WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional bose gas

  1. Theory of a Nearly Two-Dimensional Dipolar Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    order to be published, he sent the paper to Einstein to translate it. The other contributing scientist is world famous physicist Albert Einstein , maybe...mechanical state, a Bose- Einstein condensate (BEC), where the atoms cease to behave like distinguishable entities, and instead form a single macroscopic...model in both three- and two-dimensional geometries. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Bose Einstein condensation, ultracold physics, condensed matter, dipoles 16

  2. Functional renormalization group approach to the two dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinner, A; Kopietz, P [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hasselmann, N [International Center for Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de BrasIlia, Caixa Postal 04667, 70910-900 BrasIlia, DF (Brazil)], E-mail: hasselma@itp.uni-frankfurt.de, E-mail: sinner@itp.uni-frankfurt.de

    2009-02-01

    We investigate the small frequency and momentum structure of the weakly interacting Bose gas in two dimensions using a functional renormalization group approach. The flow equations are derived within a derivative approximation of the effective action up to second order in spatial and temporal variables and investigated numerically. The truncation we employ is based on the perturbative structure of the theory and is well described as a renormalization group enhanced perturbation theory. It allows to calculate corrections to the Bogoliubov spectrum and to investigate the damping of quasiparticles. Our approach allows to circumvent the divergences which plague the usual perturbative approach.

  3. On the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozovik, Yu.E.; Yudson, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The theory of the ground state of the two-dimensional non-ideal Bose gas is presented. The conditions for the validity of the ladder and the Bogolubov approximations are derived. These conditions ensure the existence of a Bose condensate in the ground state of two-dimensional systems. These conditions are different from the corresponding conditions for the three-dimensional case. The connection between the effective interaction and the two-dimensional scattering amplitude at some characteristic energy kappa 2 /2m (not equal to 0) is obtained (f(kappa = 0) = infinity in the two-dimensional case). (Auth.)

  4. Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.

  5. Anisotropic and long-range vortex interactions in two-dimensional dipolar bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulkerin, B.C.; Bijnen, van R.M.W.; O'Dell, D.H.J.; Martin, A.M.; Parker, N.G.

    2013-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study into how dipole-dipole interactions modify the properties of superfluid vortices within the context of a two-dimensional atomic Bose gas of co-oriented dipoles. The reduced density at a vortex acts like a giant antidipole, changing the density profile and generating an

  6. Spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Deuretzbacher, Frank

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions with superimp......We have investigated spin dynamics in a two-dimensional quantum gas. Through spin-changing collisions, two clouds with opposite spin orientations are spontaneously created in a Bose-Einstein condensate. After ballistic expansion, both clouds acquire ring-shaped density distributions...

  7. Superfluid transition of homogeneous and trapped two-dimensional Bose gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Markus; Baym, Gordon; Blaizot, Jean-Paul; Laloë, Franck

    2007-01-30

    Current experiments on atomic gases in highly anisotropic traps present the opportunity to study in detail the low temperature phases of two-dimensional inhomogeneous systems. Although, in an ideal gas, the trapping potential favors Bose-Einstein condensation at finite temperature, interactions tend to destabilize the condensate, leading to a superfluid Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii phase with a finite superfluid mass density but no long-range order, as in homogeneous fluids. The transition in homogeneous systems is conveniently described in terms of dissociation of topological defects (vortex-antivortex pairs). However, trapped two-dimensional gases are more directly approached by generalizing the microscopic theory of the homogeneous gas. In this paper, we first derive, via a diagrammatic expansion, the scaling structure near the phase transition in a homogeneous system, and then study the effects of a trapping potential in the local density approximation. We find that a weakly interacting trapped gas undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii transition from the normal state at a temperature slightly below the Bose-Einstein transition temperature of the ideal gas. The characteristic finite superfluid mass density of a homogeneous system just below the transition becomes strongly suppressed in a trapped gas.

  8. Interference patterns of Bose-condensed gases in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shujuan; Xiong Hongwei; Xu Zhijun; Huang Guoxiang

    2003-01-01

    For a Bose-condensed gas confined in a magnetic trap and in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice, the non-uniform distribution of atoms in different lattice sites is considered based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A propagator method is used to investigate the time evolution of 2D interference patterns after (i) only the optical lattice is switched off, and (ii) both the optical lattice and the magnetic trap are switched off. An analytical description on the motion of side peaks in the interference patterns is presented by using the density distribution in a momentum space

  9. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  10. Bose form of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baluni, V [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (USA); Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA))

    1980-03-01

    By means of a special choice of gauge QCD/sub 2/(SU(N)) with one flavor of quarks is recast into the Bose form. Weak (g < m) and strong (g > m) coupling regimes are studied. The former is shown to be the SU(N)-symmetric confining phase in which bound states possess stringlike configurations with strings being represented by electric vortex lines; the ordinary mesons and baryons appear as longitudinal modes of electric strings. The strong coupling regime describes the Higgs phase with the residual symmetry (U(1))/sup N-1/ S/sub N/ where the left and right factors are the maximal abelian subgroup of SU(N) and the permutation group of N quarks, respectively; the particle spectrum consists of S/sub N/ multiplets adn the (U(1))/sup N-1/ charges are trapped.

  11. On the theory of point vortices in two-dimensional Bose liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speliotopoulos, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    The physics and structure of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, as it is applied to superfluidity in two dimensions, will be studied by looking at the origins and properties of point vortices in a Bose Liquid. A lagrangian for the two-dimensional vortex gas is derived from a general microscopic lagrangian for 4 He atoms on an arbitrary compact Riemann Surface without boundary. In the contrast density limit the vortex hamiltonian obtained from this lagrangian is found to be the same as the Kosterlitz and Thouless coulombic interaction hamiltonian. The dynamics and symmetries of the vortex gas on compact Riemann Surfaces are analyzed using lagrangian dynamics and Dirac's theory of constraints is used to formulate the hamiltonian dynamics for the system. The superfluid phase transition of the general vortex gas, in which the circulations may be any non-zero integer, is studied. When the net circulation of the system is not zero the absence of a superfluid phase is shown. When the net circulation of the vortices vanishes, presence of off-diagonal long range order is demonstrated and the existence of an order parameter is proposed. The transition temperature for general vortex gas is shown to be the Kosterlitz-Thouless temperature. An upper bound for the average vortex number density is established for the general vortex gas and an exact expression is derived for the Kosterlitz-Thouless ensemble

  12. Vortex stability in nearly-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A.; Lederer, Falk

    2006-01-01

    We perform accurate investigation of stability of localized vortices in an effectively two-dimensional ('pancake-shaped') trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with negative scattering length. The analysis combines computation of the stability eigenvalues and direct simulations. The states with vorticity S=1 are stable in a third of their existence region, 0 max (S=1) , where N is the number of atoms, and N max (S=1) is the corresponding collapse threshold. Stable vortices easily self-trap from arbitrary initial configurations with embedded vorticity. In an adjacent interval, (1/3)N max (S=1) max (S=1) , the unstable vortex periodically splits in two fragments and recombines. At N>0.43N max (S=1) , the fragments do not recombine, as each one collapses by itself. The results are compared with those in the full three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In a moderately anisotropic 3D configuration, with the aspect ratio √(10), the stability interval of the S=1 vortices occupies ≅40% of their existence region, hence the two-dimensional (2D) limit provides for a reasonable approximation in this case. For the isotropic 3D configuration, the stability interval expands to 65% of the existence domain. Overall, the vorticity heightens the actual collapse threshold by a factor of up to 2. All vortices with S≥2 are unstable

  13. Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice with Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jian-Song; Zhang, Wei; Yi, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-10-01

    In a recent experiment (Z. Wu, L. Zhang, W. Sun, X.-T. Xu, B.-Z. Wang, S.-C. Ji, Y. Deng, S. Chen, X.-J. Liu, and J.-W. Pan, arXiv:1511.08170 [cond-mat.quant-gas]), a Raman-assisted two-dimensional spin-orbit coupling has been realized for a Bose-Einstein condensate in an optical lattice potential. In light of this exciting progress, we study in detail key properties of the system. As the Raman lasers inevitably couple atoms to high-lying bands, the behaviors of the system in both the single- and many-particle sectors are significantly affected. In particular, the high-band effects enhance the plane-wave phase and lead to the emergence of "roton" gaps at low Zeeman fields. Furthermore, we identify high-band-induced topological phase boundaries in both the single-particle and the quasiparticle spectra. We then derive an effective two-band model, which captures the high-band physics in the experimentally relevant regime. Our results not only offer valuable insights into the two-dimensional lattice spin-orbit coupling, but also provide a systematic formalism to model high-band effects in lattice systems with Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings.

  14. Single-particle density matrix and superfluidity in the two-dimensional Bose Coulomb fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.; Davoudi, B.

    2002-01-01

    A study by Magro and Ceperley [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 826 (1994)] has shown that the ground state of the two-dimensional fluid of charged bosons with logarithmic interactions is not Bose condensed, but exhibits algebraic off-diagonal order in the single-particle density matrix ρ(r). We use a hydrodynamic Hamiltonian expressed in terms of density and phase operators, in combination with an f-sum rule on the superfluid fraction, to reproduce these results and to extend the evaluation of the density matrix to finite temperature T. This approach allows us to treat the liquid as a superfluid in the absence of a condensate. The algebraic decay of the one-body density matrix is due to correlations between phase fluctuations, and we find that the exponent in the power law is determined by the superfluid density n s (T). We also find that the plasmon gap in the single-particle energy spectrum at long wavelengths decreases with increasing T and closes at the critical temperature for the onset of superfluidity

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation in the relativistic ideal Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, M; de Llano, M; Baker, George A

    2007-11-16

    The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperature in a relativistic ideal Bose gas of identical bosons, with and without the antibosons expected to be pair-produced abundantly at sufficiently hot temperatures, is exactly calculated for all boson number densities, all boson point rest masses, and all temperatures. The Helmholtz free energy at the critical BEC temperature is lower with antibosons, thus implying that omitting antibosons always leads to the computation of a metastable state.

  16. Bose-Einstein Condensation in the Relativistic Ideal Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grether, M.; Llano, M. de; Baker, George A. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) critical temperature in a relativistic ideal Bose gas of identical bosons, with and without the antibosons expected to be pair-produced abundantly at sufficiently hot temperatures, is exactly calculated for all boson number densities, all boson point rest masses, and all temperatures. The Helmholtz free energy at the critical BEC temperature is lower with antibosons, thus implying that omitting antibosons always leads to the computation of a metastable state

  17. Schemes for loading a Bose-Einstein condensate into a two-dimensional dipole trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombe, Yves; Kadio, Demascoth; Olshanii, Maxim; Mercier, Brigitte; Lorent, Vincent; Perrin, Helene

    2003-01-01

    We propose two loading mechanisms of a degenerate Bose gas into a surface trap. This trap relies on the dipole potential produced by two evanescent optical waves far detuned from the atomic resonance, yielding a strongly anisotropic trap with typical frequencies 40 Hz x 65 Hz x 30 kHz. We present numerical simulations based on the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation of the transfer process from a conventional magnetic trap into the surface trap. We show that, despite a large discrepancy between the oscillation frequencies along one direction in the initial and final traps, a loading time of a few tens of milliseconds would lead to an adiabatic transfer. Preliminary experimental results are presented

  18. Two-dimensional discrete solitons in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligoric, Goran; Stepic, Milutin; Hadzievski, Ljupco; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Malomed, Boris A.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the formation and dynamics of bright unstaggered solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, which features the interplay of contact (collisional) and long-range dipole-dipole (DD) interactions between atoms. The condensate is assumed to be trapped in a strong optical-lattice potential in the disk's plane, hence it may be approximated by a two-dimensional (2D) discrete model, which includes the on-site nonlinearity and cubic long-range (DD) interactions between sites of the lattice. We consider two such models, which differ by the form of the on-site nonlinearity, represented by the usual cubic term, or more accurate nonpolynomial one, derived from the underlying three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. Similar results are obtained for both models. The analysis is focused on the effects of the DD interaction on fundamental localized modes in the lattice (2D discrete solitons). The repulsive isotropic DD nonlinearity extends the existence and stability regions of the fundamental solitons. New families of on-site, inter-site, and hybrid solitons, built on top of a finite background, are found as a result of the interplay of the isotropic repulsive DD interaction and attractive contact nonlinearity. By themselves, these solutions are unstable, but they evolve into robust breathers which exist on an oscillating background. In the presence of the repulsive contact interactions, fundamental localized modes exist if the DD interaction (attractive isotropic or anisotropic) is strong enough. They are stable in narrow regions close to the anticontinuum limit, while unstable solitons evolve into breathers. In the latter case, the presence of the background is immaterial.

  19. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  20. Theory of the one- and two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, V.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) the competition between 2k/sub F/ and 4k/sub F/ charge state waves in a one-dimensional electron gas and (2) a two-dimensional model of high T/sub c/ superconductivity in the oxides

  1. Coherent Electron Focussing in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Foxon, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The first experimental realization of ballistic point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas for the study of transverse electron focussing by a magnetic field is reported. Multiple peaks associated with skipping orbits of electrons reflected specularly by the channel boundary are observed. At

  2. Thermalization of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a `white wall' photon box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered-corresponding to a vanishing chemical potential. Here we report on evidence for a thermalized two-dimensional photon gas with a freely adjustable chemical potential. Our experiment is based on a dye-filled optical microresonator, acting as a `white wall' box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon-number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors provide both an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. As a striking example of the unusual system properties, we demonstrate a yet unobserved light concentration effect into the centre of the confining potential, an effect with prospects for increasing the efficiency of diffuse solar light collection.

  3. Spontaneous creation of nonzero-angular-momentum modes in tunnel-coupled two-dimensional degenerate Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, T. W. A.; Scott, R. G.; Lesanovsky, I.; Fromhold, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of two tunnel-coupled two-dimensional degenerate Bose gases. The reduced dimensionality of the clouds enables us to excite specific angular momentum modes by tuning the coupling strength, thereby creating striking patterns in the atom density profile. The extreme sensitivity of the system to the coupling and initial phase difference results in a rich variety of subsequent dynamics, including vortex production, complex oscillations in relative atom number, and chiral symmetry breaking due to counter-rotation of the two clouds.

  4. Classical region of a trapped Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakie, P Blair [Jack Dodd Centre for Photonics and Ultra-Cold Atoms, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand); Davis, Matthew J [ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum-Atom Optics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2007-06-14

    The classical region of a Bose gas consists of all single particle modes that have a high average occupation and are well described by a classical field. Highly occupied modes only occur in massive Bose gases at ultra-cold temperatures, in contrast to the photon case where there are highly occupied modes at all temperatures. For the Bose gas the number of these modes is dependent on the temperature, the total number of particles and their interaction strength. In this paper, we characterize the classical region of a harmonically trapped Bose gas over a wide parameter regime. We use a Hartree-Fock approach to account for the effects of interactions, which we observe to significantly change the classical region as compared to the idealized case. We compare our results to full classical field calculations and show that the Hartree-Fock approach provides a qualitatively accurate description of a classical region for the interacting gas.

  5. Segregated nodal domains of two-dimensional multispecies Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ming; Lin, Chang-Shou; Lin, Tai-Chia; Lin, Wen-Wei

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we study the distribution of m segregated nodal domains of the m-mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates under positive and large repulsive scattering lengths. It is shown that components of positive bound states may repel each other and form segregated nodal domains as the repulsive scattering lengths go to infinity. Efficient numerical schemes are created to confirm our theoretical results and discover a new phenomenon called verticillate multiplying, i.e., the generation of multiple verticillate structures. In addition, our proposed Gauss-Seidel-type iteration method is very effective in that it converges linearly in 10-20 steps.

