and couplings in the chromophore site basis. Here, we demonstrate that coarse-grained excitonic structural information in the form of projection angles between transition dipole moments can be obtained from polarization-dependent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of an isotropic sample, particularly when the nonrephasing or free polarization decay signal rather than the photon echo signal is considered. The method provides an experimental link between atomic and electronic structure and accesses dynamical information with femtosecond time resolution. In an investigation of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex from green sulfur bacteria, energy transfer connecting two particular exciton states in the protein is isolated as being the primary contributor to a cross peak in the nonrephasing 2D spectrum at 400 fs under a specific sequence of polarized excitation pulses. The results suggest the possibility of designing experiments using combinations of tailored polarization sequencesto separate and monitor individual relaxation pathways.

  8. Tile-based Fisher-ratio software for improved feature selection analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data. (United States)

    Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Parsons, Brendon A; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E


    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The data can be initially overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way as to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based Fisher ratio algorithmic approaches have been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between the sample classes relative to those that are not changing (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses the challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is often a shortcoming for both pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic approaches. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio algorithm significantly improves the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. In this study, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio algorithmic approach was able to "discover" all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06, the ratio between the concentrations in the spiked diesel sample to the native concentration in diesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)


    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  10. Modelling and short-term forecasting of daily peak power demand in Victoria using two-dimensional wavelet based SDP models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen-Vu; Wang, Liuping; Wong, Peter K.C.


    Power demand forecasting is of vital importance to the management and planning of power system operations which include generation, transmission, distribution, as well as system's security analysis and economic pricing processes. This paper concerns the modeling and short-term forecast of daily peak power demand in the state of Victoria, Australia. In this study, a two-dimensional wavelet based state dependent parameter (SDP) modelling approach is used to produce a compact mathematical model for this complex nonlinear dynamic system. In this approach, a nonlinear system is expressed by a set of linear regressive input and output terms (state variables) multiplied by the respective state dependent parameters that carry the nonlinearities in the form of 2-D wavelet series expansions. This model is identified based on historical data, descriptively representing the relationship and interaction between various components which affect the peak power demand of a certain day. The identified model has been used to forecast daily peak power demand in the state of Victoria, Australia in the time period from the 9th of August 2007 to the 24th of August 2007. With a MAPE (mean absolute prediction error) of 1.9%, it has clearly implied the effectiveness of the identified model. (author)

  11. Flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with a vacuum ultraviolet detector for the analysis of complex mixtures. (United States)

    Zoccali, Mariosimone; Schug, Kevin A; Walsh, Phillip; Smuts, Jonathan; Mondello, Luigi


    The present paper is focused on the use of a vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrometer (VUV) for gas chromatography (GC), within the context of flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The features of the VUV detector were evaluated through the analysis of petrochemical and fatty acids samples. Besides responding in a predictable fashion via Beer's law principles, the detector provides additional spectroscopic information for qualitative analysis. Virtually all chemical species absorb and have unique gas phase absorption features in the 120-240nm wavelength range monitored. The VUV detector can acquire up to 90 full range absorption spectra per second, allowing its coupling with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. This recent form of detection can address specific limitations related to mass spectrometry (e.g., identification of isobaric and isomeric species with very similar mass spectra or labile chemical compounds), and it is also able to deconvolute co-eluting peaks. Moreover, it is possible to exploit a pseudo-absolute quantitation of analytes based on pre-recorded absorption cross-sections for target analytes, without the need for traditional calibration. Using this and the other features of the detector, particular attention was devoted to the suitability of the FM GC×GC-VUV system toward qualitative and quantitative analysis of bio-diesel fuel and different kinds of fatty acids. Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of tailing factor (1.1), asymmetry factor (1.1), and similarity (average value 97%), for the FAMEs mixtures analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic profiling based on two-dimensional J-resolved 1H NMR data and parallel factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils T; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.


    . Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR-spectra are used in this context to resolve overlapping signals by separating the effect of J-coupling from the effect of chemical shifts. Often one-dimensional projections of these data are used as input for standard multivariate statistical methods and only...... method that fits three-way experimental data to a model whose parameters in this case reflect concentrations and individual components spectrum along the chemical shift axis and corresponding profiles along the J-coupling axis. A set of saffron samples, directly extracted with methanol-d4, were used...

  13. Assessing CMT cell line stability by two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Kelan; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Fey, Stephen J


    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) followed by mass spectrometric identification of the proteins in the protein spots has become a central tool in proteomics. CMT167(H), CMT64(M) and CMT170(L) cell lines, selected from a spontaneous mouse lung adenocarcinoma, with high...... to be a useful tool for assessing differences in cell line stability. This approach provided a tool to select the best cell line and optimal subculture period for studies of cancer related phenomena and for testing the effect of potential anticancer drugs....

  14. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor (United States)

    Baker, Kevin


    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  15. Method based on the Laplace equations to reconstruct the river terrain for two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical modeling (United States)

    Lai, Ruixun; Wang, Min; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Chao


    The accuracy of the widely-used two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model depends on the quality of the river terrain model, particularly in the main channel. However, in most cases, the bathymetry of the river channel is difficult or expensive to obtain in the field, and there is a lack of available data to describe the geometry of the river channel. We introduce a method that originates from the grid generation with the elliptic equation to generate streamlines of the river channel. The streamlines are numerically solved with the Laplace equations. In the process, streamlines in the physical domain are first computed in a computational domain, and then transformed back to the physical domain. The interpolated streamlines are integrated with the surrounding topography to reconstruct the entire river terrain model. The approach was applied to a meandering reach in the Qinhe River, which is a tributary in the middle of the Yellow River, China. Cross-sectional validation and the two-dimensional shallow-water equations are used to test the performance of the river terrain generated. The results show that the approach can reconstruct the river terrain using the data from measured cross-sections. Furthermore, the created river terrain can maintain a geometrical shape consistent with the measurements, while generating a smooth main channel. Finally, several limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  16. Two-dimensional ion chromatography for the separation of ionic organophosphates generated in thermally decomposed lithium hexafluorophosphate-based lithium ion battery electrolytes. (United States)

    Kraft, Vadim; Grützke, Martin; Weber, Waldemar; Menzel, Jennifer; Wiemers-Meyer, Simon; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha


    A two-dimensional ion chromatography (IC/IC) technique with heart-cutting mode for the separation of ionic organophosphates was developed. These analytes are generated during thermal degradation of three different commercially available Selectilyte™ lithium ion battery electrolytes. The composition of the investigated electrolytes is based on 1M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) dissolved in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP30), ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP40) and ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate (50:50wt%, LP50). The organophosphates were pre-separated from PF6(-) anion on the low capacity A Supp 4 column, which was eluted with a gradient step containing acetonitrile. The fraction containing analytes was retarded on a pre-concentration column and after that transferred to the high capacity columns, where the separation was performed isocratically. Different stationary phases and eluents were applied on the 2nd dimension for the investigation of retention times, whereas the highly promising results were obtained with a high capacitive A Supp 10 column. The organophosphates generated in LP30 and LP40 electrolytes could be separated by application of an aqueous NaOH eluent providing fast analysis time within 35min. For the separation of the organophosphates of LP50 electrolyte due to its complexity a NaOH eluent containing a mixture of methanol/H2O was necessary. In addition, the developed two dimensional IC method was hyphenated to an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) using aqueous NaOH without organic modifiers. This proof of principle measurement was carried out for future quantitative investigation regarding the concentration of the ionic organophosphates. Furthermore, the chemical stability of several ionic organophosphates in water and acetonitrile at room temperature over a period of 10h was investigated. In both solvents no decomposition of the investigated analytes was observed and

  17. Management of radiation sources and personal dosimeters based on the optical identification using two-dimensional barcode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Hideaki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Kaneko, Mamoru; Miura, Miwa; Hayashida, Rika; Okumura, Yutaka; Matsuda, Naoki


    For accurate and efficient radiation safety management in facilities using radioisotopes, two-dimensional barcode (2-DC) was applied to the optical identification of radiation sources and personal dosimeters. The mobile personal computer (PC) equipped with a barcode reader, which has imported inventory records from the pre-existing radiation management system, enabled us to finish inventory procedures for 170 2-DC-labelled radiation sources in as short as 20min by one person. Identification of 270 personal dosimeters in their monthly replacement procedures also successfully completed within 20 min by incorporating pre-labeled 2-DC to PC installed with inventory records of dosimeters and radiation workers. As equipments and software required for 2-DC are affordable, easy to operate, and potentially expandable, the introduction of 2-DC system may help to establish practically higher level of radiation management. (author)

  18. High-resolution two-dimensional gel analysis of proteins in wing imaginal discs: A data base of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santaren, J.F.; Garcia-Bellido, A.


    An improved method of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to study the patterns of protein synthesis in wing imaginal discs of late instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. A small number of discs were radiolabeled with a mixture of 14 C-labeled amino acids or with [ 35 S]methionine and the pattern of labeled proteins was analyzed. One thousand and twenty-five polypeptides (787 acidic (IEF) and 238 basic (NEPHGE)) from wing discs of several wild-type strains have so far been separated and cataloged. All these polypeptides have been numbered and presented in a reference map for further studies. When comparing patterns of label we have found small quantitative differences in rate of synthesis between individuals of the same strain, not due to sexual differences, and very few quantitative and qualitative differences between groups of individuals of different strains

  19. Heart-cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry analysis of monoaromatic hydrocarbons in complex groundwater and gas-phase samples. (United States)

    Ponsin, Violaine; Buscheck, Timothy E; Hunkeler, Daniel


    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is increasingly used to evaluate the origin and fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment. However, as samples often contain a complex mixture of compounds and the method requires a full chromatographic separation, it can be challenging to obtain accurate and precise isotope values. In this study, in order to develop a method to analyze carbon isotopes in benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) in complex environmental samples, a two-dimensional heart-cutting gas chromatograph (GC) was hyphenated to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The focus was placed on benzene and toluene, which are the main compounds of concern in contaminated sites. A full separation for BTEX was successfully achieved using a 60m polar column in the first dimension and a 30m non-polar column in the second dimension. Accuracy and precision of carbon isotope measurements of standards were not impacted by the new setup compared to classic one-dimensional (1D) GC-C-IRMS. For benzene and toluene, precision remained very good (≤0.2‰) for concentrations comprised between 5 and 20μg/L. A high matrix load did not influence the precision and accuracy of isotope measurements. The method was tested on several samples from two different field sites. For all samples tested, full chromatographic baseline resolution was achieved for benzene and toluene. Spatial variability of isotopes values linked to biodegradation was evidenced for one field site. This new 2D-GC-C-IRMS method will broaden the spectrum of samples suitable for isotope analysis and will be therefore able to give new insights into attenuation processes of BTEX in contaminated sites or source fingerprinting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Fluid-Driven Fracture Propagation in Reservoirs Based on a Modified Fluid-Mechanically Coupled Model in Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou


    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.

  1. Two-dimensional motifs in organic materials: Nanodisks, nanodisk-based nanocomposites and nanothin surface-mounted films (United States)

    Tekobo, Samuel

    Various new technologies are benefiting from the incorporation of new nanophase materials into existing materials and devices. This dissertation explores two-dimensional motifs in creation of organic nanomaterials with new and superior properties. The major part of this thesis focuses on organic nanodisks prepared by controlled polymerization in the interior of bicelles, discoidal lipid aggregates. Another shape studied here is nanothin film mounted on a gold surface. Synthesis of nanodisks is carried out by UV-initiated polymerization of a mixture of styrene and divinylbenzene loaded into self-assembled bicelles. Bicelles act as temporary self-assembled scaffolds, and after the synthesis lipids can be separated and recycled to template a new batch of nanodisks. This method yields new two-dimensional nanoparticles with 15--30 nm diameter and 2 nm thickness. Aggregation behavior of nanodisks was studied in water, organic solvents, and solid phase. Aggregation of nanoparticles has been a major problem in developing various applications. Nanodisks formed a stable (>1 week) suspension of single particles in toluene and carbon tetrachloride, but required a surfactant for uniform dispersion in water. Using sodium docecylsulfate (SDS) as the surfactant, zeta potential studies revealed that particles have a good electrostatic stability at SDS concentrations below the critical micelle concentration. Further, varying the surface density of surfactants can control the size of aggregates of nanodisks in water. Upon drying, nanodisks aggregate into sub-micron platelets. Cross-linked polystyrene nanodisks were then incorporated into bulk polystyreme to determine whether they reinforced its thermal and mechanical properties. Small-angle neutron scattering data suggest that material containing small amounts of nanodisks, as little as 0.001%, form true nanocomposites as evidenced by the presence of individual nanodisks in polystyrene matrix. Thermogravimetric analysis and flexure

  2. Affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for discovering xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Mo, Hua-Yan; Gao, Wen; Hong, Jia-Ying; Lu, Jun; Li, Ping; Chen, Jun


    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is a key oxidative enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and certain diseases induced by excessive reactive oxygen species. XOD inhibitors could provide an important therapeutic approach to treat such diseases. A new method using affinity selection-based two-dimensional chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the online screening of potential XOD inhibitors from Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae. Based on our previous study, the two-dimensional, turbulent-flow chromatography (TFC) was changed to a mixed-mode anion-exchange/reversed-phase column and one reversed-phase column. The developed method was validated to be selective and sensitive for screening XOD-binding compounds, especially weak acidic ones, in the extracts. Three salvianolic acids were screened from the Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae extract via the developed method. The XOD inhibitory activities of salvianolic acid C and salvianolic acid A were confirmed, and their inhibitory modes were measured. Salvianolic acid C exhibited potent XOD inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 9.07 μM. This work demonstrated that the developed online, two-dimensional TFC/LC-MS method was effective in discovering the binding affinity of new compounds from natural extracts for target proteins, even at low concentrations.

  3. Two-dimensional Schrödinger symmetry and three-dimensional breathers and Kelvin-ripple complexes as quasi-massive-Nambu-Goldstone modes (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke A.; Ohashi, Keisuke; Fujimori, Toshiaki; Nitta, Muneto


    Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) confined in a two-dimensional (2D) harmonic trap are known to possess a hidden 2D Schrödinger symmetry, that is, the Schrödinger symmetry modified by a trapping potential. Spontaneous breaking of this symmetry gives rise to a breathing motion of the BEC, whose oscillation frequency is robustly determined by the strength of the harmonic trap. In this paper, we demonstrate that the concept of the 2D Schrödinger symmetry can be applied to predict the nature of three-dimensional (3D) collective modes propagating along a condensate confined in an elongated trap. We find three kinds of collective modes whose existence is robustly ensured by the Schrödinger symmetry, which are physically interpreted as one breather mode and two Kelvin-ripple complex modes, i.e., composite modes in which the vortex core and the condensate surface oscillate interactively. We provide analytical expressions for the dispersion relations (energy-momentum relation) of these modes using the Bogoliubov theory [D. A. Takahashi and M. Nitta, Ann. Phys. 354, 101 (2015), 10.1016/j.aop.2014.12.009]. Furthermore, we point out that these modes can be interpreted as "quasi-massive-Nambu-Goldstone (NG) modes", that is, they have the properties of both quasi-NG and massive NG modes: quasi-NG modes appear when a symmetry of a part of a Lagrangian, which is not a symmetry of a full Lagrangian, is spontaneously broken, while massive NG modes appear when a modified symmetry is spontaneously broken.

  4. At-wavelength metrology using the moiré fringe analysis method based on a two dimensional grating interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Berujon, Sebastien [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP-220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Pape, Ian [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian [Paul Scherrer Institut, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)


    A two-dimensional (2D) grating interferometer was used to perform at-wavelength metrology. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the interferograms recovers the differential X-ray beam phase in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. As an example, the X-ray wavefronts downstream from a Fresnel Zone plate were measured using the moiré fringe analysis method, which requires only a single image. The rotating shearing interferometer technique for moiré fringe analysis was extended from one dimension to two dimensions to carry out absolute wavefront metrology. In addition, the 2D moiré fringes were extrapolated using Gerchberg's method to reduce the boundary artifacts. The advantages and limitations of the phase-stepping method and the moiré fringe analysis method are also discussed. -- Highlights: ► A rapid and sensitive strip test for CPPU (forchlorfenuron) detection is reported. ► Carbon nanoparticles were used for antibody labelling. ► A common flatbed scanner was employed to the quantitate strip spots. ► The new method was successfully applied to the analysis of the field samples.

  5. Rational Design of Two-Dimensional Metallic and Semiconducting Spintronic Materials Based on Ordered Double-Transition-Metal MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Liang


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials that display robust ferromagnetism have been pursued intensively for nanoscale spintronic applications, but suitable candidates have not been identified. Here we present theoretical predictions on the design of ordered double-transition-metal MXene structures to achieve such a goal. On the basis of the analysis of electron filling in transition-metal cations and first-principles simulations, we demonstrate robust ferromagnetism in Ti2MnC2Tx monolayers regardless of the surface terminations (T = O, OH, and F), as well as in Hf2MnC2O2 and Hf2VC2O2 monolayers. The high magnetic moments (3–4 μB/unit cell) and high Curie temperatures (495–1133 K) of these MXenes are superior to those of existing 2D ferromagnetic materials. Furthermore, semimetal-to-semiconductor and ferromagnetic-to-antiferromagnetic phase transitions are predicted to occur in these materials in the presence of small or moderate tensile in-plane strains (0–3%), which can be externally applied mechanically or internally induced by the choice of transition metals.

  6. At-wavelength metrology using the moiré fringe analysis method based on a two dimensional grating interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Pape, Ian; Rutishauser, Simon; David, Christian; Sawhney, Kawal


    A two-dimensional (2D) grating interferometer was used to perform at-wavelength metrology. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the interferograms recovers the differential X-ray beam phase in two orthogonal directions simultaneously. As an example, the X-ray wavefronts downstream from a Fresnel Zone plate were measured using the moiré fringe analysis method, which requires only a single image. The rotating shearing interferometer technique for moiré fringe analysis was extended from one dimension to two dimensions to carry out absolute wavefront metrology. In addition, the 2D moiré fringes were extrapolated using Gerchberg's method to reduce the boundary artifacts. The advantages and limitations of the phase-stepping method and the moiré fringe analysis method are also discussed. -- Highlights: ► A rapid and sensitive strip test for CPPU (forchlorfenuron) detection is reported. ► Carbon nanoparticles were used for antibody labelling. ► A common flatbed scanner was employed to the quantitate strip spots. ► The new method was successfully applied to the analysis of the field samples

  7. An Ultrasonic Sensor System Based on a Two-Dimensional State Method for Highway Vehicle Violation Detection Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu


    Full Text Available With the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule violation (TRV detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems (ITS and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%.

  8. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, Université Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)


    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy (H-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion term and a drift term, has a nice physical interpretation in terms of a selective decay principle. This sheds new light on both the MEPP and the anticipated vorticity method. (paper)

  9. Unit-cell design for two-dimensional phase-field simulation of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjia Cao


    Full Text Available Phase-field simulation serves as an effective tool for quantitative characterization of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification nowadays. The classic unit cell is either limited to γ dendrites along crystal orientation or too ideal to cover complex morphologies for γ dendrites. An attempt to design the unit cell for two-dimensional (2-D phase-field simulations of microstructure evolution in single-crystal Ni-based superalloys during solidification was thus performed by using the MICRESS (MICRostructure Evolution Simulation Software in the framework of the multi-phase-field (MPF model, and demonstrated in a commercial TMS-113 superalloy. The coupling to CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram thermodynamic database was realized via the TQ interface and the experimental diffusion coefficients were utilized in the simulation. Firstly, the classic unit cell with a single γ dendrite along crystal orientation was employed for the phase-field simulation in order to reproduce the microstructure features. Then, such simple unit cell was extended into the cases with two other different crystal orientations, i.e., and . Thirdly, for crystal orientations, the effect of γ dendritic orientations and unit cell sizes on microstructure and microsegregation was comprehensively studied, from which a new unit cell with multiple γ dendrites was proposed. The phase-field simulation with the newly proposed unit cell was further performed in the TMS-113 superalloy, and the microstructure features including the competitive growth of γ dendrites, microsegregation of different solutes and distribution of γ′ grains, can be nicely reproduced.

  10. Application of a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model for calculating the CO_{2} and H_{2}O fluxes over complex terrain (United States)

    Mukhartova, Yulia; Krupenko, Alexandr; Levashova, Natalia; Olchev, Alexandr


    Within the framework of the study a two dimensional hydrodynamic model of turbulent transfer of greenhouse gases was developed and applied for calculating the CO2 and H2O turbulent fluxes within the atmospheric surface layer over the heterogeneous land surface with mosaic vegetation and complex topography. The vegetation cover in the model is represented as the two-phase medium containing the elements of vegetation and the air. The model is based on solving the system of averaged Navier-Stokes and continuity equations for the wind velocity components (⃗V = {V1,V2}), using the 1.5-order closure scheme (Wilcox 1998, Wyngaard 2010). The system of the main equations includes also the diffusion and advection equations for turbulent transfer of sensible heat, CO2 concentration (Cs) and specific humidity (q) at soil - vegetation -atmosphere interface (Sogachev, Panferov 2006, Mukhartova et al. 2015, Mamkin et al. 2016): ( ) { ( )} ∂Vi+ ⃗V,∇ V = -1ṡ-∂-δP -∂- 2δ ¯e- K ṡ ∂Vi-+ ∂Vj- +gṡδTv+F , i,j = 1,2, ∂t i ρ0 ∂xi ∂xj 3 ij ∂xj ∂xi T0 i div⃗V = 0, ∂T ( ) Tv γa ∂T 1 ( ) H ∂t-+ ⃗V ,∇ T+ γaṡT-ṡV2 = div (KT ṡ∇T )+ T-ṡKT ṡ∂x-+ρ-c- ⃗V,∇ δP -ρ-c-, 0 0 2 0 p 0 p ∂Cs- (⃗ ) ∂q- (⃗ ) E- ∂t + V ,∇ Cs = div(KC ṡ∇Cs )+FC, ∂t+ V ,∇ q = div(Kv ṡ∇q )+ ρ , where x1,x2 - horizontal and vertical coordinates respectively, ρ0 - the density of dry air, δP - the deviation of mean air pressure from the hydrostatic distribution, ¯e - the turbulent kinetic energy, T - the temperature of the air, δTv = T ṡ(1+ 0.61q) -T0 - the deviation of virtual temperature from the adiabatic temperature T0(x2) for dry air, Fi - the components of the viscous drag forces induced by the presence of vegetation, K,KT,KC,Kv - turbulent exchange coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, CO2and H2O respectively, γa = g/ cp, cp - the specific heat of the air at constant atmospheric pressure, FC - the sources/sinks of CO2in

  11. In-Depth Characterization of the Phaseolin Protein Diversity of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Based on Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López-Pedrouso


    Full Text Available Phaseolin is the major seed storage protein of common bean. It comprises a complex set of glycoproteins heterogeneous in their polypeptide composition that is encoded by a gene family. Analyses of phaseolin banding patterns by one-dimensional electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE have been central to the current understanding of the diversity of wild and cultivated common beans. In this work, we have carried out a detailed description and interpretation of phaseolin diversity in cultivated common beans of different geographic origins (Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools based on the current two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE technology and mass spectrometry (MS. High-quality 2-DE gel images revealed very complex phaseolin patterns across the studied cultivars. Specifically, patterns of phaseolin within cultivars were organized in a horizontal string of multiple isospot pairs varying in isoelectric point and molecular mass. The degree of similarity among phaseolin patterns was estimated from the percentage of spots shared between pairs of cultivars. Analyses of proteomic distances between phaseolin types by non-metrical multidimensional scaling revealed that 2-DE phaseolin profiles are more similar among cultivars belonging to the same gene pool. However, higher differentiation was found among cultivars of the Andean gene pool. Analysis of genetic variations of the PCR-based SCAR marker of phaseolin seed protein was in general agreement with 2-DE phaseolin patterns, but provided supplementary information regarding diversity among cultivars. Furthermore, the molecular basis responsible for the complexity of 2-DE phaseolin patterns was investigated. Thus, identification of phaseolin spots from 2-DE gels by MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS showed that each single isospot pair contained only one type (α or β of phaseolin polypeptide, but pairs with higher and lower molecular mass corresponded to α- and β-type polypeptides, respectively. In addition, partial

  12. Conoscopic holography: two-dimensional numerical reconstructions. (United States)

    Mugnier, L M; Sirat, G Y; Charlot, D


    Conoscopic holography is an incoherent light holographic technique based on the properties of crystal optics. We present experimental results of the numerical reconstruction of a two-dimensional object from its conoscopic hologram.

