#### Sample records for two-dimensional boundary layer

1. The compressible Gortler problem in two-dimensional boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Dando, Andrew H.; Seddougui, Sharon O.

1993-01-01

In this paper the authors investigate the growth rates of Gortler vortices in a compressible flow in the inviscid limit of large Gortler number. Numerical solutions are obtained for O(1) wavenumbers. The further limits of (i) large Mach number and (ii) large wavenumber with O(1) Mach number are considered. It is shown that two different types of disturbance mode can appear in this problem. The first is a wall layer mode, so named as it has its eigenfunctions trapped in a thin layer near the wall. The other mode investigated is confined to a thin layer away from the wall and termed a trapped-layer mode for large wavenumbers and an adjustment-layer mode for large Mach numbers, since then this mode has its eigenfunctions concentrated in the temperature adjustment layer. It is possible to investigate the near crossing of the modes which occurs in each of the limits mentioned. The inviscid limit does not predict a fastest growing mode, but does enable a most dangerous mode to be identified for O(1) Mach number. For hypersonic flow the most dangerous mode depends on the size of the Gortler number.

2. Prandtl's Boundary Layer Equation for Two-Dimensional Flow: Exact Solutions via the Simplest Equation Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taha Aziz

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The simplest equation method is employed to construct some new exact closed-form solutions of the general Prandtl's boundary layer equation for two-dimensional flow with vanishing or uniform mainstream velocity. We obtain solutions for the case when the simplest equation is the Bernoulli equation or the Riccati equation. Prandtl's boundary layer equation arises in the study of various physical models of fluid dynamics. Thus finding the exact solutions of this equation is of great importance and interest.

3. Group classification of steady two-dimensional boundary-layer stagnation-point flow equations

OpenAIRE

2010-01-01

Lie symmetry group method is applied to study the boundary-layer equations for two-dimensional steady flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid near a stagnation point at a heated stretching sheet placed in a porous medium equation. The symmetry group and its optimal system are given, and group invariant solutions associated to the symmetries are obtained. Finally the structure of the Lie algebra symmetries is determined.

4. Two-Dimensional Thermal Boundary Layer Corrections for Convective Heat Flux Gauges

Science.gov (United States)

2007-01-01

This work presents a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study of two-dimensional thermal boundary layer correction factors for convective heat flux gauges mounted in flat plate subjected to a surface temperature discontinuity with variable properties taken into account. A two-equation k - omega turbulence model is considered. Results are obtained for a wide range of Mach numbers (1 to 5), gauge radius ratio, and wall temperature discontinuity. Comparisons are made for correction factors with constant properties and variable properties. It is shown that the variable-property effects on the heat flux correction factors become significant

5. Boundary-Value Problem for Two-Dimensional Fluctuations in Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

1985-07-01

inviscid analysis by P. Durbin "Distortion of turbulence by a constant-shear layer adjacent to a wall," private communication (1977). (l.2e) 2-D...vortices near a boundary," ~ of the Americ~ p ~ ~ , Volume 20, Number 9 (November 1975). 21. Hultgren, Lennart S. and Gustavsson, L. Hakan, " Algebraic

6. Universal equations of unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer whose temperature varies with time

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Boričić Zoran

2009-01-01

Full Text Available This paper concerns with unsteady two-dimensional temperature laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer of incompressible fluid. It is assumed that induction of outer magnetic field is function of longitudinal coordinate with force lines perpendicular to the body surface on which boundary layer forms. Outer electric filed is neglected and magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower then one i.e. considered problem is in inductionless approximation. Characteristic properties of fluid are constant because velocity of flow is much lower than speed of light and temperature difference is small enough (under 50ºC . Introduced assumptions simplify considered problem in sake of mathematical solving, but adopted physical model is interesting from practical point of view, because its relation with large number of technically significant MHD flows. Obtained partial differential equations can be solved with modern numerical methods for every particular problem. Conclusions based on these solutions are related only with specific temperature MHD boundary layer problem. In this paper, quite different approach is used. First new variables are introduced and then sets of similarity parameters which transform equations on the form which don't contain inside and in corresponding boundary conditions characteristics of particular problems and in that sense equations are considered as universal. Obtained universal equations in appropriate approximation can be solved numerically once for all. So-called universal solutions of equations can be used to carry out general conclusions about temperature MHD boundary layer and for calculation of arbitrary particular problems. To calculate any particular problem it is necessary also to solve corresponding momentum integral equation.

7. Evaporation, Heat Transfer, and Velocity Distribution in Two-Dimensional and Rotationally Symmetrical Laminar Boundary-Layer Flow

Science.gov (United States)

Froessling, Nils

1958-01-01

The fundamental boundary layer equations for the flow, temperature and concentration fields are presented. Two dimensional symmetrical and unsymmetrical and rotationally symmetrical steady boundary layer flows are treated as well as the transfer boundary layer. Approximation methods for the calculation of the transfer layer are discussed and a brief survey of an investigation into the validity of the law that the Nusselt number is proportional to the cube root of the Prandtl number is presented.

8. Two-dimensional energy spectra in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Chandran, Dileep; Baidya, Rio; Monty, Jason; Marusic, Ivan

2016-11-01

The current study measures the two-dimensional (2D) spectra of streamwise velocity component (u) in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer for the first time. A 2D spectra shows the contribution of streamwise (λx) and spanwise (λy) length scales to the streamwise variance at a given wall height (z). 2D spectra could be a better tool to analyse spectral scaling laws as it is devoid of energy aliasing errors that could be present in one-dimensional spectra. A novel method is used to calculate the 2D spectra from the 2D correlation of u which is obtained by measuring velocity time series at various spanwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. At low Reynolds number, the shape of the 2D spectra at a constant energy level shows λy √{ zλx } behaviour at larger scales which is in agreement with the literature. However, at high Reynolds number, it is observed that the square-root relationship gradually transforms into a linear relationship (λy λx) which could be caused by the large packets of eddies whose length grows proportionately to the growth of its width. Additionally, we will show that this linear relationship observed at high Reynolds number is consistent with attached eddy predictions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Australian Research Council.

9. Fundamental interactions of vortical structures with boundary layers in two-dimensional flows

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter

1991-01-01

in the vorticity-stream function representation for bounded geometries. Fundamental processes connected to vorticity detachment from the boundary layers caused by the proximity of vortical structures are described. These processes include enstrophy enhancement of the main flow during bursting events, and pinning...

10. DESIGN OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL SUPERSONIC TURBINE ROTOR BLADES WITH BOUNDARY-LAYER CORRECTION

Science.gov (United States)

Goldman, L. J.

1994-01-01

A computer program has been developed for the design of supersonic rotor blades where losses are accounted for by correcting the ideal blade geometry for boundary layer displacement thickness. The ideal blade passage is designed by the method of characteristics and is based on establishing vortex flow within the passage. Boundary-layer parameters (displacement and momentum thicknesses) are calculated for the ideal passage, and the final blade geometry is obtained by adding the displacement thicknesses to the ideal nozzle coordinates. The boundary-layer parameters are also used to calculate the aftermixing conditions downstream of the rotor blades assuming the flow mixes to a uniform state. The computer program input consists essentially of the rotor inlet and outlet Mach numbers, upper- and lower-surface Mach numbers, inlet flow angle, specific heat ratio, and total flow conditions. The program gas properties are set up for air. Additional gases require changes to be made to the program. The computer output consists of the corrected rotor blade coordinates, the principal boundary-layer parameters, and the aftermixing conditions. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 7094. This program was developed in 1971.

11. Nonparallel stability of two-dimensional nonuniformly heated boundary-layer flows

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, A. H.; El-Hady, N. M.

1979-01-01

An analysis is presented for the linear stability of water boundary-layer flows over nonuniformly flat plates. Included in the analysis are disturbances due to velocity, pressure, temperatures, density, and transport properties as well as variations of the liquid properties with temperature. The method of multiple scales is used to account for the nonparallelism of the mean flow. In contrast with previous analyses, the nonsimilarity of the mean flow is taken into account. No analysis agrees, even qualitatively, with the experimental data when similar profiles are used. However, both the parallel and nonparallel results qualitatively agree with the experimental results of Strazisar and Reshotko when nonsimilar profiles are used.

12. Numerical Investigation on Two-dimensional Boundary Layer Flow with Transition

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Yong Zhao; Tianlin Wang; Zhi Zong

2014-01-01

As a basic problem in many engineering applications, transition from laminar to turbulence still remains a difficult problem in computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A numerical study of one transitional flow in two-dimensional is conducted by Reynolds averaged numerical simulation (RANS) in this paper. Turbulence model plays a significant role in the complex flows’ simulation, and four advanced turbulence models are evaluated. Numerical solution of frictional resistance coefficient is compared with the measured one in the transitional zone, which indicates that Wilcox (2006) k-ω model with correction is the best candidate. Comparisons of numerical and analytical solutions for dimensionless velocity show that averaged streamwise dimensionless velocity profiles correct the shape rapidly in transitional region. Furthermore, turbulence quantities such as turbulence kinetic energy, eddy viscosity, and Reynolds stress are also studied, which are helpful to learn the transition’s behavior.

13. BEM/FDM Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Two-dimensional Air-cooled Turbine Blade Boundary Layer

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2008-01-01

A coupled boundary element method (BEM) and finite difference method (FDM) are applied to solve conjugate heat transfer problem of a two-dimensional air-cooled turbine blade boundary layer. A loosely coupled strategy is adopted, in which each set of field equations is solved to provide boundary conditions for the other. The Navier-Stokes equations are solved by HIT-NS code. In this code, the FDM is adopted and is used to resolve the convective heat transfer in the fluid region. The BEM code is used to resolve the conduction heat transfer in the solid region. An iterated convergence criterion is the continuity of temperature and heat flux at the fluid-solid interface. The numerical results from the BEM adopted in this paper are in good agreement with the results of analyrical solution and the results of commercial code, such as Fluent 6.2. The BEM avoids the complicated mesh needed in other computation method and saves the computation time. The results prove that the BEM adopted in this paper can give the same precision in numerical results with less boundary points. Comparing the conjugate results with the numerical results of an adiabatic wall flow solution, it reveals a significant difference in the distribution of metal temperatures. The results from conjugate heat transfer analysis are more accurate and they are closer to realistic thermal environment of turbines.

14. Turbulent Friction in the Boundary Layer of a Flat Plate in a Two-Dimensional Compressible Flow at High Speeds

Science.gov (United States)

Frankl, F.; Voishel, V.

1943-01-01

In the present report an investigation is made on a flat plate in a two-dimensional compressible flow of the effect of compressibility and heating on the turbulent frictional drag coefficient in the boundary layer of an airfoil or wing radiator. The analysis is based on the Prandtl-Karman theory of the turbulent boundary later and the Stodola-Crocco, theorem on the linear relation between the total energy of the flow and its velocity. Formulas are obtained for the velocity distribution and the frictional drag law in a turbulent boundary later with the compressibility effect and heat transfer taken into account. It is found that with increase of compressibility and temperature at full retardation of the flow (the temperature when the velocity of the flow at a given point is reduced to zero in case of an adiabatic process in the gas) at a constant R (sub x), the frictional drag coefficient C (sub f) decreased, both of these factors acting in the same sense.

15. Structure of two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers with sparsely distributed roughness elements

Science.gov (United States)

George, Jacob

The present study deals with the effects of sparsely distributed three-dimensional elements on two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) turbulent boundary layers (TBL) such as those that occur on submarines, ship hulls, etc. This study was achieved in three parts: Part 1 dealt with the cylinders when placed individually in the turbulent boundary layers, thereby considering the effect of a single perturbation on the TBL; Part 2 considered the effects when the same individual elements were placed in a sparse and regular distribution, thus studying the response of the flow to a sequence of perturbations; and in Part 3, the distributions were subjected to 3-D turbulent boundary layers, thus examining the effects of streamwise and spanwise pressure gradients on the same perturbed flows as considered in Part 2. The 3-D turbulent boundary layers were generated by an idealized wing-body junction flow. Detailed 3-velocity-component Laser-Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) and other measurements were carried out to understand and describe the rough-wall flow structure. The measurements include mean velocities, turbulence quantities (Reynolds stresses and triple products), skin friction, surface pressure and oil flow visualizations in 2-D and 3-D rough-wall flows for Reynolds numbers, based on momentum thickness, greater than 7000. Very uniform circular cylindrical roughness elements of 0.38mm, 0.76mm and 1.52mm height (k) were used in square and diagonal patterns, yielding six different roughness geometries of rough-wall surface. For the 2-D rough-wall flows, the roughness Reynolds numbers, k +, based on the element height (k) and the friction velocity (Utau), range from 26 to 131. Results for the 2-D rough-wall flows reveal that the velocity-defect law is similar for both smooth and rough surfaces, and the semi-logarithmic velocity-distribution curve is shifted by an amount DeltaU/U, depending on the height of the roughness element, showing that Delta U/Utau is a function

16. Two-dimensional percolation transition at finite temperature: Phase boundary for in-plane magnetism in films with two atomic layers of Fe on W(110)

Science.gov (United States)

Belanger, R.; Venus, D.

2017-02-01

A two-dimensional (2D) percolation transition in Fe/W(110) ultrathin magnetic films occurs when islands in the second atomic layer percolate and resolve a frustrated magnetic state to produce long-range in-plane ferromagnetic order. Novel measurements of percolation using the magnetic susceptibility χ (θ ) as the films are deposited at a constant temperature, allow the long-range percolation transition to be observed as a sharp peak consistent with a critical phase transition. The measurements are used to trace the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase boundary between the T =0 percolation magnetic transition and the thermal Curie magnetic transition of the undiluted film. A quantitative comparison to critical scaling theory is made by fitting the functional form of the phase boundary. The fitted parameters are then used in theoretical expressions for χ (T ) in the critical region of the paramagnetic state to provide an excellent, independent representation of the experimental measurements.

17. A two-dimensional iterative panel method and boundary layer model for bio-inspired multi-body wings

Science.gov (United States)

Blower, Christopher J.; Dhruv, Akash; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

2014-03-01

The increased use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) has created a continuous demand for improved flight capabilities and range of use. During the last decade, engineers have turned to bio-inspiration for new and innovative flow control methods for gust alleviation, maneuverability, and stability improvement using morphing aircraft wings. The bio-inspired wing design considered in this study mimics the flow manipulation techniques performed by birds to extend the operating envelope of UAVs through the installation of an array of feather-like panels across the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces while replacing the trailing edge flap. Each flap has the ability to deflect into both the airfoil and the inbound airflow using hinge points with a single degree-of-freedom, situated at 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of the chord. The installation of the surface flaps offers configurations that enable advantageous maneuvers while alleviating gust disturbances. Due to the number of possible permutations available for the flap configurations, an iterative constant-strength doublet/source panel method has been developed with an integrated boundary layer model to calculate the pressure distribution and viscous drag over the wing's surface. As a result, the lift, drag and moment coefficients for each airfoil configuration can be calculated. The flight coefficients of this numerical method are validated using experimental data from a low speed suction wind tunnel operating at a Reynolds Number 300,000. This method enables the aerodynamic assessment of a morphing wing profile to be performed accurately and efficiently in comparison to Computational Fluid Dynamics methods and experiments as discussed herein.

18. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

Science.gov (United States)

2016-06-15

polymers . 2. Introduction . Research objectives: This research aims to study the physical (van der Waals forces: crystal epitaxy and π-π...AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0071 Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers Cheolmin Park YONSEI UNIVERSITY...Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-14-1-4054 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT

19. Fermionic boundary modes in two-dimensional noncentrosymmetric superconductors

Science.gov (United States)

Samokhin, K. V.; Mukherjee, S. P.

2016-09-01

We calculate the spectrum of the Andreev boundary modes in a two-dimensional superconductor formed at an interface between two different nonsuperconducting materials, e.g., insulating oxides. Inversion symmetry is absent in this system, and both the electron band structure and the superconducting pairing are strongly affected by the spin-orbit coupling of the Rashba type. We consider isotropic s -wave pairing states, both with and without time-reversal symmetry breaking, as well as various d -wave states. In all cases, there exist subgap Andreev boundary states, whose properties, in particular, the number and location of the zero-energy modes, qualitatively depend on the gap symmetry and the spin-orbit coupling strength.

20. Optical modulators with two-dimensional layered materials

CERN Document Server

Sun, Zhipei; Wang, Feng

2016-01-01

Light modulation is an essential operation in photonics and optoelectronics. With existing and emerging technologies increasingly demanding compact, efficient, fast and broadband optical modulators, high-performance light modulation solutions are becoming indispensable. The recent realization that two-dimensional layered materials could modulate light with superior performance has prompted intense research and significant advances, paving the way for realistic applications. In this review, we cover the state-of-the-art of optical modulators based on two-dimensional layered materials including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. We discuss recent advances employing hybrid structures, such as two-dimensional heterostructures, plasmonic structures, and silicon/fibre integrated structures. We also take a look at future perspectives and discuss the potential of yet relatively unexplored mechanisms such as magneto-optic and acousto-optic modulation.

1. A two-dimensional embedded-boundary method for convection problems with moving boundaries

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Hassen, Y.J.; Koren, B.

2010-01-01

In this work, a two-dimensional embedded-boundary algorithm for convection problems is presented. A moving body of arbitrary boundary shape is immersed in a Cartesian finite-volume grid, which is fixed in space. The boundary surface is reconstructed in such a way that only certain fluxes in the imme

2. Two-dimensional transport study of scrape off layer plasmas

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yamamoto, Nobuyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

1999-09-01

Two-dimensional transport code is developed to analyzed the heat pulse propagation in the scrape-off layer plasma. The classical and anomalous transport models are considered as a thermal diffusivity perpendicular to the magnetic field. On the other hand, the classical transport model is chosen as a thermal diffusivity parallel to the magnetic field. The heat deposition profiles are evaluated for various kinds of transport models. It is found that the heat pulse which arrives at the divertor plate due to the classical transport is largest compared with other models. The steady state temperate profiles of the electron and ion are also discussed. (author)

3. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Zheng

2015-03-01

The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

4. Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik

2000-01-01

The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess

5. Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star

Science.gov (United States)

Pratt, J.; Baraffe, I.; Goffrey, T.; Geroux, C.; Viallet, M.; Folini, D.; Constantino, T.; Popov, M.; Walder, R.

2016-10-01

Context. Studies of stellar convection typically use a spherical-shell geometry. The radial extent of the shell and the boundary conditions applied are based on the model of the star investigated. We study the impact of different two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from an established one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star, like our sun at 106 years of age. Aims: We analyze how the radial extent of the spherical shell changes the convective dynamics that result in the deep interior of the young sun model, far from the surface. In the near-surface layers, simple small-scale convection develops from the profiles of temperature and density. A central radiative zone below the convection zone provides a lower boundary on the convection zone. The inclusion of either of these physically distinct layers in the spherical shell can potentially affect the characteristics of deep convection. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over tens or even hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: To measure the impact of the spherical-shell geometry and our treatment of boundaries, we evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, so that our results are focused toward studies exploiting the so

6. A two-dimensional Segmented Boundary Algorithm for complex moving solid boundaries in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Khorasanizade, Sh.; Sousa, J. M. M.

2016-03-01

A Segmented Boundary Algorithm (SBA) is proposed to deal with complex boundaries and moving bodies in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). Boundaries are formed in this algorithm with chains of lines obtained from the decomposition of two-dimensional objects, based on simple line geometry. Various two-dimensional, viscous fluid flow cases have been studied here using a truly incompressible SPH method with the aim of assessing the capabilities of the SBA. Firstly, the flow over a stationary circular cylinder in a plane channel was analyzed at steady and unsteady regimes, for a single value of blockage ratio. Subsequently, the flow produced by a moving circular cylinder with a prescribed acceleration inside a plane channel was investigated as well. Next, the simulation of the flow generated by the impulsive start of a flat plate, again inside a plane channel, has been carried out. This was followed by the study of confined sedimentation of an elliptic body subjected to gravity, for various density ratios. The set of test cases was completed with the simulation of periodic flow around a sunflower-shaped object. Extensive comparisons of the results obtained here with published data have demonstrated the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, namely in cases involving complex geometries and moving bodies.

7. Controlled Interactions between Two Dimensional Layered Inorganic Nanosheets and Polymers

Science.gov (United States)

2016-06-15

area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern of a MoSe2 nanosheet. (d) High resolution TEM (HR-TEM) image of the MoSe2 nanosheets. The digitally filtered ...nanosheets and end-functionalized polymers. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS 2D Materials, Nanosheets, Layered Materials, Nanocomposites 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...driving force for mixing between layers and the matrix. In addition, solution processes such as spin coating, dip coating and layer-by-layer coating are

8. Two-dimensional wave propagation in layered periodic media

KAUST Repository

2014-09-16

We study two-dimensional wave propagation in materials whose properties vary periodically in one direction only. High order homogenization is carried out to derive a dispersive effective medium approximation. One-dimensional materials with constant impedance exhibit no effective dispersion. We show that a new kind of effective dispersion may arise in two dimensions, even in materials with constant impedance. This dispersion is a macroscopic effect of microscopic diffraction caused by spatial variation in the sound speed. We analyze this dispersive effect by using highorder homogenization to derive an anisotropic, dispersive effective medium. We generalize to two dimensions a homogenization approach that has been used previously for one-dimensional problems. Pseudospectral solutions of the effective medium equations agree to high accuracy with finite volume direct numerical simulations of the variable-coeffi cient equations.

9. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

KAUST Repository

Kumar, Pushpendra

2016-07-02

Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

10. Two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow with open boundaries

CERN Document Server

1996-01-01

A two-dimensional cellular automaton model of traffic flow with open boundaries are investigated by computer simulations. The outflow of cars from the system and the average velocity are investigated. The time sequences of the outflow and average velocity have flicker noises in a jamming phase. The low density behavior are discussed with simple jam-free approximation.

11. Study of the forward Dirichlet boundary value problem for the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation

CERN Document Server

T, M P Ramirez

2012-01-01

Using a conjecture that allows to approach separable-variables conductivity functions, the elements of the Modern Pseudoanalytic Function Theory are used, for the first time, to numerically solve the Dirichlet boundary value problem of the two-dimensional Electrical Impedance Equation, when the conductivity function arises from geometrical figures, located within bounded domains.

12. A Numerical Solution of the Two-Dimensional Fusion Problem with Convective Boundary Conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Gülkaç, Vildan

2010-01-01

In this paper, we present an LOD method for solving the two-dimensional fusion problem with convective boundary conditions. In this study, we extend our earlier work [1] on the solution of the two-dimensional fusion problem by considering a class of time-split finite-difference methods, namely locally one-dimensional (LOD) schemes. In addition, following the idea of Douglas [2, 3], a Douglas-like splitting scheme is presented. A stability analysis by Fourier series method (von Neumann stability) of the scheme is also investigated. Computational results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the results reported previously by other research.

13. Nanofluidics in two-dimensional layered materials: inspirations from nature.

Science.gov (United States)

Gao, Jun; Feng, Yaping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

2017-08-29

With the advance of chemistry, materials science, and nanotechnology, significant progress has been achieved in the design and application of synthetic nanofluidic devices and materials, mimicking the gating, rectifying, and adaptive functions of biological ion channels. Fundamental physics and chemistry behind these novel transport phenomena on the nanoscale have been explored in depth on single-pore platforms. However, toward real-world applications, one major challenge is to extrapolate these single-pore devices into macroscopic materials. Recently, inspired partially by the layered microstructure of nacre, the material design and large-scale integration of artificial nanofluidic devices have stepped into a completely new stage, termed 2D nanofluidics. Unique advantages of the 2D layered materials have been found, such as facile and scalable fabrication, high flux, efficient chemical modification, tunable channel size, etc. These features enable wide applications in, for example, biomimetic ion transport manipulation, molecular sieving, water treatment, and nanofluidic energy conversion and storage. This review highlights the recent progress, current challenges, and future perspectives in this emerging research field of "2D nanofluidics", with emphasis on the thought of bio-inspiration.

14. Electronic structure of boron based single and multi-layer two dimensional materials

Science.gov (United States)

Miyazato, Itsuki; Takahashi, Keisuke

2017-09-01

Two dimensional nanosheets based on boron and Group VA elements are designed and characterized using first principles calculations. B-N, B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi are found to possess honeycomb structures where formation energies indicate exothermic reactions. Contrary to B-N, the cases of B-P, B-As, B-Sb, and B-Bi nanosheets are calculated to possess narrow band gaps. In addition, calculations reveal that the electronegativity difference between B and Group VA elements in the designed materials is a good indicator to predict the charge transfer and band gap of the two dimensional materials. Hydrogen adsorption over defect-free B-Sb and B-Bi results in exothermic reactions, while defect-free B-N, B-P, and B-As result in endothermic reactions. The layerability of the designed two dimensional materials is also investigated where the electronic structure of two-layered two dimensional materials is strongly coupled with how the two dimensional materials are layered. Thus, one can consider that the properties of two dimensional materials can be controlled by the composition of two dimensional materials and the structure of layers.

15. Signatures of chaos and non-integrability in two-dimensional gravity with dynamical boundary

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Fitkevich Maxim

2016-01-01

Full Text Available We propose a model of two-dimensional dilaton gravity with a boundary. In the bulk our model coincides with the classically integrable CGHS model; the dynamical boundary cuts of the CGHS strong-coupling region. As a result, classical dynamics in our model reminds that in the spherically-symmetric gravity: wave packets of matter fields either reflect from the boundary or form black holes. We find large integrable sector of multisoliton solutions in this model. At the same time, we argue that the model is globally non-integrable because solutions at the verge of black hole formation display chaotic properties.

16. Contact position controlling for two-dimensional motion bodies by the boundary element method

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2002-01-01

An algorithm is presented for controlling two-dimensional motion contact bodies with conforming discretization. Since a kind of special boundary element is utilized in the algorithm, the displacement compatibility and traction equilibrium conditions at nodes can be satisfied simultaneously in arbitrary locations of the contact interface. In addition, a method is also proposed in which the contact boundary location can be moved flexibly on the possible contact boundary. This method is effective to deal with moving and rolling contact problems on a possible larger moving or rolling contact region. Numerical examples show effectiveness of the presented scheme.

17. A two-dimensional vibration analysis of piezoelectrically actuated microbeam with nonideal boundary conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Rezaei, M. P.; Zamanian, M.

2017-01-01

In this paper, the influences of nonideal boundary conditions (due to flexibility) on the primary resonant behavior of a piezoelectrically actuated microbeam have been studied, for the first time. The structure has been assumed to treat as an Euler-Bernoulli beam, considering the effects of geometric nonlinearity. In this work, the general nonideal supports have been modeled as a the combination of horizontal, vertical and rotational springs, simultaneously. Allocating particular values to the stiffness of these springs provides the mathematical models for the majority of boundary conditions. This consideration leads to use a two-dimensional analysis of the multiple scales method instead of previous works' method (one-dimensional analysis). If one neglects the nonideal effects, then this paper would be an effort to solve the two-dimensional equations of motion without a need of a combination of these equations using the shortening or stretching effect. Letting the nonideal effects equal to zero and comparing their results with the results of previous approaches have been demonstrated the accuracy of the two-dimensional solutions. The results have been identified the unique effects of constraining and stiffening of boundaries in horizontal, vertical and rotational directions. This means that it is inaccurate to suppose the nonideality of supports only in one or two of these directions like as previous works. The findings are of vital importance as a better prediction of the frequency response for the nonideal supports. Furthermore, the main findings of this effort can help to choose appropriate boundary conditions for desired systems.

18. Boundaries determine the formation energies of lattice defects in two-dimensional buckled materials

Science.gov (United States)

Jain, Sandeep K.; Juričić, Vladimir; Barkema, Gerard T.

2016-07-01

Lattice defects are inevitably present in two-dimensional materials, with direct implications on their physical and chemical properties. We show that the formation energy of a lattice defect in buckled two-dimensional crystals is not uniquely defined as it takes different values for different boundary conditions even in the thermodynamic limit, as opposed to their perfectly planar counterparts. Also, the approach to the thermodynamic limit follows a different scaling: inversely proportional to the logarithm of the system size for buckled materials, rather than the usual power-law approach. In graphene samples of ˜1000 atoms, different boundary conditions can cause differences exceeding 10 eV. Besides presenting numerical evidence in simulations, we show that the universal features in this behavior can be understood with simple bead-spring models. Fundamentally, our findings imply that it is necessary to specify the boundary conditions for the energy of the lattice defects in the buckled two-dimensional crystals to be uniquely defined, and this may explain the lack of agreement in the reported values of formation energies in graphene. We argue that boundary conditions may also have an impact on other physical observables such as the melting temperature.

19. Boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with inhomogeneous nearest-neighbor interactions

Science.gov (United States)

Pelizzola, Alessandro

1994-11-01

An explicit formula for the boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with a strip of inhomogeneous interactions is obtained by means of a transfer matrix mean-field method introduced by Lipowski and Suzuki. There is clear numerical evidence that the formula is exact By taking the limit where the width of the strip approaches infinity and the interactions have well defined bulk limits, I arrive at the boundary magnetization for a model which includes the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model. The rich critical behavior of the latter magnetization is thereby rederived with little effort.

20. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields

Science.gov (United States)

Drzewiński, A.; Maciołek, A.; Barasiński, A.; Dietrich, S.

2009-04-01

Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large ℓ as slow as ℓ-δ with δinterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Švrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases δ=2 and δ=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

1. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields.

Science.gov (United States)

Drzewiński, A; Maciołek, A; Barasiński, A; Dietrich, S

2009-04-01

Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large l as slow as l(-delta) with deltainterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Svrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases delta=2 and delta=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

2. Critical Casimir force scaling functions of the two-dimensional Ising model for various boundary conditions

CERN Document Server

Hobrecht, Hendrik

2016-01-01

We present a systematic method to calculate the scaling functions for the critical Casimir force and the according potential of the two-dimensional Ising model with various boundary conditions. Therefore we start with the dimer representation of the corresponding partition function $Z$ on an $L\\times M$ square lattice, wrapped around a torus with aspect ratio $\\rho=L/M$. By assuming periodic boundary conditions and translational invariance in at least one direction, we systematically reduce the problem to a $2\\times2$ transfer matrix representation. For the torus we first reproduce the results by Kaufman and then give a detailed calculation of the scaling functions. Afterwards we present the calculation for the cylinder with open boundary conditions. All scaling functions are given in form of combinations of infinite products and integrals. Our results reproduce the known scaling functions in the limit of thin films $\\rho\\to 0$. Additionally, for the cylinder at criticality our result confirms the predictions...

3. Spherical-shell boundaries for two-dimensional compressible convection in a star

CERN Document Server

Pratt, J; Goffrey, T; Geroux, C; Viallet, M; Folini, D; Constantino, T; Popov, M; Walder, R

2016-01-01

Context: We study the impact of two-dimensional spherical shells on compressible convection. Realistic profiles for density and temperature from a one-dimensional stellar evolution code are used to produce a model of a large stellar convection zone representative of a young low-mass star. Methods: We perform hydrodynamic implicit large-eddy simulations of compressible convection using the MUltidimensional Stellar Implicit Code (MUSIC). Because MUSIC has been designed to use realistic stellar models produced from one-dimensional stellar evolution calculations, MUSIC simulations are capable of seamlessly modeling a whole star. Simulations in two-dimensional spherical shells that have different radial extents are performed over hundreds of convective turnover times, permitting the collection of well-converged statistics. Results: We evaluate basic statistics of the convective turnover time, the convective velocity, and the overshooting layer. These quantities are selected for their relevance to one-dimensional s...

4. Fourier solution of two-dimensional Navier Stokes equation with periodic boundary conditions and incompressible flow

CERN Document Server

Kuiper, Logan K

2016-01-01

An approximate solution to the two dimensional Navier Stokes equation with periodic boundary conditions is obtained by representing the x any y components of fluid velocity with complex Fourier basis vectors. The chosen space of basis vectors is finite to allow for numerical calculations, but of variable size. Comparisons of the resulting approximate solutions as they vary with the size of the chosen vector space allow for extrapolation to an infinite basis vector space. Results suggest that such a solution, with the full basis vector space and which would give the exact solution, would fail for certain initial velocity configurations when initial velocity and time t exceed certain limits.

5. A computer program for generating two-dimensional boundary-fitted orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Barbaro, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

1997-11-01

A numerical method is described which generates an orthogonal curvilinear mesh, subject to the constraint that mesh lines are matched to all boundaries of a closed, simply connected two-dimensional region of arbitrary shape. The method is based on the solution, by an iterative finite-difference technique, of an elliptic differential system of equations for the Cartesian coordinates of the orthogonal grid nodes. The interior grid distribution is controlled by a technique which ensures that coordinate lines can be concentrated as desired. Examples of orthogonal meshes inscribed in various geometrical figures are included.

6. The kinetic magnetoelectric effect in laterally boundary-confined ballistic two-dimensional hole gases

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Huang Hai-Tao; Hu Liang-Bin; Zhang Xin-Ding; Zhu Shi-Liang

2009-01-01

A theoretical investigation is presented on the characteristics of the kinetic magnetoelectric effect in laterally boundary-confined ballistic two-dimensional hole gases.It was shown that,though the momentum-dependent effective magnetic fields felt by charge carriers due to the spin-orbit interaction are in-plane orientated in such systems,both in-plane polarized and normal polarized nonequilibrium spin polarization densities could be electrically induced by the kinetic magnetoelectric effect,and the induced nonequilibrium spin polarizations exhibit some interesting characteristics.The characteristics we found indicate that there may be some possible relation between this effect and some recent experimental findings.

7. The Boundary Element Method Applied to the Two Dimensional Stefan Moving Boundary Problem

Science.gov (United States)

1991-03-15

iterate 12 times to reach :34 BOUNDARY TIME EVOLUION Figure 3.4. Fixed Boundary Time Evolution ’onvergence in the successive approximation. The squares...memory requirements of the code, especially if more intricate geometries are to be considered. If fast conmput.- ing resources are not available, the

8. A method of boundary parameter estimation for a two-dimensional diffusion system under noisy observations

Science.gov (United States)

Sunahara, Y.; Kojima, F.

1988-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to establish a method for identifying unknown parameters involved in the boundary state of a class of diffusion systems under noisy observations. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is given by a two-dimensional diffusion equation. Noisy observations are made by sensors allocated on the system boundary. Starting with the mathematical model mentioned above, an online parameter estimation algorithm is proposed within the framework of the maximum likelihood estimation. Existence of the optimal solution and related necessary conditions are discussed. By solving a local variation of the cost functional with respect to the perturbation of parameters, the estimation mechanism is proposed in a form of recursive computations. Finally, the feasibility of the estimator proposed here is demonstrated through results of digital simulation experiments.

9. Snell's law for particles moving on piecewise homogeneous two dimensional surface with linear boundaries

CERN Document Server

Mandrekar, Pratik

2011-01-01

We study the properties of least time trajectories for particles moving on a two dimensional surface which consists of piecewise homogeneous regions. The particles are assumed to move with different constant speeds on different regions and on the boundary between regions. The speed of the particle is assumed to be highest when it moves along the edges formed by the boundary of two regions. We get an analogous behavior to Snell's Law of light refraction, but in a more generalized form. The model could be used for studying properties of animal and insect trails which tend to form predominantly along edges. The model predicts three types of behavior for the trajectories near a corner forming edge: fully edge following, partial edge following and complete avoidance of the edge, which are indeed observed in natural ant trails.

10. CYCLIC HARDENING BEHAVIOR OF POLYCRYSTALS WITH PENETRABLE GRAIN BOUNDARIES: TWO-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE DISLOCATION DYNAMICS SIMULATION

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Chuantao Hou; Zhenhuan Li; Minsheng Huang; Chaojun Ouyang

2009-01-01

A two-dimensional discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) technology by Giessen and Needleman (1995), which has been extended by integrating a dislocation-grain boundary interaction model, is used to computationally analyze the micro-cyclic plastic response of polycrystals containing micron-sized grains, with special attentions to significant influence of dislocationpenetrable grain boundaries (GBs) on the micro-plastic cyclic responses of polycrystals and underlying dislocation mechanism. Toward this end, a typical polycrystalline rectangular specimen under simple tension-compression loading is considered. Results show that, with the increase of cycle accumulative strain, continual dislocation accumulation and enhanced dislocation-dislocation interactions induce the cyclic hardening behavior; however, when a dynamic balance among dislocation nucleation, penetration through GB and dislocation annihilation is approximately established, cyclic stress gradually tends to saturate. In addition, other factors, including the grain size, cyclic strain amplitude and its history, also have considerable influences on the cyclic hardening and saturation.

11. Comprehensive two-dimensional river ice model based on boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ze-yu MAO

2014-01-01

Full Text Available River ice is a natural phenomenon in cold regions, influenced by meteorology, geomorphology, and hydraulic conditions. River ice processes involve complex interactions between hydrodynamic, mechanical, and thermal processes, and they are also influenced by weather and hydrologic conditions. Because natural rivers are serpentine, with bends, narrows, and straight reaches, the commonly-used one-dimensional river ice models and two-dimensional models based on the rectangular Cartesian coordinates are incapable of simulating the physical phenomena accurately. In order to accurately simulate the complicated river geometry and overcome the difficulties of numerical simulation resulting from both complex boundaries and differences between length and width scales, a two-dimensional river ice numerical model based on a boundary-fitted coordinate transformation method was developed. The presented model considers the influence of the frazil ice accumulation under ice cover and the shape of the leading edge of ice cover during the freezing process. The model is capable of determining the velocity field, the distribution of water temperature, the concentration distribution of frazil ice, the transport of floating ice, the progression, stability, and thawing of ice cover, and the transport, accumulation, and erosion of ice under ice cover. A MacCormack scheme was used to solve the equations numerically. The model was validated with field observations from the Hequ Reach of the Yellow River. Comparison of simulation results with field data indicates that the model is capable of simulating the river ice process with high accuracy.

12. Two-dimensional fracture analysis of piezoelectric material based on the scaled boundary node method

Science.gov (United States)

Shen-Shen, Chen; Juan, Wang; Qing-Hua, Li

2016-04-01

A scaled boundary node method (SBNM) is developed for two-dimensional fracture analysis of piezoelectric material, which allows the stress and electric displacement intensity factors to be calculated directly and accurately. As a boundary-type meshless method, the SBNM employs the moving Kriging (MK) interpolation technique to an approximate unknown field in the circumferential direction and therefore only a set of scattered nodes are required to discretize the boundary. As the shape functions satisfy Kronecker delta property, no special techniques are required to impose the essential boundary conditions. In the radial direction, the SBNM seeks analytical solutions by making use of analytical techniques available to solve ordinary differential equations. Numerical examples are investigated and satisfactory solutions are obtained, which validates the accuracy and simplicity of the proposed approach. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11462006 and 21466012), the Foundation of Jiangxi Provincial Educational Committee, China (Grant No. KJLD14041), and the Foundation of East China Jiaotong University, China (Grant No. 09130020).

13. Stress and mixed boundary conditions for two-dimensional dodecagonal quasi-crystal plates

Yan Gao; Si-Peng Xu; Bao-Sheng Zhao

2007-05-01

For plate bending and stretching problems in two-dimensional (2D) dodecagonal quasi-crystal (QC) media, the reciprocal theorem and the general solution for QCs are applied in a novel way to obtain the appropriate stress and mixed boundary conditions accurate to all order. The method developed by Gregory and Wan is used to generate necessary conditions which the prescribed data on the edge of the plate must satisfy in order that it should generate a decaying state within the plate; these decaying state conditions are obtained explicitly for axisymmetric bending and stretching of a circular plate when stress or mixed conditions are imposed on the plate edge. They are then used for the correct formulation of boundary conditions for the interior solution. For the stress data, our boundary conditions coincide with those obtained in conventional forms of plate theories. More importantly, appropriate boundary conditions with a set of mixed edge-data are obtained for the ﬁrst time. Furthermore, the corresponding necessary conditions for transversely isotropic elastic plate are obtained directly, and their isotropic elastic counterparts are also obtained.

14. Numerical Bifurcation Diagram for the Two-Dimensional Boundary-fed CDIMA System

CERN Document Server

Setayeshgar, S

1999-01-01

We present numerical solution of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system in two dimensions in a boundary-fed system using a realistic model. The bifurcation diagram for the transition from non-symmetry breaking structures along boundary feed gradients to transverse symmetry breaking patterns in a single layer is numerically determined. We find this transition to be discontinuous. We make connection with earlier results and discuss prospects for future work.

15. Analysis of Two-Layered Random Interfaces for Two Dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jun Wang

2011-01-01

Full Text Available The statistical behaviors of two-layered random-phase interfaces in two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson's model are investigated. The phase interfaces separate two coexisting phases of the lattice Widom-Rowlinson model; when the chemical potential μ of the model is large enough, the convergence of the probability distributions which describe the fluctuations of the phase interfaces is studied. In this paper, the backbones of interfaces are introduced in the model, and the corresponding polymer chains and cluster expansions are developed and analyzed for the polymer weights. And the existence of the free energy for two-layered random-phase interfaces of the two-dimensional Widom-Rowlinson model is given.

16. Stability of separating subsonic boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Masad, Jamal A.; Nayfeh, Ali H.

1994-01-01

The primary and subharmonic instabilities of separating compressible subsonic two-dimensional boundary layers in the presence of a two-dimensional roughness element on a flat plate are investigated. The roughness elements considered are humps and forward- and backward-facing steps. The use of cooling and suction to control these instabilities is studied. The similarities and differences between the instability characteristics of separating boundary layers and those of the boundary layer over a flat plate with a zero pressure gradient are pointed out and discussed. The theoretical results agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental data of Dovgal and Kozlov. Cooling and suction decrease the growth rates of primary and subharmonic waves in the attached-flow regions but increase them in the separated-flow regions.

17. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography in the analysis of secondary plant metabolites.

Science.gov (United States)

Cieśla, Lukasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

2009-02-13

Drugs, derived from medicinal plants, have been enjoying a renaissance in the last years. It is due to a great pharmacological potential of herbal drugs, as many natural compounds have been found to exhibit biological activity of wide spectrum. The introduction of whole plants, plant extracts, or isolated natural compounds has led to the need to create the analytical methods suitable for their analysis. The identification of isolated substances is relatively an easy task, but the analysis of plant extracts causes a lot of problems, as they are usually very complex mixtures. Chromatographic methods are one of the most popular techniques applied in the analysis of natural mixtures. Unfortunately the separation power of traditional, one-dimensional techniques, is usually inadequate for separation of more complex samples. In such a case the use of multidimensional chromatography is advised. Planar chromatography gives the possibility of performing two-dimensional separations with the use of one adsorbent with two different eluents or by using bilayer plates or graft thin-layer chromatography (TLC) technique; combinations of different multidimensional techniques are also possible. In this paper, multidimensional planar chromatographic methods, commonly applied in the analysis of natural compounds, were reviewed. A detailed information is given on the methodology of performing two-dimensional separations on one adsorbent, on bilayer plates, with the use of graft TLC and hyphenated methods. General aspects of multidimensionality in liquid chromatography are also described. Finally a reader will find a description of variable two-dimensional methods applied in the analysis of compounds, most commonly encountered in plant extracts. This paper is aimed to draw attention to the potential of two-dimensional planar chromatography in the field of phytochemistry. It may be useful for those who are interested in achieving successful separations of multicomponent mixtures by means

18. Photodetectors Based on Two-Dimensional Layer-Structured Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskite Semiconductors.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhou, Jiachen; Chu, Yingli; Huang, Jia

2016-10-05

Hybrid lead iodide perovskite semiconductors have attracted intense research interests recently because of their easy fabrication processes and high power conversion efficiencies in photovoltaic applications. Layer-structured materials have interesting properties such as quantum confinement effect and tunable band gap due to the unique two-dimensional crystalline structures. ⟨100⟩-oriented layer-structured perovskite materials are inherited from three-dimensional ABX3 perovskite materials with a generalized formula of (RNH3)2(CH3NH3)n-1MnX3n+1, and adopt the Ruddlesden-Popper type crystalline structure. Here we report the synthesis and investigation of three layer-structured perovskite materials with different layer numbers: (C4H9NH3)2PbI4 (n = 1, one-layered perovskite), (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)Pb2I7 (n = 2, two-layered perovskite) and (C4H9NH3)2(CH3NH3)2Pb3I10 (n = 3, three-layered perovskite). Their photoelectronic properties were investigated in related to their molecular structures. Photodetectors based on these two-dimensional (2D) layer-structured perovskite materials showed tunable photoresponse with short response time in milliseconds. The photodetectors based on three-layered perovskite showed better performances than those of the other two devices, in terms of output current, responsivity, Ilight/Idark ratio, and response time, because of its smaller optical band gap and more condensed microstructure comparing the other two materials. These results revealed the relationship between the molecular structures, film microstructures and the photoresponse properties of 2D layer-structured hybrid perovskites, and demonstrated their potentials as flexible, functional, and tunable semiconductors in optoelectronic applications, by taking advantage of their tunable quantum well molecular structure.

19. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Two Dimensional Layered Tin Disulfide Nanowalls

Science.gov (United States)

Mutlu, Zafer; Shahrezaei, Sina; Temiz, Selcuk; Ozkan, Mihrimah; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

2016-04-01

Two dimensional layered metal chalcogenides, especially tin sulfides, have recently received great interest due to their enticing physical and chemical properties and hold promise for various applications. We report on synthesis of phase-pure two dimensional tin disulfide nanowalls by a facile vapor-phase synthesis method on insulator substrates such as silicon dioxide and magnesium oxide using tin dioxide and sulfur powders as precursors. The synthesized tin disulfide nanowalls have been characterized to study their fundamental properties by using various techniques such as scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized films have an open network structure constituted of very uniform interconnected nanowalls with high crystallinity.

20. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

2016-01-01

We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....

1. Two-dimensional Oxygen Distribution in a Surface Sediment Layer Measured Using an RGB Color Ratiometric Oxygen Planar Optode

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jae Seong Lee

2013-09-01

Full Text Available We measured two-dimensional (2-D oxygen distribution in the surface sediment layer of intertidal sediment using a simple and inexpensive planar oxygen optode, which is based on a color ratiometric image approach. The recorded emission intensity of red color luminophore light significantly changed with oxygen concentration by O2 quenching of platinum(IIoctaethylporphyrin (PtOEP. The ratios between the intensity of red and green emissions with oxygen concentration variation demonstrated the Stern-Volmer relationship. The 2-D oxygen distribution image showed microtopographic structure, diffusivity boundary layer and burrow in surface sediment layer. The oxygen penetration depth (OPD was about 2 mm and the one-dimensional vertical diffusive oxygen uptake (DOU was 12.6 mmol m−2 d−1 in the undisturbed surface sediment layer. However, those were enhanced near burrow by benthic fauna, and the OPD was two times deeper and DOU was increased by 34%. The simple and inexpensive oxygen planar optode has great application potential in the study of oxygen dynamics with high spatiotemporal resolution, in benthic boundary layers.

2. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gheisari, R., E-mail: gheisari@pgu.ac.ir [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nuclear Energy Research Center, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firoozabadi, M. M.; Mohammadi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Birjand, Birjand 97175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-01-15

A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D{sub 2}O and solid D{sub 2} (sD{sub 2}). The D{sub 2}O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD{sub 2} as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD{sub 2}. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD{sub 2} volume) equal to 6.79 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}s{sup −1} and 2.20 ×10{sup 5} cm{sup −3}s{sup −1}, respectively.

3. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

Science.gov (United States)

2014-01-01

A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN) production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN) flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source) was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2). The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D) neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ - z) geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume) equal to 6.79 × 106 cm-2s-1 and 2.20 ×105 cm-3s-1, respectively.

4. A tunable isoelectric focusing via moving reaction boundary for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteomics.

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Chen-Gang; Shang, Zhi; Yan, Jian; Li, Si; Li, Guo-Qing; Liu, Rong-Zhong; Qing, Ying; Fan, Liu-Yin; Xiao, Hua; Cao, Cheng-Xi

2015-05-01

5. On the use of wall functions as boundary conditions for two-dimensional separated compressible flows

Science.gov (United States)

Viegas, J. R.; Rubesin, M. W.; Horstman, C. C.

1985-01-01

A new and improved wall function method for compressible turbulent flows has been developed and tested. This method is applicable to attached and separated flows, to both high- and low-Reynolds number flows, and to flows with adiabatic and nonadiabatic surfaces. This wall function method has been applied to the Launder-Spalding k-epsilon two-equation model of turbulence. The tests consist of comparisons of calculated and experimental results for: (1) an axisymmetrical transonic shock-wave/boundary-wave interaction flow at low Reynolds number in an adiabatic tube, (2) an axisymmetrical high-Reynolds number transonic flow over a nonadiabatic bump, and (3) a two-dimensional supersonic high-Reynolds number flow on a nonadiabatic deflected flap. Each of these experiments had significant regions of flow separation. The calculations are performed with an implicit algorithm that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. It is shown that the results obtained agree very well with the data for the complex compressible flows tested.

6. Consideration of a ultracold neutron source in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry by taking simulated boundaries

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

R. Gheisari

2014-01-01

Full Text Available A new idea to calculate ultracold neutron (UCN production by using Monte Carlo simulation method to calculate the cold neutron (CN flux and an analytical approach to calculate the UCN production from the simulated CN flux was given. A super-thermal source (UCN source was modeled based on an arrangement of D2O and solid D2 (sD2. The D2O was investigated as the neutron moderator, and sD2 as the converter. In order to determine the required parameters, a two-dimensional (2D neutron balance equation written in Matlab was combined with the MCNPX simulation code. The 2D neutron-transport equation in cylindrical (ρ − z geometry was considered for 330 neutron energy groups in the sD2. The 2D balance equation for UCN and CN was solved using simulated CN flux as boundary value. The UCN source dimensions were calculated for the development of the next UCN source. In the optimal condition, the UCN flux and the UCN production rate (averaged over the sD2 volume equal to 6.79 × 106 cm−2s−1 and 2.20 ×105 cm−3s−1, respectively.

7. Two-dimensional physical-based inversion of confined and unconfined aquifers under unknown boundary conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Jiao, Jianying; Zhang, Ye

2014-03-01

An inverse method is developed to simultaneously estimate multiple hydraulic conductivities, source/sink strengths, and boundary conditions, for two-dimensional confined and unconfined aquifers under non-pumping or pumping conditions. The method incorporates noisy observed data (hydraulic heads, groundwater fluxes, or well rates) at measurement locations. With a set of hybrid formulations, given sufficient measurement data, the method yields well-posed systems of equations that can be solved efficiently via nonlinear optimization. The solution is stable when measurement errors are increased. The method is successfully tested on problems with regular and irregular geometries, different heterogeneity patterns and variances (maximum Kmax/Kmin tested is 10,000), and error magnitudes. Under non-pumping conditions, when error-free observed data are used, the estimated conductivities and recharge rates are accurate within 8% of the true values. When data contain increasing errors, the estimated parameters become less accurate, as expected. For problems where the underlying parameter variation is unknown, equivalent conductivities and average recharge rates can be estimated. Under pumping (and/or injection) conditions, a hybrid formulation is developed to address these local source/sink effects, while different types of boundary conditions can also exert significant influences on drawdowns. Local grid refinement near wells is not needed to obtain accurate results, thus inversion is successful with coarse inverse grids, leading to high computation efficiency. Furthermore, flux measurements are not needed for the inversion to succeed; data requirement of the method is thus not much different from that of interpreting classic well tests. Finally, inversion accuracy is not sensitive to the degree of nonlinearity of the flow equations. Performance of the inverse method for confined and unconfined aquifer problems is similar in terms of the accuracy of the estimated parameters

8. Novel layered two-dimensional semiconductors as the building blocks for nano-electronic/photonic systems

Science.gov (United States)

Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing

2014-06-01

Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.