  6. Statistical thermodynamics of a two-dimensional relativistic gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montakhab, Afshin; Ghodrat, Malihe; Barati, Mahmood

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we study a fully relativistic model of a two-dimensional hard-disk gas. This model avoids the general problems associated with relativistic particle collisions and is therefore an ideal system to study relativistic effects in statistical thermodynamics. We study this model using molecular-dynamics simulation, concentrating on the velocity distribution functions. We obtain results for x and y components of velocity in the rest frame (Gamma) as well as the moving frame (Gamma;{'}) . Our results confirm that Jüttner distribution is the correct generalization of Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. We obtain the same "temperature" parameter beta for both frames consistent with a recent study of a limited one-dimensional model. We also address the controversial topic of temperature transformation. We show that while local thermal equilibrium holds in the moving frame, relying on statistical methods such as distribution functions or equipartition theorem are ultimately inconclusive in deciding on a correct temperature transformation law (if any).

  7. Thermodynamic Properties of a Trapped Interacting Bose Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Hualin; Zheng, Wei-Mou

    1996-01-01

    A Bose gas in an external potential is studied by means of the local density approximation. Analytical results are derived for the thermodynamic properties of an ideal Bose gas in a generic power-law trapping potential, and their dependence on the mutual interaction of atoms in the case of a non-ideal Bose gas.

  8. Resonant spin Hall effect in two dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Shun-Qing

    2005-03-01

    Remarkable phenomena have been observed in 2DEG over last two decades, most notably, the discovery of integer and fractional quantum Hall effect. The study of spin transport provides a good opportunity to explore spin physics in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit coupling and other interaction. It is already known that the spin-orbit coupling leads to a zero-field spin splitting, and competes with the Zeeman spin splitting if the system is subjected to a magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of 2DEG. The result can be detected as beating of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation. Very recently the speaker and his collaborators studied transport properties of a two-dimensional electron system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a perpendicular magnetic field. The spin-orbit coupling competes with the Zeeman splitting to generate additional degeneracies between different Landau levels at certain magnetic fields. It is predicted theoretically that this degeneracy, if occurring at the Fermi level, gives rise to a resonant spin Hall conductance, whose height is divergent as 1/T and whose weight is divergent as -lnT at low temperatures. The charge Hall conductance changes by 2e^2/h instead of e^2/h as the magnetic field changes through the resonant point. The speaker will address the resonance condition, symmetries in the spin-orbit coupling, the singularity of magnetic susceptibility, nonlinear electric field effect, the edge effect and the disorder effect due to impurities. This work was supported by the Research Grants Council of Hong Kong under Grant No.: HKU 7088/01P. *S. Q. Shen, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 256603 (2004) *S. Q. Shen, Y. J. Bao, M. Ma, X. C. Xie, and F. C. Zhang, cond-mat/0410169

  9. Magnetized pair Bose gas: relativistic superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daicic, J.; Frankel, N.E.; Kowalenko, V.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetized Bose gas at temperatures above pair threshold is investigated. New magnetization laws are obtained for a wide range of field strengths, and the gas is shown to exhibit the Meissner effect. Some related results for the Fermi gas, a relativistic paramagnet, are also discussed. It is concluded that the pair gases, through the interplay between pair creation, temperature, field strength, statistics and/in the case of fermions/spin, have remarkable magnetic properties. 14 refs

  10. Topological Coherent Modes in Trapped Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.; Marzlin, K.-P.; Yukalova, E.P.; Bagnato, V.S.

    2005-01-01

    The report reviews the problem of topological coherent modes, which are nonlinear collective states of Bose-condensed atoms. Such modes can be generated by means of alternating external fields, whose frequencies are in resonance with the transition frequencies between the related modes. The Bose gas with generated topological coherent modes is a collective nonlinear analog of a resonant atom. Such systems exhibit a variety of nontrivial effects, e.g. interference fringes, interference current, mode locking, dynamic transitions, critical phenomena, chaotic motion, harmonic generation, parametric conversion, atomic squeezing, and entanglement production

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation of a relativistic Bose gas trapped in a general external potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Jincan; Chen Lixuan

    2006-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal relativistic Bose gas trapped in a generic power-law potential is investigated. The analytical expressions for some important parameters such as the critical temperature, ground-state fraction and heat capacity are derived. The general criteria on the occurrence of Bose-Einstein condensation and the discontinuity of heat capacity at the critical temperature are obtained. The results obtained here present a unified description for the Bose-Einstein condensation of a class of ideal Bose systems so that many important conclusions in the literature are included in this paper

  12. Micromachined two dimensional resistor arrays for determination of gas parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baar, J.J.J.; Verwey, Willem B.; Dijkstra, Mindert; Dijkstra, Marcel; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A resistive sensor array is presented for two dimensional temperature distribution measurements in a micromachined flow channel. This allows simultaneous measurement of flow velocity and fluid parameters, like thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient and viscosity. More general advantages of

  13. Ideal gas approximation for a two-dimensional rarefied gas under Kawasaki dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaudillière, A.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Nardi, F.R.; Olivieri, E.; Scoppola, E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a two-dimensional lattice gas under Kawasaki dynamics, i.e., particles hop around randomly subject to hard-core repulsion and nearest-neighbor attraction. We show that, at fixed temperature and in the limit as the particle density tends to zero, such a gas evolves in a way

  14. Thermalisation of a two-dimensional photonic gas in a 'white-wall' photon box

    OpenAIRE

    Klaers, Jan; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic accumulation of bosonic particles in the energetic ground state below a critical temperature, has been demonstrated in several physical systems. The perhaps best known example of a bosonic gas, blackbody radiation, however exhibits no Bose-Einstein condensation at low temperatures. Instead of collectively occupying the lowest energy mode, the photons disappear in the cavity walls when the temperature is lowered - corresponding to a vanishing chemica...

  15. A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with two-dimensional readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, F.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Massai, M.M.; Spandre, G.; Torquati, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    A microstrip gas avalanche chamber with a 200 μm anode pitch has been built and successfully tested in our laboratory. A gas gain of 10 4 and an energy resolution of 18% (FWHM) at 6 keV have been measured using a gas mixture of argon-CO 2 at atmospheric pressure. A preliminary measurement of the positional sensitivity indicates that a spatial resolution of 50 μm can be obtained. (orig.)

  16. Optical absorption in a degenerate Bose-Einstein gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yip, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    We develop a theory on optical absorption in a dilute Bose-Einstein gas at low temperatures. This theory is motivated by the Bogoliubov theory of elementary excitations for this system, and takes into account explicitly the modification of the nature and dispersion of elementary excitations due to Bose-Einstein condensation. Our results show important differences from existing theories

  17. The shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzamanian, M.A.; Yavary, H.

    2006-01-01

    By obtaining Kubo formula type and using nonequilibrium Green's functions, we calculate the shear viscosity of a trapped Bose-condensed gas below and above the Bose-Einstein condensation temperature (T BEC ). The contributions of the interactions between condensate and noncondensate atoms and between noncondensate atoms take into account to the viscous relaxation time, by evaluating second order self-energies in Beliaev approximation

  18. Impact of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry on food analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q; Purcaro, Giorgia; Maimone, Mariarosa; Mondello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry has been on the separation-science scene for about 15 years. This three-dimensional method has made a great positive impact on various fields of research, and among these that related to food analysis is certainly at the forefront. The present critical review is based on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in the untargeted (general qualitative profiling and fingerprinting) and targeted analysis of food volatiles; attention is focused not only on its potential in such applications, but also on how recent advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry will potentially be important for food analysis. Additionally, emphasis is devoted to the many instances in which straightforward gas chromatography with mass spectrometry is a sufficiently-powerful analytical tool. Finally, possible future scenarios in the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometry food analysis field are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Nonlocality, Correlations, and Magnetotransport in a Spatially Modulated Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raichev, O. E.

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that the classical commensurability phenomena in weakly modulated two-dimensional electron systems is a manifestation of the intrinsic properties of the correlation functions describing a homogeneous electron gas in a magnetic field. The theory demonstrates the importance for consideration of nonlocal response and removes the gap between classical and quantum approaches to magnetotransport in such systems.

  20. Model of two-dimensional electron gas formation at ferroelectric interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado-Puente, P.; Bristowe, N. C.; Yin, B.; Shirasawa, R.; Ghosez, Philippe; Littlewood, P. B.; Artacho, Emilio

    2015-07-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces as a consequence of polar discontinuities has generated an enormous amount of activity due to the variety of interesting effects it gives rise to. Here, we study under what circumstances similar processes can also take place underneath ferroelectric thin films. We use a simple Landau model to demonstrate that in the absence of extrinsic screening mechanisms, a monodomain phase can be stabilized in ferroelectric films by means of an electronic reconstruction. Unlike in the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure, the emergence with thickness of the free charge at the interface is discontinuous. This prediction is confirmed by performing first-principles simulations of free-standing slabs of PbTiO3. The model is also used to predict the response of the system to an applied electric field, demonstrating that the two-dimensional electron gas can be switched on and off discontinuously and in a nonvolatile fashion. Furthermore, the reversal of the polarization can be used to switch between a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas, which should, in principle, have very different transport properties. We discuss the possible formation of polarization domains and how such configuration competes with the spontaneous accumulation of free charge at the interfaces.

  1. Pixel-based analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (color plots) of petroleum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Søren; Hansen, Asger B.; Skov, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how to process comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatograms (GC × GC chromatograms) to remove nonsample information (artifacts), including background and retention time shifts. We also demonstrate how this, combined with further reduction of the influence of irrelevant informati......, allows for data analysis without integration or peak deconvolution (pixelbased analysis)....

  2. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of organohalogenated micro-contaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Haglund, P.; Boer, de J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    2006-01-01

    We explain the principles of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), and discuss key instrumental aspects - with emphasis on column combinations and mass spectrometric detection. As the main item of interest, we review the potential of GC × GC for the analysis of

  3. Tunable secondary dimension selectivity in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, J.; Pluimakers, G.; Knooren, J.; Dutriez, T.; van der Wal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper two tunable two-dimensional gas chromatography setups are compared and described in which the secondary dimension consists of two different capillary columns coupled in series. In the first setup the selectivity of the second dimension can be tuned by adjusting the effective column

  4. Phase-Dependent Resistance in a Superconductor—Two-Dimensional-Electron-Gas Quasiparticle Interferometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimoulas, A.; Heida, J.P.; Wees, B.J. v.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Graaf, W. v.d.; Borghs, G.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the interplay between Josephson coupling and quasiparticle interference effects in the resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas connected to superconducting electrodes with an interrupted ring geometry. By reducing the influence of the Josephson coupling strength at high dc

  5. Direct Measurement of the Band Structure of a Buried Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miwa, Jill; Hofmann, Philip; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    We directly measure the band structure of a buried two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) using angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The buried 2DEG forms 2 nm beneath the surface of p-type silicon, because of a dense delta-type layer of phosphorus n-type dopants which have been placed there...

  6. Quantitative analysis of target components by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mispelaar, V.G. van; Tas, A.C.; Smilde, A.K.; Schoenmakers, P.J.; Asten, A.C. van

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative analysis using comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC) is still rarely reported. This is largely due to a lack of suitable software. The objective of the present study is to generate quantitative results from a large GC x GC data set, consisting of 32 chromatograms.

  7. Coherent electron focusing with quantum point contacts in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, H. van; Beenakker, C.W.J.; Williamson, J.G.; Broekaart, M.E.I.; Loosdrecht, P.H.M. van; Wees, B.J. van; Mooij, J.E.; Foxon, C.T.; Harris, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Transverse electron focusing in a two-dimensional electron gas is investigated experimentally and theoretically for the first time. A split Schottky gate on top of a GaAs-AlxGa1–xAs heterostructure defines two point contacts of variable width, which are used as injector and collector of ballistic

  8. Spin-polarized transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with interdigital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.-M.; Nitta, Junsaku; Jensen, Ane

    2001-01-01

    Ferromagnetic contacts on a high-mobility, two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a narrow gap semiconductor with strong spin-orbit interaction are used to investigate spin-polarized electron transport. We demonstrate the use of magnetized contacts to preferentially inject and detect specific spi...

  9. The ideal Bose-Einstein gas, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziff, R.M.; Uhlenbeck, G.E.; Kac, M.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions concerning the ideal Bose-Einstein gas are reviewed and examined further. The bulk behavior including the condensation phenomenon is characterized by the thermodynamical properties, occupations of the states and their fluctuations, and the properties of the density matrices, including the diagonal and off-diagonal long range orders. Particular attention is focused on the difference between the canonical and grand canonical ensembles and a case is made that the latter does not represent any physical system in the condensed region. The properties in a finite region are also examined to study the approach to the bulk limit and secondly to derive the surface properties such as the surface tension (due to the boundary). This is mainly done for the special case of a rectangular parallelopiped (box) for various boundary conditions. The question of the asymptotic behavior of the fluctuations in the occupation of the ground state in the condensed region in the canonical ensemble is examined for these systems. Finally, the local properties near the wall of a half infinite system are calculated and discussed. The surface properties also follow this way and agree with the strictly thermodynamic result. Although it is not intended to be a complete review, it is largely self-contained, with the first section containing the basic formulas and a discussion of some general concepts which will be needed. Especially discussed in detail are the extra considerations that are needed in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics to include the surface properties, and the quantum hierarchy of the density matrices and local conservation laws. In the concluding remarks several problems are mentioned which need further analysis and clarification. (Auth.)

  10. The canonical ensemble redefined - 3. Ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, R.

    1984-12-01

    The ideal Bose gas solved in the redefined ensemble formalism exhibits a discontinuity in the specific heat suggesting that Bose-Einstein condensation is a second order phase transition. The deviations from the classical ideal gas behaviour are larger than those predicted by Gibbs ensemble. Below Tsub(c) the pressure is not independent of the volume. For a certain range of values of VT 3 , the peak in black body radiation shows a shift in the frequency scale and this could be detected, at least in principle, experimentally. (author)

  11. Nonequilibrium Transport and the Bernoulli Effect of Electrons in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.

    2013-02-01

    Nonequilibrium transport of charged carriers in a two-dimensional electron gas is summarized from an experimental point of view. The transport regime in which the electron-electron interactions are enhanced at high bias leads to a range of striking effects in a two-dimensional electron gas. This regime of transport is quite different than the ballistic transport in which particles propagate coherently with no intercarrier energy transfer and the diffusive transport in which the momentum of the electron system is lost with the involvement of the phonons. Quite a few hydrodynamic phenomena observed in classical gasses have the electrical analogs in the current flow. When intercarrier scattering events dominate the transport, the momentum sharing via narrow angle scattering among the hot and cold electrons lead to negative resistance and electron pumping which can be viewed as the analog of the Bernoulli-Venturi effect observed classical gasses. The recent experimental findings and the background work in the field are reviewed.

  12. De Haas-van Alphen effect of a two-dimensional ultracold atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, B.; Furtado, C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the ultracold atom analogue of the two-dimensional de Haas-van Alphen effect in electronic condensed matter systems can be induced by optical fields in a neutral atomic system. The interaction between the suitable spatially varying laser fields and tripod-type trapped atoms generates a synthetic magnetic field which leads the particles to organize themselves in Landau levels. Initially, with the atomic gas in a regime of lowest Landau level, we display the oscillatory behaviour of the atomic energy and its derivative with respect to the effective magnetic field (B) as a function of 1/B. Furthermore, we estimate the area of the Fermi circle of the two-dimensional atomic gas.