  13. Molecular genetic divergence of orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus) subspecies based on isozyme and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Janczewski, D N; Goldman, D; O'Brien, S J


    The orang utan (Pongo pygmaeus), as currently recognized, includes two geographically separated subspecies: Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus, which resides on Borneo, and P. p. abelii, which inhabits Sumatra. At present, there is no known route of gene flow between the two populations except through captive individuals which have been released back into the wild over the last several decades. The two subspecies are differentiated by morphological and behavioral characters, and they can be distinguished by a subspecies specific pericentric chromosomal inversion. Nei-genetic distances were estimated between orang utan subspecies, gorilla, chimpanzee and humans using 44 isozyme loci and using 458 soluble fibroblast proteins which were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Phenetic analysis of both data sets supports the following conclusions: the orang utan subspecies distances are approximately 10 times closer to each other than they are to the African apes, and the orang utan subspecies are approximately as divergent as are the two chimpanzee species. Comparison of the genetic distances to genetic distance estimates done in the same laboratory under identical conditions reveals that the distance between Bornean vs. Sumatran orang utans is 5-10 times the distance measured between several pairs of subspecies including lions, cheetahs, and tigers. Near species level molecular genetic distances between orang utan subspecies would support the separate management of Bornean and Sumatran orang utans as evolutionary significant units (Ryder 1987). Evolutionary topologies were constructed from the distance data using both cladistic and phenetic methods. The majority of resulting trees affirmed previous molecular evolutionary studies that indicated that man and chimpanzee diverged from a common ancestor subsequent to the divergence of gorilla from the common ancestor.

  14. Enhancing the chemical selectivity in discovery-based analysis with tandem ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Freye, Chris E; Moore, Nicholas R; Synovec, Robert E


    The complementary information provided by tandem ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TI-TOFMS) is investigated for comparative discovery-based analysis, when coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC). The TI conditions implemented were a hard ionization energy (70 eV) concurrently collected with a soft ionization energy (14 eV). Tile-based Fisher ratio (F-ratio) analysis is used to analyze diesel fuel spiked with twelve analytes at a nominal concentration of 50 ppm. F-ratio analysis is a supervised discovery-based technique that compares two different sample classes, in this case spiked and unspiked diesel, to reduce the complex GC × GC-TI-TOFMS data into a hit list of class distinguishing analyte features. Hit lists of the 70 eV and 14 eV data sets, and the single hit list produced when the two data sets are fused together, are all investigated. For the 70 eV hit list, eleven of the twelve analytes were found in the top thirteen hits. For the 14 eV hit list, nine of the twelve analytes were found in the top nine hits, with the other three analytes either not found or well down the hit list. As expected, the F-ratios per m/z used to calculate each average F-ratio per hit were generally smaller fragment ions for the 70 eV data set, while the larger fragment ions were emphasized in the 14 eV data set, supporting the notion that complementary information was provided. The discovery rate was improved when F-ratio analysis was performed on the fused data sets resulted in eleven of the twelve analytes being at the top of the single hit list. Using PARAFAC, analytes that were "discovered" were deconvoluted in order to obtain their identification via match values (MV). Location of the analytes and the "F-ratio spectra" obtained from F-ratio analysis were used to guide the deconvolution. Eight of the twelve analytes where successfully deconvoluted and identified using the in-house library for the 70

  15. Synthesis of two-dimensional molybdenum carbide, Mo2C, from the gallium based atomic laminate Mo2Ga2C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkian, Rahele; Näslund, Lars-Åke; Halim, Joseph; Lu, Jun; Barsoum, Michel W.; Rosen, Johanna


    We report on the synthesis of a two-dimensional transition metal carbide, Mo 2 C, (MXene) obtained by immersing Mo 2 Ga 2 C thin films in hydrofluoric acid. Experimental evidences for neither synthesis of a Mo-based MXene nor selective etching of Ga from an atomic nanolaminate have previously been presented. MXene formation is verified through X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. This discovery unlocks new potential applications for Mo-based MXenes in a host of applications, from thermoelectrics to catalysis and energy storage

  16. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds. (United States)

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi


    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](BF 4 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)} 4 C6](PF 6 ) 2 ·2(CH 3 OH) (2) (salen 2- = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6 2- = C 6 H 12 (COO) 2 2- ), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H 2 O)]X (X - = BF 4 - and PF 6 - ) and C 6 H 12 (CO 2 - ) 2 (C6 2- ) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ 4 -type C6 2- ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C 6 H 12 linkers of C6 2- moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF 4 - and PF 6 - , respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF 4 - is smaller than that of PF 6 - , intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn III out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn III ion, the [-{Mn 2 }-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of T N = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  17. Automated dual two-dimensional liquid chromatography approach for fast acquisition of three-dimensional data using combinations of zwitterionic polymethacrylate and silica-based monolithic columns. (United States)

    Hájek, Tomáš; Jandera, Pavel; Staňková, Magda; Česla, Petr


    A monolithic sulfobetaine polymethacrylate micro-column BIGDMA-MEDSA designed in our laboratory, shows dual retention mechanism: In acetonitrile-rich mobile phase, hydrophilic interactions control the retention (HILIC system), whereas in more aqueous mobile phases the column shows essentially reversed-phase behavior with major role of hydrophobic interactions. The zwitterionic polymethacrylate micro-column can be used in the first dimension of two-dimensional LC in alternating reversed-phase (RP) and HILIC modes, coupled with an alkyl-bonded core-shell or silica-based monolithic column in the second dimension, for HILIC×RP and RP×RP comprehensive two-dimensional separations. During the HILIC×RP period, a gradient of decreasing acetonitrile gradient is used for separation in the first dimension, so that at the end of the gradient the polymeric monolithic micro-column is equilibrated with a highly aqueous mobile phase and is ready for repeated sample injection, this time for separation under reversed-phase gradient conditions with increasing concentration of acetonitrile in the first dimension. The fast repeating reversed-phase gradients on a short silica-monolithic or core-shell column in the second dimension can be optimized independently of the actual running first-dimension gradient program. As the alternating HILIC and RP separations on the first-dimension zwitterionic methacrylate column are based on complementary retention mechanisms, the instrumental setup essentially represents two coupled two-dimensional systems. It is first time that such an automated dual LCxLC approach is reported. The novel system allows obtaining three-dimensional data in a relatively short time and can be applied not only to multidimensional gradient separations of flavones and related polyphenolic compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. New approach based on fuzzy logic and principal component analysis for the classification of two-dimensional maps in health and disease. Application to lymphomas. (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Robotti, Elisa; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Antonucci, Francesca


    Two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis is the most wide spread technique for the separation of proteins in biological systems. This technique produces 2D maps of high complexity, which creates difficulties in the comparison of different samples. The method proposed in this paper for the comparison of different 2D maps can be summarised in four steps: (a) digitalisation of the image; (b) fuzzyfication of the digitalised map in order to consider the variability of the two-dimensional electrophoretic separation; (c) decoding by principal component analysis of the previously obtained fuzzy maps, in order to reduce the system dimensionality; (d) classification analysis (linear discriminant analysis), in order to separate the samples contained in the dataset according to the classes present in said dataset. This method was applied to a dataset constituted by eight samples: four belonging to healthy human lymph-nodes and four deriving from non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The amount of fuzzyfication of the original map is governed by the sigma parameter. The larger the value, the more fuzzy theresulting transformed map. The effect of the fuzzyfication parameter was investigated, the optimal results being obtained for sigma = 1.75 and 2.25. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis allowed the separation of the two classes of samples without any misclassification.

  19. Focusing and non-focusing modulation strategies for the improvement of on-line two-dimensional hydrophilic interaction chromatography × reversed phase profiling of complex food samples. (United States)

    Montero, Lidia; Ibáñez, Elena; Russo, Mariateresa; Rastrelli, Luca; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Herrero, Miguel


    Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) is ever gaining interest in food analysis, as often, food-related samples are too complex to be analyzed through one-dimensional approaches. The use of hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) combined with reversed phase (RP) separations has already been demonstrated as a very orthogonal combination, which allows attaining increased resolving power. However, this coupling encompasses different analytical challenges, mainly related to the important solvent strength mismatch between the two dimensions, besides those common to every LC × LC method. In the present contribution, different strategies are proposed and compared to further increase HILIC × RP method performance for the analysis of complex food samples, using licorice as a model sample. The influence of different parameters in non-focusing modulation methods based on sampling loops, as well as under focusing modulation, through the use of trapping columns in the interface and through active modulation procedures are studied in order to produce resolving power and sensitivity gains. Although the use of a dilution strategy using sampling loops as well as the highest possible first dimension sampling rate allowed significant improvements on resolution, focusing modulation produced significant gains also in peak capacity and sensitivity. Overall, the obtained results demonstrate the great applicability and potential that active modulation may have for the analysis of complex food samples, such as licorice, by HILIC × RP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-Dimensional Measurement of n+-p Asymmetrical Junctions in Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Using AFM-Based Electrical Techniques with Nanometer Resolution: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Li, J. V.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Heath, J. T.


    Lateral inhomogeneities of modern solar cells demand direct electrical imaging with nanometer resolution. We show that atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based electrical techniques provide unique junction characterizations, giving a two-dimensional determination of junction locations. Two AFM-based techniques, scanning capacitance microscopy/spectroscopy (SCM/SCS) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM), were significantly improved and applied to the junction characterizations of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells. The SCS spectra were taken pixel by pixel by precisely controlling the tip positions in the junction area. The spectra reveal distinctive features that depend closely on the position relative to the electrical junction, which allows us to indentify the electrical junction location. In addition, SKPFM directly probes the built-in potential over the junction area modified by the surface band bending, which allows us to deduce the metallurgical junction location by identifying a peak of the electric field. Our results demonstrate resolutions of 10-40 nm, depending on the techniques (SCS or SKPFM). These direct electrical measurements with nanometer resolution and intrinsic two-dimensional capability are well suited for investigating the junction distribution of solar cells with lateral inhomogeneities.

  1. Implementation of a Multi-Robot Coverage Algorithm on a Two-Dimensional, Grid-Based Environment (United States)


    contrast, a multi-robot system is like a cooperative team; each robot in the system has to update its memory based on the information it receives from...Theory–Based Approach Neither planner based nor deliberative approaches can verify sensory information or generate motions directly; they require a...Design path) v v Avoiding obstacles v v v Monitor performance v v Low memory processing v v v Internal representaions v v Ability to learn v v

  2. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina


    We study countable sums of two dimensional modules for the continuous complex functions on a compact metric space and show that it is possible to construct a spectral triple which gives the original metric back. This spectral triple will be finitely summable for any positive parameter. We also co...

  3. Ab initio and template-based prediction of multi-class distance maps by two-dimensional recursive neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Alberto JM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of protein structures from their sequences is still one of the open grand challenges of computational biology. Some approaches to protein structure prediction, especially ab initio ones, rely to some extent on the prediction of residue contact maps. Residue contact map predictions have been assessed at the CASP competition for several years now. Although it has been shown that exact contact maps generally yield correct three-dimensional structures, this is true only at a relatively low resolution (3–4 Å from the native structure. Another known weakness of contact maps is that they are generally predicted ab initio, that is not exploiting information about potential homologues of known structure. Results We introduce a new class of distance restraints for protein structures: multi-class distance maps. We show that Cα trace reconstructions based on 4-class native maps are significantly better than those from residue contact maps. We then build two predictors of 4-class maps based on recursive neural networks: one ab initio, or relying on the sequence and on evolutionary information; one template-based, or in which homology information to known structures is provided as a further input. We show that virtually any level of sequence similarity to structural templates (down to less than 10% yields more accurate 4-class maps than the ab initio predictor. We show that template-based predictions by recursive neural networks are consistently better than the best template and than a number of combinations of the best available templates. We also extract binary residue contact maps at an 8 Å threshold (as per CASP assessment from the 4-class predictors and show that the template-based version is also more accurate than the best template and consistently better than the ab initio one, down to very low levels of sequence identity to structural templates. Furthermore, we test both ab-initio and template-based 8

  4. A novel post-processing scheme for two-dimensional electrical impedance tomography based on artificial neural networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Martin

    Full Text Available Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT is a powerful non-invasive technique for imaging applications. The goal is to estimate the electrical properties of living tissues by measuring the potential at the boundary of the domain. Being safe with respect to patient health, non-invasive, and having no known hazards, EIT is an attractive and promising technology. However, it suffers from a particular technical difficulty, which consists of solving a nonlinear inverse problem in real time. Several nonlinear approaches have been proposed as a replacement for the linear solver, but in practice very few are capable of stable, high-quality, and real-time EIT imaging because of their very low robustness to errors and inaccurate modeling, or because they require considerable computational effort.In this paper, a post-processing technique based on an artificial neural network (ANN is proposed to obtain a nonlinear solution to the inverse problem, starting from a linear solution. While common reconstruction methods based on ANNs estimate the solution directly from the measured data, the method proposed here enhances the solution obtained from a linear solver.Applying a linear reconstruction algorithm before applying an ANN reduces the effects of noise and modeling errors. Hence, this approach significantly reduces the error associated with solving 2D inverse problems using machine-learning-based algorithms.This work presents radical enhancements in the stability of nonlinear methods for biomedical EIT applications.

  5. A Novel Image Encryption Algorithm Based on the Two-Dimensional Logistic Map and the Latin Square Image Cipher (United States)

    Machkour, M.; Saaidi, A.; Benmaati, M. L.


    In this paper, we introduce a new hybrid system consisting of a permutation-substitution network based on two different encryption techniques: chaotic systems and the Latin square. This homogeneity between the two systems allows us to provide the good properties of confusion and diffusion, robustness to the integration of noise in decryption. The security analysis shows that the system is secure enough to resist brute-force attack, differential attack, chosen-plaintext attack, known-plaintext attack and statistical attack. Therefore, this robustness is proven and justified.

  6. Two-Dimensional High Definition Versus Three-Dimensional Endoscopy in Endonasal Skull Base Surgery: A Comparative Preclinical Study. (United States)

    Rampinelli, Vittorio; Doglietto, Francesco; Mattavelli, Davide; Qiu, Jimmy; Raffetti, Elena; Schreiber, Alberto; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Kucharczyk, Walter; Donato, Francesco; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Nicolai, Piero


    Three-dimensional (3D) endoscopy has been recently introduced in endonasal skull base surgery. Only a relatively limited number of studies have compared it to 2-dimensional, high definition technology. The objective was to compare, in a preclinical setting for endonasal endoscopic surgery, the surgical maneuverability of 2-dimensional, high definition and 3D endoscopy. A group of 68 volunteers, novice and experienced surgeons, were asked to perform 2 tasks, namely simulating grasping and dissection surgical maneuvers, in a model of the nasal cavities. Time to complete the tasks was recorded. A questionnaire to investigate subjective feelings during tasks was filled by each participant. In 25 subjects, the surgeons' movements were continuously tracked by a magnetic-based neuronavigator coupled with dedicated software (ApproachViewer, part of GTx-UHN) and the recorded trajectories were analyzed by comparing jitter, sum of square differences, and funnel index. Total execution time was significantly lower with 3D technology (P technology appears to confer an advantage in terms of time of execution and precision of surgical maneuvers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two-dimensional priority-based dynamic resource allocation algorithm for QoS in WDM/TDM PON networks (United States)

    Sun, Yixin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Rao, Lan


    Wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) passive optical networks (PON) is being viewed as a promising solution for delivering multiple services and applications. The hybrid WDM / TDM PON uses the wavelength and bandwidth allocation strategy to control the distribution of the wavelength channels in the uplink direction, so that it can ensure the high bandwidth requirements of multiple Optical Network Units (ONUs) while improving the wavelength resource utilization. Through the investigation of the presented dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, these algorithms can't satisfy the requirements of different levels of service very well while adapting to the structural characteristics of mixed WDM / TDM PON system. This paper introduces a novel wavelength and bandwidth allocation algorithm to efficiently utilize the bandwidth and support QoS (Quality of Service) guarantees in WDM/TDM PON. Two priority based polling subcycles are introduced in order to increase system efficiency and improve system performance. The fixed priority polling subcycle and dynamic priority polling subcycle follow different principles to implement wavelength and bandwidth allocation according to the priority of different levels of service. A simulation was conducted to study the performance of the priority based polling in dynamic resource allocation algorithm in WDM/TDM PON. The results show that the performance of delay-sensitive services is greatly improved without degrading QoS guarantees for other services. Compared with the traditional dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, this algorithm can meet bandwidth needs of different priority traffic class, achieve low loss rate performance, and ensure real-time of high priority traffic class in terms of overall traffic on the network.

  8. A two-dimensional matrix image based feature extraction method for classification of sEMG: A comparative analysis based on SVM, KNN and RBF-NN. (United States)

    Wen, Tingxi; Zhang, Zhongnan; Qiu, Ming; Zeng, Ming; Luo, Weizhen


    The computer mouse is an important human-computer interaction device. But patients with physical finger disability are unable to operate this device. Surface EMG (sEMG) can be monitored by electrodes on the skin surface and is a reflection of the neuromuscular activities. Therefore, we can control limbs auxiliary equipment by utilizing sEMG classification in order to help the physically disabled patients to operate the mouse. To develop a new a method to extract sEMG generated by finger motion and apply novel features to classify sEMG. A window-based data acquisition method was presented to extract signal samples from sEMG electordes. Afterwards, a two-dimensional matrix image based feature extraction method, which differs from the classical methods based on time domain or frequency domain, was employed to transform signal samples to feature maps used for classification. In the experiments, sEMG data samples produced by the index and middle fingers at the click of a mouse button were separately acquired. Then, characteristics of the samples were analyzed to generate a feature map for each sample. Finally, the machine learning classification algorithms (SVM, KNN, RBF-NN) were employed to classify these feature maps on a GPU. The study demonstrated that all classifiers can identify and classify sEMG samples effectively. In particular, the accuracy of the SVM classifier reached up to 100%. The signal separation method is a convenient, efficient and quick method, which can effectively extract the sEMG samples produced by fingers. In addition, unlike the classical methods, the new method enables to extract features by enlarging sample signals' energy appropriately. The classical machine learning classifiers all performed well by using these features.

  9. The influence of foot geometry on the calcaneal osteotomy angle based on two-dimensional static force analyses. (United States)

    Reilingh, M L; Tuijthof, G J M; van Dijk, C N; Blankevoort, L


    Malalignment of the hindfoot can be corrected with a calcaneal osteotomy (CO). A well-selected osteotomy angle in the sagittal plane will reduce the shear force in the osteotomy plane while walking. The purpose was to determine the presence of a relationship between the foot geometry and loading of the calcaneus, which influences the choice of the preferred CO angle. A static free body force analysis was made of the posterior calcaneal fragment in the second half of the stance phase to determine the main loads: the plantar apeunorosis (PA) and Achilles tendon (AT). The third load is on the osteotomy surface which should be oriented such that the shear component of the force is zero. The force direction of the PA and AT was measured on 58 MRIs of the foot, and the force ratio between both structures was taken from the literature. In addition the PA-to-AT force ratio was estimated for different foot geometries to identify the relationship. Based on the wish to minimize the shear force during walking, a mean CO angle was determined to be 33° (SD8) relative to the foot sole. In pes planus foot geometry, the angle should be higher than the mean. In pes cavus foot geometry, the angle should be smaller. Foot geometry, in particular the relative foot heights is a determinant for the individual angle in performing the sliding calcaneal osteotomy. It is recommended to take into account the foot geometry (arch) when deciding on the CO angle for hindfoot correction.

  10. The polarization modulation and fabrication method of two dimensional silica photonic crystals based on UV nanoimprint lithography and hot imprint. (United States)

    Guo, Shuai; Niu, Chunhui; Liang, Liang; Chai, Ke; Jia, Yaqing; Zhao, Fangyin; Li, Ya; Zou, Bingsuo; Liu, Ruibin


    Based on a silica sol-gel technique, highly-structurally ordered silica photonic structures were fabricated by UV lithography and hot manual nanoimprint efforts, which makes large-scale fabrication of silica photonic crystals easy and results in low-cost. These photonic structures show perfect periodicity, smooth and flat surfaces and consistent aspect ratios, which are checked by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, glass substrates with imprinted photonic nanostructures show good diffraction performance in both transmission and reflection mode. Furthermore, the reflection efficiency can be enhanced by 5 nm Au nanoparticle coating, which does not affect the original imprint structure. Also the refractive index and dielectric constant of the imprinted silica is close to that of the dielectric layer in nanodevices. In addition, the polarization characteristics of the reflected light can be modulated by stripe nanostructures through changing the incident light angle. The experimental findings match with theoretical results, making silica photonic nanostructures functional integration layers in many optical or optoelectronic devices, such as LED and microlasers to enhance the optical performance and modulate polarization properties in an economical and large-scale way.

  11. On the coexistence of two-dimensional electron and hole gases in GaN-based heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granzner, R.; Mustafa, N.; Schwierz, F.; Racko, J.; Mikolasek, M.; Breza, J.


    In this work, the conditions for the coexistence of electron and hole gases in GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures are investigated by means of both numerical Schroedinger- Poisson simulations and analytical models. Special emphasis is put on the effects of the layer design and the bias conditions. We focus on wurtzite Ga-face structures which are commonly used in GaN-based devices. The conditions for the coexistence of electron and hole gases in GaN/AlGaN/GaN heterostructures have been studied by means of numerical Schroedinger-Poisson simulations and analytical models. When a 2DHG is formed, it effectively shields the 2DEG from the gate field and the electron concentration saturates. The saturation value strongly depends on the AlGaN thickness but is independent of the cap layer thickness. Below a minimum AlGaN thickness it is impossible to form a 2DHG and a 2DEG simultaneously. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ­In this study the proper orthogonal decomposition method is utilised as a model reduction technique in crack size estimation in a cracked plate under traction problem. The idea is to create a reduced model based on the results issued from finite element method, thus the crack size parameter is directly related to the boundary displacement obtained from the boundary nodes considered as sensor points. The inverse investigation is run using a genetic algorithm to minimization the error function expressed as the difference between data caused by the crack proposed by genetic algorithm in every individual and the one measured at the actual crack identity. The reduced model is validated by comparing the estimated structural response with the corresponding results from the finite element model. The effectiveness of the approach related to the used number of sensors is presented. Finally the stability of the method against uncertainty is tested by introducing different levels of white noise to the reference data.

  13. Stationary phase selection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic analysis of trace biodiesel in petroleum-based fuel. (United States)

    Seeley, John V; Bates, Carly T; McCurry, James D; Seeley, Stacy K


    The GC×GC solvation parameter model has been used to identify effective stationary phases for the separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from petroleum hydrocarbons. This simple mathematical model was used to screen the 1225 different combinations of 50 stationary phases. The most promising pairs combined a poly(methyltrifluoropropylsiloxane) stationary phase with a poly(dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) stationary phase. The theoretical results were experimentally tested by equipping a GC×GC instrument with a DB-210 primary stationary phase and an HP-50+ secondary stationary phase. This instrument was used to analyze trace levels of FAMEs in kerosene. The FAMEs were fully separated from the petroleum hydrocarbons on the secondary dimension of the 2-D chromatogram. The resulting GC×GC method was shown to be capable of accurately quantifying FAME levels as low as 2 ppm (w/w). These results demonstrate the utility of the solvation parameter model for identifying optimal stationary phases for high resolution GC×GC separations. Furthermore, this work presents an effective method for determining the level of biodiesel contamination in aviation fuel and other petroleum-based fuels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-dimensional Quantum Gravity (United States)

    Rolf, Juri


    This Ph.D. thesis pursues two goals: The study of the geometrical structure of two-dimensional quantum gravity and in particular its fractal nature. To address these questions we review the continuum formalism of quantum gravity with special focus on the scaling properties of the theory. We discuss several concepts of fractal dimensions which characterize the extrinsic and intrinsic geometry of quantum gravity. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Dimitrij Boulatov, Jakob L. Nielsen and Yoshiyuki Watabiki (1997). The other goal is the discussion of the discretization of quantum gravity and to address the so called quantum failure of Regge calculus. We review dynamical triangulations and show that it agrees with the continuum theory in two dimensions. Then we discuss Regge calculus and prove that a continuum limit cannot be taken in a sensible way and that it does not reproduce continuum results. This work is partly based on work done in collaboration with Jan Ambjørn, Jakob L. Nielsen and George Savvidy (1997).

  15. Analysis of Venusian Atmospheric Two-Dimensional Winds and Features Using Venus Express, Akatsuki, and Ground-Based Images (United States)

    McCabe, Ryan M.; Gunnarson, Jacob; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Peralta, Javier; Gray, Candace L.; McGouldrick, Kevin; Imamura, Takeshi; Watanabe, Shigeto


    We investigate the horizontal dynamics of Venus’s atmosphere at cloud-top level. In particular, we focus on the atmospheric superrotation, in which the equatorial atmosphere rotates with a period of approximately 4-5 days (~60 times faster than the solid planet). The superrotation’s forcing and maintenance mechanisms remain to be explained. Temporal evolution of the zonal (latitudinal direction) wind could reveal the transport of energy and momentum in/out of the equatorial region, and eventually shed light on mechanisms that maintain the Venusian superrotation. As a first step, we characterize the zonal mean wind field of Venus between 2006 and 2013 in ultraviolet images captured by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) on board the ESA Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft which observed Venus’s southern hemisphere. Our measurements show that, between 2006 and 2013, the westward wind speed at mid- to equatorial latitudes exhibit an increase of ~20 m/s; these results are consistent with previous studies by Kouyama et al. 2013 and Khatuntsev et al. 2013. The meridional component of the wind could additionally help us characterize large-scale cloud features and their evolution that may be connected to such superrotation. We also conduct ground-based observations contemporaneously with JAXA’s Akatsuki orbiter at the 3.5 m Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC) telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO) in Sunspot, NM to extend our temporal coverage to present. Images we have captured at APO to date demonstrate that, even under unfavorable illumination, it is possible to see large features that could be used for large-scale feature tracking to be compared to images taken by Akatsuki. Our work has been supported by the following grants: NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NASA MUREP NNX15AQ03A, NSF AAG 1212216, and JAXA’s ITYF Fellowship.Kouyama, T. et al (2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 37-46, doi:10.1029/2011JE004013.Khatuntsev et al. (2013), Icarus, 226, 140-158, doi

  16. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fusheng; Polizzotto, Matthew L.; Guan, Dongxing; Wu, Jun; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Yu, Guanghui


    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  17. Exploring the interactions and binding sites between Cd and functional groups in soil using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fusheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Polizzotto, Matthew L. [Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Guan, Dongxing [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210026 (China); Wu, Jun [College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Boren [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)


    Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.