9. Nonlinear chemoconvection in the methylene-blue-glucose system: Two-dimensional shallow layers

Science.gov (United States)

Pons, A. J.; Batiste, O.; Bees, M. A.

2008-07-01

Interfacial hydrodynamic instabilities arise in a range of chemical systems. One mechanism for instability is the occurrence of unstable density gradients due to the accumulation of reaction products. In this paper we conduct two-dimensional nonlinear numerical simulations for a member of this class of system: the methylene-blue-glucose reaction. The result of these reactions is the oxidation of glucose to a relatively, but marginally, dense product, gluconic acid, that accumulates at oxygen permeable interfaces, such as the surface open to the atmosphere. The reaction is catalyzed by methylene-blue. We show that simulations help to disassemble the mechanisms responsible for the onset of instability and evolution of patterns, and we demonstrate that some of the results are remarkably consistent with experiments. We probe the impact of the upper oxygen boundary condition, for fixed flux, fixed concentration, or mixed boundary conditions, and find significant qualitative differences in solution behavior; structures either attract or repel one another depending on the boundary condition imposed. We suggest that measurement of the form of the boundary condition is possible via observation of oxygen penetration, and improved product yields may be obtained via proper control of boundary conditions in an engineering setting. We also investigate the dependence on parameters such as the Rayleigh number and depth. Finally, we find that pseudo-steady linear and weakly nonlinear techniques described elsewhere are useful tools for predicting the behavior of instabilities beyond their formal range of validity, as good agreement is obtained with the simulations.

10. Simulation study of scalings in scrape-off layer plasma by two-dimensional transport code

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Itoh, S.-I.; Ueda, Noriaki; Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))

1990-07-01

Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma and divertor plasma in Tokamaks were numerically analyzed using a two-dimensional time-dependent transport code (UEDA code). Plasma transport in the SOL and the divertor region was studied for given particle and heat sources from the main plasma. A scaling study of the density, the temperature and their fall-off lengths was carried out for the JFT-2M Tokamak. The results show the inter-relations between the divertor plasma parameters and core plasma confinement. The operational conditions of the core necessary to guarantee the divertor performance are discussed. (author).

11. Atomically thin two-dimensional materials as hole extraction layers in organolead halide perovskite photovoltaic cells

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Yu Geun; Kwon, Ki Chang; Le, Quyet Van; Hong, Kootak; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Soo Young

2016-07-01

Atomically thin two-dimensional materials such as MoS2, WS2, and graphene oxide (GO) are used as hole extraction layers (HEL) in organolead halide perovskites solar cells (PSCs) instead of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) HEL. MoS2 and WS2 layers with a polycrystalline structure were synthesized by a chemical deposition method using a uniformly spin-coated (NH4)MoS4 and (NH4)WS4 precursor solution. GO was synthesized by the oxidation of natural graphite powder using Hummers' method. The work functions of MoS2, WS2, and GO are measured to be 5.0, 4.95, and 5.1 eV, respectively. The X-ray diffraction spectrum indicated that the synthesized perovskite material is CH3NH3PbI3-xClx. The PSCs with the p-n junction structure were fabricated based on the CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskite layer. The power conversion efficiencies of the MoS2, WS2, and GO-based PSCs were 9.53%, 8.02%, and 9.62%, respectively, which are comparable to those obtained from PEDOT:PSS-based devices (9.93%). These results suggest that two-dimensional materials such as MoS2, WS2, and GO can be promising candidates for the formation of HELs in the PSCs.

12. Piezoelectric two-dimensional nanosheets/anionic layer heterojunction for efficient direct current power generation

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kumar, Brijesh; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jun, Hoin; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sang-Woo

2013-06-01

Direct current (DC) piezoelectric power generator is promising for the miniaturization of a power package and self-powering of nanorobots and body-implanted devices. Hence, we report the first use of two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure and an anionic nanoclay layer to generate piezoelectric DC output power. The device, made from 2D nanosheets and an anionic nanoclay layer heterojunction, has potential to be the smallest size power package, and could be used to charge wireless nano/micro scale systems without the use of rectifier circuits to convert alternating current into DC to store the generated power. The combined effect of buckling behaviour of the ZnO nanosheets, a self-formed anionic nanoclay layer, and coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanosheets contributes to efficient DC power generation. The networked ZnO nanosheets proved to be structurally stable under huge external mechanical loads.

13. Piezoelectric two-dimensional nanosheets/anionic layer heterojunction for efficient direct current power generation.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Kwon-Ho; Kumar, Brijesh; Lee, Keun Young; Park, Hyun-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Jun, Hoin; Lee, Dongyun; Kim, Sang-Woo

2013-01-01

Direct current (DC) piezoelectric power generator is promising for the miniaturization of a power package and self-powering of nanorobots and body-implanted devices. Hence, we report the first use of two-dimensional (2D) zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructure and an anionic nanoclay layer to generate piezoelectric DC output power. The device, made from 2D nanosheets and an anionic nanoclay layer heterojunction, has potential to be the smallest size power package, and could be used to charge wireless nano/micro scale systems without the use of rectifier circuits to convert alternating current into DC to store the generated power. The combined effect of buckling behaviour of the ZnO nanosheets, a self-formed anionic nanoclay layer, and coupled semiconducting and piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanosheets contributes to efficient DC power generation. The networked ZnO nanosheets proved to be structurally stable under huge external mechanical loads.

14. Spectroscopic studies of the electronic properties of regularly arrayed two-dimensional protein layers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vyalikh, D V [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kirchner, A [BioNanotechnology and Structure Formation Group, Max Bergmann Centre of Biomaterials, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kade, A [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Danzenbaecher, S [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Dedkov, Yu S [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Mertig, M [BioNanotechnology and Structure Formation Group, Max Bergmann Centre of Biomaterials, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Molodtsov, S L [Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

2006-04-05

Photoemission (PE) and near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were applied to characterize electronic properties of the regular two-dimensional bacterial surface protein layer (S layer) of Bacillus sphaericus NCTC 9602, which is widely used as a protein template for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced metallic and hybrid nanostructures. PE and NEXAFS at the C 1s, O 1s, and N 1s core levels show similar chemical states for each oxygen atom and also for each nitrogen atom, while carbon atoms exhibit a range of chemical environments in different functional groups of the amino acids. A series of characteristic NEXAFS peaks were assigned to particular molecular orbitals of the amino acids by applying a phenomenological building-block model. It was found that the {pi} clouds of aromatic rings make the main contribution to both the lowest unoccupied and highest occupied molecular orbitals. The two-dimensional protein crystal shows a semiconductor-like behaviour with a gap value of {approx}3.0 eV and the Fermi energy close to the bottom of the LUMO.

15. Heterostructures based on two-dimensional layered materials and their potential applications

KAUST Repository

Li, Ming-yang

2015-12-04

The development of two-dimensional (2D) layered materials is driven by fundamental interest and their potential applications. Atomically thin 2D materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks with unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties which do not exist in their bulk counterparts. The van der Waals interlayer interaction enables the possibility to exfoliate and reassemble different 2D materials into arbitrarily and vertically stacked heterostructures. Recently developed vapor phase growth of 2D materials further paves the way of directly synthesizing vertical and lateral heterojunctions. This review provides insights into the layered 2D heterostructures, with a concise introduction to preparative approaches for 2D materials and heterostructures. These unique 2D heterostructures have abundant implications for many potential applications.

16. Two-dimensional coupled fluid and electrodynamic calculations for a MHD DCW channel with slag layers

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, B. L.

1982-01-01

A fully coupled, two dimensional numerical method of modeling linear, coal-fired MHD generators is developed for the case of a plasma flow bounded by a slag layer on the channel walls. The governing partial differential equations for the plasma flow, slag layer and electrodynamics are presented and their coupling discussed. An iterative, numerical procedure employing non-uniform computational meshes and appropriate tridiagonal matrix solution schemes for the equations is presented. The method permits the investigation of the mutual plasma flow-slag layer development for prescribed wall temperatures, electrode geometry, slag properties and channel loading. In particular, the slag layer-plasma interface properties which require prior specification in an uncoupled analysis comprise part of the solution in the present approach. Results are presented for a short diagonally connected generator channel and include contour plots of the electric potential and current stream function as well as transverse and axial profiles of pertinent plasma properties. The results indicate that a thin electrode slag layer can be maintained in the presence of reasonable current density levels.

17. Lagrangian approach to description of two-dimensional boundary layer ЛАГРАНЖЕВ ПОДХОД К ОПИСАНИЮ ПЛОСКОГО ПОГРАНИЧНОГО СЛОЯ

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Otstavnov Evgeniy Igorevich

2013-05-01

Full Text Available In the article, the two-dimensional boundary layer is considered on the basis of the Lagrangian approach to the continuous medium description using coordinates of particles. Classical L. Prandtl’s method of Navier-Stokes equation simplification through expansion of dependent variables in a series is applied to develop the model. Direct transformation of widely used Euler equations derived by L. Prandtl generates the same result. Boundary conditions are regarded as one-sided or non-holonomic restrictions from the viewpoint of analytical mechanics.The mass conservation equation can be detached from the main equation of motion. At the same time, one can conclude that a particle starting its motion from an internal part of the layer will remain there without reaching any boundary in a finite time. The perpendicular coordinate evolution can be calculated when one has a law of motion along the boundary employed using the standard approach to the certain PDE solution. The model presentation is based on the Hamiltonian apparatus of classical mechanics. Derivatives of spatial variables take the form of the Poisson brackets. Hence, the full equation for the Newton’s second law has acceleration and doubled application of Poisson brackets. The pressure gradient is a function of a single coordinate; therefore, it can be eliminated by another Poisson bracket application due to the symmetric property of the skew.Приведен вывод уравнений плоского пограничного слоя с использованием подхода Лагранжа. Граничные условия рассмотрены с позиций теоретической механики в качестве связей, наложенных на систему. Уравнение движения вдоль границы отделяется, что дает еще одну форму скалярного описания плоского погранслоя.

18. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard;

2016-01-01

configuration sheet resistance as well as the resistance measured between opposing edges of the square sample have a simple unique dependency on the dimension-less parameter √nρGBG0, where G0 is the sheet conductance of a grain. The value of the ratio RA/RB between resistances measured in A- and B......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately...

19. Tuning Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Dysprosium Layer Compound through Guest Molecules.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Qi; Li, Jian; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Sun, Jun-Liang; Gao, Song

2016-08-15

A novel two-dimensional dysprosium(III) complex, [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF·H2O·2CH3OH (1), has been successfully synthesized from a new pyridine-N-oxide (PNO)-containing ligand, namely, N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)pyridine-N-oxidecarbohydrazide (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complex 1 is composed of a dinuclear dysprosium subunit, which is further extended by the PNO part of the ligand to form a two-dimensional layer. Magnetic studies indicate that complex 1 shows well-defined temperature- and frequency-dependent signals under a zero direct-current (dc) field, typical of slow magnetic relaxation with an effective energy barrier Ueff of 33.6 K under a zero dc field. Interestingly, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that compound 1 undergoes a reversible phase transition that is induced by the desorption and absorption of methanol and water molecules. Moreover, the desolvated sample [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF (1a) also exhibits slow magnetic relaxation but with a higher anisotropic barrier of 42.0 K, indicating the tuning effect of solvent molecules on slow magnetic relaxation.

20. An investigation of two dimensional parallel and non-parallel steady mixing layers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shabani, A. [Azad Islamic Univ., Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Research and Science Inst., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: ario.shabani@cic.aut.ac.ir; Basirat Tabrizi, H. [Amirkabir Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2004-07-01

A CFD code was generated to simulate the steady state behavior of two dimensional, parallel and nonparallel merging mixing layers. For the free stream velocity ratios of 0.7 and 0.9, the effect of the merging angle of free stream velocities of between 0.0 to 18.0 degrees on the mixing zone's velocity distribution, and on the physical spreading of the turbulent domain was numerically simulated and studied. The results were in good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental results, and indicated that increasing the angle of merging of the two free streams, or increasing their associated free stream velocity ratios increases the spatial growth rate and decreases the turbulent development distance. (author)

1. Boundary-layer theory

CERN Document Server

Schlichting (Deceased), Hermann

2017-01-01

This new edition of the near-legendary textbook by Schlichting and revised by Gersten presents a comprehensive overview of boundary-layer theory and its application to all areas of fluid mechanics, with particular emphasis on the flow past bodies (e.g. aircraft aerodynamics). The new edition features an updated reference list and over 100 additional changes throughout the book, reflecting the latest advances on the subject.

2. New hybrid lead iodides: From one-dimensional chain to two-dimensional layered perovskite structure

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Xiong, Kecai; Liu, Wei [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Teat, Simon J. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Litao; Wang, Hao; Emge, Thomas J. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, 610 Taylor Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2015-10-15

Two new hybrid lead halides (H{sub 2}BDA)[PbI{sub 4}] (1) (H{sub 2}BDA=1,4-butanediammonium dication) and (HNPEIM)[PbI{sub 3}] (2) (HNPEIM=N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. X-ray diffraction analyses reveal that compound 1 features a two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layer whereas compound 2 contains one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains. The N-​phenyl-ethanimidamidine cation within compound 2 was generated in-situ under solvothermal conditions. The optical absorption spectra collected at room temperature suggest that both compounds are semiconductors having direct band gaps, with estimated values of 2.64 and 2.73 eV for 1 and 2, respectively. Results from the density functional theory (DFT) calculations are consistent with the experimental data. Density of states (DOS) analysis reveals that in both compounds 1 and 2, the energy states in the valence band maximum region are iodine 5p atomic orbitals with a small contribution from lead 6s, while in the region of conduction band minimum, the major contributions are from the inorganic (Pb 6p atomic orbitals) and organic components (C and N 2p atomic orbitals) in compound 1 and 2, respectively. - Graphical abstract: Two new hybrid lead halides built on one-dimensional edge-sharing double chains and two-dimensional corner-sharing perovskite layers are synthesized and their structural and electronic properties are analyzed. - Highlights: • Two new hybrid lead iodides are designed, synthesized, and characterized. • They are closely related to, but different from, perovskite structures. • The electronic properties of both compounds are analyzed by DFT calculations.

3. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

Science.gov (United States)

Lotz, Mikkel R.; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik W.; Hansen, Ole; Petersen, Dirch H.

2016-10-01

We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation to emulate a polycrystalline sheet, and a square sample was cut from the tessellated surface. Four-point resistances and Hall effect signals were calculated for a probe placed in the center of the square sample as a function of grain density n and grain boundary resistivity ρ GB . We find that the dual configuration sheet resistance as well as the resistance measured between opposing edges of the square sample have a simple unique dependency on the dimension-less parameter √{ n } ρ GB G 0 , where G0 is the sheet conductance of a grain. The value of the ratio R A / R B between resistances measured in A- and B-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity.

4. Thickness Considerations of Two-Dimensional Layered Semiconductors for Transistor Applications

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Youwei; Li, Hui; Wang, Haomin; Xie, Hong; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Shi-Li; Qiu, Zhi-Jun

2016-07-01

Layered two-dimensional semiconductors have attracted tremendous attention owing to their demonstrated excellent transistor switching characteristics with a large ratio of on-state to off-state current, Ion/Ioff. However, the depletion-mode nature of the transistors sets a limit on the thickness of the layered semiconductor films primarily determined by a given Ion/Ioff as an acceptable specification. Identifying the optimum thickness range is of significance for material synthesis and device fabrication. Here, we systematically investigate the thickness-dependent switching behavior of transistors with a wide thickness range of multilayer-MoS2 films. A difference in Ion/Ioff by several orders of magnitude is observed when the film thickness, t, approaches a critical depletion width. The decrease in Ion/Ioff is exponential for t between 20 nm and 100 nm, by a factor of 10 for each additional 10 nm. For t larger than 100 nm, Ion/Ioff approaches unity. Simulation using technical computer-aided tools established for silicon technology faithfully reproduces the experimentally determined scaling behavior of Ion/Ioff with t. This excellent agreement confirms that multilayer-MoS2 films can be approximated as a homogeneous semiconductor with high surface conductivity that tends to deteriorate Ion/Ioff. Our findings are helpful in guiding material synthesis and designing advanced field-effect transistors based on the layered semiconductors.

5. Interfacial engineering of two-dimensional nano-structured materials by atomic layer deposition

Science.gov (United States)

Zhuiykov, Serge; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Hai, Zhenyin; Karbalaei Akbari, Mohammad; Heynderickx, Philippe M.

2017-01-01

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is an enabling technology which provides coating and material features with significant advantages compared to other existing techniques for depositing precise nanometer-thin two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures. It is a cyclic process which relies on sequential self-terminating reactions between gas phase precursor molecules and a solid surface. ALD is especially advantageous when the film quality or thickness is critical, offering ultra-high aspect ratios. ALD provides digital thickness control to the atomic level by depositing film one atomic layer at a time, as well as pinhole-free films even over a very large and complex areas. Digital control extends to sandwiches, hetero-structures, nano-laminates, metal oxides, graded index layers and doping, and it is perfect for conformal coating and challenging 2D electrodes for various functional devices. The technique's capabilities are presented on the example of ALD-developed ultra-thin 2D tungsten oxide (WO3) over the large area of standard 4" Si substrates. The discussed advantages of ALD enable and endorse the employment of this technique for the development of hetero-nanostructure 2D semiconductors with unique properties.

6. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

1999-01-01

Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate...

7. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

1998-01-01

Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate...

8. Superfluid Boundary Layer

Science.gov (United States)

Stagg, G. W.; Parker, N. G.; Barenghi, C. F.

2017-03-01

We model the superfluid flow of liquid helium over the rough surface of a wire (used to experimentally generate turbulence) profiled by atomic force microscopy. Numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation reveal that the sharpest features in the surface induce vortex nucleation both intrinsically (due to the raised local fluid velocity) and extrinsically (providing pinning sites to vortex lines aligned with the flow). Vortex interactions and reconnections contribute to form a dense turbulent layer of vortices with a nonclassical average velocity profile which continually sheds small vortex rings into the bulk. We characterize this layer for various imposed flows. As boundary layers conventionally arise from viscous forces, this result opens up new insight into the nature of superflows.

9. Hexagonal boron nitride: Ubiquitous layered dielectric for two-dimensional electronics

Science.gov (United States)

Jain, Nikhil

Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), a layer-structured dielectric with very similar crystalline lattice to that of graphene, has been studied as a ubiquitous dielectric for two-dimensional electronics. While 2D materials may lead to future platform for electronics, traditional thin-film dielectrics (e.g., various oxides) make highly invasive interface with graphene. Multiple key roles of h-BN in graphene electronics are explored in this thesis. 2D graphene/h-BN heterostructures are designed and implemented in diverse configurations in which h-BN is evaluated as a supporting substrate, a gate dielectric, a passivation layer, or an interposing barrier in "3D graphene" superlattice. First, CVD-grown graphene on h-BN substrate shows improved conductivity and resilience to thermally induced breakdown, as compared with graphene on SiO2, potentially useful for high-speed graphene devices and on-chip interconnects. h-BN is also explored as a gate dielectric for graphene field-effect transistor with 2D heterostructure design. The dielectric strength and tunneling behavior of h-BN are investigated, confirming its robust nature. Next, h-BN is studied as a passivation layer for graphene electronics. In addition to significant improvement in current density and breakdown threshold, fully encapsulated graphene exhibits minimal environmental sensitivity, a key benefit to 2D materials which have only surfaces. Lastly, reduction in interlayer carrier scattering is observed in a double-layered graphene setup with ultrathin h-BN multilayer as an interposing layer. The DFT simulation and Raman spectral analysis indicate reduction in interlayer scattering. The decoupling of the two graphene monolayers is further confirmed by electrical characterization, as compared with other referencing mono- and multilayer configurations. The heterostructure serves as the building element in "3D graphene", a versatile platform for future electronics.

10. Synthesis, characterization and application of two-dimensional layered metal hydroxides for environmental remediation purposes

Science.gov (United States)

Machingauta, Cleopas

Two-dimensional layered nano composites, which include layered double hydroxides (LDHs), hydroxy double salts (HDSs) and layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) are able to intercalate different molecular species within their gallery space. These materials have a tunable structural composition which has made them applicable as fire retardants, adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst support materials, and ion exchangers. Thermal treatment of these materials results in destruction of the layers and formation of mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and spinels. MMOs have the ability to adsorb anions from solution and may also regenerate layered structures through a phenomenon known as memory effect. Zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrate was used for the uptake of a series of halogenated acetates (HAs). HAs are pollutants introduced into water systems as by-products of water chlorination and pesticide degradation; their sequestration from water is thus crucial. Optimization of layered materials for controlled uptake requires an understanding of their ion-exchange kinetics and thermodynamics. Exchange kinetics of these anions was monitored using ex-situ PXRD, UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR. It was revealed that exchange rates and uptake efficiencies are related to electronic spatial extents and the charge on carboxyl-oxygen atoms. In addition, acetate and nitrate-based HDSs were used to explore how altering the hydroxide layer affects uptake of acetate/nitrate ions. Changing the metal identities affects the interaction of the anions with the layers. From FTIR, we observed that nitrates coordinate in a D3h and Cs/C 2v symmetry; the nitrates in D3h symmetry were easily exchangeable. Interlayer hydrogen bonding was also revealed to be dependent on metal identity. Substituting divalent cations with trivalent cations produces materials with a higher charge density than HDSs and LHSs. A comparison of the uptake efficiency of zinc-aluminum, zinc-gallium and zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrates was performed using trichloroacetic

11. "Ultimate state" of two-dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection between free-slip fixed temperature boundaries

CERN Document Server

2011-01-01

Rigorous upper limits on the vertical heat transport in two dimensional Rayleigh-Benard convection between stress-free isothermal boundaries are derived from the Boussinesq approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations. The Nusselt number Nu is bounded in terms of the Rayleigh number Ra according to $Nu \\leq 0.2295 Ra^{5/12}$ uniformly in the Prandtl number Pr. This Nusselt number scaling challenges some theoretical arguments regarding the asymptotic high Rayleigh number heat transport by turbulent convection.

12. Exact field-driven interface dynamics in the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model with helicoidal boundary conditions

OpenAIRE

de Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

2012-01-01

We investigate the interface dynamics of the two-dimensional stochastic Ising model in an external field under helicoidal boundary conditions. At sufficiently low temperatures and fields, the dynamics of the interface is described by an exactly solvable high-spin asymmetric quantum Hamiltonian that is the infinitesimal generator of the zero range process. Generally, the critical dynamics of the interface fluctuations is in the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class of critical behavior. We re...

13. Graphene-like two-dimensional layered nanomaterials: applications in biosensors and nanomedicine

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Guohai; Zhu, Chengzhou; Du, Dan; Zhu, Junjie; Lin, Yuehe

2015-08-01

The development of nanotechnology provides promising opportunities for various important applications. The recent discovery of atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials can offer manifold perspectives to construct versatile devices with high-performance to satisfy multiple requirements. Many studies directed at graphene have stimulated renewed interest on graphene-like 2D layered nanomaterials (GLNs). GLNs including boron nitride nanosheets, graphitic-carbon nitride nanosheets and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g. MoS2 and WS2) have attracted significant interest in numerous research fields from physics and chemistry to biology and engineering, which has led to numerous interdisciplinary advances in nano science. Benefiting from the unique physical and chemical properties (e.g. strong mechanical strength, high surface area, unparalleled thermal conductivity, remarkable biocompatibility and ease of functionalization), these 2D layered nanomaterials have shown great potential in biochemistry and biomedicine. This review summarizes recent advances of GLNs in applications of biosensors and nanomedicine, including electrochemical biosensors, optical biosensors, bioimaging, drug delivery and cancer therapy. Current challenges and future perspectives in these rapidly developing areas are also outlined. It is expected that they will have great practical foundation in biomedical applications with future efforts.

14. Boundary layer transition studies

Science.gov (United States)

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-02-01

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

15. Boundary layer transition studies

Science.gov (United States)

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated

16. Solving Two -Dimensional Diffusion Equations with Nonlocal Boundary Conditions by a Special Class of Padé Approximants

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2010-08-01

Full Text Available Parabolic partial differential equations with nonlocal boundary conditions arise in modeling of a wide range of important application areas such as chemical diffusion, thermoelasticity, heat conduction process, control theory and medicine science. In this paper, we present the implementation of positivity- preserving Padé numerical schemes to the two-dimensional diffusion equation with nonlocal time dependent boundary condition. We successfully implemented these numerical schemes for both Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous cases. The numerical results show that these Padé approximation based numerical schemes are quite accurate and easily implemented.

17. DISPLAY-2: a two-dimensional shallow layer model for dense gas dispersion including complex features.

Science.gov (United States)

Venetsanos, A G; Bartzis, J G; Würtz, J; Papailiou, D D

2003-04-25

A two-dimensional shallow layer model has been developed to predict dense gas dispersion, under realistic conditions, including complex features such as two-phase releases, obstacles and inclined ground. The model attempts to predict the time and space evolution of the cloud formed after a release of a two-phase pollutant into the atmosphere. The air-pollutant mixture is assumed ideal. The cloud evolution is described mathematically through the Cartesian, two-dimensional, shallow layer conservation equations for mixture mass, mixture momentum in two horizontal directions, total pollutant mass fraction (vapor and liquid) and mixture internal energy. Liquid mass fraction is obtained assuming phase equilibrium. Account is taken in the conservation equations for liquid slip and eventual liquid rainout through the ground. Entrainment of ambient air is modeled via an entrainment velocity model, which takes into account the effects of ground friction, ground heat transfer and relative motion between cloud and surrounding atmosphere. The model additionally accounts for thin obstacles effects in three ways. First a stepwise description of the obstacle is generated, following the grid cell faces, taking into account the corresponding area blockage. Then obstacle drag on the passing cloud is modeled by adding flow resistance terms in the momentum equations. Finally the effect of extra vorticity generation and entrainment enhancement behind obstacles is modeled by adding locally into the entrainment formula without obstacles, a characteristic velocity scale defined from the obstacle pressure drop and the local cloud height.The present model predictions have been compared against theoretical results for constant volume and constant flux gravity currents. It was found that deviations of the predicted cloud footprint area change with time from the theoretical were acceptably small, if one models the frictional forces between cloud and ambient air, neglecting the Richardson

Science.gov (United States)

Irshad, Ranah; Bowles, N. E.; Calcutt, S. B.; Hurley, J.

2010-10-01

The Boundary Layer Radiometer is a small, low mass (<1kg) radiometer with only a single moving part - a scan/calibration mirror. The instrument consists of a three mirror telescope system incorporating an intermediate focus for use with miniature infrared and visible filters. It also has an integrated low power blackbody calibration target to provide long-term calibration stability The instrument may be used as an upward looking boundary layer radiometer for both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres with appropriate filters for the mid-infrared carbon dioxide band, as well as a visible channel for the detection of aerosol components such as dust. The scan mirror may be used to step through different positions from the local horizon to the zenith, allowing the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere to be retrieved. The radiometer uses miniature infrared filter assemblies developed for previous space-based instruments by Oxford, Cardiff and Reading Universities. The intermediate focus allows for the use of upstream blocking filters and baffles, which not only simplifies the design of the filters and focal plane assembly, but also reduces the risk of problems due to stray light. Combined with the calibration target this means it has significant advantages over previous generations of small radiometers.

19. Point Defects in Two-Dimensional Layered Semiconductors: Physics and Its Applications

Science.gov (United States)

Suh, Joonki

Recent advances in material science and semiconductor processing have been achieved largely based on in-depth understanding, efficient management and advanced application of point defects in host semiconductors, thus finding the relevant techniques such as doping and defect engineering as a traditional scientific and technological solution. Meanwhile, two- dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors currently draw tremendous attentions due to industrial needs and their rich physics at the nanoscale; as we approach the end of critical device dimensions in silicon-based technology, ultra-thin semiconductors have the potential as next- generation channel materials, and new physics also emerges at such reduced dimensions where confinement of electrons, phonons, and other quasi-particles is significant. It is therefore rewarding and interesting to understand and redefine the impact of lattice defects by investigating their interactions with energy/charge carriers of the host matter. Potentially, the established understanding will provide unprecedented opportunities for realizing new functionalities and enhancing the performance of energy harvesting and optoelectronic devices. In this thesis, multiple novel 2D layered semiconductors, such as bismuth and transition- metal chalcogenides, are explored. Following an introduction of conventional effects induced by point defects in semiconductors, the related physics of electronically active amphoteric defects is revisited in greater details. This can elucidate the complication of a two-dimensional electron gas coexisting with the topological states on the surface of bismuth chalcogenides, recently suggested as topological insulators. Therefore, native point defects are still one of the keys to understand and exploit topological insulators. In addition to from a fundamental science point of view, the effects of point defects on the integrated thermal-electrical transport, as well as the entropy-transporting process in

20. Central charges and boundary fields for two dimensional dilatonic black holes

CERN Document Server

Pinamonti, N

2003-01-01

In this paper we first show that within the Hamiltonian description of general relativity, the central charge of a near horizon asymptotic symmetry group is zero, and therefore that the entropy of the system cannot be estimated using Cardy's formula. This is done by mapping a static black hole to a two dimensional plane. We explain how such a charge can only appear to a static observer who chooses to stay permanently outside the black hole. Then an alternative argument is given for the presence of a universal central charge. Finally we suggest an effective quantum theory on the horizon that is compatible with the thermodynamics behaviour of the black hole.

1. Coupled two-dimensional edge plasma and neutral gas modeling of tokamak scrape-off-layers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maingi, R. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1992-08-01

The objective of this study is to devise a detailed description of the tokamak scrape-off-layer (SOL), which includes the best available models of both the plasma and neutral species and the strong coupling between the two in many SOL regimes. A good estimate of both particle flux and heat flux profiles at the limiter/divertor target plates is desired. Peak heat flux is one of the limiting factors in determining the survival probability of plasma-facing-components at high power levels. Plate particle flux affects the neutral flux to the pump, which determines the particle exhaust rate. A technique which couples a two-dimensional (2-D) plasma and a 2-D neutral transport code has been developed (coupled code technique), but this procedure requires large amounts of computer time. Relevant physics has been added to an existing two-neutral-species model which takes the SOL plasma/neutral coupling into account in a simple manner (molecular physics model), and this model is compared with the coupled code technique mentioned above. The molecular physics model is benchmarked against experimental data from a divertor tokamak (DIII-D), and a similar model (single-species model) is benchmarked against data from a pump-limiter tokamak (Tore Supra). The models are then used to examine two key issues: free-streaming-limits (ion energy conduction and momentum flux) and the effects of the non-orthogonal geometry of magnetic flux surfaces and target plates on edge plasma parameter profiles.

2. Epitaxial Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Growth Mechanism, Controllability, and Scalability

KAUST Repository

Li, Henan

2017-07-06

Recently there have been many research breakthroughs in two-dimensional (2D) materials including graphene, boron nitride (h-BN), black phosphors (BPs), and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The unique electrical, optical, and thermal properties in 2D materials are associated with their strictly defined low dimensionalities. These materials provide a wide range of basic building blocks for next-generation electronics. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique has shown great promise to generate high-quality TMDC layers with scalable size, controllable thickness, and excellent electronic properties suitable for both technological applications and fundamental sciences. The capability to precisely engineer 2D materials by chemical approaches has also given rise to fascinating new physics, which could lead to exciting new applications. In this Review, we introduce the latest development of TMDC synthesis by CVD approaches and provide further insight for the controllable and reliable synthesis of atomically thin TMDCs. Understanding of the vapor-phase growth mechanism of 2D TMDCs could benefit the formation of complicated heterostructures and novel artificial 2D lattices.

3. Direct-referencing Two-dimensional-array Digital Microfluidics Using Multi-layer Printed Circuit Board

Science.gov (United States)

Gong, Jian; Kim, Chang-Jin “CJ”

2008-01-01

Digital (i.e. droplet-based) microfluidics, by the electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD) mechanism, has shown great potential for a wide range of applications, such as lab-on-a-chip. While most reported EWOD chips use a series of electrode pads essentially in one-dimensional line pattern designed for specific tasks, the desired universal chips allowing user-reconfigurable paths would require the electrode pads in two-dimensional pattern. However, to electrically access the electrode pads independently, conductive lines need to be fabricated underneath the pads in multiple layers, raising a cost issue especially for disposable chip applications. In this article, we report the building of digital microfluidic plates based on a printed-circuit-board (PCB), in which multilayer electrical access lines were created inexpensively using mature PCB technology. However, due to its surface topography and roughness and resulting high resistance against droplet movement, as-fabricated PCB surfaces require unacceptably high (~500 V) voltages unless coated with or immersed in oil. Our goal is EWOD operations of aqueous droplets not only on oil-covered but also on dry surfaces. To meet varying levels of performances, three types of gradually complex post-PCB microfabrication processes are developed and evaluated. By introducing land-grid-array (LGA) sockets in the packaging, a scalable digital microfluidics system with reconfigurable and low-cost chip is also demonstrated. PMID:19234613

4. Two-dimensional point spread matrix of layered metal-dielectric imaging elements

CERN Document Server

Kotynski, Rafal; Krol, Karol; Panajotov, Krassimir

2010-01-01

We describe the change of the spatial distribution of the state of polarisation occurring during two-dimensional imaging through a multilayer and in particular through a layered metallic flat lens. Linear or circular polarisation of incident light is not preserved due to the difference in the amplitude transfer functions for the TM and TE polarisations. In effect, the transfer function and the point spread function that characterize 2D imaging through a multilayer both have a matrix form and cross-polarisation coupling is observed for spatially modulated beams with a linear or circular incident polarisation. The point spread function in a matrix form is used to characterise the resolution of the superlens for different polarisation states. We demonstrate how the 2D PSF may be used to design a simple diffractive nanoelement consisting of two radial slits. The structure assures the separation of non-diffracting radial beams originating from two slits in the mask and exhibits an interesting property of a backwar...

5. Multiple paths to subharmonic laminar breakdown in a boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Zang, Thomas A.; Hussaini, M. Yousuff

1990-01-01

Numerical simulations demonstrate that laminar breakdown in a boundary layer induced by the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves to three-dimensional subharmonic disturbancews need not take the conventional lambda vortex/high-shear layer path.

6. Movement dependence and layer specificity of entorhinal phase precession in two-dimensional environments.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eric Reifenstein

Full Text Available As a rat moves, grid cells in its entorhinal cortex (EC discharge at multiple locations of the external world, and the firing fields of each grid cell span a hexagonal lattice. For movements on linear tracks, spikes tend to occur at successively earlier phases of the theta-band filtered local field potential during the traversal of a firing field - a phenomenon termed phase precession. The complex movement patterns observed in two-dimensional (2D open-field environments may fundamentally alter phase precession. To study this question at the behaviorally relevant single-run level, we analyzed EC spike patterns as a function of the distance traveled by the rat along each trajectory. This analysis revealed that cells across all EC layers fire spikes that phase-precess; indeed, the rate and extent of phase precession were the same, only the correlation between spike phase and path length was weaker in EC layer III. Both slope and correlation of phase precession were surprisingly similar on linear tracks and in 2D open-field environments despite strong differences in the movement statistics, including running speed. While the phase-precession slope did not correlate with the average running speed, it did depend on specific properties of the animal's path. The longer a curving path through a grid-field in a 2D environment, the shallower was the rate of phase precession, while runs that grazed a grid field tangentially led to a steeper phase-precession slope than runs through the field center. Oscillatory interference models for grid cells do not reproduce the observed phenomena.

7. Theory of substrate-directed heat dissipation for single-layer graphene and other two-dimensional crystals

Science.gov (United States)

Ong, Zhun-Yong; Cai, Yongqing; Zhang, Gang

2016-10-01

We present a theory of the phononic thermal (Kapitza) resistance at the interface between graphene or another single-layer two-dimensional (2D) crystal (e.g., MoS2) and a flat substrate, based on a modified version of the cross-plane heat transfer model by Persson, Volokitin, and Ueba [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 045009 (2011), 10.1088/0953-8984/23/4/045009]. We show how intrinsic flexural phonon damping is necessary for obtaining a finite Kapitza resistance and also generalize the theory to encased single-layer 2D crystals with a superstrate. We illustrate our model by computing the thermal boundary conductance (TBC) for bare and SiO2-encased single-layer graphene and MoS2 on a SiO2 substrate, using input parameters from first-principles calculation. The estimated room temperatures TBC for bare (encased) graphene and MoS2 on SiO2 are 34.6 (105) and 3.10 (5.07) MWK -1m-2 , respectively. The theory predicts the existence of a phonon frequency crossover point, below which the low-frequency flexural phonons in the bare 2D crystal do not dissipate energy efficiently to the substrate. We explain within the framework of our theory how the encasement of graphene with a top SiO2 layer introduces new low-frequency transmission channels, which significantly reduce the graphene-substrate Kapitza resistance. We emphasize that the distinction between bare and encased 2D crystals must be made in the analysis of cross-plane heat dissipation to the substrate.

8. Initial and Boundary Value Problems for Two-Dimensional Non-hydrostatic Boussinesq Equations

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

沈春; 孙梅娜

2005-01-01

Based on the theory of stratification, the weU-posedness of the initial and boundary value problems for the system of twodimensional non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equations was discussed. The sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence and uniqueness for the solution of the equations were given for some representative initial and boundary value problems. Several special cases were discussed.

9. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

CERN Document Server

Cebeci, Tuncer

1974-01-01

Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

10. The Plasmasphere Boundary Layer

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. L. Carpenter

2004-12-01

Full Text Available As an inner magnetospheric phenomenon the plasmapause region is of interest for a number of reasons, one being the occurrence there of geophysically important interactions between the plasmas of the hot plasma sheet and of the cool plasmasphere. There is a need for a conceptual framework within which to examine and discuss these interactions and their consequences, and we therefore suggest that the plasmapause region be called the Plasmasphere Boundary Layer, or PBL. Such a term has been slow to emerge because of the complexity and variability of the plasma populations that can exist near the plasmapause and because of the variety of criteria used to identify the plasmapause in experimental data. Furthermore, and quite importantly in our view, a substantial obstacle to the consideration of the plasmapause region as a boundary layer has been the longstanding tendency of textbooks on space physics to limit introductory material on the plasmapause phenomenon to zeroth order descriptions in terms of ideal MHD theory, thus implying that the plasmasphere is relatively well understood. A textbook may introduce the concept of shielding of the inner magnetosphere from perturbing convection electric fields, but attention is not usually paid to the variety of physical processes reported to occur in the PBL, such as heating, instabilities, and fast longitudinal flows, processes which must play roles in plasmasphere dynamics in concert with the flow regimes associated with the major dynamo sources of electric fields. We believe that through the use of the PBL concept in future textbook discussions of the plasmasphere and in scientific communications, much progress can be made on longstanding questions about the physics involved in the formation of the plasmapause and in the cycles of erosion and recovery of the plasmasphere.

Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasmasphere; plasma convection; MHD waves and instabilities

11. Unified approach to split absorbing boundary conditions for nonlinear Schrödinger equations: Two-dimensional case.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Jiwei; Xu, Zhenli; Wu, Xiaonan

2009-04-01

This paper aims to design local absorbing boundary conditions (LABCs) for the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equations on a rectangle by extending the unified approach. Based on the time-splitting idea, the main process of the unified approach is to approximate the kinetic energy part by a one-way equation, unite it with the potential energy equation, and then obtain the well-posed and accurate LABCs on the artificial boundaries. In the corners, we use the (1,1)-Padé approximation to the kinetic term and also unite it with the nonlinear term to give some local corner boundary conditions. Numerical tests are given to verify the stable and tractable advantages of the method.

12. A Global Solution to a Two-dimensional Riemann Problem Involving Shocks as Free Boundaries

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Yuxi Zheng

2003-01-01

We present a global solution to a Riemann problem for the pressure gradient system of equations.The Riemann problem has initially two shock waves and two contact discontinuities. The angle between the two shock waves is set initially to be close to 180 degrees. The solution has a shock wave that is usually regarded as a free boundary in the self-similar variable plane. Our main contribution in methodology is handling the tangential oblique derivative boundary values.

13. Stabilized lithium-ion battery anode performance by calcium-bridging of two dimensional siloxene layers.

Science.gov (United States)

Imagawa, Haruo; Itahara, Hiroshi

2017-03-14

A Ca-bridged siloxene (Ca-siloxene) composed of two-dimensional siloxene planes with Ca bridging was synthesized via a solid state metathesis reaction using TaCl5 to extract Ca from CaSi2. Three different Ca-siloxenes synthesized at Cl2/Ca molar ratios of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 (CS0.25, CS1.25 and CS2.5, respectively) were fabricated and investigated as anode active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both secondary and primary Ca-siloxene particles, which serve to increase the contact interfaces with conductive materials and to generate accessible sites for lithium ions, respectively, were found to become smaller and to have increased pore volumes as the Cl2/Ca molar ratio was increased. These Ca-siloxenes exhibited stable charge/discharge performance as anode materials, with 69-99% capacity retention after 50 charge/discharge cycles (compared with 36% retention for a conventional Kautsky-type siloxene). The charge capacity also increased with increases in the Cl2/Ca molar ratio, such that the CS2.5 showed the highest capacity after 50 charge/discharge cycles. This may reflect the formation of Si6Li6 rather than SiLi4.4 and suggests the maintenance of layered Si planes for large capacity retention after charge/discharge cycling. The increase of contact interfaces between acetylene black (as a conductive material) and Ca-siloxenes was found to effectively increase the lithium-ion capacity of Ca-siloxene during high rate charge/discharge cycling.

14. Exciton Migration and Amplified Quenching on Two-Dimensional Metal–Organic Layers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Shi, Wenjie; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Cankun; Hu, Xuefu; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin

2017-05-10

The dimensionality dependency of resonance energy transfer is of great interest due to its importance in understanding energy transfer on cell membranes and in low-dimension nanostructures. Light harvesting two-dimensional metal–organic layers (2D-MOLs) and three-dimensional metal–organic frameworks (3D-MOFs) provide comparative models to study such dimensionality dependence with molecular accuracy. Here we report the construction of 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs from a donor ligand 4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE) and a doped acceptor ligand 3,3',3''-nitro-4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE-NO2). These 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs are connected by similar hafnium clusters, with key differences in the topology and dimensionality of the metal–ligand connection. Energy transfer from donors to acceptors through the 2D-MOL or 3D-MOF skeletons is revealed by measuring and modeling the fluorescence quenching of the donors. We found that energy transfer in 3D-MOFs is more efficient than that in 2D-MOLs, but excitons on 2D-MOLs are more accessible to external quenchers as compared with those in 3D-MOFs. These results not only provide support to theoretical analysis of energy transfer in low dimensions, but also present opportunities to use efficient exciton migration in 2D materials for light-harvesting and fluorescence sensing.

15. Two-Dimensional Analytical Solution of the Laminar Forced Convection in a Circular Duct with Periodic Boundary Condition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

M. R. Astaraki

2012-01-01

Full Text Available In the present study analytical solution for forced convection heat transfer in a circular duct with a special boundary condition has been presented, because the external wall temperature is a periodic function of axial direction. Local energy balance equation is written with reference to the fully developed regime. Also governing equations are two-dimensionally solved, and the effect of duct wall thickness has been considered. The temperature distribution of fluid and solid phases is assumed as a periodic function of axial direction and finally temperature distribution in the flow field, solid wall, and local Nusselt number, is obtained analytically.

16. Boundary-Layer & health

Science.gov (United States)

Costigliola, V.

2010-09-01

It has long been known that specific atmospheric processes, such as weather and longer-term climatic fluctuations, affect human health. The biometeorological literature refers to this relationship as meteorotropism, defined as a change in an organism that is correlated with a change in atmospheric conditions. Plenty of (patho)physiological functions are affected by those conditions - like the respiratory diseases - and currently it is difficult to put any limits for pathologies developed in reply. Nowadays the importance of atmospheric boundary layer and health is increasingly recognised. A number of epidemiologic studies have reported associations between ambient concentrations of air pollution, specifically particulate pollution, and adverse health effects, even at the relatively low concentrations of pollution found. Since 1995 there have been over twenty-one studies from four continents that have explicitly examined the association between ambient air pollutant mixes and daily mortality. Statistically significant and positive associations have been reported in data from various locations around the world, all with varying air pollutant concentrations, weather conditions, population characteristics and public health policies. Particular role has been given to atmospheric boundary layer processes, the impact of which for specific patient-cohort is, however, not well understood till now. Assessing and monitoring air quality are thus fundamental to improve Europe's welfare. One of current projects run by the "European Medical Association" - PASODOBLE will develop and demonstrate user-driven downstream information services for the regional and local air quality sectors by combining space-based and in-situ data with models in 4 thematic service lines: - Health community support for hospitals, pharmacies, doctors and people at risk - Public information for regions, cities, tourist industry and sporting event organizers - Compliance monitoring support on particulate

17. Simple vibration modeling of structural fuzzy with continuous boundary by including two-dimensional spatial memory

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Friis, Lars; Ohlrich, Mogens

2008-01-01

-dimensional continuous boundary. Additionally, a simple method for determining the so-called equivalent coupling factor is presented. The validity of this method is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the vibration response of a master plate structure with fuzzy attachments. It is revealed that the method performs...

18. A new method of boundary parameter estimation for a two-dimensional diffusion system under noisy observations

Science.gov (United States)

Sunahara, Y.; Kojima, F.

1987-01-01

The purpose of this paper is to establish a method for identifying unknown parameters involved in the boundary state of a class of diffusion systems under noisy observations. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is given by a two-dimensional diffusion equation. Noisy observations are made by sensors allocated on the system boundary. Starting with the mathematical model mentioned above, an online parameter estimation algorithm is proposed within the framework of the maximum likelihood estimation. Existence of the optimal solution and related necessary conditions are discussed. By solving a local variation of the cost functional with respect to the perturbation of parameters, the estimation mechanism is proposed in a form of recursive computations. Finally, the feasibility of the estimator proposed here is demonstrated through results of digital simulation experiments.

19. Excitation of instability waves in a two-dimensional shear layer by sound

Science.gov (United States)

Tam, C. K. W.

1978-01-01

The excitation of instability waves in a plane compressible shear layer by sound waves is studied. The problem is formulated mathematically as an inhomogeneous boundary-value problem. A general solution for abitrary incident sound wave is found by first constructing the Green's function of the problem. Numerical values of the coupling constants between incident sound waves and excited instability waves for a range of flow Mach number are calculated. The effect of the angle of incidence in the case of a beam of acoustic waves is analyzed. It is found that for moderate subsonic Mach numbers a narrow beam aiming at an angle between 50 to 80 deg to the flow direction is most effective in exciting instability waves.

20. AN IMPROVED HYBRID BOUNDARY NODE METHOD IN TWO-DIMENSIONAL SOLIDS

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Miao Yu; Wang Yuanhan; Jiang Heyang

2005-01-01

The hybrid boundary node method (HBNM) is a promising method for solving boundary value problems with the hybrid displacement variational formulation and shape functions from the moving least squares(MLS) approximation. The main idea is to reduce the dimensionality of the former and keep the meshless advantage of the latter. Following its application in solving potential problems, it is further developed and numerically implemented for 2D solids in this paper. The rigid movement method is employed to solve the hyper-singular integrations. Numerical examples for some 2D solids have been given to show the characteristics. The computation results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the analytical solution.The parameters that influence the performance of this method are studied through numerical examples.

1. How two-dimensional brick layer J-aggregates differ from linear ones: excitonic properties and line broadening mechanisms

CERN Document Server

Dijkstra, Arend G; Knoester, Jasper; Nelson, Keith A; Cao, Jianshu

2016-01-01

We study the excitonic coupling and homogeneous spectral line width of brick layer J-aggregate films. We begin by analysing the structural information revealed by the two-exciton states probed in two-dimensional spectra. Our first main result is that the relation between the excitonic couplings and the spectral shift in a two-dimensional structure is different (larger shift for the same nearest neighbour coupling) from that in a one-dimensional structure, which leads to an estimation of dipolar coupling in two-dimensional lattices. We next investigate the mechanisms of homogeneous broadening - population relaxation and pure dephasing - and evaluate their relative importance in linear and two-dimensional aggregates. Our second main result is that pure dephasing dominates the line width in two-dimensional systems up to a crossover temperature, which explains the linear temperature dependence of the homogeneous line width. This is directly related to the decreased density of states at the band edge when compared...

2. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Parlangeli, Andrea

2000-01-01

In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

3. Split-step finite-difference time-domain method with perfectly matched layers for efficient analysis of two-dimensional photonic crystals with anisotropic media.

Science.gov (United States)

Singh, Gurpreet; Tan, Eng Leong; Chen, Zhi Ning

2012-02-01

This Letter presents a split-step (SS) finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for the efficient analysis of two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals (PhCs) with anisotropic media. The proposed SS FDTD method is formulated with perfectly matched layer boundary conditions and caters for inhomogeneous anisotropic media. Furthermore, the proposed method is derived using the efficient SS1 splitting formulas with simpler right-hand sides that are more efficient and easier to implement. A 2-D PhC cavity with anisotropic media is used as an example to validate the efficiency of the proposed method.

4. Hurricane Boundary-Layer Theory

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

2501. Kundu PK. 1990. Fluid Mechanics . Academic Press: San Diego, USA. Kuo HL. 1982. Vortex boundary layer under quadratic surface stress. Boundary...identification of two mechanisms for the spin-up of the mean tangential circulation of a hurricane. The first involves convergence of absolute angular...momentum above the boundary layer, where this quantity is approximately conserved. This mechanism acts to spin up the outer circulation at radii

5. Structure of turbulence in three-dimensional boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Subramanian, Chelakara S.

1993-01-01

This report provides an overview of the three dimensional turbulent boundary layer concepts and of the currently available experimental information for their turbulence modeling. It is found that more reliable turbulence data, especially of the Reynolds stress transport terms, is needed to improve the existing modeling capabilities. An experiment is proposed to study the three dimensional boundary layer formed by a 'sink flow' in a fully developed two dimensional turbulent boundary layer. Also, the mean and turbulence field measurement procedure using a three component laser Doppler velocimeter is described.

6. Hidden phase in a two-dimensional Sn layer stabilized by modulation hole doping

Science.gov (United States)

Ming, Fangfei; Mulugeta, Daniel; Tu, Weisong; Smith, Tyler S.; Vilmercati, Paolo; Lee, Geunseop; Huang, Ying-Tzu; Diehl, Renee D.; Snijders, Paul C.; Weitering, Hanno H.

2017-03-01

Semiconductor surfaces and ultrathin interfaces exhibit an interesting variety of two-dimensional quantum matter phases, such as charge density waves, spin density waves and superconducting condensates. Yet, the electronic properties of these broken symmetry phases are extremely difficult to control due to the inherent difficulty of doping a strictly two-dimensional material without introducing chemical disorder. Here we successfully exploit a modulation doping scheme to uncover, in conjunction with a scanning tunnelling microscope tip-assist, a hidden equilibrium phase in a hole-doped bilayer of Sn on Si(111). This new phase is intrinsically phase separated into insulating domains with polar and nonpolar symmetries. Its formation involves a spontaneous symmetry breaking process that appears to be electronically driven, notwithstanding the lack of metallicity in this system. This modulation doping approach allows access to novel phases of matter, promising new avenues for exploring competing quantum matter phases on a silicon platform.