  13. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  14. Magnetoresistance calculations for a two-dimensional electron gas with unilateral short-period strong modulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Výborný, Karel; Smrčka, Ludvík

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 20 (2002), s. 205318-1 - 205318-8 ISSN 0163-1829 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0754 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * short-period superlattices * two-dimensional electron gas Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.327, year: 2002

  15. Correlation Functions of the One-Dimensional Attractive Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Caux, Jean-Sebastien

    2007-01-01

    The zero-temperature correlation functions of the one-dimensional attractive Bose gas with a delta-function interaction are calculated analytically for any value of the interaction parameter and number of particles, directly from the integrability of the model. We point out a number of interesting features, including zero recoil energy for a large number of particles, analogous to the Moessbauer effect

  16. Study related to the generation of the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oklah, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we will answer on the following question: Are there any conditions on the chemical potential and temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when generating the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas, and will the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas be a Gibbs-process. The study shows that there should be no conditions on the chemical potential and thermodynamical temperature of an ideal BOSE gas when we generate the conditional intensities of ideal Bose-gas except that the fundamental conditions, the chemical potential is negative and the inverse temperature is positive. Thus the position distribution of the ideal Bose-gas may only be a Gibbs-process, in the special case when the thermodynamical temperature of the ideal BOSE gas tends to the absolute zero. (author)

  17. Observations of density fluctuations in an elongated Bose gas: ideal gas and quasicondensate regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, J; Trebbia, J-B; Schumm, T; Aspect, A; Westbrook, C I; Bouchoule, I

    2006-04-07

    We report in situ measurements of density fluctuations in a quasi-one-dimensional 87Rb Bose gas at thermal equilibrium in an elongated harmonic trap. We observe an excess of fluctuations compared to the shot-noise level expected for uncorrelated atoms. At low atomic density, the measured excess is in good agreement with the expected "bunching" for an ideal Bose gas. At high density, the measured fluctuations are strongly reduced compared to the ideal gas case. We attribute this reduction to repulsive interatomic interactions. The data are compared with a calculation for an interacting Bose gas in the quasicondensate regime.

  18. Two-Dimensional Physical and CFD Modelling of Large Gas Bubble Behaviour in Bath Smelting Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Pan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of large gas bubbles in a liquid bath and the mechanisms of splash generation due to gas bubble rupture in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces were investigated by means of physical and mathematical (CFD modelling techniques. In the physical modelling work, a two-dimensional Perspex model of the pilot plant furnace at CSIRO Process Science and Engineering was established in the laboratory. An aqueous glycerol solution was used to simulate liquid slag. Air was injected via a submerged lance into the liquid bath and the bubble behaviour and the resultant splashing phenomena were observed and recorded with a high-speed video camera. In the mathematical modelling work, a two-dimensional CFD model was developed to simulate the free surface flows due to motion and deformation of large gas bubbles in the liquid bath and rupture of the bubbles at the bath free surface. It was concluded from these modelling investigations that the splashes generated in high-intensity bath smelting furnaces are mainly caused by the rupture of fast rising large gas bubbles. The acceleration of the bubbles into the preceding bubbles and the rupture of the coalescent bubbles at the bath surface contribute significantly to splash generation.

  19. Kinetic Theory of a Confined Quasi-Two-Dimensional Gas of Hard Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Javier Brey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of a system of hard spheres enclosed between two parallel plates separated a distance smaller than two particle diameters is described at the level of kinetic theory. The interest focuses on the behavior of the quasi-two-dimensional fluid seen when looking at the system from above or below. In the first part, a collisional model for the effective two-dimensional dynamics is analyzed. Although it is able to describe quite well the homogeneous evolution observed in the experiments, it is shown that it fails to predict the existence of non-equilibrium phase transitions, and in particular, the bimodal regime exhibited by the real system. A critical revision analysis of the model is presented , and as a starting point to get a more accurate description, the Boltzmann equation for the quasi-two-dimensional gas has been derived. In the elastic case, the solutions of the equation verify an H-theorem implying a monotonic tendency to a non-uniform steady state. As an example of application of the kinetic equation, here the evolution equations for the vertical and horizontal temperatures of the system are derived in the homogeneous approximation, and the results compared with molecular dynamics simulation results.

  20. Effect of impurities on the two-dimensional electron gas polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nkoma, J.S.

    1980-06-01

    The polarizability for a two-dimensional electron gas is calculated in the presence of impurities by a Green function formalism. This leads to a system with finite mean free path due to electrons scattering off impurities. The calculated polarizability is found to be strongly dependent on the mean free path. The main feature is the suppression of the sharp corner at wave vector 2ksub(F) for finite mean free paths, and the pure metal result is recovered for the infinite mean free path. A possible application of the results to the transport properties of semiconductor inversion layers is discussed. (author)

  1. Magneto-spin Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas

    OpenAIRE

    Milletari', M.; Raimondi, R.; Schwab, P.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the interplay of long-range disorder and in-plane magnetic field gives rise to an out-of-plane spin polarization and a finite spin Hall conductivity of the two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. A key aspect is provided by the electric-field induced in-plane spin polarization. Our results are obtained first in the \\textit{clean} limit where the spin-orbit splitting is much larger than the disorder broadening of the energy levels via the di...

  2. Spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas using inter-digital-ferromagnetic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, C.M.; Nitta, J.; Jensen, Ane

    2002-01-01

    We present a model that describes the spin injection across a single interface with two electrodes. The spin-injection rate across a typical hybrid junction made of ferromagnet (FM) and a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is found at the percentage level. We perforin spin-injection-detection ex......-injection-detection experiment on devices with two ferromagnetic contacts on a 2DEG confined in an InAs quantum well. A spin-injection rate of 4.5% is estimated from the measured magnetoresistance....

  3. New edge magnetoplasmon for a two-dimensional electron gas in a ring geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proetto, C.R.

    1992-09-01

    The dynamical response of a classical two-dimensional electron gas confined in a ring geometry under a perpendicular magnetic field is analysed. Within the hydrodynamical approach and in the strong magnetic field limit, a new set of antidot edge magnetoplasmons is obtained, corresponding to density oscillations circulating along the inner boundary of the ring and whose frequency increases with magnetic field. The associated self-induced distribution of densities and currents are presented, together with an analysis of the size dependence of these perimeter waves. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  4. Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei

    2017-12-01

    Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.

  5. Shear viscosity and spin-diffusion coefficient of a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components. It is demonstr......Using kinetic theory, we calculate the shear viscosity and the spin-diffusion coefficient as well as the associated relaxation times for a two-component Fermi gas in two dimensions, as a function of temperature, coupling strength, polarization, and mass ratio of the two components....... It is demonstrated that the minimum value of the viscosity decreases with the mass ratio, since Fermi blocking becomes less efficient. We furthermore analyze recent experimental results for the quadrupole mode of a two-dimensional gas in terms of viscous damping, obtaining a qualitative agreement using no fitting...

  6. Absorption imaging of a quasi-two-dimensional gas: a multiple scattering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, L; Corman, L; Yefsah, T; Desbuquois, R; Dalibard, J

    2012-01-01

    Absorption imaging with quasi-resonant laser light is a commonly used technique for probing ultra-cold atomic gases in various geometries. In this paper, we investigate some non-trivial aspects of this method when applying the method to in situ diagnosis of a quasi-two-dimensional (2D) gas. Using Monte Carlo simulations we study the modification of the absorption cross-section of a photon when it undergoes multiple scattering in the gas. We determine the variations of the optical density with various parameters, such as the detuning of the light from the atomic resonance and the thickness of the gas. We compare our results to the known 3D result (the Beer-Lambert law) and outline the specific features of the 2D case. (paper)

  7. Two dimensional radial gas flows in atmospheric pressure plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwihyun; Park, Seran; Shin, Hyunsu; Song, Seungho; Oh, Hoon-Jung; Ko, Dae Hong; Choi, Jung-Il; Baik, Seung Jae

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric pressure (AP) operation of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is one of promising concepts for high quality and low cost processing. Atmospheric plasma discharge requires narrow gap configuration, which causes an inherent feature of AP PECVD. Two dimensional radial gas flows in AP PECVD induces radial variation of mass-transport and that of substrate temperature. The opposite trend of these variations would be the key consideration in the development of uniform deposition process. Another inherent feature of AP PECVD is confined plasma discharge, from which volume power density concept is derived as a key parameter for the control of deposition rate. We investigated deposition rate as a function of volume power density, gas flux, source gas partial pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, plasma source frequency, and substrate temperature; and derived a design guideline of deposition tool and process development in terms of deposition rate and uniformity.

  8. Two-dimensional gas chromatography-online hydrogenation for improved characterization of petrochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Govender, A; Rohwer, E

    2016-05-06

    The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process produces a variety of hydrocarbons over a wide carbon number range and during subsequent product workup a large variety of synthetic fuels and chemicals are produced. The complexity of the product slate obtained from this process is well documented and the high temperature FT (HT-FT) process products are spread over gas, oil and water phases. The characterization of these phases is very challenging even when using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). Despite the increase in separation power, peak co-elution still occurs when samples containing isomeric compounds are analysed by comprehensive two dimensional GC. The separation of isomeric compounds with the same double bond equivalents is especially difficult since these compounds elute in a similar position on the GC×GC chromatogram and have identical molecular masses and similar fragmentation patterns in their electron ionization (EI) mass spectra. On-line hydrogenation after GC×GC separation is a possible way to distinguish between these isomeric compounds since the number of rings and alkene double bonds can be determined from the mass spectra of the compounds before and after hydrogenation. This paper describes development of a GC×GC method with post column hydrogenation for the determination of the backbone of cyclic/olefinic structures enabling us to differentiate between classes like dienes and cyclic olefins in complex petrochemical streams. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Recent advances in analysis of petroleum geological samples by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuanbo; Chang, Zhenyang; Dai, Wei; Tong, Ting; Zhang, Wanfeng; He, Sheng; Zhu, Shukui

    2014-10-01

    Abundant geochemical information can be acquired by analyzing the chemical compositions of petroleum geological samples. The information obtained from the analysis provides scientifical evidences for petroleum exploration. However, these samples are complicated and can be easily influenced by physical (e. g. evaporation, emulsification, natural dispersion, dissolution and sorption), chemical (photodegradation) and biological (mainly microbial degradation) weathering processes. Therefore, it is very difficult to analyze the petroleum geological samples and they cannot be effectively separated by traditional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A newly developed separation technique, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), has unique advantages in complex sample analysis, and recently it has been applied to petroleum geological samples. This article mainly reviews the research progres- ses in the last five years, the main problems and the future research about GC x GC applied in the area of petroleum geology.

  10. Piecewise parabolic negative magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron gas with triangular antidot lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budantsev, M. V.; Lavrov, R. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Pokhabov, D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Extraordinary piecewise parabolic behavior of the magnetoresistance has been experimentally detected in the two-dimensional electron gas with a dense triangular lattice of antidots, where commensurability magnetoresistance oscillations are suppressed. The magnetic field range of 0–0.6 T can be divided into three wide regions, in each of which the magnetoresistance is described by parabolic dependences with high accuracy (comparable to the experimental accuracy) and the transition regions between adjacent regions are much narrower than the regions themselves. In the region corresponding to the weakest magnetic fields, the parabolic behavior becomes almost linear. The observed behavior is reproducible as the electron gas density changes, which results in a change in the resistance by more than an order of magnitude. Possible physical mechanisms responsible for the observed behavior, including so-called “memory effects,” are discussed.

  11. On the Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, L.J.; Wilde, I.F.

    1979-01-01

    A mathematically precise treatment is given of the well-known Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal gas in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed density. The method works equally well for any of the standard boundary conditions and it is shown that the finite volume activity converges and that in three dimensions condensation occurs for Dirichlet, Neumann, periodic, and repulsive walls. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 CKA

  12. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography applied to illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrevski, Blagoj; Wynne, Paul; Marriott, Philip J

    2011-11-01

    Multidimensional gas chromatography (MDGC), and especially its latest incarnation--comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC)--have proved advantageous over and above classic one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) in many areas of analysis by offering improved peak capacity, often enhanced sensitivity and, especially in the case of GC × GC, the unique feature of 'structured' chromatograms. This article reviews recent advances in MDGC and GC × GC in drug analysis with special focus on ecstasy, heroin and cocaine profiling. Although 1D GC is still the method of choice for drug profiling in most laboratories because of its simplicity and instrument availability, GC × GC is a tempting proposition for this purpose because of its ability to generate a higher net information content. Effluent refocusing due to the modulation (compression) process, combined with the separation on two 'orthogonal' columns, results in more components being well resolved and therefore being analytically and statistically useful to the profile. The spread of the components in the two-dimensional plots is strongly dependent on the extent of retention 'orthogonality' (i.e. the extent to which the two phases possess different or independent retention mechanisms towards sample constituents) between the two columns. The benefits of 'information-driven' drug profiling, where more points of reference are usually required for sample differentiation, are discussed. In addition, several limitations in application of MDGC in drug profiling, including data acquisition rate, column temperature limit, column phase orthogonality and chiral separation, are considered and discussed. Although the review focuses on the articles published in the last decade, a brief chronological preview of the profiling methods used throughout the last three decades is given.

  13. Generation of acoustic phonons from quasi-two-dimensional hole gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.; Oh, I.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Generation of phonons from two dimensional electron and hole gases in quantum wells has attracted much attraction recently. The mechanism of phonon emission plays an important role in the phonon spectroscopy which enables us to study the angular and polarization dependence of phonon emission. The acoustic phonon emission from a quasi-two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in quantum wells is influenced by the anisotropic factors in the valence band structure, screening, elastic property, etc. The anisotropy in the valence band structure gives rise to anisotropic effective mass and deformation potential and that in the elastic constants leads to anisotropic sound velocity. Piezoelectric coupling in non-centrosymmetric materials such as GaAs is also anisotropic. In this paper, considering the anisotropy in the effective mass, deformation potential, piezoelectric coupling and screening effect, we present a theory to study the angular and polarization dependence of acoustic phonon emission from a quasi-2DHG in quantum wells. The theory is finally applied to calculate the rate of acoustic phonon emission in GaAs quantum wells

  14. Direct observation of two dimensional trace gas distributions with an airborne Imaging DOAS instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-P. Heue

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In many investigations of tropospheric chemistry information about the two dimensional distribution of trace gases on a small scale (e.g. tens to hundreds of metres is highly desirable. An airborne instrument based on imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy has been built to map the two dimensional distribution of a series of relevant trace gases including NO2, HCHO, C2H2O2, H2O, O4, SO2, and BrO on a scale of 100 m.

    Here we report on the first tests of the novel aircraft instrument over the industrialised South African Highveld, where large variations in NO2 column densities in the immediate vicinity of several sources e.g. power plants or steel works, were measured. The observed patterns in the trace gas distribution are interpreted with respect to flux estimates, and it is seen that the fine resolution of the measurements allows separate sources in close proximity to one another to be distinguished.