  18. Identification and quantification of alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. (United States)

    Reddy, Christopher M; Nelson, Robert K; Sylva, Sean P; Xu, Li; Peacock, Emily A; Raghuraman, Bhavani; Mullins, Oliver C


    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC x GC-FID) was used to measure alkene-based drilling fluids in crude oils. Compared to one-dimensional gas chromatography, GC x GC-FID is more robust for detecting alkenes due to the increased resolution afforded by second dimension separations. Using GC x GC-FID to analyze four oil samples from one reservoir contaminated with the same drilling fluid, C(15), C(16), C(17), C(18) and C(20) alkenes were identified. The drilling fluid that contaminated these samples also differed from another commercially obtained fluid, which only contained C(16) and C(18) alkenes. These results should motivate the petroleum industry to consider GC x GC-FID for measuring drilling fluids.

  19. All-optical evaluation of spin-orbit interaction based on diffusive spin motion in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)


    A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.

  20. A novel normalization method based on principal component analysis to reduce the effect of peak overlaps in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Wang, Yanwei; Gao, Wenying; Wang, Xiaogong; Yu, Zhiwu


    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) has been widely used to separate overlapped spectroscopic bands. However, band overlap may sometimes cause misleading results in the 2D-COS spectra, especially if one peak is embedded within another peak by the overlap. In this work, we propose a new normalization method, based on principal component analysis (PCA). For each spectrum under discussion, the first principal component of PCA is simply taken as the normalization factor of the spectrum. It is demonstrated that the method works well with simulated dynamic spectra. Successful result has also been obtained from the analysis of an overlapped band in the wavenumber range 1440-1486 cm -1 for the evaporation process of a solution containing behenic acid, methanol, and chloroform.

  1. Two-dimensional Zn(II) and one-dimensional Co(II) coordination polymers based on benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate and pyridine ligands. (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Juan; Han, Chang-Bao; Wang, Yu-Ling


    Coordination polymers constructed from metal ions and organic ligands have attracted considerable attention owing to their diverse structural topologies and potential applications. Ligands containing carboxylate groups are among the most extensively studied because of their versatile coordination modes. Reactions of benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H2BDC) and pyridine (py) with Zn(II) or Co(II) yielded two new coordination polymers, namely, poly[(μ4-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(4)O:O':O'':O''')(pyridine-κN)zinc(II)], [Zn(C8H4O2)(C5H5N)]n, (I), and catena-poly[aqua(μ3-benzene-1,4-dicarboxylato-κ(3)O:O':O'')bis(pyridine-κN)cobalt(II)], [Co(C8H4O2)(C5H5N)2(H2O)]n, (II). In compound (I), the Zn(II) cation is five-coordinated by four carboxylate O atoms from four BDC(2-) ligands and one pyridine N atom in a distorted square-pyramidal coordination geometry. Four carboxylate groups bridge two Zn(II) ions to form centrosymmetric paddle-wheel-like Zn2(μ2-COO)4 units, which are linked by the benzene rings of the BDC(2-) ligands to generate a two-dimensional layered structure. The two-dimensional layer is extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure with the help of π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings. Compound (II) has a one-dimensional double-chain structure based on Co2(μ2-COO)2 units. The Co(II) cations are bridged by BDC(2-) ligands and are octahedrally coordinated by three carboxylate O atoms from three BDC(2-) ligands, one water O atom and two pyridine N atoms. Interchain O-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions link these chains to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture.

  2. Terahertz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in GaAs-based heterostructures; Terahertz-Antwort von zweidimensionalen Ladungstraegersystemen in GaAs-basierten Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Torben


    This thesis deals with the THz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in different semiconductor heterostructures under varying conditions. The utilized spectrometer is suitable for time-resolved optical pump - THz probe experiments, as well as for optical pump-probe experiments in the near infrared for identical conditions. It allows the investigation of the transverse dielectric function of both, a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well and a two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs-based heterostructure. First, the THz response of an electron-hole plasma is examined for different carrier densities. The plasma is generated by interband transitions in a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well. The measured transverse dielectric function reveals that the plasma behaves in accordance with the classical Drude oscillator model. It also conforms to the microscopic theory of the THz response of corresponding many-body systems. Evidence of a plasma resonance in the negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function is found. The squared peak frequency of the resonance is proportional to the carrier density of the plasma. This behavior corresponds to the plasma frequency of a three-dimensional plasma. Overall, it can be shown that the transverse THz response of a two-dimensional electron-hole plasma behaves like the response of a three-dimensional plasma. Therefore, the transversal THz response of an electron-hole plasma seems to be independent of the dimension of the charge carrier system. Secondly, the behavior of the quantum well for a 1s-exciton dominated carrier system is investigated. A good agreement between experiment and microscopic theory is obtained for the dielectric function. The negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function shows a resonance at the intraexcitonic 1s-2p transition frequency, even in weakly excited excitonic systems. Increasing the carrier density leads to a plasma-like behavior of the system. However, in these densities a significant

  3. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.


    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  4. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.


    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  5. Two dimensional plasma simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazak, G.; Boneh, Y.; Goshen, Sh.; Oreg, J.


    An electrostatic two-dimensional particle code for plasma simulation is described. Boundary conditions which take into account the finiteness of the system are presented. An analytic solution for the case of crossed fields plasma acceleration is derived. This solution serves as a check on a computer test run

  6. Physisorption-Based Charge Transfer in Two-Dimensional SnS2 for Selective and Reversible NO2 Gas Sensing. (United States)

    Ou, Jian Zhen; Ge, Wanyin; Carey, Benjamin; Daeneke, Torben; Rotbart, Asaf; Shan, Wei; Wang, Yichao; Fu, Zhengqian; Chrimes, Adam F; Wlodarski, Wojtek; Russo, Salvy P; Li, Yong Xiang; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh


    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gas species that plays an important role in certain industrial, farming, and healthcare sectors. However, there are still significant challenges for NO2 sensing at low detection limits, especially in the presence of other interfering gases. The NO2 selectivity of current gas-sensing technologies is significantly traded-off with their sensitivity and reversibility as well as fabrication and operating costs. In this work, we present an important progress for selective and reversible NO2 sensing by demonstrating an economical sensing platform based on the charge transfer between physisorbed NO2 gas molecules and two-dimensional (2D) tin disulfide (SnS2) flakes at low operating temperatures. The device shows high sensitivity and superior selectivity to NO2 at operating temperatures of less than 160 °C, which are well below those of chemisorptive and ion conductive NO2 sensors with much poorer selectivity. At the same time, excellent reversibility of the sensor is demonstrated, which has rarely been observed in other 2D material counterparts. Such impressive features originate from the planar morphology of 2D SnS2 as well as unique physical affinity and favorable electronic band positions of this material that facilitate the NO2 physisorption and charge transfer at parts per billion levels. The 2D SnS2-based sensor provides a real solution for low-cost and selective NO2 gas sensing.

  7. Robust model reference adaptive control for a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haigen Yang


    Full Text Available The hysteresis characteristics resulted from piezoelectric actuators (PAs and the residual vibration in the rapid positioning of a two-dimensional piezo-driven micro-displacement scanning platform (2D-PDMDSP will greatly affect the positioning accuracy and speed. In this paper, in order to improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP, firstly, Utilizing an online hysteresis observer based on the asymmetrical Bouc-Wen model, the PA with the hysteresis characteristics is feedforward linearized and can be used as a linear actuator; secondly, zero vibration and derivative shaping (ZVDS technique is used to eliminate the residual vibration of the 2D-PDMDSP; lastly, the robust model reference adaptive (RMRA control for the 2D-PDMDSP is proposed and explored. The rapid control prototype of the RMRA controller combining the proposed feedforward linearization and ZVDS control for the 2D-PDMDSP with rapid control prototyping technique based on the real-time simulation system is established and experimentally tested, and the corresponding controlled results are compared with those by the PID control method. The experimental results show that the proposed RMRA control method can significantly improve the accuracy and speed of the positioning and restrain the residual vibration of 2D-PDMDSP.

  8. An algorithm based on a new DQM with modified extended cubic B-splines for numerical study of two dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Singh


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach “modified extended cubic B-Spline differential quadrature (mECDQ method” has been developed for the numerical computation of two dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation. The mECDQ method is a DQM based on modified extended cubic B-spline functions as new base functions. The mECDQ method reduces the hyperbolic telegraph equation into an amenable system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, in time. The resulting system of ODEs has been solved by adopting an optimal five stage fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge - Kutta (SSP-RK54 scheme. The stability of the method is also studied by computing the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrices. It is shown that the mECDQ method produces stable solution for the telegraph equation. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by computing the errors between analytical solutions and numerical solutions are measured in terms of L2 and L∞ and average error norms for each problem. A comparison of mECDQ solutions with the results of the other numerical methods has been carried out for various space sizes and time step sizes, which shows that the mECDQ solutions are converging very fast in comparison with the various existing schemes. Keywords: Differential quadrature method, Hyperbolic telegraph equation, Modified extended cubic B-splines, mECDQ method, Thomas algorithm

  9. Pattern formation in two-dimensional square-shoulder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornleitner, Julia; Kahl, Gerhard


    Using a highly efficient and reliable optimization tool that is based on ideas of genetic algorithms, we have systematically studied the pattern formation of the two-dimensional square-shoulder system. An overwhelming wealth of complex ordered equilibrium structures emerge from this investigation as we vary the shoulder width. With increasing pressure three structural archetypes could be identified: cluster lattices, where clusters of particles occupy the sites of distorted hexagonal lattices, lane formation, and compact particle arrangements with high coordination numbers. The internal complexity of these structures increases with increasing shoulder width.

  10. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirok, Bob W.J.; Gargano, Andrea F.G.; Schoenmakers, Peter J.


    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular

  11. Two dimensional image correlation processor (United States)

    Yao, Shi-Kai


    Two dimensional images are converted into a very long 1-dimensional data stream by means of raster scan. It is shown that the 1-dimensional correlation function of such long data streams is equivalent to the raster scan converted data of 2-dimensional correlation function of images. Real time correlation of high resolution two-dimensional images has been demonstrated using commercially available components. The advantages of this approach includes programmable electronics reference images, easy interface to objects of interest using conventional image collection optics, real time operation with high resolution images using off-the shelf components, and usefulness in the form of either black and white or full colored images. Such system would be versatile enough for robotics vision, optical inspection, and other pattern recognition and identification applications.

  12. Two-dimensional topological photonics (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady


    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  13. One- and two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector fingerprints of complex substances: a comparison of classification performance of similar, complex Rhizoma Curcumae samples with the aid of chemometrics. (United States)

    Ni, Yongnian; Mei, Minghua; Kokot, Serge


    Many complex natural or synthetic products are analysed either by the GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) or HPLC-DAD (high performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector) technique, each of which produces a one-dimensional fingerprint for a given sample. This may be used for classification of different batches of a product. GC-MS and HPLC-DAD analyses of complex, similar substances represented by the three common types of the TCM (traditional Chinese medicine), Rhizoma Curcumae were analysed in the form of one- and two-dimensional matrices firstly with the use of PCA (Principal component analysis), which showed a reasonable separation of the samples for each technique. However, the separation patterns were rather different for each analytical method, and PCA of the combined data matrix showed improved discrimination of the three types of object; close associations between the GC-MS and HPLC-DAD variables were observed. LDA (linear discriminant analysis), BP-ANN (back propagation-artificial neural networks) and LS-SVM (least squares-support vector machine) chemometrics methods were then applied to classify the training and prediction sets. For one-dimensional matrices, all training models indicated that several samples would be misclassified; the same was observed for each prediction set. However, by comparison, in the analysis of the combined matrix, all models gave 100% classification with the training set, and the LS-SVM calibration also produced a 100% result for prediction, with the BP-ANN calibration closely behind. This has important implications for comparing complex substances such as the TCMs because clearly the one-dimensional data matrices alone produce inferior results for training and prediction as compared to the combined data matrix models. Thus, product samples may be misclassified with the use of the one-dimensional data because of insufficient information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.


    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  15. Comparison of an Electronic Nose Based on Ultrafast Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Sensory Evaluation for an Analysis of Type of Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wiśniewska


    Full Text Available Whisky is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages. There are many types of whisky, for example, Scotch, Irish, and American whisky (called bourbon. The whisky market is highly diversified, and, because of this, it is important to have a method which would enable rapid quality evaluation and authentication of the type of whisky. The aim of this work was to compare 3 methods: an electronic nose based on the technology of ultrafast gas chromatography (Fast-GC, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC, and sensory evaluation. The selected whisky brands included 6 blended whiskies from Scotland, 4 blended whiskies from Ireland, and 4 bourbons produced in the USA. For data analysis, peak heights of chromatograms were used. The panelists who took part in sensory evaluations included 4 women and 4 men. The obtained data were analyzed by 2 chemometric methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and discrimination function analysis (DFA. E-nose and GC × GC allowed for differentiation between whiskies by type. Sensory analysis did not allow for differentiation between whiskies by type, but it allowed giving consumer preferences.

  16. A harmful-intrusion detection method based on background reconstruction and two-dimensional K-S test in an optical fiber pre-warning system (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Zheng, Tong; Qu, Hongquan; Pang, Liping


    The key technology and main difficulty for optical fiber intrusion pre-warning systems (OFIPS) is the extraction of harmful-intrusion signals. After being processed by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR), vibration signals can be preliminarily extracted. Generally, these include noises and intrusions. Here, intrusions can be divided into harmful and harmless intrusions. With respect to the close study of signal characteristics, an effective extraction method of harmful intrusion is proposed in the paper. Firstly, in the part of the background reconstruction, all intrusion signals are first detected by a constant false alarm rate (CFAR). We then reconstruct the backgrounds by extracting two-part information of alarm points, time and amplitude. This ensures that the detection background consists of intrusion signals. Secondly, in the part of the two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, in order to extract harmful ones from all extracted intrusions, we design a separation method. It is based on the signal characteristics of harmful intrusion, which are shorter time interval and higher amplitude. In the actual OFIPS, the detection method is used in some typical scenes, which includes a lot of harmless intrusions, for example construction sites and busy roads. Results show that we can effectively extract harmful intrusions.

  17. Novel Au- and Ge-based two-dimensional materials formed through topotactic transitions of AlB2-like structures (United States)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas


    The topotactic reaction of a layered compound, for example CaGe2, with HCl solution is a common and facile method to produce two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this work we demonstrate with first-principles calculations that this technique can potentially lead to a whole new family of 2D materials starting from three-dimensional crystals with AlB2-like structures. As representative cases, we show here that the de-intercalation of Sc and Ca atoms from ScAuGe and Ca2AuGe3 crystals is strongly exothermic and produces the stable 2D monolayers AuGeH and AuGe3H3, respectively. Remarkably, both metals (AuGeH) and semiconductors (AuGe3H3) can be prepared by this method. Based on the broad availability of AlB2-like structures with varying stoichiometries, there are several possibilities to prepare novel functional 2D materials with suitable topotactic transitions.

  18. SAS6. User`s guide. A two-dimensional depletion and criticality analysis code package based on the SCALE-4 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leege, P.F.A. de; Li, J.M.; Kloosterman, J.L.


    This users` guide gives a description of the functionality and the requested input of the SAS6 code sequence which can be used to perform burnup and criticality calculations based on functional modules from the SCALE-4 code system and libraries. The input file for the SAS6 control module is very similar to that of the other SAS and CSAS control modules available in the SCALE-4 system. Especially the geometry input of SAS6 is quite similar to that of SAS2H. However, the functionality of SAS6 is different from that of SAS2H. The geometry of the reactor lattice can be treated in more detail because use is made of the two-dimensional lattice code WIMS-D/IRI (An adapted version of WIMS-D/4) instead of the one-dimensional transport code XSDRNPM-S. Also the neutron absorption and production rates of nuclides not explicitly specified in the input can be accounted for by six pseudo nuclides. Furthermore, the centre pin can be subdivided into maximal 10 zones to improve the burnup calculation of the centre pin and to obtain more accurate k-infinite values for the assembly. Also the time step specification is more flexible than in the SAS2H sequence. (orig.).

  19. All-optical recognition method of double two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes-based labels using four-wave mixing. (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Wang, Leyang; Perumal, Sathishkumar; Qiu, Kun; Zhou, Heng


    A novel all-optical label recognition method is proposed and demonstrated experimentally which is based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs)-based encoder/decoder and semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). In this scheme, the optical label is firstly decoded properly, the decoded signal then generates the 1st and the 2nd order four-wave mixing (FWM) effect in different SOA, any of the frequencies achieved by the 2nd order FWM is extracted to recognize the optical label. The proposed solution can favor hardware simplicity over bandwidth efficiency in order to achieve the double two-dimensional optical orthogonal codes (2D-OOCs)-based optical label recognition in an optical packet switching (OPS) system where the bandwidth efficiency can be improved by FWM effect in SOA to achieve optical label processing and reasonable spacing of wavelengths for the payloads and optical label. The feasibility of the proposed method is validated by two experiments of the double 2D-OOCs-based optical label generation and recognition, the effect of the optical label on the payloads is also considered. These results show that the proposed method can (1) reduce effectively the code auto-correlation /cross-correlation requirements of the optical label identification and remove the cross-correlation pulses after optical decoding, (2) increase greatly the coding capacity and the number of the available optical labels, (3) improve the reliability and bandwidth efficiency of the optical label identification. The experimental results also show that the optical label has a high extinction ratio and can be operated easily.

  20. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction (United States)

    Xu, Lijun; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang; Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen


    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H2O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm-1 (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm-1 (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H2O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  1. Using new hetero-spectral two-dimensional correlation analyses and synchrotron-radiation-based spectromicroscopy to characterize binding of Cu to soil dissolved organic matter. (United States)

    Sun, Fusheng; Li, Yaqing; Wang, Xiang; Chi, Zhilai; Yu, Guanghui


    Understanding the binding characteristics of copper (Cu) to different functional groups in soil dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important to explore Cu toxicity, bioavailability and ultimate fate in the environment. However, the methods used to explore such binding characteristics are still limited. Here, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) integrated with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), 29 Si nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 27 Al NMR, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy were used to explore the binding characteristics of Cu to soil DOM as part of a long-term (23 years) fertilization experiment. Compared with no fertilization and inorganic fertilization (NPK), long-term pig manure fertilization (M) treatment significantly increased the concentration of total and bioavailable Cu in soils. Furthermore, hetero-spectral 2DCOS analyses demonstrated that the binding characteristics of Cu onto functional groups in soil DOM were modified by fertilization regimes. In the NPK treatment, Cu was bound to aliphatic C, whereas in the manure treatment SiO groups had higher affinity toward Cu than aliphatic C. Also, the sequence of binding of functional groups to Cu was modified by the fertilization treatments. Moreover, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy showed that Cu, clay minerals and sesquioxides, and C functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale. Specifically, clay-OH as well as mineral elements had a distribution pattern similar to Cu, but certain (but not all) C forms showed a distribution pattern inconsistent with that of Cu. The combination of synchrotron radiation spectromicroscopy and 2DCOS is a useful tool in exploring the interactions among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Maneuvering Targets with Complex Motions by Two-Dimensional Product Modified Lv?s Distribution for Quadratic Frequency Modulation Signals


    Jing, Fulong; Jiao, Shuhong; Hou, Changbo; Si, Weijian; Wang, Yu


    For targets with complex motion, such as ships fluctuating with oceanic waves and high maneuvering airplanes, azimuth echo signals can be modeled as multicomponent quadratic frequency modulation (QFM) signals after migration compensation and phase adjustment. For the QFM signal model, the chirp rate (CR) and the quadratic chirp rate (QCR) are two important physical quantities, which need to be estimated. For multicomponent QFM signals, the cross terms create a challenge for detection, which n...

  3. Two-Dimensional Lead(II) Halide-Based Hybrid Perovskites Templated by Acene Alkylamines: Crystal Structures, Optical Properties, and Piezoelectricity. (United States)

    Du, Ke-Zhao; Tu, Qing; Zhang, Xu; Han, Qiwei; Liu, Jie; Zauscher, Stefan; Mitzi, David B


    A series of two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite (HOIP) crystals, based on acene alkylamine cations (i.e., phenylmethylammonium (PMA), 2-phenylethylammonium (PEA), 1-(2-naphthyl)methanammonium (NMA), and 2-(2-naphthyl)ethanammonium (NEA)) and lead(II) halide (i.e., PbX 4 2- , X = Cl, Br, and I) frameworks, and their corresponding thin films were fabricated and examined for structure-property relationship. Several new or redetermined crystal structures are reported, including those for (NEA) 2 PbI 4 , (NEA) 2 PbBr 4 , (NMA) 2 PbBr 4 , (PMA) 2 PbBr 4 , and (PEA) 2 PbI 4 . Non-centrosymmetric structures from among these 2D HOIPs were confirmed by piezoresponse force microscopy-especially noteworthy is the structure of (PMA) 2 PbBr 4 , which was previously reported as centrosymmetric. Examination of the impact of organic cation and inorganic layer choice on the exciton absorption/emission properties, among the set of compounds considered, reveals that perovskite layer distortion (i.e., Pb-I-Pb bond angle between adjacent PbI 6 octahedra) has a more global effect on the exciton properties than octahedral distortion (i.e., variation of I-Pb-I bond angles and discrepancy among Pb-I bond lengths within each PbI 6 octahedron). In addition to the characteristic sharp exciton emission for each perovskite, (PMA) 2 PbCl 4 , (PEA) 2 PbCl 4 , (NMA) 2 PbCl 4 , and (PMA) 2 PbBr 4 exhibit separate, broad "white" emission in the long wavelength range. Piezoelectric compounds identified from these 2D HOIPs may be considered for future piezoresponse-type energy or electronic applications.

  4. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  5. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  6. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D


    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  7. Predictive DFT-based approaches to charge and spin transport in single-molecule junctions and two-dimensional materials: successes and challenges. (United States)

    Quek, Su Ying; Khoo, Khoong Hong


    CONSPECTUS: The emerging field of flexible electronics based on organics and two-dimensional (2D) materials relies on a fundamental understanding of charge and spin transport at the molecular and nanoscale. It is desirable to make predictions and shine light on unexplained experimental phenomena independently of experimentally derived parameters. Indeed, density functional theory (DFT), the workhorse of first-principles approaches, has been used extensively to model charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. However, DFT is essentially a ground state theory that simply guarantees correct total energies given the correct charge density, while charge/spin transport is a nonequilibrium phenomenon involving the scattering of quasiparticles. In this Account, we critically assess the validity and applicability of DFT to predict charge/spin transport at the nanoscale. We also describe a DFT-based approach, DFT+Σ, which incorporates corrections to Kohn-Sham energy levels based on many-electron calculations. We focus on single-molecule junctions and then discuss how the important considerations for DFT descriptions of transport can differ in 2D materials. We conclude that when used appropriately, DFT and DFT-based approaches can play an important role in making predictions and gaining insight into transport in these materials. Specifically, we shall focus on the low-bias quasi-equilibrium regime, which is also experimentally most relevant for single-molecule junctions. The next question is how well can the scattering of DFT Kohn-Sham particles approximate the scattering of true quasiparticles in the junction? Quasiparticles are electrons (holes) that are surrounded by a constantly changing cloud of holes (electrons), but Kohn-Sham particles have no physical significance. However, Kohn-Sham particles can often be used as a qualitative approximation to quasiparticles. The errors in standard DFT descriptions of transport arise primarily from errors in the Kohn-Sham energy levels

  8. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine


    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...

  9. A Numerical Scheme Based on an Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Turbulent Flows with Shocks: Application to Two-Dimensional Flows around Cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Takahashi


    Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.

  10. Tile-based Fisher ratio analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) data using a null distribution approach. (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E


    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a versatile instrumental platform capable of collecting highly informative, yet highly complex, chemical data for a variety of samples. Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis applied to the supervised comparison of sample classes algorithmically reduces complex GC × GC-TOFMS data sets to find class distinguishing chemical features. F-ratio analysis, using a tile-based algorithm, significantly reduces the adverse effects of chromatographic misalignment and spurious covariance of the detected signal, enhancing the discovery of true positives while simultaneously reducing the likelihood of detecting false positives. Herein, we report a study using tile-based F-ratio analysis whereby four non-native analytes were spiked into diesel fuel at several concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ppm. Spike level comparisons were performed in two regimes: comparing the spiked samples to the nonspiked fuel matrix and to each other at relative concentration factors of two. Redundant hits were algorithmically removed by refocusing the tiled results onto the original high resolution pixel level data. To objectively limit the tile-based F-ratio results to only features which are statistically likely to be true positives, we developed a combinatorial technique using null class comparisons, called null distribution analysis, by which we determined a statistically defensible F-ratio cutoff for the analysis of the hit list. After applying null distribution analysis, spiked analytes were reliably discovered at ∼1 to ∼10 ppm (∼5 to ∼50 pg using a 200:1 split), depending upon the degree of mass spectral selectivity and 2D chromatographic resolution, with minimal occurrence of false positives. To place the relevance of this work among other methods in this field, results are compared to those for pixel and peak table-based approaches.