7. On t-local solvability of inverse scattering problems in two-dimensional layered media

Science.gov (United States)

Baev, A. V.

2015-06-01

The solvability of two-dimensional inverse scattering problems for the Klein-Gordon equation and the Dirac system in a time-local formulation is analyzed in the framework of the Galerkin method. A necessary and sufficient condition for the unique solvability of these problems is obtained in the form of an energy conservation law. It is shown that the inverse problems are solvable only in the class of potentials for which the stationary Navier-Stokes equation is solvable.

8. Boundary layers in stochastic thermodynamics.

Science.gov (United States)

Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

2012-02-01

We study the problem of optimizing released heat or dissipated work in stochastic thermodynamics. In the overdamped limit these functionals have singular solutions, previously interpreted as protocol jumps. We show that a regularization, penalizing a properly defined acceleration, changes the jumps into boundary layers of finite width. We show that in the limit of vanishing boundary layer width no heat is dissipated in the boundary layer, while work can be done. We further give an alternative interpretation of the fact that the optimal protocols in the overdamped limit are given by optimal deterministic transport (Burgers equation).

9. Boundary crisis and suppression of Fermi acceleration in a dissipative two-dimensional non-integrable time-dependent billiard

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Oliveira, Diego F.M., E-mail: diegofregolente@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515 Bela Vista, CEP, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Leonel, Edson D., E-mail: edleonel@rc.unesp.b [Departamento de Estatistica, Matematica Aplicada e Computacao, Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24A, 1515 Bela Vista, CEP, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP (Brazil)

2010-07-05

Some dynamical properties for a dissipative time-dependent oval-shaped billiard are studied. The system is described in terms of a four-dimensional nonlinear mapping. Dissipation is introduced via inelastic collisions of the particle with the boundary, thus implying that the particle has a fractional loss of energy upon collision. The dissipation causes profound modifications in the dynamics of the particle as well as in the phase space of the non-dissipative system. In particular, inelastic collisions can be assumed as an efficient mechanism to suppress Fermi acceleration of the particle. The dissipation also creates attractors in the system, including chaotic. We show that a slightly modification of the intensity of the damping coefficient yields a drastic and sudden destruction of the chaotic attractor, thus leading the system to experience a boundary crisis. We have characterized such a boundary crisis via a collision of the chaotic attractor with its own basin of attraction and confirmed that inelastic collisions do indeed suppress Fermi acceleration in two-dimensional time-dependent billiards.

10. Inversion of two-dimensional tidal open boundary conditions of M2 constituent in the Bohai and Yellow Seas

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

CAO Anzhou; GUO Zheng; L(U) Xianqing

2012-01-01

Two-dimensional tidal open boundary conditions of the M2 constituent in the Bohai and Yellow Seas(BYS)have been estimated by assimilating T/P altimeter data.During inversion,independent point (IP)strategy was used,in which several IPs on the open boundary is assumed,values at these IPs can be optimized with an adjoint method,and those at other grid points are determined by linearly interpolating the values at IPs.The reasonability and feasibility of the model are tested by ideal twin experiments.In the practical experiment(PE)after assimilation,the cost function may reach 1％ or less of its initial value.Mean absolute errors in amplitude and phase can be less than 5 cm and 5°,respectively,and the obtained co-chart can show the character of the M2 constituent in the BYS.The results of the PE indicate that using only two IPs on the open boundary can yield better simulated results.

11. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

Science.gov (United States)

Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

2017-03-07

Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)}4C6](BF4)2·2(CH3OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)}4C6](PF6)2·2(CH3OH) (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6(2-) = C6H12(COO)2(2-)), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H2O)]X (X(-) = BF4(-) and PF6(-)) and C6H12(CO2(-))2 (C6(2-)) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ(4)-type C6(2-) ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C6H12 linkers of C6(2-) moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF4(-) and PF6(-), respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF4(-) is smaller than that of PF6(-), intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn(III) out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion, the [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of TN = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

12. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 1. Oscillatory motion

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Carstensen, Stefan; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

2010-01-01

This work concerns oscillatory boundary layers over smooth beds. It comprises combined visual and quantitative techniques including bed shear stress measurements. The experiments were carried out in an oscillating water tunnel. The experiments reveal two significant coherent flow structures: (i......) Vortex tubes, essentially two-dimensional vortices close to the bed extending across the width of the boundary-layer flow, caused by an inflectional-point shear layer instability. The imprint of these vortices in the bed shear stress is a series of small, insignificant kinks and dips. (ii) Turbulent...

13. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

2015-07-01

A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

14. Evidence of molecular hydrogen trapped in two-dimensional layered titanium carbide-based MXene

Science.gov (United States)

Osti, Naresh C.; Naguib, Michael; Tyagi, Madhusudan; Gogotsi, Yury; Kolesnikov, Alexander I.; Mamontov, Eugene

2017-07-01

Two-dimensional transition metal carbides and nitrides (MXenes) are one of the largest and fastest growing families of materials. The presence of molecular hydrogen at ambient conditions in a MXene (T i3C2Tx , where Tx represents a surface terminating species, including O, OH, and F) material is revealed here by inelastic and elastic neutron scatterings. The inelastic neutron-scattering spectrum measured at 5 K shows a peak at 14.6 meV, presenting a clear indication of the presence of parahydrogen in the MXene synthesized using 48 % hydrofluoric acid and annealed at 110 ∘C in vacuum prior to the measurement. An increase in the measurement temperature gradually reduces the peak intensity and increases the peak width due to the mobility of the molecular hydrogen in confinement. The presence of molecular hydrogen is confirmed further from the observed elastic intensity drop in a fixed energy-window scan of elastic intensity measurements in the temperature range of 10-35 K. Using milder etching conditions, ion intercalation, or an increase in the annealing temperature all result in the absence of the trapped hydrogen molecules in MXene. The results of this paper can guide the development of MXene materials with desired properties and improve our understanding of the behavior of MXenes in applications ranging from supercapacitors to hydrogen evolution reaction catalysis and hydrogen storage.

15. Two-Dimensional Atomic-Layered Alloy Junctions for High-Performance Wearable Chemical Sensor.

Science.gov (United States)

Cho, Byungjin; Kim, Ah Ra; Kim, Dong Jae; Chung, Hee-Suk; Choi, Sun Young; Kwon, Jung-Dae; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Yonghun; Lee, Byoung Hun; Lee, Kyu Hwan; Kim, Dong-Ho; Nam, Jaewook; Hahm, Myung Gwan

2016-08-03

We first report that two-dimensional (2D) metal (NbSe2)-semiconductor (WSe2)-based flexible, wearable, and launderable gas sensors can be prepared through simple one-step chemical vapor deposition of prepatterned WO3 and Nb2O5. Compared to a control device with a Au/WSe2 junction, gas-sensing performance of the 2D NbSe2/WSe2 device was significantly enhanced, which might have resulted from the formation of a NbxW1-xSe2 transition alloy junction lowering the Schottky barrier height. This would make it easier to collect charges of channels induced by molecule adsorption, improving gas response characteristics toward chemical species including NO2 and NH3. 2D NbSe2/WSe2 devices on a flexible substrate provide gas-sensing properties with excellent durability under harsh bending. Furthermore, the device stitched on a T-shirt still performed well even after conventional cleaning with a laundry machine, enabling wearable and launderable chemical sensors. These results could pave a road toward futuristic gas-sensing platforms based on only 2D materials.

16. Crystalline-crystalline phase transformation in two-dimensional In2Se3 thin layers.

Science.gov (United States)

Tao, Xin; Gu, Yi

2013-08-14

We report, for the first time, the fabrication of single-crystal In2Se3 thin layers using mechanical exfoliation and studies of crystalline-crystalline (α → β) phase transformations as well as the corresponding changes of the electrical properties in these thin layers. Particularly, using electron microscopy and correlative in situ micro-Raman and electrical measurements, we show that, in contrast to bulk single crystals, the β phase can persist in single-crystal thin layers at room temperature (RT). The single-crystal nature of the layers before and after the phase transition allows for unambiguous determination of changes in the electrical resistivity. Specifically, the β phase has an electrical resistivity about 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the α phase. Furthermore, we find that the temperature of the α → β phase transformation increases by as much as 130 K with the layer thickness decreasing from ~87 nm to ~4 nm. These single-crystal thin layers are ideal for studying the scaling behavior of the phase transformations and associated changes of the electrical properties. For these In2Se3 thin layers, the accessibility of the β phase at RT, with distinct electrical properties than the α phase, provides the basis for multilevel phase-change memories in a single material system.

17. Boundary layer control for airships

Science.gov (United States)

Pake, F. A.; Pipitone, S. J.

1975-01-01

An investigation is summarized of the aerodynamic principle of boundary layer control for nonrigid LTA craft. The project included a wind tunnel test on a BLC body of revolution at zero angle of attack. Theoretical analysis is shown to be in excellent agreement with the test data. Methods are evolved for predicting the boundary layer development on a body of revolution and the suction pumping and propulsive power requirements. These methods are used to predict the performance characteristics of a full-scale airship. The analysis indicates that propulsive power reductions of 15 to 25 percent and endurance improvements of 20 to 40 percent may be realized in employing boundary-layer control to nonrigid airships.

18. The aqueous thermal boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Katsaros, Kristina B.

1980-02-01

This article reviews the available data, measurement techniques, and present understanding of the millimeter thick aqueous thermal boundary layer. A temperature difference between the surface and lower strata, δT, of the order of a few tenths to -1 °C have been observed. Techniques ranging from miniature mercury thermometers and electrical point sensors to optical interferometry and infrared radiometry have been employed. Many processes influence the temperature structure in this thin boundary layer. Among them are: the net upward heat flux due to evaporation and sensible heat transfer; infrared and solar radiation; and the turbulence near the interface due to wind mixing, wave breaking and current shear. Presence of solute and surface-active materials stimulate or dampen these mixing processes thereby influencing boundary-layer thickness and temperature structure.

19. Asymptotic analysis and boundary layers

CERN Document Server

Cousteix, Jean

2007-01-01

This book presents a new method of asymptotic analysis of boundary-layer problems, the Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM). The first part is devoted to a general comprehensive presentation of the tools of asymptotic analysis. It gives the keys to understand a boundary-layer problem and explains the methods to construct an approximation. The second part is devoted to SCEM and its applications in fluid mechanics, including external and internal flows. The advantages of SCEM are discussed in comparison with the standard Method of Matched Asymptotic Expansions. In particular, for the first time, the theory of Interactive Boundary Layer is fully justified. With its chapter summaries, detailed derivations of results, discussed examples and fully worked out problems and solutions, the book is self-contained. It is written on a mathematical level accessible to graduate and post-graduate students of engineering and physics with a good knowledge in fluid mechanics. Researchers and practitioners will estee...

20. Normal range of myocardial layer-specific strain using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Victor Chien-Chia; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki

2017-01-01

Background Newer 2D strain software has a potential to assess layer-specific strain. However, normal reference values for layer-specific strain have not been established. We aimed to establish the normal ranges of layer-specific longitudinal and circumferential strain (endocardial global longitudinal strain (GLS), transmural GLS, epicardial GLS, endocardial global circumferential strain (GCS), transmural GCS, and epicardial GCS). Methods and results We retrospectively analyzed longitudinal and circumferential strain parameters in 235 healthy subjects, with use of layer-specific 2D speckle tracking software (GE). The endocardial strain/epicardial strain (Endo/Epi) ratio was also measured to assess the strain gradient across the myocardium. The endocardial, transmural, and epicardial GLS values and the Endo/Epi ratio in the normal subjects were -23.1±2.3, -20.0±2.0, -17.6±1.9, and 1.31±0.07, respectively. The corresponding values of GCS were -28.5±3.0, -20.8±2.3, -15.3±2.0, and 1.88±0.17, respectively. The layer-specific global strain parameters exhibited no age dependency but did exhibit gender dependency except for endocardial GCS. A subgroup analysis revealed that basal and middle levels of endocardial LS was decreased in the middle and elderly aged group. However, apical endocardial LS was preserved even in the elderly subjects. Conclusions We proposed normal reference values for layer-specific strain based on both age and gender. This detailed strain analysis provides layer-oriented information with the potential to characterize abnormal findings in various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28662186

1. Nonparallel stability of boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, Ali H.

1987-01-01

The asymptotic formulations of the nonparallel linear stability of incompressible growing boundary layers are critically reviewed. These formulations can be divided into two approaches. The first approach combines a numerical method with either the method of multiple scales, or the method of averaging, of the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation; all these methods yield the same result. The second approach combined a multi-structure theory with the method of multiple scales. The first approach yields results that are in excellent agreement with all available experimental data, including the growth rates as well as the neutral stability curve. The derivation of the linear stability of the incompressible growing boundary layers is explained.

2. Critical properties of XY model on two-dimensional layered magnetic films

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Wang Yi; Liu Xiao-Yan; Sun Lei; Zhang Xing; Han Ru-Qi

2006-01-01

Using Monte Carlo simulations, we have investigated the classical XY model on triangular lattices of ultra-thin film structures with middle ferromagnetic layers sandwiched between two antiferromagnetic layers. The internal energy,the specific heat, the chirality and the chiral susceptibility are calculated in order to clarify phase transitions and critical phenomena. From the finite-size scaling analyses, the values of critical exponents are determined. In a range of interaction parameters, we find that the chirality steeply goes up as temperature increases in a temperature range;correspondingly the value of a critical exponent for this change is estimated.

3. Two-dimensional linear variation displacement discontinuity method for three-layered elastic media

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Shou, KJ

1999-09-01

Full Text Available bonded half-planes. A three-layered elastic region is obtained by superposing two sets of bonded half-planes and subtracting one infinite plane. The advantages of this approach are: (1) it is not necessary to introduce elements at the interface, (2...

4. A two-dimensional particle simulation of the magnetopause current layer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Berchem, J.; Okuda, H.

1988-11-01

We have developed a 2/1/2/-D (x, y, v/sub x/, v/sub y/, v/sub z/) electromagnetic code to study the formation and the stability of the magnetopause current layer. This code computes the trajectories of ion and electron particles in their self-consistently generated electromagnetic field and an externally imposed 2-D vacuum dipolar magnetic field. The results presented here are obtained for the simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction in the subsolar region of the equatorial plane. We observe the self-consistent establishment of a current layer resulting from both diamagnetic drift and E /times/ B drift due to the charge separation. The simulation results show that during the establishment of the current layer, its thickness is of the order of the hybrid gyroradius /rho//sub H/ = ..sqrt../rho//sub i//rho//sub e/ predicted by the Ferraro-Rosenbluth model. However, diagnostics indicate that the current sheet is subject to an instability which broadens the width of the current layer. Ripples with amplitudes of the order of the ion gyroradius appear at the interface between the field and the particles. These pertubations are observed both on the electrostatic field and on the compressional component of the magnetic field. This instability has a frequency of the order of the local ion cyclotron frequency. However, the modulation propagates in the same direction as the electron diamagnetic drift which indicates that the instability is not a classical gradient-driven instability, such as the lower hybrid or ion drift cyclotron instabilities. The nonlinear phase of the instability is characterized by the filamentation of the current layer which causes anomalous diffusion inside the central current sheet. 79 refs., 7 figs.

5. A novel two-dimensional MgB6 crystal: metal-layer stabilized boron kagome lattice.

Science.gov (United States)

Xie, Sheng-Yi; Li, Xian-Bin; Tian, Wei Quan; Chen, Nian-Ke; Wang, Yeliang; Zhang, Shengbai; Sun, Hong-Bo

2015-01-14

Based on first-principles calculations, we designed for the first time a boron-kagome-based two-dimensional MgB6 crystal, in which two boron kagome layers sandwich a triangular magnesium layer. The two-dimensional lattice is metallic with several bands across the Fermi level, and among them a Dirac point appears at the K point of the first Brillouin zone. This metal-stabilized boron kagome system displays electron-phonon coupling, with a superconductivity critical transition temperature of 4.7 K, and thus it is another possible superconducting Mg-B compound besides MgB2. Furthermore, the proposed 2D MgB6 can also be used for hydrogen storage after decoration with Ca. Up to five H2 molecules can be attracted by one Ca with an average binding energy of 0.225 eV. The unique properties of 2D MgB6 will spur broad interest in nanoscience and technology.

6. Emerging Energy Applications of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

KAUST Repository

Li, Henan

2015-10-31

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have attracted significant attention for their great potential in nano energy. TMDC layered materials represent a diverse and largely untapped source of 2D systems. High-quality TMDC layers with an appropriate size, variable thickness, superior electronic and optical properties can be produced by the exfoliation or vapour phase deposition method. Semiconducting TMDC monolayers have been demonstrated feasible for various energy related applications, where their electronic properties and uniquely high surface areas offer opportunities for various applications such as nano generators, green electronics, electrocatalytic hydrogen generation and energy storage. In this review, we start from the structure, properties and preparation, followed by detailed discussions on the development of TMDC-based nano energy applications. Graphical abstract The structure characterizations and preparative methods of 2D TMDCs have obtained significant progresses. Their recent advances for nano energy generation, solar harvesting, conversion and storage, and green electronics are reviewed.

7. Dense Carbon Monoxide to 160 GPa: Stepwise Polymerization to Two-Dimensional Layered Solid

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ryu, Young-Jay; Kim, Minseob; Lim, Jinhyuk; Dias, Ranga; Klug, Dennis; Yoo, Choong-Shik

2016-11-14

Carbon monoxide (CO) is the first molecular system found to transform into a nonmolecular “polymeric” solid above 5.5 GPa, yet been studied beyond 10 GPa. Here, we show a series of pressure-induced phase transformations in CO to 160 GPa: from a molecular solid to a highly colored, low-density polymeric phase I to translucent, high-density phase II to transparent, layered phase III. The properties of these phases are consistent with those expected from recently predicted 1D P21/m, 3D I212121, and 2D Cmcm structures, respectively. Thus, the present results advocate a stepwise polymerization of CO triple bonds to ultimately a 2D singly bonded layer structure with an enhanced ionic character.

8. Bio-inspired two-dimensional nanofluidic generators based on a layered graphene hydrogel membrane.

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Wei; Cheng, Chi; Wu, Yanzhe; Jiang, Yanan; Gao, Jun; Li, Dan; Jiang, Lei

2013-11-13

An electrogenetic layered graphene hydrogel membrane (GHM) possesses ultra-large interlayer spacing of about 10 nm, forming charged 2D nanocapillaries between graphene sheets that selectively permeate counter-ions and exclude co-ions. When an electrolyte flow goes through the GHM, it functions as an integrated 2D nanofluidic generator converting hydraulic motion into electricity. The maximum streaming conductance density approaches 16.8 μA cm(-2) bar(-1) .

9. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

Science.gov (United States)

Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

2016-01-01

Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

10. Calculation of a boundary layer with phase transformations

Science.gov (United States)

Dorosh, N. D.; Kharitonov, A. A.

A method for the analysis of a laminar boundary layer with phase transformations is developed. It is noted that volume gas condensation can occur in the case of flow past a cooled surface, drops becoming aggregated in groups in the process of condensation. The concept of group density and concentration is proposed, and this approach is used to investigate a boundary layer near the stagnation point of a two-dimensional blunt body in a flow of molecular oxygen. Profiles of temperature, stream function, and concentration of liquid-oxygen droplet groups are determined for various values of the condensation rate.

11. Shockwave-boundary layer interactions

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Glepman, R.

2014-01-01

Shock wave-boundary layer interactions are a very common feature in both transonic and supersonic flows. They can be encountered on compressor and turbine blades, in supersonic jet inlets, on transonic wings, on the stabilization fins of missiles and in many more situations. Because of their major i

12. the Martian atmospheric boundary layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Petrosyan, A.; Galperin, B.; Larsen, Søren Ejling

2011-01-01

The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere that is strongly influenced by the presence of the underlying surface and mediates the key interactions between the atmosphere and the surface. On Mars, this represents the lowest 10 km of the atmosphere during the daytime...

13. Stability of Boundary Layer Flow.

Science.gov (United States)

1980-03-01

and Teske (1975). We can conclude (as in the case of ducting) that theoretical models of boundary layer structure and associated radar structure...FI33 (Secret). Hitney, (1978) "Surface Duct Effects," Naval Ocean Systems Center, San Diego, Calif., Report No. TD144. Lewellen, W. S., and M. E. Teske

14. Layer-dependent anisotropic electronic structure of freestanding quasi-two-dimensional Mo S 2

KAUST Repository

Hong, Jinhua

2016-02-29

The anisotropy of the electronic transition is a well-known characteristic of low-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides, but their layer-thickness dependence has not been properly investigated experimentally until now. Yet, it not only determines the optical properties of these low-dimensional materials, but also holds the key in revealing the underlying character of the electronic states involved. Here we used both angle-resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy and spectral analysis of angle-integrated spectra to study the evolution of the anisotropic electronic transition involving the low-energy valence electrons in the freestanding MoS2 layers with different thicknesses. We are able to demonstrate that the well-known direct gap at 1.8 eV is only excited by the in-plane polarized field while the out-of-plane polarized optical gap is 2.4 ± 0.2 eV in monolayer MoS2. This contrasts with the much smaller anisotropic response found for the indirect gap in the few-layer MoS2 systems. In addition, we determined that the joint density of states associated with the indirect gap transition in the multilayer systems and the corresponding indirect transition in the monolayer case has a characteristic three-dimensional-like character. We attribute this to the soft-edge behavior of the confining potential and it is an important factor when considering the dynamical screening of the electric field at the relevant excitation energies. Our result provides a logical explanation for the large sensitivity of the indirect transition to thickness variation compared with that for the direct transition, in terms of quantum confinement effect.

15. Two-dimensional modeling of thermal inversion layers in the middle atmosphere of Mars

Science.gov (United States)

Theodore, B.; Chassefiere, E.

1993-01-01

There is some evidence that the thermal structure of the martian middle atmosphere may be altered in a significant way by the general circulation motions. Indeed, while it is well known that the circulation in the meridional plane is responsible for the reversal of the latitudinal thermal gradient at the solstice through the adiabatic heating due to sinking motions above the winter pole, here we want to emphasize that a likely by-product effect could be the formation of warm layers, mainly located in the winter hemisphere, and exhibiting an inversion of the vertical thermal gradient.

16. Onset of two-dimensional superconductivity in space charge doped few-layer molybdenum disulfide.

Science.gov (United States)

Biscaras, Johan; Chen, Zhesheng; Paradisi, Andrea; Shukla, Abhay

2015-11-03

Atomically thin films of layered materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) are of growing interest for the study of phase transitions in two-dimensions through electrostatic doping. Electrostatic doping techniques giving access to high carrier densities are needed to achieve such phase transitions. Here we develop a method of electrostatic doping which allows us to reach a maximum n-doping density of 4 × 10(14) cm(-2) in few-layer MoS2 on glass substrates. With increasing carrier density we first induce an insulator to metal transition and subsequently an incomplete metal to superconductor transition in MoS2 with critical temperature ≈10 K. Contrary to earlier reports, after the onset of superconductivity, the superconducting transition temperature does not depend on the carrier density. Our doping method and the results we obtain in MoS2 for samples as thin as bilayers indicates the potential of this approach.

17. Cyclone with boundary layer displacement

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gorton-Huelgerth, A.; Hoffmann, D.; Staudinger, G. [Technische Universitaet Graz, Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Abt. fuer Apparatebau und Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik

1998-12-31

In a cyclone the boundary layers at the cover plate and outside of the vortex finder are considered to affect the separation efficiency of a cyclone. To improve separation efficiency, the boundary layers at and the space between vortex finder and cover plate were investigated. Two identical cyclones, 400 mm diameter and 990 mm long were manufactured with high precision from stainless steel. One was equipped with openings for insertion of velocity probes; the opening could be closed with glass windows to allow Laser Doppler Anemometry. The other cyclone was used for testing separation efficiency. Velocity measurements by both conventional pressure probes and Laser Doppler Anemometry revealed that only a minor part of the boundary layer at the outside of the vortex finder reaches the lower end of it, because the axial velocity is slowed down drastically. Light sheet visualization showed that there exists a heavily particle loaded boundary layer at the cover plate. There are no particles at the lower part of the vortex finder. This can be explained by the radial mass exchange. The effect of vortex finder length on separation efficiency was investigated by varying the length of the vortex finder and measuring the separation efficiency using a limestone powder as test material. It was found that the separation efficiency is not sensitive to the length of the vortex finder. Particle slip increases only where the vortex finder is definitely shorter than its diameter. It was tried to improve the separation efficiency by introducing an air curtain along the vortex finder. The positive effect on separation efficiency and particle cut size is minimal. Results from velocity measurements with cylinder pressure probes in the boundary layer do not fit the results from other measurement techniques. Many older measurements were made with these probes. The conclusions drawn and the design rules deduced are to be questioned. 17 refs., 21 figs., 2 tabs.

18. Layered double hydroxide nanosheet as a two-dimensional support of dense platinum nanoparticles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yu, Hyo Gyoung; Cho, Se Hee; Ji, Hong Geun [H and A PharmaChem, R and D center, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hyeon [Dept. of Chemistry, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

2017-02-15

Transition metal nanoparticles (NPs) with a narrow size distribution have been intensively synthesized on various solid supports for anti-agglomeration, and high catalytic activity and selectivity. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) are currently attracting intense interest in the field of heterogeneous catalysis as catalyst supports. In order to obtain a well-crystallized LDH nanosheet, the as-synthesize d carbonate form of LDH was hydrothermally treated according to a reported procedure, and further reacted by anion-exchange with an aqueous solution of NaNO{sub 3} and acetate buffer to give the nitrate form of LDH. Dense and uniform Pt NPs were synthesized on the exfoliated LDH nanosheets through precursor exchange and thermal reduction of the precursor ions. In this nanocomposite, the Pt Nps were uniformly grown on the surface of the LDH nano sheet and the average size of Pt Nps was 2nm.

19. Two-dimensional superconductivity in the cuprates revealed by atomic-layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy

Science.gov (United States)

Bollinger, A. T.; Božović, I.

2016-10-01

Various electronic phases displayed by cuprates that exhibit high temperature superconductivity continue to attract much interest. We provide a short review of several experiments that we have performed aimed at investigating the superconducting state in these compounds. Measurements on single-phase films, bilayers, and superlattices all point to the conclusion that the high-temperature superconductivity (HTS) in these materials is an essentially quasi-two dimensional phenomenon. With proper control over the film growth, HTS can exist in a single copper oxide plane with the critical temperatures as high as that achieved in the bulk samples.

20. Bandgap tunability at single-layer molybdenum disulphide grain boundaries

KAUST Repository

Huang, Yu Li

2015-02-17

Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have emerged as a new class of semiconductor materials with novel electronic and optical properties of interest to future nanoelectronics technology. Single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which represents a prototype two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide, has an electronic bandgap that increases with decreasing layer thickness. Using high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy, we measure the apparent quasiparticle energy gap to be 2.40±0.05 eV for single-layer, 2.10±0.05 eV for bilayer and 1.75±0.05 eV for trilayer molybdenum disulphide, which were directly grown on a graphite substrate by chemical vapour deposition method. More interestingly, we report an unexpected bandgap tunability (as large as 0.85±0.05 eV) with distance from the grain boundary in single-layer molybdenum disulphide, which also depends on the grain misorientation angle. This work opens up new possibilities for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgaps that utilize both the control of two-dimensional layer thickness and the grain boundary engineering.

1. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

2015-01-01

A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index.

2. Two-dimensional layered MoS₂ biosensors enable highly sensitive detection of biomolecules.

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Joonhyung; Dak, Piyush; Lee, Yeonsung; Park, Heekyeong; Choi, Woong; Alam, Muhammad A; Kim, Sunkook

2014-01-01

We present a MoS2 biosensor to electrically detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a highly sensitive and label-free manner. Unlike previous MoS2-FET-based biosensors, the device configuration of our biosensors does not require a dielectric layer such as HfO2 due to the hydrophobicity of MoS2. Such an oxide-free operation improves sensitivity and simplifies sensor design. For a quantitative and selective detection of PSA antigen, anti-PSA antibody was immobilized on the sensor surface. Then, introduction of PSA antigen, into the anti-PSA immobilized sensor surface resulted in a lable-free immunoassary format. Measured off-state current of the device showed a significant decrease as the applied PSA concentration was increased. The minimum detectable concentration of PSA is 1 pg/mL, which is several orders of magnitude below the clinical cut-off level of ~4 ng/mL. In addition, we also provide a systematic theoretical analysis of the sensor platform - including the charge state of protein at the specific pH level, and self-consistent channel transport. Taken together, the experimental demonstration and the theoretical framework provide a comprehensive description of the performance potential of dielectric-free MoS2-based biosensor technology.

3. Two-dimensional Layered MoS2 Biosensors Enable Highly Sensitive Detection of Biomolecules

Science.gov (United States)

Lee, Joonhyung; Dak, Piyush; Lee, Yeonsung; Park, Heekyeong; Choi, Woong; Alam, Muhammad A.; Kim, Sunkook

2014-12-01

We present a MoS2 biosensor to electrically detect prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a highly sensitive and label-free manner. Unlike previous MoS2-FET-based biosensors, the device configuration of our biosensors does not require a dielectric layer such as HfO2 due to the hydrophobicity of MoS2. Such an oxide-free operation improves sensitivity and simplifies sensor design. For a quantitative and selective detection of PSA antigen, anti-PSA antibody was immobilized on the sensor surface. Then, introduction of PSA antigen, into the anti-PSA immobilized sensor surface resulted in a lable-free immunoassary format. Measured off-state current of the device showed a significant decrease as the applied PSA concentration was increased. The minimum detectable concentration of PSA is 1 pg/mL, which is several orders of magnitude below the clinical cut-off level of ~4 ng/mL. In addition, we also provide a systematic theoretical analysis of the sensor platform - including the charge state of protein at the specific pH level, and self-consistent channel transport. Taken together, the experimental demonstration and the theoretical framework provide a comprehensive description of the performance potential of dielectric-free MoS2-based biosensor technology.

4. Sound generated by instability waves of supersonic flows. I Two-dimensional mixing layers. II - Axisymmetric jets

Science.gov (United States)

Tam, C. K. W.; Burton, D. E.

1984-01-01

An investigation is conducted of the phenomenon of sound generation by spatially growing instability waves in high-speed flows. It is pointed out that this process of noise generation is most effective when the flow is supersonic relative to the ambient speed of sound. The inner and outer asymptotic expansions corresponding to an excited instability wave in a two-dimensional mixing layer and its associated acoustic fields are constructed in terms of the inner and outer spatial variables. In matching the solutions, the intermediate matching principle of Van Dyke and Cole is followed. The validity of the theory is tested by applying it to an axisymmetric supersonic jet and comparing the calculated results with experimental measurements. Very favorable agreements are found both in the calculated instability-wave amplitude distribution (the inner solution) and the near pressure field level contours (the outer solution) in each case.

5. Stability of compressible boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, Ali H.

1989-01-01

The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.

6. Transition in hypersonic boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Chuanhong; Zhu, Yiding; Chen, Xi; Yuan, Huijing; Wu, Jiezhi; Chen, Shiyi; Lee, Cunbiao; Gad-el-Hak, Mohamed

2015-10-01

Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.

7. Transition in hypersonic boundary layers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chuanhong Zhang

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Transition and turbulence production in a hypersonic boundary layer is investigated in a Mach 6 wind tunnel using Rayleigh-scattering visualization, fast-response pressure measurements, and particle image velocimetry. It is found that the second-mode instability is a key modulator of the transition process. Although the second-mode is primarily an acoustic wave, it causes the formation of high-frequency vortical waves, which triggers a fast transition to turbulence.

8. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Saraswati Acharya

2015-08-01

Full Text Available Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

9. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

SaraswatiAcharya; Dil Bahadur Gurung; Vinod Prakash Saxena

2015-01-01

Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

10. Hydrophobic-hydrophilic monolithic dual-phase layer for two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography coupled with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy detection.

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Binxing; Liu, Yanhua; Li, Dan; Chai, Yifeng; Lu, Feng; Xu, Jiyang

2015-08-01

Hydrophobic-hydrophilic monolithic dual-phase plates have been prepared by a two-step polymerization method for two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography of low-molecular-weight compounds, namely, several dyes. The thin 200 μm poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) layers attached to microscope glass plates were prepared using a UV-initiated polymerization method within a simple glass mold. After cutting and cleaning the specific area of the layer, the reassembled mold was filled with a polymerization mixture of butyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate and subsequently irradiated with UV light. During the second polymerization process, the former layer was protected from the UV light with a UV mask. After extracting the porogens and hydrolyzing the poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) area, these two-dimensional layers were used to separate a mixture of dyes with great difference in their polarity using reversed-phase chromatography mode within the hydrophobic layer and then hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode along the hydrophilic area. In the latter dimension only the specific spot was developed further. Detection of the separated dyes could be achieved with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

11. A method for calculating turbulent boundary layers and losses in the flow channels of turbomachines

Science.gov (United States)

Schumann, Lawrence F.

1987-01-01

An interactive inviscid core flow-boundary layer method is presented for the calculation of turbomachine channel flows. For this method, a one-dimensional inviscid core flow is assumed. The end-wall and blade surface boundary layers are calculated using an integral entrainment method. The boundary layers are assumed to be collateral and thus are two-dimensional. The boundary layer equations are written in a streamline coordinate system. The streamwise velocity profiles are approximated by power law profiles. Compressibility is accounted for in the streamwise direction but not in the normal direction. Equations are derived for the special cases of conical and two-dimensional rectangular diffusers. For these cases, the assumptions of a one-dimensional core flow and collateral boundary layers are valid. Results using the method are compared with experiment and good quantitative agreement is obtained.

12. Two-dimensionally stacked heterometallic layers hosting a discrete chair dodecameric ring of water clusters: synthesis and structural study.

Science.gov (United States)

Kenfack Tsobnang, Patrice; Wenger, Emmanuel; Biache, Coralie; Lambi Ngolui, John; Ponou, Siméon; Dahaoui, Slimane; Lecomte, Claude

2014-10-01

The stacked two-dimensional supramolecular compound catena-{Co(amp)3Cr(ox)3·6H2O} (amp = 2-picolylamine, ox = oxalate) has been synthesized from the bimolecular approach using hydrogen bonds. It is built from layers in which both Co(amp)(3+) (D) and Cr(ox)(3-) (A) ions are bonded in a repeating DADADA… pattern along the a and c axes by multiple hydrogen bonds. These layers host a well resolved R12 dodecameric discrete ring of water clusters built by six independent molecules located around the 2c centrosymmetric Wyckoff positions of the P21/n space group in which the compound crystallizes. These clusters are ranged along the [001] direction, occupy 733.5 Å(3) (22.0%) of the unit cell and have a chair conformation via 12 hydrogen bonds. The water molecules of the cluster are linked with stronger hydrogen bonds than those between the cluster and its host, which explains the single continuous step of the dehydration process of the compound.

13. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sang Woon Lee

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at an oxide interface has been attracting considerable attention for physics research and nanoelectronic applications. Early studies reported the formation of 2DEG at semiconductor interfaces (e.g., AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with interesting electrical properties such as high electron mobility. Besides 2DEG formation at semiconductor junctions, 2DEG was realized at the interface of an oxide heterostructure such as the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO heterojunction. The origin of 2DEG was attributed to the well-known “polar catastrophe” mechanism in oxide heterostructures, which consist of an epitaxial LAO layer on a single crystalline STO substrate among proposed mechanisms. Recently, it was reported that the creation of 2DEG was achieved using the atomic layer deposition (ALD technique, which opens new functionality of ALD in emerging nanoelectronics. This review is focused on the origin of 2DEG at oxide heterostructures using the ALD process. In particular, it addresses the origin of 2DEG at oxide interfaces based on an alternative mechanism (i.e., oxygen vacancies.

14. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatographic method for the analysis of ochratoxin A in green coffee.

Science.gov (United States)

Ventura, Meritxell; Anaya, Ivan; Broto-Puig, Francesc; Agut, Montserrat; Comellas, Lluís

2005-09-01

A low-cost thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for the presumptive measurement of ochratoxin A (OTA) at 5 microg/kg in green coffee beans. The analytical method consisted of extracting OTA by shaking the beans with a mixture of methanol and aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution, which was then purified by liquid-liquid partition into toluene. OTA was separated by normal-phase two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography and detected by visual estimation of fluorescence intensity under a UV lamp at 365 nm. The chromatography solvents were toluene-methanol-formic acid (8:2:0.03) for the first development and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-formic acid (8:10:1) for the second dimension development. This method was tested with uncontaminated green coffee bean samples spiked with an OTA standard at four different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 30 microg/kg). The method is rapid, simple, and very easy to implement in coffee-producing countries. It is highly selective and does not involve the use of chlorinated solvents in the sample extraction step. This inexpensive method has been applied to different types of green coffee samples from various countries (Zimbabwe, Brazil, India, Uganda, Colombia, and Indonesia) and different manufacturers, and no OTA below the detection limit of 5 microg/kg was detected in any samples analyzed.

15. Effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection.

Science.gov (United States)

van der Poel, Erwin P; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef

2014-07-01

The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free, and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between 10(8) and 10(11) the heat transport is lower for Γ=0.33 than for Γ=1 in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is, surprisingly, the opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for a lower aspect ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for Ra ≥ 10(10). Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall simulations with a no-slip boundary condition on the plates also exhibit zonal flow. In all the other cases, the flow is roll like. In two-dimensional Rayleigh-Bénard convection, the velocity boundary conditions thus have large implications on both roll-like and zonal flow that have to be taken into consideration before the boundary conditions are imposed.

16. Mean flow development of a longitudinal vortex embedded in an attached, three-dimensional, turbulent boundary layer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shizawa, T. [Science Univ. of Tokyo (Japan); Eaton, J.K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1990-12-31

The interaction of a longitudinal vortex with a pressure-driven, three dimensional turbulent boundary layer was investigated experimentally. The vortex was attenuated much more rapidly in the three dimensional layer than in a two-dimensional boundary layer. The persistence for the vortex-induced perturbation was strongly dependent on the sign of the vortex.

17. H-T phase diagram and the nature of vortex-glass phase in a quasi-two-dimensional superconductor: Sn-metal layer sandwiched between graphene sheets

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Suzuki, Masatsugu; Suzuki, Itsuko S.; Walter, Juergen

2004-02-15

The magnetic properties of a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) superconductor, Sn-metal graphite (MG), are studied using DC and AC magnetic susceptibility. Sn-MG has a unique layered structure where Sn metal layer is sandwiched between adjacent graphene sheets. This compound undergoes a superconducting transition at T{sub c}=3.75 K at H=0. The H-T diagram of Sn-MG is similar to that of a quasi-2D superconductors. The phase boundaries of vortex liquid, vortex glass, and vortex lattice phase merge into a multicritical point located at T*=3.4 K and H*=40 Oe. There are two irreversibility lines denoted by H{sub gl} (de Almeida-Thouless type) and H{sub gl{sup '}} (Gabay-Toulouse type), intersecting at T{sub 0}{sup '}=2.5 K and H{sub 0}{sup '}=160 Oe. The nature of slow dynamic and nonlinearity of the vortex glass phase is studied.

18. Optimized two-dimensional thin layer chromatography to monitor the intracellular concentration of acetyl phosphate and other small phosphorylated molecules

Science.gov (United States)

2008-01-01

Acetyl phosphate (acetyl-P) serves critical roles in coenzyme A recycling and ATP synthesis. It is the intermediate of the Pta-AckA pathway that inter-converts acetyl-coenzyme A and acetate. Acetyl-P also can act as a global signal by donating its phosphoryl group to specific two-component response regulators. This ability derives from its capacity to store energy in the form of a high-energy phosphate bond. This bond, while critical to its function, also destabilizes acetyl-P in cell extracts. This lability has greatly complicated biochemical analysis, leading in part to widely varying acetyl-P measurements. We therefore developed an optimized protocol based on two-dimensional thin layer chromatography that includes metabolic labeling under aerated conditions and careful examination of the integrity of acetyl-P within extracts. This protocol results in greatly improved reproducibility, and thus permits precise measurements of the intracellular concentration of acetyl-P, as well as that of other small phosphorylated molecules. PMID:18385806

19. Two-Dimensional Superconductor with a Giant Rashba Effect: One-Atom-Layer Tl-Pb Compound on Si(111)

Science.gov (United States)

Matetskiy, A. V.; Ichinokura, S.; Bondarenko, L. V.; Tupchaya, A. Y.; Gruznev, D. V.; Zotov, A. V.; Saranin, A. A.; Hobara, R.; Takayama, A.; Hasegawa, S.

2015-10-01

A one-atom-layer compound made of one monolayer of Tl and one-third monolayer of Pb on a Si(111) surface having √{3 }×√{3 } periodicity was found to exhibit a giant Rashba-type spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands together with two-dimensional superconducting transport properties. Temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an enhanced electron-phonon coupling for one of the spin-split bands. In situ micro-four-point-probe conductivity measurements with and without magnetic field demonstrated that the (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system transformed into the superconducting state at 2.25 K, followed by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. The 2D Tl-Pb compound on Si(111) is believed to be the prototypical object for prospective studies of intriguing properties of the superconducting 2D system with lifted spin degeneracy, bearing in mind that its composition, atomic and electron band structures, and spin texture are already well established.

20. Two-Dimensional Layered Double Hydroxide Derived from Vermiculite Waste Water Supported Highly Dispersed Ni Nanoparticles for CO Methanation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Panpan Li

2017-03-01

Full Text Available Expanded multilayered vermiculite (VMT was successfully used as catalyst support and Ni/VMT synthesized by microwave irradiation assisted synthesis (MIAS exhibited excellent performance in our previous work. We also developed a two-dimensional porous SiO2 nanomesh (2D VMT-SiO2 by mixed-acid etching of VMT. Compared with three-dimensional (3D MCM-41, 2D VMT-SiO2 as a catalyst support provided a superior position for implantation of NiO species and the as-obtained catalyst exhibited excellent performance. In this paper, we successfully synthesized a layered double hydroxide (LDH using the spent liquor after mixed-acid etching of VMT, which mainly contained Mg2+ and Al3+. The as-calcined layered double oxide (LDO was used as a catalyst support for CO methanation. Compared with Ni/MgAl-LDO, Ni/VMT-LDO had smaller active component particles; therefore, in this study, it exhibited excellent catalytic performance over the whole temperature range of 250–500 °C. Ni/VMT-LDO achieved the best activity with 87.88% CO conversion, 89.97% CH4 selectivity, and 12.47 × 10−2·s−1 turn over frequency (TOF at 400 °C under a gas hourly space velocity of 20,000 mL/g/h. This study demonstrated that VMT-LDO as a catalyst support provided an efficient way to develop high-performance catalysts for synthetic natural gas (SNG from syngas.

1. Lateral Versus Vertical Growth of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenides: Thermodynamic Insight into MoS2.

Science.gov (United States)

Shang, Shun-Li; Lindwall, Greta; Wang, Yi; Redwing, Joan M; Anderson, Tim; Liu, Zi-Kui

2016-09-14

Unprecedented interest has been spurred recently in two-dimensional (2D) layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) that possess tunable electronic and optical properties. However, synthesis of a wafer-scale TMD thin film with controlled layers and homogeneity remains highly challenging due mainly to the lack of thermodynamic and diffusion knowledge, which can be used to understand and design process conditions, but falls far behind the rapidly growing TMD field. Here, an integrated density functional theory (DFT) and calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) modeling approach is employed to provide thermodynamic insight into lateral versus vertical growth of the prototypical 2D material MoS2. Various DFT energies are predicted from the layer-dependent MoS2, 2D flake-size related mono- and bilayer MoS2, to Mo and S migrations with and without graphene and sapphire substrates, thus shedding light on the factors that control lateral versus vertical growth of 2D islands. For example, the monolayer MoS2 flake in a small 2D lateral size is thermodynamically favorable with respect to the bilayer counterpart, indicating the monolayer preference during the initial stage of nucleation; while the bilayer MoS2 flake becomes stable with increasing 2D lateral size. The critical 2D flake-size of phase stability between mono- and bilayer MoS2 is adjustable via the choice of substrate. In terms of DFT energies and CALPHAD modeling, the size dependent pressure-temperature-composition (P-T-x) growth windows are predicted for MoS2, indicating that the formation of MoS2 flake with reduced size appears in the middle but close to the lower T and higher P "Gas + MoS2" phase region. It further suggests that Mo diffusion is a controlling factor for MoS2 growth owing to its extremely low diffusivity compared to that of sulfur. Calculated MoS2 energies, Mo and S diffusivities, and size-dependent P-T-x growth windows are in good accord with available experiments, and the present data

2. Photoluminescence Properties of Two-dimensional Planar Layer and Three-dimensional Island Layer for ZnO Films Grown Using MOCVD

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2006-01-01

ZnO(002) films with different thicknesses ranging from 7 to 300 nm were grown on sapphire(006) substrates via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition(MOCVD). The two-dimensional(2D) planar layer and the three-dimensional(3D) island layer were studied by using of X-ray diffraction(XRD) rocking curves and atomic force microscopy(AFM). The room temperature photoluminescence(PL) spectra show a blue shift of the peak positions of the ultraviolet(UV) emission with increasing film thickness. The blue shift is remarkably high(393-380 nm) when an increase in film thickness(7-15 nm) is accompanied by the change of structure from a2D planar layer to a 3D island layer. The PL spectra at 77 K also indicate that there are different transition mechanisms in the film thickness from a2D planar layer to a 3D island layer near the2D layer region.

3. Effect of a bulge on the secondary instability of boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.

1987-01-01

The influence of a two-dimensional hump on the three-dimensional (3-D) subharmonic secondary instability on a flat plate is investigated. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for the inviscid/viscous interaction. The primary wave is taken in the form of a two-dimensional (2-D) Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave. The secondary wave is taken in the form of a 3-D subharmonic T-S wave.

4. A Numerical Scheme Based on an Immersed Boundary Method for Compressible Turbulent Flows with Shocks: Application to Two-Dimensional Flows around Cylinders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Shun Takahashi

2014-01-01

Full Text Available A computational code adopting immersed boundary methods for compressible gas-particle multiphase turbulent flows is developed and validated through two-dimensional numerical experiments. The turbulent flow region is modeled by a second-order pseudo skew-symmetric form with minimum dissipation, while the monotone upstream-centered scheme for conservation laws (MUSCL scheme is employed in the shock region. The present scheme is applied to the flow around a two-dimensional cylinder under various freestream Mach numbers. Compared with the original MUSCL scheme, the minimum dissipation enabled by the pseudo skew-symmetric form significantly improves the resolution of the vortex generated in the wake while retaining the shock capturing ability. In addition, the resulting aerodynamic force is significantly improved. Also, the present scheme is successfully applied to moving two-cylinder problems.

5. Footprints of funnel vortices in a turbulent boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Gurka, Roi; Liberzon, Alex; Hetsroni, Gad

2003-11-01

The topology of large scale funnel structures in a turbulent boundary layer in a flume is investigated experimentally. The large scale structure is reconstructed from the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) eigenmodes, calculated from the two-dimensional projections of the fluctuated vorticity field realizations. The instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field realizations are obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. The dominant funnel structure appears to have a longitudinal streamwise orientation, an inclination angle of 8 degrees, streamwise length of 1000 wall units, and a distance between the neighboring structures of about 100 wall units in the spanwise direction. The spatial characteristics of the funnel structure, measured in the streamwise - wall normal plane of the flume, has been found to be independent of the Reynolds number. The identification technique is based on all the data set and provide a statistical descrition of the structure footprint.

6. Outer layer effects in wind-farm boundary layers: Coriolis forces and boundary layer height

Science.gov (United States)

Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan

2015-11-01

In LES studies of wind-farm boundary layers, scale separation between the inner and outer region of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) is frequently assumed, i.e., wind turbines are presumed to fall within the inner layer and are not affected by outer layer effects. However, modern wind turbine and wind farm design tends towards larger rotor diameters and farm sizes, which means that outer layer effects will become more important. In a prior study, it was already shown for fully-developed wind farms that the ABL height influences the power performance. In this study, we use the in-house LES code SP-Wind to investigate the importance of outer layer effects on wind-farm boundary layers. In a suite of LES cases, the ABL height is varied by imposing a capping inversion with varying inversion strengths. Results indicate the growth of an internal boundary layer (IBL), which is limited in cases with low inversion layers. We further find that flow deceleration combined with Coriolis effects causes a change in wind direction throughout the farm. This effect increases with decreasing boundary layer height, and can result in considerable turbine wake deflection near the end of the farm. The authors are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). Computations were performed on VSC infrastructiure (Flemish Supercomputer Center), funded by the Hercules Foundation and the Flemish Government-department EWI.