  15. Quantum versus classical statistical dynamics of an ultracold Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which quantum fluctuations are relevant for the quantitative interpretation of experiments with ultracold Bose gases. This requires to go beyond the description in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theories, which can be obtained as classical (statistical) field-theory approximations of the quantum many-body problem. We employ functional-integral techniques based on the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action. The role of quantum fluctuations is studied within the nonperturbative 2PI 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order. At this accuracy level memory integrals enter the dynamic equations, which differ for quantum and classical statistical descriptions. This can be used to obtain a classicality condition for the many-body dynamics. We exemplify this condition by studying the nonequilibrium evolution of a one-dimensional Bose gas of sodium atoms, and discuss some distinctive properties of quantum versus classical statistical dynamics

  16. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for biogas and biomethane analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, F; Basset, E; Bayard, R; Gallardo, M; Thiebaut, D; Vial, J

    2017-11-17

    The gas industry is going to be revolutionized by being able to generate bioenergy from biomass. The production of biomethane - a green substitute of natural gas - is growing in Europe and the United-States of America. Biomethane can be injected into the gas grid or used as fuel for vehicles after compression. Due to various biomass inputs (e.g. agricultural wastes, sludges from sewage treatment plants, etc.), production processes (e.g. anaerobic digestion, municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills), seasonal effects and purification processes (e.g. gas scrubbers, pressure swing adsorption, membranes for biogas upgrading), the composition and quality of biogas and biomethane produced is difficult to assess. All previous publications dealing with biogas analysis reported that hundreds of chemicals from ten chemical families do exist in trace amounts in biogas. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study reported a detailed analysis or the implementation of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) for biogas matrices. This is the reason why the benefit of implementing two-dimensional gas chromatography for the characterization of biogas and biomethane samples was evaluated. In a first step, a standard mixture of 89 compounds belonging to 10 chemical families, representative of those likely to be found, was used to optimize the analytical method. A set consisting of a non-polar and a polar columns, respectively in the first and the second dimension, was used with a modulation period of six seconds. Applied to ten samples of raw biogas, treated biogas and biomethane collected on 4 industrial sites (two MSW landfills, one anaerobic digester on a wastewater treatment plant and one agricultural biogas plant), this analytical method provided a "fingerprint" of the gases composition at the molecular level in all biogas and biomethane samples. Estimated limits of detection (far below the μgNm -3 ) coupled with the resolution of GC×GC allowed the comparison

  17. Low-temperature behaviour of an ideal Bose gas and some forbidden thermodynamic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jincan; Lin Bihong

    2003-01-01

    Based on the equation of state of an ideal Bose gas, the heat capacities at constant volume and constant pressure of the Bose system are derived and used to analyse the low-temperature behaviour of the Bose system. It is expounded that some important thermodynamic processes such as a constant pressure and an adiabatic process cannot be carried out from the region of T > T c to that of T c , where T c is the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation of the Bose system. Consequently, some typical thermodynamic cycles such as the Carnot cycle, Brayton cycle, Otto cycle, Ericsson cycle, Diesel cycle and Atkinson cycle cannot be operated across the critical temperature T c of Bose-Einstein condensation of an ideal Bose gas

  18. Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Quantum Electron Gas with Electron Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Terahertz (THz) plasma waves in a two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with quantum effects, the electron scattering, the thermal motion of electrons and electron exchange-correlation. We find that, while the electron scattering, the wave number along y direction and the electron exchange-correlation suppress the radiation power, but the thermal motion of electrons and the quantum effects can amplify the radiation power. The radiation frequency decreases with electron exchange-correlation contributions, but increases with quantum effects, the wave number along y direction and thermal motion of electrons. It is worth mentioning that the electron scattering has scarce influence on the radiation frequency. These properties could be of great help to the realization of practical THz plasma oscillations in nanometer FET. (paper)

  19. Ballistic magnetotransport in a suspended two-dimensional electron gas with periodic antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhdanov, E. Yu., E-mail: zhdanov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Pokhabov, D. A.; Bakarov, A. K. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The magnetoresistance of suspended semiconductor nanostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas structured by periodic square antidot lattices is studied. It is shown that the ballistic regime of electron transport is retained after detaching the sample from the substrate. Direct comparative analysis of commensurability oscillations of magnetoresistance and their temperature dependences in samples before and after suspension is performed. It is found that the temperature dependences are almost identical for non-suspended and suspended samples, whereas significant differences are observed in the nonlinear regime, caused by direct current passage. Commensurability oscillations in the suspended samples are more stable with respect to exposure to direct current, which can be presumably explained by electron–electron interaction enhancement after detaching nanostructures from the high-permittivity substrate.

  20. Dynamic critical phenomena in two-dimensional fully frustrated Coulomb gas model with disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Luo Mengbo

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic critical phenomena near depinning transition in two-dimensional fully frustrated square lattice Coulomb gas model with disorders was studied using Monte Carlo technique. The ground state of the model system with disorder σ=0.3 is a disordered state. The dependence of charge current density J on electric field E was investigated at low temperatures. The nonlinear J-E behavior near critical depinning field can be described by a scaling function proposed for three-dimensional flux line system [M.B. Luo, X. Hu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 267002]. We evaluated critical exponents and found an Arrhenius creep motion for field region E c /2 c . The scaling law of the depinning transition is also obtained from the scaling function

  1. Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.

  2. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 μm thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm 2 with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm 2 . Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring

  3. Two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.Z.; Lin, J.Y.; Jiang, H.X.; Khan, M.A.; Chen, Q.

    1997-01-01

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system by an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure has been further confirmed by measuring its electrical properties. The effect of persistent photoconductivity (PPC) has been observed and its unique features have been utilized to study the properties of 2DEG formed by the AlGaN/GaN heterointerface. Sharp electronic transitions from the first to the second subbands in the 2DEG channel have been observed by monitoring the 2DEG carrier mobility as a function of carrier concentration through the use of PPC. These results are expected to have significant implications on field-effect transistor and high electron mobility transistor applications based on the GaN system. copyright 1997 American Vacuum Society

  4. The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liang; Lin, Hai-Qing; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin

    2016-01-01

    We use the Hirsch–Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin–orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin–orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin–orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin–orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin–orbit coupling. (paper)

  5. Quantum pump effect induced by a linearly polarized microwave in a two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juntao; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua

    2012-05-30

    A quantum pump effect is predicted in an ideal homogeneous two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) that is normally irradiated by linearly polarized microwaves (MW). Without considering effects from spin-orbital coupling or the magnetic field, it is found that a polarized MW can continuously pump electrons from the longitudinal to the transverse direction, or from the transverse to the longitudinal direction, in the central irradiated region. The large pump current is obtained for both the low frequency limit and the high frequency case. Its magnitude depends on sample properties such as the size of the radiated region, the power and frequency of the MW, etc. Through the calculated results, the pump current should be attributed to the dominant photon-assisted tunneling processes as well as the asymmetry of the electron density of states with respect to the Fermi energy.

  6. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and food sensory properties: potential and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Kiefl, Johannes; Schieberle, Peter; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Modern omics disciplines dealing with food flavor focus the analytical efforts on the elucidation of sensory-active compounds, including all possible stimuli of multimodal perception (aroma, taste, texture, etc.) by means of a comprehensive, integrated treatment of sample constituents, such as physicochemical properties, concentration in the matrix, and sensory properties (odor/taste quality, perception threshold). Such analyses require detailed profiling of known bioactive components as well as advanced fingerprinting techniques to catalog sample constituents comprehensively, quantitatively, and comparably across samples. Multidimensional analytical platforms support comprehensive investigations required for flavor analysis by combining information on analytes' identities, physicochemical behaviors (volatility, polarity, partition coefficient, and solubility), concentration, and odor quality. Unlike other omics, flavor metabolomics and sensomics include the final output of the biological phenomenon (i.e., sensory perceptions) as an additional analytical dimension, which is specifically and exclusively triggered by the chemicals analyzed. However, advanced omics platforms, which are multidimensional by definition, pose challenging issues not only in terms of coupling with detection systems and sample preparation, but also in terms of data elaboration and processing. The large number of variables collected during each analytical run provides a high level of information, but requires appropriate strategies to exploit fully this potential. This review focuses on advances in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and analytical platforms combining two-dimensional gas chromatography with olfactometry, chemometrics, and quantitative assays for food sensory analysis to assess the quality of a given product. We review instrumental advances and couplings, automation in sample preparation, data elaboration, and a selection of applications.

  7. Quench dynamics of the interacting Bose gas in one dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Deepak; Andrei, Natan

    2012-09-14

    We obtain an exact expression for the time evolution of the interacting Bose gas following a quench from a generic initial state using the Yudson representation for integrable systems. We study the time evolution of the density and noise correlation for a small number of bosons and their asymptotic behavior for any number. We show that for any value of the coupling, as long as it is repulsive, the system asymptotes towards a strongly repulsive gas, while for any value of an attractive coupling the long time behavior is dominated by the maximal bound state. This occurs independently of the initial state and can be viewed as an emerging "dynamic universality."

  8. [The reconstruction of two-dimensional distributions of gas concentration in the flat flame based on tunable laser absorption spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Shen; Wang, Fei; Xing, Da-Wei; Xu, Ting; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2012-11-01

    The experimental method by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy combined with the model and algo- rithm was studied to reconstruct the two-dimensional distribution of gas concentration The feasibility of the reconstruction program was verified by numerical simulation A diagnostic system consisting of 24 lasers was built for the measurement of H2O in the methane/air premixed flame. The two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame was reconstructed, showing that the reconstruction results reflect the real two-dimensional distribution of H2O concentration in the flame. This diagnostic scheme provides a promising solution for combustion control.

  9. Characterization of Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors Using Two-Dimensional Gas-Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskamp, M.; Lou, W.; Pankow, J. F.; Harley, P. C.; Turnipseed, A.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    The oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) plays a role in both regional and global air quality. However, field and laboratory research indicate that the body of knowledge around the identities, quantities and oxidation processes of these compounds in the ambient atmosphere is still incomplete (e.g., Goldstein & Galbally, 2007; Robinson et al., 2009). VOCs emitted to the atmosphere largely are of biogenic origin (Guenther et al., 2006), and many studies of ambient secondary organic aerosol (SOA) suggest that SOA is largely of biogenic origin (albeit closely connected to anthropogenic activities, e.g., de Gouw and Jimenez, 2009). Accurate modeling of SOA levels and properties will require a more complete understanding of biogenic VOCs (BOCs) and their atmospheric oxidation products. For example, satellite measurements indicate that biogenic VOC emissions are two to three times greater than levels currently included in models (Heald et al., 2010). Two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a powerful analytical technique that shows much promise in advancing the state-of-knowledge regarding BVOCs and their role in SOA formation. In this work, samples were collected during BEACHON-RoMBAS (Bio-hydro-atmosphere Interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study) in July and August of 2011. The field site was a Ponderosa Pine forest near Woodland, CO, inside the Manitou Experimental Forest, which is operated by the US Forest Service. The area is characteristic of the central Rocky Mountains and trace gas monitoring indicates that little anthropogenic pollution is transported from the nearby urban areas (Kim et al. 2010 and references therein). Ambient and enclosure samples were collected on ATD (adsorption/thermal desorption) cartridges and analyzed for BVOCs using two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with time of flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) and flame ionized detection (FID). Measurements of

  10. Two-dimensional simulation of gas concentration impedance for a planar solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Ghassemi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The 2D simulation shows another feature in concentration impedance. • The channel gas transport causes a capacitive behavior. • Anode polarization variation has a significant influence on velocity distribution. • The influence of 2D simulation is important for channel height bigger than 2 mm. - Abstract: This paper presents a two-dimensional model for a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode in order to simulate the steady-state performance characteristics as well as the electrochemical impedance spectra. The developed model couples the mass transport with the electrochemical kinetics. The transient conservation equations (momentum and species equations) are solved numerically and the linear kinetic is used for the anode electrochemistry. In order to solve the system of the nonlinear equations, an in-house code based on the finite volume method is developed and utilized. A parametric study is also carried out and the results are discussed. Results show a capacitive semicircle in the Nyquist plot which is identical to the gas concentration impedance. The simulation results are in good agreement with published data

  11. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    2009-01-01

    We consider second-quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions at zero temperature. We discuss the energy-momentum spectrum of the Bose gas and its physical significance. We review various rigorous and heuristic results as well as open conjectures about its...

  12. Tunneling conductance of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Ka-oey, A.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically studied the spin-dependent charge transport in a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling (DSOC) and metal junctions. It is shown that the DSOC energy can be directly measured from the tunneling conductance spectrum. We found that spin polarization of the conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from the DSOC system. We also considered the effect of the interfacial scattering barrier (both spin-flip and non-spin-flip scattering) on the overall conductance and the spin polarization of the conductance. It is found that the increase of spin-flip scattering can enhance the conductance under certain conditions. Moreover, both types of scattering can increase the spin polarization below the branches crossing of the energy band. - Highlights: → DSOC energy can be directly measured from tunneling conductance spectrum. → Spin polarization of conductance in the propagation direction can be obtained by injecting from DSOC system. → Both types of scattering can increase spin polarization.

  13. Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-09-01

    Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.

  14. Study of two-dimensional hole gas at Si/SiGe/Si inverted interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghazdeh, M.A.; Mironov, O.A.; Parry, C.P.; Philips, P.J.; Parker, E.H.C.; Wahll, T.E.; Emeleus, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the transport of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) at the inverted interface of a strained Si 0.8 Ge 0.2 quantum well. By application of bias voltage to a Schottky gate on top of this inverted heterostructure the 2DHG density n s can be controlled, in the range of (1.5-5.2)x10 11 cm -2 . At temperature T = 033 K, the Hall mobility is 4650 cm 2 V -1 s -1 at the maximum carrier density. For lower sheet densities (n s 11 cm -2 ) the system undergoes a transition from a weak to strongly localised phase of significantly reduced mobility. From low temperature Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation measurements we have extracted the hole effective masses m* = (0.25 → 0.28)m o and the ratio of transport to quantum lifetimes α = (0.92 → 0.85) for the corresponding carrier density change of n s = (5.2 → 2.5)x10 11 cm -2 . These results can be explained in terms of the abnormal movement of the hole wave function towards the interface with decreasing n s , short range interface roughness scattering. (author)

  15. A two-dimensional position sensitive gas chamber with scanned charge transfer readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, F. E-mail: faustgr@usc.es; Iglesias, A.; Lobato, R.; Mosquera, J.; Pardo, J.; Pena, J.; Pazos, A.; Pombar, M.; Rodriguez, A

    2003-10-21

    We have constructed and tested a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel-plate gas ionization chamber with scanned charge transfer readout. The scan readout method described here is based on the development of a new position-dependent charge transfer technique. It has been implemented by using gate strips perpendicularly oriented to the collector strips. This solution reduces considerably the number of electronic readout channels needed to cover large detector areas. The use of a 25 {mu}m thick kapton etched circuit allows high charge transfer efficiency with a low gating voltage, consequently needing a very simple commutating circuit. The present prototype covers 8x8 cm{sup 2} with a pixel size of 1.27x1.27 mm{sup 2}. Depending on the intended use and beam characteristics a smaller effective pixel is feasible and larger active areas are possible. This detector can be used for X-ray or other continuous beam intensity profile monitoring.

  16. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: A perspective on processes of modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchida, Peter Q

    2018-02-09

    The first comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) experiment was reported about 25 years ago [J. Chromatogr. Sci. 29 (1991) 227-231]; the GC×GC process was made possible by the development of a transfer device, defined as modulator. The process of modulation enables the isolation of effluent segments from the first column, and their re-injection onto the second column, in a continuous and sequential manner throughout the analysis. Over the years, many types of modulation systems have been introduced, each with specific advantages and disadvantages. Cryogenic systems are, at present, the most popular devices and represent the most effective form of modulation. The present contribution is focused on possible future scenarios, with respect to modulation, and as a consequence related to comprehensive GC, in general. The development of new forms of modulation may open the road to a more widespread use of GC×GC technologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry peak sorting algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Cheolhwan; Huang, Xiaodong; Regnier, Fred E; Buck, Charles; Zhang, Xiang

    2008-02-01

    We report a novel peak sorting method for the two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) system. The objective of peak sorting is to recognize peaks from the same metabolite occurring in different samples from thousands of peaks detected in the analytical procedure. The developed algorithm is based on the fact that the chromatographic peaks for a given analyte have similar retention times in all of the chromatograms. Raw instrument data are first processed by ChromaTOF (Leco) software to provide the peak tables. Our algorithm achieves peak sorting by utilizing the first- and second-dimension retention times in the peak tables and the mass spectra generated during the process of electron impact ionization. The algorithm searches the peak tables for the peaks generated by the same type of metabolite using several search criteria. Our software also includes options to eliminate non-target peaks from the sorting results, e.g., peaks of contaminants. The developed software package has been tested using a mixture of standard metabolites and another mixture of standard metabolites spiked into human serum. Manual validation demonstrates high accuracy of peak sorting with this algorithm.