  11. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...

  12. Optimizing separations in online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Pirok, Bob W J; Gargano, Andrea F G; Schoenmakers, Peter J


    Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex nonvolatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). Two-dimensional liquid chromatography complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc.). Also, in comparison with conventional one-dimensional liquid chromatography, two-dimensional liquid chromatography provides a greater separation power (peak capacity). Because of the additional selectivity and higher peak capacity, the combination of two-dimensional liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry allows for simpler mixtures of compounds to be introduced in the ion source at any given time, improving quantitative analysis by reducing matrix effects. In this review, we summarize the rationale and principles of two-dimensional liquid chromatography experiments, describe advantages and disadvantages of combining different selectivities and discuss strategies to improve the quality of two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Separation Science published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  13. Fabrication and optical characteristics of silicon-based two-dimensional wavelength division multiplexing splitter with photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cheng-Yang


    Photonic crystals have many potential applications because of their ability to control lightwave propagation. We report on the fabrication and optical properties of quasi-two-dimensional photonic crystals with triangular lattice of dielectric rods in air. Rod-type photonic crystal structures were fabricated in silicon by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. Wavelength division multiplexing splitters were fabricated from two-dimensional photonic crystal directional waveguide couplers. Transmission spectra were measured and device operation was shown to be in agreement with theoretical calculations. The splitters can be used in visible light region. Such an approach to photonic element systems should enable new applications for designing components in photonic integrated circuits. -- Highlights: → We report the fabrication and optical properties of rod-type photonic crystal. → The splitter was fabricated by electron beam lithography and dry-etching techniques. → The splitter was composed of directional waveguide couplers. → Measured transmission spectra are in agreement with theoretical calculations. → The splitters can be used in visible light region.

  14. Separation and purification of bovine serum albumin binders from Fructus polygoni orientalis using off-line two-dimensional complexation high-speed counter-current chromatography target-guided by ligand fishing. (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Shi, Shuyun; Liu, Liangliang; Yang, Hua; Su, Wen; Chen, Xiaoqing


    In this study, off-line two-dimensional (2D) complexation high speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was developed for the separation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) binders from the ethyl acetate extract of Fructus polygoni orientalis. Target-guided strategy of BSA functionalized iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ((BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC-MS/MS) experiment was proposed. In the orthogonal separation system, a Normal-Phase HSCCC with 0.01mol/L copper ion as complexation agent in the aqueous phase was employed for the first dimension and Recycling HSCCC, Reverse-Phase HSCCC with 0.1mol/L copper ion were used for the second dimension in parallel. Including two pairs of cis-trans isomers, seven BSA binders including 3,5,7-Trihydroxychromone (1), taxifolin (2), N-cis-paprazine (3), N-cis-feruloyltyramine (4), N-trans-paprazine (5), N-trans-feruloyltyramine (6) and an unidentified compound (7) were obtained. The purities of these seven compounds were all over 95.0% as determined by HPLC. The complexation HSCCC behaviors of seven compounds were also investigated by studying their relationship with copper ion. Results showed that the combinative method using (BSA-Fe3O4 MNPs)-HPLC and HSCCC is a quick, efficient, and reproductive technique to isolate potentially bioactive compounds from the complex mixture system of natural products. And the usage of off-line 2D-HSCCC and introduction of chelating metal ion into solvent system are effective ways to implement HSCCC separations in complex samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials. (United States)

    Ahn, Geun Ho; Amani, Matin; Rasool, Haider; Lien, Der-Hsien; Mastandrea, James P; Ager Iii, Joel W; Dubey, Madan; Chrzan, Daryl C; Minor, Andrew M; Javey, Ali


    The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2 , respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.Strain engineering is an essential tool for modifying local electronic properties in silicon-based electronics. Here, Ahn et al. demonstrate control of biaxial strain in two-dimensional materials based on the growth substrate, enabling more complex low-dimensional electronics.

  16. System performances of optical space code-division multiple-access-based fiber-optic two-dimensional parallel data link. (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K


    Optical space code-division multiple access is a scheme to multiplex and link data between two-dimensional processors such as smart pixels and spatial light modulators or arrays of optical sources like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We examine the multiplexing characteristics of optical space code-division multiple access by using optical orthogonal signature patterns. The probability density function of interference noise in interfering optical orthogonal signature patterns is calculated. The bit-error rate is derived from the result and plotted as a function of receiver threshold, code length, code weight, and number of users. Furthermore, we propose a prethresholding method to suppress the interference noise, and we experimentally verify that the method works effectively in improving system performance.

  17. Spin beam splitter based on Goos-Haenchen shifts in two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic and Schottky metal stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Mao-Wang; Huang, Xin-Hong; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Chen, Sai-Yan [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)


    We present a theoretical study on the spin-dependent Goos-Haenchen (GH) effect in a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic and Schottky metal (SM) stripes. The GH shifts for spin electron beams across this device are calculated with the help of the stationary phase method. It is shown that the GH shift of spin-up beam is significantly different from that of spin-down beam, i.e., this device shows up a considerable spin polarization effect in GH shifts of electron beams. It also is shown that both magnitude and sign of spin polarization of GH shifts are closely related to the stripe width, the magnetic strength and the gated voltage under SM stripe. These interesting properties not only provide an effective method of spin injection for spintronics application, but also give rise to a tunable spin beam splitter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. P-Channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor based on polarization-induced two-dimensional hole gas. (United States)

    Zhang, Kexiong; Sumiya, Masatomo; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sang, Liwen


    The concept of p-channel InGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistor (FET) using a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) induced by polarization effect is demonstrated. The existence of 2DHG near the lower interface of InGaN/GaN heterostructure is verified by theoretical simulation and capacitance-voltage profiling. The metal-oxide-semiconductor FET (MOSFET) with Al2O3 gate dielectric shows a drain-source current density of 0.51 mA/mm at the gate voltage of -2 V and drain bias of -15 V, an ON/OFF ratio of two orders of magnitude and effective hole mobility of 10 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature. The normal operation of MOSFET without freeze-out at 8 K further proves that the p-channel behavior is originated from the polarization-induced 2DHG.

  19. Two dimensional compass model with Heisenberg interactions (United States)

    Pires, A. S. T.


    We consider a two dimensional compass model with a next and a next near Heisenberg term. The interactions are of two types: frustrated near neighbor compass interactions of amplitudes Jx and Jy, and next and next near neighbor Heisenberg interactions with exchanges J1 and J2 respectively. The Heisenberg interactions are isotropic in spin space, but the compass interactions depend on the bond direction. The ground state of the pure compass model is degenerated with a complex phase diagram. This degeneracy is removed by the Heisenberg terms leading to the arising of a magnetically ordered phase with a preferred direction. We calculate the phase diagrams at zero temperature for the case where, for J2 = 0, we have an antiferromagnetic ground state. We show that varying the value of J2, a magnetically disordered phase can be reached for small values of the compass interactions. We also calculate the critical temperature for a specified value of parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Stefanović


    Full Text Available In order to motivate their group members to perform certain tasks, leaders use different leadership styles. These styles are based on leaders' backgrounds, knowledge, values, experiences, and expectations. The one-dimensional styles, used by many world leaders, are autocratic and democratic styles. These styles lie on the two opposite sides of the leadership spectrum. In order to precisely define the leadership styles on the spectrum between the autocratic leadership style and the democratic leadership style, leadership theory researchers use two dimensional matrices. The two-dimensional matrices define leadership styles on the basis of different parameters. By using these parameters, one can identify two-dimensional styles.

  1. Efficient two-dimensional compressive sensing in MIMO radar (United States)

    Shahbazi, Nafiseh; Abbasfar, Aliazam; Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad


    Compressive sensing (CS) has been a way to lower sampling rate leading to data reduction for processing in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems. In this paper, we further reduce the computational complexity of a pulse-Doppler collocated MIMO radar by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing. To do so, we first introduce a new 2D formulation for the compressed received signals and then we propose a new measurement matrix design for our 2D compressive sensing model that is based on minimizing the coherence of sensing matrix using gradient descent algorithm. The simulation results show that our proposed 2D measurement matrix design using gradient decent algorithm (2D-MMDGD) has much lower computational complexity compared to one-dimensional (1D) methods while having better performance in comparison with conventional methods such as Gaussian random measurement matrix.

  2. Two-dimensional silica opens new perspectives (United States)

    Büchner, Christin; Heyde, Markus


    In recent years, silica films have emerged as a novel class of two-dimensional (2D) materials. Several groups succeeded in epitaxial growth of ultrathin SiO2 layers using different growth methods and various substrates. The structures consist of tetrahedral [SiO4] building blocks in two mirror symmetrical planes, connected via oxygen bridges. This arrangement is called a silica bilayer as it is the thinnest 2D arrangement with the stoichiometry SiO2 known today. With all bonds saturated within the nano-sheet, the interaction with the substrate is based on van der Waals forces. Complex ring networks are observed, including hexagonal honeycomb lattices, point defects and domain boundaries, as well as amorphous domains. The network structures are highly tuneable through variation of the substrate, deposition parameters, cooling procedure, introducing dopants or intercalating small species. The amorphous networks and structural defects were resolved with atomic resolution microscopy and modeled with density functional theory and molecular dynamics. Such data contribute to our understanding of the formation and characteristic motifs of glassy systems. Growth studies and doping with other chemical elements reveal ways to tune ring sizes and defects as well as chemical reactivities. The pristine films have been utilized as molecular sieves and for confining molecules in nanocatalysis. Post growth hydroxylation can be used to tweak the reactivity as well. The electronic properties of silica bilayers are favourable for using silica as insulators in 2D material stacks. Due to the fully saturated atomic structure, the bilayer interacts weakly with the substrate and can be described as quasi-freestanding. Recently, a mm-scale film transfer under structure retention has been demonstrated. The chemical and mechanical stability of silica bilayers is very promising for technological applications in 2D heterostacks. Due to the impact of this bilayer system for glass science

  3. Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine


    The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.

  4. Highly efficient electrochemiluminescence based on 4-amino-1,2,4-triazole Schiff base two-dimensional Zn/Cd coordination polymers. (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ji-Ming; Zhang, Hai-Yang; Fan, Yi-Peng; Xiao, Yu


    Four coordination polymers, formulated as [Zn(L 1 ) 2 ] n (1), [Cd(L 1 ) 2 ] n (2), [Zn(L 2 ) 2 ] n (3) and [Cd(L 2 ) 2 ] n (4) (HL1 is (E)-2-(((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino)methyl)-4,6-dibromophenol; HL2 is (E)-2-(((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)imino)methyl)-4,6-dichlorophenol) have been synthesized through vial reactions. The four compounds were structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, PXRD, and fluorescence spectroscopy. For 1-4, a detailed analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitates a comparison of intermolecular interactions, which are crucial in building different supramolecular architectures. C-HX (X = Br, Cl) interactions play a crucial role in stabilizing the self-assembly process among adjacent 2-D networks for both complexes. Above all, complexes 1-4 showed highly intense electrochemical luminescence (ECL) in DMF solution and high thermal stability.

  5. Bluish-white-light-emitting diodes based on two-dimensional lead halide perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl2Br2 (United States)

    Cai, Peiqing; Wang, Xiangfu; Seo, Hyo Jin; Yan, Xiaohong


    Bluish-white-light-emitting diodes (BWLEDs) are designed based on the two-dimensional mixed halide perovskite (C6H5C2H4NH3)2PbCl2Br2 at room temperature. Bluish-white electroluminescence devices were fabricated by a spin-coating method. The BWLEDs can be turned on at 4.9 V and depict a maximum luminance of ˜70 cd/m2 at 7 V. Low and room temperature photoluminescence spectra show the coexistence of free exciton and self-trapped exciton luminescence in a deformable lattice. The strategy of achieving white electroluminescence (EL) from mixed halide perovskite reported here can be applied to other two-dimensional perovskites to increase the optoelectronic efficiency of the device in the future.

  6. Metabolomics strategy for the mapping of volatile exometabolome from Saccharomyces spp. widely used in the food industry based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Martins, Cátia; Brandão, Tiago; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M


    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used in the food and beverages industries. Their cellular excreted metabolites are important for general quality of products and can contribute to product differentiation. This exploratory study presents a metabolomics strategy for the comprehensive mapping of cellular metabolites of two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus (both collected in an industrial context) through a multidimensional chromatography platform. Solid-phase microextraction was used as a sample preparation method. The yeast viability, a specific technological quality parameter, was also assessed. This untargeted analysis allowed the putative identification of 525 analytes, distributed over 14 chemical families, the origin of which may be explained through the pathways network associated with yeasts metabolism. The expression of the different metabolic pathways was similar for both species, event that seems to be yeast genus dependent. Nevertheless, these species showed different growth rates, which led to statistically different metabolites content. This was the first in-depth approach that characterizes the headspace content of S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus species cultures. The combination of a sample preparation method capable of providing released volatile metabolites directly from yeast culture headspace with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography was successful in uncovering a specific metabolomic pattern for each species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Postnatal mandibular cheek tooth development in the miniature pig based on two-dimensional and three-dimensional X-ray analyses. (United States)

    Ide, Yoshiaki; Nakahara, Taka; Nasu, Masanori; Matsunaga, Satoru; Iwanaga, Takehiro; Tominaga, Noriko; Tamaki, Yuichi


    The miniature pig is a useful large laboratory animal model. Various tissues and organs of miniature pigs are similar to those of humans in terms of developmental, anatomical, immunological, and physiological characteristics. The oral and maxillofacial region of miniature pigs is often used in preclinical studies of regenerative dentistry. However, there is limited information on the dentition and tooth structure of miniature pigs. The purpose of this study was to examine the time-course changes of dentition and tooth structure (especially the root) of the miniature pig mandibular cheek teeth through X-ray analyses using soft X-ray for two-dimensional observations and micro-CT for three-dimensional observations. The mandibles of male Clawn strain miniature pigs (2 weeks and 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 14, 17, and 29 months of age) were used. X-ray analysis of the dentition of miniature pig cheek teeth showed that the eruption pattern of the miniature pig is diphyodont and that the replacement pattern is vertical. Previous definitions of deciduous and permanent teeth often varied and there has been no consensus on the number of teeth (dentition); however, we found that three molars are present in the deciduous dentition and that four premolars and three molars are present in the permanent dentition. Furthermore, we confirmed the number of tooth roots and root canals. We believe that these findings will be highly useful in future studies using miniature pig teeth. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling of laser-pulse induced water decomposition on two-dimensional materials by simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Xinlu; Rubio, Angel


    We use time-dependent density functional theory to study laser-pulse induced decomposition of H2O molecules above the two-dimensional (2D) materials graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphitic carbon nitride. We examine femtosecond-laser pulses with a full width at half maximum of 10 or 20 fs for laser-field intensity and wavelengths of 800 or 400 nm by varying the intensity of the laser field from 5 to 9 V/Å, with the corresponding range of fluence per pulse up to 10.7 J /cm2 . For a H2O molecule above the graphitic sheets, the threshold for laser-field H2O decomposition is reduced by more than 20% compared with that of an isolated H2O molecule. We also show that hole doping enhances the water adsorption energy above graphene. The present results indicate that the graphitic materials should support laser-induced chemistry and that other 2D materials that can enhance laser-induced H2O decomposition should be investigated.

  9. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole


    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  10. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu


    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  11. Strategies for Interpreting Two Dimensional Microwave Spectra (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; Crabtree, Kyle N.; Buchanan, Zachary


    Microwave spectroscopy can uniquely identify molecules because their rotational energy levels are sensitive to the three principal moments of inertia. However, a priori predictions of a molecule's structure have traditionally been required to enable efficient assignment of the rotational spectrum. Recently, automated microwave double resonance spectroscopy (AMDOR) has been employed to rapidly generate two dimensional spectra based on transitions that share a common rotational level, which may enable automated extraction of rotational constants without any prior estimates of molecular structure. Algorithms used to date for AMDOR have relied on making several initial assumptions about the nature of a subset of the linked transitions, followed by testing possible assignments by "brute force." In this talk, we will discuss new strategies for interpreting AMDOR spectra, using eugenol as a test case, as well as prospects for library-free, automated identification of the molecules in a volatile mixture.

  12. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  13. Discrete formulation for two-dimensional multigroup neutron diffusion equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Salehi, Ali A.; Shahriari, Majid


    The objective of this paper is to introduce a new numerical method for neutronic calculation in a reactor core. This method can produce the final finite form of the neutron diffusion equation by classifying the neutronic variables and using two kinds of cell complexes without starting from the conventional differential form of the neutron diffusion equation. The method with linear interpolation produces the same convergence as the linear continuous finite element method. The quadratic interpolation is proven; the convergence order depends on the shape of the dual cell. The maximum convergence order is achieved by choosing the dual cell based on two Gauss' points. The accuracy of the method was examined with a well-known IAEA two-dimensional benchmark problem. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method

  14. Fundamentals, progress, and future directions of nitride-based semiconductors and their composites in two-dimensional limit: A first-principles perspective to recent synthesis (United States)

    Kecik, D.; Onen, A.; Konuk, M.; Gürbüz, E.; Ersan, F.; Cahangirov, S.; Aktürk, E.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S.


    Potential applications of bulk GaN and AlN crystals have made possible single and multilayer allotropes of these III-V compounds to be a focus of interest recently. As of 2005, the theoretical studies have predicted that GaN and AlN can form two-dimensional (2D) stable, single-layer (SL) structures being wide band gap semiconductors and showing electronic and optical properties different from those of their bulk parents. Research on these 2D structures have gained importance with recent experimental studies achieving the growth of ultrathin 2D GaN and AlN on substrates. It is expected that these two materials will open an active field of research like graphene, silicene, and transition metal dichalcogenides. This topical review aims at the evaluation of previous experimental and theoretical works until 2018 in order to provide input for further research attempts in this field. To this end, starting from three-dimensional (3D) GaN and AlN crystals, we review 2D SL and multilayer (ML) structures, which were predicted to be stable in free-standing states. These are planar hexagonal (or honeycomb), tetragonal, and square-octagon structures. First, we discuss earlier results on dynamical and thermal stability of these SL structures, as well as the predicted mechanical properties. Next, their electronic and optical properties with and without the effect of strain are reviewed and compared with those of the 3D parent crystals. The formation of multilayers, hence prediction of new periodic layered structures and also tuning their physical properties with the number of layers are other critical subjects that have been actively studied and discussed here. In particular, an extensive analysis pertaining to the nature of perpendicular interlayer bonds causing planar GaN and AlN to buckle is presented. In view of the fact that SL GaN and AlN can be fabricated only on a substrate, the question of how the properties of free-standing, SL structures are affected if they are grown

  15. Topotactic transformations of superstructures: from thin films to two-dimensional networks to nested two-dimensional networks. (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Jianming; Tang, Haoying; Guo, Shengming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian


    Design and synthesis of super-nanostructures is one of the key and prominent topics in nanotechnology. Here we propose a novel methodology for synthesizing complex hierarchical superstructures using sacrificial templates composed of ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures through lattice-directed topotactic transformations. The fabricated superstructures are nested 2D orthogonal Bi(2)S(3) networks composed of nanorods. Further investigation indicates that the lattice matching between the product and sacrificial template is the dominant mechanism for the formation of the superstructures, which agrees well with the simulation results based on an anisotropic nucleation and growth analysis. Our approach may provide a promising way toward a lattice-directed nonlithographic nanofabrication technique for making functional porous nanoarchitectures and electronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A very useful experiment of two dimensional po- tential mapping, namely electrolytic tank model, for graduate and post graduate level physics stu- dents is given here. Laplace's equation is solved for the above and the results are compared with the experiment. The agreement· is so good that this is extended to complex ...

  17. Quantum melting of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal (United States)

    Dolgopolov, V. T.


    The paper reviews theoretical predictions about the behavior of two-dimensional low-density electron systems at nearly absolute zero temperatures, including the formation of an electron (Wigner) crystal, crystal melting at a critical electron density, and transitions between crystal modifications in more complex (for example, two-layer) systems. The paper presents experimental results obtained from real two-dimensional systems in which the nonconducting (solid) state of the electronic system with indications of collective localization is actually realized. Experimental methods for detecting a quantum liquid–solid phase interface are discussed.

  18. Two dimensional hydrodynamic modeling of a high latitude braided river (United States)

    Humphries, E.; Pavelsky, T.; Bates, P. D.


    Rivers are a fundamental resource to physical, ecologic and human systems, yet quantification of river flow in high-latitude environments remains limited due to the prevalence of complex morphologies, remote locations and sparse in situ monitoring equipment. Advances in hydrodynamic modeling and remote sensing technology allow us to address questions such as: How well can two-dimensional models simulate a flood wave in a highly 3-dimensional braided river environment, and how does the structure of such a flood wave differ from flow down a similar-sized single-channel river? Here, we use the raster-based hydrodynamic model LISFLOOD-FP to simulate flood waves, discharge, water surface height, and velocity measurements over a ~70 km reach of the Tanana River in Alaska. In order to use LISFLOOD-FP a digital elevation model (DEM) fused with detailed bathymetric data is required. During summer 2013, we surveyed 220,000 bathymetric points along the study reach using an echo sounder system connected to a high-precision GPS unit. The measurements are interpolated to a smooth bathymetric surface, using Topo to Raster interpolation, and combined with an existing five meter DEM (Alaska IfSAR) to create a seamless river terrain model. Flood waves are simulated using varying complexities in model solvers, then compared to gauge records and water logger data to assess major sources of model uncertainty. Velocity and flow direction maps are also assessed and quantified for detailed analysis of braided channel flow. The most accurate model output occurs with using the full two-dimensional model structure, and major inaccuracies appear to be related to DEM quality and roughness values. Future work will intercompare model outputs with extensive ground measurements and new data from AirSWOT, an airborne analog for the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, which aims to provide high-resolution measurements of terrestrial and ocean water surface elevations globally.

  19. Coherent Response of Two Dimensional Electron Gas probed by Two Dimensional Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (United States)

    Paul, Jagannath

    Advent of ultrashort lasers made it possible to probe various scattering phenomena in materials that occur in a time scale on the order of few femtoseconds to several tens of picoseconds. Nonlinear optical spectroscopy techniques, such as pump-probe, transient four wave mixing (TFWM), etc., are very common to study the carrier dynamics in various material systems. In time domain, the transient FWM uses several ultrashort pulses separated by time delays to obtain the information of dephasing and population relaxation times, which are very important parameters that govern the carrier dynamics of materials. A recently developed multidimensional nonlinear optical spectroscopy is an enhanced version of TFWM which keeps track of two time delays simultaneously and correlate them in the frequency domain with the aid of Fourier transform in a two dimensional map. Using this technique, the nonlinear complex signal field is characterized both in amplitude and phase. Furthermore, this technique allows us to identify the coupling between resonances which are rather difficult to interpret from time domain measurements. This work focuses on the study of the coherent response of a two dimensional electron gas formed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well both at zero and at high magnetic fields. In modulation doped quantum wells, the excitons are formed as a result of the inter- actions of the charged holes with the electrons at the Fermi edge in the conduction band, leading to the formation of Mahan excitons, which is also referred to as Fermi edge singularity (FES). Polarization and temperature dependent rephasing 2DFT spectra in combination with TI-FWM measurements, provides insight into the dephasing mechanism of the heavy hole (HH) Mahan exciton. In addition to that strong quantum coherence between the HH and LH Mahan excitons is observed, which is rather surprising at this high doping concentration. The binding energy of Mahan excitons is expected to be greatly

  20. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  1. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Two-dimensional bipolar junction transistors (United States)

    Gharekhanlou, Behnaz; Khorasani, Sina; Sarvari, Reza


    Recent development in fabrication technology of planar two-dimensional (2D) materials has introduced the possibility of numerous novel applications. Our recent analysis has revealed that by definition of p-n junctions through appropriate patterned doping of 2D semiconductors, ideal exponential I-V characteristics may be expected. However, the theory of 2D junctions turns out to be very different to that of standard bulk junctions. Based on this theory of 2D diodes, we construct for the first time a model to describe 2D bipolar junction transistors (2D-BJTs). We derive the small-signal equivalent model, and estimate the performance of a 2D-BJT device based on graphone as the example material. A current gain of about 138 and maximum threshold frequency of 77 GHz, together with a power-delay product of only 4 fJ per 1 μm lateral width is expected at an operating voltage of 5 V. In addition, we derive the necessary formulae and a new approximate solution for the continuity equation in the 2D configuration, which have been verified against numerical solutions.

  3. On Riemann boundary value problems for null solutions of the two dimensional Helmholtz equation (United States)

    Bory Reyes, Juan; Abreu Blaya, Ricardo; Rodríguez Dagnino, Ramón Martin; Kats, Boris Aleksandrovich


    The Riemann boundary value problem (RBVP to shorten notation) in the complex plane, for different classes of functions and curves, is still widely used in mathematical physics and engineering. For instance, in elasticity theory, hydro and aerodynamics, shell theory, quantum mechanics, theory of orthogonal polynomials, and so on. In this paper, we present an appropriate hyperholomorphic approach to the RBVP associated to the two dimensional Helmholtz equation in R^2 . Our analysis is based on a suitable operator calculus.