7. Shock-Wave Boundary Layer Interactions

Science.gov (United States)

1986-02-01

proprietes de la couche limite subissent au cours de I’interaction; les methodes integrales ou aux differences finies qui permettent le calcul continu de...interesse par la recherche d’une plus ample information. CONTENTS Page PREFACE »’ INTRODUCTION 1 PART I: A PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION OF SHOCK-WAVE/BOUNDARY...References 105 109 PART II: METHODS OF CALCULATION GLOBAL METHODS 1.1 Introductory Remarks 109 1.2 Two-Dimensional Interactions HO 1.2.1

8. On similarity and pseudo-similarity solutions of Falkner-Skan boundary layers

CERN Document Server

Guedda, Mohamed

2008-01-01

The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible,laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determinea family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer suchthat these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions, called Pseudo--similarity, where the external velocity varies inversely-linear with the distance along the surface (U_e(x) = U_\\infty x^{-1}). The present work deals with the two-dimensional incompressible, laminar, steady-state boundary layer equations. First, we determine a family of velocity distributions outside the boundary layer such that these problems may have similarity solutions. Then, we examenin detail new exact solutions. The analysis shows that solutions exist only for a lateral suction. For specified conditions, we establish the existence of an infinite number of solutions, including monotonic solutions and solutions which oscillate an infinite number of times and tend to a certain limit. The properties o... 9. Raman enhancement effect on two-dimensional layered materials: graphene, h-BN and MoS2. Science.gov (United States) Ling, Xi; Fang, Wenjing; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Araujo, Paulo T; Zhang, Xu; Rodriguez-Nieva, Joaquin F; Lin, Yuxuan; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Dresselhaus, Mildred S 2014-06-11 Realizing Raman enhancement on a flat surface has become increasingly attractive after the discovery of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering (GERS). Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials, exhibiting a flat surface without dangling bonds, were thought to be strong candidates for both fundamental studies of this Raman enhancement effect and its extension to meet practical applications requirements. Here, we study the Raman enhancement effect on graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), by using the copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecule as a probe. This molecule can sit on these layered materials in a face-on configuration. However, it is found that the Raman enhancement effect, which is observable on graphene, hBN, and MoS2, has different enhancement factors for the different vibrational modes of CuPc, depending strongly on the surfaces. Higher-frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 1342, 1452, 1531 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on graphene than that on h-BN, while the lower frequency phonon modes of CuPc (such as those at 682, 749, 1142, 1185 cm(-1)) are enhanced more strongly on h-BN than that on graphene. MoS2 demonstrated the weakest Raman enhancement effect as a substrate among these three 2D materials. These differences are attributed to the different enhancement mechanisms related to the different electronic properties and chemical bonds exhibited by the three substrates: (1) graphene is zero-gap semiconductor and has a nonpolar C-C bond, which induces charge transfer (2) h-BN is insulating and has a strong B-N bond, while (3) MoS2 is semiconducting with the sulfur atoms on the surface and has a polar covalent bond (Mo-S) with the polarity in the vertical direction to the surface. Therefore, the different Raman enhancement mechanisms differ for each material: (1) charge transfer may occur for graphene; (2) strong dipole-dipole coupling may occur for h-BN, and (3) both charge transfer and dipole-dipole coupling may 10. Effect of roughness on the stability of boundary layers Science.gov (United States) Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman 1987-01-01 An analysis is conducted on the effect of imperfections consisting of humps and dips on the stability of incompressible flows over flat plates. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers. Linear quasiparallel spatial stability is used to calculate the growth rates and mode shapes of two-dimensional disturbances. Then, the amplification factor is computed. A search for the most dangerous frequency is conducted based on an amplification factor of 9 in the shortest distance. Correlations are made with the transition experiment of Walker and Greening using the e sup 9 method. 11. Effects of Various Shaped Roughness Elements in Two-Dimensional High Reynolds Number Turbulent Boundary Layers Science.gov (United States) 2004-08-28 the tunnel floor. Each piece of wood is routered on their respective ends to provide the necessary support and a smooth continuation of the test...0 . Ci (P q 0No U)ý2- N0’ t - - - 000099997799CýC 7N CCD C Aý 0.6 CD) -A- C. 4(oC1 r -M C 00 CC C4- III A >. 0. o) CN t N- m-L w N-C~ t o9 E CNC ...C, -: E+ +0 - IL IL0 CN 0 7 C\\Ic? 4? CA U) N 0C0000000 C N’ C> ’ý CN(? *U C) ot C -- (L 0 D00 0o 0) * Uý (’JD CNC >1L oC (L 7 N U’) + u Co 0>00000000 12. Numerical study of the laminar shock boundary layer interaction Science.gov (United States) Katzer, E. 1985-02-01 The interaction of an oblique shock wave with a laminar boundary layer on an adiabatic flat plate was analyzed numerically with solutions of the two dimensional Navier-Stokes equations using McCormack's explicit finite volume method. The agreement between numerical calculations and experimental results is good. Local and global properties of the interaction region are discussed regarding shock strength, separation bubble length using a similarity law, and separation environment. The asymetrical structure inside the separation bubble produces an asymetrical shape of the wall shear stress distribution. The calculation speed was increased by algorithm vectorization on a CRAY 1S supercomputer. Further investigations for determination of a similarity law in interaction with turbulent boundary layer, of the physical mechanisms of the laminar interaction, and for study of the wall temperature transfer are recommended. 13. Experimental investigation of wave boundary layer DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Sumer, B. Mutlu 2003-01-01 A review is presented of experimental investigation of wave boundary layer. The review is organized in six main sections. The first section describes the wave boundary layer in a real-life environment and its simulation in the laboratory in an oscillating water tunnel and in a water tank...... with an oscillating seabed. A brief account is given of measured quantities, measurement techniques (LDA, PIV, flow visualization) and limitations/constraints in the experimental investigation of the wave boundary layer in the laboratory. The second section concentrates on uniform oscillating boundary layers...... with a smooth bed. The boundary layer process is described over the entire range of the Reynolds number (Re from practically nil to Re = O(107)), from the laminar regime to the transitional regime and to the fully developed turbulent regime. The third section focuses on the effect of the boundary roughness... 14. Boundary layer structure in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection CERN Document Server Shi, Nan; Schumacher, Joerg 2012-01-01 The structure of the boundary layers in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. We consider convection in a cylindrical cell at an aspect ratio one for Rayleigh numbers of Ra=3e+9 and 3e+10 at fixed Prandtl number Pr=0.7. Similar to the experimental results in the same setup and for the same Prandtl number, the structure of the laminar boundary layers of the velocity and temperature fields is found to deviate from the prediction of the Prandtl-Blasius-Pohlhausen theory. Deviations decrease when a dynamical rescaling of the data with an instantaneously defined boundary layer thickness is performed and the analysis plane is aligned with the instantaneous direction of the large-scale circulation in the closed cell. Our numerical results demonstrate that important assumptions which enter existing classical laminar boundary layer theories for forced and natural convection are violated, such as the strict two-dimensionality of the dynamics or the s... 15. Monolithic Superhydrophobic Polymer Layer with Photopatterned Virtual Channel for the Separation of Peptides Using Two-Dimensional Thin Layer Chromatography-Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Science.gov (United States) Han, Yehua; Levkin, Pavel; Abarientos, Irene; Liu, Huwei; Svec, Frantisek; Fréchet, Jean M.J. 2010-01-01 Superhydrophobic monolithic porous polymer layers with a photopatterned hydrophilic channel have been prepared. These layers were used for two-dimensional thin layer chromatography of peptides. The 50 μm thin poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) layers supported onto 4.0 × 3.3 cm glass plates were prepared using UV-initiated polymerization in a simple glass mold. Photografting of a mixture of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate carried out through a mask afforded a 600 μm wide virtual channel along one side of the layer. This channel, which contains ionizable functionalities, enabled the first dimension separation in ion exchange mode. The aqueous mobile phase migrates only through the channel due to the large difference in surface tension at the interface of the hydrophilic channel and the superhydrophobic monolith. The unmodified part of the layer featuring hydrophobic chemistry was then used for the reversed phase separation in the orthogonal second dimension. Practical application of our technique was demonstrated with a rapid 2D separation of a mixture of model peptides differing in hydrophobicity and isoelectric point using a combination of ion-exchange and reversed phase modes. In the former mode, the peptides migrated 11 mm in less than 1 min. Detection of fluorescently labeled peptides was achieved through UV light visualization. Separation of the native peptides was monitored directly using a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source coupled to a mass spectrometer. Unidirectional surface scanning with the DESI source was found suitable to determine both the location of each separated peptide and its molecular mass. PMID:20151661 16. Prediction of two-dimensional sound propagation over an arbitrarily-shaped barrier using the boundary element method Science.gov (United States) Park, Jong M.; Eversman, W. 1992-01-01 2D sound propagation over an arbitrarily-shaped barrier situated on a locally reacting infinite plane in a homogeneous medium is treated utilizing the BEM. The BIE is formulated so that the integral along an infinite homogeneous plane disappears if the half space Green's function is selected to satisfy the boundary condition of this plane. Comparison of the BEM results with test results by Habault and by Kearns shows good agreement of the sound field utilizing the BEM. 17. Solution of Two-dimensional Parabolic Equation Subject to Non-local Boundary Conditions Using Homotopy Perturbation Method Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Puskar Raj SHARMA 2012-01-01 Full Text Available Aim of the paper is to investigate solution of twodimensional linear parabolic partial differential equation with non-local boundary conditions using Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM. This method is not only reliable in obtaining solution of such problems in series form with high accuracy but it also guarantees considerable saving of the calculation volume and time as compared to other methods. The application of the method has been illustrated through an example 18. Two-Dimensional Superconductivity Emerged at Monatomic Bi(2-) Square Net in Layered Y2O2Bi via Oxygen Incorporation. Science.gov (United States) Sei, Ryosuke; Kitani, Suguru; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Kawaji, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya 2016-09-07 Discovery of layered superconductors such as cuprates and iron-based compounds has unveiled new science and compounds. In these superconductors, quasi-two-dimensional layers including transition metal cations play principal role in the superconductivity via carrier doping by means of aliovalent-ion substitution. Here, we report on a two-dimensional superconductivity at 2 K in ThCr2Si2-type layered oxide Y2O2Bi possessing conducting monatomic Bi(2-) square net, possibly associated with an exotic superconductivity. The superconductivity emerges only in excessively oxygen-incorporated Y2O2Bi with expanded inter-net distance, in stark contrast to nonsuperconducting pristine Y2O2Bi reported previously. This result suggests that the element incorporation into hidden interstitial site could be an alternative approach to conventional substitution and intercalation methods for search of novel superconductors. 19. Introduction to computational techniques for boundary layers Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Blottner, F.G. 1979-09-01 Finite-difference procedures to solve boundary layer flows in fluid mechanics are explained. The governing equations and the transformations utilized are described. Basic solution techniques are illustrated with the similar boundary layer equations. Nonsimilar solutions are developed for the incompressible equations. Various example problems are solved, and the numerical results in the Fortran listing of the computer codes are presented. 20. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow NARCIS (Netherlands) Sterk, H.A.M. 2015-01-01 Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re 1. Magnetohydrodynamic cross-field boundary layer flow Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) D. B. Ingham 1982-01-01 Full Text Available The Blasius boundary layer on a flat plate in the presence of a constant ambient magnetic field is examined. A numerical integration of the MHD boundary layer equations from the leading edge is presented showing how the asymptotic solution described by Sears is approached. 2. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow NARCIS (Netherlands) Sterk, H.A.M. 2015-01-01 Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar re 3. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow NARCIS (Netherlands) Sterk, H.A.M. 2015-01-01 Thesis entitled: Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow H.A.M. Sterk Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015 Summary The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs typically form at night and in polar 4. Structure of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers Science.gov (United States) Ramesh, O.; Patwardhan, Saurabh 2014-11-01 Relaminarization of a turbulent boundary layer in a strongly accelerated flow has received a great attention in recent times. It has been found that such relaminarization is a general and regularly occurring phenomenon in the leading-edge region of a swept wing of an airplane (van Dam et al., 1993). In this work, we investigate the effect of initial Reynolds number on the process of relaminarization in turbulent boundary layers. The experimental and numerical investigation of relaminarizing turbulent boundary layers undergoing same history reveals that the boundary layer with higher initial Reynolds number relaminarizes at a lower pressure gradient value compared to the one with lower Reynolds number. This effect can be explained on the inviscid theory proposed earlier in the literature. Further, various parameter criteria proposed to predict relaminarization, are assessed and the structure of relaminarizing boundary layers is investigated. A mechanism for stabilization of near-wall low speed streaks is proposed. 5. Prediction of mean flow data for adiabatic 2-D compressible turbulent boundary layers NARCIS (Netherlands) Motallebi, F. 1997-01-01 This book presents a method for the prediction of mean flow data (i.e. skin friction, velocity profile and shape parameter) for adiabatic two-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. The transformed law of the wall, law of the lake, the van Driest model for the 6. Prediction of mean flow data for adiabatic 2-D compressible turbulent boundary layers NARCIS (Netherlands) Motallebi, F. 1997-01-01 This book presents a method for the prediction of mean flow data (i.e. skin friction, velocity profile and shape parameter) for adiabatic two-dimensional compressible turbulent boundary layers at zero pressure gradient. The transformed law of the wall, law of the lake, the van Driest model for the c 7. Theory and Applications of Two-dimensional, Null-boundary, Nine-Neighborhood, Cellular Automata Linear rules CERN Document Server Choudhury, Pabitra Pal; Sahoo, Sudhakar; Rath, Sunil Pankaj 2008-01-01 This paper deals with the theory and application of 2-Dimensional, nine-neighborhood, null- boundary, uniform as well as hybrid Cellular Automata (2D CA) linear rules in image processing. These rules are classified into nine groups depending upon the number of neighboring cells influences the cell under consideration. All the Uniform rules have been found to be rendering multiple copies of a given image depending on the groups to which they belong where as Hybrid rules are also shown to be characterizing the phenomena of zooming in, zooming out, thickening and thinning of a given image. Further, using hybrid CA rules a new searching algorithm is developed called Sweepers algorithm which is found to be applicable to simulate many inter disciplinary research areas like migration of organisms towards a single point destination, Single Attractor and Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata Theory, Pattern Classification and Clustering Problem, Image compression, Encryption and Decryption problems, Density Classificat... 8. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on two-dimensional delocalized electronic states of the epitaxial N δ-doped layer in GaAs Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Harada, Yukihiro; Baba, Takeshi; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan) 2016-03-14 We have conducted rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for improving the two-dimensional (2D) arrangement of electronic states in the epitaxial nitrogen (N) δ-doped layer in GaAs. RTA rearranged the N-pair configurations in the GaAs (001) plane and reduced the number of non-radiative recombination centers. Furthermore, a Landau shift, representing the 2D delocalized electronic states in the (001) plane, was observed at around zero magnetic field intensity in the Faraday configuration. 9. Two-Dimensional Boundary Element Method Application for Surface Deformation Modeling around Lembang and Cimandiri Fault, West Java Science.gov (United States) Mahya, M. J.; Sanny, T. A. 2017-04-01 Lembang and Cimandiri fault are active faults in West Java that thread people near the faults with earthquake and surface deformation risk. To determine the deformation, GPS measurements around Lembang and Cimandiri fault was conducted then the data was processed to get the horizontal velocity at each GPS stations by Graduate Research of Earthquake and Active Tectonics (GREAT) Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering Study Program, ITB. The purpose of this study is to model the displacement distribution as deformation parameter in the area along Lembang and Cimandiri fault using 2-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) using the horizontal velocity that has been corrected by the effect of Sunda plate horizontal movement as the input. The assumptions that used at the modeling stage are the deformation occurs in homogeneous and isotropic medium, and the stresses that acted on faults are in elastostatic condition. The results of modeling show that Lembang fault had left-lateral slip component and divided into two segments. A lineament oriented in southwest-northeast direction is observed near Tangkuban Perahu Mountain separating the eastern and the western segments of Lembang fault. The displacement pattern of Cimandiri fault shows that Cimandiri fault is divided into the eastern segment with right-lateral slip component and the western segment with left-lateral slip component separated by a northwest-southeast oriented lineament at the western part of Gede Pangrango Mountain. The displacement value between Lembang and Cimandiri fault is nearly zero indicating that Lembang and Cimandiri fault are not connected each other and this area is relatively safe for infrastructure development. 10. Boundary Layers in Laminar Vortex Flows. Science.gov (United States) Baker, Glenn Leslie A detailed experimental study of the flow in an intense, laminar, axisymmetric vortex has been conducted in the Purdue Tornado Vortex Simulator. The complicated nature of the flow in the boundary layer of laboratory vortices and presumably on that encountered in full-scale tornadoes has been examined. After completing a number of modifications to the existing facility to improve the quality of the flow in the simulator, hot-film anemometry was employed for making velocity-component and turbulence-intensity measurements of both the free-stream and boundary layer portions of the flow. The measurements represent the first experimental boundary layer investigation of a well-defined vortex flow to appear in the literature. These results were compared with recent theoretical work by Burggraf, Stewartson and Belcher (1971) and with an exact similarity solution for line-sink boundary layers developed by the author. A comparison is also made with the numerical simulation of Wilson (1981) in which the boundary conditions were matched to those of the present experimental investigation. Expressions for the vortex core radius, the maximum tangential velocity and the maximum pressure drop are given in terms of dimensionless modeling parameters. References. Burggraf, O. R., K. Stewartson and R. Belcher, Boundary layer. induced by a potential vortex. Phys. Fluids 14, 1821-1833 (1971). Wilson, T., M. S. thesis, Vortex Boundary Layer Dynamics, Univ. Calif. Davis (1981). 11. The effect of velocity boundary conditions on the heat transfer and flow topology in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection CERN Document Server van der Poel, Erwin P; Verzicco, Roberto; Lohse, Detlef 2015-01-01 The effect of various velocity boundary condition is studied in two-dimensional Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection. Combinations of no-slip, stress-free and periodic boundary conditions are used on both the sidewalls and the horizontal plates. For the studied Rayleigh numbers Ra between10^8$and$10^{11}$the heat transport is lower for$\\Gamma = 0.33$than for$\\Gamma = 1$in case of no-slip sidewalls. This is surprisingly opposite for stress-free sidewalls, where the heat transport increases for lower aspect-ratio. In wider cells the aspect-ratio dependence is observed to disappear for$\\text{Ra} \\ge 10^{10}$. Two distinct flow types with very different dynamics can be seen, mostly dependent on the plate velocity boundary condition, namely roll-like flow and horizontal zonal flow, which have a substantial effect on the dynamics and heat transport in the system. The predominantly horizontal zonal flow suppresses heat flux and is observed for stress-free and asymmetric plates. Low aspect-ratio periodic sidewall s... 12. Effect of bulges on the stability of boundary layers Science.gov (United States) Nayfeh, Ali H.; Ragab, Saad A.; Al-Maaitah, Ayman A. 1988-01-01 The instability of flows around hump and dip imperfections is investigated. The mean flow is calculated using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for viscous/inviscid interaction and separation bubbles. Then, the two-dimensional linear stability of this flow is analyzed, and the amplification factors are computed. Results are obtained for several height/width ratios and locations. The theoretical results have been used to correlate the experimental results of Walker and Greening (1942). The observed transition locations are found to correspond to amplification factors varying between 7.4 and 10.0, consistent with previous results for flat plates. The method accounts for both viscous and shear-layer instabilities. Separation is found to increase significantly the amplification factor. 13. BUBBLE - an urban boundary layer meteorology project DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rotach, M.W.; Vogt, R.; Bernhofer, C. 2005-01-01 The Basel urban Boundary Layer Experiment (BUBBLE) was a year-long experimental effort to investigate in detail the boundary layer structure in the City of Basel, Switzerland. At several sites over different surface types (urban, sub-urban and rural reference) towers up to at least twice the main...... a very detailed physical scale-model in a wind tunnel. In the present paper details of all these activities are presented together with first results.... 14. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase. Science.gov (United States) Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk 2013-10-18 Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 15. The Ocean Boundary Layer beneath Hurricane Frances Science.gov (United States) Dasaro, E. A.; Sanford, T. B.; Terrill, E.; Price, J. 2006-12-01 The upper ocean beneath the peak winds of Hurricane Frances (57 m/s) was measured using several varieties of air-deployed floats as part of CBLAST. A multilayer structure was observed as the boundary layer deepened from 20m to 120m in about 12 hours. Bubbles generated by breaking waves create a 10m thick surface layer with a density anomaly, due to the bubbles, of about 1 kg/m3. This acts to lubricate the near surface layer. A turbulent boundary layer extends beneath this to about 40 m depth. This is characterized by large turbulent eddies spanning the boundary layer. A stratified boundary layer grows beneath this reaching 120m depth. This is characterized by a gradient Richardson number of 1/4, which is maintained by strong inertial currents generated by the hurricane, and smaller turbulent eddies driven by the shear instead of the wind and waves. There is little evidence of mixing beneath this layer. Heat budgets reveal the boundary layer to be nearly one dimensional through much of the deepening, with horizontal and vertical heat advection becoming important only after the storm had passed. Turbulent kinetic energy measurements support the idea of reduced surface drag at high wind speeds. The PWP model correctly predicts the degree of mixed layer deepening if the surface drag is reduced at high wind speed. Overall, the greatest uncertainty in understanding the ocean boundary layer at these extreme wind speeds is a characterization of the near- surface processes which govern the air-sea fluxes and surface wave properties. 16. Large eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer over wind farms using a prescribed boundary layer approach DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming 2012-01-01 Large eddy simulation (LES) of flow in a wind farm is studied in neutral as well as thermally stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). An approach has been practiced to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on the Immersed Boundary Method (IBM......) and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer (See [1]). A prescribed initial boundary layer profile is enforced through the computational domain using body forces to maintain a desired flow field. The body forces are then stored and applied on the domain through the simulation...... and the boundary layer shape will be modified due to the interaction of the turbine wakes and buoyancy contributions. The implemented method is capable of capturing the most important features of wakes of wind farms [1] while having the advantage of resolving the wall layer with a coarser grid than typically... 17. Initial and Boundary Value Problems for Two-Dimensional Non-hydrostatic Boussinesq Equations%二维非静力Boussinesq方程组的初边值问题 Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 沈春; 孙梅娜 2005-01-01 Based on the theory of stratification, the well-posedness of the initial and boundary value problems for the system of two-dimensional non-hydrostatic Boussinesq equations was discussed. The sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence and uniqueness for the solution of the equations were given for some representative initial and boundary value problems. Several special cases were discussed. 18. Modeling the summertime Arctic cloudy boundary layer Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Curry, J.A.; Pinto, J.O. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); McInnes, K.L. [CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Mordialloc (Australia) 1996-04-01 Global climate models have particular difficulty in simulating the low-level clouds during the Arctic summer. Model problems are exacerbated in the polar regions by the complicated vertical structure of the Arctic boundary layer. The presence of multiple cloud layers, a humidity inversion above cloud top, and vertical fluxes in the cloud that are decoupled from the surface fluxes, identified in Curry et al. (1988), suggest that models containing sophisticated physical parameterizations would be required to accurately model this region. Accurate modeling of the vertical structure of multiple cloud layers in climate models is important for determination of the surface radiative fluxes. This study focuses on the problem of modeling the layered structure of the Arctic summertime boundary-layer clouds and in particular, the representation of the more complex boundary layer type consisting of a stable foggy surface layer surmounted by a cloud-topped mixed layer. A hierarchical modeling/diagnosis approach is used. A case study from the summertime Arctic Stratus Experiment is examined. A high-resolution, one-dimensional model of turbulence and radiation is tested against the observations and is then used in sensitivity studies to infer the optimal conditions for maintaining two separate layers in the Arctic summertime boundary layer. A three-dimensional mesoscale atmospheric model is then used to simulate the interaction of this cloud deck with the large-scale atmospheric dynamics. An assessment of the improvements needed to the parameterizations of the boundary layer, cloud microphysics, and radiation in the 3-D model is made. 19. Alpha models and boundary-layer turbulence Science.gov (United States) Cheskidov, Alexey We study boundary-layer turbulence using the Navier-Stokes-alpha model obtaining an extension of the Prandtl equations for the averaged flow in a turbulent boundary layer. In the case of a zero pressure gradient flow along a flat plate, we derive a nonlinear fifth-order ordinary differential equation, an extension of the Blasius equation. We study it analytically and prove the existence of a two-parameter family of solutions satisfying physical boundary conditions. From this equation we obtain a theoretical prediction of the skin-friction coefficient in a wide range of Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness, and deduce the maximal value of the skin-friction coefficient in the turbulent boundary layer. The two-parameter family of solutions to the equation matches experimental data in the transitional boundary layers with different free stream turbulence intensity. A one-parameter sub-family of solutions, obtained using our skin-friction coefficient law, matches experimental data in the turbulent boundary layer for moderately large Reynolds numbers. 20. Well-Hidden Grain Boundary in the Monolayer MoS2 Formed by a Two-Dimensional Core-Shell Growth Mode. Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Wenting; Lin, Yue; Wang, Qi; Li, Weijie; Wang, Zhifeng; Song, Jiangluqi; Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lijie; Zhu, Lixin; Xu, Xiaoliang 2017-09-22 Guided by the hexagonal lattice symmetry, triangles and hexagons are the most basic morphological units for two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Also, it is widely acknowledged that these units start from the single nucleation site and then grow epitaxially. Accordingly, the triangular monolayer (ML) samples are generally considered as single crystals. Here, we report a 2D core-shell growth mode in the CVD process for ML-MoS2, which leads to one kind of "pseudo" single-crystal triangles containing triangular outline grain boundaries (TO-GBs). It is difficult to be optically distinguished from the "true" single-crystal triangles. The weakening of Raman peaks and the remarkable enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) are found at the built-in TO-GBs, which could be useful for high-performance optoelectronics. In addition, the electrical measurements indicate that the TO-GBs are conductive. Furthermore, TO-GBs and the common grain boundaries (CO-GBs) can coexist in a single flake, whereas their optical visibility and optical modifications (Raman and PL) are quite different. This work is helpful in further understanding the growth mechanism of 2D TMD materials and may also play a significant role in related nanodevices. 1. Free surface simulation of a two-layer fluid by boundary element method Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Weoncheol Koo 2010-09-01 Full Text Available A two-layer fluid with free surface is simulated in the time domain by a two-dimensional potential-based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT. The developed NWT is based on the boundary element method and a leap-frog time integration scheme. A whole domain scheme including interaction terms between two layers is applied to solve the boundary integral equation. The time histories of surface elevations on both fluid layers in the respective wave modes are verified with analytic results. The amplitude ratios of upper to lower elevation for various density ratios and water depths are also compared. 2. Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations Science.gov (United States) Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J. 1986-01-01 A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented. 3. THERMAL BOUNDARY LAYER IN CFB BOILER RISER Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Jinwei; Wang; Xinmu; Zhao; Yu; Wang; Xing; Xing; Jiansheng; Zhang; Guangxi; Yue 2006-01-01 Measurement of temperature profiles of gas-solid two-phase flow at different heights in commercial-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers was carried out. Experimental results showed that the thickness of thermal boundary layer was generally independent of the distance from the air distributor, except when close to the riser outlet. Through analysis of flow and combustion characteristics in the riser, it was found that the main reasons for the phenomena were: 1) the hydrodynamic boundary layer was thinner than the thermal layer and hardly changed along the CFB boiler height, and 2) both radial and axial mass and heat exchanges were strong in the CFB boiler. Numerical simulation of gas flow in the outlet zone confirmed that the distribution of the thermal boundary layer was dominated by the flow field characteristics. 4. Bolometric detection of magnetoplasma resonances in microwave absorption by two-dimensional electron systems based on doping layer conductivity measurements in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Dorozhkin, S. I., E-mail: dorozh@issp.ac.ru; Sychev, D. V.; Kapustin, A. A. [Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow district (Russian Federation) 2014-11-28 We have implemented a new bolometric method to detect resonances in magneto-absorption of microwave radiation by two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Radiation is absorbed by the 2DES and the thermally activated conductivity of the doping layer supplying electrons to the 2DES serves as a thermometer. The resonant absorption brought about by excitation of the confined magnetoplasma modes appears as peaks in the magnetic field dependence of the low-frequency impedance measured between the Schottky gate and 2DES. 5. A theoretical model for the evolution of two-dimensional large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 周恒; 马良 1995-01-01 By a proper combination of the modified weakly nonlinear theory of hydrodynamic stability and the energy method, the spatial evolution of the large-scale coherent structures in a mixing layer has been calculated. The results are satisfactory. 6. Depth profiling of SBS/PET layered materials using step-scan phase modulation Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2010-01-01 This paper demonstrates the application of step-scan phase modulation Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy(FTIR-PAS) in non-destructively depth profiling of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer/polyethylene terephthalate(SBS/PET) layered materials.The surface thicknesses of three layered samples were determined to be 1.2,4.3 and 9.4μm by using phase difference analysis,overcoming the spatial detection limits of FTIR.Combined with generalized two-dimensional(G2D) FTIR correlation analysis,the spatial origins of peaks in the SBS/PET spectrum are identified with those having overlapping peaks between different layers are resolved. 7. Two-dimensional simulation of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells having overlapped p/i and n/i a-Si:H layers Science.gov (United States) Noge, Hiroshi; Saito, Kimihiko; Sato, Aiko; Kaneko, Tetsuya; Kondo, Michio 2015-08-01 The performance of interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction solar cells having overlapped p/i and n/i a-Si:H layers on the back has been investigated by two-dimensional simulation in comparison with the conventional cell structure having a gap between p/i and n/i layers. The results show that narrower overlap width leads to higher short circuit current and conversion efficiency, especially for poor heterojunction interface and thinner silicon substrate of the cells in addition to narrower uncovered width of p/i layer by a metal electrode. This is similar to the gap width dependence in the conventional cells, since both overlap and gap act as dead area for diffused excess carriers in the back contacts. 8. ON NONLINEAR STABILITY IN NONPARALLEL BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) TANG Deng-bin; WANG Wei-zhi 2004-01-01 The nonlinear stability problem in nonparallel boundary layer flow for two-dimensional disturbances was studied by using a newly presented method called Parabolic Stability Equations (PSE). A series of new modes generated by the nonlinear interaction of disturbance waves were tabulately analyzed, and the Mean Flow Distortion (MFD) was numerically given. The computational techniques developed, including the higher-order spectral method and the more effective algebraic mapping, increased greatly the numerical accuracy and the rate of convergence. With the predictor-corrector approach in the marching procedure, the normalization condition was satisfied, and the stability of numerical calculation could be ensured. With different initial amplitudes, the nonlinear stability of disturbance wave was studied. The results of examples show good agreement with the data given by the DNS using the full Navier-Stokes equations. 9. Laminar boundary-layer flow of non-Newtonian fluid Science.gov (United States) Lin, F. N.; Chern, S. Y. 1979-01-01 A solution for the two-dimensional and axisymmetric laminar boundary-layer momentum equation of power-law non-Newtonian fluid is presented. The analysis makes use of the Merk-Chao series solution method originally devised for the flow of Newtonian fluid. The universal functions for the leading term in the series are tabulated for n from 0.2 to 2. Equations governing the universal functions associated with the second and the third terms are provided. The solution together with either Lighthill's formula or Chao's formula constitutes a simple yet general procedure for the calculation of wall shear and surface heat transfer rate. The theory was applied to flows over a circular cylinder and a sphere and the results compared with published data. 10. Boundary layer physics over snow and ice Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) P. S. Anderson 2007-06-01 Full Text Available A general understanding of the physics of advection and turbulent mixing within the near surface atmosphere assists the interpretation and predictive power of air chemistry theory. The theory of the physical processes involved in diffusion of trace gas reactants in the near surface atmosphere is still incomplete. Such boundary layer theory is least understood over snow and ice covered surfaces, due in part to the thermo-optical properties of the surface. Polar boundary layers have additional aspects to consider, due to the possibility of long periods without diurnal forcing and enhanced Coriolis effects. This paper provides a review of present concepts in polar boundary layer meteorology, which will generally apply to atmospheric flow over snow and ice surfaces. It forms a companion paper to the chemistry review papers in this special issue of ACP. 11. Existence of shocklets in a two-dimensional supersonic mixing layer and its influence on the flow structure Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2001-01-01 The spatial evolution of a T-S wave and its subharmonic wave, introduced at the inlet in a 2-D supersonic mixing layer, was investigated by using DNS. The relationship between the amplitude of the disturbance wave and the strength of the shocklet caused by the disturbance was investigated. We analyzed the shape of the disturbance velocity profile on both sides of the shocklet, and found that the existence of shocklet affected appreciably the disturbance velocity. The effects on the high speed side and low speed side of the mixing layer were found to be different. 12. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden) 1997-10-01 It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au) 13. Symmetries of boundary layer equations of power-law fluids of second grade Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) Mehmet Pakdemirli; Yi(g)it Aksoy; Muhammet Y(u)r(u)soy; Chaudry Masood Khalique 2008-01-01 A modified power-law fluid of second grade is considered. The model is a combination of power-law and second grade fluid in which the fluid may exhibit normal stresses, shear thinning or shear thickening behaviors. The equations of motion are derived for two dimensional incom-pressible flows, and from which the boundary layer equations are derived. Symmetries of the boundary layer equations are found by using Lie group theory, and then group classifica-tion with respect to power-law index is performed. By using one of the symmetries, namely the scaling symmetry, the partial differential system is transformed into an ordinary differential system, which is numerically integrated under the classical boundary layer conditions. Effects of power-law index and second grade coefficient on the boundary layers are shown and solutions are contrasted with the usual second grade fluid solutions. 14. Atomic force microscopy imaging of transition metal layered compounds : A two-dimensional stick–slip system NARCIS (Netherlands) Kerssemakers, J.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De 1995-01-01 Various layered transition metal dichalcogenides were scanned with an optical-lever atomic force microscope (AFM). The microscopic images indicate the occurrence of strong lateral stick–slip effects. In this letter, two models are presented to describe the observations due to stick–slip, i.e., eithe 15. Self-similar magnetohydrodynamic boundary layers Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Nunez, Manuel; Lastra, Alberto, E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.e [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain) 2010-10-15 The boundary layer created by parallel flow in a magnetized fluid of high conductivity is considered in this paper. Under appropriate boundary conditions, self-similar solutions analogous to the ones studied by Blasius for the hydrodynamic problem may be found. It is proved that for these to be stable, the size of the Alfven velocity at the outer flow must be smaller than the flow velocity, a fact that has a ready physical explanation. The process by which the transverse velocity and the thickness of the layer grow with the size of the Alfven velocity is detailed. 16. A three-dimensional coupled-mode model for the acoustic field in a two-dimensional waveguide with perfectly reflecting boundaries Science.gov (United States) Luo, Wen-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Lin; Yang, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Ze-Zhong; Zhang, Ren-He 2016-12-01 This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) coupled-mode model using the direct-global-matrix technique as well as Fourier synthesis. This model is a full wave, two-way three-dimensional model, and is therefore capable of providing accurate acoustic field solutions. Because the problem of sound propagation excited by a point source in an ideal wedge with perfectly reflecting boundaries is one of a few three-dimensional problems with analytical solutions, the ideal wedge problem is chosen in this work to validate the presented three-dimensional model. Numerical results show that the field results by analytical solutions and those by the presented model are in excellent agreement, indicating that the presented model can serve as a benchmark model for three-dimensional sound propagation problems involving a planar two-dimensional geometry as well as a point source. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11125420, 11434012, and 41561144006) and the Knowledge Innovation Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 17. Three-Dimensional Porous Particles Composed of Curved, Two-Dimensional, Nano-Sized Layers for Li-Ion Batteries Science.gov (United States) Yushin, Gleb; Evanoff, Kara; Magasinski, Alexander 2012-01-01 Thin Si films coated on porous 3D particles composed of curved 2D graphene sheets have been synthesized utilizing techniques that allow for tunable properties. Since graphene exhibits specific surface area up to 100 times higher than carbon black or graphite, the deposition of the same mass of Si on graphene is much faster in comparison -- a factor which is important for practical applications. In addition, the distance between graphene layers is tunable and variation in the thickness of the deposited Si film is feasible. Both of these characteristics allow for optimization of the energy and power characteristics. Thicker films will allow higher capacity, but slower rate capabilities. Thinner films will allow more rapid charging, or higher power performance. In this innovation, uniform deposition of Si and C layers on high-surface area graphene produced granules with specific surface area (SSA) of 5 sq. m/g. 18. Energy-efficient optical line terminal for WDM-OFDM-PON based on two-dimensional subcarrier and layer allocation. Science.gov (United States) Hu, Xiaofeng; Cao, Pan; Zhuang, Zhiming; Zhang, Liang; Yang, Qi; Su, Yikai 2012-11-05 We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to reduce the energy consumption of optical line terminal (OLT) in wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). In our scheme, a wireless communication technique, termed layered modulation, is introduced to maximize the transmission capacity of OFDM modulation module in the OLT by multiplexing data from different ONU groups with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) margins onto the same subcarriers. With adaptive and dynamic subcarrier and layer allocation, several ONU groups with low traffic demands can share one OFDM modulation module to deliver their data during non-peak hours of a day, thus greatly reducing the number of running devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. Numerical calculation shows that an energy efficiency improvement of 28.3% in the OLT can be achieved by using proposed scheme compared to the conventional WDM-OFDM-PON. 19. GaN: From three- to two-dimensional single-layer crystal and its multilayer van der Waals solids Science.gov (United States) Onen, A.; Kecik, D.; Durgun, E.; Ciraci, S. 2016-02-01 Three-dimensional (3D) GaN is a III-V compound semiconductor with potential optoelectronic applications. In this paper, starting from 3D GaN in wurtzite and zinc-blende structures, we investigated the mechanical, electronic, and optical properties of the 2D single-layer honeycomb structure of GaN (g -GaN ) and its bilayer, trilayer, and multilayer van der Waals solids using density-functional theory. Based on high-temperature ab initio molecular-dynamics calculations, we first showed that g -GaN can remain stable at high temperature. Then we performed a comparative study to reveal how the physical properties vary with dimensionality. While 3D GaN is a direct-band-gap semiconductor, g -GaN in two dimensions has a relatively wider indirect band gap. Moreover, 2D g -GaN displays a higher Poisson ratio and slightly less charge transfer from cation to anion. In two dimensions, the optical-absorption spectra of 3D crystalline phases are modified dramatically, and their absorption onset energy is blueshifted. We also showed that the physical properties predicted for freestanding g -GaN are preserved when g -GaN is grown on metallic as well as semiconducting substrates. In particular, 3D layered blue phosphorus, being nearly lattice-matched to g -GaN , is found to be an excellent substrate for growing g -GaN . Bilayer, trilayer, and van der Waals crystals can be constructed by a special stacking sequence of g -GaN , and they can display electronic and optical properties that can be controlled by the number of g -GaN layers. In particular, their fundamental band gap decreases and changes from indirect to direct with an increasing number of g -GaN layers. 20. Two-Dimensional SnO Anodes with a Tunable Number of Atomic Layers for Sodium Ion Batteries KAUST Repository Zhang, Fan 2017-01-18 We have systematically changed the number of atomic layers stacked in 2D SnO nanosheet anodes and studied their sodium ion battery (SIB) performance. The results indicate that as the number of atomic SnO layers in a sheet decreases, both the capacity and cycling stability of the Na ion battery improve. The thinnest SnO nanosheet anodes (two to six SnO monolayers) exhibited the best performance. Specifically, an initial discharge and charge capacity of 1072 and 848 mAh g-1 were observed, respectively, at 0.1 A g-1. In addition, an impressive reversible capacity of 665 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1 and 452 mAh g-1 after 1000 cycles at a high current density of 1.0 A g-1 was observed, with excellent rate performance. As the average number of atomic layers in the anode sheets increased, the battery performance degraded significantly. For example, for the anode sheets with 10-20 atomic layers, only a reversible capacity of 389 mAh g-1 could be obtained after 100 cycles at 0.1 A g-1. Density functional theory calculations coupled with experimental results were used to elucidate the sodiation mechanism of the SnO nanosheets. This systematic study of monolayer-dependent physical and electrochemical properties of 2D anodes shows a promising pathway to engineering and mitigating volume changes in 2D anode materials for sodium ion batteries. It also demonstrates that ultrathin SnO nanosheets are promising SIB anode materials with high specific capacity, stable cyclability, and excellent rate performance. 1. Atomic layer deposition of two dimensional MoS{sub 2} on 150 mm substrates Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Valdivia, Arturo; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of EECS, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Tweet, Douglas J. [Sharp Labs of America, Camas, Washington 98607 (United States) 2016-03-15 Low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of monolayer to few layer MoS{sub 2} uniformly across 150 mm diameter SiO{sub 2}/Si and quartz substrates is demonstrated. Purge separated cycles of MoCl{sub 5} and H{sub 2}S precursors are used at reactor temperatures of up to 475 °C. Raman scattering studies show clearly the in-plane (E{sup 1}{sub 2g}) and out-of-plane (A{sub 1g}) modes of MoS{sub 2}. The separation of the E{sup 1}{sub 2g} and A{sub 1g} peaks is a function of the number of ALD cycles, shifting closer together with fewer layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that stoichiometry is improved by postdeposition annealing in a sulfur ambient. High resolution transmission electron microscopy confirms the atomic spacing of monolayer MoS{sub 2} thin films. 2. Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) 2009-01-01 Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor- tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θ to the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of θ accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im- plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θ R of typical LCS. θ R first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of θ saturates at y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around y+=100. The ensem- ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla- tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(y) ac- cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down- stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond. 3. Identification of Lagrangian coherent structures in the turbulent boundary layer Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) PAN Chong; WANG JinJun; ZHANG Cao 2009-01-01 Using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) method, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) in a fully developed flat-plate turbulent boundary layer are successfully identified from a two-dimensional (2D) velocity field obtained by time-resolved 2D PIV measurement. The typical LCSs in the turbulent boundary layer are hairpin-like structures, which are characterized as legs of quasi-streamwise vor-tices extending deep into the near wall region with an inclination angle θto the wall, and heads of the transverse vortex tube located in the outer region. Statistical analysis on the characteristic shape of typical LCS reveals that the probability density distribution of # accords well with t-distribution in the near wall region, but presents a bimodal distribution with two peaks in the outer region, corresponding to the hairpin head and the hairpin neck, respectively. Spatial correlation analysis of FTLE field is im-plemented to get the ensemble-averaged inclination angle θR of typical LCS. θR first increases and then decreases along the wall-normal direction, similar to that of the mean value of θ. Moreover, the most probable value of 8 saturates at Y+=100 with the maximum value of about 24°, suggesting that the most likely position where hairpins transit from the neck to the head is located around Y+=100. The ensem-ble-averaged convection velocity Uc of typical LCS is finally calculated from temporal-spatial correla-tion analysis of FTLE field. It is found that the wall-normal profile of the convection velocity Uc(Y) ac-cords well with the local mean velocity profile U(y) beyond the buffer layer, evidencing that the down-stream convection of hairpins determines the transportation properties of the turbulent boundary layer in the log-region and beyond. 4. Modeling of Lamb wave propagation in plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate using plane-wave-expansion method Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Hou Zhilin [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)], E-mail: zhilin.hou@lpmi.uhp-nancy.fr; Assouar, Badreddine M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises et Applications (LPMIA), Nancy University, CNRS Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239 F-54506, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France) 2008-03-17 We show that the conversional three-dimensional plane wave expansion method can be revised to investigate the lamb wave propagation in the plate with two-dimensional phononic crystal layer coated on uniform substrate. We find that an imaginary three-dimensional periodic system can be constructed by stacking the studied plates and vacuum layers alternately, and then the Fourier series expansion can be performed. The difference between our imaginary periodic system and the true three-dimensional one is that, in our system, the Bloch feature of the wave along the thickness direction is broken. Three different systems are investigated by the proposed method as examples. The principle and reliability of the method are also discussed. 5. Quantum transport in two dimensional electron gas/p-wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling at the interface and in the normal layer Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Mohammadkhani, R., E-mail: rmkhani@znu.ac.ir; Hassanloo, Gh. 2014-11-01 We have studied the tunneling conductance of a clean two dimensional electron gas/p- wave superconductor junction with Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) which is present in the normal layer and at the interface. Using the extended Blonder–Tinkham–Klapwijk formalism we have found that the subgap conductance peaks are shifted to a nonzero bias by RSOC at the interface which are the same as Ref. [1]. It is shown that for low insulating barrier and in the absence of the interface RSOC, the tunneling conductance decreases within energy gap with increasing of the RSOC in the normal layer while for high insulating barrier it enhances by increase of the RSOC. We have also shown that the RSOC inside the normal cannot affect the location of the subgap conductance peaks shifted by the interface RSOC. 6. Design strategy of two-dimensional material field-effect transistors: Engineering the number of layers in phosphorene FETs Science.gov (United States) Yin, Demin; Yoon, Youngki 2016-06-01 Thickness or the number of layers in 2D semiconductors is a key parameter to determine the material's electronic properties and the overall device performance of 2D material electronics. Here, we discuss the engineering practice of optimizing material and device parameters of phosphorene field-effect transistors (FETs) by means of self-consistent atomistic quantum transport simulations, where the impacts of different numbers of phosphorene layers on various device characteristics are explored in particular, considering two specific target applications of high-performance and low-power devices. Our results suggest that, for high-performance applications, monolayer phosphorene should be utilized in a conventional FET structure since it can provide the equally large on current as other multilayer phosphorenes (Ion > 1 mA/μm) without showing a penalty of relatively lower density of states, along with favorableness for steep switching and large immunity to gate-induced drain leakage. On the other hand, more comprehensive approach is required for low-power applications, where operating voltage, doping concentration, and channel length should be carefully engineered along with the thickness of phosphorene in tunnel FET (TFET) structure to achieve ultra-low leakage current without sacrificing on current significantly. Our extensive simulation results revealed that either bilayer or trilayer phosphorene can provide the best performance in TFET with the maximum Ion/Ioff of ˜2 × 1011 and the subthreshold swing as low as 13 mV/dec. In addition, our comparative study of phosphorene-based conventional FET and TFET clearly shows the feasibility and the limitation of each device for different target applications, providing irreplaceable insights into the design strategy of phosphorene FETs that can be also extended to other similar layered material electronic devices. 7. Turbulent Boundary Layers - Experiments, Theory and Modelling Science.gov (United States) 1980-01-01 DEVELOPMENT (ORGANISATION DU TRAITE DE L’ATLANTIQUE NORD ) AGARD Conference Proceedings No.271 TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYERS - EXPERIMENTS, THEORY AND...photographs of Figures 21 and 22. In this case, the photographs are taken with a single flash strobe and thus yield the instantaneous positions of the 8. Comments on Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Transition Science.gov (United States) 1990-09-01 laver transition results from instabilities as described by linear stability theory, then the disturbance growth historias follow a prescribed...mechanism by which boundary-layer disturbance growth is generally initiated and establishes the initial distur- banca amplitude at the onset of disturbance 9. Boundary layer control device for duct silencers Science.gov (United States) Schmitz, Fredric H. (Inventor); Soderman, Paul T. (Inventor) 1993-01-01 A boundary layer control device includes a porous cover plate, an acoustic absorber disposed under the porous cover plate, and a porous flow resistive membrane interposed between the porous cover plate and the acoustic absorber. The porous flow resistive membrane has a flow resistance low enough to permit sound to enter the acoustic absorber and high enough to damp unsteady flow oscillations. 10. Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Modeling and Parameterization NARCIS (Netherlands) Holtslag, A.A.M. 2015-01-01 In this contribution we deal with the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for modeling studies of weather, climate, and air quality. As such we review the major characteristics of the ABL, and summarize the basic parameterizations for the description of atmospheric turbulence and 11. Astrophysical Boundary Layers: A New Picture Science.gov (United States) Belyaev, Mikhail; Rafikov, Roman R.; Mclellan Stone, James 2016-04-01 Accretion is a ubiquitous process in astrophysics. In cases when the magnetic field is not too strong and a disk is formed, accretion can proceed through the mid plane all the way to the surface of the central compact object. Unless that compact object is a black hole, a boundary layer will be formed where the accretion disk touches its surfaces. The boundary layer is both dynamically and observationally significant as up to half of the accretion energy is dissipated there.Using a combination of analytical theory and computer simulations we show that angular momentum transport and accretion in the boundary layer is mediated by waves. This breaks with the standard astrophysical paradigm of an anomalous turbulent viscosity that drives accretion. However, wave-mediated angular momentum transport is a natural consequence of "sonic instability." The sonic instability, which we describe analytically and observe in our simulations, is a close cousin of the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. However, it is very vigorous in the boundary layer due to the immense radial velocity shear present at the equator.Our results are applicable to accreting neutron stars, white dwarfs, protostars, and protoplanets. 12. Global stability analysis of axisymmetric boundary layers CERN Document Server Vinod, N 2016-01-01 This paper presents the linear global stability analysis of the incompressible axisymmetric boundary layer on a circular cylinder. The base flow is parallel to the axis of the cylinder at inlet. The pressure gradient is zero in the streamwise direction. The base flow velocity profile is fully non-parallel and non-similar in nature. The boundary layer grows continuously in the spatial directions. Linearized Navier-Stokes(LNS) equations are derived for the disturbance flow quantities in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The LNS equations along with homogeneous boundary conditions forms a generalized eigenvalues problem. Since the base flow is axisymmetric, the disturbances are periodic in azimuthal direction. Chebyshev spectral collocation method and Arnoldi's iterative algorithm is used for the solution of the general eigenvalues problem. The global temporal modes are computed for the range of Reynolds numbers and different azimuthal wave numbers. The largest imaginary part of the computed eigenmodes are nega... 13. Controls on boundary layer ventilation: Boundary layer processes and large-scale dynamics Science.gov (United States) Sinclair, V. A.; Gray, S. L.; Belcher, S. E. 2010-06-01 Midlatitude cyclones are important contributors to boundary layer ventilation. However, it is uncertain how efficient such systems are at transporting pollutants out of the boundary layer, and variations between cyclones are unexplained. In this study 15 idealized baroclinic life cycles, with a passive tracer included, are simulated to identify the relative importance of two transport processes: horizontal divergence and convergence within the boundary layer and large-scale advection by the warm conveyor belt. Results show that the amount of ventilation is insensitive to surface drag over a realistic range of values. This indicates that although boundary layer processes are necessary for ventilation they do not control the magnitude of ventilation. A diagnostic for the mass flux out of the boundary layer has been developed to identify the synoptic-scale variables controlling the strength of ascent in the warm conveyor belt. A very high level of correlation (R2 values exceeding 0.98) is found between the diagnostic and the actual mass flux computed from the simulations. This demonstrates that the large-scale dynamics control the amount of ventilation, and the efficiency of midlatitude cyclones to ventilate the boundary layer can be estimated using the new mass flux diagnostic. We conclude that meteorological analyses, such as ERA-40, are sufficient to quantify boundary layer ventilation by the large-scale dynamics. 14. Numerical methods for hypersonic boundary layer stability Science.gov (United States) Malik, M. R. 1990-01-01 Four different schemes for solving compressible boundary layer stability equations are developed and compared, considering both the temporal and spatial stability for a global eigenvalue spectrum and a local eigenvalue search. The discretizations considered encompass: (1) a second-order-staggered finite-difference scheme; (2) a fourth-order accurate, two-point compact scheme; (3) a single-domain Chebychev spectral collocation scheme; and (4) a multidomain spectral collocation scheme. As Mach number increases, the performance of the single-domain collocation scheme deteriorates due to the outward movement of the critical layer; a multidomain spectral method is accordingly designed to furnish superior resolution of the critical layer. 15. Three-dimensional structural damage localization system and method using layered two-dimensional array of capacitance sensors Science.gov (United States) Curry, Mark A (Inventor); Senibi, Simon D (Inventor); Banks, David L (Inventor) 2010-01-01 A system and method for detecting damage to a structure is provided. The system includes a voltage source and at least one capacitor formed as a layer within the structure and responsive to the voltage source. The system also includes at least one sensor responsive to the capacitor to sense a voltage of the capacitor. A controller responsive to the sensor determines if damage to the structure has occurred based on the variance of the voltage of the capacitor from a known reference value. A method for sensing damage to a structure involves providing a plurality of capacitors and a controller, and coupling the capacitors to at least one surface of the structure. A voltage of the capacitors is sensed using the controller, and the controller calculates a change in the voltage of the capacitors. The method can include signaling a display system if a change in the voltage occurs. 16. Two-dimensional inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductors composed of double-layered ZnS and monoamines with aromatic and heterocyclic aliphatic rings: Syntheses, structures, and properties Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Wang, Sujing; Li, Jing, E-mail: jingli@rutgers.edu 2015-04-15 As an addition to the II–VI based inorganic–organic hybrid semiconductor family, five new two-dimensional (2D) double-layered structures have been synthesized employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings. Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(bza) (1), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(mbza) (2), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(fbza) (3), Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(pca) (4), and Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(thfa) (5) (bza=benzylamine, mbza=4-methoxybenzylamine, fbza=4-flurobenzylamine, pca=3-picolylamine, and thfa=tetrahydrofurfurylamine) are prepared by solvothermal reactions and characterized by different analytical methods, including powder X-ray diffraction, optical diffuse reflection, thermogravimetric analysis and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns show that all five compounds adopt 2D double-layered structures. Optical diffuse reflectance spectra of these compounds suggest that they have notably lower band gaps than those of the similar compounds composed of aliphatic alkyl amines. Their photoluminescence properties and thermal stability are also analyzed. - Graphical abstract: Five new members of two-dimensional double-layered 2D-Zn{sub 2}S{sub 2}(L) (L=Ligand) structures employing monoamines with different aromatic or heterocyclic aliphatic rings have been designed, synthesized, and characterized. - Highlights: • A new sub-family of II-VI based hybrid semiconductors are designed, synthesized, and structurally characterized using amines with aromatic or aliphatic cyclic rings. • These compounds have notably lower band gaps than those made of aliphatic alkyl amines, greatly broadening the range of band gaps of this material family. • They emit strongly with systematically tunable emission intensity and energy. 17. Shock Train/Boundary-Layer Interaction in Rectangular Scramjet Isolators Science.gov (United States) Geerts, Jonathan Simon Numerous studies of the dual-mode scramjet isolator, a critical component in preventing inlet unstart and/or vehicle loss by containing a collection of flow disturbances called a shock train, have been performed since the dual-mode propulsion cycle was introduced in the 1960s. Low momentum corner flow and other three-dimensional effects inherent to rectangular isolators have, however, been largely ignored in experimental studies of the boundary layer separation driven isolator shock train dynamics. Furthermore, the use of two dimensional diagnostic techniques in past works, be it single-perspective line-of-sight schlieren/shadowgraphy or single axis wall pressure measurements, have been unable to resolve the three-dimensional flow features inside the rectangular isolator. These flow characteristics need to be thoroughly understood if robust dual-mode scramjet designs are to be fielded. The work presented in this thesis is focused on experimentally analyzing shock train/boundary layer interactions from multiple perspectives in aspect ratio 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 rectangular isolators with inflow Mach numbers ranging from 2.4 to 2.7. Secondary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics studies are performed to compare to the experimental results and to provide additional perspectives of the flow field. Specific issues that remain unresolved after decades of isolator shock train studies that are addressed in this work include the three-dimensional formation of the isolator shock train front, the spatial and temporal low momentum corner flow separation scales, the transient behavior of shock train/boundary layer interaction at specific coordinates along the isolator's lateral axis, and effects of the rectangular geometry on semi-empirical relations for shock train length prediction. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.). 18. The Lowest Atmosphere: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Including Atmospheric Surface Layer. Science.gov (United States) 1996-04-01 of motion of the atmosphere— "second order closure"—to such applications as the SCIPUFF -PC code for tracer dispersion (see Sykes, 1994). Now, for...Turbulence, Methuen, London, 2nd Ed., 1955. Sykes, R.I., "The SCIPUFF -PC Code," ARAP Draft Report, 1994. Tennekes, H., "The Atmospheric Boundary Layer 19. Redox Active Cation Intercalation/Deintercalation in Two-Dimensional Layered MnO2 Nanostructures for High-Rate Electrochemical Energy Storage. Science.gov (United States) Xiong, Pan; Ma, Renzhi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Bai, Xueyin; Li, Shen; Sasaki, Takayoshi 2017-02-22 Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials with a high intercalation pseudocapacitance have long been investigated for Li(+)-ion-based electrochemical energy storage. By contrast, the exploration of guest ions other than Li(+) has been limited, although promising. The present study investigates intercalation/deintercalation behaviors of various metal ions in 2D layered MnO2 with various interlayer distances, K-birnessite nanobelt (K-MnO2), its protonated form (H-MnO2), and a freeze-dried sample of exfoliated nanosheets. Series of metal ions, such as monovalent Li(+), Na(+), and K(+) and divalent Mg(2+), exhibit reversible intercalation during charge/discharge cycling, delivering high-rate pseudocapacitances. In particular, the freeze-dried MnO2 of exfoliated nanosheets restacked with the largest interlayer spacing and a less compact 3D network exhibits the best rate capability and a stable cyclability over 5000 cycles. Both theoretical calculation and kinetic analysis reveal that the increased interlayer distance facilitates the fast diffusion of cations in layered MnO2 hosts. The results presented herein provide a basis for the controllable synthesis of layered nanostructures for high-rate electrochemical energy storage using various single- and multivalent ions. 20. Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers NARCIS (Netherlands) Verzijlbergh, R.A.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Heus, T.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J. 2009-01-01 Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary 1. Bursting frequency prediction in turbulent boundary layers Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) LIOU,WILLIAM W.; FANG,YICHUNG 2000-02-01 The frequencies of the bursting events associated with the streamwise coherent structures of spatially developing incompressible turbulent boundary layers were predicted using global numerical solution of the Orr-Sommerfeld and the vertical vorticity equations of hydrodynamic stability problems. The structures were modeled as wavelike disturbances associated with the turbulent mean flow. The global method developed here involves the use of second and fourth order accurate finite difference formula for the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions. An automated prediction tool, BURFIT, was developed. The predicted resonance frequencies were found to agree very well with previous results using a local shooting technique and measured data. 2. Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow over Superhydrophobic Surfaces Science.gov (United States) 2013-05-10 Figure 1 were a highly viscous fluid, such as honey , the boundary layer would be thick while if the fluid were water, a low-viscosity fluid, the boundary...drag has become even more important. In response to this need, and with the benefit of modern technology, the drag-reduction field is replete with...manufactured with “riblets,” small ridges on the order of fractions of millimeters, built-into the hull or skin that seek to reduce frictional drag. The 3. Particulate plumes in boundary layers with obstacles Science.gov (United States) Petrosyan, Arakel; Karelsky, Kirill 2013-04-01 This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by non-slip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of big wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations.We deal with describing big field 4. Data set for fabrication of conformal two-dimensional TiO2 by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis (dimethylamino) titanium (TDMAT) and H2O precursors. Science.gov (United States) Zhuiykov, Serge; Akbari, Mohammad Karbalaei; Hai, Zhenyin; Xue, Chenyang; Xu, Hongyan; Hyde, Lachlan 2017-08-01 The data and complementary information presented hare are related to the research article of "http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.016; Materials and Design 120 (2017) 99-108" [1]. The article provides data and information on the case of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ultra-thin two-dimensional TiO2 film. The chemical structure of precursors, and the fabrication process were illustrated. The data of spectral ellipsometric measurements and the methods of calculations were presented. Data of root mean square roughness and the average roughness of the ADL TiO2 film are presented. The method of bandgap measurements and the bandgap calculation are also explained in the present data article. 5. Data set for fabrication of conformal two-dimensional TiO2 by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis (dimethylamino titanium (TDMAT and H2O precursors Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Serge Zhuiykov 2017-08-01 Full Text Available The data and complementary information presented hare are related to the research article of “http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.02.016; Materials and Design 120 (2017 99–108” [1]. The article provides data and information on the case of atomic layer deposition (ALD of ultra-thin two-dimensional TiO2 film. The chemical structure of precursors, and the fabrication process were illustrated. The data of spectral ellipsometric measurements and the methods of calculations were presented. Data of root mean square roughness and the average roughness of the ADL TiO2 film are presented. The method of bandgap measurements and the bandgap calculation are also explained in the present data article. 6. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu, E-mail: amalen@iitk.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India) 2015-01-28 The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water. 7. Proton transfer through hydrogen bonds in two-dimensional water layers: A theoretical study based on ab initio and quantum-classical simulations Science.gov (United States) Bankura, Arindam; Chandra, Amalendu 2015-01-01 The dynamics of proton transfer (PT) through hydrogen bonds in a two-dimensional water layer confined between two graphene sheets at room temperature are investigated through ab initio and quantum-classical simulations. The excess proton is found to be mostly solvated as an Eigen cation where the hydronium ion donates three hydrogen bonds to the neighboring water molecules. In the solvation shell of the hydronium ion, the three coordinated water molecules with two donor hydrogen bonds are found to be properly presolvated to accept a proton. Although no hydrogen bond needs to be broken for transfer of a proton to such presolvated water molecules from the hydronium ion, the PT rate is still found to be not as fast as it is for one-dimensional chains. Here, the PT is slowed down as the probability of finding a water with two donor hydrogen bonds in the solvation shell of the hydronium ion is found to be only 25%-30%. The hydroxide ion is found to be solvated mainly as a complex anion where it accepts four H-bonds through its oxygen atom and the hydrogen atom of the hydroxide ion remains free all the time. Here, the presolvation of the hydroxide ion to accept a proton requires that one of its hydrogen bonds is broken and the proton comes from a neighboring water molecule with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds. The coordination number reduction by breaking of a hydrogen bond is a slow process, and also the population of water molecules with two acceptor and one donor hydrogen bonds is only 20%-25% of the total number of water molecules. All these factors together tend to slow down the hydroxide ion migration rate in two-dimensional water layers compared to that in three-dimensional bulk water. 8. Boundary layer control of rotating convection systems. Science.gov (United States) King, Eric M; Stellmach, Stephan; Noir, Jerome; Hansen, Ulrich; Aurnou, Jonathan M 2009-01-15 Turbulent rotating convection controls many observed features of stars and planets, such as magnetic fields, atmospheric jets and emitted heat flux patterns. It has long been argued that the influence of rotation on turbulent convection dynamics is governed by the ratio of the relevant global-scale forces: the Coriolis force and the buoyancy force. Here, however, we present results from laboratory and numerical experiments which exhibit transitions between rotationally dominated and non-rotating behaviour that are not determined by this global force balance. Instead, the transition is controlled by the relative thicknesses of the thermal (non-rotating) and Ekman (rotating) boundary layers. We formulate a predictive description of the transition between the two regimes on the basis of the competition between these two boundary layers. This transition scaling theory unifies the disparate results of an extensive array of previous experiments, and is broadly applicable to natural convection systems. 9. Active control of ionized boundary layers CERN Document Server Mendes, R V 1997-01-01 The challenging problems, in the field of control of chaos or of transition to chaos, lie in the domain of infinite-dimensional systems. Access to all variables being impossible in this case and the controlling action being limited to a few collective variables, it will not in general be possible to drive the whole system to the desired behaviour. A paradigmatic problem of this type is the control of the transition to turbulence in the boundary layer of fluid motion. By analysing a boundary layer flow for an ionized fluid near an airfoil, one concludes that active control of the transition amounts to the resolution of an generalized integro-differential eigenvalue problem. To cope with the required response times and phase accuracy, electromagnetic control, whenever possible, seems more appropriate than mechanical control by microactuators. 10. MHD Turbulence in Accretion Disk Boundary Layers CERN Document Server Chan, Chi-kwan 2012-01-01 The physical modeling of the accretion disk boundary layer, the region where the disk meets the surface of the accreting star, usually relies on the assumption that angular momentum transport is opposite to the radial angular frequency gradient of the disk. The standard model for turbulent shear viscosity, widely adopted in astrophysics, satisfies this assumption by construction. However, this behavior is not supported by numerical simulations of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) accretion disks, which show that angular momentum transport driven by the magnetorotational instability is inefficient in this inner disk region. I will discuss the results of a recent study on the generation of hydromagnetic stresses and energy density in the boundary layer around a weakly magnetized star. Our findings suggest that although magnetic energy density can be significantly amplified in this region, angular momentum transport is rather inefficient. This seems consistent with the results obtained in numerical simulations... 11. Supersonic Turbulent Boundary Layer: DNS and RANS Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English) XU Jing-Lei; MA Hui-Yang 2007-01-01 We assess the performance of a few turbulence models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation of supersonic boundary layers, compared to the direct numerical simulations (DNS) of supersonic flat-plate turbulent boundary layers, carried out by Gao et al. [Chin. Phys. Lett. 22 (2005) 1709] and Huang et al. [Sci.Chin. 48 (2005) 614], as well as some available experimental data. The assessment is made for two test cases, with incoming Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers M = 2.25, Re = 365, 000/in, and M = 4.5, Re - 1.7 × 107/m,respectively. It is found that in the first case the prediction of RANS models agrees well with the DNS and the experimental data, while for the second case the agreement of the DNS models with experiment is less satisfactory.The compressibility effect on the RANS models is discussed. 12. Turbulent boundary layer over flexible plates Science.gov (United States) Rostami, Parand; Ioppolo, Tindaro 2016-11-01 This research describes the structure of a turbulent boundary layer flow with a zero pressure gradient over elastic plates. The elastic plates made of a thin aluminum sheets with thickness between 50 and 500 microns were placed on the floor of a subsonic wind tunnel and exposed to a turbulent boundary layer flow with a free stream velocity between 20m/s and 100m/s. The ceiling of the test section of the wind tunnel is adjustable so that a nearly zero pressure gradient is obtained in the test section. Hot-wire anemometry was used to measure the velocity components. Mean, fluctuating velocities and Reynolds stresses will be presented and compared with the values of a rigid plate. 13. BOREAS AFM-6 Boundary Layer Height Data Science.gov (United States) Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor) 2000-01-01 The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) site. This data set provides boundary layer height information over the site. The data were collected from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994 and are stored in tabular ASCII files. The boundary layer height data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884). 14. Analytic prediction for planar turbulent boundary layers CERN Document Server Chen, Xi 2016-01-01 Analytic predictions of mean velocity profile (MVP) and streamwise ($x$) development of related integral quantities are presented for flows in channel and turbulent boundary layer (TBL), based on a symmetry analysis of eddy length and total stress. Specific predictions are the friction velocity$u_\\tau$:${ U_e/u_\\tau }\\approx 2.22\\ln Re_x+2.86-3.83\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the boundary layer thickness$\\delta_e$:$x/\\delta_e \\approx 7.27\\ln Re_x-5.18-12.52\\ln(\\ln Re_x)$; the momentum thickness Reynolds number:$Re_x/Re_\\theta=4.94[{(\\ln {{\\mathop{\\rm Re}\