  18. Analysis of oxidised heavy paraffininc products by high temperature comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, H; Bekker, R; Beigley, J; Rohwer, E

    2017-08-04

    Heavy petroleum fractions are produced during crude and synthetic crude oil refining processes and they need to be upgraded to useable products to increase their market value. Usually these fractions are upgraded to fuel products by hydrocracking, hydroisomerization and hydrogenation processes. These fractions are also upgraded to other high value commercial products like lubricant oils and waxes by distillation, hydrogenation, and oxidation and/or blending. Oxidation of hydrogenated heavy paraffinic fractions produces high value products that contain a variety of oxygenates and the characterization of these heavy oxygenates is very important for the control of oxidation processes. Traditionally titrimetric procedures are used to monitor oxygenate formation, however, these titrimetric procedures are tedious and lack selectivity toward specific oxygenate classes in complex matrices. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) is a way of increasing peak capacity for the comprehensive analysis of complex samples. Other groups have used HT-GC×GC to extend the carbon number range attainable by GC×GC and have optimised HT-GC×GC parameters for the separation of aromatics, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as sulphur-containing compounds in heavy petroleum fractions. HT-GC×GC column combinations for the separation of oxygenates in oxidised heavy paraffinic fractions are optimised in this study. The advantages of the HT-GC×GC method in the monitoring of the oxidation reactions of heavy paraffinic fraction samples are illustrated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional repulsive gas of fermions with spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Luyang; Vafek, Oskar

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the superconducting instability of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling αR. Using renormalization group approach, we find the superconducting transition temperature as a function of the dimensionless ratio Θ=1}/{2}mαR2/EF where EF = 0 when the smaller Fermi surface shrinks to a (Dirac) point. The general trend is that superconductivity is enhanced as Θ increases, but in an intermediate regime Θ ∼ 0.1, a dome-like behavior appears. At a very small value of Θ, the angular momentum channel jz in which superconductivity occurs is quite high. With increasing Θ, jz decreases with a step of 2 down to jz = 6, after which we find the sequence jz = 6, 4, 6, 2, the last value of which continues to Θ → ∞. In an extended range of Θ, the superconducting gap predominantly resides on the large Fermi surface, while Josephson coupling induces a much smaller gap on the small Fermi surface. Below the superconducting transition temperature, we apply mean field theory to derive the self-consistent equations and find the condensation energies. The state with the lowest condensation energy is an unconventional superconducting state which breaks time-reversal symmetry, and in which singlet and triplet pairings are mixed. In general, these states are topologically nontrivial, and the Chern number of the state with total angular momentum jz is C = 2jz.

  20. Topology of two-dimensional turbulent flows of dust and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Perlekar, Prasad

    2018-04-01

    We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of passive heavy inertial particles (dust) in homogeneous and isotropic two-dimensional turbulent flows (gas) for a range of Stokes number, StDNS confirms that the statistics of topological properties of B are the same in Eulerian and Lagrangian frames only if the Eulerian data are weighed by the dust density. We use this correspondence to study the statistics of topological properties of A in the Lagrangian frame from our Eulerian simulations by calculating density-weighted probability distribution functions. We further find that in the Lagrangian frame, the mean value of the trace of A is negative and its magnitude increases with St approximately as exp(-C /St) with a constant C ≈0.1 . The statistical distribution of different topological structures that appear in the dust flow is different in Eulerian and Lagrangian (density-weighted Eulerian) cases, particularly for St close to unity. In both of these cases, for small St the topological structures have close to zero divergence and are either vortical (elliptic) or strain dominated (hyperbolic, saddle). As St increases, the contribution to negative divergence comes mostly from saddles and the contribution to positive divergence comes from both vortices and saddles. Compared to the Eulerian case, the Lagrangian (density-weighted Eulerian) case has less outward spirals and more converging saddles. Inward spirals are the least probable topological structures in both cases.

  1. The multi-mode modulator: A versatile fluidic device for two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, John V; Schimmel, Nicolaas E; Seeley, Stacy K

    2018-02-09

    A fluidic device called the multi-mode modulator (MMM) has been developed for use as a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) modulator. The MMM can be employed in a wide range of capacities including as a traditional heart-cutting device, a low duty cycle GC x GC modulator, and a full transfer GC x GC modulator. The MMM is capable of producing narrow component pulses (widths <50ms) while operating at flows compatible with high resolution chromatography. The sample path of modulated components is confined to the interior of a joining capillary. The joining capillary dimensions and the position of the columns within the joining capillary can be optimized for the selected modulation mode. Furthermore, the joining capillary can be replaced easily and inexpensively if it becomes fouled due to sample matrix components or column bleed. The principles of operation of the MMM are described and its efficacy is demonstrated as a heart-cutting device and as a GC x GC modulator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Peak clustering in two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection based on theoretical calculation of two-dimensional peak shapes: the 2DAid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stee, Leo L P; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2011-10-28

    A method is presented to facilitate the non-target analysis of data obtained in temperature-programmed comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS). One main difficulty of GC×GC data analysis is that each peak is usually modulated several times and therefore appears as a series of peaks (or peaklets) in the one-dimensionally recorded data. The proposed method, 2DAid, uses basic chromatographic laws to calculate the theoretical shape of a 2D peak (a cluster of peaklets originating from the same analyte) in order to define the area in which the peaklets of each individual compound can be expected to show up. Based on analyte-identity information obtained by means of mass spectral library searching, the individual peaklets are then combined into a single 2D peak. The method is applied, amongst others, to a complex mixture containing 362 analytes. It is demonstrated that the 2D peak shapes can be accurately predicted and that clustering and further processing can reduce the final peak list to a manageable size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Many-body pairing in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neidig, Mathias

    2017-05-24

    This thesis reports on experiments conducted in a single layer, quasi two-dimensional, two-component ultracold Fermi gas in the strongly interacting regime. Ultracold gases can be used to simulate key aspects of more complicated systems like for example cuprates which show high-T{sub c} superconductivity. The momentum distribution of a sample of bosonic dimers in a quasi-2D square lattice geometry was measured to obtain the coherence properties. For shallow lattices, sharp peaks in the momentum distribution, indicating coherence, were observed at zero momentum as well as at positive and negative lattice momenta along each axis. For deeper lattices, heating impeded the ability to prepare a Mott-insulator. A spatially resolved radio-frequency spectroscopy was employed for a quasi-2D Fermi gas in the normal phase throughout the BEC-BCS crossover. The interaction induced energy shifts were measured in the strongly interacting region where they can be on the order of the Fermi energy and thus the local resolution is crucial. Furthermore, the onset of pairing in the strongly interacting region was measured as a function of temperature and it was shown that the fraction of free atoms decreases faster than expected from thermal non-interacting theory. At last, the pairing gap was measured using an imbalanced sample. On the BEC side it was found to be in very good agreement with two-body physics as expected. In the strongly interacting regime, however, a deviation from two-body physics indicates that here many-body effects play a role and thus further studies are required.

  4. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  5. Localization of weakly interacting Bose gas in quasiperiodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sayak; Pandey, Mohit; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Sinha, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    We study the localization properties of weakly interacting Bose gas in a quasiperiodic potential. The Hamiltonian of the non-interacting system reduces to the well known ‘Aubry–André model’, which shows the localization transition at a critical strength of the potential. In the presence of repulsive interaction we observe multi-site localization and obtain a phase diagram of the dilute Bose gas by computing the superfluid fraction and the inverse participation ratio. We construct a low-dimensional classical Hamiltonian map and show that the onset of localization is manifested by the chaotic phase space dynamics. The level spacing statistics also identify the transition to localized states resembling a Poisson distribution that are ubiquitous for both non-interacting and interacting systems. We also study the quantum fluctuations within the Bogoliubov approximation and compute the quasiparticle energy spectrum. Enhanced quantum fluctuation and multi-site localization phenomenon of non-condensate density are observed above the critical coupling of the potential. We briefly discuss the effect of the trapping potential on the localization of matter wave. (paper)

  6. Linear spin waves in a trapped Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikuni, T.; Williams, J.E.; Clark, C.W.

    2002-01-01

    An ultracold Bose gas of two-level atoms can be thought of as a spin-1/2 Bose gas. It supports spin-wave collective modes due to the exchange mean field. Such collective spin oscillations have been observed in recent experiments at JILA with 87 Rb atoms confined in a harmonic trap. We present a theory of the spin-wave collective modes based on the moment method for trapped gases. In the collisionless and hydrodynamic limits, we derive analytic expressions for the frequencies and damping rates of modes with dipole and quadrupole symmetry. We find that the frequency for a given mode is given by a temperature-independent function of the peak density n, and falls off as 1/n. We also find that, to a very good approximation, excitations in the radial and axial directions are decoupled. We compare our model to the numerical integration of a one-dimensional version of the kinetic equation and find very good qualitative agreement. The damping rates, however, show the largest deviation for intermediate densities, where one expects Landau damping--which is unaccounted for in our moment approach--to play a significant role

  7. Investigation of Bose Condensation in Ideal Bose Gas Trapped under Generic Power Law Potential in d Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehedi Faruk, Mir; Sazzad Hossain, Md.; Muktadir Rahman, Md.

    2016-02-01

    The changes in characteristics of Bose condensation of ideal Bose gas due to an external generic power law potential U=\\sumi=1dci\\vert xi/ai\\vertni are studied carefully. Detailed calculation of Kim et al. (J. Phys. Condens. Matter 11 (1999) 10269) yielded the hierarchy of condensation transitions with changing fractional dimensionality. In this manuscript, some theorems regarding specific heat at constant volume CV are presented. Careful examination of these theorems reveal the existence of hidden hierarchy of the condensation transition in trapped systems as well.

  8. Thermalization and Prethermalization in an ultracold Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnert, M.

    2013-01-01

    Atom chips consist of microscopic current carrying structures that generate magnetic trapping potentials for ultracold neutral atoms. These atom chips provide a high design flexibility of possible trap geometries, making the creation of highly anisotropic trapping potentials feasible. The resulting magnetic traps are characterized by a high isolation from the environment and are used to create degenerate, one-dimensional (1d) Bose gases. On typical experimental time scales, these 1d Bose gases can be described as practically closed quantum many-body systems. By applying a rapid quantum quench, the many-body system is brought out of thermal equilibrium and the resulting dynamics are studied via the statistical properties of matter-wave interference measurements. These measured quantum statistical distributions reveal that thermalization of this effectively integrable 1d Bose gas happens in a two-step process. First, the system rapidly dephases to a prethermalized state, characterized by thermal-like correlation properties, which are still distinctly different from the true thermal equilibrium state. Second, on a much longer time scale, the measured distribution functions indicate a further decay to the true thermal equilibrium state. Furthermore, by studying a highly non-equilibrium system via matter-wave interferometry, the underlying multimode dynamics, characterizing one-dimensional quantum systems, are revealed. This thesis shows that these dynamics are essential in establishing the prethermalized state and that its properties are defined by the quantum shot noise of the splitting process. In conclusion, this work aims at improving the understanding of quantum thermalization processes in integrable and nearly-integrable systems in the 1d and 1d/3d crossover regimes. Apparently, the general paths to thermal equilibrium in nearly-integrable systems are indirect and complex. This work provides an in depth experimental study of the relaxation dynamics of a highly

  9. Second dimension column ensemble pressure tuning in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Khan M; Kulsing, Chadin; Junior, Ademario I da Silva; Marriott, Philip J

    2018-02-09

    A pressure tunable (PT) coupled column ensemble has been implemented for the second dimension ( 2 D) separation in comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×PTGC). This process requires two columns to be connected by a pressure junction, as a replacement for a single narrow bore, short column in 2 D. Various 2 D 1 and 2 D 2 columns may be selected to provide complementary selectivity (polarity) compared to the 1 D column. The tunable residence time arising from differential pressure drop in each 2 D column results in a tunable fractional contribution of each column in the 2 D separation. A sample mixture comprising different chemical classes, including alkanes and alcohols, is used to identify the feasibility and extent of selectivity tuning possible in GC×PTGC. The column length is also varied due to the imposed challenge of wraparound in the PT coupled column system as pressures are adjusted in the 2 D separation. Different experimental parameters, stationary phase materials and column lengths have been applied to investigate and understand the separation behaviour of the 2 D PT coupled column GC×GC system. Results are discussed considering analyte retention time, peak width, linear velocity and the contribution of each 2 D column. A specific and unexpected example of GC×GC separation was demonstrated where the peak positions of polar and apolar compounds could almost swap their 2 D retention position by application of PT. Kerosene was analysed as an example of complex sample analysis by GC×PTGC system. This process is shown to be a practical approach for altering different stationary phase selectivities in a single 2 D arrangement in GC×GC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thermodynamic-based retention time predictions of endogenous steroids in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aline C A; Ebrahimi-Najafadabi, Heshmatollah; McGinitie, Teague M; Casilli, Alessandro; Pereira, Henrique M G; Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Harynuk, James J

    2015-05-01

    This work evaluates the application of a thermodynamic model to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry for anabolic agent investigation. Doping control deals with hundreds of drugs that are prohibited in sports. Drug discovery in biological matrices is a challenging task that requires powerful tools when one is faced with the rapidly changing designer drug landscape. In this work, a thermodynamic model developed for the prediction of both primary and secondary retention times in GC × GC has been applied to trimethylsilylated hydroxyl (O-TMS)- and methoxime-trimethylsilylated carbonyl (MO-TMS)-derivatized endogenous steroids. This model was previously demonstrated on a pneumatically modulated GC × GC system, and is applied for the first time to a thermally modulated GC × GC system. Preliminary one-dimensional experiments allowed the calculation of thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔS, and ΔC p ) which were successfully applied for the prediction of the analytes' interactions with the stationary phases of both the first-dimension column and the second-dimension column. The model was able to predict both first-dimension and second-dimension retention times with high accuracy compared with the GC × GC experimental measurements. Maximum differences of -8.22 s in the first dimension and 0.4 s in the second dimension were encountered for the O-TMS derivatives of 11β-hydroxyandrosterone and 11-ketoetiocholanolone, respectively. For the MO-TMS derivatives, the largest discrepancies were from testosterone (9.65 ) for the first-dimension retention times and 11-keto-etiocholanolone (0.4 s) for the second-dimension retention times.

  11. Characterization of lipids in complex samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jover, E.; Adahchour, M.; Bayona, J.M.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    Most lipids are a complex mixture of classes of compounds such as fatty acids, fatty alcohols, diols, sterols and hydroxy acids. In this study, the suitability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-light mass spectrometer is studied for lipid characterization in

  12. Reentrant behavior in the superconducting phase-dependent resistance of a disordered two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless

  13. Reentrant resistance and giant Andreev back scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas coupled to superconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, Sander; Wees, B.J. van; Nazarov, Yu.V.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Borghs, G.

    1998-01-01

    We first present the bias-voltage dependence of the superconducting phase-dependent reduction in the differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to two superconductors. This reduction exhibits a reentrant behavior, since it first increases upon

  14. Recent developments in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC X GC) I. Introduction and instrumental set-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Beens, J.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2006-01-01

    We review the literature on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), emphasizing developments in the period 2003-2005. The review opens with a general introduction, the principles of the technique and the set-up of GC × GC systems. It also discusses theoretical aspects, trends in

  15. Simulation of diffusion in a two-dimensional lattice gas cellular automaton: a test of mode-coupling theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.; Ernst, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    We compute the velocity autocorrelation function of a tagged particle in a two-dimensional lattice-gas cellular automaton using a method that is about a million times more efficient than existing techniques. A t-1 algebraic tail in the tagged-particle velocity autocorrelation function is clearly

  16. Two-step condensation of the ideal Bose gas in highly anisotropic traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.

    1997-01-01

    The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum

  17. Note: Interpolation for evaluation of a two-dimensional spatial profile of plasma densities at low gas pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Kim, Young-Chul; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2011-01-01

    An interpolation algorithm for the evaluation of the spatial profile of plasma densities in a cylindrical reactor was developed for low gas pressures. The algorithm is based on a collisionless two-dimensional fluid model. Contrary to the collisional case, i.e., diffusion fluid model, the fitting algorithm depends on the aspect ratio of the cylindrical reactor. The spatial density profile of the collisionless fitting algorithm is presented in two-dimensional images and compared with the results of the diffusion fluid model.