  4. Two-dimensional atomic crystals beyond graphene (United States)

    Kaul, Anupama B.


    Carbon-based nanostructures have been the center of intense research and development for more than two decades now. Of these materials, graphene, a two-dimensional (2D) layered material system, has had a significant impact on science and technology over the past decade after monolayers of this material were experimentally isolated in 2004. The recent emergence of other classes of 2D graphene-like layered materials has added yet more exciting dimensions for research in exploring the diverse properties and applications arising from these 2D material systems. For example, hexagonal-BN, a layered material closest in structure to graphene, is an insulator, while NbSe2, a transition metal di-chalcogenide, is metallic and monolayers of other transition metal di-chalcogenides such as MoS2 are direct band-gap semiconductors. The rich spectrum of properties that 2D layered material systems offer can potentially be engineered ondemand, and creates exciting prospects for using such materials in applications ranging from electronics, sensing, photonics, energy harvesting and flexible electronics over the coming years.

  5. A nonperturbative treatment of two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Migdal, A.A.


    We propose a nonperturbative definition of two-dimensional quantum gravity, based on a double scaling limit of the random matrix model. We develop an operator formalism for utilizing the method of orthogonal polynomials that allows us to solve the matrix models to all orders in the genus expansion. Using this formalism we derive an exact differential equation for the partition function of two-dimensional gravity as a function of the string coupling constant that governs the genus expansion of two-dimensional surfaces, and discuss its properties and consequences. We construct and discuss the correlation functions of an infinite set of pointlike and loop operators to all orders in the genus expansion. (orig.)

  6. MetPP: a computational platform for comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoli; Shi, Xue; Koo, Imhoi; Kim, Seongho; Schmidt, Robin H; Arteel, Gavin E; Watson, Walter H; McClain, Craig; Zhang, Xiang


    Due to the high complexity of metabolome, the comprehensive 2D gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) is considered as a powerful analytical platform for metabolomics study. However, the applications of GC×GC-TOF MS in metabolomics are not popular owing to the lack of bioinformatics system for data analysis. We developed a computational platform entitled metabolomics profiling pipeline (MetPP) for analysis of metabolomics data acquired on a GC×GC-TOF MS system. MetPP can process peak filtering and merging, retention index matching, peak list alignment, normalization, statistical significance tests and pattern recognition, using the peak lists deconvoluted from the instrument data as its input. The performance of MetPP software was tested with two sets of experimental data acquired in a spike-in experiment and a biomarker discovery experiment, respectively. MetPP not only correctly aligned the spiked-in metabolite standards from the experimental data, but also correctly recognized their concentration difference between sample groups. For analysis of the biomarker discovery data, 15 metabolites were recognized with significant concentration difference between the sample groups and these results agree with the literature results of histological analysis, demonstrating the effectiveness of applying MetPP software for disease biomarker discovery. The source code of MetPP is available at Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Automatic system for estimating the volume of the left ventricle based on two-dimensional MRI images of the heart along the long axis (United States)

    Porshnev, S. V.; Bobkova, A. O.; Zyuzin, V. V.; Mukhtarov, A. A.; Chernyshev, M. A.; Akhmetov, D. M.


    The article is devoted to the development of a system that allows automatic estimation of systole, diastole and left ventricular ejection fraction of the heart based on the sequence of MRI images from the apical two-chamber and four-chamber positions. The implemented system was tested on the images of the heart of 200 patients, and its accuracy and operability was assessed.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Park, Changbom; Kim, Juhan


    We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array

  9. Dirac cones in two-dimensional borane (United States)

    Martinez-Canales, Miguel; Galeev, Timur R.; Boldyrev, Alexander I.; Pickard, Chris J.


    We introduce two-dimensional borane, a single-layered material of BH stoichiometry, with promising electronic properties. We show that, according to density functional theory calculations, two-dimensional borane is semimetallic, with two symmetry-related Dirac cones meeting right at the Fermi energy Ef. The curvature of the cones is lower than in graphene, thus closer to the ideal linear dispersion. Its structure, formed by a puckered trigonal boron network with hydrogen atoms connected to each boron atom, can be understood as distorted, hydrogenated borophene [Mannix et al., Science 350, 1513 (2015), 10.1126/science.aad1080]. Chemical bonding analysis reveals the boron layer in the network being bound by delocalized four-center two-electron σ bonds. Finally, we suggest high pressure could be a feasible route to synthesize two-dimensional borane.

  10. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira


    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  11. A new type of rapid and simple coal and other bulk commodities inventory system based on two-dimensional laser scanner (United States)

    Liang, Qianqian; Xu, Wenhai; Ma, Qisheng; Yang, Deshan; Zhang, Wang; Fu, Ying


    The acceleration of large coal base construction needs the modern management technology of heap storage as a guarantee. And the inventory of coal and other bulk commodities is an important aspect in the modern management technology of heap storage. Therefore, a rapid, accurate and simple method to measure the volume and quality of coal heaps for scientific management, economic benefit evaluation and storage evaluation of heap storage is very important which has a significant application value. In this paper, we introduce the structural features, working principle and application status of a new type portable heap bulk inventory system. Actual measurements have been carried out in the coal base located in Huanghua port, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao. The measurement results indicate that the system can measure the volume of bulk commodities efficiently, quickly and accurately, and it has extensive application prospects.

  12. Neutron coincidence counting based on time interval analysis with dead time corrected one and two dimensional Rossi-alpha distributions: an application for passive neutron waste assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, M.; Baeten, P.; De Boeck, W.; Carchon, R.


    The report describes a new neutron multiplicity counting method based on Rossi-alpha distributions. The report also gives the necessary dead time correction formulas for the multiplicity counting method. The method was tested numerically using a Monte Carlo simulation of pulse trains. The use of this multiplicity method in the field of waste assay is explained: it can be used to determine the amount of fissile material in a waste drum without prior knowledge of the actual detection efficiency

  13. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B


    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  14. Control of two-dimensional growth of AlN and high Al-content AlGaN-based MQWs for deep-UV LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihuang Yang


    Full Text Available Dense and atomically flat AlN film with root-mean-square roughness value of 0.32 nm was grown on sapphire substrate at a relatively lower temperature by using a three-step epitaxy technique. On the basis of this AlN template, AlGaN-based multiple quantum wells (MQWs with atomically flat hetero-interfaces were epitaxially grown to suppress nonradiative recombination by introducing In as a surfactant during simultaneous source supply. As a result, single intense- and narrow-peaked photoluminescence was obtained from the MQWs. Finally, the deep ultraviolet light emitting diodes with well-behaved I-V characteristic and strong electroluminescence in the range of 256–312 nm were fabricated successfully.

  15. New naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b‧]difuran based two-dimensional conjugated small molecules for photovoltaic application (United States)

    Peng, Hongjian; Luan, Xiangfeng; Qiu, Lixia; Li, Hang; Liu, Ye; Zou, Yingping


    Two new A-D-A small molecules with alkoxyphenyl and alkylthiophenyl-substituted naphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b‧]difuran (NDF) as the central building block named NDFPO-DPP and NDFPS-DPP were synthesized and firstly used as donor materials in organic solar cells (OSCs). The effects of the alkoxyphenyl and alkylthiophenyl side chains on the NDF unit have been investigated. With a single atom variation from O to S, NDFPS-DPP exhibited lower HOMO energy levels than its counterpart NDFPO-DPP, which resulted in enhanced Voc. The device based on NDFPO-DPP with thermal annealing exhibited a better PCE of 3.10% due to the higher and more balanced hole and electron mobilities. The investigations show that NDF could be a promising building block in OSCs via rational molecular structure design and device optimizations.

  16. Improving the quality of biomarker candidates in untargeted metabolomics via peak table-based alignment of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data. (United States)

    Bean, Heather D; Hill, Jane E; Dimandja, Jean-Marie D


    The potential of high-resolution analytical technologies like GC×GC/TOF MS in untargeted metabolomics and biomarker discovery has been limited by the development of fully automated software that can efficiently align and extract information from multiple chromatographic data sets. In this work we report the first investigation on a peak-by-peak basis of the chromatographic factors that impact GC×GC data alignment. A representative set of 16 compounds of different chromatographic characteristics were followed through the alignment of 63 GC×GC chromatograms. We found that varying the mass spectral match parameter had a significant influence on the alignment for poorly-resolved peaks, especially those at the extremes of the detector linear range, and no influence on well-chromatographed peaks. Therefore, optimized chromatography is required for proper GC×GC data alignment. Based on these observations, a workflow is presented for the conservative selection of biomarker candidates from untargeted metabolomics analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two-dimensional hazard estimation for longevity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fledelius, Peter; Guillen, M.; Nielsen, J.P.


    We investigate developments in Danish mortality based on data from 1974-1998 working in a two-dimensional model with chronological time and age as the two dimensions. The analyses are done with non-parametric kernel hazard estimation techniques. The only assumption is that the mortality surface i...... for analysis of economic implications arising from mortality changes....

  18. (Bombyx mori L.) using two-dimensional polyacrylami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Fountoulakis M, Schuller E, Hardmeier R, Berndt P and Lubec. G 1999 Rat brain proteins: Two-dimensional protein data- base and variation in the expression level; Electrophoresis 20. 3527–3579. Hiroshi Fujii, Junji Tochinara, Yutaka Kawaguchi and Sakagu- chi B 1988 Existence of carotenoids binding protein in larval.

  19. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...... constraints on the evolution of divorticity lines in 2D hydrodynamics....

  20. A zinc(II)-based two-dimensional MOF for sensitive and selective sensing of HIV-1 ds-DNA sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hai-Qing; Qiu, Gui-Hua; Liang, Zhen [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Min-Min [The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Sun, Bin; Qin, Liang; Yang, Shui-Ping; Chen, Wen-Hua [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Chen, Jin-Xiang, E-mail: [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of New Drug Screening, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)


    Coordination reaction of a known three-dimensional (3D) polymer precursor {Na_3[Na_9(Cbdcp)_6(H_2O)_1_8]}{sub n} (A, Cbdcp = N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-(3,5-dicarboxyl)pyridinium) with Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O in H{sub 2}O or H{sub 2}O/DMF at 100 °C and in the presence of aspirin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) as modulators, trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene (bpe) or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane (bpea) as ancillary ligands afforded six novel Zn(II)-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), that is, {[Zn(Cbdcp)(H_2O)_3]·H_2O}{sub n} (1, 1D zigzag chain), {[Zn(HCbdcp)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2, 2D sheet), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpe)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (3, 3D polymer), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpe)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (4, 2D network), {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpea)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (5, 3D polymer) and {[Zn(Cbdcp)(bpea)_1_/_2]·2H_2O}{sub n} (6, 2D network). Among them, compound 2 contains aromatic rings, positively charged pyridinium, Zn{sup 2+} cation centers and carboxylic acid groups lined up on the 2D sheet structure with a certain extended surface exposure. The unique structure of 2 facilitates effective association with carboxyfluorescein (FAM) labeled probe single stranded DNA (probe ss-DNA, delineates as P-DNA) to yield a P-DNA@2 system, and leads to fluorescence quenching of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer process. The P-DNA@2 system is effective and reliable for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus 1 ds-DNA (HIV ds-DNA) sequences and capable of distinguishing complementary HIV ds-DNA from mismatched target sequences with the detection limit as low as 10 pM (S/N = 3). - Graphical abstract: Six water-stable zinc(II) zwitterionic carboxylate compounds with 1D chain, 2D and 3D networks were synthesized. Compound 2 can interact with the probe DNA through noncovalent bonds to form P-DNA@2 system. This system can be used as an effective, fluorescent sensing platform for the detection of HIV ds-DNA with the detection limit as low as 10 pM. - Highlights: • Six water-stable zinc

  1. Two-dimensional networks of lanthanide cubane-shaped dumbbells. (United States)

    Savard, Didier; Lin, Po-Heng; Burchell, Tara J; Korobkov, Ilia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Clérac, Rodolphe; Murugesu, Muralee


    The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties are reported for three new lanthanide complexes, [Ln(III)(4)(mu(3)-OH)(2)(mu(3)-O)(2)(cpt)(6)(MeOH)(6)(H(2)O)](2) (Ln = Dy (1.15MeOH), Ho (2.14MeOH), and Tb (3.18MeOH)), based on 4-(4-carboxyphenyl)-1,2,4-triazole ligand (Hcpt). The three complexes were confirmed to be isomorphous by infrared spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of 1 reveals that the eight-coordinate metal centers are organized in two cubane-shaped moieties composed of four Dy(III) ions each. All metal centers in the cubane core are bridged by two mu(3)-oxide and two mu(3)-hydroxide asymmetrical units. Moreover, each cubane is linked to its neighbor by two externally coordinating ligands, forming the dumbbell {Dy(III)(4)}(2) moiety. Electrostatic interactions between the ligands of the triazole-bridged dimers form an extended supramolecular two-dimensional arrangement analogous to a metal-organic framework with quadrilateral spaces occupied by ligands from axial sheets and by four solvent molecules. The magnetic properties of the three compounds have been investigated using dc and ac susceptibility measurements. For 1, the static and dynamic data corroborate the fact that the {Dy(III)(4)} cubane-shaped core exhibits slow relaxation of its magnetization below 5 K associated with a single-molecule magnet behavior.

  2. Dipolar vortices in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter


    The dynamics of dipolar vortex solutions to the two-dimensional Euler equations is studied. A new type of nonlinear dipole is found and its dynamics in a slightly viscous system is compared with the dynamics of the Lamb dipole. The evolution of dipolar structures from an initial turbulent patch...

  3. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  4. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  5. Two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A two-dimensional position sensitive neutron detector has been developed. The detector is a 3He + Kr filled multiwire proportional counter with charge division position readout and has a sensitive area of 345 mm × 345 mm, pixel size 5 mm × 5 mm, active depth 25 mm and is designed for efficiency of 70% for 4 Å neutrons.

  6. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.


    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  7. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao


    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  8. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pjetri, O.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.


    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to

  9. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)


    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  10. Biomarker discovery in low-grade breast cancer using isobaric stable isotope tags and two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS) based quantitative proteomic analysis. (United States)

    Bouchal, Pavel; Roumeliotis, Theodoros; Hrstka, Roman; Nenutil, Rudolf; Vojtesek, Borivoj; Garbis, Spiros D


    The present pilot study constitutes a proof-of-principle in the use of a quantitative LC-MS/MS based proteomic method for the comparative analysis of representative low-grade breast primary tumor tissues with and without metastases and metastasis in lymph node relative to the nonmetastatic tumor type. The study method incorporated iTRAQ stable isotope labeling, two-dimensional liquid chromatography, nanoelectrospray ionization and high resolution tandem mass spectrometry using the hybrid QqTOF platform (iTRAQ-2DLC-MS/MS). The principal aims of this study were (1) to define the protein spectrum obtainable using this approach, and (2) to highlight potential candidates for verification and validation studies focused on biomarkers involved in metastatic processes in breast cancer. The study resulted in the reproducible identification of 605 nonredundant proteins (p biomarker discovery program.

  11. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Pourtois, Geoffrey [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry, Plasmant Research Group, University of Antwerp, B-2610 Wilrijk-Antwerp (Belgium); Agarwal, Tarun [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Afzalian, Aryan [TSMC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Radu, Iuliana P. [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Houssa, Michel [Semiconductor Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs.

  12. Origin of the performances degradation of two-dimensional-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors in the sub-10 nm regime: A first-principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Anh Khoa Augustin; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Agarwal, Tarun; Afzalian, Aryan; Radu, Iuliana P.; Houssa, Michel


    The impact of the scaling of the channel length on the performances of metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors, based on two-dimensional (2D) channel materials, is theoretically investigated, using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the scaling of the channel length below 10 nm leads to strong device performance degradations. Our simulations reveal that this degradation is essentially due to the tunneling current flowing between the source and the drain in these aggressively scaled devices. It is shown that this electron tunneling process is modulated by the effective mass of the 2D channel material, and sets the limit of the scaling in future transistor designs

  13. New Two-Dimensional Polynomial Failure Criteria for Composite Materials


    Zhao, Shi Yang; Xue, Pu


    The in-plane damage behavior and material properties of the composite material are very complex. At present, a large number of two-dimensional failure criteria, such as Chang-Chang criteria, have been proposed to predict the damage process of composite structures under loading. However, there is still no good criterion to realize it with both enough accuracy and computational performance. All these criteria cannot be adjusted by experimental data. Therefore, any special properties of composit...

  14. Two-dimensional heat conducting simulation of plasma armatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerta, M.A.; Boynton, G.


    This paper reports on our development of a two-dimensional MHD code to simulate internal motions in a railgun plasma armature. The authors use the equations of resistive MHD, with Ohmic heating, and radiation heat transport. The authors use a Flux Corrected Transport code to advance all quantities in time. Our runs show the development of complex flows, subsequent shedding of secondary arcs, and a drop in the acceleration of the armature

  15. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.


    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  16. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.


    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  17. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito


    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  18. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee


    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  19. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  20. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr


    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  1. Acoustic transparency in two-dimensional sonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose; Torrent, Daniel [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/ Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain); Cai Liangwu [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)], E-mail:


    Acoustic transparency is studied in two-dimensional sonic crystals consisting of hexagonal distributions of cylinders with continuously varying properties. The transparency condition is achieved by selectively closing the acoustic bandgaps, which are governed by the structure factor of the cylindrical scatterers. It is shown here that cylindrical scatterers with the proposed continuously varying properties are physically realizable by using metafluids based on sonic crystals. The feasibility of this proposal is analyzed by a numerical experiment based on multiple scattering theory.

  2. Two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein spaces and gravitational instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.


    A new class of solutions of the euclidean Einstein equations with Λ-term ( A-class ) is found by solving the complex two-dimensional Kaehler Einstein equations with the following realization of complex metrics. The A-Class includes two gravitational instantons already known: the CP 2 and the Eguchi-Hanson metric, and allows a U(1)-generalized spin structure. It is shown that all Einstein euclidean two-axial Bianchi type IX metrics are exhausted by the Taub-NUT-de Sitter family and the A-class. (orig.)

  3. A two-dimensional molybdenum (V) phosphate with covalently bonded transition metal coordination complexes: hydrothermal synthesis and structure characterization of Na 2[{Mn(phen) 2(H 2O)}{Mn(phen) 2} 3{Mn Mo 12vO 24 (HPO 4) 6(PO 4) 2(OH) 6}]·4H 2O (phen=1, 10-phenanthroline) (United States)

    Yuan, Mei; Wang, Enbo; Lu, Ying; Li, Yangguang; Hu, Changwen; Hu, Ninghai; Jia, Hengqing


    An organic-inorganic hybrid molybdenum phosphate, Na 2[{Mn(phen) 2(H 2O)} {Mn(phen) 2} 3{MnMo 12vO 24 (HPO 4) 6(PO 4) 2(OH) 6}]·4H 2O (phen=1,10-phenanthroline), involving molybdenum present in V oxidation state and covalently bonded transition metal coordination complexes, has been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Deep brown-red crystals are formed in the triclinic system, space group P 1¯, a=16.581(1) Å, b=18.354(1) Å, c=24.485(2) Å, α=80.589(1)°, β=71.279(1)°, γ=67.084(1)°, V=6493.8(8) Å 3, Z=2, λ(Mo Kα)=0.71073 Å ( R( F)=0.0686 for 29,053 reflections). Data were collected on a Bruker Smart Apex CCD diffractometer at 293 K in the range of 1.76< θ<28.06° using ω-2 θ scans technique. The structure of the title compound may be considered to be based on {Mo 6O 12(HPO 4) 3(PO 4)(OH) 3} units bonded together with {Mn(phen) 2} subunits into a two-dimensional network. Two types of tunnels are observed in the solid of the title compound.

  4. Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast gas chromatography. (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek


    Vodka is a spirit-based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin have been costly, time-consuming and insufficient for making a distinction between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. In the present study, we employed comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and an electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast GC with chemometric methods such as partial least square discriminant analysis, discriminant function analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy. Both techniques allow a distinction between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC, the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose; however, the electronic nose allowed the significantly faster analysis of vodkas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Gyroscope with two-dimensional optomechanical mirror (United States)

    Davuluri, Sankar; Li, Kai; Li, Yong


    We propose an application of two-dimensional optomechanical oscillator as a gyroscope by detecting the Coriolis force which is modulated at the natural frequency of the optomechanical oscillator. Dependence of gyroscope's sensitivity on shot noise, back-action noise, thermal noise, and input laser power is studied. At optimal input laser power, the gyroscope's sensitivity can be improved by increasing the mass or by decreasing the temperature and decay rate of the mechanical oscillator. When the mechanical oscillator's thermal occupation number, n th, is zero, sensitivity improves with decrease in frequency of the mechanical oscillator. For {n}{{th}}\\gg 1, the sensitivity is independent of the mechanical oscillator's frequency.

  6. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko


    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  7. On Two-Dimensional Quaternion Wigner-Ville Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawardi Bahri


    Full Text Available We present the two-dimensional quaternion Wigner-Ville distribution (QWVD. The transform is constructed by substituting the Fourier transform kernel with the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT kernel in the classical Wigner-Ville distribution definition. Based on the properties of quaternions and the QFT kernel we obtain three types of the QWVD. We discuss some useful properties of various definitions for the QWVD, which are extensions of the classical Wigner-Ville distribution properties.

  8. Parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. (United States)

    Yan, DanDan; Tedone, Laura; Koutoulis, Anthony; Whittock, Simon P; Shellie, Robert A


    We introduce an information rich analytical approach called parallel comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (2GC×2GC). This parallel chromatography approach splits injected samples into two independent two-dimensional column ensembles and provides two GC×GC separations by using contra-directional thermal modulation. The first-dimension ( 1 D) and second-dimension ( 2 D) columns are connected using planar three-port microchannel devices, which are supplied with supplementary flow via two pressure controller modules. Precise carrier gas flow control at the junction of the 1 D and 2 D columns permits independent control of flow conditions in each separation column. The 2GC×2GC approach provides two entirely independent GC×GC separations for each injection. Analysis of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) essential oils is used to demonstrate the capability of the approach. The analytical performance of each GC×GC separation in the 2GC×2GC experiment is comparable to individual GC×GC separation with matching column configurations. The peak capacity of 2GC×2GC is about 2 times than that of single GC×GC system. The dual 2D chromatograms produced by this single detector system provide complementary separations and additional identification information by harnessing different selectivity provided by the four separation columns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Flow transitions in two-dimensional foams. (United States)

    Gilbreth, Christopher; Sullivan, Scott; Dennin, Michael


    For sufficiently slow rates of strain, flowing foam can exhibit inhomogeneous flows. The nature of these flows is an area of active study in both two-dimensional model foams and three dimensional foam. Recent work in three-dimensional foam has identified three distinct regimes of flow [S. Rodts, J. C. Baudez, and P. Coussot, Europhys. Lett. 69, 636 (2005)]. Two of these regimes are identified with continuum behavior (full flow and shear banding), and the third regime is identified as a discrete regime exhibiting extreme localization. In this paper, the discrete regime is studied in more detail using a model two-dimensional foam: a bubble raft. We characterize the behavior of the bubble raft subjected to a constant rate of strain as a function of time, system size, and applied rate of strain. We observe localized flow that is consistent with the coexistence of a power-law fluid with rigid-body rotation. As a function of applied rate of strain, there is a transition from a continuum description of the flow to discrete flow when the thickness of the flow region is approximately ten bubbles. This occurs at an applied rotation rate of approximately 0.07 s-1.

  10. Design and development of a two-dimensional system based on hydrophilic and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with on-line sample treatment for the simultaneous separation of excreted xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites in urine. (United States)

    García-Gómez, Diego; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Carabias-Martínez, Rita


    In the present work we describe a two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system (2D-LC) with detection by mass spectrometry (MS) for the simultaneous separation of endogenous metabolites of clinical interest and excreted xenobiotics deriving from exposure to toxic compounds. The 2D-LC system involves two orthogonal chromatographic modes, hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) to separate polar endogenous metabolites and reversed-phase (RP) chromatography to separate excreted xenobiotics of low and intermediate polarity. Additionally, the present proposal has the novelty of incorporating an on-line sample treatment based on the use of restricted access materials (RAMs), which permits the direct injection of urine samples into the system. The work is focused on the instrumental coupling, studying all possible options and attempting to circumvent the problems of solvent incompatibility between the RAM device and the two chromatographic columns, HILIC and RP. The instrumental configuration developed, RAM-HILIC-RPLC-MS/MS, allows the simultaneous assessment of urinary metabolites of clinical interest and excreted compounds derived from exposure to toxic agents with minimal sample manipulation. Thus, it may be of interest in areas such as occupational and environmental toxicology in order to explore the possible relationship between the two types of compounds. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping


    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  12. Transient two-dimensional fuel-concentration measurement technique (United States)

    Konishi, Tadashi; Naka, Syuji; Ito, Akihiko; Saito, Kozo


    We propose a nonintrusive experimental technique, the transient fuel-concentration measurement technique (TFMT), that is capable of being used to measure two-dimensional profiles of transient fuel concentrations over an open liquid fuel surface. The TFMT is based on single-wavelength holographic interferometry; its response time is less than 1 s and spatial resolution is 0.1 mol. % /0.1 mm. It was applied to measure both methanol vapor and n-propanol vapor concentrations. To assess the accuracy of the technique, our results were compared with steady-state methanol and n-propanol fuel-vapor concentrations measured by other researchers with a microsampling technique combined with gas chromatography. We found the TFMT to be accurate for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional profiles of fuel-vapor concentrations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toth Reka


    Full Text Available In this paper, we have presented a corporate valuation model. The model combine several valuation methods in order to get more accurate results. To determine the corporate asset value we have used the Gordon-like two-stage asset valuation model based on the calculation of the free cash flow to the firm. We have used the free cash flow to the firm to determine the corporate market value, which was calculated with use of the Black-Scholes option pricing model in frame of the two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation method. The combined model and the use of the two-dimensional simulation model provides a better opportunity for the corporate value estimation.