15. Instabilities and transition in boundary layers

N Vinod; Rama Govindarajan

2005-03-01

Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ultimately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a by-pass' route is more likely. Our recent work shows that spot birth is related to the pattern of secondary instability in either route.

16. 2007 Program of Study: Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

2008-06-01

PM Coalescence of charged water droplets Andrew Belmonte, Pennsylvania State University August 9 - 10:30 AM Multiscale analysis of strongly...Properties of Helium Near the Liquid-Vapor Critical Point. J. low Temp. Phys. 46, 115-135. [15] Polezhaev, V. I. and Soboleva, E. B. 2004 Rayleigh...through which potassium permanganate was added in most of the experiments in order to detect a possible appearance of boundary layer separation and

17. Experimental studies on transitional separated boundary layers

OpenAIRE

Serna Serrano, José

2013-01-01

Separated transitional boundary layers appear on key aeronautical processes such as the flow around wings or turbomachinery blades. The aim of this thesis is the study of these flows in representative scenarios of technological applications, gaining knowledge about phenomenology and physical processes that occur there and, developing a simple model for scaling them. To achieve this goal, experimental measurements have been carried out in a low speed facility, ensuring the flow homogeneity and...

18. Three dimensional boundary layers in internal flows

Science.gov (United States)

Bodonyi, R. J.

1987-01-01

A numerical study of the effects of viscous-inviscid interactions in three-dimensional duct flows is presented. In particular interacting flows for which the oncoming flow is not fully-developed were considered. In this case there is a thin boundary layer still present upstream of the surface distortion, as opposed to the fully-developed pipe flow situation wherein the flow is viscous across the cross section.

19. Shock Wave-Boundary Layer Interaction in Forced Shock Oscillations

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Piotr Doerffer; Oskar Szulc; Franco Magagnato

2003-01-01

The flow in transonic diffusers as well as in supersonic air intakes becomes often unsteady due to shock wave boundary layer interaction. The oscillations may be induced by natural separation unsteadiness or may be forced by boundary conditions. Significant improvement of CFD tools, increase of computer resources as well as development of experimental methods have again.drawn the attention of researchers to this topic.To investigate the problem forced oscillations of transonic turbulent flow in asymmetric two-dimensional Laval nozzle were considered. A viscous, perfect gas flow, was numerically simulated using the Reynolds-averaged compressible Navier-Stokes solver SPARC, employing a two-equation, eddy viscosity, turbulence closure in the URANS approach.For time-dependent and stationary flow simulations, Mach numbers upstream of the shock between 1.2 and 1.4 were considered. Comparison of computed and experimental data for steady states generally gave acceptable agreement. In the case of forced oscillations, a harmonic pressure variation was prescribed at the exit plane resulting in shock wave motion. Excitation frequencies between 0 Hz and 1024 Hz were investigated at the same pressure amplitude.The main result of the work carried out is the relation between the amplitude of the shock wave motion and the excitation frequency in the investigated range. Increasing excitation frequency resulted in decreasing amplitude of the shock movement. At high frequencies a natural mode of shock oscillation (of small amplitude) was observed which is not sensitive to forced excitement.

20. On the coupling between a supersonic boundary layer and a flexible surface

Science.gov (United States)

Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

1992-01-01

The coupling between a two-dimensional, supersonic, laminar boundary layer and a flexible surface is studied using direct numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the plate equation. The flexible surface is forced to vibrate by plane acoustic waves at normal incidence emanated by a sound source located on the side of the flexible surface opposite to the boundary layer. The effect of the source excitation frequency on the surface vibration and boundary layer stability is analyzed. We find that, for frequencies near the fifth natural frequency of the surface or lower, large disturbances are introduced in the boundary layer which may alter its stability characteristics. The interaction between a stable two-dimensional disturbance of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) type with the vibrating surface is also studied. We find that the disturbance level is higher over the vibrating flexible surface than that obtained when the surface is rigid, which indicates a strong coupling between flow and structure. However, in the absence of the sound source the disturbance level over the rigid and flexible surfaces are identical. This result is due to the high frequency of the TS disturbance which does not couple with the flexible surface.

1. Theoretical Analysis of Stationary Potential Flows and Boundary Layers at High Speed

Science.gov (United States)

Oswaititsch, K.; Wieghardt, K.

1948-01-01

The present report consists of two parts. The first part deals with the two-dimensional stationary flow in the presence of local supersonic zones. A numerical method of integration of the equation of gas dynamics is developed. Proceeding from solutions at great distance from the body the flow pattern is calculated step by step. Accordingly the related body form is obtained at the end of the calculation. The second part treats the relationship between the displacement thickness of laminar and turbulent boundary layers and the pressure distribution at high speeds. The stability of the boundary layer is investigated, resulting in basic differences in the behavior of subsonic and supersonic flows. Lastly, the decisive importance of the boundary layer for the pressure distribution, particularly for thin profiles, is demonstrated.

2. Stability of boundary layers with porous suction strips: Experiment and theory

Science.gov (United States)

Reynolds, G. A.; Saric, W. S.; Reed, H. L.; Nayfeh, A. H.

1982-01-01

Low turbulence tunnel experiments on the stability and transition of 2 D boundary layers on flat plates with and without suction are described. A number of general suction cases are discussed. Test results showed that the maximum stabilization occurred when the suction was moved toward the Branch I neutral point. An analytical study of the stability of two dimensional, incompressible boundary layer flows over plates with suction through porous strips was performed. The mean flow was calculated using linearized triple deck, closed form solutions. The stability results of the triple deck theory are shown to be in good agreement with those of the interacting boundary layers. An analytical optimization scheme for the suction configuration was developd. Numerical calculations were performed corresponding to the experimental configurations. In each case, the theory correctly predicts the experimental results.

3. A numerical method for computing unsteady 2-D boundary layer flows

Science.gov (United States)

Krainer, Andreas

1988-01-01

A numerical method for computing unsteady two-dimensional boundary layers in incompressible laminar and turbulent flows is described and applied to a single airfoil changing its incidence angle in time. The solution procedure adopts a first order panel method with a simple wake model to solve for the inviscid part of the flow, and an implicit finite difference method for the viscous part of the flow. Both procedures integrate in time in a step-by-step fashion, in the course of which each step involves the solution of the elliptic Laplace equation and the solution of the parabolic boundary layer equations. The Reynolds shear stress term of the boundary layer equations is modeled by an algebraic eddy viscosity closure. The location of transition is predicted by an empirical data correlation originating from Michel. Since transition and turbulence modeling are key factors in the prediction of viscous flows, their accuracy will be of dominant influence to the overall results.

4. Study of effect of a smooth hump on hypersonic boundary layer instability

Science.gov (United States)

Park, Donghun; Park, Seung O.

2016-12-01

Effect of a two-dimensional smooth hump on linear instability of hypersonic boundary layer is studied by using parabolized stability equations. Linear evolution of mode S over a hump is analyzed for Mach 4.5 and 5.92 flat plate and Mach 7.1 sharp cone boundary layers. Mean flow for stability analysis is obtained by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. Hump with height smaller than local boundary layer thickness is considered. The case of flat plate and sharp cone without the hump are also studied to provide comparable data. For flat plate boundary layers, destabilization and stabilization effect is confirmed for hump located at upstream and downstream of synchronization point, respectively. Results of parametric studies to examine the effect of hump height, location, etc., are also given. For sharp cone boundary layer, stabilization influence of hump is also identified for a specific range of frequency. Stabilization influence of hump on convective instability of mode S is found to be a possible cause of previous experimental observations of delaying transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

5. Boundary Layers Associated with a Coupled Navier-Stokes/Allem-Cahn System: The Non-Characteristic Boundary Case

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

XIE Xiaoqiang

2012-01-01

The goal of this article is to study the boundary layer of Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn system in a channel at small viscosity.We prove that there exists a boundary layer at the outlet(down-wind)of thickness v,where v,is the kinematic viscosity.The convergence in L2 of the solutions of the Navier-Stokes/Allen-Cahn equations to that of the Euler/Allen-Cahn equations at the vanishing viscosity was established.In two dimensional case we are able to derive the physically relevant uniform in space and time estimates,which is derived by the idea of better control on the tangential derivative and the use of an anisotropic Sobolve imbedding.

6. Two-dimensional hybrid layered materials: strain engineering on the band structure of MoS2/WSe2 hetero-multilayers

Science.gov (United States)

Gu, Kunming; Yu, Sheng; Eshun, Kwesi; Yuan, Haiwen; Ye, Huixian; Tang, Jiaoning; Ioannou, Dimitris E.; Xiao, Changshi; Wang, Hui; Li, Qiliang

2017-09-01

In this paper, we report a comprehensive modeling and simulation study of constructing hybrid layered materials by alternately stacking MoS2 and WSe2 monolayers. Such hybrid MoS2/WSe2 hetero-multilayers exhibited direct bandgap semiconductor characteristics with bandgap energy (E g) in a range of 0.45-0.55 eV at room temperature, very attractive for optoelectronics (wavelength range 2.5-2.75 μm) based on thicker two-dimensional (2D) materials. It was also found that the interlayer distance has a significant impact on the electronic properties of the hetero-multilayers, for example a five orders of magnitude change in the conductance was observed. Three material phases, direct bandgap semiconductor, indirect bandgap semiconductor, and metal were observed in MoS2/WSe2 hetero-multilayers, as the interlayer distance decreased from its relaxed (i.e., equilibrium) value of about 6.73 Å down to 5.50 Å, representing a vertical pressure of about 0.8 GPa for the bilayer and 1.5 GPa for the trilayer. Such new hybrid layered materials are very interesting for future nanoelectronic pressure sensor and nanophotonic applications. This study describes a new approach to explore and engineer the construction and application of tunable 2D semiconductors.

7. Screw-dislocation-driven growth of two-dimensional few-layer and pyramid-like WSe₂ by sulfur-assisted chemical vapor deposition.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Liang; Liu, Bilu; Abbas, Ahmad N; Ma, Yuqiang; Fang, Xin; Liu, Yihang; Zhou, Chongwu

2014-11-25

Two-dimensional (2D) layered tungsten diselenides (WSe2) material has recently drawn a lot of attention due to its unique optoelectronic properties and ambipolar transport behavior. However, direct chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of 2D WSe2 is not as straightforward as other 2D materials due to the low reactivity between reactants in WSe2 synthesis. In addition, the growth mechanism of WSe2 in such CVD process remains unclear. Here we report the observation of a screw-dislocation-driven (SDD) spiral growth of 2D WSe2 flakes and pyramid-like structures using a sulfur-assisted CVD method. Few-layer and pyramid-like WSe2 flakes instead of monolayer were synthesized by introducing a small amount of sulfur as a reducer to help the selenization of WO3, which is the precursor of tungsten. Clear observations of steps, helical fringes, and herringbone contours under atomic force microscope characterization reveal the existence of screw dislocations in the as-grown WSe2. The generation and propagation mechanisms of screw dislocations during the growth of WSe2 were discussed. Back-gated field-effect transistors were made on these 2D WSe2 materials, which show on/off current ratios of 10(6) and mobility up to 44 cm(2)/(V·s).

8. Leaky waves in boundary layer flow

Science.gov (United States)

Pralits, Jan

2005-11-01

Linear stability analysis of boundary layer flow is traditionally performed by solving the Orr-Sommerfeld equation (OSE), either in a temporal or a spatial framework. The mode structure of the OSE is in both cases composed of a finite number of discrete modes which decay at infinity in the wall- normal direction y, and a continuous spectrum of propagating modes behaving as (±ik y) when y->∞, with real k. A peculiarity of this structure is that the number of discrete modes changes with the Reynolds number, Re. They indeed seem to disappear behind the continuous spectrum at certain Re. This phenomenon is here investigated by studying the response of the Blasius boundary layer forced instantaneously in space and time. Since the solution of the forced and homogeneous Laplace-transformed problem both depend on the free-stream boundary conditions, it is shown here that a suitable change of variables can remove the branch cut in the Laplace plane. As a result, integration of the inverse Laplace transform along the two sides of the branch cut, which gives rise to the continuous spectrum, can be replaced by a sum of residues corresponding to an additional set of discrete eigenvalues. These new modes grow at infinity in the y direction, and are analogous to the leaky waves found in the theory of optical waveguides, i.e. optical fibers, which are attenuated in the direction of the waveguide but grow unbounded in the direction perpendicular to it.

9. A global boundary-layer height climatology

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dop, H. van; Krol, M.; Holtslag, B. [Inst. for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, IMAU, Utrecht (Netherlands)

1997-10-01

In principle the ABL (atmospheric boundary layer) height can be retrieved from atmospheric global circulation models since they contain algorithms which determine the intensity of the turbulence as a function of height. However, these data are not routinely available, or on a (vertical) resolution which is too crude in view of the application. This justifies the development of a separate algorithm in order to define the ABL. The algorithm should include the generation of turbulence by both shear and buoyancy and should be based on readily available atmospheric parameters. There is obviously a wide application for boundary heights in off-line global and regional chemistry and transport modelling. It is also a much used parameter in air pollution meteorology. In this article we shall present a theory which is based on current insights in ABL dynamics. The theory is applicable over land and sea surfaces in all seasons. The theory is (for various reasons) not valid in mountainous areas. In areas where boundary-layer clouds or deep cumulus convection are present the theory does not apply. However, the same global atmospheric circulation models contain parameterizations for shallow and deep convection from which separate estimates can be obtained for the extent of vertical mixing. (au)

10. An experimental investigation of the three-dimensional boundary layer on a rotating disk

Science.gov (United States)

Littell, Howard Steven

The velocity field above a large spinning disk has been studied using pressure probes and hotwire anemometers. The flowfield consists of a three-dimensional boundary layer due to a crossflow caused by centrifugal forces. The disk was 1 m in diameter and was spun at speeds up to 1500 rpm, giving momentum thickness Reynolds numbers in excess of 6000. The mean flow in both the laminar and turbulent regimes compares well with previous studies of 'infinite' smooth rotating disks. All six Reynolds stresses and the ten triple products have been measured using established crosswire anemometry techniques. These results are compared to previous three-dimensional boundary layer measurements and several key differences are noted. The ratio of the shear stress vector magnitude to the turbulent kinetic energy is a common descriptor of boundary layer flow and is used in many modeling efforts because it is usually a constant over most of a two-dimensional boundary layer. Three-dimensionality has been observed to depress this parameter near the wall in many pressure-driven boundary layers. In the disk flow, this parameter was at a maximum near the wall at close to the 2-D value, but dropped off almost linearly away from the wall. Two-point velocity correlations were also measured using a pair of crosswire anemometers to gain insight into the structure of the turbulence. These measurements were obtained at two different heights at momentum thickness Reynolds numbers of 2650 and 5000 to test for possible scaling effects. These measurements showed that the turbulence exhibits asymmetry in the crossflow direction, which cannot occur in two-dimensional boundary layers. A mechanism by which the crossflow may be modifying the turbulence structure is proposed which exhibits several features of the asymmetric two-point correlations.

11. Aerosol fluxes in the marine boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Petelski, Tomasz; Zieliński, Tymon; Makuch, Przemysław; Kowalczyk, Jakub; Ponczkowska, Agnieszka; Drozdowska, Violetta; Piskozub, Jacek

2010-05-01

We present aerosol emission fluxes and concentrations calculated from in-situ measurement in the Nordic Sea from R/V Oceania. We compare vertical fluxes calculated with the eddy correlation and gradient methods. We use the results to test the hypothesis that marine aerosol emitted from the sea surface helps to clear the boundary layer from other aerosol particles. As the emitted droplets do not dry out in the highly humid surface layer air and because of their sizes most of them are deposited quickly at the sea surface. Therefore marine aerosol has many features of rain meaning that the deposition in the marine boundary layer in high wind events is controlled not only by the "dry" processes but also by the "wet" scavenging. We have estimated the effectiveness of the process using our own measurements of vertical aerosol fluxes in the Nordic Seas. This process could explain observed phenomenon of lower Arctic aerosol optical thickness (AOT) when the air masses moved over open sea than over sea-ice. We show a negative correlation between the sea-ice coverage in the seas adjacent to Svalbard and monthly AOT values in Ny Alesund.

12. A Coordinate Transformation for Unsteady Boundary Layer Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Paul G. A. CIZMAS

2011-12-01

Full Text Available This paper presents a new coordinate transformation for unsteady, incompressible boundary layer equations that applies to both laminar and turbulent flows. A generalization of this coordinate transformation is also proposed. The unsteady boundary layer equations are subsequently derived. In addition, the boundary layer equations are derived using a time linearization approach and assuming harmonically varying small disturbances.

13. Stability of three-dimensional boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, A. H.

1979-01-01

A theory is presented for the three-dimensional stability of boundary layers. Equations are derived for the evolution of a disturbance having a given frequency and originating at a given curve. These equations are used to determine the rays along which the disturbance energy propagates. It is shown that the results can be obtained by using the saddle-point method, or kinematic wave theory, or the method of multiple scales. Extension of the theory to the case of a wave packet is also presented.

14. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic and Vortical Disturbances (Invited)

Science.gov (United States)

Balakumar, P.

2015-01-01

Boundary-layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic and vortical disturbances for hypersonic flows over two-dimensional and axi-symmetric geometries were numerically investigated. The role of bluntness, wall cooling, and pressure gradients on the receptivity and stability were analyzed and compared with the sharp nose cases. It was found that for flows over sharp nose geometries in adiabatic wall conditions the instability waves are generated in the leading-edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. The computations confirmed the stabilizing effect of nose bluntness and the role of the entropy layer in the delay of boundary layer transition. The receptivity coefficients in flows over blunt bodies are orders of magnitude smaller than that for the sharp cone cases. Wall cooling stabilizes the first mode strongly and destabilizes the second mode. However, the receptivity coefficients are also much smaller compared to the adiabatic case. The adverse pressure gradients increased the unstable second mode regions.

15. Study of laminar boundary layer instability noise study on a controlled diffusion airfoil

Science.gov (United States)

Jaiswal, Prateek; Sanjose, Marlene; Moreau, Stephane

2016-11-01

Detailed experimental study has been carried out on a Controlled Diffusion (CD) airfoil at 5° angle of attack and at chord based Reynolds number of 1 . 5 ×105 . All the measurements were done in an open-jet anechoic wind tunnel. The airfoil mock-up is held between two side plates, to keep the flow two-dimensional. PIV measurements have been performed in the wake and on the boundary layer of the airfoil. Pressure sensor probes on the airfoil were used to detect mean airfoil loading and remote microphone probes were used to measure unsteady pressure fluctuations on the surface of the airfoil. Furthermore the far field acoustic pressure was measured using an 1/2 inch ICP microphone. The results confirm very later transition of a laminar boundary layer to a turbulent boundary layer on the suction side of the airfoil. The process of transition of laminar to turbulent boundary layer comprises of turbulent reattachment of a separated shear layer. The pressure side of the boundary layer is found to be laminar and stable. Therefore tonal noise generated is attributed to events on suction side of the airfoil. The flow transition and emission of tones are further investigated in detail thanks to the complementary DNS study.

16. Compressibility Effects in Turbulent Boundary Layers

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

CAO Yu-Hui; PEI Jie; CHEN Jun; SHE Zhen-Su

2008-01-01

Local cascade (LC) scheme and space-time correlations are used to study turbulent structures and their convection behaviour in the near-wall region of compressible boundary layers at Ma = 0.8 and 1.3. The convection velocities of fluctuating velocity components u (streamwise) and v (vertical) are investigated by statistically analysing scale-dependent ensembles of LC structures. The results suggest that u is convected with entropy perturbations while v with an isentropic process. An abnormal thin layer distinct from the conventional viscous sub-layer is discovered in the immediate vicinity of the wall (y+≤1) in supersonic flows. While in the region 1 ＜ y+ ＜ 30,streamwise streaks dominate velocity, density and temperature fluctuations, the abnormal thin layer is dominated by spanwise streaks in vertical velocity and density fluctuations, where pressure and density fluctuations are strongly correlated. The LC scheme is proven to be effective in studying the nature of supersonic flows and compressibility effects on wall-bounded motions.

17. Universal Strategy to Fabricate a Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mo2C Electrocatalyst Hybridized on Graphene Sheets with High Activity and Durability for Hydrogen Generation.

Science.gov (United States)

Huo, Lili; Liu, Baocang; Zhang, Geng; Zhang, Jun

2016-07-20

A universal strategy was developed for fabrication of a highly active and durable precious-metal-free mesoporous Mo2C/graphene (m-Mo2C/G) electrocatalyst with a two-dimensional layered structural feature via a nanocasting method using glucose as a carbon source and an in-stiu assembled mesoporous KIT-6/graphene (KIT-6/G) as a template. The m-Mo2C/G catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity and excellent durability for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) over a wide pH range, which displays a small onset potential of 8 mV, owerpotential (η10) for driving a cathodic current density of 10 mA·cm(-2) of 135 mV, a Tafel slope of 58 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 6.31 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in acidic media and an onset potential of of 41 mV, η10 of 128 mV, Tafel slope of 56 mV·dec(-1), and an exchange current density of 4.09 × 10(-2) mA·cm(-2) in alkaline media, respectively. Furthermore, such an m-Mo2C/G electrocatalyst also gives about 100% Faradaic yield and shows excellent durability during 3000 cycles of a long-term test, and the catalytic current remains stable over 20 h at fixed overpotentials, making it a great potential application prospect for energy issues.

18. Turbulent Plasmaspheric Boundary Layer: Observables and Consequences

Science.gov (United States)

Mishin, Evgeny

2014-10-01

In situ satellite observations reveal strong lower hybrid/fast magnetosonic turbulence and broadband hiss-like VLF waves in the substorm subauroral geospace at and earthward of the electron plasmasheet boundary. These coincide with subauroral ion drifts/polarization streams (SAID/SAPS) in the plasmasphere and topside ionosphere. SAID/SAPS appear in ~10 min after the substorm onset consistent with the fast propagation of substorm injection fronts. The SAID channel follows the dispersionless cutoff of the energetic electron flux at the plasmapause. This indicates that the cold plasma maintains charge neutrality within the channel, thereby short-circuiting the injected plasma jet (injection fronts over the plasmasphere. Plasma turbulence leads to the circuit resistivity and magnetic diffusion as well as significant electron heating and acceleration. As a result, a turbulent boundary layer forms between the inner edge of the electron plasmasheet and plasmasphere. The SAID/SAPS-related VLF emissions appear to constitute a distinctive subset of substorm/storm-related VLF activity in the region co-located with freshly injected energetic ions inside the plasmasphere. Significant pitch-angle diffusion coefficients suggest that substorm SAID/SAPS-related VLF waves could be responsible for the alteration of the outer radiation belt boundary during (sub)storms. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

19. Turbulent boundary layer over a chine.

Science.gov (United States)

Panchapakesan, N. R.; Joubert, P. N.

1999-11-01

The flow over an edge aligned with the streamwise direction is studied as a representative of the turbulent boundary layers developing over hard chines found on the hulls of ships and catamarans. We present results of a traditional experimental investigation of this geometry in a wind tunnel with pitot tubes and hot-wires. The chine model consisted of two surfaces made of varnished fibre boards with leading edges of airfoil sections and a 90 degree corner. The boundary layer was tripped with wires close to the leading edge. The model was housed in a test section of length 6.5 m in a closed circuit wind tunnel. The experiments were conducted at a unit Reynolds number of 680,000 /m corresponding to a nominal free stream velocity of 10 m/s. The mean velocity field and the associated integral parameters obtained with pitot tube measurements are presented for different streamwise locations from 0.2 to 4.7 m from the trip wire. The flow at the two farthest locations were also studied with single and 'x' hot-wires. The secondary mean flow and the turbulence field in the corner region are described with these measurements.

20. DNS of laminar-turbulent boundary layer transition induced by solid obstacles

CERN Document Server

Orlandi, Paolo; Bernardini, Matteo

2015-01-01

Results of numerical simulations obtained by a staggered finite difference scheme together with an efficient immersed boundary method are presented to understand the effects of the shape of three-dimensional obstacles on the transition of a boundary layer from a laminar to a turbulent regime. Fully resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS), highlight that the closer to the obstacle the symmetry is disrupted the smaller is the transitional Reynolds number. It has been also found that the transition can not be related to the critical roughness Reynolds number used in the past. The simulations highlight the differences between wake and inflectional instabilities, proving that two-dimensional tripping devices are more efficient in promoting the transition. Simulations at high Reynolds number demonstrate that the reproduction of a real experiment with a solid obstacle at the inlet is an efficient tool to generate numerical data bases for understanding the physics of boundary layers. The quality of the numerical ...

1. Qualitative and quantitative two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array/electrospray-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of cholinesterase inhibitors.

Science.gov (United States)

Mroczek, Tomasz

2016-09-10

Recently launched thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) interface enabling extraction of compounds directly from TLC plates into MS ion source was unusually extended into two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography (2D, TLC/HPLC) system by its a direct connection to a rapid resolution 50×2.1mm, I.D. C18 column compartment followed by detection by diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). In this way, even not separated bands of complicated mixtures of natural compounds could be analysed structurally, only within 1-2min after development of TLC plates. In comparison to typically applied TLC-MS interface, no ion suppression for acidic mobile phases was observed. Also, substantial increase in ESI-TOF-MS sensitivities and quality of spectra, were noticed. It has been utilised in combination with TLC- based bioautographic approaches of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, However, it can be also applied in any other procedures related to bioactivity (e.g. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH screen test for radicals). This system has been also used for determination of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values) of the active inhibitor-galanthamine, as an example. Moreover, AChE inhibitory potencies of some of purified plant extracts, never studied before, have been quantitatively measured. This is first report of usage such the 2D TLC/HPLC/MS system both for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitors in biological matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

2. Modulated two-dimensional charge-carrier density in LaTiO3-layer-doped LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure.

Science.gov (United States)

Nazir, Safdar; Bernal, Camille; Yang, Kesong

2015-03-11

The highly mobile two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the polar/nonpolar LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) heterostructure (HS) is a matter of great interest because of its potential applications in nanoscale solid-state devices. To realize practical implementation of the 2DEG in device design, desired physical properties such as tuned charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. In this regard, polar perovskite-based transition metal oxides can act as doping layers at the interface and are expected to tune the electronic properties of 2DEG of STO-based HS systems dramatically. Herein, we investigated the doping effects of LaTiO3(LTO) layers on the electronic properties of 2DEG at n-type (LaO)(+1)/(TiO2)(0) interface in the LAO/STO HS using spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. Our results indicate an enhancement of orbital occupation near the Fermi energy, which increases with respect to the number of LTO unit cells, resulting in a higher charge carrier density of 2DEG than that of undoped system. The enhanced charge carrier density is attributed to an extra electron introduced by the Ti 3d(1) orbitals from the LTO dopant unit cells. This conclusion is consistent with the recent experimental findings (Appl. Phys. Lett. 2013, 102, 091601). Detailed charge density and partial density of states analysis suggests that the 2DEG in the LTO-doped HS systems primarily comes from partially occupied dyz and dxz orbitals.

3. Full-Scale Spectrum of Boundary-Layer Winds

Science.gov (United States)

Larsén, Xiaoli G.; Larsen, Søren E.; Petersen, Erik L.

2016-05-01

Extensive mean meteorological data and high frequency sonic anemometer data from two sites in Denmark, one coastal onshore and one offshore, have been used to study the full-scale spectrum of boundary-layer winds, over frequencies f from about 1 yr^{-1} to 10 Hz. 10-min cup anemometer data are used to estimate the spectrum from about 1 yr^{-1} to 0.05 min^{-1}; in addition, using 20-Hz sonic anemometer data, an ensemble of 1-day spectra covering the range 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz has been calculated. The overlapping region in these two measured spectra is in good agreement. Classical topics regarding the various spectral ranges, including the spectral gap, are revisited. Following the seasonal peak at 1 yr^{-1}, the frequency spectrum fS( f) increases with f^{+1} and gradually reaches a peak at about 0.2 day^{-1}. From this peak to about 1 hr^{-1}, the spectrum fS( f) decreases with frequency with a -2 slope, followed by a -2/3 slope, which can be described by fS(f)=a_1f^{-2/3}+a_2f^{-2}, ending in the frequency range for which the debate on the spectral gap is ongoing. It is shown here that the spectral gap exists and can be modelled. The linear composition of the horizontal wind variation from the mesoscale and microscale gives the observed spectrum in the gap range, leading to a suggestion that mesoscale and microscale processes are uncorrelated. Depending on the relative strength of the two processes, the gap may be deep or shallow, visible or invisible. Generally, the depth of the gap decreases with height. In the low frequency region of the gap, the mesoscale spectrum shows a two-dimensional isotropic nature; in the high frequency region, the classical three-dimensional boundary-layer turbulence is evident. We also provide the cospectrum of the horizontal and vertical components, and the power spectra of the three velocity components over a wide range from 1 day^{-1} to 10 Hz, which is useful in determining the necessary sample duration when measuring turbulence

4. Boundary layer Slip Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid Induced by a Permeable Stretching Sheet with Convective Boundary Condition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Malvandi

2015-01-01

Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to consider both effects of slip and convective heat boundary conditions on steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid over a stretching sheet in the presence of blowing/suction simultaneously. Flow meets the Navier's slip condition at the surface and Biot number is also used to consider the effects of convective heat transfer. The employed model for nanofluid includes two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of nanoparticle migration owing to Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been transformed into a two-point boundary value problem via similarity variables. Results for impermeable isothermal surface and also no-slip boundary condition were in best agreements with those existing in literatures. Effects of governing parameters such as Biot number (Bi, slip parameter (λ, thermophoresis (Nt, Prandtl number (Pr, Lewis number (Le, Brownian motion (Nb and blowing/suction (S on reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are analyzed and discussed in details. The obtained results indicate that unlike heat transfer rate, concentration rate is very sensitive to all parameters among which Le, S and Pr are the most effective ones.

5. A finite-difference outer layer and integral inner layer method for the solution of the turbulent boundary layer equations

Science.gov (United States)

Barnwell, R. W.; Dejarnette, F. R.; Wahls, R. A.

1987-01-01

A new turbulent boundary-layer method is developed which models the inner region with the law of the wall while the outer region uses Clauser's eddy viscosity in Matsuno's finite-difference method. The match point between the inner and outer regions as well as the wall shear stress are determined at each marching step during the computation. Results obtained for incompressible, two-dimensional flow over flat plates and ellipses are compared with solutions from a baseline method which uses a finite-difference method for the entire boundary layer. Since the present method used the finite-difference method in the outer region only, the number of grid points required was about half that needed for the baseline method. Accurate displacement and momentum thicknesses were predicted for all cases. Skin friction was predicted well for the flat plate, but the accuracy decreased significantly for the ellipses. Adding a wake functions to the law of the wall allows some of the pressure gradient effect to be taken into account thereby increasing the accuracy of the method.

6. Prandtl number scaling of unsteady natural convection boundary layers for Pr>1 fluids under isothermal heating.

Science.gov (United States)

Lin, Wenxian; Armfield, S W; Patterson, J C; Lei, Chengwang

2009-06-01

In this paper, the scalings incorporating the Prandtl number (Pr) dependence have been obtained by a scaling analysis for the unsteady natural convection boundary layer of an initially quiescent isothermal Newtonian fluid of Pr>1 produced by the sudden imposition of a higher temperature on a vertical plate. It is shown that the transient flow behavior of the resulting boundary layer can be described by a three-region structure and at the start-up stage the boundary layer development is one dimensional and independent of height due to the dominance of pure conduction; however, at steady state it becomes two dimensional and height dependent as the flow becomes dominated by convection. Numerical results demonstrate that the scalings representing the thermal boundary layer development accurately represent their Pr dependence over the whole stage of flow development. The scalings representing the viscous boundary layer development are generally in good agreement with the numerical results with the Pr variation over the whole stage of flow development, although there are small deviations from the numerical results with the Pr variation that are within acceptable limits for scaling.

7. Effect of the acoustic boundary layer on the wave propagation in ducts

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, A. H.

1973-01-01

An analysis is presented for the wave propagation in two-dimensional and circular lined ducts taking into account the effects of viscosity in both the mean and the acoustic problems. The method of composite expansions is used to express each acoustic flow quantity as the sum of an inviscid part and a boundary layer part insignificant outside a thin layer next to the wall. The problem is reduced to solving a second-order ordinary differential equation for the pressure perturbation as in the inviscid acoustic case but with a modified specific wall admittance. An analytic expression is presented for the variation of the modified admittance with the wall and flow parameters, such as the acoustic boundary layer thickness, the mean velocity and temperature gradients at the wall, the frequency of oscillation, and the wavelength.

8. Densitometric determination of catecholamine metabolites and 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid after two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography on cellulose

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Breebaart, K.; Haan, A.M.F.H.; Wadman, S.K.

A quantitative two-dimensional chromatographic determination for the catecholamine metabolites vanilglycolic (vanilmandelic) acid, vanilacetic acid, vanillactic acid and vanilglycol is described. The method can also be used for the determination of 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid. The analytical

9. Bubble and boundary layer behaviour in subcooled flow boiling

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maurus, Reinhold; Sattelmayer, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85747 Garching (Germany)

2006-03-15

Subcooled flow boiling is a commonly applied technique for achieving efficient heat transfer. In the study, an experimental investigation in the nucleate boiling regime was performed for water circulating in a closed loop at atmospheric pressure. The horizontal orientated test-section consists of a rectangular channel with a one side heated copper strip and good optical access. Various optical observation techniques were applied to study the bubble behaviour and the characteristics of the fluid phase. The bubble behaviour was recorded by the high-speed cinematography and by a digital high resolution camera. Automated image processing and analysis algorithms developed by the authors were applied for a wide range of mass flow rates and heat fluxes in order to extract characteristic length and time scales of the bubbly layer during the boiling process. Using this methodology, the bubbles were automatically analysed and the bubble size, bubble lifetime, waiting time between two cycles were evaluated. Due to the huge number of observed bubbles a statistical analysis was performed and distribution functions were derived. Using a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm, the averaged axial phase boundary velocity profile could be extracted. In addition, the fluid phase velocity profile was characterised by means of the particle image velocimetry (PIV) for the single phase flow as well as under subcooled flow boiling conditions. The results indicate that the bubbles increase the flow resistance. The impact on the flow exceeds by far the bubbly region and it depends on the magnitude of the boiling activity. Finally, the ratio of the averaged phase boundary velocity and of the averaged fluid velocity was evaluated for the bubbly region. (authors)

10. Monolithic polymer layer with gradient of hydrophobicity for separation of peptides using two-dimensional thin layer chromatography and MALDI-TOF-MS detection.

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanova, Iva; Svec, Frantisek

2011-08-01

Superhydrophobic monolithic porous polymer layers supported onto glass plates with a gradient of hydrophobicity have been prepared and used for 2-D thin layer chromatography of peptides. The 50 μm-thin poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) layers prepared using UV-initiated polymerization in a simple mold were first hydrolyzed using dilute sulfuric acid and then hydrophilized via two-step grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate to obtain superhydrophilic plates. The hydrophobicity was then formed by photografting of lauryl methacrylate. The exposure to UV light that initiates photografting was spatially controlled using moving shutter that enabled forming of the diagonal gradient of hydrophobicity. This new concept enables the solutes to encounter the gradient for each of the two sequential developments. Practical application of our novel plates was demonstrated with a rapid 2-D separation of a mixture of model peptides gly-tyr, val-tyr-val, leucine enkephalin, and oxytocin in dual reversed-phase mode using different mobile phases in each direction. Detection of fluorescent-labeled peptides was achieved through UV light visualization while separation of native leucine enkephalin and oxytocin was monitored directly using MALDI mass spectrometry. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

11. Linear Controllers for Turbulent Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

Lim, Junwoo; Kim, John; Kang, Sung-Moon; Speyer, Jason

2000-11-01

Several recent studies have shown that controllers based on a linear system theory work surprisingly well in turbulent flows, suggesting that a linear mechanism may play an important role even in turbulent flows. It has been also shown that non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations is an essential characteristic in the regeneration of near-wall turbulence structures in turbulent boundary layers. A few controllers designed to reduce the role of different linear mechanisms, including that to minimize the non-normality of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations, have been developed and applied to a low Reynolds nubmer turbulent channel flow. A reduced-order model containing the most controllable and observables modes is derived for each system. Other existing control schemes, such as Choi et al's opposition control, have been examined from the point of a linear system control. Further discussion on controller design, such as choice of cost function and other control parameters, will be presented.

12. Some measurements in synthetic turbulent boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Savas, O.

1980-01-01

Synthetic turbulent boundary layers are examined which were constructed on a flat plate by generating systematic moving patterns of turbulent spots in a laminar flow. The experiments were carried out in a wind tunnel at a Reynolds number based on plate length of 1,700,000. Spots were generated periodically in space and time near the leading edge to form a regular hexagonal pattern. The disturbance mechanism was a camshaft which displaced small pins momentarily into the laminar flow at frequencies up to 80 Hz. The main instrumentation was a rake of 24 hot wires placed across the flow in a line parallel to the surface. The main measured variable was local intermittency; i.e., the probability of observing turbulent flow at a particular point in space and time. The results are reported in x-t diagrams showing the evolution of various synthetic flows along the plate. The dimensionless celerity or phase velocity of the large eddies is found to be 0.88, independent of eddy scale. All patterns with sufficiently small scales eventually showed loss of coherence as they moved downstream. A novel phenomenon called eddy transposition was observed in several flows which contained appreciable laminar regions. The large eddies shifted in formation to new positions, intermediate to their original ones, while preserving their hexagonal pattern. The present results, together with some empirical properties of a turbulent spot, are used to estimate the best choice of scales for constructing a synthetic boundary layer suitable for detailed study. The values recommended are: spanwise scale/thickness = 2.5, streamwise scale/thickness = 8.

13. Large Eddy Simulation of Transitional Boundary Layer

Science.gov (United States)

2009-11-01

A sixth order compact finite difference code is employed to investigate compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of subharmonic transition of a spatially developing zero pressure gradient boundary layer, at Ma = 0.2. The computational domain extends from Rex= 10^5, where laminar blowing and suction excites the most unstable fundamental and sub-harmonic modes, to fully turbulent stage at Rex= 10.1x10^5. Numerical sponges are used in the neighborhood of external boundaries to provide non-reflective conditions. Our interest lies in the performance of the dynamic subgrid scale (SGS) model [1] in the transition process. It is observed that in early stages of transition the eddy viscosity is much smaller than the physical viscosity. As a result the amplitudes of selected harmonics are in very good agreement with the experimental data [2]. The model's contribution gradually increases during the last stages of transition process and the dynamic eddy viscosity becomes fully active and dominant in the turbulent region. Consistent with this trend the skin friction coefficient versus Rex diverges from its laminar profile and converges to the turbulent profile after an overshoot. 1. Moin P. et. al. Phys Fluids A, 3(11), 2746-2757, 1991. 2. Kachanov Yu. S. et. al. JFM, 138, 209-247, 1983.