  18. Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Luyi [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly

  19. Oxygen speciation in upgraded fast pyrolysis bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omais, Badaoui; Crepier, Julien; Charon, Nadège; Courtiade, Marion; Quignard, Alain; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-04-21

    Biomass fast pyrolysis is considered as a promising route to produce liquid for the transportation field from a renewable resource. However, the derived bio-oils are mainly oxygenated (45-50%w/w O on a wet basis) and contain almost no hydrocarbons. Therefore, upgrading is necessary to obtain a liquid with lower oxygen content and characterization of oxygenated compounds in these products is essential to assist conversion reactions. For this purpose, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) can be investigated. Oxygen speciation in such matrices is hampered by the large diversity of oxygenated families and the complexity of the hydrocarbon matrix. Moreover, response factors must be taken into account for oxygenate quantification as the Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) response varies when a molecule contains heteroatoms. To conclude, no distillation cuts were accessible and the analysis had to cover a large range of boiling points (30-630 °C). To take up this analytical challenge, a thorough optimization approach was developed. In fact, four GC × GC column sets were investigated to separate oxygenated compounds from the hydrocarbon matrix. Both model mixtures and the upgraded biomass flash pyrolysis oil were injected using GC × GC-FID to reach a suitable chromatographic separation. The advantages and drawbacks of each column combination for oxygen speciation in upgraded bio-oils are highlighted in this study. Among the four sets, an original polar × semi-polar column combination was selected and enabled the identification by GC × GC-ToF/MS of more than 40 compounds belonging to eight chemical families: ketones, furans, alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, guaiacols, anisols, and esters. For quantification purpose, the GC × GC-FID chromatogram was divided into more than 60 blobs corresponding to the previously identified analyte and hydrocarbon zones. A database associating each blob to a molecule and its specific response factor (determined

  20. Strongly anisotropic spin-orbit splitting in a two-dimensional electron gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michiardi, Matteo; Bianchi, Marco; Dendzik, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Near-surface two-dimensional electron gases on the topological insulator Bi$_2$Te$_2$Se are induced by electron doping and studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. A pronounced spin-orbit splitting is observed for these states. The $k$-dependent splitting is strongly anisotropic to a...

  1. Quantum degeneracy effect on performance of irreversible Otto cycle with ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Feng; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih; Guo Fangzhong; Li Qing

    2006-01-01

    An Otto cycle working with an ideal Bose gas is called a Bose Otto cycle. The internal irreversibility of the cycle is included in the factors of internal irreversibility degree. The quantum degeneracy effect on the performance of the cycle is investigated based on quantum statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Variations of the maximum work output ratio R W and the efficiency ratio y with temperature ratio τ are examined, which reveal the influence of the quantum degeneracy of the working substance on the performance of a Bose Otto cycle. It is shown that the results obtained herein are valid under both classical and quantum ideal gas conditions

  2. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  3. Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W.; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E.; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10 15  cm −2 (or 1.25 × 10 14  cm −2 per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm 2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES

  4. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fast characterization of oil contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van De Weghe, H.; Vanermen, G.; Gemoets, J.; Lookman, R.; Bertels, D.

    2005-01-01

    Most analytical methods for the characterization of oil contamination rely on gas chromatography. Capillary GC offers a high separation power (peak capacity typically 100 - 500), and by using a boiling point column a volatility based distribution is obtained. However, petrochemical mixtures like mineral oil easily contain more then 5000 compounds, and capillary GC does not succeed in separating such mixtures up to the level of individual components. Analytical results are therefore limited to a classification into boiling point (or equivalent-carbon) fractions. Recent methods refined the classification by fractionation in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons prior to GC-analysis (TPH method, Weisman 1998), and by incorporating water solubility (TTE and OK method, for a detailed description we refer to the Consoil 2005 lecture by R. Lookman 'Oil characterization: assessment of composition, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil'). However, besides analytical difficulties and time consuming protocols related with these methods, the resulting classification still remains coarse and the various groups are not univocally chemically identified. Recently, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCXGC) was introduced. This technique combines two GC-columns with different separation mechanisms. The two columns are connected by a modulator, a device that traps, focuses and re-injects the peaks that elute from the first column into the second column. Each peak from the first column (representing a number of overlapping peaks) is further separated on the second column. The very high separation power of GCXGC (peak capacity 2000 - 10000) is ideal for the analysis of complex mixtures like mineral oil. Another important feature is the generation of structured chromatograms. Isomers appear as distinct groups in the chromatogram as a result of their similar interaction with the 2D-column phase. For chemical identification comprehensive GC can be

  5. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for fast characterization of oil contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Weghe, H.; Vanermen, G.; Gemoets, J.; Lookman, R.; Bertels, D. [VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Most analytical methods for the characterization of oil contamination rely on gas chromatography. Capillary GC offers a high separation power (peak capacity typically 100 - 500), and by using a boiling point column a volatility based distribution is obtained. However, petrochemical mixtures like mineral oil easily contain more then 5000 compounds, and capillary GC does not succeed in separating such mixtures up to the level of individual components. Analytical results are therefore limited to a classification into boiling point (or equivalent-carbon) fractions. Recent methods refined the classification by fractionation in aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons prior to GC-analysis (TPH method, Weisman 1998), and by incorporating water solubility (TTE and OK method, for a detailed description we refer to the Consoil 2005 lecture by R. Lookman 'Oil characterization: assessment of composition, degradation and remediation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil'). However, besides analytical difficulties and time consuming protocols related with these methods, the resulting classification still remains coarse and the various groups are not univocally chemically identified. Recently, comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCXGC) was introduced. This technique combines two GC-columns with different separation mechanisms. The two columns are connected by a modulator, a device that traps, focuses and re-injects the peaks that elute from the first column into the second column. Each peak from the first column (representing a number of overlapping peaks) is further separated on the second column. The very high separation power of GCXGC (peak capacity 2000 - 10000) is ideal for the analysis of complex mixtures like mineral oil. Another important feature is the generation of structured chromatograms. Isomers appear as distinct groups in the chromatogram as a result of their similar interaction with the 2D-column phase. For chemical identification comprehensive GC

  6. Effect of disorder on the density of states of a two-dimensional electron gas under magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacie, S.; Meziani, Y.M.; Chaubet, C.; Jouault, B.; Raymond, A.

    2004-01-01

    We have calculated the density of states (DOS) of a two-dimensional electron gas in a perpendicular magnetic field, using a multiple scattering method, in the ultraquantum limit. We have considered doped and disordered 2D systems. The results of the scattering method are compared with direct simulations of disordered samples. Using the DOS, we have studied the metal-insulator transition and the magnetic freeze-out including a comparison with experimental results

  7. Absolute Negative Resistance Induced by Directional Electron-Electron Scattering in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ismet I.; Eberl, Karl

    2007-05-01

    A three-terminal device formed by two electrostatic barriers crossing an asymmetrically patterned two-dimensional electron gas displays an unusual potential depression at the middle contact, yielding absolute negative resistance. The device displays momentum and current transfer ratios that far exceed unity. The observed reversal of the current or potential in the middle terminal can be interpreted as the analog of Bernoulli’s effect in a Fermi liquid. The results are explained by directional scattering of electrons in two dimensions.

  8. Developing of two-dimensional model of the corium cooling and behavior with non-condensible gas injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Cho, Jae Seon; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Do Hyoung [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the effect of the non-condensible gas injection into the molten corium on the heat transfer and dynamic behavior within the melt when molten core-concrete interaction occurs during the hypothetical severe accident. Corium behavior with gas injection effect is two phase fluid pattern in which droplet has dispersed gas phase in continuous liquid phase of corium. To analyze this behavior, two dimensional governing equation using the governing equation, the computer program is accomplished using the finite difference method and SIMPLER algorithm. And benchmarking calculation is performed for the KfK experiment, which consider the gas injection effect. After this pre-calculation, an analyses is performed with typical corium under severe accidents. It is concluded that the heat transfer within corium increases as the metal components of the corium and gas injection velocity increase. 88 refs., 23 tabs., 35 figs. (author)

  9. Flipping-shuttle oscillations of bright one- and two-dimensional solitons in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with Rabi mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-10-01

    We analyze the possibility of macroscopic quantum effects in the form of coupled structural oscillations and shuttle motion of bright two-component spin-orbit-coupled striped (one-dimensional, 1D) and semivortex (two-dimensional, 2D) matter-wave solitons, under the action of linear mixing (Rabi coupling) between the components. In 1D, the intrinsic oscillations manifest themselves as flippings between spatially even and odd components of striped solitons, while in 2D the system features periodic transitions between zero-vorticity and vortical components of semivortex solitons. The consideration is performed by means of a combination of analytical and numerical methods.

  10. Quantum Impurity in a One-dimensional Trapped Bose Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salami Dehkharghani, Amin; Volosniev, A. G.; Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for describing an impurity in a trapped Bose system in one spatial dimension. The theory handles any external confinement, arbitrary mass ratios, and a weak interaction may be included between the Bose particles. To demonstrate our technique, we calculate th...... the ground state energy and properties of a sample system with eight bosons and find an excellent agreement with numerically exact results. Our theory can thus provide definite predictions for experiments in cold atomic gases....

  11. Resistive transition for two-dimensional superconductors: Comparison between experiments and Coulomb-gas-model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnhagen, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Coulomb-gas model of vortex fluctuations leads to scaling relations for the resistive transition which can be directly tested by experiments. By analyzing published resistance data, it is shown that there is experimental evidence for the Coulomb-gas scaling relation in the absence of a perpendicular magnetic field. It is also shown that there exists some suggestive support for the Coulomb-gas predictions in the presence of a magnetic field

  12. Carbon doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with high mobility two dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirmer, Marika; Bougeard, Dominique; Schuh, Dieter [Institut fuer Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D 93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, Werner [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    Two dimensional hole gases (2DHG) with high carrier mobilities are required for both fundamental research and possible future ultrafast spintronic devices. Here, two different types of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures hosting a 2DHG were investigated. The first structure is a GaAs QW embedded in AlGaAs barrier grown by molecular beam epitaxy with carbon-doping only at one side of the quantum well (QW) (single side doped, ssd), while the second structure is similar but with symmetrically arranged doping layers on both sides of the QW (double side doped, dsd). The ssd-structure shows hole mobilities up to 1.2*10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs which are achieved after illumination. In contrast, the dsd-structure hosts a 2DHG with mobility up to 2.05*10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Here, carrier mobility and carrier density is not affected by illuminating the sample. Both samples showed distinct Shubnikov-de-Haas oscillations and fractional quantum-Hall-plateaus in magnetotransport experiments done at 20mK, indicating the high quality of the material. In addition, the influence of different temperature profiles during growth and the influence of the Al content of the barrier Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As on carrier concentration and mobility were investigated and are presented here.

  13. Conductivity of a spin-polarized two-dimensional hole gas at very low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dlimi, S., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Kaaouachi, A. El, E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Limouny, L., E-mail: kaaouachi21@yahoo.fr; Sybous, A.; Narjis, A.; Errai, M.; Daoudi, E. [Research Group ESNPS , Physics department, University Ibn Zohr, Faculty of Sciences, B.P 8106, Hay Dakhla, 80000 Agadir (Morocco); Idrissi, H. El [Faculté des Sciences et Techniques de Mohammedia, Département de physique. BP 146 Quartier Yasmina Mohammedia (Morocco); Zatni, A. [Laboratoire MSTI. Ecole de technologied' Agadir, B.P33/S Agadir (Morocco)

    2014-01-27

    In the ballistic regime where k{sub B}Tτ / ħ ≥1, the temperature dependence of the metallic conductivity in a two-dimensional hole system of gallium arsenide, is found to change non-monotonically with the degree of spin polarization. In particular, it fades away just before the onset of complete spin polarization, but reappears again in the fully spin-polarized state, being, however, suppressed relative to the zero magnetic field case. The analysis of the degree of suppression can distinguish between screening and interaction-based theories. We show that in a fully polarized spin state, the effects of disorder are dominant and approach a strong localization regime, which is contrary to the behavior of 2D electron systems in a weakly disordered unpolarized state. It was found that the elastic relaxation time correction, depending on the temperature, changed significantly with the degree of spin polarization, to reach a minimum just below the start of the spin-polarized integer, where the conductivity is practically independent of temperature.

  14. Numerical study on the two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionizing gas using trial particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brushlinskij, K.V.; Kozlov, A.N.; Morozov, A.I.

    1985-01-01

    Two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionized αs in a channel between two coaxial electrodes are considered in the MHD-model with account of Hall effect. Stationary solutions of the problem on the flow are obtained either analytically in approximation of a ''smooth'' channel - for ideal conducting plasma, or numerically using the methos of establishment - in the ge-neral case of finite conductivity. A method of further numerical analysis of some peculiarities of flow is suggested in the paper. It is based on studying dynamics of single ''test'' particles in fields of the main MHD plasma flow. Trajectory of the test ion is calculated with account for interaction forces with earlier determined electromagentic field and friction responsible for Coulomb collisions with particles of the background flow. The calculations display trajectories of test particles with different masses, initial positions and initial rates. They are shown to be dose to current lines of background medium in plasma of finite conductivity, that testified to the virtue of effectiveness of the MHD-model. In case of ideal conductivity trajectories of test and background particles can noticeably differ from one another. Stabilization effects of motion of particles accidentally knocked out from the flow and separation of pariticles of different mass by electromao.netic forces are considered

  15. Gas dynamics of H II regions. II. Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Yorke, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The evolution of H II regions is calculated with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical procedure under the assumption that the exciting star is born within a cool molecular cloud whose density is about 10 3 particles cm -3 . As the ionization of the cloud's edge is completed, a large pressure gradient is set up and ionized cloud material expands into the ionized low-density (1 particle cm -3 ) intercloud medium, with velocities larger than 30 km s -1 .The calculations are made under the simplifying assumptions that (i) within the H II region, ionization equilibrium holds at all times, (ii) the ionization front is a discontinuity, thus its detailed structure is not calculated, (iii) the temperature of each region (H II region, neutral cloud, and intercloud medium) is constant in time, (iv) all ionizing photons come radially from the exciting star. Four cases are calculated and compared with observations: (1) the edge of the cloud is overrun by a supersonic ionization front, (2) the initial Stroemgren sphere surrounding the star lies deep inside the cloud, thus the cloud's edge is ionized by a subsonic ionization front, (3) the ionization front breaks through two opposite faces of the same cloud simultaneously, (4) the flow encounters an isolated globule of density 10 3 particles cm -3 shortly after emerging from the molecular cloud.The phenomena here considered show how evolving H II regions are an important input of kinetic energy to the interstellar medium

  16. Giant Andreev Backscattering through a Quantum Point Contact Coupled via a Disordered Two-Dimensional Electron Gas to Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the superconducting-phase-modulated reduction in the resistance of a ballistic quantum point contact (QPC) connected via a disordered two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to superconductors. We show that this reduction is caused by coherent Andreev backscattering of holes through the QPC, which increases monotonically by reducing the bias voltage to zero. In contrast, the magnitude of the phase-dependent resistance of the disordered 2DEG displays a nonmonotonic reentrant behavior versus bias voltage. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Quantum Monte Carlo calculation of the Fermi-liquid parameters in the two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.; Ceperley, D.M.; Martin, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Excitations of the two-dimensional electron gas, including many-body effects, are calculated with a variational Monte Carlo method. Correlated sampling is introduced to calculate small energy differences between different excitations. The usual pair-product (Slater-Jastrow) trial wave function is found to lack certain correlations entirely so that backflow correlation is crucial. From the excitation energies calculated here, we determine Fermi-liquid parameters and related physical quantities such as the effective mass and the Lande g factor of the system. Our results for the effective mass are compared with previous analytic calculations

  18. Probing temperature-driven flow lines in a gated two-dimensional electron gas with tunable spin-splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi-Ting; Huang, C F; Chen, Wei-Jen; Chang, Y H; Liang, C-T; Kim, Gil-Ho; Lo, Shun-Tsung; Nicholls, J T; Lin, Li-Hung; Ritchie, D A; Dolan, B P

    2012-01-01

    We study the temperature flow of conductivities in a gated GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) containing self-assembled InAs dots and compare the results with recent theoretical predictions. By changing the gate voltage, we are able to tune the 2DEG density and thus vary disorder and spin-splitting. Data for both the spin-resolved and spin-degenerate phase transitions are presented, the former collapsing to the latter with decreasing gate voltage and/or decreasing spin-splitting. The experimental results support a recent theory, based on modular symmetry, which predicts how the critical Hall conductivity varies with spin-splitting.