  14. Explorative data analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, J.; Gottlieb, D.M.; Petersen, Marianne Kjerstine


    Methods for classification of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis gels based on multivariate data analysis are demonstrated. Two-dimensional gels of ten wheat varieties are analyzed and it is demonstrated how to classify the wheat varieties in two qualities and a method for initial screening...... of gels is presented. First, an approach is demonstrated in which no prior knowledge of the separated proteins is used. Alignment of the gels followed by a simple transformation of data makes it possible to analyze the gels in an automated explorative manner by principal component analysis, to determine...... if the gels should be further analyzed. A more detailed approach is done by analyzing spot volume lists by principal components analysis and partial least square regression. The use of spot volume data offers a mean to investigate the spot pattern and link the classified protein patterns to distinct spots...

  15. Linear negative magnetoresistance in two-dimensional Lorentz gases (United States)

    Schluck, J.; Hund, M.; Heckenthaler, T.; Heinzel, T.; Siboni, N. H.; Horbach, J.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Kazazis, D.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.


    Two-dimensional Lorentz gases formed by obstacles in the shape of circles, squares, and retroreflectors are reported to show a pronounced linear negative magnetoresistance at small magnetic fields. For circular obstacles at low number densities, our results agree with the predictions of a model based on classical retroreflection. In extension to the existing theoretical models, we find that the normalized magnetoresistance slope depends on the obstacle shape and increases as the number density of the obstacles is increased. The peaks are furthermore suppressed by in-plane magnetic fields as well as by elevated temperatures. These results suggest that classical retroreflection can form a significant contribution to the magnetoresistivity of two-dimensional Lorentz gases, while contributions from weak localization cannot be excluded, in particular for large obstacle densities.

  16. H₂ sensing properties of two-dimensional zinc oxide nanostructures. (United States)

    Tonezzer, Matteo; Iannotta, Salvatore


    In this work we have grown particular zinc oxide two-dimensional nanostructures which are essentially a series of hexagonal very thin sheets. The hexagonal wurtzite crystal structure gives them their peculiar shape, whose dimensions are few microns wide, with a thickness in the order of 25 nm. Such kind of nanostructure, grown by thermal oxidation of evaporated metallic zinc on a silica substrate, has been used to fabricate conductometric gas sensors, investigated then for hydrogen gas detection. The "depletion layer sensing mechanism" is clarified, explaining how the geometrical factors of one- and two-dimensional nanostructures affect their sensing parameters. The comparison with one-dimensional ZnO nanowires based structures shows that two-dimensional nanostructures are ideal for gas sensing, due to their tiny thickness, which is comparable to the depletion-layer thickness, and their large cross-section, which increases the base current, thus lowering the limit of detection. The response to H₂ has been found good even to sub-ppm concentrations, with response and recovery times shorter than 18s in the whole range of H₂ concentrations investigated (500 ppb-10 ppm). The limit of detection has been found around 200 ppb for H₂ gas even at relatively low working temperature (175 °C). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Insights into complexation of dissolved organic matter and Al(III) and nanominerals formation in soils under contrasting fertilizations using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy techniques. (United States)

    Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui


    Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mančal T.


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.

  19. Local Pixel Value Collection Algorithm for Spot Segmentation in Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Research


    Peer, Peter; Corzo, Luis Galo


    Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis (2-DE) images show the expression levels of several hundreds of proteins where each protein is represented as a blob-shaped spot of grey level values. The spot detection, that is, the segmentation process has to be efficient as it is the first step in the gel processing. Such extraction of information is a very complex task. In this paper, we propose a novel spot detector that is basically a morphology-based method with the use of a seeded region growing as...

  20. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail:; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  1. Thresholding using two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm in the luggage inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingyun; Cong Peng; Song Qi


    The authors present a new DR image segmentation method based on two-dimensional histogram and watershed algorithm. The authors use watershed algorithm to locate threshold on the vertical projection plane of two-dimensional histogram. This method is applied to the segmentation of DR images produced by luggage inspection system with DR-CT. The advantage of this method is also analyzed. (authors)

  2. Statistical problem of ideal gas in general two-dimensional regions (United States)

    Song, Ci; Li, Wen-Du; Mwansa, Pardon; Zhang, Ping


    In this paper, based on the conformal mapping method and the perturbation theory, we develop a method to solve the statistical problem within general two-dimensional regions. We consider some examples and the numerical results and fitting results are given. We also give the thermodynamic quantities of the general two-dimensional regions, and compare the thermodynamic quantities of the different regions.

  3. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.


    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  4. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  5. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.


    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  6. Ward identities in two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polchinski, J.


    We study the decoupling of null states in two-dimensional gravity, using methods of critical string theory. We identify a family of null states which fail to decouple due to curvature and boundary terms. This gives relations involving amplitudes at different genus. At genus zero, these determine certain operator product coefficients. At genus one, they determine the partition function. At higher genus, we obtain a relation similar in form to the Painleve equation, but due to an incomplete understanding of a certain ghost/curvature term we do not have a closed relation for the partition function. Our results appear to correspond to the L 0 and L 1 equations in the topological and matrix model approaches. (orig.)

  7. Modified black holes in two dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.


    The SL(2,R)/U(1) gauged WZWN model is modified by a topological term and the accompanying change in the geometry of the two dimensional target space is determined. The possibility of this additional term arises from a symmetry in the general formalism of gauging an isometry subgroup of a non-linear sigma model with an antisymmetric tensor. It is shown, in particular, that the space-time exhibits some general singularities for which the recently found black hole is just a special case. From a conformal field theory point of view and for special values of the unitary representation of SL(2,R), this topological term can be interpreted as a small perturbation by a (1,1) conformal operator of the gauged WZWN action. (author). 26 refs

  8. Thermal properties of two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Gang; Zhang Yong-Wei


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, phosphorene, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS 2 and WS 2 ), have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their extraordinary structural, mechanical, and physical properties. In particular, 2D materials have shown great potential for thermal management and thermoelectric energy generation. In this article, we review the recent advances in the study of thermal properties of 2D materials. We first review some important aspects in thermal conductivity of graphene and discuss the possibility to enhance the ultra-high thermal conductivity of graphene. Next, we discuss thermal conductivity of MoS 2 and the new strategy for thermal management of MoS 2 device. Subsequently, we discuss the anisotropic thermal properties of phosphorene. Finally, we review the application of 2D materials in thermal devices, including thermal rectifier and thermal modulator. (topical reviews)

  9. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  10. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.


    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  11. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.


    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  12. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich


    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  13. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: correlated, homonuclear-correlated, and nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy. January 1975-December 1988 (Citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Report for January 1975-December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This bibliography contains citations concerning the enhanced analytical techniques of two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2-D NMR). Applications to specific molecules, biomolecules, and compounds as well as comparisons of three 2-D NMR techniques: correlated spectroscopy (COSY), nuclear Overhauser (NOSEY), and homonuclear-correlated spectroscopy (HOMCOR). (Contains 190 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  14. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng


    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  15. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L., E-mail: [University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Laskar, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai (India); Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z. [Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); Menq, F. [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Tang, Y. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  16. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis. (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone


    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  17. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel


    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  18. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip


    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  19. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination. (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Pinkerton, David K; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E


    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of keen interest, particularly to regulatory agencies that set fuel specifications, or taxes/credits based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) is well suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. Tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis reduces the abundance of data in a GC×GC-TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from differently branded filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and may consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When applied to the acid

  20. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brendon A.; Pinkerton, David K.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.


    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of scientific interest, particularly to regulatory agencies which set fuel specifications, or excises based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) is ideally suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. The tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) method reduces the abundance of data in a GC × GC–TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from different filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features which are likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and which will consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When

  1. Network patterns in exponentially growing two-dimensional biofilms (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Yap, Xinhui; Gloag, Erin S.; Shimoni, Raz; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos


    Anisotropic collective patterns occur frequently in the morphogenesis of two-dimensional biofilms. These patterns are often attributed to growth regulation mechanisms and differentiation based on gradients of diffusing nutrients and signaling molecules. Here, we employ a model of bacterial growth dynamics to show that even in the absence of growth regulation or differentiation, confinement by an enclosing medium such as agar can itself lead to stable pattern formation over time scales that are employed in experiments. The underlying mechanism relies on path formation through physical deformation of the enclosing environment.

  2. Two-dimensional Lagrangian simulation of suspended sediment (United States)

    Schoellhamer, David H.


    A two-dimensional laterally averaged model for suspended sediment transport in steady gradually varied flow that is based on the Lagrangian reference frame is presented. The layered Lagrangian transport model (LLTM) for suspended sediment performs laterally averaged concentration. The elevations of nearly horizontal streamlines and the simulation time step are selected to optimize model stability and efficiency. The computational elements are parcels of water that are moved along the streamlines in the Lagrangian sense and are mixed with neighboring parcels. Three applications show that the LLTM can accurately simulate theoretical and empirical nonequilibrium suspended sediment distributions and slug injections of suspended sediment in a laboratory flume.

  3. Quantum algebras for two-dimensional Cayley-Klein Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, F.J.; Ballesteros, A.; Olmo, M.A. del; Santander, M.


    Simultaneous quantization of the quasi-simple groups of motions of the nine two-dimensional Cayley-Klein geometries is obtained by defining a deformed Hopf structure on their enveloping algebras. The spaces of points and lines of the classical CK geometries are homogeneous spaces of their motion groups. Both the well known classical non-euclidean geometries and the (1+1) kinematical geometries are included within this scheme. Their corresponding quantum algebras preserve a scheme of contractions, symmetries and dualities based on the classical one. (Author)

  4. Two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases beyond weak coupling (United States)

    França, Guilherme; LeClair, André; Squires, Joshua


    Using a formalism based on the two-body S-matrix we study two-dimensional Bose and Fermi gases with both attractive and repulsive interactions. Approximate analytic expressions, valid at weak coupling and beyond, are developed and applied to the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition. We successfully recover the correct logarithmic functional form of the critical chemical potential and density for the Bose gas. For fermions, the BKT critical temperature is calculated in BCS and BEC regimes through consideration of Tan’s contact.

  5. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.


    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  6. Dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles (United States)

    Piedra, Saúl; Ramos, Eduardo; Herrera, J. Ramón


    The dynamics of two-dimensional bubbles ascending under the influence of buoyant forces is numerically studied with a one-fluid model coupled with the front-tracking technique. The bubble dynamics are described by recording the position, shape, and orientation of the bubbles as functions of time. The qualitative properties of the bubbles and their terminal velocities are described in terms of the Eötvos (ratio of buoyancy to surface tension) and Archimedes numbers (ratio of buoyancy to viscous forces). The terminal Reynolds number result from the balance of buoyancy and drag forces and, consequently, is not an externally fixed parameter. In the cases that yield small Reynolds numbers, the bubbles follow straight paths and the wake is steady. A more interesting behavior is found at high Reynolds numbers where the bubbles follow an approximately periodic zigzag trajectory and an unstable wake with properties similar to the Von Karman vortex street is formed. The dynamical features of the motion of single bubbles are compared to experimental observations of air bubbles ascending in a water-filled Hele-Shaw cell. Although the comparison is not strictly valid in the sense that the effect of the lateral walls is not incorporated in the model, most of the dynamical properties observed are in good qualitative agreement with the numerical calculations. Hele-Shaw cells with different gaps have been used to determine the degree of approximation of the numerical calculation. It is found that for the relation between the terminal Reynolds number and the Archimedes number, the numerical calculations are closer to the observations of bubble dynamics in Hele-Shaw cells of larger gaps.

  7. Equatorial spread F studies using SAMI3 with two-dimensional and three-dimensional electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Aveiro


    Full Text Available This letter presents a study of equatorial F region irregularities using the NRL SAMI3/ESF model, comparing results using a two-dimensional (2-D and a three-dimensional (3-D electrostatic potential solution. For the 3-D potential solution, two cases are considered for parallel plasma transport: (1 transport based on the parallel ambipolar field, and (2 transport based on the parallel electric field. The results show that the growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh–Taylor instability is not affected by the choice of the potential solution. However, differences are observed in the structures of the irregularities between the 2-D and 3-D solutions. Additionally, the plasma velocity along the geomagnetic field computed using the full 3-D solution shows complex structures that are not captured by the simplified model. This points out that only the full 3-D model is able to fully capture the complex physics of the equatorial F region.

  8. Two-dimensional wavelet transform feature extraction for porous silicon chemical sensors. (United States)

    Murguía, José S; Vergara, Alexander; Vargas-Olmos, Cecilia; Wong, Travis J; Fonollosa, Jordi; Huerta, Ramón


    Designing reliable, fast responding, highly sensitive, and low-power consuming chemo-sensory systems has long been a major goal in chemo-sensing. This goal, however, presents a difficult challenge because having a set of chemo-sensory detectors exhibiting all these aforementioned ideal conditions are still largely un-realizable to-date. This paper presents a unique perspective on capturing more in-depth insights into the physicochemical interactions of two distinct, selectively chemically modified porous silicon (pSi) film-based optical gas sensors by implementing an innovative, based on signal processing methodology, namely the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Specifically, the method consists of using the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform as a feature extraction method to capture the non-stationary behavior from the bi-dimensional pSi rugate sensor response. Utilizing a comprehensive set of measurements collected from each of the aforementioned optically based chemical sensors, we evaluate the significance of our approach on a complex, six-dimensional chemical analyte discrimination/quantification task problem. Due to the bi-dimensional aspects naturally governing the optical sensor response to chemical analytes, our findings provide evidence that the proposed feature extractor strategy may be a valuable tool to deepen our understanding of the performance of optically based chemical sensors as well as an important step toward attaining their implementation in more realistic chemo-sensing applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Skeletal Muscle Proteomics Using Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis (United States)

    Murphy, Sandra; Dowling, Paul; Ohlendieck, Kay


    The pioneering work by Patrick H. O’Farrell established two-dimensional gel electrophoresis as one of the most important high-resolution protein separation techniques of modern biochemistry (Journal of Biological Chemistry 1975, 250, 4007–4021). The application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has played a key role in the systematic identification and detailed characterization of the protein constituents of skeletal muscles. Protein changes during myogenesis, muscle maturation, fibre type specification, physiological muscle adaptations and natural muscle aging were studied in depth by the original O’Farrell method or slightly modified gel electrophoretic techniques. Over the last 40 years, the combined usage of isoelectric focusing in the first dimension and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in the second dimension has been successfully employed in several hundred published studies on gel-based skeletal muscle biochemistry. This review focuses on normal and physiologically challenged skeletal muscle tissues and outlines key findings from mass spectrometry-based muscle proteomics, which was instrumental in the identification of several thousand individual protein isoforms following gel electrophoretic separation. These muscle-associated protein species belong to the diverse group of regulatory and contractile proteins of the acto-myosin apparatus that forms the sarcomere, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and transporters, signaling proteins, ion-handling proteins, molecular chaperones and extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:28248237

  10. Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Measuring Uranium Isotopes in Femtosecond Laser Ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Brumfield, Brian E.; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Jovanovic, Igor


    We present the first two-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy measurements of uranium isotopes in femtosecond laser ablation plasmas. A new method of signal normalization is presented to reduce noise in absorption-based measurements of laser ablation.

  11. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)


    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  12. Entropic Barriers for Two-Dimensional Quantum Memories (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin J.; Al-Shimary, Abbas; Pachos, Jiannis K.


    Comprehensive no-go theorems show that information encoded over local two-dimensional topologically ordered systems cannot support macroscopic energy barriers, and hence will not maintain stable quantum information at finite temperatures for macroscopic time scales. However, it is still well motivated to study low-dimensional quantum memories due to their experimental amenability. Here we introduce a grid of defect lines to Kitaev's quantum double model where different anyonic excitations carry different masses. This setting produces a complex energy landscape which entropically suppresses the diffusion of excitations that cause logical errors. We show numerically that entropically suppressed errors give rise to superexponential inverse temperature scaling and polynomial system size scaling for small system sizes over a low-temperature regime. Curiously, these entropic effects are not present below a certain low temperature. We show that we can vary the system to modify this bound and potentially extend the described effects to zero temperature.

  13. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.


    real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive......Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  14. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges (United States)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio


    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  15. Unruly topologies in two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.


    A sum over histories formulation of quantum geometry could involve sums over different topologies as well as sums over different metrics. In classical gravity a geometry is a manifold with a metric, but it is difficult to implement a sum over manifolds in quantum gravity. In this difficulty, motivation is found for including in the sum over histories, geometries defined on more general objects than manifolds-unruly topologies. In simplicial two-dimensional quantum gravity a class of simplicial complexes is found to which the gravitational action can be extended, for which sums over the class are straightforwardly defined, and for which a manifold dominates the sum in the classical limit. The situation in higher dimensions is discussed. (author)

  16. Human lymphocyte polymorphisms detected by quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.; Merril, C.R.


    A survey of 186 soluble lymphocyte proteins for genetic polymorphism was carried out utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis of 14 C-labeled phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated human lymphocyte proteins. Nineteen of these proteins exhibited positional variation consistent with independent genetic polymorphism in a primary sample of 28 individuals. Each of these polymorphisms was characterized by quantitative gene-dosage dependence insofar as the heterozygous phenotype expressed approximately 50% of each allelic gene product as was seen in homozygotes. Patterns observed were also identical in monozygotic twins, replicate samples, and replicate gels. The three expected phenotypes (two homozygotes and a heterozygote) were observed in each of 10 of these polymorphisms while the remaining nine had one of the homozygous classes absent. The presence of the three phenotypes, the demonstration of gene-dosage dependence, and our own and previous pedigree analysis of certain of these polymorphisms supports the genetic basis of these variants. Based on this data, the frequency of polymorphic loci for man is: P . 19/186 . .102, and the average heterozygosity is .024. This estimate is approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the rate of polymorphism previously estimated for man in other studies using one-dimensional electrophoresis of isozyme loci. The newly described polymorphisms and others which should be detectable in larger protein surveys with two-dimensional electrophoresis hold promise as genetic markers of the human genome for use in gene mapping and pedigree analyses

  17. Development of two dimensional electrophoresis method using single chain DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junichi; Hidaka, So


    By combining a separation method due to molecular weight and a method to distinguish difference of mono-bases, it was aimed to develop a two dimensional single chain DNA labeled with Radioisotope (RI). From electrophoretic pattern difference of parent and variant strands, it was investigated to isolate the root module implantation control gene. At first, a Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) method using concentration gradient gel was investigated. As a result, it was formed that intervals between double chain and single chain DNAs expanded, but intervals of both single chain DNAs did not expand. On next, combination of non-modified acrylic amide electrophoresis method and Denaturing Gradient-Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) method was examined. As a result, hybrid DNA developed by two dimensional electrophoresis arranged on two lines. But, among them a band of DNA modified by high concentration of urea could not be found. Therefore, in this fiscal year's experiments, no preferable result could be obtained. By the used method, it was thought to be impossible to detect the differences. (G.K.)

  18. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.


    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  19. Drifting plasmons in open two-dimensional channels: modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoruk, O


    Understanding the properties of plasmons in two-dimensional channels is important for developing methods of terahertz generation. This paper presents a modal analysis of plasmonic reflection in open channels supporting dc currents. As it shows, the plasmons can be amplified upon reflection if a dc current flows away from a conducting boundary; de-amplification occurs for the opposite current direction. The problem is solved analytically, based on a perturbation calculation, and numerically, and agreement between the methods is demonstrated. The power radiated by a channel is found to be negligible, and plasmon reflection in open channels is shown to be similar to that in closed channels. Based on this similarity, the oscillator designs developed earlier for closed channels could be applicable also for open ones. The results develop the modal-decomposition technique further as an instrument for the design of terahertz plasmonic sources. (paper)

  20. Protein profile analysis of Malaysian snake venoms by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Vejayan


    Full Text Available Snake venoms comprise a highly complex mixture of proteins, which requires for their characterization the use of versatile two-dimensional electrophoresis techniques. In the present study, venoms obtained from eight snakes (Ophiophagus hannah, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana, Bungarus fasciatus, Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri, Enhydrina schistosa and Calloselasma rhodostoma commonly found in Malaysia were separated based on two independent properties, isoelectric point (pI and molecular weight (MW. Many differences in snake venoms at the inter-family, inter-subfamily, inter-genus and inter-species levels were revealed. Notably, proteins from individuals of the Viperidae family - Trimeresurus sumatranus, Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma - were found to be numerous and scattered by the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE specifically in regions between 37 and 100 kDa compared to the Elapidae venom proteins. The latter were clustered at the basic and lower molecular mass region (less than 20 kDa. Trains of spots were commonly observed, indicating that these proteins may be derived from post-translational modifications. Ophiophagus hannah (Elapidae revealed a great amount of protein spots in the higher molecular mass range when compared to Enhydrina schistosa, Naja kaouthia, Naja sumatrana and Bungarus fasciatus. Overall 2DE showed large differences in the venom profile of each species, which might be employed as an ancillary tool to the identification of venomous snake species.

  1. Local Pixel Value Collection Algorithm for Spot Segmentation in Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peer


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis (2-DE images show the expression levels of several hundreds of proteins where each protein is represented as a blob-shaped spot of grey level values. The spot detection, that is, the segmentation process has to be efficient as it is the first step in the gel processing. Such extraction of information is a very complex task. In this paper, we propose a novel spot detector that is basically a morphology-based method with the use of a seeded region growing as a central paradigm and which relies on the spot correlation information. The method is tested on our synthetic as well as on real gels with human samples from SWISS-2DPAGE (two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis database. A comparison of results is done with a method called pixel value collection (PVC. Since our algorithm efficiently uses local spot information, segments the spot by collecting pixel values and its affinity with PVC, we named it local pixel value collection (LPVC. The results show that LPVC achieves similar segmentation results as PVC, but is much faster than PVC.

  2. Level crossings in complex two-dimensional potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 947 (2007), arXiv:hep-th/0703096. [3] C M Bender, G V Dunne, P N Meisinger and M S.ims.ek, Phys. Lett. A281, 311 (2001). [4] A Nanayakkara and C Abayaratne, Phys. Lett. A303, 243 (2002). [5] A Nanayakkara, Phys.

  3. Examination of Gelatinase Isoforms in Rodent Models of Acute Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Two-Dimensional Zymography. (United States)

    Chen, Shanyan; Meng, Fanjun; Chen, Zhenzhou; Qu, Zhe; Cui, Jiankun; Gu, Zezong


    Pathological activation of gelatinases (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9; MMP-2/-9) has been shown to cause a number of detrimental outcomes in neurodegenerative diseases. In gel gelatin zymography is a highly sensitive methodology commonly used in revealing levels of gelatinase activity and in separating the proform and active form of gelatinases, based on their different molecular weights. However, this methodology is inadequate in resolving complex enzyme isoforms, because gelatinase expression and activity can be regulated at transcriptional and/or post-translational levels under in vivo conditions resulting in alternation of their isoelectric focusing (IEF) points. In this chapter, we describe an advanced methodology, termed two-dimensional zymography, combining IEF with zymographic electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions to achieve significant improvement in separation of the gelatinase isoforms in both cell-based and in vivo models for acute brain injuries and neuroinflammation.

  4. A two-dimensional fully analytical model with polarization effect for off-state channel potential and electric field distributions of GaN-based field-plated high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Wei; She Wei-Bo; Zhang Chao; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Zhang Jin-Feng; Liu Hong-Xia; Yang Lin-An; Zhang Kai; Zhao Sheng-Lei; Chen Yong-He; Zheng Xue-Feng; Hao Yue; Yang Cui; Ma Xiao-Hua


    In this paper, we present a two-dimensional (2D) fully analytical model with consideration of polarization effect for the channel potential and electric field distributions of the gate field-plated high electron mobility transistor (FP-HEMT) on the basis of 2D Poisson's solution. The dependences of the channel potential and electric field distributions on drain bias, polarization charge density, FP structure parameters, AlGaN/GaN material parameters, etc. are investigated. A simple and convenient approach to designing high breakdown voltage FP-HEMTs is also proposed. The validity of this model is demonstrated by comparison with the numerical simulations with Silvaco—Atlas. The method in this paper can be extended to the development of other analytical models for different device structures, such as MIS-HEMTs, multiple-FP HETMs, slant-FP HEMTs, etc. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Beginning Introductory Physics with Two-Dimensional Motion (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha


    During the session on "Introductory College Physics Textbooks" at the 2007 Summer Meeting of the AAPT, there was a brief discussion about whether introductory physics should begin with one-dimensional motion or two-dimensional motion. Here we present the case that by starting with two-dimensional motion, we are able to introduce a considerable…

  6. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.