14. Turbulent dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Verzijlbergh, R. A.; Jonker, H. J. J.; Heus, T.; Vilöguerau de Arellano, J.

2009-02-01

Compared to dry boundary layers, dispersion in cloud-topped boundary layers has received less attention. In this LES based numerical study we investigate the dispersion of a passive tracer in the form of Lagrangian particles for four kinds of atmospheric boundary layers: 1) a dry convective boundary layer (for reference), 2) a "smoke" cloud boundary layer in which the turbulence is driven by radiative cooling, 3) a stratocumulus topped boundary layer and 4) a shallow cumulus topped boundary layer. We show that the dispersion characteristics of the smoke cloud boundary layer as well as the stratocumulus situation can be well understood by borrowing concepts from previous studies of dispersion in the dry convective boundary layer. A general result is that the presence of clouds enhances mixing and dispersion - a notion that is not always reflected well in traditional parameterization models, in which clouds usually suppress dispersion by diminishing solar irradiance. The dispersion characteristics of a cumulus cloud layer turn out to be markedly different from the other three cases and the results can not be explained by only considering the well-known top-hat velocity distribution. To understand the surprising characteristics in the shallow cumulus layer, this case has been examined in more detail by 1) determining the velocity distribution conditioned on the distance to the nearest cloud and 2) accounting for the wavelike behaviour associated with the stratified dry environment.

15. On the Derivation of Highest-Order Compact Finite Difference Schemes for the One- and Two-Dimensional Poisson Equation with Dirichlet Boundary Conditions

KAUST Repository

Settle, Sean O.

2013-01-01

The primary aim of this paper is to answer the question, What are the highest-order five- or nine-point compact finite difference schemes? To answer this question, we present several simple derivations of finite difference schemes for the one- and two-dimensional Poisson equation on uniform, quasi-uniform, and nonuniform face-to-face hyperrectangular grids and directly prove the existence or nonexistence of their highest-order local accuracies. Our derivations are unique in that we do not make any initial assumptions on stencil symmetries or weights. For the one-dimensional problem, the derivation using the three-point stencil on both uniform and nonuniform grids yields a scheme with arbitrarily high-order local accuracy. However, for the two-dimensional problem, the derivation using the corresponding five-point stencil on uniform and quasi-uniform grids yields a scheme with at most second-order local accuracy, and on nonuniform grids yields at most first-order local accuracy. When expanding the five-point stencil to the nine-point stencil, the derivation using the nine-point stencil on uniform grids yields at most sixth-order local accuracy, but on quasi- and nonuniform grids yields at most fourth- and third-order local accuracy, respectively. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

16. Analytical solution for the convectively-mixed atmospheric boundary layer

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Ouwersloot, H.G.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

2013-01-01

Based on the prognostic equations of mixed-layer theory assuming a zeroth order jump at the entrainment zone, analytical solutions for the boundary-layer height evolution are derived with different degrees of accuracy. First, an exact implicit expression for the boundary-layer height for a situation

17. The vertical structure of the boundary layer around compact objects

Science.gov (United States)

Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm

2017-09-01

Context. Mass transfer due to Roche lobe overflow leads to the formation of an accretion disk around a weakly magnetized white dwarf (WD) in cataclysmic variables. At the inner edge of the disk, the gas comes upon the surface of the WD and has to get rid of its excess kinetic energy in order to settle down on the more slowly rotating outer stellar layers. This region is known as the boundary layer (BL). Aims: In this work we investigate the vertical structure of the BL, which is still poorly understood. We shall provide details of the basic structure of the two-dimensional (2D) BL and how it depends on parameters such as stellar mass and rotation rate, as well as the mass-accretion rate. We further investigate the destination of the disk material and compare our results with previous one-dimensional (1D) simulations. Methods: We solve the 2D equations of radiation hydrodynamics in a spherical (r-ϑ) geometry using a parallel grid-based code that employs a Riemann solver. The radiation energy is considered in the two-temperature approach with a radiative flux given by the flux-limited diffusion approximation. Results: The BL around a non-rotating WD is characterized by a steep drop in angular velocity over a width of only 1% of the stellar radius, a heavy depletion of mass, and a high temperature ( 500 000 K) as a consequence of the strong shear. Variations in Ω∗,M∗, and Ṁ influence the extent of the changes of the variables in the BL but not the general structure. Depending on Ω∗, the disk material travels up to the poles or is halted at a certain latitude. The extent of mixing with the stellar material also depends on Ω∗. We find that the 1D approximation matches the 2D data well, apart from an underestimated temperature.

18. Effect of a bulge on the subharmonic instability of boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

1990-01-01

The influence of a two-dimensional hump on the three-dimensional (3-D) subharmonic secondary instability on a flat plate is investigated. The mean flow is calculated by using interacting boundary layers, thereby accounting for the viscid/inviscid interaction. The primary wave is taken in the form of a two-dimensional (2-D) Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) wave. The secondary wave is taken in the form of a 3-D subharmonic wave. The results show that increasing the hump height results in an increase in the amplification factors of the primary and subharmonic waves. When the hump causes separation, the growth rates of both the primary and subharmonic waves are considerably larger than those obtained in the case of no separation.

19. A Method of Correcting for the Effects of the Sidewall Boundary Layer in Two-Dimensional Airfoil Testing.

Science.gov (United States)

1980-03-31

studying the effect of the gap between the airfoil tip and the channel wall. A fiber optics instrument ( Fotonic Sensor) was used to measure pre...dramatically better. Another significant result stems from the Fotonic Sensor tests. The data indicate that within a certain range the size of the gap

20. Recent progress of two-dimensional layered molyb denum disulfide%层状二硫化钼研究进展∗

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

顾品超; 张楷亮; 冯玉林; 王芳; 苗银萍; 韩叶梅; 张韩霞

2016-01-01

Recently, two-dimensional (2D) layered molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has attracted great attention because of its graphene-like structure and unique physical and chemical properties. In this paper, physical structure, band gap structure, and optical properties of MoS2 are summarized. MoS2 is semiconducting and composed of covalently bonded sheets held together by weak van der Waals force. In each MoS2 layer, a layer of molybdenum (Mo) atoms is sandwiched between two layers of sulfur (S) atoms. There are three types of MoS2 compounds, including 1T MoS2, 2H MoS2, and 3R MoS2. As the number of layers decreases, the bad gap becomes larger. The bad gap transforms from indirect to direct as MoS2 is thinned to a monolayer. Changes of band gap show a great potential in photoelectron. Preparation methods of 2D MoS2 are reviewed, including growth methods and exfoliation methods. Ammonium thiomolybdate (NH4)2MoS4, elemental molybdenum Mo and molybdenum trioxide MoO3 are used to synthesize 2D MoS2 by growth methods. (NH4)2MoS4 is dissolved in a solution and then coated on a substrate. (NH4)2MoS4 is decomposed into MoS2 after annealing at a high temperature. Mo is evaporated onto a substrate, and then sulfurized into MoS2. MoO3 is most used to synthesize MoS2 on different substrates by a chemical vapor deposition or plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Other precursors like Mo(CO)6, MoS2 and MoCl5 are also used for MoS2 growth. For the graphene-like structure, monolayer MoS2 can be exfoliated from bulk MoS2. Exfoliation methods include micromechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, lithium-based intercalation and electrochemistry lithium-based intercalation. For micromechanical exfoliation, the eﬃciency is low and the sizes of MoS2 flakes are small. For liquid exfoliation, it is convenient for operation to obtain mass production, but the concentration of monolayer MoS2 is low. For lithium-based intercalation, the yield of monolayer MoS2 is high while it takes a long

1. Study of interaction between shock wave and unsteady boundary layer

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

董志勇; 韩肇元

2003-01-01

This paper reports theoretical and experimental study of a new type of interaction of a moving shock wave with an unsteady boundary layer. This type of shock wave-boundary layer interaction describes a moving shock wave interaction with an unsteady boundary layer induced by another shock wave and a rarefaction wave. So it is different from the interaction of a stationary shock wave with steady boundary layer, also different from the interaction of a reflected moving shock wave at the end of a shock tube with unsteady boundary layer induced by an incident shock. Geometrical shock dynamics is used for the theoretical analysis of the shock wave-unsteady boundary layer interaction, and a double-driver shock tube with a rarefaction wave bursting diaphragm is used for the experimental investigation in this work.

2. A Cautionary Note on the Thermal Boundary Layer Similarity Scaling for the Turbulent Boundary Layer

CERN Document Server

Weyburne, David

2016-01-01

Wang and Castillo have developed empirical parameters for scaling the temperature profile of the turbulent boundary layer flowing over a heated wall in the paper X. Wang and L. Castillo, J. Turbul., 4, 1(2003). They presented experimental data plots that showed similarity type behavior when scaled with their new scaling parameters. However, what was actually plotted, and what actually showed similarity type behavior, was not the temperature profile but the defect profile formed by subtracting the temperature in the boundary layer from the temperature in the bulk flow. We show that if the same data and same scaling is replotted as just the scaled temperature profile, similarity is no longer prevalent. This failure to show both defect profile similarity and temperature profile similarity is indicative of false similarity. The nature of this false similarity problem is discussed in detail.

3. Characterization of an incipiently separated shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction

Science.gov (United States)

Schreyer, A.-M.; Dussauge, J.-P.; Krämer, E.

2017-03-01

The turbulence structure in a shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction at incipient separation was investigated in order to get insight into turbulence generation and amplification mechanisms in such flow fields. The flow along a two-dimensional 11.5° compression corner was studied experimentally at a Mach number of M=2.53 and with a momentum-thickness Reynolds number of Re_{θ }=5370. From hot-wire boundary layer traverses and surface heat-flux density fluctuation measurements with the fast-response atomic layer thermopile, the turbulence structure and amplification was described. Space-time correlations of the mass-flux fluctuations across the boundary layer and the surface heat-flux density fluctuations were measured to further characterize the development of the turbulence structure across the interaction. The large-scale boundary layer structures are concealed by shock-related effects in the strongly disturbed shock-foot region. Shortly downstream, however, large-scale structures dominate the signal again, just as in the incoming flow. A mechanism explaining this behavior is suggested.

4. Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

Science.gov (United States)

Najmaei, Sina; Liu, Zheng; Zhou, Wu; Zou, Xiaolong; Shi, Gang; Lei, Sidong; Yakobson, Boris I; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Lou, Jun

2013-08-01

Single-layered molybdenum disulphide with a direct bandgap is a promising two-dimensional material that goes beyond graphene for the next generation of nanoelectronics. Here, we report the controlled vapour phase synthesis of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for the nucleation, growth, and grain boundary formation in its crystalline monolayers. Furthermore, a nucleation-controlled strategy is established to systematically promote the formation of large-area, single- and few-layered films. Using high-resolution electron microscopy imaging, the atomic structure and morphology of the grains and their boundaries in the polycrystalline molybdenum disulphide atomic layers are examined, and the primary mechanisms for grain boundary formation are evaluated. Grain boundaries consisting of 5- and 7- member rings are directly observed with atomic resolution, and their energy landscape is investigated via first-principles calculations. The uniformity in thickness, large grain sizes, and excellent electrical performance signify the high quality and scalable synthesis of the molybdenum disulphide atomic layers.

5. The Boundary Layer Interaction with Shock Wave and Expansion Fan

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

MaratA.Goldfeld; RomanV.Nestoulia; 等

2000-01-01

The results of experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on compression and expansion surfaces are presented.They include the study of the shock wave and /or expansion fan action upon the boundary layer,boundary layer sepqartion and its relaxation.Complex events of paired interactions and the flow on compression convex-concave surfaces were studied.The posibility and conditions of the boundary layer relaminarization behind the expansion fan and its effect on the relaxation length are presented.Different model configurations for wide range conditions were investigated.Comparison of results for different interactions was carried out.

6. Nonparallel stability of boundary layers with pressure gradients and suction

Science.gov (United States)

Saric, W. S.; Nayfeh, A. H.

1977-01-01

An analysis is presented for the linear nonparallel stability of boundary layer flows with pressure gradients and suction. The effect of the boundary layer growth is included by using the method of multiple scales. The present analysis is compared with those of Bouthier and Gaster and the roles of the different definitions of the amplification rates are discussed. The results of these theories are compared with experimental data for the Blasius boundary layer. Calculations are presented for stability characteristics of boundary layers with pressure gradients and nonsimilar suction distributions.

7. Effects of air pollution on thermal structure and dispersion in an urban planetary boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Viskanta, R.; Johnson, R. O.; Bergstrom, R. W.

1977-01-01

The short-term effects of urbanization and air pollution on the transport processes in the urban planetary boundary layer (PBL) are studied. The investigation makes use of an unsteady two-dimensional transport model which has been developed by Viskanta et al., (1976). The model predicts pollutant concentrations and temperature in the PBL. The potential effects of urbanization and air pollution on the thermal structure in the urban PBL are considered, taking into account the results of numerical simulations modeling the St. Louis, Missouri metropolitan area.

8. Computational solution of the defect stream-function equation for nonequilibrium turbulent boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Barnwell, Richard W.

1993-01-01

The derivation of the accurate, second-order, almost linear, approximate equation governing the defect stream function for nonequilibrium compressible turbulent boundary layers is reviewed. The similarity of this equation to the heat conduction equation is exploited in the development of an unconditionally stable, tridiagonal computational method which is second-order accurate in the marching direction and fourth-order accurate in the surface-normal direction. Results compare well with experimental data. Nonlinear effects are shown to be small. This two-dimensional method is simple and has been implemented on a programmable calculator.

9. Existence and Stability of Two-Dimensional Compact-Like Discrete Breathers in Discrete Two-Dimensional Monatomic Square Lattices

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

XU Quan; TIAN Qiang

2007-01-01

Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.

10. Control of the Transitional Boundary Layer

Science.gov (United States)

Belson, Brandt A.

This work makes advances in the delay of boundary layer transition from laminar to turbulent flow via feedback control. The applications include the reduction of drag over streamline bodies (e.g., airplane wings) and the decrease of mixing and heat transfer (e.g., over turbine blades in jet engines). A difficulty in many fields is designing feedback controllers for high-dimensional systems, be they experiments or high-fidelity simulations, because the required time and resources are too large. A cheaper alternative is to approximate the high-dimensional system with a reduced-order model and design a controller for the model. We implement several model reduction algorithms in "modred", an open source and publicly available library that is applicable to a wide range of problems. We use this library to study the role of sensors and actuators in feedback control of transition in the 2D boundary layer. Previous work uses a feedforward configuration in which the sensor is upstream of the actuator, but we show that the actuator-sensor pair is unsuitable for feedback control due to an inability to sense the exponentially-growing Tollmien-Schlichting waves. A new actuator-sensor pair is chosen that more directly affects and measures the TS waves, and as a result it is effective in a feedback configuration. Lastly, the feedback controller is shown to outperform feedforward controllers in the presence of unmodeled disturbances. Next, we focus on a specific type of actuator, the single dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma actuator. An array of these plasma actuators is oriented to produce stream-wise vorticity and thus directly cancel the structures with the largest transient growth (so-called stream-wise streaks). We design a feedback controller using only experimental data by first developing an empirical input-output quasi-steady model. Then, we design feedback controllers for the model such that the controllers perform well when applied to the experiment. Lastly, we

11. Influence of Variable Thermal Conductivity on MHD Boundary Layer Slip Flow of Ethylene-Glycol Based Cu Nanofluids over a Stretching Sheet with Convective Boundary Condition

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-01-01

Full Text Available An analysis is carried out to investigate the influence of variable thermal conductivity and partial velocity slip on hydromagnetic two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid with Cu nanoparticles over a stretching sheet with convective boundary condition. Using similarity transformation, the governing boundary layer equations along with the appropriate boundary conditions are transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations. Employing Runge-kutta fourth-order method along with shooting technique, the resultant system of equations is solved. The influence of various pertinent parameters such as nanofluid volume fraction parameter, the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter, thermal conductivity parameter, velocity slip parameter, Biot number, and suction or injection parameter on the velocity of the flow field and heat transfer characteristics is computed numerically and illustrated graphically. The present results are compared with the existing results for the case of regular fluid and found an excellent agreement.

12. Direct force wall shear measurements in pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Mcallister, J. E.; Tennant, M. H.; Pierce, F. J.

1982-01-01

Unique, simultaneous direct measurements of the magnitude and direction of the local wall shear stress in a pressure-driven three-dimensional turbulent boundary layer are presented. The flow is also described with an oil streak wall flow pattern, a map of the wall shear stress-wall pressure gradient orientations, a comparison of the wall shear stress directions relative to the directions of the nearest wall velocity as measured with a typical, small boundary layer directionally sensitive claw probe, as well as limiting wall streamline directions from the oil streak patterns, and a comparison of the freestream streamlines and the wall flow streamlines. A review of corrections for direct force sensing shear meters for two-dimensional flows is presented with a brief discussion of their applicability to three-dimensional devices.

13. Symmetry Analysis and Exact Solutions of the 2D Unsteady Incompressible Boundary-Layer Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Han, Zhong; Chen, Yong

2017-01-01

To find intrinsically different symmetry reductions and inequivalent group invariant solutions of the 2D unsteady incompressible boundary-layer equations, a two-dimensional optimal system is constructed which attributed to the classification of the corresponding Lie subalgebras. The comprehensiveness and inequivalence of the optimal system are shown clearly under different values of invariants. Then by virtue of the optimal system obtained, the boundary-layer equations are directly reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by only one step. It has been shown that not only do we recover many of the known results but also find some new reductions and explicit solutions, which may be previously unknown. Supported by the Global Change Research Program of China under Grant No. 2015CB953904, National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275072, 11435005, 11675054, and Shanghai Collaborative Innovation Center of Trustworthy Software for Internet of Things under Grant No. ZF1213

14. Heat transfer and fluid mechanics measurements in transitional boundary layers on convex-curved surfaces

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, T.; Simon, T. W.

1987-01-01

The test section of the present experiment to ascertain the effects of convex curvature and freestream turbulence on boundary layer momentum and heat transfer during natural transition provided a two-dimensional boundary layer flow on a uniformly heated curved surface, with bending to various curvature radii, R. Attention is given to results for the cases of R = infinity, 180 cm, and 90 cm, each with two freestream turbulence intensity levels. While the mild convex curvature of R = 180 cm delays transition, further bending to R = 90 cm leads to no signifucant further delay of transition. Cases with both curvature and higher freestream disturbance effects exhibit the latter's pronounced dominance. These data are pertinent to the development of transition prediction models for gas turbine blade design.

15. Characteristics of the boundary layer of magnetic clouds and a new definition of the cloud boundary

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

WEI; Fengsi(魏奉思); LIU; Rui(刘睿); FAN; Quanlin(范全林); FENG; Xueshang(冯学尚)

2003-01-01

Based on the analysis of the boundaries of 70 magnetic clouds from 1967 to 1998, and relatively complete spacecraft observations, it is indicated that the magnetic cloud boundaries are boundary layers formed through the interaction between the magnetic clouds and the ambient medium. Most of the outer boundaries of the layers, with relatively high proton temperature, density and plasma β, are magnetic reconnection boundaries, while the inner boundaries, with low proton temperature, proton density and plasma β, separate the main body of magnetic clouds, which has not been affected by the interaction, from the boundary layers. The average time scale of the front boundary layer is 1.7 h and that of the tail boundary layer 3.1 h. It is also found that the magnetic probability distribution function undergoes significant changes across the boundary layers. This new definition, supported by the preliminary numerical simulation in principle, could qualitatively explain the observations of interplanetary magnetic clouds, and could help resolve the controversy in identifying the boundaries of magnetic clouds. Our concept of the boundary layer may provide some understanding of what underlies the observations, and a fresh train of thought in the interplanetary dynamics research.

16. Two-dimensional calculus

CERN Document Server

Osserman, Robert

2011-01-01

The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

17. Two dimensional vernier

Science.gov (United States)

Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

1992-01-01

A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

18. Boundary-layer effects in droplet splashing

Science.gov (United States)

Riboux, Guillaume; Gordillo, José Manuel

2017-07-01

A drop falling onto a solid substrate will disintegrate into smaller parts when its impact velocity V exceeds the so-called critical velocity for splashing, i.e., when V >V* . Under these circumstances, the very thin liquid sheet, which is ejected tangentially to the solid after the drop touches the substrate, lifts off as a consequence of the aerodynamic forces exerted on it. Subsequently, the growth of capillary instabilities breaks the toroidal rim bordering the ejecta into smaller droplets, violently ejected radially outward, provoking the splash [G. Riboux and J. M. Gordillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507. In this contribution, the effect of the growth of the boundary layer is included in the splash model presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507, obtaining very good agreement between the measured and the predicted values of V* for wide ranges of liquid and gas material properties, atmospheric pressures, and substrate wettabilities. Our description also modifies the way at when the liquid sheet is first ejected, which can now be determined in a much more straightforward manner than that proposed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 024507 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.024507.

19. Turbulence in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Science.gov (United States)

Fernando, Harindra; Kit, Eliezer; Conry, Patrick; Hocut, Christopher; Liberzon, Dan

2016-11-01

During the field campaigns of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program, fine-scale measurements of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were made using a novel sonic and hot-film anemometer dyad (a combo probe). A swath of scales, from large down to Kolmogorov scales, was covered. The hot-film was located on a gimbal within the sonic probe volume, and was automated to rotate in the horizontal plane to align with the mean flow measured by sonic. This procedure not only helped satisfy the requirement of hot-film alignment with the mean flow, but also allowed in-situ calibration of hot-films. This paper analyzes a period of nocturnal flow that was similar to an idealized stratified parallel shear flow. Some new phenomena were identified, which included the occurrence of strong bursts in the velocity records indicative of turbulence generation at finer scales that are not captured by conventional sonic anemometers. The spectra showed bottleneck effect, but its manifestation did not fit into the framework of previous bottleneck-effect theories and was unequivocally related to bursts of turbulence. The measurements were also used to evaluate the energetics of stratified shear flows typical of the environment. ONR # N00014-11-1-0709; NSF # AGS-1528451; ISF 408/15.

20. Simulation of Wind turbines in the atmospheric boundary layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming

Large eddy simulation of an arbitrary wind farm is studied in the neutral and thermally stratified atmospheric boundary Layer. Large eddy simulations of industrial flows usually requires full resolution of the flow near the wall and this is believed to be one of the main deficiencies of LES because...... layer. In the current study, another approach has been implemented to simulate the flow in a fully developed wind farm boundary layer. The approach is based on Immersed Boundary Method and involves implementation of an arbitrary prescribed initial boundary layer. An initial boundary layer is enforced...... height and the flow development is seen based on the temperature variations and wind turbine wake generations and interactions of wakes occurs as soon as the wakes of the upwind turbine reach the downwind turbines. References: [1] U. Piomelli, Wall-layer models for large-eddy simulations, Progress...

1. Flowfield measurements in a separated and reattached flat plate turbulent boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Patrick, William P.

1987-03-01

The separation and reattachment of a large-scale, two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at low subsonic speed on a flat plate has been studied experimentally. The separation bubble was 55 cm long and had a maximum bubble thickness, measured to the height of the mean dividing streamline, of 17 cm, which was twice the thickness of the inlet boundary layer. A combination of laser velocimetry, hot-wire anemometry, pneumatic probing techniques, and flow visualization were used as diagnostics. Principal findings were that an outer inviscid rotational flow was defined which essentially convected over the blockage associated with the inner, viscously dominated bubble recirculation region. A strong backflow region in which the flow moved upstream 100 percent of the time was measured near the test surface over the central 35 percent of the bubble. A laminar backflow boundary layer having pseudo-turbulent characteristics including a log-linear velocity profile was generated under the highly turbulent backflow. Velocity profile shapes in the reversed flow region matched a previously developed universal backflow profile at the upstream edge of the separation region but not in the steady backflow region downstream. A smoke flow visualization movie and hot-film measurements revealed low frequency nonperiodic flapping at reattachment. However, forward flow fraction data at reattachment and mean velocity profiles in the redeveloping boundary layer downstream of reattachment correlated with backward-facing step data when the axial dimension was scaled by the distance from the maximum bubble thickness to reattachment.

2. Breaking the boundary layer symmetry in turbulent convection using wall geometry

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

We systematically probe the interaction of the boundary layer with the core flow during two-dimensional turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection using numerical simulations and scaling theory. The boundary layer/core flow interaction is manipulated by configuring the top plate with a sinusoidal geometry and breaking the symmetry between the top and bottom thermal boundary layers. At long wavelength the planar results are recovered. However, at intermediate wavelengths, and for Rayleigh numbers ($Ra$) such that the amplitude of the roughness elements is larger than the boundary layer thickness, there is enhanced cold plume production at the tips of the elements. It is found that, while the interior of the flow is well mixed as in the classical theory of Malkus, the mean temperature is lower than that in the planar case. For a Prandtl number of unity and $Ra = 10^6$ to $2.5 \\times 10^9$ we find a Nusselt number ($Nu$) scaling law of $Nu = 0.052 \\times Ra^{0.34}$, in good agreement with recent experiments. The c...

3. A hybrid wavelet-based adaptive immersed boundary finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method for two-dimensional fluid-structure interaction

Science.gov (United States)

Cui, Xiongwei; Yao, Xiongliang; Wang, Zhikai; Liu, Minghao

2017-03-01

A second generation wavelet-based adaptive finite-difference Lattice Boltzmann method (FD-LBM) is developed in this paper. In this approach, the adaptive wavelet collocation method (AWCM) is firstly, to the best of our knowledge, incorporated into the FD-LBM. According to the grid refinement criterion based on the wavelet amplitudes of density distribution functions, an adaptive sparse grid is generated by the omission and addition of collocation points. On the sparse grid, the finite differences are used to approximate the derivatives. To eliminate the special treatments in using the FD-based derivative approximation near boundaries, the immersed boundary method (IBM) is also introduced into FD-LBM. By using the adaptive technique, the adaptive code requires much less grid points as compared to the uniform-mesh code. As a consequence, the computational efficiency can be improved. To justify the proposed method, a series of test cases, including fixed boundary cases and moving boundary cases, are invested. A good agreement between the present results and the data in previous literatures is obtained, which demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the present AWCM-IB-LBM.

4. Hydrodynamic resistance of concentration polarization boundary layers in ultrafiltration

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Wijmans, J.G.; Nakao, S.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Troelstra, F.R.; Smolders, C.A.

1985-01-01

The influence of concentration polarization on the permeate flux in the ultrafiltration of aqueous Dextran T70 solutions can be described by (i) the osmotic pressure model and (ii) the boundary layer resistance model. In the latter model the hydrodynamic resistance of the non-gelled boundary layer i

5. Boundary layers interactions in the plane parallel incompressible flows

CERN Document Server

Nguyen, Toan

2011-01-01

We study the inviscid limit problem of the incompressible flows in the presence of both impermeable regular boundaries and a hypersurface transversal to the boundary across which the inviscid flow has a discontinuity jump. In the former case, boundary layers have been introduced by Prandtl as correctors near the boundary between the inviscid and viscous flows. In the latter case, the viscosity smoothes out the discontinuity jump by creating a transition layer which has the same amplitude and thickness as the Prandtl layer. In the neighborhood of the intersection of the impermeable boundary and of the hypersurface, interactions between the boundary and the transition layers must then be considered. In this paper, we initiate a mathematical study of this interaction and carry out a strong convergence in the inviscid limit for the case of the plane parallel flows introduced by Di Perna and Majda in \\cite{DM}.

6. Boundary Layer to a System of Viscous Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2008-01-01

In this paper, we investigate the large-time behavior of solutions to the initial-boundary value problem for nxn hyperbolic system of conservation laws with artificial viscosity in the half line (0, ∞). We first show that a boundary layer exists if the corresponding hyperbolic part contains at least one characteristic field with negative propagation speed. We further show that such boundary layer is nonlinearly stable under small initial perturbation. The proofs are given by an elementary energy method.

7. Excimer emission from cathode boundary layer discharges

Science.gov (United States)

Moselhy, Mohamed; Schoenbach, Karl H.

2004-02-01

The excimer emission from direct current glow discharges between a planar cathode and a ring-shaped anode of 0.75 and 1.5 mm diameter, respectively, separated by a gap of 250 μm, was studied in xenon and argon in a pressure range from 75 to 760 Torr. The thickness of the "cathode boundary layer" plasma, in the 100 μm range, and a discharge sustaining voltage of approximately 200 V, indicates that the discharge is restricted to the cathode fall and the negative glow. The radiant excimer emittance at 172 nm increases with pressure and reaches a value of 4 W/cm2 for atmospheric pressure operation in xenon. The maximum internal efficiency, however, decreases with pressure having highest values of 5% for 75 Torr operation. When the discharge current is reduced below a critical value, the discharge in xenon changes from an abnormal glow into a mode showing self-organization of the plasma. Also, the excimer spectrum changes from one with about equal contributions from the first and second continuum to one that is dominated by the second continuum emission. The xenon excimer emission intensity peaks at this discharge mode transition. In the case of argon, self-organization of the plasma was not seen, but the emission of the excimer radiation (128 nm) again shows a maximum at the transition from abnormal to normal glow. As was observed with xenon, the radiant emittance of argon increases with pressure, and the efficiency decreases. The maximum radiant emittance is 1.6 W/cm2 for argon at 600 Torr. The maximum internal efficiency is 2.5% at 200 Torr. The positive slope of the current-voltage characteristics at maximum excimer emission in both cases indicates the possibility of generating intense, large area, flat excimer lamps.

8. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mohammed J Uddin

Full Text Available Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

9. MHD free convective boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a flat vertical plate with Newtonian heating boundary condition.

Science.gov (United States)

Uddin, Mohammed J; Khan, Waqar A; Ismail, Ahmed I

2012-01-01

Steady two dimensional MHD laminar free convective boundary layer flows of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid over a solid stationary vertical plate in a quiescent fluid taking into account the Newtonian heating boundary condition is investigated numerically. A magnetic field can be used to control the motion of an electrically conducting fluid in micro/nano scale systems used for transportation of fluid. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and then using linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method with shooting technique. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, Lewis number, Prandtl number, buoyancy ratio, thermophoresis, Brownian motion, magnetic field and Newtonian heating on the flow and heat transfer are investigated. The numerical results for the dimensionless axial velocity, temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction as well as the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood number have been presented graphically and discussed. It is found that the rate of heat and mass transfer increase as Newtonian heating parameter increases. The dimensionless velocity and temperature distributions increase with the increase of Newtonian heating parameter. The results of the reduced heat transfer rate is compared for convective heating boundary condition and found an excellent agreement.

10. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

Science.gov (United States)

Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

2016-03-01

The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

11. Diffusive boundary layers over varying topography

KAUST Repository

Dell, R. W.

2015-03-25

Diffusive bottom boundary layers can produce upslope flows in a stratified fluid. Accumulating observations suggest that these boundary layers may drive upwelling and mixing in mid-ocean ridge flank canyons. However, most studies of diffusive bottom boundary layers to date have concentrated on constant bottom slopes. We present a study of how diffusive boundary layers interact with various idealized topography, such as changes in bottom slope, slopes with corrugations and isolated sills. We use linear theory and numerical simulations in the regional ocean modeling system (ROMS) model to show changes in bottom slope can cause convergences and divergences within the boundary layer, in turn causing fluid exchanges that reach far into the overlying fluid and alter stratification far from the bottom. We also identify several different regimes of boundary-layer behaviour for topography with oceanographically relevant size and shape, including reversing flows and overflows, and we develop a simple theory that predicts the regime boundaries, including what topographies will generate overflows. As observations also suggest there may be overflows in deep canyons where the flow passes over isolated bumps and sills, this parameter range may be particularly significant for understanding the role of boundary layers in the deep ocean.

12. Investigation of Shock-Induced Laminar Separation Bubble in a Supersonic Boundary Layer

Science.gov (United States)

Sivasubramanian, Jayahar; Fasel, Hermann

2015-11-01

The interaction between an impinging oblique shock and a laminar boundary-layer on a flat plate is investigated using DNS. In particular, the two-dimensional separation bubble resulting from the shock/boundary-layer interaction (SBLI) at freestream Mach number of 2.0 is investigated in detail. The flow parameters used for the present investigation match the laboratory conditions in the experiments by Hakkinen et al. The skin friction and pressure distribution from the simulations are compared to the experimental measurements and numerical results available in the literature. Our results confirm the asymmetric nature of the separation bubble as reported in the literature. In addition to the steady flow field calculations, the response to low-amplitude disturbances is investigated in order to study the linear stability behavior of the separation bubble. For comparison, both the development of two-dimensional and three-dimensional (oblique) disturbances are studied with and without the impinging oblique shock. Furthermore, the effects of the shock incidence angle and Reynolds number are also investigated. Finally, three-dimensional simulations were performed in order to explore the laminar-turbulent transition process in the presence of a laminar separation bubble. Funded by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-14-1-0195.

13. LARGE-EDDY SIMULATIONS OF A SEPARATION/REATTACHMENT BUBBLE IN A TURBULENT-BOUNDARY-LAYER SUBJECTED TO A PRESCRIBED UPPER-BOUNDARY, VERTICAL-VELOCITY PROFILE

KAUST Repository

Cheng, Wan

2015-06-30

We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.

14. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

CERN Document Server

Cho, Minhaeng

2009-01-01

Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

15. Boundary Layer Ventilation Processes During a High Pressure Event

Science.gov (United States)

Gray, S. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Belcher, S. E.

2006-12-01

It is often assumed that ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer is weak during high pressure events. But is this always true? Here we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer during a high pressure event that occured on the 9 May 2005 using the UK Met Office Unifed Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include a sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing across the top of the boundary layer followed by large-scale ascent, and shallow convection. Vertical distributions of tracer are validated with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree impressively well. Budget calculations of tracers are performed in order to determine the relative importance of these ventilation processes. The sea breeze circulation was found to ventilate 26% of the boundary layer tracer by sunset of which 2% was above 2km. A combination of the sea breeze circulation and turbulent mixing ventilated 46% of the boundary layer tracer, of which 10% was above 2km. Finally, the sea breeze circulation, turbulent mixing and shallow convection processes together ventilated 52% of the tracer into the free troposphere, of which 26% was above 2km. Hence this study shows that signicant ventilation of the boundary layer can occur during high pressure events; turbulent mixing and convection processes can double the amount of pollution ventilated from the boundary layer.

16. Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces

Science.gov (United States)

Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla

2010-03-01

We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.

17. Bristled shark skin: a microgeometry for boundary layer control?

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lang, A W; Hidalgo, P; Westcott, M [Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics Department, University of Alabama, Box 870280, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Motta, P [Biology Department, University of South Florida, 4202 East Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)], E-mail: alang@eng.ua.edu

2008-12-01

There exists evidence that some fast-swimming shark species may have the ability to bristle their scales during fast swimming. Experimental work using a water tunnel facility has been performed to investigate the flow field over and within a bristled shark skin model submerged within a boundary layer to deduce the possible boundary layer control mechanisms being used by these fast-swimming sharks. Fluorescent dye flow visualization provides evidence of the formation of embedded cavity vortices within the scales. Digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) data, used to evaluate the cavity vortex formation and boundary layer characteristics close to the surface, indicate increased momentum in the slip layer forming above the scales. This increase in flow velocity close to the shark's skin is indicative of boundary layer control mechanisms leading to separation control and possibly transition delay for the bristled shark skin microgeometry.

18. Stable Boundary Layer Education (STABLE) Final Campaign Summary

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turner, David D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

2016-03-01

The properties of, and the processes that occur in, the nocturnal stable boundary layer are not well understood, making it difficult to represent adequately in numerical models. The nocturnal boundary layer often is characterized by a temperature inversion and, in the Southern Great Plains region, a low-level jet. To advance our understanding of the nocturnal stable boundary layer, high temporal and vertical resolution data on the temperature and wind properties are needed, along with both large-eddy simulation and cloud-resolving modeling.

19. Boundary-layer predictions for small low-speed contractions

Science.gov (United States)

Mehta, Rabindra D.; Bell, James H.

1989-01-01

The present scheme for the prediction of boundary-layer development in small, low-speed wind tunnel contraction sections proceeds by calculating the wall pressure distributions, and hence the wall velocity distributions, by means of a three-dimensional potential-flow method. For the family of contractions presently treated, the assumption of a laminar boundary layer appears to be justified; the measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of the four contractions were found to lie within 10 percent of predicted values.

20. Nonclassical Symmetry Analysis of Heated Two-Dimensional Flow Problems

Science.gov (United States)

Naeem, Imran; Naz, Rehana; Khan, Muhammad Danish

2015-12-01

This article analyses the nonclassical symmetries and group invariant solution of boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flows. First, we derive the nonclassical symmetry determining equations with the aid of the computer package SADE. We solve these equations directly to obtain nonclassical symmetries. We follow standard procedure of computing nonclassical symmetries and consider two different scenarios, ξ1≠0 and ξ1=0, ξ2≠0. Several nonclassical symmetries are reported for both scenarios. Furthermore, numerous group invariant solutions for nonclassical symmetries are derived. The similarity variables associated with each nonclassical symmetry are computed. The similarity variables reduce the system of partial differential equations (PDEs) to a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) in terms of similarity variables. The reduced system of ODEs are solved to obtain group invariant solution for governing boundary layer equations for two-dimensional heated flow problems. We successfully formulate a physical problem of heat transfer analysis for fluid flow over a linearly stretching porous plat and, with suitable boundary conditions, we solve this problem.

1. End-wall boundary layer measurements in a two-stage fan

Science.gov (United States)

Ball, C. L.; Reid, L.; Schmidt, J. F.

1983-01-01

Detailed flow measurements made in the casing boundary layer of a two-stage transonic fan are summarized. These measurements were taken at stations upstream of the fan, between all blade rows, and downstream of the last blade row. At the design tip speed of 429 m/sec the fan achieved a peak efficiency of 0.846 at a pressure ratio of 2.471. The boundary layer data were obtained at three weight flows at the design speed: one near choke flow, one near peak efficiency, and one near stall. Conventional boundary layer parameters were calculated from the data measured at each measuring station for each of the three flows. A classical two dimensional casing boundary layer was measured at the fan inlet and extended inward to approximately 15 percent of span. A highly three dimensional boundary layer was measured at the exit of each blade row and extended inward to approximately 10 percent of span. The steep radial gradient of axial velocity noted at the exit of the rotors was reduced substantially as the flow passed through the stators. This reduced gradient is attributed to flow mixing. The amount of flow mixing was reflected in the radial redistribution of total temperature as the flow passed through the stators. The data also show overturning of the tip flow at the stator exits that is consistent with the expected effect of the secondary flow field. The blockage factors calculated from the measured data show an increase in blockage across the rotors and a decrease across the stators.

2. Analysis of polynomial interpolation of the function of two variables with large gradients in the parabolic boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Tikhovskaya, S. V.; Zadorin, A. I.

2016-10-01

The problem of interpolation of the function of two variables with large gradients in the parabolic and exponential boundary layers is investigated. It is assumed that the function has large gradients near the boundaries of a rectangular domain. Such function corresponds to the solution of the convection-diffusion problem with dominant convection. It is known that the error of polynomial interpolation on uniform grid for such function can be of the order of O(1). We propose to use two-dimensional polynomial interpolation on the Shishkin mesh. The error estimate uniform with respect to the perturbation parameter is obtained. Numerical results are presented to validate the theoretical results.

3. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-04-01

Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, its virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

4. Influences on the Height of the Stable Boundary Layer as seen in LES

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kosovic, B; Lundquist, J

2004-06-15

Climate models, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, and atmospheric dispersion models often rely on parameterizations of planetary boundary layer height. In the case of a stable boundary layer, errors in boundary layer height estimation can result in gross errors in boundary-layer evolution and in prediction of turbulent mixing within the boundary layer.

5. Boundary Layer Ventilation by Convection and Coastal Processes

Science.gov (United States)

Dacre, H.

2008-12-01

Several observational studies measuring aerosol in the atmosphere have found multiple aerosol layers located above the marine boundary layer. It is hypothesized that the existence of these layers is influenced by the diurnal variation in the structure of the upwind continental boundary layer. Furthermore, collision between a sea breeze and the prevailing wind can result in enhanced convection at the coast which can also lead to elevated layers of pollution. In this study we investigate the processes responsible for ventilation of the atmospheric boundary layer near the coast using the UK Met Office Unified Model. Pollution sources are represented by the constant emission of a passive tracer everywhere over land. The ventilation processes observed include shallow convection, a sea breeze circulation and coastal outflow. Vertical distributions of tracer at the coast are validated qualitatively with AMPEP (Aircraft Measurement of chemical Processing Export fluxes of Pollutants over the UK) CO aircraft measurements and are shown to agree well.

6. Reactive boundary layers in metallic rolling contacts

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Burbank, John

2016-05-01

more thorough investigation into the effects of residual austenite on the properties of this material. The high-performance alternative steels, 36NiCrMoV1-5-7 (hot working steel) and 45SiCrMo6 (spring steel), were heat treated as recommended by their respective manufacturers, and were not case-hardened. The selection of materials with and materials without case-hardening allows for an investigation into whether or not case-hardening is even necessary to deliver acceptable friction behaviour and wear performance. Elemental analyses were conducted by multiple methods to ensure accurate results. Residual austenite contents of the steels and the depth profiles of residual stresses were determined by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), for 20MnCr5 ranging from approximately 6 - 14 vol.%, and under 2 vol.% for the alternative alloys. Hardness profiles were taken from the testing surfaces into the material core. The carburization of 20MnCr5 led to higher hardness and the greater concentration of carbon in the carburization zone more representative of a hardened SAE E52100, or 100Cr6/102Cr6, than of a non-case-hardened 20MnCr5. Residual stresses from machining and case-hardening were measured directly at the sample surface. The high-performance steels fulfilled manufacturer expectations in terms of elemental content, with hardness values between 50 - 55 HRC and strongly martensitic microstructure character. With characterization of the chosen materials complete, the materials could then be subjected to pre-conditioning. The first pre-conditioning method involved targeted generation of cold work hardening as induced boundary layers to protect the contact zone against wear. Work hardening was identified both by variations in residual stress profiles, i.e. the introduction of beneficial compressive residual stresses, and hardness increases in the contact zone, providing enhanced wear resistance. Parameters for work hardening were further optimized to reduce damage to the surface substrates

7. Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Sverdlova, Nina S; Lambertz, Markus; Witzel, Ulrich; Perry, Steven F

2012-01-01

Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus) in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.

8. Boundary conditions for heat transfer and evaporative cooling in the trachea and air sac system of the domestic fowl: a two-dimensional CFD analysis.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nina S Sverdlova

Full Text Available Various parts of the respiratory system play an important role in temperature control in birds. We create a simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD model of heat exchange in the trachea and air sacs of the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus in order to investigate the boundary conditions for the convective and evaporative cooling in these parts of the respiratory system. The model is based upon published values for respiratory times, pressures and volumes and upon anatomical data for this species, and the calculated heat exchange is compared with experimentally determined values for the domestic fowl and a closely related, wild species. In addition, we studied the trachea histologically to estimate the thickness of the heat transfer barrier and determine the structure and function of moisture-producing glands. In the transient CFD simulation, the airflow in the trachea of a 2-dimensional model is evoked by changing the volume of the simplified air sac. The heat exchange between the respiratory system and the environment is simulated for different ambient temperatures and humidities, and using two different models of evaporation: constant water vapour concentration model and the droplet injection model. According to the histological results, small mucous glands are numerous but discrete serous glands are lacking on the tracheal surface. The amount of water and heat loss in the simulation is comparable with measured respiratory values previously reported. Tracheal temperature control in the avian respiratory system may be used as a model for extinct or rare animals and could have high relevance for explaining how gigantic, long-necked dinosaurs such as sauropoda might have maintained a high metabolic rate.

9. Numerical simulation of tsunami-scale wave boundary layers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Williams, Isaac A.; Fuhrman, David R.

2016-01-01

demonstrating the ability to reproduce accurate velocity profiles, turbulence, and bed shear stresses on both smooth and rough beds.The validated model is then employed for the study of transient wave boundary layers at full tsunami scales,covering a wide and realistic geophysical range in terms of the flow......, is newly extended to incorporate a transitional variant of the standard two-equation k–ω turbulence closure. The developed numerical model is successfully validated against recent experimental measurements involving transient solitary wave boundary layers as well as for oscillatory flows, collectively......This paper presents a numerical study of the boundary layer flow and properties induced by tsunami-scalewaves. For this purpose, an existing one-dimensional vertical (1DV) boundary layer model, based on the horizontal component of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations...

10. Magnetic Structure of the Magnetopause Boundary Layer for Open Magnetosphere

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Yonghui; Shen, Chao; Zeng, Gang

2017-04-01

Using Cluster and Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft 4 point magnetic field measurements, we analyzed the magnetic structure of magnetopause boundary layer of the open magnetosphere. It is indicated that the magnetopause boundary layer is very thin under strong magnetic shear and the thickness is usually 0.1 Re. We found that the Rotational Discontinuity (RD) is very important structure at magnetopause when the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) is southward. Within the boundary layer, the magnetic field has a large rotation. Using curvature calculation method, we got that the minimum curvature radius of magnetic field of RD is 0.02 - 0.1Re, implying that the magnetosphere is open when the IMF is southward. Advanced research showed that the field-aligned currents are common in the magnetopause boundary layer.

11. Microprobe of structure of crystal/liquid interface boundary layers

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2001-01-01

The molecular structures and its evolutive regularities within the boundary layers in the crystal growth of KDP and DKDP have been studied in real time by using holography and Raman microprobe. The experiments show that the molecular structure of mother solution within the boundary layers is distinctly different from that of the solutions alone. In this paper, the effects of cations within the boundary layers on the structure of solution are considered. Within the characteristic boundary layers, the effects of cations cause the changes in O-P-O bond angle, electronic density redistribution of the phosphate groups, and significant changes in the bond intensity, thus leading to the breaking of partial hydrogen bonds of the phosphate associations, the readjustment of geometry of anionic phosphate groups and desolvation, and the forming of the smectic ordering structure of the anions_cations. Finally, the crystallization unit of anion_cation should be formed at the proximate interface.

12. A note on boundary-layer friction in baroclinic cyclones

CERN Document Server

Boutle, I A; Belcher, S E; Plant, R S

2008-01-01

The interaction between extratropical cyclones and the underlying boundary layer has been a topic of recent discussion in papers by Adamson et. al. (2006) and Beare (2007). Their results emphasise different mechanisms through which the boundary layer dynamics may modify the growth of a baroclinic cyclone. By using different sea-surface temperature distributions and comparing the low-level winds, the differences are exposed and both of the proposed mechanisms appear to be acting within a single simulation.

13. CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM OF TURBULENT BOUNDARY LAYER FLOW

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LIU Ying-zheng; KE Feng; CHEN Han-ping

2005-01-01

The spatio-temporal characteristics of the velocity fluctuations in a fully-developed turbulent boundary layer flow was investigated using hotwire. A low-speed wind tunnel was established. The experimental data was extensively analyzed in terms of continuous wavelet transform coefficients and their auto-correlation. The results yielded a potential wealth of information on inherent characteristics of coherent structures embedded in turbulent boundary layer flow. Spatial and temporal variations of the low- and high- frequency motions were revealed.

14. DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer over a blunt wedge

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LI Xinliang; FU Dexun; MA Yanwan

2005-01-01

Direct numerical simulation of spatially evolving compressible boundary layer over a blunt wedge is performed in this paper. The free-stream Mach number is 6 and the disturbance source produced by wall blowing and suction is located downstream of the sound-speed point. Statistics are studied and compared with the results in incompressible flat-plate boundary layer. The mean pressure gradient effects on the vortex structure are studied.

15. A Compilation of Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layer Experimental Data,

Science.gov (United States)

1981-11-01

HIRSCH KITAet ai, GOSTELOW EHERENSBERGER LU HO & CHEN KOBASHI & HAYAKAWA MAINARDI & PANDAY MARVIN* LORBER & COVERT MIZUSHINA I SAXENA RAMAPRIAN & TU...Laminar Boundary Layer by a Moving Belt. AIAA Paj_2r 69-40, New York, N.Y., 1969. (LT) Mainardi , H. and Panday, P. K.: A Study of Turbulent Pulsating...Flow in a (-cular Pipe. Eurovisc 77 - Unsteady Turbulent Boundary Layers and Shear Flows, Toulouse, France, Jar,. 2977. (TE-D) Mainardi , H. and Panday

16. Turbulent oceanic western-boundary layers at low latitude

Science.gov (United States)

Quam Cyrille Akuetevi, Cataria; Wirth, Achim

2013-04-01

Low latitude oceanic western-boundary layers range within the most turbulent regions in the worlds ocean. The Somali current system with the Great Whirl and the Brazilian current system with its eddy shedding are the most prominent examples. Results from analytical calculations and integration of a one layer reduced-gravity fine resolution shallow water model is used to entangle this turbulent dynamics. Two types of wind-forcing are applied: a remote Trade wind forcing with maximum shear along the equator and a local Monsoon wind forcing with maximum shear in the vicinity of the boundary. For high values of the viscosity (> 1000m2s-1) the stationary solutions compare well to analytical predictions using Munk and inertial layer theory. When lowering the friction parameter time dependence results. The onset of instability is strongly influenced by inertial effects. The unstable boundary current proceeds as a succession of anti-cyclonic coherent eddies performing a chaotic dynamics in a turbulent flow. The dynamics is governed by the turbulent fluxes of mass and momentum. We determine these fluxes by analyzing the (potential) vorticity dynamics. We demonstrate that the boundary-layer can be separated in four sub-layers, which are (starting from the boundary): (1) the viscous sub-layer (2) the turbulent buffer-layer (3) the layer containing the coherent structures and (4) the extended boundary layer. The characteristics of each sub-layer and the corresponding turbulent fluxes are determined, as are the dependence on latitude and the type of forcing. A new pragmatic method of determining the eddy viscosity, based on Munk-layer theory, is proposed. Results are compared to observations and solutions of the multi-level primitive equation model (DRAKKAR).

17. BOUNDARY LAYER AND VANISHING DIFFUSION LIMIT FOR NONLINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

彭艳

2014-01-01

In this paper, we consider an initial-boundary value problem for some nonlinear evolution equations with damping and diffusion. The main purpose is to investigate the boundary layer effect and the convergence rates as the diffusion parameterαgoes to zero.

18. LES model intercomparisons for the stable atmospheric boundary layer

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Moene, A.F.; Baas, P.; Bosveld, F.C.; Basu, S.

2011-01-01

Model intercomparisons are one possible method to gain confidence in Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) as a viable tool to study turbulence in the atmospheric boundary-layer. This paper discusses the setup and some results of two intercomparison cases focussing on the stably stratified nocturnal boundary-

19. Enhancement of band-to-band tunneling in mono-layer transition metal dichalcogenides two-dimensional materials by vacancy defects

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Gong, Jian [School of Physics Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Xu, Nuo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zhang, Jinfeng; Hao, Yue [Key Laboratory of Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Wang, Lin-Wang, E-mail: lwwang@lbl.gov [Material Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2014-01-13

The band-to-band tunneling of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides nano-junction is investigated using atomistic ab initio quantum transport simulations. From the simulation, it is found that the transition metal vacancy defect in the two-dimensional MX{sub 2} (M = Mo,W; X = S,Se) band-to-band tunneling diode can dramatically boost the on-state current up to 10 times while maintaining the device sub-threshold swing. The performance enhancement mechanism is discussed in detail by examining partial density of states of the system. It is found that the transition metal vacancy induces band-gap states, which reduce the effective length of the tunneling transition region.