  19. A low noise ASIC for two dimensional neutron gas detector with performance of high spatial resolution (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Toh, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Sakasai, Kaoru; Soyama, Kazuhiko

    2012-02-01

    An ASD-ASIC (Amplifier-Shaper-Discriminator ASIC) with fast response and low noise performances has been designed for two-dimensional position sensitive neutron gas detectors (InSPaD). The InSPaD is a 2D neutron detector system with 3 He gas and provides a high spatial resolution by making distinction between proton and triton particles generated in the gas chamber. The new ASD-ASIC is required to have very low noise, a wide dynamic range, good output linearity and high counting rate. The new ASD-ASIC has been designed by using CMOS and consisted of 64-channel ASDs, a 16-channel multiplexer with LVTTL drivers and sum amplifier system for summing all analog signals. The performances were evaluated by the Spice simulation. It was confirmed that the new ASD-ASIC had very low noise performance, wide dynamic range and fast signal processing functions. (author)

  20. Ballistic and diffusive dynamics in a two-dimensional ideal gas of macroscopic chaotic Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Kyle J; Hastings-Hauss, Isaac; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Corwin, Eric I

    2014-04-01

    We have constructed a macroscopic driven system of chaotic Faraday waves whose statistical mechanics, we find, are surprisingly simple, mimicking those of a thermal gas. We use real-time tracking of a single floating probe, energy equipartition, and the Stokes-Einstein relation to define and measure a pseudotemperature and diffusion constant and then self-consistently determine a coefficient of viscous friction for a test particle in this pseudothermal gas. Because of its simplicity, this system can serve as a model for direct experimental investigation of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, much as the ideal gas epitomizes equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  1. Bose-Einstein condensation in an ultra-hot gas of pumped magnons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serga, Alexander A; Tiberkevich, Vasil S; Sandweg, Christian W; Vasyuchka, Vitaliy I; Bozhko, Dmytro A; Chumak, Andrii V; Neumann, Timo; Obry, Björn; Melkov, Gennadii A; Slavin, Andrei N; Hillebrands, Burkard

    2014-03-11

    Bose-Einstein condensation of quasi-particles such as excitons, polaritons, magnons and photons is a fascinating quantum mechanical phenomenon. Unlike the Bose-Einstein condensation of real particles (like atoms), these processes do not require low temperatures, since the high densities of low-energy quasi-particles needed for the condensate to form can be produced via external pumping. Here we demonstrate that such a pumping can create remarkably high effective temperatures in a narrow spectral region of the lowest energy states in a magnon gas, resulting in strikingly unexpected transitional dynamics of Bose-Einstein magnon condensate: the density of the condensate increases immediately after the external magnon flow is switched off and initially decreases if it is switched on again. This behaviour finds explanation in a nonlinear 'evaporative supercooling' mechanism that couples the low-energy magnons overheated by pumping with all the other thermal magnons, removing the excess heat, and allowing Bose-Einstein condensate formation.

  2. A two-dimensional Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, Martin Gerhard

    2016-01-21

    This thesis reports on the preparation of a 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover and the observation of the BKT transition into a quasi long-range ordered superfluid phase. The pair momentum distribution of the gas is probed by means of a matter-wave focusing technique which relies on time-of-flight evolution in a weak harmonic potential. This distribution holds the coherence properties of the gas. The quasi long-range ordered phase manifests itself as a sharp low-momentum peak. The temperature where it forms is identified as the transition temperature. By tuning the temperature and the interaction strength, the phase diagram of the 2D Fermi gas in the BEC-BCS crossover is mapped out. The phase coherence is investigated in a self-interference experiment. Furthermore, algebraic decay of correlations is observed in the trap average of the first order correlation function, which is obtained from the Fourier transform of the pair momentum distribution. This is in qualitative agreement with predictions of homogeneous theory for the superfluid phase in a 2D gas. The presented results provide a foundation for future experimental and theoretical studies of strongly correlated 2D Fermi gases. They might thus help to elucidate complex systems such as the electron gas in high-T{sub c} superconductors.

  3. Ionic liquid phases with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography of fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Nolvachai, Yada; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Kulsing, Chadin; Krisnangkura, Kanit; Marriott, Philip J

    2018-02-17

    New generation inert ionic liquid (iIL) GC columns IL60i, IL76i and IL111i, comprising phosphonium or imidazolium cationic species, were investigated for separation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In general, the iIL phases provide comparable retention times to their corresponding conventional columns, with only minor selectivity differences. The average tailing factors and peak widths were noticeably improved (reduced) for IL60i and IL76i, while they were slightly improved for IL111i. Inert IL phase columns were coupled with conventional IL columns in comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC × GC) with a solid-state modulator which offers variable modulation temperature (T M ), programmable T M during analysis and trapping stationary phase material during the trap/release (modulation) process, independent of oven T and column sets. Although IL phases are classified as polar, relative polarity of the two phases comprising individual GC × GC column sets permits combination of less-polar IL/polar IL and polar IL/less-polar IL column sets; it was observed that a polar/less-polar column set provided better separation of FAME. A higher first dimension ( 1 D) phase polarity combined with a lower 2 D phase polarity, for instance 1 D IL111i with 2 D IL59 gave the best result; the greater difference in 1 D/ 2 D phase polarity results in increasing occupancy of peak area in the 2D space. The IL111i/IL59 column set was selected for analysis of fatty acids in fat and oil products (butter, margarine, fish oil and canola oil). Compared with the conventional IL111, IL111i showed reduced column bleed which makes this more suited to GC × GC analysis of FAME. The proposed method offers a fast profiling approach with good repeatability of analysis of FAME.

  4. Vortex solitons in two-dimensional spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Effects of the Rashba-Dresselhaus coupling and Zeeman splitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Sherman, E Ya; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-09-01

    We present an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons, governed by the pseudospinor system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations with self- and cross attraction, which includes the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the general Rashba-Dresselhaus form, and, separately, the Rashba coupling and the Zeeman splitting. Families of semivortex (SV) and mixed-mode (MM) solitons are constructed, which exist and are stable in free space, as the SOC terms prevent the onset of the critical collapse and create the otherwise missing ground states in the form of the solitons. The Dresselhaus SOC produces a destructive effect on the vortex solitons, while the Zeeman term tends to convert the MM states into the SV ones, which eventually suffer delocalization. Existence domains and stability boundaries are identified for the soliton families. For physically relevant parameters of the SOC system, the number of atoms in the 2D solitons is limited by ∼1.5×10^{4}. The results are obtained by means of combined analytical and numerical methods.

  5. Bloch walls and the non-ideal bose gas spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitiello, S.A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The quasi-particle spectrum of non-ideal Bose gas with domain walls in the condensate is investigated. The existence of such a system is determined from solutions of Gross-Pitaevskii equation which represent many-soliton systems. The walls which make the condensate non-uniform are responsible for density and velocity fields ρ(x) and υ(x) repectively. In the laboratory, the Bogoliubov spectrum, supposed to be true for an uniform condensate at rest, is changed due to the velocity field to which the quasi-particles are submited. The spectrum in the laboratory frame is obtained by considering the Galileu invariance principle and the interaction energy between the quasi-particle and its medium. The importance in considering the last two facts is illustrated by the analyse of a constant density condensate which moves uniformly in the laboratory. The many-soliton spectrum configuration and structure function are studied by the Monte Carlo method. In an approximation that assumes the quasi-particle to be point like, the condensate can be treated as locally uniform. For each event the position x of a quasi-particle and its momentum in a frame with velocity υ(x) are determined. Thus, by a convenient Galileu transformation the energy spectrum in the laboratory an be obtained. The results show a phonon spectrum which splits in two branches in the high momenta region. In this region the lower energy branch exibiths a point of minimum. Analogies with the He II are explored. (author) [pt

  6. Collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices and plasma modes of a two-dimensional electron gas with spatially modulated charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The theory of collective excitations in semiconductor superlattices is formulated by using linear response theory. Different kinds of collective excitations in type I (GaAs-GaAlAs) and type II (GaSb-InAs) superlattices are surveyed. Special attention is paid to the presence of surface and finite-size effects. In calculating the dielectric matrix, the effect of different approximations of the system is discussed. The theory for inelastic length scattering (Raman scattering), and for Electron Energy Loss (EEL) due to collective excitations, is formulated. Calculations for several model systems are presented and the main features of the spectra are discussed. In part II the theory of collective excitations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a spatially periodic equilibrium density is formulated. As a first example a periodic array of two-dimensional electron gas strips with constant equilibrium density is studied. The integral equation that describes the charge fluctuations on the strips is derived and solved numerically. The spatial dependence of the density fluctuation across a single strip can be in the form of either propagating or evanescent waves

  7. Nonequilibrium chemical potential in a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokhabov, D. A., E-mail: pokhabov@isp.nsc.ru; Pogosov, A. G.; Budantsev, M. V.; Zhdanov, E. Yu.; Bakarov, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    The nonequilibrium state of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum-Hall-effect regime is studied in Hall bars equipped with additional inner contacts situated within the bar. The magnetic-field dependence of the voltage drop between different contact pairs are studied at various temperatures. It was found that the voltage between the inner and outer contacts exhibits peaks of significant amplitude in narrow magnetic-field intervals near integer filling factors. Furthermore, the magnetic-field dependence of the voltage in these intervals exhibits a hysteresis, whereas the voltage between the outer contacts remains zero in the entire magnetic-field range. The appearance of the observed voltage peaks and their hysteretic behavior can be explained by an imbalance between the chemical potentials of edge and bulk states, resulting from nonequilibrium charge redistribution between the edge and bulk states when the magnetic field sweeps under conditions of the quantum Hall effect. The results of the study significantly complement the conventional picture of the quantum Hall effect, explicitly indicating the existence of a significant imbalance at the edge of the two-dimensional electron gas: the experimentally observed difference between the electrochemical potentials of the edge and bulk exceeds the distance between Landau levels by tens of times.

  8. New benchmark for basic and neutral nitrogen compounds speciation in middle distillates using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Brodusch, Nicolas; Durand, Emmanuelle; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2007-04-27

    This paper reports an analytical method for the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) separation and identification of nitrogen compounds (N-compounds) in middle distillates according to their types (basicity). For the evaluation of the best chromatographic conditions, a non-polar x polar approach was chosen. The impact of the second dimension (stationary phase and column length) on the separation of basic and neutral N-compounds was evaluated by mean of two-dimensional resolution. This study revealed that the implementation of polar secondary column having free electron pairs improves drastically the separation of N-compounds. Indeed, the presence of permanent dipole-permanent dipole interactions between neutral N-compounds and the stationary phase was enlightened. The comparison of two different nitrogen chemiluminescence detectors (NCD) was also evaluated for GC x GC selective monitoring of N-compounds. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity achieved using developed chromatographic and detection conditions, it was possible to identify univocally and to quantitate N-compounds (i) by class of compounds and (ii), within a class, by carbon number. Finally, quantitative comparison of GC x GC-NCD with conventional gas chromatography illustrates the benefits of GC x GC leading to an excellent correlation with results obtained by American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) methods for the determination of basic/neutral nitrogen ratio in diesel samples.

  9. Quantum spin-glass transition in the two-dimensional electron gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 2 ... Spin glasses; quantum phase transition; ferromagnetism; electron gas. ... We argue that a quantum transition involving the destruction of the spin-glass order in an applied in-plane magnetic field offers a natural explanation of some features of recent ...

  10. Low cost, robust, in-house hardware for heart cutting two-dimensional gas chromatography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Apps, P

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural materials are so complex that no single column can separate all of the components. Heart cutting 2-D GC (GC-GC) using a Deans switch provides maximum separation, but the requisite gas flow configurations have earned a reputation for being...

  11. Two dimensional gas temperature measurements of fuel sprays in a high pressure cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, M.

    2012-01-01

    Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is a promising low-emission combustion concept. By partially mixing the fuel, air and exhaust gas before auto-ignition, the soot and NOx emissions are lower than for conventional diesel combustion. However, the fundamental aspects of the mixing process of

  12. Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence in the gas phase: a spectroscopic tool for studying molecular spectroscopy and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascooke, Jason R.; Lawrance, Warren D.

    2017-11-01

    Two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) extends the usual laser induced fluorescence technique by adding a second dimension, the wavelength at which excited states emit, thereby significantly enhancing the information that can be extracted. It allows overlapping absorption features, whether they arise from within the same molecule or from different molecules in a mixture, to be associated with their appropriate "parent" state and/or molecule. While the first gas phase version of the technique was published a decade ago, the technique is in its infancy, having been exploited by only a few groups to date. However, its potential in gas phase spectroscopy and dynamics is significant. In this article we provide an overview of the technique and illustrate its potential with examples, with a focus on those utilising high resolution in the dispersed fluorescence dimension.

  13. The statistical mechanics of the classical two-dimensional Coulomb gas is exactly solved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaj, L

    2003-01-01

    The model under consideration is a classical 2D Coulomb gas of pointlike positive and negative unit charges, interacting via a logarithmic potential. In the whole stability range of temperatures, the equilibrium statistical mechanics of this fluid model is exactly solvable via an equivalence with the integrable 2D sine-Gordon field theory. The exact solution includes the bulk thermodynamics, special cases of the surface thermodynamics and the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-body correlation functions

  14. Renormalization of Fermi Velocity in a Composite Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, M.; Burlachkov, L.

    We calculate the self-energy Σ(k, ω) of an electron gas with a Coulomb interaction in a composite 2D system, consisting of metallic layers of thickness d ≳ a0, where a0 = ħ2ɛ1/me2 is the Bohr radius, separated by layers with a dielectric constant ɛ2 and a lattice constant c perpendicular to the planes. The behavior of the electron gas is determined by the dimensionless parameters kFa0 and kFc ɛ2/ɛ1. We find that when ɛ2/ɛ1 is large (≈5 or more), the velocity v(k) becomes strongly k-dependent near kF, and v(kF) is enhanced by a factor of 5-10. This behavior is similar to the one found by Lindhard in 1954 for an unscreened electron gas; however here we take screening into account. The peak in v(k) is very sharp (δk/kF is a few percent) and becomes sharper as ɛ2/ɛ1 increases. This velocity renormalization has dramatic effects on the transport properties; the conductivity at low T increases like the square of the velocity renormalization and the resistivity due to elastic scattering becomes temperature dependent, increasing approximately linearly with T. For scattering by phonons, ρ ∝ T2. Preliminary measurements suggest an increase in vk in YBCO very close to kF.

  15. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A [Departamento de Electronica y Electromagnetismo, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Pontiga, F [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada II, EUAT, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)], E-mail: cshoyo@us.es

    2008-10-21

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  16. Two dimensional numerical simulation of gas discharges: comparison between particle-in-cell and FCT techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria-Hoyo, C; Castellanos, A; Pontiga, F

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical techniques have been applied to the numerical integration of equations modelling gas discharges: a finite-difference flux corrected transport (FD-FCT) technique and a particle-in-cell (PIC) technique. The PIC technique here implemented has been specifically designed for the simulation of 2D electrical discharges using cylindrical coordinates. The development and propagation of a streamer between two parallel electrodes has been used as a convenient test to compare the performance of both techniques. In particular, the phase velocity of the cathode directed streamer has been used to check the internal consistency of the numerical simulations. The results obtained from the two techniques are in reasonable agreement with each other, and both techniques have proved their ability to follow the high gradients of charge density and electric field present in this type of problems. Moreover, the streamer velocities predicted by the simulation are in accordance with the typical experimental values.