    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  7. Two-dimensional neutron scintillation detector with optimal gamma discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyo, M.; Reinartz, R.; Schelten, J.; Mueller, K.D.


    The gamma sensitivity of a two-dimensional scintillation neutron detector based on position sensitive photomultipliers (Hamamatsu R2387 PM) has been minimized by a digital differential discrimination unit. Since the photomultiplier gain is position-dependent by ±25% a discrimination unit was developed where digital upper and lower discrimination levels are set due to the position-dependent photomultiplier gain obtained from calibration measurements. By this method narrow discriminator windows can be used to reduce the gamma background drastically without effecting the neutron sensitivity of the detector. The new discrimination method and its performance tested by neutron measurements will be described. Experimental results concerning spatial resolution and γ-sensitivity are presented

  8. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis Gel Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars


    This thesis describes and proposes solutions to some of the currently most important problems in pattern recognition and image analysis of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) images. 2DGE is the leading technique to separate individual proteins in biological samples with many biological...... and pharmaceutical applications, e.g., drug development. The technique results in an image, where the proteins appear as dark spots on a bright background. However, the analysis of these images is very time consuming and requires a large amount of manual work so there is a great need for fast, objective, and robust...... methods based on image analysis techniques in order to significantly accelerate this key technology. The methods described and developed fall into three categories: image segmentation, point pattern matching, and a unified approach simultaneously segmentation the image and matching the spots. The main...

  9. Advancements of two dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein researches. (United States)

    Tao, Yanchun; Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping


    The developments of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applications in protein studies are discussed, especially for the past two decades. The powerful utilities of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies are summarized. The emphasis is on the vibration spectroscopic techniques including IR, NIR, Raman and optical activity (ROA), as well as vibration circular dichroism (VCD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, some new developments, such as hetero-spectral 2DCOS, moving-window correlation, and model based correlation, are also reviewed for their utility in the investigation of the secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein. Finally, the new possibility and challenges of 2DCOS in protein research are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sample preparation guidelines for two-dimensional electrophoresis. (United States)

    Posch, Anton


    Sample preparation is one of the key technologies for successful two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). Due to the great diversity of protein sample types and sources, no single sample preparation method works with all proteins; for any sample the optimum procedure must be determined empirically. This review is meant to provide a broad overview of the most important principles in sample preparation in order to avoid a multitude of possible pitfalls. Sample preparation protocols from the expert in the field were screened and evaluated. On the basis of these protocols and my own comprehensive practical experience important guidelines are given in this review. The presented guidelines will facilitate straightforward protocol development for researchers new to gel-based proteomics. In addition the available choices are rationalized in order to successfully prepare a protein sample for 2DE separations. The strategies described here are not limited to 2DE and can also be applied to other protein separation techniques.

  11. Electromagnetic two-dimensional analysis of trapped-ion eigenmodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.; Rewoldt, G.


    A two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of the trapped-ion instability for the tokamak case with ..beta.. not equal to 0 has been made, based on previous work in the electrostatic limit. The quasineutrality condition and the component of Ampere's law along the equilibrium magnetic field are solved for the perturbed electrostatic potential and the component of the perturbed vector potential along the equilibrium magnetic field. The general integro-differential equations are converted into a matrix eigenvalue-eigenfunction problem by expanding in cubic B-spline finite elements in the minor radius and in Fourier harmonics in the poloidal angle. A model MHD equilibrium with circular, concentric magnetic surfaces and large aspect ratio is used which is consistent with our assemption that B << 1. The effect on the trapped-ion mode of including these electromagnetic extensions to the calculation is considered, and the temperature (and ..beta..) scaling of the mode frequency is shown and discussed.

  12. Splitting rules for spectra of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices (United States)

    Yang, Xiangbo; Liu, Youyan


    In the framework of the single-electron tight-binding on-site model, after establishing the method of constructing a class of two-dimensional Fibonacci quasilattices, we have studied the rules of energy spectra splitting for these quasilattices by means of a decomposition-decimation method based on the renormalization-group technique. Under the first approximation, the analytic results show that there exist only six kinds of clusters and the electronic energy bands split as type Y and consist of nine subbands. Instead of the on-site model, the transfer model should be used for the higher hierarchy of the spectra, the electronic energy spectra split as type F. The analytic results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  13. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots (United States)

    Gligorić, G.; Maluckov, A.; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G. Ya; Malomed, B. A.


    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D soliton-based nano-antenna, which is stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  14. Persistence of Precursor Waves in Two-dimensional Relativistic Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Masanori; Amano, Takanobu; Hoshino, Masahiro [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsumoto, Yosuke, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)


    We investigated the efficiency of coherent upstream large-amplitude electromagnetic wave emission via synchrotron maser instability in relativistic magnetized shocks using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We considered a purely perpendicular shock in an electron–positron plasma. The coherent wave emission efficiency was measured as a function of the magnetization parameter σ , which is defined as the ratio of the Poynting flux to the kinetic energy flux. The wave amplitude was systematically smaller than that observed in one-dimensional simulations. However, it continued to persist, even at a considerably low magnetization rate, where the Weibel instability dominated the shock transition. The emitted electromagnetic waves were sufficiently strong to disturb the upstream medium, and transverse filamentary density structures of substantial amplitude were produced. Based on this result, we discuss the possibility of the wakefield acceleration model to produce nonthermal electrons in a relativistic magnetized ion–electron shock.

  15. Seismic isolation of buildings on two dimensional phononic crystal foundation (United States)

    Han, Lin; Li, Xiao-mei; Zhang, Yan


    In order to realize the seismic isolation of buildings, we establish the two dimensional phononic crystal (PC) foundation which has the cell with the size close to the regular concrete test specimens, and is composed of the concrete base, rubber coating and lead cylindrical core. We study the in-plane band gap (BG) characteristics in it, through the analysis of the frequency dispersion relation and frequency response result. To lower the start BG frequency to the seismic frequency range, we also study the influences of material parameters (the elastic modulus of coating and density of cylindrical core) and geometry parameters (the thickness of coating, radius of cylindrical core and lattice constant) on BG ranges. The study could help to design the PC foundation for seismic isolation of building.

  16. Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Photonic Films. (United States)

    Meng, Ke; Gao, Shanshan; Wu, Longlong; Wang, Geng; Liu, Xin; Chen, Gang; Liu, Zhou; Chen, Gang


    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have created enormous expectations for low-cost and high-performance optoelectronic devices. In prospect, future advancements may derive from reaping novel electrical and optical properties beyond pristine perovskites through microscopic structure design and engineering. Herein, we report the successful preparation of two-dimensional inverse-opal perovskite (IOP) photonic films, featuring unique nanostructures and vivid colors. Further compositional and structural managements promise optical property and energy level tunability of the IOP films. They are further functionalized in solar cells, resulting in colorful devices with respectable power conversion efficiency. Such concept has not been previously applied for perovskite-based solar cells, which could open a route for more versatile optoelectronic devices.

  17. Two dimensional tunable photonic crystals and n doped semiconductor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsayed, Hussein A. [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt); El-Naggar, Sahar A. [Dept. of Engineering Math. and Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Aly, Arafa H., E-mail: [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Beni-Suef University (Egypt)


    In this paper, we theoretically investigate the effect of the doping concentration on the properties of two dimensional semiconductor photonic band structures. We consider two structures; type I(II) that is composed of n doped semiconductor (air) rods arranged into a square lattice of air (n doped semiconductor). We consider three different shapes of rods. Our numerical method is based on the frequency dependent plane wave expansion method. The numerical results show that the photonic band gaps in type II are more sensitive to the changes in the doping concentration than those of type I. In addition, the width of the gap of type II is less sensitive to the shape of the rods than that of type I. Moreover, the cutoff frequency can be strongly tuned by the doping concentrations. Our structures could be of technical use in optical electronics for semiconductor applications.

  18. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda) (United States)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.


    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  19. Optimal Padding for the Two-Dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (United States)

    Dean, Bruce H.; Aronstein, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey S.


    One-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) operations work fastest on grids whose size is divisible by a power of two. Because of this, padding grids (that are not already sized to a power of two) so that their size is the next highest power of two can speed up operations. While this works well for one-dimensional grids, it does not work well for two-dimensional grids. For a two-dimensional grid, there are certain pad sizes that work better than others. Therefore, the need exists to generalize a strategy for determining optimal pad sizes. There are three steps in the FFT algorithm. The first is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the grid. The second step is to transpose the resulting matrix. The third step is to perform a one-dimensional transform on each row in the resulting grid. Steps one and three both benefit from padding the row to the next highest power of two, but the second step needs a novel approach. An algorithm was developed that struck a balance between optimizing the grid pad size with prime factors that are small (which are optimal for one-dimensional operations), and with prime factors that are large (which are optimal for two-dimensional operations). This algorithm optimizes based on average run times, and is not fine-tuned for any specific application. It increases the amount of times that processor-requested data is found in the set-associative processor cache. Cache retrievals are 4-10 times faster than conventional memory retrievals. The tested implementation of the algorithm resulted in faster execution times on all platforms tested, but with varying sized grids. This is because various computer architectures process commands differently. The test grid was 512 512. Using a 540 540 grid on a Pentium V processor, the code ran 30 percent faster. On a PowerPC, a 256x256 grid worked best. A Core2Duo computer preferred either a 1040x1040 (15 percent faster) or a 1008x1008 (30 percent faster) grid. There are many industries that

  20. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  1. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography and its application in traditional Chinese medicine analysis and metabonomic investigation. (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Kai; Guo, Meng-zhe; Tang, Dao-quan


    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive analytical tool for the separation of complex samples due to its enhanced selectivity, peak capacity, and resolution compared with one-dimensional liquid chromatography. Recently, more attention has been drawn on the application of this separation technique in studies concerning traditional Chinese medicines, metabonomes, proteomes, and other complex mixtures. In this review, we aim to examine the application of two-dimensional liquid chromatography in traditional Chinese medicine analysis and metabonomic investigation. The classification and evaluation indexes were first introduced. Then, various switching methods were summarized when used in an on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography system. Finally, the applications of this separation technique in traditional Chinese medicine analysis and metabonomic investigation were discussed on the basis of specific studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    and a hard induced superconducting gap. Furthermore the thin superconducting (application of large in-plane magnetic fields without destroying superconductivity. In such a scenario we investigate the magneto-transport properties in S-Sm-S junctions, revealing anomalous....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...... Fraunhofer diffraction, qualitatively in agreement with a complex interplay between Zeeman coupling, spin-orbit interaction and disorder. Finally by patterning quasi-one-dimensional structures we observe coalescing Andreev bound states stabilizing at zero energy in large magnetic fields, in agreement...

  3. unsymmetrical Schiff base complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ecoline-RE 104 thermostat. FT- .... refluxed for 24 h under nitrogen atmosphere. The result- ing oil was grinded with n-hexane to extract impurities, ... diethyl ether into a solution of the metal complex in dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature ...

  4. Simulations of two-dimensional electronic correlation spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin; Jeon, Seung Joon


    Two-dimensional (2D) correlation method, which generates the synchronous and the asynchronous 2D spectrum by complex cross correlation of the Fourier transformed spectra, is an analysis method for the changes of the sample spectrum induced by various perturbations. In the present work, the 2D electronic correlation spectra have been simulated for the cases where the sample spectrum composed of two gaussian bands changes linearly. When only the band amplitudes of the sample spectrum change, the synchronous spectrum shows strong peaks at the band centers of the sample spectrum, but the asynchronous spectrum does not make peaks. When the sample spectrum shifts without changing intensity and width, the synchronous spectrum shows peaks around the initial and final positions of the band maximum and the asynchronous spectrum shows long peaks spanning the shifting range. The band width change produces the complex 2D correlation spectra. When the sample spectrum shifts with band broadening, the width change by 50 % of full width at half maximum (FWHM) does not give so large an effect on the correlation spectrum as the spectral shift by one half of FWHM of the sample spectrum

  5. A two dimensional model of undertow current over mud bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Hammadul Azam; Abdul Aziz Ibrahim; Noraieni Hj, Mokhtar


    Coastal wave-current dynamics often causes severe erosion and this activity is more prominent within the surf zone. Turbulence generated by breaking wave is a complex phenomena and the degree of complexity increases to a higher degree when it happens over mud bed. A better understanding on wave and current is necessary to enrich the engineering hand to facilitate any coastal development work. Since physical model has certain deficiencies, such as high cost and scaling problem, the need for developing numerical models in such cases is significant. A time averaged two dimensional model has been developed to simulate the undertow over mud bed. A turbulent energy model also included which considers only the vertical variation of mixing length. Production of turbulent kinetic energy in the surf zone has been calculated from an hydraulic jump analogy. The result obtained shows an insignificant vertical variation of current. Further research is needed involving laboratory and field works to get sufficient data for comparing the model results

  6. Two-Dimensional DOA Estimation in Compressed Sensing with Compressive-Reduced Dimension-lp-MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Si


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel two-dimensional (2D direction of arrival (DOA estimation method in compressed sensing (CS to remove the estimation failure problem and achieve superior performance. The proposed method separates the steering vector into two parts to construct two corresponding noise subspaces by introducing electric angles. Then, electric angles are estimated based on the constructed noise subspaces. In order to estimate the azimuth and elevation angles in terms of estimates of electric angles, arc-tangent operations are exploited. The arc-tangent is a one-to-one function and allows the value of the argument to be larger than unity so that the proposed method never fails. The proposed method can avoid pair matching to reduce the computational complexity and extend the number of snapshots to improve performance. Simulation results show that the proposed method can avoid estimation failure occurrence and has superior performance as compared to existing methods.

  7. A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Barhoumi


    Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Green’s kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Green’s function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources

  8. Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben Vaarbye


    a first order model to model higher order constraints by the use of an alphabet extension. We present an iterative method that based on a set of conditional probabilities can help in choosing the large numbers of parameters of the model in order to obtain a stationary model. Explicit results are given...... for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....

  9. Third sound in one and two dimensional modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, T.; Kawashima, H., Shirahama, K.; Kono, K.


    An experimental technique is developed to study acoustic transmission in one and two dimensional modulated structures by employing third sound of a superfluid helium film. In particular, the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional quasiperiodic structure, is studied. In two dimensions, the scattering of third sound is weaker than in one dimension. Nevertheless, the authors find that the transmission spectrum in the Penrose lattice, which is a two dimensional prototype of the quasicrystal, is observable if the helium film thickness is chosen around 5 atomic layers. The transmission spectra in the Penrose lattice are explained in terms of dynamical theory of diffraction

  10. Stability analysis of two-dimensional digital recursive filters (United States)

    Alexander, W. E.; Pruess, S. A.


    A new approach to the stability problem for the two-dimensional digital recursive filter is presented. The bivariate difference equation representation of the two-dimensional recursive digital filter is converted to a multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) system similar to the state-space representation of the one-dimensional digital recursive filter. In this paper, a pseudo-state representation is used and three coefficient matrices are obtained. A general theorem for stability of two-dimensional digital recursive filters is derived and a very useful theorem is presented which expresses sufficient requirements for instability in terms of the spectral radii of these matrices.

  11. Numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrmann, T


    The two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms $\\G(\\vec{a}(z);y)$, a generalization of the harmonic polylogarithms, themselves a generalization of Nielsen's polylogarithms, appear in analytic calculations of multi-loop radiative corrections in quantum field theory. We present an algorithm for the numerical evaluation of two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms, with the two arguments $y,z$ varying in the triangle $0\\le y \\le 1$, $ 0\\le z \\le 1$, $\\ 0\\le (y+z) \\le 1$. This algorithm is implemented into a {\\tt FORTRAN} subroutine {\\tt tdhpl} to compute two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms up to weight 4.

  12. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Bao, Xinhe


    Confined microenvironments formed in heterogeneous catalysts have recently been recognized as equally important as catalytically active sites. Understanding the fundamentals of confined catalysis has become an important topic in heterogeneous catalysis. Well-defined 2D space between a catalyst surface and a 2D material overlayer provides an ideal microenvironment to explore the confined catalysis experimentally and theoretically. Using density functional theory calculations, we reveal that adsorption of atoms and molecules on a Pt(111) surface always has been weakened under monolayer graphene, which is attributed to the geometric constraint and confinement field in the 2D space between the graphene overlayer and the Pt(111) surface. A similar result has been found on Pt(110) and Pt(100) surfaces covered with graphene. The microenvironment created by coating a catalyst surface with 2D material overlayer can be used to modulate surface reactivity, which has been illustrated by optimizing oxygen reduction reaction activity on Pt(111) covered by various 2D materials. We demonstrate a concept of confined catalysis under 2D cover based on a weak van der Waals interaction between 2D material overlayers and underlying catalyst surfaces. PMID:28533413

  13. New Approach for Segmentation and Quantification of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anjo, Antonio dos; Laurell Blom Møller, Anders; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    Motivation: Detection of protein spots in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis images (2-DE) is a very complex task and current approaches addressing this problem still suffer from significant shortcomings. When quantifying a spot, most of the current software applications include a lot of backgro...

  14. On orbital topological equivalence of cubic ODEs in two-dimensional algebras


    Balanov, Zolman; Krawcewicz, Wiesław; Zur, Shira


    Cubic differential systems in real commutative two-dimensional algebras are classified up to orbital topological equivalence via the solubility of polynomial equations in algebras. As a by-product, existence of bounded solutions in such systems is studied via complex structures in the algebras. Application to the existence of periodic solutions to $n$-dimensional differential systems "cubic at infinity" is given.

  15. One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy. (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasana K; Memaran, Shahriar; Xin, Yan; Balicas, Luis; Gutiérrez, Humberto R


    junctions. Our new approach offers greater flexibility and control than previous methods for continuous growth of transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based multi-junction lateral heterostructures. These findings could be extended to other families of two-dimensional materials, and establish a foundation for the development of complex and atomically thin in-plane superlattices, devices and integrated circuits.

  16. One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy (United States)

    Sahoo, Prasana K.; Memaran, Shahriar; Xin, Yan; Balicas, Luis; Gutiérrez, Humberto R.


    junctions. Our new approach offers greater flexibility and control than previous methods for continuous growth of transition-metal-dichalcogenide-based multi-junction lateral heterostructures. These findings could be extended to other families of two-dimensional materials, and establish a foundation for the development of complex and atomically thin in-plane superlattices, devices and integrated circuits.

  17. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions of real two-dimensional differential system with nonconstant delay in an unstable case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kalas


    Full Text Available The asymptotic behaviour for the solutions of a real two-dimensional system with a bounded nonconstant delay is studied under the assumption of instability. Our results improve and complement previous results by J. Kalas, where the sufficient conditions assuring the existence of bounded solutions or solutions tending to origin for $t$ approaching infinity are given. The method of investigation is based on the transformation of the considered real system to one equation with complex-valued coefficients. Asymptotic properties of this equation are studied by means of a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and by virtue of the Wazewski topological principle.

  18. Magnetic Properties of a Two-dimensional Iron-Nickel Cyanide-bridged Network. (United States)

    Park, J.-H.; Meisel, M. W.; Culp, J. T.; Talham, D. R.


    Reaction of a Langmuir monolayer of an amphiphilic pentacyanoferrate (3+) complex with Ni^2+ ions from the subphase results in the formation of a two-dimensional iron-nickel cyanide-bridged network which has a face-centered square grid structure at the air-water interface. The network is transferred to a substrate by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique for the purpose of magnetic and structural studies. Standard SQUID measurements on this network film indicate the presence of ferromagnetic-like exchange interactions in the monolayer networks between the Fe^3+(S = 1/2) and Ni^2+(S = 1) centers, consistent with cyanide bridging the metal ions to form the two-dimensional network. The possibility of long-range order in this unique two-dimensional mixed-spin system of (S = 1/2) and (S = 1) will be discussed as a competition between the magnetic and structural coherence lengths.

  19. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  20. Proteome research : two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identification methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rabilloud, Thierry, 1961


    "Two-dimensional electrophoresis is the central methodology in proteome research, and the state of the art is described in detail in this text, together with extensive coverage of the detection methods available...

  1. 1/f noise in two-dimensional fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.B.; Tajima, T.


    We derive an exact result on the velocity fluctuation power spectrum of an incompressible two-dimensional fluid. Employing the fluctuation-dissipation relationship and the enstrophy conversation, we obtain the frequency spectrum of a 1/f form

  2. Partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The partition function for two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field have been derived for a finite square lattice of 16, 25, 36 and 64 sites with the help of ...

  3. Multisoliton formula for completely integrable two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.


    For general two-dimensional completely integrable systems, the exact formulae for multisoliton type solutions are given. The formulae are obtained algebrically from solutions of two linear partial differential equations

  4. Structures of two-dimensional three-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, W.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Bao, C.G.


    Features of the structure of L = 0 states of a two-dimensional three-body model system have been investigated. Three types of permutation symmetry of the spatial part, namely symmetric, antisymmetric, and mixed, have been considered. A comparison has been made between the two-dimensional system and the corresponding three-dimensional one. The effect of symmetry on microscopic structures is emphasized. (author)

  5. The Two-Dimensional Analogue of General Relativity


    Lemos, José P. S.; Sá, Paulo M.


    General Relativity in three or more dimensions can be obtained by taking the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the Brans-Dicke theory. In two dimensions General Relativity is an unacceptable theory. We show that the two-dimensional closest analogue of General Relativity is a theory that also arises in the limit $\\omega\\rightarrow\\infty$ of the two-dimensional Brans-Dicke theory.

  6. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.


    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern.......The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  7. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.


    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  8. Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants. (United States)

    Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan


    Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS 2 , MoSe 2 , WS 2 , and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.

  9. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials for Capacitive Energy Storage. (United States)

    Mendoza-Sánchez, Beatriz; Gogotsi, Yury


    The unique properties and great variety of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials make them highly attractive for energy storage applications. Here, an insight into the progress made towards the application of 2D nanomaterials for capacitive energy storage is provided. Synthesis methods, and electrochemical performance of various classes of 2D nanomaterials, particularly based on graphene, transition metal oxides, dichalcogenides, and carbides, are presented. The factors that directly influence capacitive performance are discussed throughout the text and include nanosheet composition, morphology and texture, electrode architecture, and device configuration. Recent progress in the fabrication of 2D-nanomaterials-based microsupercapacitors and flexible and free-standing supercapacitors is presented. The main electrode manufacturing techniques with emphasis on scalability and cost-effectiveness are discussed, and include laser scribing, printing, and roll-to-roll manufacture. Various issues that prevent the use of the full energy-storage potential of 2D nanomaterials and how they have been tackled are discussed, and include nanosheet aggregation and the low electrical conductivity of some 2D nanomaterials. Particularly, the design of hybrid and hierarchical 2D and 3D structures based on 2D nanomaterials is presented. Other challenges and opportunities are discussed and include: control of nanosheets size and thickness, chemical and electrochemical instability, and scale-up of electrode films. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photonic Structure-Integrated Two-Dimensional Material Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Wang


    Full Text Available The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form photonic structure/2D material hybrid systems so that the device performance can be manipulated in controllable ways. Here, we first introduce the photocurrent-generation mechanisms of 2D material-based optoelectronics and their performance. We then offer an overview and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of hybrid systems, where 2D material optoelectronics are integrated with photonic structures, especially plasmonic nanostructures, photonic waveguides and crystals. By combining with those photonic structures, the performance of 2D material optoelectronics can be further enhanced, and on the other side, a high-performance modulator can be achieved by electrostatically tuning 2D materials. Finally, 2D material-based photodetector can also become an efficient probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those hybrid systems combine the advantages of 2D materials and photonic structures, providing further capacity for high-performance optoelectronics.

  11. A two-dimensional mathematical model of percutaneous drug absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubota K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background When a drug is applied on the skin surface, the concentration of the drug accumulated in the skin and the amount of the drug eliminated into the blood vessel depend on the value of a parameter, r. The values of r depend on the amount of diffusion and the normalized skin-capillary clearence. It is defined as the ratio of the steady-state drug concentration at the skin-capillary boundary to that at the skin-surface in one-dimensional models. The present paper studies the effect of the parameter values, when the region of contact of the skin with the drug, is a line segment on the skin surface. Methods Though a simple one-dimensional model is often useful to describe percutaneous drug absorption, it may be better represented by multi-dimensional models. A two-dimensional mathematical model is developed for percutaneous absorption of a drug, which may be used when the diffusion of the drug in the direction parallel to the skin surface must be examined, as well as in the direction into the skin, examined in one-dimensional models. This model consists of a linear second-order parabolic equation with appropriate initial conditions and boundary conditions. These boundary conditions are of Dirichlet type, Neumann type or Robin type. A finite-difference method which maintains second-order accuracy in space along the boundary, is developed to solve the parabolic equation. Extrapolation in time is applied to improve the accuracy in time. Solution of the parabolic equation gives the concentration of the drug in the skin at a given time. Results Simulation of the numerical methods described is carried out with various values of the parameter r. The illustrations are given in the form of figures. Conclusion Based on the values of r, conclusions are drawn about (1 the flow rate of the drug, (2 the flux and the cumulative amount of drug eliminated into the receptor cell, (3 the steady-state value of the flux, (4 the time to reach the steady

  12. Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter


    The effect of no-slip walls on the evolution of coherent, vortical structures in two-dimensional flows is studied by numerical calculations. The calculations are based on an accurate and efficient spectral scheme which has been developed for the solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes equations in the v......The effect of no-slip walls on the evolution of coherent, vortical structures in two-dimensional flows is studied by numerical calculations. The calculations are based on an accurate and efficient spectral scheme which has been developed for the solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes equations...... down of vortex dipoles by "vortex shielding"....