20. Diffusion or advection? Mass transfer and complex boundary layer landscapes of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus.

Science.gov (United States)

Lichtenberg, Mads; Nørregaard, Rasmus Dyrmose; Kühl, Michael

2017-03-01

The role of hyaline hairs on the thallus of brown algae in the genus Fucus is long debated and several functions have been proposed. We used a novel motorized set-up for two-dimensional and three-dimensional mapping with O2 microsensors to investigate the spatial heterogeneity of the diffusive boundary layer (DBL) and O2 flux around single and multiple tufts of hyaline hairs on the thallus of Fucus vesiculosus. Flow was a major determinant of DBL thickness, where higher flow decreased DBL thickness and increased O2 flux between the algal thallus and the surrounding seawater. However, the topography of the DBL varied and did not directly follow the contour of the underlying thallus. Areas around single tufts of hyaline hairs exhibited a more complex mass-transfer boundary layer, showing both increased and decreased thickness when compared with areas over smooth thallus surfaces. Over thallus areas with several hyaline hair tufts, the overall effect was an apparent increase in the boundary layer thickness. We also found indications for advective O2 transport driven by pressure gradients or vortex shedding downstream from dense tufts of hyaline hairs that could alleviate local mass-transfer resistances. Mass-transfer dynamics around hyaline hair tufts are thus more complex than hitherto assumed and may have important implications for algal physiology and plant-microbe interactions.

1. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

Science.gov (United States)

Gabard, Gwénaël

2016-10-01

The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

2. Turbulent Boundary Layer at Large Re

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Horia DUMITRESCU

2016-03-01

Full Text Available The fluids as deformable bodies without own shape, when starting from rest, experience interactions between the flowing fluid and the physical surfaces marking the bounds of flow. These interactions are a kind of impact process where there is a momentum exchange between two colliding bodies, i.e. the flow and its boundary surfaces. Within a short time of contact a post-impact shear flow occurs where two main effects are triggered off by the flow-induced collision: dramatic redistribution of the momentum and the boundary vorticity followed by the shear stress/viscosity change in the microstructure of the fluid which at the beginning behaves as linear reactive medium and latter as nonlinear dispersive medium. The disturbance of the starting flow induces the entanglement of the wall-bounded flow in the form of point-vortices or concentrated vorticity balls whence waves are emitted and propagated through flow field. The paper develops a wave mechanism for the transport of the concentrated boundary vorticity, directly related to the fascinating turbulence phenomenon, using the torsion concept of vorticity filaments associated with the hypothesis of thixotropic/nonlinear viscous fluid.

3. Immersed Boundary Methods for High-Resolution Simulation of Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow Over Complex Terrain

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lundquist, K A [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

2010-05-12

Mesoscale models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are increasingly used for high resolution simulations, particularly in complex terrain, but errors associated with terrain-following coordinates degrade the accuracy of the solution. Use of an alternative Cartesian gridding technique, known as an immersed boundary method (IBM), alleviates coordinate transformation errors and eliminates restrictions on terrain slope which currently limit mesoscale models to slowly varying terrain. In this dissertation, an immersed boundary method is developed for use in numerical weather prediction. Use of the method facilitates explicit resolution of complex terrain, even urban terrain, in the WRF mesoscale model. First, the errors that arise in the WRF model when complex terrain is present are presented. This is accomplished using a scalar advection test case, and comparing the numerical solution to the analytical solution. Results are presented for different orders of advection schemes, grid resolutions and aspect ratios, as well as various degrees of terrain slope. For comparison, results from the same simulation are presented using the IBM. Both two-dimensional and three-dimensional immersed boundary methods are then described, along with details that are specific to the implementation of IBM in the WRF code. Our IBM is capable of imposing both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Additionally, a method for coupling atmospheric physics parameterizations at the immersed boundary is presented, making IB methods much more functional in the context of numerical weather prediction models. The two-dimensional IB method is verified through comparisons of solutions for gentle terrain slopes when using IBM and terrain-following grids. The canonical case of flow over a Witch of Agnesi hill provides validation of the basic no-slip and zero gradient boundary conditions. Specified diurnal heating in a valley, producing anabatic winds, is used to validate the

4. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

KAUST Repository

Wu, Tao

2015-02-25

Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

5. Plasma boundary layer and magnetopause layer of the earth's magnetosphere

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Eastman, T.E.

1979-06-01

IMP 6 observations of the plasma boundary layer (PBL) and magnetopause layer (MPL) of the earth's magnetosphere indicate that plasma in the low-latitude portion of the PBL is supplied primarily by direct transport of magnetosheath plasma across the MPL and that this transport process is relatively widespread over the entire sunward magnetospheric boundary.

6. An Analytical Study on Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of Nanofluid Induced by a Non-Linearly Stretching Sheet

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. Malvandi

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Steady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a nanofluid past a nonlinear stretching sheet is investigated analytically using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The employed model for nanofluid includes twocomponent four-equation non-homogeneous equilibrium model that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion ( Nb , thermophoresis ( Nt and Lewis number ( Le simultaneously. The basic partial boundary layer equations have been reduced to a two-point boundary value problem via the similarity variables. Analytical results are in best agreements with those existing in the literatures. The outcomes signify the decreasing trend of heat transfer rate with thermophoresis, Brownian motion and Lewis number. However, concentration rate has a sensitive behavior with parameters, especially the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. Also, the weak points of numerical methods in such problems have been mentioned and the efficiency of HAM, as an alternative approach, in solving these kinds of nonlinear coupled problems has been shown.

7. Analysis of diabatic flow modification in the internal boundary layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Floors, Rogier; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

2011-01-01

is controlled by a combination of both downstream and upstream stability and surface roughness conditions. A model based on a diffusion analogy is able to predict the internal boundary layer height well. Modeling the neutral and long-term wind profile with a 3 layer linear interpolation scheme gives good......Measurements at two meteorological masts in Denmark, Horns Rev in the sea and Høvsøre near the coastline on land, are used to analyze the behaviour of the flow after a smooth-to-rough change in surface conditions. The study shows that the wind profile within the internal boundary layer...... results at Høvsøre. Based on a comparison with a numerical model and the measurements, the constants in the interpolation scheme are slightly adjusted, which yields an improvement for the description of the wind profile in the internal boundary layer....

8. Boundary-layer control by electric fields A feasibility study

CERN Document Server

Mendes, R V

1998-01-01

A problem of great concern in aviation and submarine propulsion is the control of the boundary layer and, in particular, the methods to extend the laminar region as a means to decrease noise and fuel consumption. In this paper we study the flow of air along an airfoil when a layer of ionized gas and a longitudinal electric field are created in the boundary layer region. By deriving scaling solutions and more accurate numerical solutions we discuss the possibility of achieving significant boundary layer control for realistic physical parameters. Practical design formulas and criteria are obtained. We also discuss the perspectives for active control of the laminar-to-turbulent transition fluctuations by electromagnetic field modulation.

9. Definition of Turbulent Boundary-Layer with Entropy Concept

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zhao Rui

2016-01-01

Full Text Available The relationship between the entropy increment and the viscosity dissipation in turbulent boundary-layer is systematically investigated. Through theoretical analysis and direct numerical simulation (DNS, an entropy function fs is proposed to distinguish the turbulent boundary-layer from the external flow. This approach is proved to be reliable after comparing its performance in the following complex flows, namely, low-speed airfoil flows with different wall temperature, supersonic cavity-ramp flow dominated by the combination of free-shear layer, larger recirculation and shocks, and the hypersonic flow past an aeroplane configuration. Moreover, fs is deduced from the point of energy, independent of any particular turbulent quantities. That is, this entropy concept could be utilized by other engineering applications related with turbulent boundary-layer, such as turbulence modelling transition prediction and engineering thermal protection.

10. 基于MATLAB对二维混合边界静电场域的分析%Based on MATLAB for two-dimensional mixed boundary electrostatic field analysis

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

李小兵

2012-01-01

This paper analyzes the principles and concepts of the finite difference method, the electromagnetic field problem involves three types of boundary conditions using finite difference numerical calculation and analysis of border issues, to analyze the electrostatic field of two-dimensional mixed-type boundary and calculate the differential equations using MATLAB programming.and overrelaxation iterative method is introduced into the calculation of the differential equation and compared with the simple iterative method, using the same calculation accuracy overrelaxation method not only saves storage space, and the speed of convergence. It can be seen by calculating the Matlab in solving practical engineering, and mathematics problem, easier to use, the statement is more powerful, and visually demonstrate the two-dimensional mixed boundary electrostatic field potential maps and field strength three-dimensional maps.%本文分析了有限差分法的原理与概念，讨论了电磁场问题涉及3种类型的边界条件，采用有限差分数值计算分析边界问题，对二维混合型边界静电场进行分析，用MATLAB编程计算差分方程，并将超松弛迭代法引入到差分方程的计算，并与简单迭代方法进行比较，同样的计算精度下采用超松弛法不仅节省存储空间，而且加快了收敛速度。通过计算可以看出MATLAB在解决实际的工程和数学问题中，具有使用更为简便、语句功能更强的特点，能直观地演示二维混合边界静电场的电势分布图和场强立体分布图。

11. Nature, theory and modelling of geophysical convective planetary boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Zilitinkevich, Sergej

2015-04-01

Geophysical convective planetary boundary layers (CPBLs) are still poorly reproduced in oceanographic, hydrological and meteorological models. Besides the mean flow and usual shear-generated turbulence, CPBLs involve two types of motion disregarded in conventional theories: 'anarchy turbulence' comprised of the buoyancy-driven plumes, merging to form larger plumes instead of breaking down, as postulated in conventional theory (Zilitinkevich, 1973), large-scale organised structures fed by the potential energy of unstable stratification through inverse energy transfer in convective turbulence (and performing non-local transports irrespective of mean gradients of transporting properties). C-PBLs are strongly mixed and go on growing as long as the boundary layer remains unstable. Penetration of the mixed layer into the weakly turbulent, stably stratified free flow causes turbulent transports through the CPBL outer boundary. The proposed theory, taking into account the above listed features of CPBL, is based on the following recent developments: prognostic CPBL-depth equation in combination with diagnostic algorithm for turbulence fluxes at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries (Zilitinkevich, 1991, 2012, 2013; Zilitinkevich et al., 2006, 2012), deterministic model of self-organised convective structures combined with statistical turbulence-closure model of turbulence in the CPBL core (Zilitinkevich, 2013). It is demonstrated that the overall vertical transports are performed mostly by turbulence in the surface layer and entrainment layer (at the CPBL inner and outer boundaries) and mostly by organised structures in the CPBL core (Hellsten and Zilitinkevich, 2013). Principal difference between structural and turbulent mixing plays an important role in a number of practical problems: transport and dispersion of admixtures, microphysics of fogs and clouds, etc. The surface-layer turbulence in atmospheric and marine CPBLs is strongly enhanced by the velocity shears in

12. Vortex Generators to Control Boundary Layer Interactions

Science.gov (United States)

Babinsky, Holger (Inventor); Loth, Eric (Inventor); Lee, Sang (Inventor)

2014-01-01

Devices for generating streamwise vorticity in a boundary includes various forms of vortex generators. One form of a split-ramp vortex generator includes a first ramp element and a second ramp element with front ends and back ends, ramp surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends, and vertical surfaces extending between the front ends and the back ends adjacent the ramp surfaces. A flow channel is between the first ramp element and the second ramp element. The back ends of the ramp elements have a height greater than a height of the front ends, and the front ends of the ramp elements have a width greater than a width of the back ends.

13. Significantly Dense Two-Dimensional Hydrogen-Bond Network in a Layered Zirconium Phosphate Leading to High Proton Conductivities in Both Water-Assisted Low-Temperature and Anhydrous Intermediate-Temperature Regions.

Science.gov (United States)

Gui, Daxiang; Zheng, Tao; Xie, Jian; Cai, Yawen; Wang, Yaxing; Chen, Lanhua; Diwu, Juan; Chai, Zhifang; Wang, Shuao

2016-12-19

A highly stable layered zirconium phosphate, (NH4)2[ZrF2(HPO4)2] (ZrP-1), was synthesized by an ionothermal method and contains an extremely dense two-dimensional hydrogen-bond network that is thermally stable up to 573 K, leading to combined ultrahigh water-assisted proton conductivities of 1.45 × 10(-2) S cm(-1) at 363 K/95% relative humidity and sustainable anhydrous proton conductivity of 1.1 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 503 K.

14. A Experimental Investigation of the Interaction Between Convecting Spanwise Vortices and a Turbulent Boundary Layer.

Science.gov (United States)

MacRorie, Michael

1995-01-01

The interaction between convecting spanwise vortices and a flat plate turbulent boundary layer was studied experimentally. The results are relevant to the flow downstream of unsteady airfoils or spoilers. Vortices were generated with a rapidly pitched airfoil upstream of a test plate leading edge in a low-speed wind tunnel. By varying the height of the vortex generator the degree to which the vortices interacted with the test plate was controlled. Dynamic stall vortices of both positive and negative circulation were studied with Reynolds numbers (Gamma/upsilon ) of 9300 and 7400 respectively. The free-stream velocity was 5.9 m/s for all cases and the boundary layer momentum thickness Reynolds number was 480 at the primary measurement station. The measurement techniques were hot -wire anemometry (single and cross wire) and smoke-wire visualization. The results focus on two distinct aspects of the flow, first is the decay and diffusion rates of the vortices. Only in the case where a negative circulation vortex impinges directly on the leading edge does surface interaction significantly increase the vortex decay/diffusion rate. The second aspect is the response of the turbulent boundary layer to the convecting vortices. Wall shear stress measurements show that the passage of a positive circulation vortex results in an increase in wall shear after a delay-time, while the negative circulation vortices result in a decrease in wall shear. An application of log-law scaling to the ensemble-averaged mean flow was found to produce a velocity scale which resembles one based on measured wall shear stress but is offset by a phase lag. The ratio of turbulent shear stress to the two-dimensional turbulent kinetic energy was generally not constant, although it did show a constant value across the boundary layer at different phases of the interaction.

15. Large-eddy simulation of separation and reattachment of a flat plate turbulent boundary layer

KAUST Repository

Cheng, W.

2015-11-11

© 2015 Cambridge University Press. We present large-eddy simulations (LES) of separation and reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary-layer flow. Instead of resolving the near wall region, we develop a two-dimensional virtual wall model which can calculate the time- and space-dependent skin-friction vector field at the wall, at the resolved scale. By combining the virtual-wall model with the stretched-vortex subgrid-scale (SGS) model, we construct a self-consistent framework for the LES of separating and reattaching turbulent wall-bounded flows at large Reynolds numbers. The present LES methodology is applied to two different experimental flows designed to produce separation/reattachment of a flat-plate turbulent boundary layer at medium Reynolds number Reθ based on the momentum boundary-layer thickness θ. Comparison with data from the first case at demonstrates the present capability for accurate calculation of the variation, with the streamwise co-ordinate up to separation, of the skin friction coefficient, Reθ, the boundary-layer shape factor and a non-dimensional pressure-gradient parameter. Additionally the main large-scale features of the separation bubble, including the mean streamwise velocity profiles, show good agreement with experiment. At the larger Reθ = 11000 of the second case, the LES provides good postdiction of the measured skin-friction variation along the whole streamwise extent of the experiment, consisting of a very strong adverse pressure gradient leading to separation within the separation bubble itself, and in the recovering or reattachment region of strongly-favourable pressure gradient. Overall, the present two-dimensional wall model used in LES appears to be capable of capturing the quantitative features of a separation-reattachment turbulent boundary-layer flow at low to moderately large Reynolds numbers.

16. Surface modes in sheared boundary layers over impedance linings

Science.gov (United States)

Brambley, E. J.

2013-08-01

Surface modes, being duct modes localized close to the duct wall, are analysed within a lined cylindrical duct with uniform flow apart from a thin boundary layer. As well as full numerical solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, simplified mathematical models are given where the duct lining and boundary layer are lumped together and modelled using a single boundary condition (a modification of the Myers boundary condition previously proposed by the author), from which a surface mode dispersion relation is derived. For a given frequency, up to six surface modes are shown to exist, rather than the maximum of four for uniform slipping flow. Not only is the different number and behaviour of surface modes important for frequency-domain mode-matching techniques, which depend on having found all relevant modes during matching, but the thin boundary layer is also shown to lead to different convective and absolute stability than for uniform slipping flow. Numerical examples are given comparing the predictions of the surface mode dispersion relation to full solutions of the Pridmore-Brown equation, and the accuracy with which surface modes are predicted is shown to be significantly increased compared with the uniform slipping flow assumption. The importance of not only the boundary layer thickness but also its profile (tanh or linear) is demonstrated. A Briggs-Bers stability analysis is also performed under the assumption of a mass-spring-damper or Helmholtz resonator impedance model.

17. Measurements of a supersonic turbulent boundary layer by focusing schlieren deflectometry

Science.gov (United States)

Garg, S.; Settles, G. S.

Some novel, non-intrusive, high-frequency, localized optical measurements of turbulence in compressible flows are described. The technique is based upon focusing schlieren optics coupled with high-speed quantitative measurement of light intensity fluctuations in the schlieren image. Measurements of density gradient fluctuations confined to a thin slice of the flowfield are thus obtained. The new instrument was used to investigate the structure of a two-dimensional, adiabatic, wind tunnel wall boundary layer at a Mach number of 3. The measurements were compared to data obtained using hot-wire anemometry and good agreement was found between the two. Distributions of broadband convection velocity of large-scale structures through the boundary later were also measured. In marked contrast to earlier results, it is shown here that the convection velocity is essentially identical to the local mean velocity. Further, results obtained using the VITA conditional sampling technique shed new light on the turbulent boundary layer structure. Overall, the data presented herein serve to validate the new measurement technique.

18. Dissipative Effects in Hydromagnetic Boundary Layer Nanofluid Flow past a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bhupesh Kumar Mahatha

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Two dimensional steady hydromagnetic boundary layer flow of a viscous, incompressible, and electrically conducting nanofluid past a stretching sheet with Newtonian heating, in the presence of viscous and Joule dissipations is studied. The transport equations include the combined effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are then solved using Spectral Relaxation Method (SRM and the results are validated by comparison with numerical approximations obtained using the Matlab in-built boundary value problem solver bvp4c, and with existing results available in literature. Numerical values of fluid velocity, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically versus boundary layer coordinate for various values of pertinent flow parameters whereas those of skin friction, rate of heat transfer and rate of mass transfer at the plate are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters. Such nanofluid flows are useful in many applications in heat transfer, including microelectronics, fuel cells, pharmaceutical processes, and hybrid-powered engines, engine cooling/vehicle thermal management, domestic refrigerator, chiller, heat exchanger, in grinding, machining and in boiler flue gas temperature reduction.

19. The inner core thermodynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Williams, Gabriel J.

2016-10-01

Although considerable progress has been made in understanding the inner-core dynamics of the tropical cyclone boundary layer (TCBL), our knowledge of the inner-core thermodynamics of the TCBL remains limited. In this study, the inner-core budgets of potential temperature (θ), specific humidity ( q), and reversible equivalent potential temperature (θ _e) are examined using a high-resolution multilevel boundary layer model. The potential temperature budgets show that the heat energy is dominated by latent heat release in the eyewall, evaporative cooling along the outer edge of the eyewall, and upward surface fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the underlying warm ocean. It is shown that the vertical θ advection overcompensates the sum of radial advective warming from the boundary layer outflow jet and latent heating for the development of cooling in the eyewall within the TCBL. The moisture budgets show the dominant upward transport of moisture in the eyewall updrafts, partly by the boundary-layer outflow jet from the bottom eye region, so that the eyewall remains nearly saturated. The θ _e budgets reveal that the TCBL is maintained thermodynamically by the upward surface flux of higher-θ _e air from the underlying warm ocean, the radial transport of low-θ _e air from the outer regions of the TCBL, and the dry adiabatic cooling associated by eyewall updrafts. These results underscore the significance of vertical motion and the location of the boundary layer outflow jet in maintaining the inner core thermal structure of the TCBL.

20. An investigation of streaklike instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames

Science.gov (United States)

Miller, Colin; Finney, Mark; Forthofer, Jason; McAllister, Sara; Gollner, Michael

2016-11-01

Observations of coherent structures in boundary layer flames, particularly wildland fires, motivated an investigation on flame instabilities within a boundary layer. This experimental study examined streaklike structures in a stationary diffusion flame stabilized within a laminar boundary layer. Flame streaks were found to align with pre-existing velocity perturbations, enabling stabilization of these coherent structures. Thermocouple measurements were used to quantify streamwise amplification of flame streaks. Temperature mapping indicated a temperature rise in the flame streaks, while the region in between these streaks, the trough, decreased in temperature. The heat flux to the surface was measured with a total heat flux gauge, and the heat flux below the troughs was found to be higher at all measurement locations. This was likely a function of the flame standoff distance, and indicated that the flame streaks were acting to modify the spanwise distribution of heat flux. Instabilities in boundary layer combustion can have an effect on the spanwise distribution of heat transfer. This finding has significant implications for boundary layer combustion, indicating that instantaneous properties can vary significantly in a three-dimensional flow field.

1. Calculations of Turbulent Boundary Layer (TBL) Pressure Fluctuations Transmitted into a Viscoelastic Layer

Science.gov (United States)

2016-06-07

turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuation transmitted into a layer of viscoelastic material. The theoretical model used here is a plane elastomer...Spring 1985. The objective of this paper is to develop a model for calculating the turbulent boundary layer pressure fluctuation transmitted into a...the noise level calculated in terms of decibels. FIGURE 4 (CORCOS MODEL ) This is a model cross-spectrum of turbulent wall pressure , frequently

2. Secondary instability in boundary-layer flows

Science.gov (United States)

Nayfeh, A. H.; Bozatli, A. N.

1979-01-01

The stability of a secondary Tollmien-Schlichting wave, whose wavenumber and frequency are nearly one half those of a fundamental Tollmien-Schlichting instability wave is analyzed using the method of multiple scales. Under these conditions, the fundamental wave acts as a parametric exciter for the secondary wave. The results show that the amplitude of the fundamental wave must exceed a critical value to trigger this parametric instability. This value is proportional to a detuning parameter which is the real part of k - 2K, where k and K are the wavenumbers of the fundamental and its subharmonic, respectively. For Blasius flow, the critical amplitude is approximately 29% of the mean flow, and hence many other secondary instabilities take place before this parametric instability becomes significant. For other flows where the detuning parameter is small, such as free-shear layer flows, the critical amplitude can be small, thus the parametric instability might play a greater role.

3. Measured Instantaneous Viscous Boundary Layer in Turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard Convection

CERN Document Server

Zhou, Quan

2009-01-01

We report measurements of the instantaneous viscous boundary layer (BL) thickness $\\delta_v(t)$ in turbulent Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection. It is found that $\\delta_v(t)$ obtained from the measured instantaneous two-dimensional velocity field exhibits intermittent fluctuations. For small values, $\\delta_v(t)$ obeys a lognormal distribution, whereas for large values the distribution of $\\delta_v(t)$ exhibits an exponential tail. The variation of $\\delta_v(t)$ with time is found to be driven by the fluctuations of the large-scale mean flow velocity, as expected, and the local horizontal velocities close to the plate can be used as an instant measure of this variation. It is further found that the mean velocity profile measured in the laboratory frame can now be brought into coincidence with the theoretical Blasius laminar BL profile, if it is resampled relative to the time-dependent frame of $\\delta_v(t)$.

4. A computational study on oblique shock wave-turbulent boundary layer interaction

Science.gov (United States)

Joy, Md. Saddam Hossain; Rahman, Saeedur; Hasan, A. B. M. Toufique; Ali, M.; Mitsutake, Y.; Matsuo, S.; Setoguchi, T.

2016-07-01

A numerical computation of an oblique shock wave incident on a turbulent boundary layer was performed for free stream flow of air at M∞ = 2.0 and Re1 = 10.5×106 m-1. The oblique shock wave was generated from a 8° wedge. Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation with k-ω SST turbulence model was first utilized for two dimensional (2D) steady case. The results were compared with the experiment at the same flow conditions. Further, to capture the unsteadiness, a 2D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with sub-grid scale model WMLES was performed which showed the unsteady effects. The frequency of the shock oscillation was computed and was found to be comparable with that of experimental measurement.

5. Thermophoretically augmented mass transfer rates to solid walls across laminar boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

1986-01-01

Predictions of mass transfer (heavy vapor and small particle deposition) rates to solid walls, including the effects of thermal (Soret) diffusion ('thermophoresis' for small particles), are made by numerically solving the two-dimensional self-similar forced convection laminar boundary-layer equations with variable properties, covering the particle size range from vapor molecules up to the size threshold for inertial (dynamical nonequilibrium) effects. The effect of thermophoresis is predicted to be particularly important for submicron particle deposition on highly cooled solid surfaces, with corresponding enhancement factors at atmospheric conditions being over a thousand-fold at T(w)/T(e) equal to about 0.6. As a consequence of this mass transfer mechanism, the particle size dependence of the mass transfer coefficient to a cooled wall will be much weaker than for the corresponding case of isothermal capture by Brownian-convective diffusion.

6. Boundary layer flow and heat transfer of Cross fluid over a stretching sheet

CERN Document Server

Khan, Masood; Rahman, Masood ur

2016-01-01

The current study is a pioneering work in presenting the boundary layer equations for the two-dimensional flow and heat transfer of the Cross fluid over a linearly stretching sheet. The system of partial differential equations is turned down into highly non-linear ordinary differential equations by applying suitable similarity transformations. The stretching sheet solutions are presented via. a numerical technique namely the shooting method and graphs are constructed for the shear-thinning as well as shear-thickening regime. The impact of the emerging parameters namely the power-law index , the local Weissenberg number and the Prandtl number on the velocity and temperature fields are investigated through graphs. Numerical values of the local skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number are also presented in tabular form. For some limiting cases, comparisons with previously available results in the literature are made and an excellent agreement is achieved.

7. An LDA investigation of the normal shock wave boundary layer interaction

Science.gov (United States)

Chriss, R. M.; Hingst, W. R.; Strazisar, A. J.; Keith, T. G.

1990-01-01

Nonintrusive measurements have been made of two normal shock wave-boundary layer interactions. Two-dimensional measurements were made throughout the interaction region while three-dimensional measurements were made in the vicinity of the shock wave. The measurements were made in the corner of the test section of a continuous flow supersonic wind tunnel in which a normal shock wave had been stabilized. LDA, surface pressure measurement and flow visualization techniques were employed for two freestream Mach number test cases: 1.6 and 1.3. The former contained separated flow regions and a system of shock waves. The latter was found to be far less complicated. The reported results define the flowfield structure in detail for each case.

8. Exploration and exploitation of homologous series of bis(acrylamidoalkanes containing pyridyl and phenyl groups: β-sheet versus two-dimensional layers in solid-state photochemical [2 + 2] reactions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mousumi Garai

2015-09-01

Full Text Available The homologous series of phenyl and pyridyl substituted bis(acrylamidoalkanes have been synthesized with the aim of systematic analysis of their crystal structures and their solid-state [2 + 2] reactivities. The changes in the crystal structures with respect to a small change in the molecular structure, that is by varying alkyl spacers between acrylamides and/or by varying the end groups (phenyl, 2-pyridyl, 3-pyridyl, 4-pyridyl on the C-terminal of the amide, were analyzed in terms of hydrogen-bonding interference (N—H...Npy versus N—H...O=C and network geometries. In this series, a greater tendency towards the formation of N—H...O hydrogen bonds (β-sheets and two-dimensional networks over N—H...N hydrogen bonds was observed. Among all the structures seven structures were found to have the required alignments of double bonds for the [2 + 2] reaction such that the formations of single dimer, double dimer and polymer are facilitated. However, only four structures were found to exhibit such a solid-state [2 + 2] reaction to form a single dimer and polymers. The two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding layer via N—H...O hydrogen bonds was found to promote solid-state [2 + 2] photo-polymerization in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal manner. Such two-dimensional layers were encountered only when the spacer between acryl amide moieties is butyl. Only four out of the 16 derivatives were found to form hydrates, two each from 2-pyridyl and 4-pyridyl derivatives. The water molecules in these structures govern the hydrogen-bonding networks by the formation of an octameric water cluster and one-dimensional zigzag water chains. The trends in the melting points and densities were also analyzed.

9. Effect of externally generated turbulence on wave boundary layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Fredsøe, Jørgen; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Kozakiewicz, A.

2003-01-01

This experimental study deals with the effect of externally generated turbulence on the oscillatory boundary layer to simulate the turbulence in the wave boundary layer under broken waves in the swash zone. The subject has been investigated experimentally in a U-shaped, oscillating water tunnel...... with a smooth bottom. Turbulence was generated ´externally´ as the flow in the oscillator was passed through a series of grids, that extended from the cover of the water tunnel to about mid-depth. Two different types of grid porosities were used. Direct measurements of the bed shear stress and velocity...... results. The mean and turbulence quantities in the outer flow region are increased substantially with the introduction of the grids. It is shown that the externally generated turbulence is able to penetrate the bed boundary layer, resulting in an increase in the bed shear stress, and therefore...

10. Localized travelling waves in the asymptotic suction boundary layer

CERN Document Server

Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M

2016-01-01

We present two spanwise-localized travelling wave solutions in the asymptotic suction boundary layer, obtained by continuation of solutions of plane Couette flow. One of the solutions has the vortical structures located close to the wall, similar to spanwise-localized edge states previously found for this system. The vortical structures of the second solution are located in the free stream far above the laminar boundary layer and are supported by a secondary shear gradient that is created by a large-scale low-speed streak. The dynamically relevant eigenmodes of this solution are concentrated in the free stream, and the departure into turbulence from this solution evolves in the free stream towards the walls. For invariant solutions in free-stream turbulence, this solution thus shows that that the source of energy of the vortical structures can be a dynamical structure of the solution itself, instead of the laminar boundary layer.

11. Optical measurements of degradation in aircraft boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Kelsall, D.

1980-01-01

Visible wavelength measurements of the degradation of optical beams when transmitted through the thin aerodynamic boundary layers around an aircraft are reviewed. The measured results indicated degradation levels for the KC-135 airplanes between 0.10 to 0.13 lambda increasing to 0.18 lambda (rms wavefront distortion). For the Lear Jet, degradation with a 25 mm diameter optics was roughly 0.07 lambda. The corresponding infinite aperture degradation levels are also calculated. The corresponding measured correlation lengths of roughly 12 mm for the KC-135 aircraft and 6 mm for the Lear Jet scale to roughly 20 and 25 mm, respectively, for infinite apertures. These boundary layer correlation lengths do not appear to reflect the different boundary layer thicknesses on the two different aircraft.

12. Vertical pressure gradient and particle motions in wave boundary layers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Karsten Lindegård

The present study covers both a numerical and experimental investigation of the processes in the oscillatory boundary layer. In the first part a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is conducted to study the vertical pressure gradient, and its role in relation to laminar to turbulent transition...... and its role in the fully turbulent boundary layer. The pressure in the flow is obtained from the flow fields of the oscillatory boundary layer. What differs, the vertical pressure gradient, from other turbulent quantities, like e.g. velocity fluctuations is that it can detect newly generated turbulence....... This is in contrast to velocity fluctuations that are diffusive, so they can also contain residual turbulence from the previous half cycle until they are dissipated. Furthermore, the magnitude of the mean value of conditionally averaged vertical pressure gradient (for −∂p∗/∂x∗ 2 > 0) is compared to the submerged...

13. On the interaction between turbulence grids and boundary layers

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Irps Thomas

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Turbulence grids are widely used in wind tunnels to produce representative turbulence levels when testing aerodynamic phenomena around models. Although the purpose of the grid is to introduce a desired turbulence level in the freestream flow, the wall boundary layers of the tunnel are subjected to modification due to the presence of such grids. This could have major implications to the flow around the models to be tested and hence there is a need to further understand this interaction. The study described in this paper examines wind tunnel wall boundary layer modification by turbulence grids of different mesh sizes and porosities to understand the effect of these parameters on such interaction. Experimental results are presented in the form of pressure loss coefficients, boundary layer velocity profiles and the statistics of turbulence modification.

14. Sound from boundary layer flow over steps and gaps

Science.gov (United States)

Ryan Catlett, M.; Devenport, William; Glegg, Stewart A. L.

2014-09-01

This study is concerned with the radiated sound from boundary layer flows over small forward and backward steps and gap configurations of similar dimension. These measurements were performed in the Virginia Tech Anechoic Wall Jet Facility for step heights that ranged from approximately 10 percent to 100 percent of the incoming boundary layer height. The results show the influence of step height and boundary layer edge velocity on the far-field sound from forward and backward steps. Neither source shows clear dipole directivity and at least the larger step heights considered in this study are shown to not be acoustically compact. A new mixed scaling normalization is proposed for the far-field spectra from both types of step. Backward steps are shown to be much weaker producers of far-field sound than similarly sized forward steps. The implications of this behavior are discussed with respect to the far-field sound measured from various gap flows.

15. Boundary-layer temperatures in high accretion rate cataclysmic variables

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hoare, M.G.; Drew, J.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Astrophysics)

1991-04-01

We use the Zanstra method to derive limits on boundary-layer temperatures in eclipsing dwarf novae during outburst and nova-like variables, using the observed He II {lambda}1640 and {lambda}4686 recombination lines. It is assumed that all the emission is produced in the wind rather than the accretion disc. This method constrains the boundary-layer temperatures to between 50 000 and 100 000 K depending on the degree of wind bipolarity. These estimates are lower than the T>or approx200 000 K predicted theoretically. Possible explanations include rapid rotation of the white dwarf and spreading of the boundary layer over the entire white-dwarf surface. (author).

16. Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers

CERN Document Server

Kreilos, Tobias; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S; Eckhardt, Bruno

2016-01-01

The spatio-temporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly fitted from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

17. Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno

2016-08-01

The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

18. Slow Growth Formulation for DNS of Temporally Evolving Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

Topalian, Victor; Sahni, Onkar; Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

2011-11-01

A formulation for DNS of temporally evolving boundary layers is developed and demonstrated. The formulation relies on a multiscale approach to account separately for the slow time evolution of statistical averages, and the fast time evolution of turbulent fluctuations. The source terms that arise from the multiscale analysis are modeled assuming a self-similar evolution of the averages. The performance of the formulation is evaluated using DNS of spatially evolving compressible boundary layers. This formulation was developed to provide data for the calibration of turbulence model parameters and enable the quantification of uncertainty due to the models. The extension of this formulation to homogenize spatially evolving boundary layers will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615]. Current Affiliation: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

19. Numerical study of wingtip shed vorticity reduction by wing Boundary Layer Control

Science.gov (United States)

Wingtip vortex reductions have been obtained by Boundary Layer Control application to an AR=1.5 rectangular wing using a NACA 0012 airfoil. If wingtip shed vorticity could be reduced significantly, then so would induced drag resulting in improved cruise fuel economy. Power savings would be even more impressive at low flight speed or in climb. A two dimensional wing produces lift without wingtip vorticity. Its bound vorticity, Gamma, equals the contour integral of the boundary layer vorticity gamma or Gamma = ∮gamma · dl. Where the upper and lower boundary layers meet at the cusped TE, their local static pressure pu=pl then the boundary layer outer edge inviscid velocity Vupper=Vlower and gammalower=-gamma upper. This explains the 2-D wing self cancellation of the upper and lower surface boundary layer vorticity when they meet upon shedding at the trailing edge. In finite wings, the presence of spanwise pressure gradients near the wing tips misaligns gammalower and gammaupper at the wingtip TE preventing the upper and lower surface boundary layers from completely canceling each other. To prevent them from generating wing tip vortices, the local boundary layers need to be captured in suction slots. Once vorticity is captured, it can be eliminated by viscous mixing prior to venting over board. The objective of this dissertation was to use a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics code (Fluent) to search for the best configuration to locate BLC suction slots to capture non-parallel boundary layer vorticity prior to shedding near the wingtips. The configuration selected for running the simulations was tested by trying to duplicate a 3D wing for which sufficient experimental and computational models by others are available. The practical case selected was done by Chow et al in the 32 x 48 in. low speed wind tunnel at the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory of NASA Ames Research Center, and computationally analyzed by Dacles-Mariani et al, and Khim and Rhee. The present

20. Coupled vs. decoupled boundary layers in VOCALS-REx

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

C. R. Jones

2011-03-01

Full Text Available We analyze the extent of subtropical stratocumulus-capped boundary layer decoupling and its relation to other boundary-layer characteristics and forcings using aircraft observations from VOCALS-REx along a swath of the subtropical southeast Pacific Ocean running west 1600 km from the coast of Northern Chile. We develop two complementary and consistent measures of decoupling. The first is based on boundary layer moisture stratification in flight profiles from near the surface to above the capping inversion, and the second is based the difference between the lifted condensation level (LCL and a mean lidar-derived cloud base measured on flight legs at 150m altitude. Most flights took place during early-mid morning, well before the peak in insolation-induced decoupling.

We find that the boundary layer is typically shallower, drier, and well mixed near the shore, and tends to deepen, decouple, and produce more drizzle further offshore to the west. Decoupling is strongly correlated to the “well-mixed cloud thickness”, defined as the difference between the capping inversion height and the LCL; other factors such as wind speed, cloud droplet concentration, and inversion thermodynamic jumps have little additional explanatory power. The results are broadly consistent with the deepening-warming theory of decoupling. In the deeper boundary layers observed well offshore, there was frequently nearly 100% boundary-layer cloud cover despite pronounced decoupling. The cloud cover was more strongly correlated to a κ parameter related to the inversion jumps of humidity and temperature, though the exact functional relation is slightly different than found in prior large-eddy simulation studies.

1. Axisymmetric fundamental solutions for a finite layer with impeded boundaries

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

程泽海; 陈云敏; 凌道盛; 唐晓武

2003-01-01

Axisymmetrie fundamental solutions that are applied in the consolidation calculations of a finite clay layer with impeded boundaries were derived. Laplace and Hankel integral transforms were utilized with respect to time and radial coordinates, respectively in the analysis. The derivation of fundamental solutions considers two boundary-value problems involving unit point loading and ring loading in the vertical. The solut-ions are extended to circular distributed and strip distributed normal load. The computation and analysis of set-tlements, vertical total stress and excess pore pressure in the consolidation layer subject to circular loading are presented.

2. Axisymmetric fundamental solutions for a finite layer with impeded boundaries

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

程泽海; 陈云敏; 凌道盛; 唐晓武

2003-01-01

Axisymmetric fundamental solutions that are applied in the consolidation calculations of a finite clay layer with impeded boundaries were derived. Laplace and Hankel integral transforms were utilized with respect to time and radial coordinates, respectively in the analysis. The derivation of fundamental solutions considers two boundary-value problems involving unit point loading and ring loading in the vertical. The solutions are extended to circular distributed and strip distributed normal load. The computation and analysis of settlements, vertical total stress and excess pore pressure in the consolidation layer subject to circular loading are presented.

3. Coherent structures in wave boundary layers. Part 2. Solitary motion

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sumer, B. Mutlu; Jensen, Palle Martin; Sørensen, Lone B.;

2010-01-01

in an oscillating water tunnel. Two kinds of measurements were made: bed shear stress measurements and velocity measurements. The experiments show that the solitary-motion boundary layer experiences three kinds of flow regimes as the Reynolds number is increased: (i) laminar regime; (ii) laminar regime where...... the boundary-layer flow experiences a regular array of vortex tubes near the bed over a short period of time during the deceleration stage; and (iii) transitional regime characterized with turbulent spots, revealed by single/multiple, or, sometimes, quite dense spikes in the bed shear stress traces...

4. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Klein, P [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Bonin, TA; Newman, JF [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Turner, DD [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Chilson, P [University of Oklahoma; Blumberg, WG [University of Oklahoma; Mishra, S; Wainwright, CE; Carney, M [University of Oklahoma - School of Meteorology; Jacobsen, EP [University of Oklahoma; Wharton, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

2015-11-01

The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase, low-cost collaboration among the University of Oklahoma, the National Severe Storms Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the ARM program. A unique aspect was the role of graduate students in LABLE. They served as principal investigators and took the lead in designing and conducting experiments using different sampling strategies to best resolve boundary-layer phenomena.

5. Rough-wall turbulent boundary layers with constant skin friction

KAUST Repository

Sridhar, A.

2017-03-28

A semi-empirical model is presented that describes the development of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in the presence of surface roughness with length scale ks that varies with streamwise distance x . Interest is centred on flows for which all terms of the von Kármán integral relation, including the ratio of outer velocity to friction velocity U+∞≡U∞/uτ , are streamwise constant. For Rex assumed large, use is made of a simple log-wake model of the local turbulent mean-velocity profile that contains a standard mean-velocity correction for the asymptotic fully rough regime and with assumed constant parameter values. It is then shown that, for a general power-law external velocity variation U∞∼xm , all measures of the boundary-layer thickness must be proportional to x and that the surface sand-grain roughness scale variation must be the linear form ks(x)=αx , where x is the distance from the boundary layer of zero thickness and α is a dimensionless constant. This is shown to give a two-parameter (m,α) family of solutions, for which U+∞ (or equivalently Cf ) and boundary-layer thicknesses can be simply calculated. These correspond to perfectly self-similar boundary-layer growth in the streamwise direction with similarity variable z/(αx) , where z is the wall-normal coordinate. Results from this model over a range of α are discussed for several cases, including the zero-pressure-gradient ( m=0 ) and sink-flow ( m=−1 ) boundary layers. Trends observed in the model are supported by wall-modelled large-eddy simulation of the zero-pressure-gradient case for Rex in the range 108−1010 and for four values of α . Linear streamwise growth of the displacement, momentum and nominal boundary-layer thicknesses is confirmed, while, for each α , the mean-velocity profiles and streamwise turbulent variances are found to collapse reasonably well onto z/(αx) . For given α , calculations of U+∞ obtained from large-eddy simulations are streamwise

6. Turbulent boundary layer on perforated surfaces with vector injection

Science.gov (United States)

Eroshenko, V. M.; Zaichik, L. I.; Klimov, A. A.; Ianovskii, L. S.; Kondratev, V. I.

1980-10-01

The paper presents an experimental investigation of a turbulent boundary layer on perforated plates with uniform vector injection at various angles to gas flow. It was shown that with strong injection at angles oriented in the flow direction the intensity of turbulent pulsation is decreased, while injection at angles in the opposite direction increase the intensity. A relationship was established between the critical parameters of the boundary layer injection angles; it was concluded that the asymptotic theory of Kutateladze and Leontiev can be used for determining the coefficient of friction of vector injection.

7. Non-Equilibrium Effects on Hypersonic Turbulent Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Pilbum

Understanding non-equilibrium effects of hypersonic turbulent boundary layers is essential in order to build cost efficient and reliable hypersonic vehicles. It is well known that non-equilibrium effects on the boundary layers are notable, but our understanding of the effects are limited. The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of non-equilibrium effects on hypersonic turbulent boundary layers. A new code has been developed for direct numerical simulations of spatially developing hypersonic turbulent boundary layers over a flat plate with finite-rate reactions. A fifth-order hybrid weighted essentially non-oscillatory scheme with a low dissipation finite-difference scheme is utilized in order to capture stiff gradients while resolving small motions in turbulent boundary layers. The code has been validated by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two different simulations of a non-equilibrium flow and a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer. With the validated code, direct numerical simulations of four different hypersonic turbulent boundary layers, perfect gas and non-equilibrium flows of pure oxygen and nitrogen, have been performed. In order to rule out uncertainties in comparisons, the same inlet conditions are imposed for each species, and then mean and turbulence statistics as well as near-wall turbulence structures are compared at a downstream location. Based on those comparisons, it is shown that there is no direct energy exchanges between internal and turbulent kinetic energies due to thermal and chemical non-equilibrium processes in the flow field. Instead, these non-equilibria affect turbulent boundary layers by changing the temperature without changing the main characteristics of near-wall turbulence structures. This change in the temperature induces the changes in the density and viscosity and the mean flow fields are then adjusted to satisfy the conservation laws. The perturbation fields are modified according to

8. Conference on Boundary and Interior Layers : Computational and Asymptotic Methods

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

This volume offers contributions reflecting a selection of the lectures presented at the international conference BAIL 2014, which was held from 15th to 19th September 2014 at the Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. These are devoted to the theoretical and/or numerical analysis of problems involving boundary and interior layers and methods for solving these problems numerically. The authors are both mathematicians (pure and applied) and engineers, and bring together a large number of interesting ideas. The wide variety of topics treated in the contributions provides an excellent overview of current research into the theory and numerical solution of problems involving boundary and interior layers.  .

9. A bursting phenomenon in a vortex-gas boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Sekaran, Aarthi; Narasimha, Roddam; Govindarajan, Rama

2014-11-01

Bursts are a central phenomenon in turbulent boundary layers as they are an integral part of turbulent energy and stress production. They have consequently been a continuing area of interest since the 1970s following the detailed investigations of Kline et al. (1967). Despite several attempts to understand their dynamics, it has been difficult to arrive at a consensus even on the scaling of the burst frequency. The present investigation simulates the outer part of a plane turbulent boundary layer using the vortex-gas model, in a first step towards understanding the role of the outer layer in boundary layer dynamics. Preliminary results indicate the formation of regions of concentrated vorticity near the wall, at a frequency that is independent of the initial vortex configuration but a function of the mean velocity profile. Further, comparisons with existing experimental data indicate a burst frequency which when scaled on outer variables, is within the range of scatter among different studies. Quadrant occupancy statistics are also related to those in conventional boundary layers. It appears as if a bursting phenomenon of some kind may be a general feature of an inviscid, wall-bounded shear flow, and does not necessitate inclusion of either viscosity or three-dimensionality.

10. Analysis of differential infrared thermography for boundary layer transition detection

Science.gov (United States)

Gardner, A. D.; Eder, C.; Wolf, C. C.; Raffel, M.

2017-09-01

This paper presents an analysis of the differential infrared thermography (DIT) technique, a contactless method of measuring the unsteady movement of the boundary layer transition position on an unprepared surface. DIT has been shown to measure boundary layer transition positions which correlate well with those from other measurement methods. In this paper unsteady aerodynamics from a 2D URANS solution are used and the resulting wall temperatures computed. It is shown that the peak of the temperature difference signal correlates well with the boundary layer transition position, but that the start and end of boundary layer transition cannot be extracted. A small systematic time-lag cannot be reduced by using different surface materials, but the signal strength can be improved by reducing the heat capacity and heat transfer of the surface layer, for example by using a thin plastic coating. Reducing the image time separation used to produce the difference images reduces the time-lag and also the signal level, thus the optimum is when the signal to noise ratio is at the minimum which can be evaluated.

11. A new family of two-dimensional zeolites prepared from the intermediate layered precursor IPC-3P obtained during the synthesis of TUN zeolite.

Science.gov (United States)

Kubů, Martin; Roth, Wieslaw J; Greer, Heather F; Zhou, Wuzong; Morris, Russell E; Přech, Jan; Čejka, Jiří

2013-10-04

The crystallization of zeolite TUN with 1,4-bis(N-methylpyrrolidinium)butane as template proceeds through an intermediate, designated IPC-3P, following the Ostwald rule of successive transformations. This apparently layered transient product has been thoroughly investigated and found to consist of MWW monolayers stacked without alignment in register, that is, disordered compared with MCM-22P. The structure was confirmed based on X-ray diffraction and high-resolution (HR)TEM analysis. The layered zeolite precursor IPC-3P can be swollen and pillared affording a combined micro- and mesoporous material with enhanced Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area (685 m(2) g(-1) ) and greater accessibility of Brønsted acid sites for bulky molecules. This mesoporous material was probed with 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine (DTBP). IPC-3P and its modification create a new layered zeolite sub-family belonging to the MWW family. FTIR data indicate that (Al)MWW materials MCM-22 and IPC-3 with Si/Al ratios greater than 20 exhibit a lower relative ratio of Brønsted to Lewis acid sites than MCM-22 (with Si/Al ratios of around 13), that is, less than 2 versus more than 3, respectively. This is maintained even upon pillaring and warrants further exploration of materials like IPC-3P with a higher Al content. The unique XRD features of IPC-3P indicating misaligned stacking of layers and distinct from MCM-22P, are also seen in other MWW materials such as EMM-10P, hexamethonium-templated (HM)-MCM-22, ITQ-30, and UZM-8 suggesting the need for more detailed study of their identity and properties.

12. Interaction of Atmospheric Turbulence with Blade Boundary Layer Dynamics on a 5MW Wind Turbine using Blade-Boundary-Layer-Resolved CFD with hybrid URANS-LES.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vijayakumar, Ganesh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Brasseur, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lavely, Adam; Jayaraman, Balaji; Craven, Brent

2016-01-04

We describe the response of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine blade boundary layer to the passage of atmospheric turbulence using blade-boundary-layer-resolved computational fluid dynamics with hybrid URANS-LES modeling.

13. DNS Study on Physics of Late Boundary Layer Transition

CERN Document Server

Liu, Chaoqun

2014-01-01

This paper serves as a review of our recent new DNS study on physics of late boundary layer transition. This includes mechanism of the large coherent vortex structure formation, small length scale generation and flow randomization. The widely spread concept vortex breakdown to turbulence,which was considered as the last stage of flow transition, is not observed and is found theoretically incorrect. The classical theory on boundary layer transition is challenged and we proposed a new theory with five steps, i.e. receptivity, linear instability, large vortex formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. We have also proposed a new theory about turbulence generation. The new theory shows that all small length scales (turbulence) are generated by shear layer instability which is produced by large vortex structure with multiple level vortex rings, multiple level sweeps and ejections, and multiple level negative and positive spikes near the laminar sub-layers.Therefore,...

14. Near-wall similarity in the three-dimensional turbulent boundary layers. III - Shear-driven flow results

Science.gov (United States)

Pierce, F. J.; Mcallister, J. E.

1982-01-01

Ten of eleven proposed three-dimensional similarity models identified in the literature are evaluated with direct wall shear, velocity field, and pressure gradient data from a three-dimensional shear-driven boundary layer flow. Results define an upper limit on velocity vector skewing for each model's predictive ability. When combined with earlier results for pressure-driven flows, each model's predictive ability with and without pressure gradients is summarized. The utility of some two-dimensional type indirect wall shear measurement methods and wall shear inference methods from near-wall velocity measurements for three-dimensional flows is also discussed.

15. Clear-air radar observations of the atmospheric boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Ince, Turker

2001-10-01

16. Irregularity excitation associated with charged dust cloud boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Mahmoudian, A.; Scales, W. A.

2012-02-01

Irregularity generation associated with dust cloud expansion through a background plasma along a magnetic field is investigated. Because of the dust charging process, a boundary layer is produced, separating the dusty plasma generated and the background plasma. It is observed that under appropriate conditions, localized plasma irregularities may be generated in this boundary layer. Theoretical and computational models are used to study the evolution of relevant plasma instabilities thought to play a dominant role in irregularity production. An electron flow develops along the boundary layer of the dust cloud, and plasma irregularities are generated in response to this flow. Several aspects of the cloud's structure (thickness of the boundary layer, average particle size and density, collisional processes, and cloud expansion speed) and the ambient plasma are varied to determine the effect of these quantities on the resulting irregularities. The relevance of these results to past experimental observations in space and the laboratory for applications to the expansion of naturally or artificially created dust clouds is discussed.

17. Flow visualization of swept wing boundary layer transition

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Serpieri, J.; Kotsonis, M.

2015-01-01

In this work the flow visualization of the transition pattern occurring on a swept wing in a subsonic flow is presented. This is done by means of fluorescent oil flow technique and boundary layer hot-wire scans. The experiment was performed at Reynolds number of 2:15 . 106 and at angle of attack of

18. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Videler, J.J.

1995-01-01

Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, sca

19. DNS of stratified spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Araya, Guillermo; Castillo, Luciano; Jansen, Kenneth

2012-11-01

Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of spatially-developing turbulent thermal boundary layers under stratification are performed. It is well known that the transport phenomena of the flow is significantly affected by buoyancy, particularly in urban environments where stable and unstable atmospheric boundary layers are encountered. In the present investigation, the Dynamic Multi-scale approach by Araya et al. (JFM, 670, 2011) for turbulent inflow generation is extended to thermally stratified boundary layers. Furthermore, the proposed Dynamic Multi-scale approach is based on the original rescaling-recycling method by Lund et al. (1998). The two major improvements are: (i) the utilization of two different scaling laws in the inner and outer parts of the boundary layer to better absorb external conditions such as inlet Reynolds numbers, streamwise pressure gradients, buoyancy effects, etc., (ii) the implementation of a Dynamic approach to compute scaling parameters from the flow solution without the need of empirical correlations as in Lund et al. (1998). Numerical results are shown for ZPG flows at high momentum thickness Reynolds numbers (~ 3,000) and a comparison with experimental data is also carried out.

20. Turbulent boundary layer measurements over high-porosity surfaces

Science.gov (United States)

Efstathiou, Christoph; Luhar, Mitul

2016-11-01

Porous surfaces are ubiquitous across a variety of turbulent boundary layer flows of scientific and engineering interest. While turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls have been studied extensively, experimental measurements over porous walls have thus far focused on packed beds, which are limited in porosity (Φ = 0 . 3 - 0 . 5) by their geometry. The current project seeks to address this limitation. A two-component laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) is used to generate velocity measurements in turbulent boundary layer flows over commercially available reticulated foams and 3D-printed porous media at Reynolds number Reθ 3000 - 4000 . Smooth wall profiles for mean and turbulent quantities are compared to data over substrates with porosity Φ > 0 . 8 and average pore sizes in the range 0.4-2.5mm (corresponding to 8 - 50 viscous units). Previous analytical and simulation efforts indicate that the effects of porous substrates on boundary layer flows depend on a modified Reynolds number defined using the length scale √{ κ}, where κ is substrate permeability. A custom permeameter is currently being developed to estimate κ for the substrates tested in the boundary layer experiments.

1. Stability of the laminar boundary layer for an imperfect gas

Science.gov (United States)

Gasperas, G.

The linear perturbation equations are derived for the general case of a compressible imperfect gas characterized by an equation of state utilizing a compressibility factor. The specific case of the Beattie-Bridgeman gas is chosen for calculation. Amplification curves calculated using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state for two representative flat plate boundary layers are presented.

2. Boundary Layer Flows in Porous Media with Lateral Mass Flux

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nemati, H; H, Bararnia; Noori, F;

2015-01-01

Solutions for free convection boundary layers on a heated vertical plate with lateral mass flux embedded in a saturated porous medium are presented using the Homotopy Analysis Method and Shooting Numerical Method. Homotopy Analysis Method yields an analytic solution in the form of a rapidly...

3. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

2012-01-01

Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...

4. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

2014-01-01

Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...

5. Boundary-Layer Wind Structure in a Landfalling Tropical Cyclone

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2006-01-01

In this study, a slab boundary layer model with a constant depth is used to analyze the boundary-layer wind structure in a landfalling tropical cyclone. Asymmetry is found in both the tangential and radial components of horizontal wind in the tropical cyclone boundary layer at landfall. For a steady tropical cyclone on a straight coastline at landfall, the magnitude of the radial component is greater in the offshoreflow side and the tangential component is greater over the sea, slightly offshore, therefore the greater total wind speed occurs in the offshore-flow side over the sea. The budget analysis suggests that: (1) a greater surface friction over land produces a greater inflow and the nonlinear effect advects the maximum inflow downstream, and (2) a smaller surface friction over the sea makes the decrease of the tangential wind component less than that over land. Moreover, the boundary layer wind structures in a tropical cyclone are related to the locations of the tropical cyclone relative to the coastline due to the different surface frictions. During tropical cyclone landfall, the impact of rough terrain on the cyclone increases, so the magnitude of the radial component of wind speed increases in the offshore-flow side and the tangential component outside the radius of maximum wind speed decreases gradually.

6. The use of a wave boundary layer model in SWAN

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Du, Jianting; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

2017-01-01

A Wave Boundary Layer Model (WBLM) is implemented in the third-generation ocean wave model SWAN to improve the wind-input source function under idealized, fetch-limited condition. Accordingly, the white capping dissipation parameters are re-calibrated to fit the new wind-input source function...

7. Spatially developing turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate

CERN Document Server

Lee, J H; Hutchins, N; Monty, J P

2012-01-01

This fluid dynamics video submitted to the Gallery of Fluid motion shows a turbulent boundary layer developing under a 5 metre-long flat plate towed through water. A stationary imaging system provides a unique view of the developing boundary layer as it would form over the hull of a ship or fuselage of an aircraft. The towed plate permits visualisation of the zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer as it develops from the trip to a high Reynolds number state ($Re_\\tau \\approx 3000$). An evolving large-scale coherent structure will appear almost stationary in this frame of reference. The visualisations provide an unique view of the evolution of fundamental processes in the boundary layer (such as interfacial bulging, entrainment, vortical motions, etc.). In the more traditional laboratory frame of reference, in which fluid passes over a stationary body, it is difficult to observe the full evolution and lifetime of turbulent coherent structures. An equivalent experiment in a wind/water-tunnel would requ...

8. The boundary layer growth in an urban area

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Comerón, A.; Rocadenbosch, F.

2004-01-01

The development and maintenance of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) plays a key role in the distribution of atmospheric constituents, especially in a polluted urban area. In particular, the ABL has a direct impact on the concentration and transformation of pollutants. In this work, in order to a

9. Response of neutral boundary-layers to changes of roughness

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Larsen, Søren Ejling; Mortensen, Niels Gylling

1990-01-01

When air blows across a change in surface roughness, an internal boundary layer (IBL) develops within which the wind adapts to the new surface. This process is well described for short fetches, > 1 km. However, few data exist for large fetches on how the IBL grows to become a new equilibrium boun...

10. Drizzle and Turbulence Variability in Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layers

Science.gov (United States)

Kollias, P.; Luke, E. P.; Szyrmer, W.

2015-12-01

Marine stratocumulus clouds frequently produce light precipitation in the form of drizzle. The drizzle rate at the cloud base (RCB) dictates the impact of drizzle on the boundary layer turbulence and cloud organization. Here, synergistic observations from the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program Eastern North Atlantic (ENA) site located on Graciosa Island in the Azores are used to investigate the relationship between RCB, and boundary layer turbulence and dynamics. The ARM ENA site is a heavily instrumented ground-based facility that offers new measurement capabilities in stratocumulus-topped boundary layers (STBL). The RCB is retrieved using a radar-lidar algorithm. The STBL turbulent structure is characterized using the Doppler lidar and radar observations. The profiling radar/lidar/radiometer observations are used to describe the cloud fraction and morphology. Finally, surface-based aerosol number concentration measurements are used to investigate the connection between the boundary layer turbulence, cloud morphology and aerosol loading. Preliminary correlative relationships between the aforementioned variables will be shown.

11. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Videler, J.J.

1995-01-01

Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins,

12. Convective boundary layers driven by nonstationary surface heat fluxes

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Van Driel, R.; Jonker, H.J.J.

2011-01-01

In this study the response of dry convective boundary layers to nonstationary surface heat fluxes is systematically investigated. This is relevant not only during sunset and sunrise but also, for example, when clouds modulate incoming solar radiation. Because the time scale of the associated change

13. Wave boundary layer hydrodynamics during onshore bar migration

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Henriquez, M.; Reniers, A.; Ruessink, G.; Stive, M.J.F.

2010-01-01

To study onshore bar migration and the accompanying intra-wave sediment transport a wave flume experiment was conducted. The wave flume had a rigid bottom with a single bar profile. The focus of the experiment was to measure the hydrodynamics in the wave bottom boundary layer. The results show that

14. Boundary Layer Simulation and Control in Wind Tunnels

Science.gov (United States)

1988-04-01

Vol. 1, No. 4, April 1963, pp. 931-933. AIAA 11. Maybe, Dennis G.: Some Remarks on Dynamic Aeroelastic Model Tests in Cryogenic Wind Tunnels...distribution). 42. Lindhout, J.P.F, Moek , C., Boer, E. de and Berg, B. van den: A Method for the Calculation of 3D Boundary Layers on Practical Wing

15. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Cylinder in Axial Flow

Science.gov (United States)

1988-09-29

wall- norma 6caling or Rao’s wall-normal scaling. Other measurements of the mean velocity in a cylindrical boundary layer should be mentioned for...located near the wall at three azimuthal locations that w𔃽re 900 apa ,-t and at several streamwise spacings for flow conditions resulting in 8/a=8

16. DNS of compressible turbulent boundary layer around a sharp cone

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LI XinLiang; FU DeXun; MA YanWen

2008-01-01

Direct numerical simulation of the turbulent boundary layer over a sharp cone with 20° cone angle (or 10° half-cone angle) is performed by using the mixed seventh-order up-wind biased finite difference scheme and sixth-order central difference scheme.The free stream Mach number is 0.7 and free stream unit Reynolds number is 250000/inch.The characteristics of transition and turbulence of the sharp cone boundary layer are compared with those of the flat plate boundary layer,Statistics of fully developed turbulent flow agree well with the experimental and theoretical data for the turbulent flat-plate boundary layer flow.The near wall streak-like structure is shown and the average space between streaks (normalized by the local wall unit) keeps approximately invariable at different streamwise locations,The turbulent energy equation in the cylindrical coordinate is given and turbulent en-ergy budget is studied.The computed results show that the effect of circumferen-tial curvature on turbulence characteristics is not obvious.

17. Entrainment process of carbon dioxide in the atmospheric boundary layer

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Gioli, B.; Miglietta, F.; Jonker, H.J.J.; Klein Baltink, H.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

2004-01-01

Aircraft and surface measurements of turbulent thermodynamic variables and carbon dioxide (CO2) were taken above a grassland in a convective atmospheric boundary layer. The observations were analyzed to assess the importance of the entrainment process for the distribution and evolution of carbon dio

18. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dickinson, B T, E-mail: btdickinson@lifetime.oregonstate.ed [Air Force Research Laboratory, Munitions Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL 32542 (United States)

2010-03-15

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

19. Hair receptor sensitivity to changes in laminar boundary layer shape.

Science.gov (United States)

Dickinson, B T

2010-03-01

Biologists have shown that bat wings contain distributed arrays of flow-sensitive hair receptors. The hair receptors are hypothesized to feedback information on airflows over the bat wing for enhanced stability or maneuverability during flight. Here, we study the geometric specialization of hair-like structures for the detection of changes in boundary layer velocity profiles (shapes). A quasi-steady model that relates the flow velocity profile incident on the longitudinal axis of a hair to the resultant moment and shear force at the hair base is developed. The hair length relative to the boundary layer momentum thickness that maximizes the resultant moment and shear-force sensitivity to changes in boundary layer shape is determined. The sensitivity of the resultant moment and shear force is shown to be highly dependent on hair length. Hairs that linearly taper to a point are shown to provide greater output sensitivity than hairs of uniform cross-section. On an order of magnitude basis, the computed optimal hair lengths are in agreement with the range of hair receptor lengths measured on individual bat species. These results support the hypothesis that bats use hair receptors for detecting changes in boundary layer shape and provide geometric guidelines for artificial hair sensor design and application.

20. Three dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and rudders

Science.gov (United States)

Gleyzes, C.

1988-01-01

Solutions for the definition of grids adapted to the calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on submarine conning towers and on submarine rudders and fins are described. The particular geometry of such bodies (oblique shaped hull, curved fins) required special adaptations. The grids were verified on examples from a test basin.

1. Two Phases of Coherent Structure Motions in Turbulent Boundary Layer

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

LIU Jian-Hua; JIANG Nan

2007-01-01

Two phases of coherent structure motion are acquired after obtaining conditional phase-averaged waveforms for longitudinal velocity of coherent structures in turbulent boundary layer based on Harr wavelet transfer. The correspondences of the two phases to the two processes (i.e. ejection and sweep) during a burst are determined.

2. Modeling of particulate plumes transportation in boundary layers with obstacles

Science.gov (United States)

Karelsky, K. V.; Petrosyan, A. S.

2012-04-01

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high

3. Transportation of particulate plumes in boundary layer with obstacles

Science.gov (United States)

Petrosyan, A.; Karelsky, K.; Smirnov, I.

2010-05-01

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high

4. Transport of Particulates in Boundary Layer with Obstacles

Science.gov (United States)

Karelsky, Kirill; Petrosyan, Arakel

2014-05-01

This presentation is aimed at creating and realization of new physical model of impurity transfer (solid particles and heavy gases) in areas with non-flat and/or nonstationary boundaries. The main idea of suggested method is to use non-viscous equations for solid particles transport modeling in the vicinity of complex boundary. In viscous atmosphere with as small as one likes coefficient of molecular viscosity, the non-slip boundary condition on solid surface must be observed. This postulates the reduction of velocity to zero at a solid surface. It is unconditionally in this case Prandtle hypothesis must be observed: for rather wide range of conditions in the surface neighboring layers energy dissipation of atmosphere flows is comparable by magnitude with manifestation of inertia forces. That is why according to Prandtle hypothesis in atmosphere movement characterizing by a high Reynolds number the boundary layer is forming near a planet surface, within which the required transition from zero velocities at the surface to magnitudes at the external boundary of the layer that are quite close to ones in ideal atmosphere flow. In that layer fast velocity gradients cause viscous effects to be comparable in magnitude with inertia forces influence. For conditions considered essential changes of hydrodynamic fields near solid boundary caused not only by nonslip condition but also by a various relief of surface: mountains, street canyons, individual buildings. Transport of solid particles, their ascent and precipitation also result in dramatic changes of meteorological fields. As dynamic processes of solid particles transfer accompanying the flow past of complex relief surface by wind flows is of our main interest we are to use equations of non-viscous hydrodynamic. We should put up with on the one hand idea of high wind gradients in the boundary layer and on the other hand disregard of molecular viscosity in two-phase atmosphere equations. We deal with describing high

5. Crystal Structure And Magnetic Property of the Complex of Hydrogen-bonded Two-dimensional Layer Copper(Ⅱ) Acrylate with Trimethyl Phosphate

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2000-01-01

@@ Copper carboxylate complexes play an important role in catalysing the enzymatic activities[1-4], and the phosphate has an especial use in DNA recognition[5]. Indeed the report about copper carboxylate complexes with phosphate ligands is rare. A chain structure supramolecule [Cu2(CH2CH-COO)4(H2O)2]n has been reported recently[6], in which a Cu2(CH2CH-COO)4(H2O)2 unit is linked by four O(water)-H...O(carboxyl) hydrogen bonds with two adjacent units(Fig.1). In this work a layer structure complex {Cu2(CH2CH-COO)4(H2O)2[OP(OCH3)3]}n was synthesized by means of hydrogen-bonded assembly approach between complex [Cu2(CH2CH-COO)4(H2O)2]n with trimethyl phosphate(TMP).

6. Polytypism in LaOBi S2 -type compounds based on different three-dimensional stacking sequences of two-dimensional Bi S2 layers

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Qihang; Zhang, Xiuwen; Zunger, Alex

2016-05-01

LaOBi S2 -type materials have drawn much attention recently because of various interesting physical properties, such as low-temperature superconductivity, hidden spin polarization, and electrically tunable Dirac cones. However, it was generally assumed that each LaOBi S2 -type compound has a unique and specific crystallographic structure (with a space group P 4 /nmm) separated from other phases. Using first-principles total energy and stability calculations we confirm that the previous assignment of the P 4 /nmm structure to LaOBi S2 is incorrect. Furthermore, we find that the unstable structure is replaced by a family of energetically closely spaced modifications (polytypes) differing by the layer sequences and orientations. We find that the local Bi-S distortion leads to three polytypes of LaOBi S2 with different stacking patterns of the distorted Bi S2 layers. The energy difference between the polytypes of LaOBi S2 is merely ˜1 meV/u.c., indicating the possible coexistence of all polytypes in the real sample and that the particular distribution of polytypes may be growth induced. The in-plane distortion can be suppressed by pressure, leading to a phase transition from polytypes to the high-symmetry P 4 /nmm structure with a pressure larger than 2.5 GPa. In addition, different choices of the intermediate atoms (replacing La) or active atoms (Bi S2 ) could also manifest different ground-state structures. One can thus tune the distortion and the ground state by pressure or by substituting covalence atoms in the LaOBi S2 family.

7. The Research of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Hypersonic Three-Dimensional Boundary Layer

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

Marat A.GOLDFELD; Evgeniy V. ORLIK

2005-01-01

@@ The results of experimental investigation of laminar-turbulent transition in three-dimensional flow under the high continuous pressure gradient including the flow with local boundary layer separation are presented. The experimental studies were performed within the Mach number range from 4 to 6 and Reynolds number 10～60 ×106 1/m, the angles of attack were 00 and 50. The experiments were carried out on the three-dimensional convergent inlet model with and without sidewalls. The influence of artificial turbulator of boundary layer on transition and flow structure was studied. The conducted researches have shown that adverse pressure gradient increase hastens transition and leads to decrease of transition area length. If pressure gradient rises velocity profile fullness increases and profile transformation from laminar to turbulent occurs. As a result of it the decrease of separation area length occurs. The same effect was reached with Reynolds number increase. These results are compared with the data on two-dimensional model with longitudinal curvature.

8. Magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer nanofluid flow and heat transfer over a stretching surface

Science.gov (United States)

Ali, M.; Alim, M. A.; Nasrin, R.; Alam, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Z. U.

2017-06-01

The present study is performed to investigate the effect of unsteadiness, stretching ratio, Brownian motion, thermophoresis and magnetic parameter on boundary layer such as momentum, thermal and nanoparticle concentration. In this respect we have considered the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) unsteady boundary layer nanofluid flow and heat - mass transfer over a stretching surface. The dimensionless governing equations are unsteady, two-dimensional coupled and non-linear ordinary differential equations. The numerical solution is taken by applying the Nachtsgeim-Swigert shooting iteration technique along with Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The effects of various dimensionless parameters on velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are discussed numerically and shown graphically. Therefore, from the figures it is observed that the results of velocity profile increases for increasing values of magnetic parameter and unsteadiness parameter but decreases for stretching ratio parameter, the temperature profile decreases in presence of Brownian motion, unsteadiness parameter, stretching ratio parameter and thermophoresis parameter but increases for magnetic parameter and, the nanoparticle concentration decreases for increasing values of thermophoresis parameter, unsteadiness parameter and stretching ratio parameter whereas the reverse trend arises for Brownian motion & magnetic parameter. For validity and accuracy the present results are compared with previously published work and found good agreement.

9. Effect of Boundary Layer Thickness on Secondary Structures in a Short Inlet Curved Duct

Science.gov (United States)

Gartner, Jeremy; Amitay, Michael

2013-11-01

The flow pattern in short ducts with aggressive curvature can lead in some cases to an asymmetric flow field. In the current work, a two dimensional honeycomb mesh was added upstream of the curved duct to create a pressure drop across it, and therefore an increased velocity deficit in the boundary layer profile. This velocity deficit led to a stronger streamwise separation, overcoming the flow mechanisms that result in the asymmetric flowfield. Experiments were conducted at M = 0.2, 0.44 and 0.58 in an expanding aggressive duct with square cross section with an area ratio of 1.27. Pressure data, together with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), verify the symmetry of the incoming flow field. Steady pressure distributions along the lower surface of the curved duct were obtained, as well as steady and time dependent total pressure distributions at the aerodynamic interface plane, enabling the analysis of the flow characteristics throughout the duct length. The effect of inserting a honeycomb was tested by increasing its height from 0 to 2.2 times the baseline flow boundary layer thickness upstream of the curve. Crosstream flow symmetry was achieved for specific geometrical configurations with a negligible decrease in the pressure recovery.

10. Soft repulsive mixtures under gravity: Brazil-nut effect, depletion bubbles, boundary layering, nonequilibrium shaking

Science.gov (United States)

Kruppa, Tobias; Neuhaus, Tim; Messina, René; Löwen, Hartmut

2012-04-01

A binary mixture of particles interacting via long-ranged repulsive forces is studied in gravity by computer simulation and theory. The more repulsive A-particles create a depletion zone of less repulsive B-particles around them reminiscent to a bubble. Applying Archimedes' principle effectively to this bubble, an A-particle can be lifted in a fluid background of B-particles. This "depletion bubble" mechanism explains and predicts a brazil-nut effect where the heavier A-particles float on top of the lighter B-particles. It also implies an effective attraction of an A-particle towards a hard container bottom wall which leads to boundary layering of A-particles. Additionally, we have studied a periodic inversion of gravity causing perpetuous mutual penetration of the mixture in a slit geometry. In this nonequilibrium case of time-dependent gravity, the boundary layering persists. Our results are based on computer simulations and density functional theory of a two-dimensional binary mixture of colloidal repulsive dipoles. The predicted effects also occur for other long-ranged repulsive interactions and in three spatial dimensions. They are therefore verifiable in settling experiments on dipolar or charged colloidal mixtures as well as in charged granulates and dusty plasmas.

11. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.

Science.gov (United States)

Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya

2013-05-07

A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

12. Large-eddy simulation of the very stable boundary layer

Science.gov (United States)

Chinita, M. J.; Matheou, G.

2016-12-01

The stable boundary layer is ubiquitous and typically forms at night when the ground radiatively cools and in polar regions throughout the day. Stable stratification and the associated reduction in the energetic scales in combination with the large anisotropy of turbulent motions challenge numerical models. This modeling difficulty also affects large-eddy simulation (LES) methods leading to scarce LES results for very stable conditions. In contrast, the NWP of convective flows has greatly benefited from the ample availability of high quality LES data. In order to overcome these limitations, a novel LES model setup is developed to enable the modeling of very stable boundary layers. A series of Ekman layer-type boundary layers at various surface cooling rates, geotropic winds and latitudes (rotation rates) is presented. A temperature surface condition is applied in the LES. The surface heat flux is dynamically computed byresolving the surface layer since the often-used Monin-Obukhov similarity theory cannot represent very stable conditions. Depending on the conditions, the LES gracefully transitions to a direct numerical simulation (DNS) where the flow becomes fully resolved. Two stability regimes can be discerned based on vertical profiles of the Richardson number. Overall, the model predicts that turbulence is very resilient with respect to stability. Temperature and velocity fluctuations persist even at high Richardson numbers. The nature of the fluctuations, i.e., due to turbulence/overturning or waves, is discussed. Scaling relations and spectra are also presented and discussed.

13. Magnetic Domination of Recollimation Boundary Layers in Relativistic Jets

CERN Document Server

Kohler, Susanna

2012-01-01

We study the collimation of relativistic magnetohydrodynamic jets by the pressure of an ambient medium, in the limit where the jet interior loses causal contact with its surroundings. This follows up a hydrodynamic study in a previous paper, adding the effects of a toroidal magnetic field threading the jet. As the ultrarelativistic jet encounters an ambient medium with a pressure profile with a radial scaling of p ~ r^-eta where 2boundary layer with a large pressure gradient. By constructing self-similar solutions to the fluid equations within this boundary layer, we examine the structure of this layer as a function of the external pressure profile. We show that the boundary layer always becomes magnetically dominated far from the source, and that in the magnetic limit, physical self-similar solutions are admitted in which the total pressure within the layer decreases linearly with distance from the contact discontinuity inward. These sol...

14. New Theories on Boundary Layer Transition and Turbulence Formation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chaoqun Liu

2012-01-01

Full Text Available This paper is a short review of our recent DNS work on physics of late boundary layer transition and turbulence. Based on our DNS observation, we propose a new theory on boundary layer transition, which has five steps, that is, receptivity, linear instability, large vortex structure formation, small length scale generation, loss of symmetry and randomization to turbulence. For turbulence generation and sustenance, the classical theory, described with Richardson's energy cascade and Kolmogorov length scale, is not observed by our DNS. We proposed a new theory on turbulence generation that all small length scales are generated by “shear layer instability” through multiple level ejections and sweeps and consequent multiple level positive and negative spikes, but not by “vortex breakdown.” We believe “shear layer instability” is the “mother of turbulence.” The energy transferring from large vortices to small vortices is carried out by multiple level sweeps, but does not follow Kolmogorov's theory that large vortices pass energy to small ones through vortex stretch and breakdown. The loss of symmetry starts from the second level ring cycle in the middle of the flow field and spreads to the bottom of the boundary layer and then the whole flow field.

15. Transient thermal response of turbulent compressible boundary layers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Li, Hongwei; Nalim, M. Razi; Merkle, Charles L.

2011-01-01

and Smith, and the turbulent Prandtl number formulation originally developed by Kays and Crawford. The governing differential equations are discretized with the Keller-box method. The numerical accuracy is validated through grid-independence studies and comparison with the steady state solution......-dimensional semi-infinite flat plate. The compressible Reynolds-averaged boundary layer equations are transformed into incompressible form through the Dorodnitsyn-Howarth transformation and then solved with similarity transformations. Turbulence is modeled using a two-layer eddy viscosity model developed by Cebeci....... In turbulent flow as in laminar, the transient heat transfer rates are very different from that obtained from quasi-steady analysis. It is found that the time scale for response of the turbulent boundary layer to far-field temperature changes is 40% less than for laminar flow, and the turbulent local Nusselt...

16. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography with adsorbent gradient as a method of chromatographic fingerprinting of furanocoumarins for distinguishing selected varieties and forms of Heracleum spp.

Science.gov (United States)

Cieśla, Lukasz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Hajnos, Michał; Petruczynik, Anna; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika

2008-10-17

There are a lot of taxonomic classifications of the genus Heracleum, and many authors indicate they need revision. Morphological identification is difficult to perform, as there are only few characteristic differences between each Heracleum species, varieties and forms. Furanocoumarins are characteristic compounds for the Apiaceae family, and they can be found in the whole genus in large quantities. Despite this fact, it is difficult to use the furanocoumarin profiles of plants, for their discrimination, as furanocoumarins are difficult to separate, due to their similar chemical structures and physicochemical properties. In this paper, a new, simple method is proposed for the discrimination of selected species, varieties and forms of the genus Heracleum. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with an adsorbent gradient (unmodified silica gel+octadecylsilica wettable with water) enables complete separation of the structural analogues. The proposed method gives the possibility to distinguish selected species, varieties and forms of the Heracleum genus, as they produce distinctive furanocoumarin fingerprints. The method is characterised by high specificity, precision, reproducibility and stability values. It is for the first time that graft TLC is used for constructing fingerprints of herbs. The complete separation of ten structural analogues, by combining gradient TLC with the unidimensional multiple development technique, has not been reported yet.

17. (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 : A Compound with Two-Dimensional Organic-Inorganic Layered Perovskite Structure.

Science.gov (United States)

Huang, Tang Jiao; Thiang, Zhang Xian; Yin, Xuesong; Tang, Chunhua; Qi, Guojun; Gong, Hao

2016-02-01

The synthesis of previously unknown perovskite (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 is reported. Despite using an organic cation with the smallest possible alkyl group, a 2D organic-inorganic layered Pd-based perovskites was still formed. This demonstrates that Pd-based 2D perovskites can be obtained even if the size of the organic cation is below the size limit predicted by the Goldschmidt tolerance-factor formula. The (CH3 NH3 )2 PdCl4 phase has a bulk resistivity of 1.4 Ω cm, a direct optical gap of 2.22 eV, and an absorption coefficient on the order of 10(4)  cm(-1) . XRD measurements suggest that the compound is moderately stable in air, an important advantage over several existing organic-inorganic perovskites that are prone to phase degradation problems when exposed to the atmosphere. Given the recent interest in organic-inorganic perovskites, the synthesis of this new Pd-based organic-inorganic perovskite may be helpful in the preparation and understanding of other organic-inorganic perovskites. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

18. Engineering one-dimensional and two-dimensional birnessite manganese dioxides on nickel foam-supported cobalt–aluminum layered double hydroxides for advanced binder-free supercapacitors

KAUST Repository

Hao, Xiaodong

2014-11-19

© The Royal Society of Chemistry. We report a facile decoration of the hierarchical nickel foam-supported CoAl layered double hydroxides (CoAl LDHs) with MnO2 nanowires and nanosheets by a chemical bath method and a hydrothermal approach for high-performance supercapacitors. We demonstrate that owing to the sophisticated configuration of binder-free LDH@MnO2 on the conductive Ni foam (NF), the designed NF/LDH@MnO2 nanowire composites exhibit a highly boosted specific capacitance of 1837.8 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1, a good rate capability, and an excellent cycling stability (91.8% retention after 5000 cycles). By applying the hierarchical NF/LDH@MnO2 nanowires as the positive electrode and activated microwave exfoliated graphite oxide activated graphene as the negative electrode, the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitor produces an energy density of 34.2 Wh kg-1 with a maximum power density of 9 kW kg-1. Such strategies with controllable assembly capability could open up a new and facile avenue in fabricating advanced binder-free energy storage electrodes. This journal is

19. The boundary layer over turbine blade models with realistic rough surfaces

Science.gov (United States)

McIlroy, Hugh M., Jr.

20. Body surface adaptations to boundary-layer dynamics.

Science.gov (United States)

Videler, J J

1995-01-01

Evolutionary processes have adapted nektonic animals to interact efficiently with the water that surrounds them. Not all these adaptations serve the same purpose. This paper concentrates on reduction of drag due to friction in the boundary layer close to the body surface. Mucus, compliant skins, scales, riblets and roughness may influence the flow velocity gradient, the type of flow and the thickness of the boundary layer around animals, and may seriously affect their drag in a positive or negative way. The long-chain polymers found in mucus decrease the pressure gradient and considerably reduced drag due to friction. The effect is probably due to channelling of the flow particles in the direction of the main flow, resulting in a reduction of turbulence. Compliant surfaces could probably reduce drag by equalising and distributing pressure pulses. However, the existing evidence that drag reduction actually occurs is not convincing. There is no indication that instantaneous heating, reducing the viscosity in the boundary layer, is used by animals as a drag-reducing technique. Small longitudinal ridges on rows of scales on fish can reduce shear stress in the boundary by a maximum of 10% compared with the shear stress of a smooth surface. The mechanism is based on the impedance of cross flow under well-defined conditions. The effect has been visualized with the use of particle image velocimetry techniques. The function of the swords and spears of several fast, pelagic, predatory fish species is still enigmatic. The surface structure of the sword of a swordfish is shown to be both rough and porous. The height of the roughness elements on the tip of the sword is close to the critical value for the induction of a laminar-to-turbulent flow transition at moderate cruising speeds. A flow tank is described that is designed to visualize the effects of surface imperfections on flow in the boundary layer in direct comparison with a smooth flat wall. The flow in a 1 m long, 10 cm

1. On buffer layers as non-reflecting computational boundaries

Science.gov (United States)

Hayder, M. Ehtesham; Turkel, Eli L.

1996-01-01

We examine an absorbing buffer layer technique for use as a non-reflecting boundary condition in the numerical simulation of flows. One such formulation was by Ta'asan and Nark for the linearized Euler equations. They modified the flow inside the buffer zone to artificially make it supersonic in the layer. We examine how this approach can be extended to the nonlinear Euler equations. We consider both a conservative and a non-conservative form modifying the governing equations in the buffer layer. We compare this with the case that the governing equations in the layer are the same as in the interior domain. We test the effectiveness of these buffer layers by a simulation of an excited axisymmetric jet based on a nonlinear compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

2. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Distributed Roughness and Acoustic Disturbances

Science.gov (United States)

Balakumar, P.

2013-01-01

Boundary-layer receptivity and stability of Mach 6 flows over smooth and rough seven-degree half-angle sharp-tipped cones are numerically investigated. The receptivity of the boundary layer to slow acoustic disturbances, fast acoustic disturbances, and vortical disturbances is considered. The effects of three-dimensional isolated roughness on the receptivity and stability are also simulated. The results for the smooth cone show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves than to the fast acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that of the slow acoustic wave. Distributed roughness elements located near the nose region decreased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow acoustic wave by a small amount. Roughness elements distributed across the continuous spectrum increased the receptivity of the second mode generated by the slow and fast acoustic waves and the vorticity wave. The largest increase occurred for the vorticity wave. Roughness elements distributed across the synchronization point did not change the receptivity of the second modes generated by the acoustic waves. The receptivity of the second mode generated by the vorticity wave increased in this case, but the increase is lower than that occurred with the roughness elements located across the continuous spectrum. The simulations with an isolated roughness element showed that the second mode waves generated by the acoustic disturbances are not influenced by the small roughness element. Due to the interaction, a three-dimensional wave is generated. However, the amplitude is orders of magnitude smaller than the two-dimensional wave.

3. Predictive two-dimensional scrape-off layer plasma transport modeling of phase-I operations of tokamak SST-1 using SOLPS5

Science.gov (United States)

Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Bonnin, Xavier

2014-02-01

Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 1019 m-3, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.

4. The height of the atmospheric boundary layer during unstable conditions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gryning, S.E.

2005-11-01

The height of the convective atmospheric boundary layer, also called the mixed-layer, is one of the fundamental parameters that characterise the structure of the atmosphere near the ground. It has many theoretical and practical applications such as the prediction of air pollution concentrations, surface temperature and the scaling of turbulence. However, as pointed out by Builtjes (2001) in a review paper on Major Twentieth Century Milestones in Air Pollution Modelling and Its Application, the weakest point in meteorology data is still the determination of the height of the mixed-layer, the so-called mixing height. A simple applied model for the height of the mixed-layer over homogeneous terrain is suggested in chapter 2. It is based on a parameterised budget for the turbulent kinetic energy. In the model basically three terms - the spin-up term and the production of mechanical and convective turbulent kinetic energy - control the growth of the mixed layer. The interplay between the three terms is related to the meteorological conditions and the height of the mixed layer. A stable layer, the so-called entrainment zone, which is confined between the mixed layer and the free air above, caps the mixed layer. A parameterisation of the depth of the entrainment zone is also suggested, and used to devise a combined model for the height of the mixed layer and the entrainment zone. Another important aspect of the mixed layer development exists in coastal areas where an internal boundary layer forms downwind from the coastline. A model for the growth of the internal boundary layer is developed in analogy with the model for mixed layer development over homogeneous terrain. The strength of this model is that it can operate on a very fine spatial resolution with minor computer resources. Chapter 3 deals with the validation of the models. It is based in parts on data from the literature, and on own measurements. For the validation of the formation of the internal boundary layer

5. Viscous/potential flow about multi-element two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wings - Theory and experiment

Science.gov (United States)

Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.

1976-01-01

The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary-layer and potential-flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary-layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.

6. Viscous/potential flow about multi-element two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wings: Theory and experiment

Science.gov (United States)

Olson, L. E.; Dvorak, F. A.

1975-01-01

The viscous subsonic flow past two-dimensional and infinite-span swept multi-component airfoils is studied theoretically and experimentally. The computerized analysis is based on iteratively coupled boundary layer and potential flow analysis. The method, which is restricted to flows with only slight separation, gives surface pressure distribution, chordwise and spanwise boundary layer characteristics, lift, drag, and pitching moment for airfoil configurations with up to four elements. Merging confluent boundary layers are treated. Theoretical predictions are compared with an exact theoretical potential flow solution and with experimental measures made in the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel for both two-dimensional and infinite-span swept wing configurations. Section lift characteristics are accurately predicted for zero and moderate sweep angles where flow separation effects are negligible.

7. Boundary Layer Effect on Behavior of Discrete Models

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jan Eliáš

2017-02-01

Full Text Available The paper studies systems of rigid bodies with randomly generated geometry interconnected by normal and tangential bonds. The stiffness of these bonds determines the macroscopic elastic modulus while the macroscopic Poisson’s ratio of the system is determined solely by the normal/tangential stiffness ratio. Discrete models with no directional bias have the same probability of element orientation for any direction and therefore the same mechanical properties in a statistical sense at any point and direction. However, the layers of elements in the vicinity of the boundary exhibit biased orientation, preferring elements parallel with the boundary. As a consequence, when strain occurs in this direction, the boundary layer becomes stiffer than the interior for the normal/tangential stiffness ratio larger than one, and vice versa. Nonlinear constitutive laws are typically such that the straining of an element in shear results in higher strength and ductility than straining in tension. Since the boundary layer tends, due to the bias in the elemental orientation, to involve more tension than shear at the contacts, it also becomes weaker and less ductile. The paper documents these observations and compares them to the results of theoretical analysis.

8. A General Method for Constructing Two-Dimensional Layered Mesoporous Mono- and Binary-Transition-Metal Nitride/Graphene as an Ultra-Efficient Support to Enhance Its Catalytic Activity and Durability for Electrocatalytic Application.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Baocang; Huo, Lili; Si, Rui; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Jun

2016-07-27

We constructed a series of two-dimensional (2D) layered mesoporous mono- and binary-transition-metal nitride/graphene nanocomposites (TMN/G, TM = Ti, Cr, W, Mo, TiCr, TiW, and TiMo) via an efficient and versatile nanocasting strategy for the first time. The 2D layered mesoporous TMN/G is constituted of small TMN nanoparticles composited with graphene nanosheets and has a large surface area with high porosity. Through decoration with well-dispersed Pt nanoparticles, 2D layered mesoporous Pt/TMN/G catalysts can be obtained that display excellent catalytic activity and stability for methanol electro-oxidation reactions (MOR) and oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) in both acidic and alkaline media. The 2D layered mesoporous binary-Pt/TMN/G catalysts possess catalytic activity superior to that of mono-Pt/TMN/G, graphene free Pt/TMN, Pt/G, and Pt/C catalysts. Encouragingly, the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst exhibits the best electrocatalytic performance for both MOR and ORR. The outstanding electrocatalytic performance of the Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst is rooted in its large surface area, high porosity, strong interaction among Pt, Ti0.5Cr0.5N, and graphene, an excellent electron transfer property facilitated by N-doped graphene, and the small size of Pt and Ti0.5Cr0.5N nanocrystals. The outstanding catalytic performance provides the 2D layered mesoporous Pt/Ti0.5Cr0.5N/G catalyst with a wide range of application prospects in direct methanol fuel cells in both acidic and alkaline media. The synthetic method may be available for constructing other 2D layered mesoporous metal nitrides, carbides, and phosphides.

9. Many-body microhydrodynamics of colloidal particles with active boundary layers

Science.gov (United States)

Singh, Rajesh; Ghose, Somdeb; Adhikari, R.

2015-06-01

Colloidal particles with active boundary layers—regions surrounding the particles where non-equilibrium processes produce large velocity gradients—are common in many physical, chemical and biological contexts. The velocity or stress at the edge of the boundary layer determines the exterior fluid flow and, hence, the many-body interparticle hydrodynamic interaction. Here, we present a method to compute the many-body hydrodynamic interaction between N spherical active particles induced by their exterior microhydrodynamic flow. First, we use a boundary integral representation of the Stokes equation to eliminate bulk fluid degrees of freedom. Then, we expand the boundary velocities and tractions of the integral representation in an infinite-dimensional basis of tensorial spherical harmonics and, on enforcing boundary conditions in a weak sense on the surface of each particle, obtain a system of linear algebraic equations for the unknown expansion coefficients. The truncation of the infinite series, fixed by the degree of accuracy required, yields a finite linear system that can be solved accurately and efficiently by iterative methods. The solution linearly relates the unknown rigid body motion to the known values of the expansion coefficients, motivating the introduction of propulsion matrices. These matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in active suspensions just as mobility matrices completely characterize hydrodynamic interactions in passive suspensions. The reduction in the dimensionality of the problem, from a three-dimensional partial differential equation to a two-dimensional integral equation, allows for dynamic simulations of hundreds of thousands of active particles on multi-core computational architectures. In our simulation of 104 active colloidal particle in a harmonic trap, we find that the necessary and sufficient ingredients to obtain steady-state convective currents, the so-called ‘self-assembled pump’, are (a) one

10. Two-dimensional heterospectral correlation analysis of the redox-induced conformational transition in cytochrome c using surface-enhanced Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopies on a two-layer gold surface.

Science.gov (United States)

Zou, Changji; Larisika, Melanie; Nagy, Gabor; Srajer, Johannes; Oostenbrink, Chris; Chen, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang; Liedberg, Bo; Nowak, Christoph

2013-08-22

The heme protein cytochrome c adsorbed to a two-layer gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol was analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) heterospectral correlation analysis that combined surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stepwise increasing electric potentials were applied to alter the redox state of the protein and to induce conformational changes within the protein backbone. We demonstrate herein that 2D heterospectral correlation analysis is a particularly suitable and useful technique for the study of heme-containing proteins as the two spectroscopies address different portions of the protein. Thus, by correlating SERS and SEIRAS data in a 2D plot, we can obtain a deeper understanding of the conformational changes occurring at the redox center and in the supporting protein backbone during the electron transfer process. The correlation analyses are complemented by molecular dynamics calculations to explore the intramolecular interactions.

11. The effect of the interlayer element on the exfoliation of layered Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into two-dimensional Mo2C nanosheets

Science.gov (United States)

Khazaei, Mohammad; Arai, Masao; Sasaki, Taizo; Estili, Mehdi; Sakka, Yoshio

2014-02-01

The experimental exfoliation of layered, ternary transition-metal carbide and nitride compounds, known as MAX phases, into two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, is a great development in the synthesis of novel low-dimensional inorganic systems. Among the MAX phases, Mo-containing ones might be considered as the source for obtaining Mo2C nanosheets with potentially unique properties, if they could be exfoliated. Here, by using a set of first-principles calculations, we discuss the effect of the interlayer ‘A’ element on the exfoliation of Mo2AC (A = Al, Si, P, Ga, Ge, As or In) MAX phases into the 2D Mo2C nanosheets. Based on the calculated exfoliation energies and the elastic constants, we propose that Mo2InC with the lowest exfoliation energy and the highest elastic constant anisotropy between C11 and C33 might be a suitable compound for exfoliation into 2D Mo2C nanosheets.

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

DONG Xue-zhi; YAN Pei-gang; HAN Wan-jin

2007-01-01

Compressible boundary layers stability on blade cascade suction surface was discussed by wind tunnel experiment and numerical solution. Three dimensional disturbance wave Parabolized Stability Equations(PSE) of orthogonal Curvilinear Coordinates in compressible flow was deducted. The surface pressure of blade in wind tunnel experiment was measured. The Falkner-Skan equation was solved under the boundary conditions of experiment result, and velocity, pressure and temperature of average flow were obtained. Substituted this result for discretization of the PSE Eigenvalue Problem, the stability problem can be solved.

13. Boundary-layer model of pattern formation in solidification

Science.gov (United States)

Ben-Jacob, E.; Goldenfeld, N.; Langer, J. S.; Schon, G.

1984-01-01

A model of pattern formation in crystal growth is proposed, and its analytic properties are investigated. The principal dynamical variables in this model are the curvature of the solidification front and the thickness (or heat content) of a thermal boundary layer, both taken to be functions of position along the interface. This model is mathematically much more tractable than the realistic, fully nonlocal version of the free-boundary problem, and still recaptures many of the features that seem essential for studying dendritic behavior, for example. Preliminary numerical solutions produce snowflakelike patterns similar to those seen in nature.

14. Transitional boundary layers in low-Prandtl-number convection

Science.gov (United States)

Schumacher, Jörg; Bandaru, Vinodh; Pandey, Ambrish; Scheel, Janet D.

2016-12-01

The boundary layer structure of the velocity and temperature fields in turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard flows in closed cylindrical cells of unit aspect ratio is revisited from a transitional and turbulent viscous boundary layer perspective. When the Rayleigh number is large enough, the dynamics at the bottom and top plates can be separated into an impact region of downwelling plumes, an ejection region of upwelling plumes, and an interior region away from the side walls. The latter is dominated by the shear of the large-scale circulation (LSC) roll, which fills the whole cell and continuously varies its orientation. The working fluid is liquid mercury or gallium at a Prandtl number Pr=0.021 for Rayleigh numbers 3 ×105≤Ra≤4 ×108 . The generated turbulent momentum transfer corresponds to macroscopic flow Reynolds numbers with 1.8 ×103≤Re≤4.6 ×104 . In highly resolved spectral element direct numerical simulations, we present the mean profiles of velocity, Reynolds stress, and temperature in inner viscous units and compare our findings with convection experiments and channel flow data. The complex three-dimensional and time-dependent structure of the LSC in the cell is compensated by a plane-by-plane symmetry transformation which aligns the horizontal velocity components and all its derivatives with the instantaneous orientation of the LSC. As a consequence, the torsion of the LSC is removed, and a streamwise direction in the shear flow can be defined. It is shown that the viscous boundary layers for the largest Rayleigh numbers are highly transitional and obey properties that are directly comparable to transitional channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers Reτ≲102 . The transitional character of the viscous boundary layer is also underlined by the strong enhancement of the fluctuations of the wall stress components with increasing Rayleigh number. An extrapolation of our analysis data suggests that the friction Reynolds number Reτ in the velocity boundary

15. An analytical model for the amplitude of lee waves forming on the boundary layer inversion

Science.gov (United States)

Sachsperger, Johannes; Serafin, Stefano; Stiperski, Ivana; Grubišić, Vanda

2016-04-01

Lee waves are horizontally propagating gravity waves with a typical wavelength of 5-15 km that may be generated when stratified flow is lifted over a mountain. A frequently observed type of such waves is that of interfacial lee waves. Those develop, similar to surface waves on a free water surface, when the upstream flow features a density discontinuity. Such conditions are often present for example at the capping inversion in boundary layer flow. The dynamics of interfacial lee waves can be described concisely with linear interfacial gravity wave theory. However, while this theoretical framework accurately describes the wavelength, it fails to properly predict the amplitude of lee waves. It is well known that large amplitude lee waves may lead to low-level turbulence, which poses a potential hazard for aviation. Therefore, this property of interfacial lee waves deserves further attention. In this study, we develop a simple analytical model for the amplitude of lee waves forming on the boundary layer inversion. This model is based on the energetics of two-layer flow. We obtain an expression for the wave amplitude by equating the energy loss across an internal jump with the energy radiation through lee waves. The verification of the result with water tank experiments of density-stratified two-layer flow over two-dimensional topography from the HYDRALAB campaign shows good agreement between theory and observations. This new analytical model may be useful in determining potential hazards of interfacial lee waves with negligible computational cost as compared to numerical weather prediction models.

16. On the global existence and uniqueness of solutions to the nonstationary boundary layer system

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

ZHANG; Jianwen; ZHAO; Junning

2006-01-01

In this paper, we study the problem of boundary layer for nonstationary flows of viscous incompressible fluids. There are some open problems in the field of boundary layer. The method used here is mainly based on a transformation which reduces the boundary layer system to an initial-boundary value problem for a single quasilinear parabolic equation. We prove the existence of weak solutions to the modified nonstationary boundary layer system. Moreover, the stability and uniqueness of weak solutions are discussed.

17. Marine boundary layer cloud regimes and POC formation in an LES coupled to a bulk aerosol scheme

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. H. Berner

2013-07-01

Full Text Available A large-eddy simulation (LES coupled to a new bulk aerosol scheme is used to study long-lived regimes of aerosol-boundary layer cloud-precipitation interaction and the development of pockets of open cells (POCs in subtropical stratocumulus cloud layers. The aerosol scheme prognoses mass and number concentration of a single log-normal accumulation mode with surface and entrainment sources, evolving subject to processing of activated aerosol and scavenging of dry aerosol by cloud and rain. The LES with the aerosol scheme is applied to a range of steadily-forced simulations idealized from a well-observed POC case. The long-term system evolution is explored with extended two-dimensional simulations of up to 20 days, mostly with diurnally-averaged insolation. One three-dimensional two-day simulation confirms the initial development of the corresponding two-dimensional case. With weak mean subsidence, an initially aerosol-rich mixed layer deepens, the capping stratocumulus cloud slowly thickens and increasingly depletes aerosol via precipitation accretion, then the boundary layer transitions within a few hours into an open-cell regime with scattered precipitating cumuli, in which entrainment is much weaker. The inversion slowly collapses for several days until the cumulus clouds are too shallow to efficiently precipitate. Inversion cloud then reforms and radiatively drives renewed entrainment, allowing the boundary layer to deepen and become more aerosol-rich, until the stratocumulus layer thickens enough to undergo another cycle of open-cell formation. If mean subsidence is stronger, the stratocumulus never thickens enough to initiate drizzle and settles into a steady state. With lower initial aerosol concentrations, this system quickly transitions into open cells, collapses, and redevelops into a different steady state with a shallow, optically thin cloud layer. In these steady states, interstitial scavenging by cloud droplets is the main sink of

18. Boundary layer ozone - An airborne survey above the Amazon Basin

Science.gov (United States)

Gregory, Gerald L.; Browell, Edward V.; Warren, Linda S.

1988-01-01

Ozone data obtained over the forest canopy of the Amazon Basin during July and August 1985 in the course of NASA's Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A are discussed, and ozone profiles obtained during flights from Belem to Tabatinga, Brazil, are analyzed to determine any cross-basin effects. The analyses of ozone data indicate that the mixed layer of the Amazon Basin, for the conditions of undisturbed meteorology and in the absence of biomass burning, is a significant sink for tropospheric ozone. As the coast is approached, marine influences are noted at about 300 km inland, and a transition from a forest-controlled mixed layer to a marine-controlled mixed layer is noted.

19. A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer

CERN Document Server

Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn

2013-01-01

The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...

20. Lumley decomposition of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds numbers

Science.gov (United States)

Tutkun, Murat; George, William K.

2017-02-01

The decomposition proposed by Lumley in 1966 is applied to a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer. The experimental database was created by a hot-wire rake of 143 probes in the Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille wind tunnel. The Reynolds numbers based on momentum thickness (Reθ) are 9800 and 19 100. Three-dimensional decomposition is performed, namely, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in the inhomogeneous and bounded wall-normal direction, Fourier decomposition in the homogeneous spanwise direction, and Fourier decomposition in time. The first POD modes in both cases carry nearly 50% of turbulence kinetic energy when the energy is integrated over Fourier dimensions. The eigenspectra always peak near zero frequency and most of the large scale, energy carrying features are found at the low end of the spectra. The spanwise Fourier mode which has the largest amount of energy is the first spanwise mode and its symmetrical pair. Pre-multiplied eigenspectra have only one distinct peak and it matches the secondary peak observed in the log-layer of pre-multiplied velocity spectra. Energy carrying modes obtained from the POD scale with outer scaling parameters. Full or partial reconstruction of turbulent velocity signal based only on energetic modes or non-energetic modes revealed the behaviour of urms in distinct regions across the boundary layer. When urms is based on energetic reconstruction, there exists (a) an exponential decay from near wall to log-layer, (b) a constant layer through the log-layer, and (c) another exponential decay in the outer region. The non-energetic reconstruction reveals that urms has (a) an exponential decay from the near-wall to the end of log-layer and (b) a constant layer in the outer region. Scaling of urms using the outer parameters is best when both energetic and non-energetic profiles are combined.