  13. Flow of an aqueous foam through a two-dimensional porous medium: a pore scale investigation (United States)

    Meheust, Y.; Jones, S. A.; Dollet, B.; Cox, S.; Cantat, I.


    Flowing foams are used in many engineering and technical applications. A well-known application is oil recovery. Another one is the remediation of polluted soil: the foam is injected into the ground in order to mobilize chemical species present in the medium. Apart from potential interesting physico-chemical and biochemical properties, foams have peculiar flow properties that might be of benefit to the application. We address here this physical aspect of the topic. As a precursor to the study of foam flow through a complex porous material, we first study the behavior of an aqueous two-dimensional foam flowing through a medium consisting of two parallel channels with different widths, at fixed medium porosity, that is, at fixed total combined width of the two channels. The flow velocity, and hence flux, in each channel is measured by analyzing images of the flowing foam. It is then compared to a theoretical model, the basic assumption of which is that the pressure drop along a channel is identical for both channels. This pressure drop both consists of (i) a dynamic pressure drop, which is controlled by bubble-wall friction and depends on the foam velocity in the channel, and (ii) a capillary pressure drop over the bubble films that emerge at the channel outlet, the latter pressure drop being controlled by the radius of curvature of the bubble film. Based on this assumption, the dependence of the ratio of the foam velocities in the two channels is inferred as a function of the channel width ratio. It compares well to the measurements and shows that the flow behavior is highly dependent on the foam structure within the narrowest of the two channels, especially when a "bamboo" structure is obtained. Consequently, the flux in a channel is found to have a more complicated relation to the channel width than expected for the flow of a standard Newtonian fluid in the same geometry. We provide a comparison to this reference configuration. We then study the flow of the same

  14. Monolithic and core-shell columns in comprehensive two-dimensional HPLC: a review. (United States)

    Jandera, Pavel; Hájek, Tomáš; Staňková, Magda


    The crucial point affecting the separation time in comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is the performance of the column used in the second dimension, which should allow highly efficient fast chromatographic separations in the short time available for the analysis of fractions transferred from the first to the second dimension (often 1 min or less). This can be accomplished on short columns packed with sub-2-μm particles, at the cost of very high operation pressure. Core-shell or silica monolithic columns have better permeability, and their use in the second dimension of comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with conventional liquid chromatography instrumentation is continuously increasing. Monolithic columns based on organic polymer matrices offer a wide selection of stationary phase chemistries, including new hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography materials, which can be used in the design of novel two-dimensional separations. Some organic polymer monolithic materials offer a dual retention mechanism (reversed-phase hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography), so a single column can be used in alternating runs for highly orthogonal off-line two-dimensional and even three-dimensional separations. In the present work, the properties of core-shell and silica gel monolithic columns are briefly summarized and their applications in two-dimensional separations of peptides, proteins, oligomer surfactants, fats and oils, carotenoids, phenolic and flavone compounds in plant extracts, food, and beverages are reviewed.

  15. The development of an evaluation method for capture columns used in two-dimensional liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Cao, Liwei; Yu, Danhua; Wang, Xinliang; Ke, Yanxiong; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao


    Capture columns are important interface tools for on line two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). In this study, a systematic method was developed to evaluate and optimize the capture ability of capture columns by off-line method. First, the parameter Δt(R) (Δt(R)=t(2)-t(1)-t(0)-W) was introduced to quantitatively represent the capture ability of the capture column by connecting a capture column behind the first dimensional column. Based on the value of Δt(R), an appropriate capture column was selected after the first dimensional column was fixed. Then, the capture ability of the selected column was promoted by adjusting the mobile phase of the first dimensional column. Capture ability was also optimized using complex sample analysis software system (CSASS) software. Second, the elution mode of the trapped compounds on the capture column was investigated by connecting the capture column before the second dimensional column. More specifically, in mode I, capture column was connected to the second dimension without changing the flow rate direction and the trapped compounds must pass through the capture column and be eluted into the second dimensional column. The contrary connection mode was mode II. It was found that mode I is more suitable method for 2D-LC. Finally, an off-line reversed-phase/hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography two-dimensional liquid chromatography (RP/HILIC 2D-LC) system with a C18 capture column was developed to demonstrate the practical application of this method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of two-dimensional interdigitated center of pressure sensor (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok; Pines, Darryll J.


    This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional (2D) flexible patch sensor to detect and monitor the center of pressure (CoP) location and the total magnitude of a spatially distributed pressure to the specific surface areas of engineering structures. The CoP sensor with the contact mode induced by a pressure distribution was formulated by force sensitive resistor technology and was mainly composed of a thin conductive polymer layer, adhesive spacers, and two interdigitated patterned electrode films with unique sensing aperture shadings. By properly mapping the interdigitated electrode patterns to the top and bottom surfaces of the conductive polymer, the proposed sensor ideally enables to measure an overall applied pressure level and its centroid location within a predetermined sensing region in real-time. The CoP sensor containing 36 sensing sections within a dimension of around 3 × 3 inches was prototyped and experimentally investigated to verify its capability to identify the CoP location and magnitude due to the presence of a permanent magnet-based local pressure distribution. Only five electric wires connected to the CoP sensor to inspect the pressure-sensing positions of 36 segments. The evaluation results of the measured sensor data demonstrate good agreements with the actual test parameters such as the total pressure and its centroid position with about 5% locational error. However, to provide accurate information on the overall pressure range, the compensation factors must be determined and applied to the individual sensing sections of the sensor.

  17. Tracer dispersion in two-dimensional rough fractures. (United States)

    Drazer, G; Koplik, J


    Tracer diffusion and hydrodynamic dispersion in two-dimensional fractures with self-affine roughness are studied by analytic and numerical methods. Numerical simulations were performed via the lattice-Boltzmann approach, using a boundary condition for tracer particles that improves the accuracy of the method. The reduction in the diffusive transport, due to the fractal geometry of the fracture surfaces, is analyzed for different fracture apertures. In the limit of small aperture fluctuations we derive the correction to the diffusive coefficient in terms of the tortuosity, which accounts for the irregular geometry of the fractures. Dispersion is studied when the two fracture surfaces are simply displaced normally to the mean fracture plane and when there is a lateral shift as well. Numerical results are analyzed using the Lambda parameter, related to convective transport within the fracture, and simple arguments based on lubrication approximation. At very low Péclet number, in the case where fracture surfaces are laterally shifted, we show using several different methods that convective transport reduces dispersion.

  18. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides: interface and defect engineering. (United States)

    Hu, Zehua; Wu, Zhangting; Han, Cheng; He, Jun; Ni, Zhenhua; Chen, Wei


    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have been considered as promising candidates for next generation nanoelectronics. Because of their atomically-thin structure and high surface to volume ratio, the interfaces involved in TMDC-based devices play a predominant role in determining the device performance, such as charge injection/collection at the metal/TMDC interface, and charge carrier trapping at the dielectric/TMDC interface. On the other hand, the crystalline structures of TMDCs are enriched by a variety of intrinsic defects, including vacancies, adatoms, grain boundaries, and substitutional impurities. Customized design and engineering of the interfaces and defects provides an effective way to modulate the properties of TMDCs and finally enhance the device performance. Herein, we summarize and highlight recent advances and state-of-the-art investigations on the interface and defect engineering of TMDCs and their corresponding applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices. Various interface engineering approaches for TMDCs are overviewed, including surface charge transfer doping, TMDC/metal contact engineering, and TMDC/dielectric interface engineering. Subsequently, different types of structural defects in TMDCs are introduced. Defect engineering strategies utilized to modulate the optical and electronic properties of TMDCs, as well as the developed high-performance and functional devices are summarized. Finally, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for interface and defect engineering in TMDC materials for electronics and optoelectronics.

  19. Lippmann-Schwinger theory for two-dimensional plasmon scattering (United States)

    Torre, Iacopo; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Diaspro, Alberto; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco


    Long-lived and ultraconfined plasmons in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems may provide a subwavelength diagnostic tool to investigate localized dielectric, electromagnetic, and pseudo-electromagnetic perturbations. In this article, we present a general theoretical framework to study the scattering of 2D plasmons against such perturbations in the nonretarded limit. We discuss both parabolic-band and massless Dirac fermion 2D electron systems. Our theory starts from a Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the screened potential in an inhomogeneous 2D electron system and utilizes as inputs analytical long-wavelength expressions for the density-density response function, going beyond the local approximation. We present illustrative results for the scattering of 2D plasmons against a pointlike charged impurity and a one-dimensional electrostatic barrier due to a line of charges. Exact numerical results obtained from the solution of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation are compared with approximate results based on the Born and eikonal approximations. The importance of nonlocal effects is finally emphasized.

  20. Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images. (United States)

    Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja


    In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acoustic dispersion in a two-dimensional dipole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter


    We calculate the full density response function and from it the long-wavelength acoustic dispersion for a two-dimensional system of strongly coupled point dipoles interacting through a 1/r 3 potential at arbitrary degeneracy. Such a system has no random-phase-approximation (RPA) limit and the calculation has to include correlations from the outset. We follow the quasilocalized charge (QLC) approach, accompanied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Similarly to what has been recently reported for the closely spaced classical electron-hole bilayer [G. J. Kalman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 236801 (2007)] and in marked contrast to the RPA, we report a long-wavelength acoustic phase velocity that is wholly maintained by particle correlations and varies linearly with the dipole moment p. The oscillation frequency, calculated both in an extended QLC approximation and in the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation [Phys. Rev. 176, 589 (1968)], is invariant in form over the entire classical to quantum domains all the way down to zero temperature. Based on our classical MD-generated pair distribution function data and on ground-state energy data generated by recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a bosonic dipole system [G. E. Astrakharchik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060405 (2007)], there is a good agreement between the QLC approximation kinetic sound speeds and the standard thermodynamic sound speeds in both the classical and quantum domains

  2. Comprehensive feature analysis for sample classification with comprehensive two-dimensional LC. (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tian, Xue; Tao, Qingping; Stoll, Dwight R; Carr, Peter W


    Comprehensive two-dimensional LC (LC x LC) is a powerful tool for analysis of complex biological samples. With its multidimensional separation power and increased peak capacity, LC x LC generates information-rich, but complex, chromatograms, which require advanced data analysis to produce useful information. An important analytical challenge is to classify samples on the basis of chromatographic features, e.g., to extract and utilize biomarkers indicative of health conditions, such as disease or response to therapy. This study presents a new approach to extract comprehensive non-target chromatographic features from a set of LC x LC chromatograms for sample classification. Experimental results with urine samples indicate that the chromatographic features generated by this approach can be used to effectively classify samples. Based on the extracted features, a support vector machine successfully classified urine samples by individual, before/after procedure, and concentration with leave-one-out and replicate K-fold cross-validation. The new method for comprehensive chromatographic feature analysis of LC x LC separations provides a potentially powerful tool for classifying complex biological samples.

  3. Traditional Semiconductors in the Two-Dimensional Limit (United States)

    Lucking, Michael C.; Xie, Weiyu; Choe, Duk-Hyun; West, Damien; Lu, Toh-Ming; Zhang, S. B.


    Interest in two-dimensional materials has exploded in recent years. Not only are they studied due to their novel electronic properties, such as the emergent Dirac fermion in graphene, but also as a new paradigm in which stacking layers of distinct two-dimensional materials may enable different functionality or devices. Here, through first-principles theory, we reveal a large new class of two-dimensional materials which are derived from traditional III-V, II-VI, and I-VII semiconductors. It is found that in the ultrathin limit the great majority of traditional binary semiconductors studied (a series of 28 semiconductors) are not only kinetically stable in a two-dimensional double layer honeycomb structure, but more energetically stable than the truncated wurtzite or zinc-blende structures associated with three dimensional bulk. These findings both greatly increase the landscape of two-dimensional materials and also demonstrate that in the double layer honeycomb form, even ordinary semiconductors, such as GaAs, can exhibit exotic topological properties.

  4. Electronic properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and its nanoribbons: a theoretical study (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiang; Soleimanikahnoj, Sina; Karimi, Farhad; Knezevic, Irena

    Recent advances in producing monolayer and bilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have generated considerable interest in its fundamental properties. Two-dimensional MoS2 has a variety of intriguing but unexplored electronic and optical properties that are dependent on the number of layers in the material. Here, we present calculations of the electronic properties of two-dimensional MoS2 and its nanoribbons based on a semi-empirical tight-binding model and ballistic quantum transport theory. Utilizing simulation results, we discuss the potential of two-dimensional MoS2 and its nanostructures for low-power electronic applications. UW-Madison Hilldale Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  5. System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis (United States)

    Schiek, Richard [Albuquerque, NM


    A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

  6. Two dimensional convolute integers for machine vision and image recognition (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas R.


    Machine vision and image recognition require sophisticated image processing prior to the application of Artificial Intelligence. Two Dimensional Convolute Integer Technology is an innovative mathematical approach for addressing machine vision and image recognition. This new technology generates a family of digital operators for addressing optical images and related two dimensional data sets. The operators are regression generated, integer valued, zero phase shifting, convoluting, frequency sensitive, two dimensional low pass, high pass and band pass filters that are mathematically equivalent to surface fitted partial derivatives. These operators are applied non-recursively either as classical convolutions (replacement point values), interstitial point generators (bandwidth broadening or resolution enhancement), or as missing value calculators (compensation for dead array element values). These operators show frequency sensitive feature selection scale invariant properties. Such tasks as boundary/edge enhancement and noise or small size pixel disturbance removal can readily be accomplished. For feature selection tight band pass operators are essential. Results from test cases are given.

  7. Two-Dimensional Superfluidity of Exciton Polaritons Requires Strong Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Altman


    Full Text Available Fluids of exciton polaritons, excitations of two-dimensional quantum wells in optical cavities, show collective phenomena akin to Bose condensation. However, a fundamental difference from standard condensates stems from the finite lifetime of these excitations, which necessitates continuous driving to maintain a steady state. A basic question is whether a two-dimensional condensate with long-range algebraic correlations can exist under these nonequilibrium conditions. Here, we show that such driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic superfluid order except in low-symmetry, strongly anisotropic systems. Our result implies, in particular, that recent apparent evidence for Bose condensation of exciton polaritons must be an intermediate-scale crossover phenomenon, while the true long-distance correlations fall off exponentially. We obtain these results through a mapping of the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the anisotropic Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation.

  8. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation. (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V


    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  9. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU


    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  10. Border-crossing model for the diffusive coarsening of two-dimensional and quasi-two-dimensional wet foams (United States)

    Schimming, C. D.; Durian, D. J.


    For dry foams, the transport of gas from small high-pressure bubbles to large low-pressure bubbles is dominated by diffusion across the thin soap films separating neighboring bubbles. For wetter foams, the film areas become smaller as the Plateau borders and vertices inflate with liquid. So-called "border-blocking" models can explain some features of wet-foam coarsening based on the presumption that the inflated borders totally block the gas flux; however, this approximation dramatically fails in the wet or unjamming limit where the bubbles become close-packed spheres and coarsening proceeds even though there are no films. Here, we account for the ever-present border-crossing flux by a new length scale defined by the average gradient of gas concentration inside the borders. We compute that it is proportional to the geometric average of film and border thicknesses, and we verify this scaling by numerical solution of the diffusion equation. We similarly consider transport across inflated vertices and surface Plateau borders in quasi-two-dimensional foams. And we show how the d A /d t =K0(n -6 ) von Neumann law is modified by the appearance of terms that depend on bubble size and shape as well as the concentration gradient length scales. Finally, we use the modified von Neumann law to compute the growth rate of the average bubble area, which is not constant.

  11. Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.


    A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphous...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....

  12. Nonlinear excitations in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Rasmussen, Kim; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence of the imp......We study the nonlinear dynamics of electronic excitations interacting with acoustic phonons in two-dimensional molecular structures with impurities. We show that the problem is reduced to the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a varying coefficient. The latter represents the influence...... excitations. Analytical results are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation....

  13. Two-dimensional nonlinear equations of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savel'ev, M.V.


    Supersymmetric generalization of two-dimensional nonlinear dynamical equations of gauge theories is presented. The nontrivial dynamics of a physical system in the supersymmetry and supergravity theories for (2+2)-dimensions is described by the integrable embeddings of Vsub(2/2) superspace into the flat enveloping superspace Rsub(N/M), supplied with the structure of a Lie superalgebra. An equation is derived which describes a supersymmetric generalization of the two-dimensional Toda lattice. It contains both super-Liouville and Sinh-Gordon equations

  14. Two-dimensional SCFTs from D3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Francesco [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London,South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Bobev, Nikolay [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Crichigno, P. Marcos [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University,Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)


    We find a large class of two-dimensional N=(0,2) SCFTs obtained by compactifying four-dimensional N=1 quiver gauge theories on a Riemann surface. We study these theories using anomalies and c-extremization. The gravitational duals to these fixed points are new AdS{sub 3} solutions of IIB supergravity which we exhibit explicitly. Along the way we uncover a universal relation between the conformal anomaly coefficients of four-dimensional and two-dimensional SCFTs connected by an RG flow across dimensions. We also observe an interesting novel phenomenon in which the superconformal R-symmetry mixes with baryonic symmetries along the RG flow.

  15. Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.


    Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)

  16. Two dimensional nonlinear spectral estimation techniques for breast cancer localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathaki, P.T.; Constantinides, A.G.


    In this paper the problem of image texture analysis in the presence of noise is examined from a higher-order statistical perspective. The approach taken involves the use of two dimensional second order Volterra filters where the filter weights are derived from third order cumulants of the two dimensional signal. The specific application contained in this contribution is in mammography, an area in which it is difficult to discern the appropriate features. The paper describes the fundamental issues of the various components of the approach. The results of the entire texture modelling, classification and segmentation scheme contained in this paper are very encouraging

  17. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank


    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...... with nonlocal Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement....

  18. Chiral anomaly, fermionic determinant and two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.


    The chiral anomaly in random pair dimension is analysed. This anomaly is perturbatively calculated by dimensional regularization method. A new method for non-perturbative Jacobian calculation of a general chiral transformation, 1.e., finite and non-Abelian, is developed. This method is used for non-perturbative chiral anomaly calculation, as an alternative to bosonization of two-dimensional theories for massless fermions and to study the phenomenum of fermion number fractionalization. The fermionic determinant from two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics is also studied, and calculated, exactly, as in decoupling gauge as with out reference to a particular gauge. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Two-dimensional spin diffusion in multiterminal lateral spin valves (United States)

    Saha, D.; Basu, D.; Holub, M.; Bhattacharya, P.


    The effects of two-dimensional spin diffusion on spin extraction in lateral semiconductor spin valves have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. A ferromagnetic collector terminal of variable size is placed between the ferromagnetic electron spin injector and detector of a conventional lateral spin valve for spin extraction. It is observed that transverse spin diffusion beneath the collector terminal plays an important role along with the conventional longitudinal spin diffusion in describing the overall transport of spin carriers. Two-dimensional spin diffusion reduces the perturbation of the channel electrochemical potentials and improves spin extraction.

  20. Curved low order angular elements in two-dimensional neutron transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Tuominen, J.


    A two-dimensional finite element scheme is presented. The angular discretization is based on curved rather than rectangular elements. Numerical computations performed indicate improved accuracy as compared to rectangular methods of a same order. No ray effects are found even in low order results. In addition to linear trial functions the paper is concerned with higher degree polynomials. (author)

  1. A Model for the Two-dimensional no Isolated Bits Constraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Laursen, Torben Vaarby


    A stationary model is presented for the two-dimensional (2-D) no isolated bits (n.i.b.) constraint over an extended alphabet defined by the elements within 1 by 2 blocks. This block-wise model is based on a set of sufficient conditions for a Pickard random field (PRF) over an m-ary alphabet...

  2. Chemically Triggered Formation of Two-Dimensional Epitaxial Quantum Dot Superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walravens, Willem; De Roo, Jonathan; Drijvers, Emile; Ten Brinck, Stephanie; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Detavernier, Christophe; Infante, Ivan; Hens, Zeger


    Two dimensional superlattices of epitaxially connected quantum dots enable size-quantization effects to be combined with high charge carrier mobilities, an essential prerequisite for highly performing QD devices based on charge transport. Here, we demonstrate that surface active additives known to

  3. High-mobility two-dimensional electron gases at oxide interfaces: Origins and opportunities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Pryds, Nini; Sun, Ji-Rong


    Our recent experimental work on metallic and insulating interfaces controlled by interfacial redox reactions in SrTiO3-based heterostructures is reviewed along with a more general background of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at oxide interfaces. Due to the presence of oxygen vacancies at the...

  4. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters. (United States)

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth


    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  5. Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamical properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation ...

  6. Two-dimensional static deformation of an anisotropic medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of two-dimensional static deformation of a monoclinic elastic medium has been studied using the eigenvalue method, following a Fourier transform. We have obtained expressions for displacements and stresses for the medium in the transformed domain. As an application of the above theory, the particular ...

  7. Types of two-dimensional N = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Superconformal field theory; free field realization; string theory; AdS-CFT correspon- dence. PACS Nos 11.25.Hf; 11.25.-w; 11.30.Ly; 11.30.Pb. Conformal symmetries in two space-time dimensions have been very extensively studied owing to their applications both in string theory and two-dimensional statistical systems.

  8. Conformal QED in two-dimensional topological insulators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menezes Silva Da Costa, Natália; Palumbo, Giandomenico; de Morais Smith, Cristiane


    It has been shown recently that local four-fermion interactions on the edges of two-dimensional time-reversal-invariant topological insulators give rise to a new non-Fermi-liquid phase, called helical Luttinger liquid (HLL). In this work, we provide a first-principle derivation of this

  9. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is ...

  10. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  11. Vortex scaling ranges in two-dimensional turbulence (United States)

    Burgess, B. H.; Dritschel, D. G.; Scott, R. K.


    We survey the role of coherent vortices in two-dimensional turbulence, including formation mechanisms, implications for classical similarity and inertial range theories, and characteristics of the vortex populations. We review early work on the spatial and temporal scaling properties of vortices in freely evolving turbulence and more recent developments, including a spatiotemporal scaling theory for vortices in the forced inverse energy cascade. We emphasize that Kraichnan-Batchelor similarity theories and vortex scaling theories are best viewed as complementary and together provide a more complete description of two-dimensional turbulence. In particular, similarity theory has a continued role in describing the weak filamentary sea between the vortices. Moreover, we locate both classical inertial and vortex scaling ranges within the broader framework of scaling in far-from-equilibrium systems, which generically exhibit multiple fixed point solutions with distinct scaling behaviour. We describe how stationary transport in a range of scales comoving with the dilatation of flow features, as measured by the growth in vortex area, constrains the vortex number density in both freely evolving and forced two-dimensional turbulence. The new theories for coherent vortices reveal previously hidden nontrivial scaling, point to new dynamical understanding, and provide a novel exciting window into two-dimensional turbulence.

  12. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim


    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  13. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Sep 13, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Solitary wave solutions of ... Nonlinear two-dimensional Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (KP) equation governs the behaviour of nonlinear waves in dusty plasmas with variable dust charge and two temperature ions. By using the reductive ...

  14. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. ... havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre glass in the three dimensional form; We also have Pencil, Charcoal Pastel and, Acrylic oil-paint in two dimensional form.

  15. Seismically constrained two-dimensional crustal thermal structure of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The temperature field within the crust is closely related to tectonic history as well as many other geological processes inside the earth. Therefore, knowledge of the crustal thermal structure of a region is of great importance for its tectonophysical studies. This work deals with the two-dimensional thermal modelling to ...

  16. Solitary wave solutions of two-dimensional nonlinear Kadomtsev ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aly R Seadawy


    Sep 13, 2017 ... We considered the two-dimensional DASWs in colli- sionless, unmagnetized cold plasma consisting of dust fluid, ions and electrons. The dynamics of DASWs is governed by the normalized fluid equations of nonlin- ear continuity (1), nonlinear motion of system (2) and. (3) and linear Poisson equation (4) as.

  17. Polaron dynamics in a two-dimensional anharmonic Holstein model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A generalized two-dimensional semiclassical :Holstein model with a realistic on-site potential that contains anharmonicity is studied. More precisely, the lattice subsystem of anharmonic on-site oscillators is supposed to have a restricting core. The core plays the role of an effective saturation...

  18. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.


    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  19. Vibrations of thin piezoelectric shallow shells: Two-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we consider the eigenvalue problem for piezoelectric shallow shells and we show that, as the thickness of the shell goes to zero, the eigensolutions of the three-dimensional piezoelectric shells converge to the eigensolutions of a two-dimensional eigenvalue problem.

  20. Magnetoelectronic transport of the two-dimensional electron gas in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 72; Issue 2 ... CdSe quantum wells; 2D electron gas; magneto-electronic transport. Abstract. Hall mobility and magnetoresistance coefficient for the two-dimensional (2D) electron transport parallel to the heterojunction interfaces in a single quantum well of CdSe are ...