  17. Tomography for two-dimensional gas temperature distribution based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Can; Wang, Yunchu; Xing, Fei

    2018-03-01

    Based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), the tomography is used to reconstruct the combustion gas temperature distribution. The effects of number of rays, number of grids, and spacing of rays on the temperature reconstruction results for parallel ray are researched. The reconstruction quality is proportional to the ray number. The quality tends to be smoother when the ray number exceeds a certain value. The best quality is achieved when η is between 0.5 and 1. A virtual ray method combined with the reconstruction algorithms is tested. It is found that virtual ray method is effective to improve the accuracy of reconstruction results, compared with the original method. The linear interpolation method and cubic spline interpolation method, are used to improve the calculation accuracy of virtual ray absorption value. According to the calculation results, cubic spline interpolation is better. Moreover, the temperature distribution of a TBCC combustion chamber is used to validate those conclusions.

  18. Evolution of ferromagnetism in two-dimensional electron gas of LaTiO3/SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fangdi; Cao, Yanwei; Liu, Xiaoran; Pal, B.; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Chakhalian, J.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding, creating, and manipulating spin polarization of two-dimensional electron gases at complex oxide interfaces present an experimental challenge. For example, despite almost a decade long research effort, the microscopic origin of ferromagnetism in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterojunctions is still an open question. Here, by using a prototypical two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) which emerges at the interface between band insulator SrTiO3 and antiferromagnetic Mott insulator LaTiO3, the experiment reveals the evidence for magnetic phase separation in a hole-doped Ti d1 t2g system, resulting in spin-polarized 2DEG. The details of electronic and magnetic properties of the 2DEG were investigated by temperature-dependent d.c. transport, angle-dependent X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and temperature-dependent magnetoresistance. The observation of clear hysteresis in magnetotransport at low magnetic fields implies spin-polarization from magnetic islands in the hole rich LaTiO3 near the interface. These findings emphasize the role of magnetic instabilities in doped Mott insulators, thus providing another path for designing all-oxide structures relevant to spintronic applications.

  19. Two-Dimensional Metal-Organic Framework Nanosheets for Membrane-Based Gas Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuan; Li, Yanshuo; Ban, Yujie; Yang, Weishen

    2017-08-07

    Metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets could serve as ideal building blocks of molecular sieve membranes owing to their structural diversity and minimized mass-transfer barrier. To date, discovery of appropriate MOF nanosheets and facile fabrication of high performance MOF nanosheet-based membranes remain as great challenges. A modified soft-physical exfoliation method was used to disintegrate a lamellar amphiprotic MOF into nanosheets with a high aspect ratio. Consequently sub-10 nm-thick ultrathin membranes were successfully prepared, and these demonstrated a remarkable H 2 /CO 2 separation performance, with a separation factor of up to 166 and H 2 permeance of up to 8×10 -7  mol m -2  s -1  Pa -1 at elevated testing temperatures owing to a well-defined size-exclusion effect. This nanosheet-based membrane holds great promise as the next generation of ultrapermeable gas separation membrane. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Toward a definition of blueprint of virgin olive oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Bicchi, Carlo; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-03-21

    This study investigates the applicability of an iterative approach aimed at defining a chemical blueprint of virgin olive oil volatiles to be correlated to the product sensory quality. The investigation strategy proposed allows to fully exploit the informative content of a comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to a mass spectrometry (MS) data set. Olive oil samples (19), including 5 reference standards, obtained from the International Olive Oil Council, and commercial samples, were submitted to a sensory evaluation by a Panel test, before being analyzed in two laboratories using different instrumentation, column set, and software elaboration packages in view of a cross-validation of the entire methodology. A first classification of samples based on untargeted peak features information, was obtained on raw data from two different column combinations (apolar×polar and polar×apolar) by applying unsupervised multivariate analysis (i.e., principal component analysis-PCA). However, to improve effectiveness and specificity of this classification, peak features were reliably identified (261 compounds), on the basis of the MS spectrum and linear retention index matching, and subjected to successive pair-wise comparisons based on 2D patterns, which revealed peculiar distribution of chemicals correlated with samples sensory classification. The most informative compounds were thus identified and collected in a "blueprint" of specific defects (or combination of defects) successively adopted to discriminate Extra Virgin from defected oils (i.e., lampante oil) with the aid of a supervised approach, i.e., partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). In this last step, the principles of sensomics, which assigns higher information potential to analytes with lower odor threshold proved to be successful, and a much more powerful discrimination of samples was obtained in view of a sensory quality assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. Anisotropic Friedel oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, I. V.; Kolesnichenko, Yu. A.

    2017-07-01

    We present a theoretical study of the spatial distribution of the local density of states (LDOS) and the local magnetization density (LMD) in the vicinity of a magnetic point-defect in a degenerate two-dimensional electron gas with a mixed Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling interaction (SOI). The dependence of the Friedel oscillations, which arise under these conditions, on the ratio of the SOI constants is investigated. We obtain asymptotic expressions for the oscillatory parts of the LDOS and the LMD, that are accurate for large distances from the defect. It is shown, that the Friedel oscillations are significantly anisotropic and contain several harmonics for certain ratios of the SOI constants. Period of the oscillations for directions along the symmetry axes of the Fermi contours are determined. Finally, we introduce a method for determining the values of the two SOI constants by measuring the period of the Friedel oscillations of the LDOS and the LMD for different harmonics.

  2. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  3. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Pepper, Michael [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University College, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-04

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.

  4. Electrostatic modulation of periodic potentials in a two-dimensional electron gas: From antidot lattice to quantum dot lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background

  5. Relativistic effects in the energy loss of a fast charged particle moving parallel to a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišković, Zoran L.; Akbari, Kamran; Segui, Silvina; Gervasoni, Juana L.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2018-05-01

    We present a fully relativistic formulation for the energy loss rate of a charged particle moving parallel to a sheet containing two-dimensional electron gas, allowing that its in-plane polarization may be described by different longitudinal and transverse conductivities. We apply our formulation to the case of a doped graphene layer in the terahertz range of frequencies, where excitation of the Dirac plasmon polariton (DPP) in graphene plays a major role. By using the Drude model with zero damping we evaluate the energy loss rate due to excitation of the DPP, and show that the retardation effects are important when the incident particle speed and its distance from graphene both increase. Interestingly, the retarded energy loss rate obtained in this manner may be both larger and smaller than its non-retarded counterpart for different combinations of the particle speed and distance.

  6. Phases of a polar spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Szepfalusy, Peter; Szirmai, Gergely

    2007-01-01

    The two Bose-Einstein condensed phases of a polar spin-1 gas at nonzero magnetizations and temperatures are investigated. The Hugenholtz-Pines theorem is generalized to this system. Crossover to a quantum phase transition is also studied. Results are discussed in a mean field approximation

  7. Theory of superfluidity and drag force in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.-S.; Brand, J.

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional Bose gas is an unusual superfluid. In contrast to higher spatial dimensions, the existence of non-classical rotational inertia is not directly linked to the dissipationless motion of infinitesimal impurities. Recently, experimental tests with ultracold atoms have begun and

  8. Effects of interaction imbalance in a strongly repulsive one-dimensional Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfknecht, Rafael Emilio; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-01-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate...

  9. Real-Time Dynamics of an Impurity in an Ideal Bose Gas in a Trap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of a harmonically trapped system consisting of an impurity in a dilute ideal Bose gas after the boson-impurity interaction is suddenly switched on. As theoretical framework, we use a field theory approach in the space-time domain within the T-matrix approximation. We...

  10. On the infimum of the energy-momentum spectrum of a homogeneous Bose gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Derezinski, J.; Zin, P.

    We consider second quantized homogeneous Bose gas in a large cubic box with periodic boundary conditions, at zero temperature, and in the grand canonical setting (the chemical potential μ is fixed, the number of particles can vary). We investigate upper bounds on the infimum of the energy...

  11. Two-Step Condensation of the Ideal Bose Gas in Highly Anisotropic Traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Druten, N.J.; Ketterle, W.

    1997-01-01

    The ideal Bose gas in a highly anisotropic harmonic potential is studied. It is found that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs in two distinct steps as the temperature is lowered. In the first step the specific heat shows a sharp feature, but the system still occupies many one-dimensional quantum states. In the second step, at a significantly lower temperature, the ground state becomes macroscopically occupied. It should be possible to verify these predictions using present-day atom traps. The two-step behavior can occur in a rather general class of anisotropic traps, including the box potential. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Quantum quenches to the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas: exact results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Piroli, Pasquale Calabrese, Fabian H. L. Essler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We study quantum quenches to the one-dimensional Bose gas with attractive interactions in the case when the initial state is an ideal one-dimensional Bose condensate. We focus on properties of the stationary state reached at late times after the quench. This displays a finite density of multi-particle bound states, whose rapidity distribution is determined exactly by means of the quench action method. We discuss the relevance of the multi-particle bound states for the physical properties of the system, computing in particular the stationary value of the local pair correlation function $g_2$.

  13. Characterisation of biodegradation capacities of environmental microflorae for diesel oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penet, Sophie; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Marchal, Rémy; Monot, Frédéric

    2006-12-01

    In contaminated soils, efficiency of natural attenuation or engineered bioremediation largely depends on biodegradation capacities of the local microflorae. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of various microflorae towards diesel oil were determined in laboratory conditions. Microflorae were collected from 9 contaminated and 10 uncontaminated soil samples and were compared to urban wastewater activated sludge. The recalcitrance of hydrocarbons in tests was characterised using both gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). The microflorae from contaminated soils were found to exhibit higher degradation capacities than those from uncontaminated soil and activated sludge. In cultures inoculated by contaminated-soil microflorae, 80% of diesel oil on an average was consumed over 4-week incubation compared to only 64% in uncontaminated soil and 60% in activated sludge cultures. As shown by GC, n-alkanes of diesel oil were totally utilised by each microflora but differentiated degradation extents were observed for cyclic and branched hydrocarbons. The enhanced degradation capacities of impacted-soil microflorae resulted probably from an adaptation to the hydrocarbon contaminants but a similar adaptation was noted in uncontaminated soils when conifer trees might have released natural hydrocarbons. GCxGC showed that a contaminated-soil microflora removed all aromatics and all branched alkanes containing less than C(15). The most recalcitrant compounds were the branched and cyclic alkanes with 15-23 atoms of carbon.

  14. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  15. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  16. Discrete particle simulation of bubble and slug formation in a two-dimensional gas-fluidised bed: A hard-sphere approach.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoomans, B.P.B.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Briels, Willem J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    A discrete particle model of a gas-fluidised bed has been developed and in this the two-dimensional motion of the individual, spherical particles was directly calculated from the forces acting on them, accounting for the interaction between the particles and the interstitial gas phase. Our collision

  17. Evaluation of reversible interconversion in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using enantioselective columns in first and second dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Sabrina; Wong, Yong Foo; Chin, Sung-Tong; Grant, Jacob; Lupton, David; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-07-24

    The reversible molecular interconversion behaviour of a synthesised oxime (2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime; (C6H5)CH(CH3)CHN(OH)) was investigated by both, single dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC). Previous studies on small molecular weight oximes were extended to this larger aromatic oxime (molar mass 149.19gmol(-1)) with interest in the extent of interconversion, enantioselective resolution, and retention time. On a polyethylene glycol (PEG; wax-type) column, a characteristic interconversion zone between two antipodes of E and Z isomers was formed by molecules which have undergone isomerisation on the column (E⇌Z). The extent of interconversion was investigated by varying chromatographic conditions (oven temperature and carrier flow rate) to understand the nature of the behaviour observed. The extent of interconversion was negligible in both enantioselective and methyl-phenylpolysiloxane phase-columns, correlating with the low polarity of the stationary phase. In order to obtain isomerisation along with enantio-resolution, a wax-type and an enantioselective column were coupled in either enantioselective-wax or wax-enantioselective order. The most appropriate column arrangement was selected for study by using a GC×GC experiment with either a wax-phase or phenyl-methylpolysiloxane phase as (2)D column. In addition to evaluation of these fast elution columns, a long narrow-bore enantioselective column (10m) was introduced as (2)D, providing an enantioselective-PEG (coupled-column ensemble: (1)D1+(1)D2)×enantioselective ((2)D) column combination. In this instance, the (1)D1 enantioselective column provides enantiomeric separation of the corresponding enantiomers ((R) and (S)) of (E)- and (Z)-2-phenylpropanaldehyde oxime, followed by E/Z isomerisation in the coupled (1)D2 PEG (reactor) column. The resulting chromatographic interconversion region was modulated and separated into either E/Z isomers

  18. Quantized vortices in the ideal bose gas: a physical realization of random polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castin, Yvan; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Stock, Sabine; Dalibard, Jean; Stringari, Sandro

    2006-02-03

    We propose a physical system allowing one to experimentally observe the distribution of the complex zeros of a random polynomial. We consider a degenerate, rotating, quasi-ideal atomic Bose gas prepared in the lowest Landau level. Thermal fluctuations provide the randomness of the bosonic field and of the locations of the vortex cores. These vortices can be mapped to zeros of random polynomials, and observed in the density profile of the gas.

  19. Two-dimensional simulation of the development of an inhomogeneous volume discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, Yu. I.; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetic processes accompanying plasma column formation in an inhomogeneous discharge in a Ne/Xe/HCl gas mixture at a pressure of 4 atm were investigated by using a two-dimensional model. Two cathode spots spaced by 0.7 cm were initiated by distorting the cathode surface at local points, which resulted in an increase in the field strength in the cathode region. Three regimes differing in the charging voltage, electric circuit inductance, and electric field strength at the local cathode points were considered. The spatiotemporal distributions of the discharge current; the electron density; and the densities of excited xenon atoms, HCl(v = 0) molecules in the ground state, and HCl(v > 0) molecules in vibrational levels were calculated. The development of the discharge with increasing the electron density from 10 4 to 10 16 cm −3 was analyzed, and three characteristic stages in the evolution of the current distribution were demonstrated. The width of the plasma column was found to depend on the energy deposited in the discharge. The width of the plasma column was found to decrease in inverse proportion to the deposited energy due to spatiotemporal variations in the rates of electron production and loss. The calculated dependences of the cross-sectional area of the plasma column on the energy deposited in the discharge agree with the experimental results.

  20. Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at SrTiO3-Based Oxide Heterostructures via Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at an oxide interface has been attracting considerable attention for physics research and nanoelectronic applications. Early studies reported the formation of 2DEG at semiconductor interfaces (e.g., AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures with interesting electrical properties such as high electron mobility. Besides 2DEG formation at semiconductor junctions, 2DEG was realized at the interface of an oxide heterostructure such as the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO heterojunction. The origin of 2DEG was attributed to the well-known “polar catastrophe” mechanism in oxide heterostructures, which consist of an epitaxial LAO layer on a single crystalline STO substrate among proposed mechanisms. Recently, it was reported that the creation of 2DEG was achieved using the atomic layer deposition (ALD technique, which opens new functionality of ALD in emerging nanoelectronics. This review is focused on the origin of 2DEG at oxide heterostructures using the ALD process. In particular, it addresses the origin of 2DEG at oxide interfaces based on an alternative mechanism (i.e., oxygen vacancies.

  1. Quantum-size effects in the energy loss of charged particles interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.; Muino, R. Diez; Sanchez-Portal, D.; Echenique, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process

  2. Development of a discrete gas-kinetic scheme for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Shu, C; Wang, Y

    2016-03-01

    In this work, a discrete gas-kinetic scheme (DGKS) is presented for simulation of two-dimensional viscous incompressible and compressible flows. This scheme is developed from the circular function-based GKS, which was recently proposed by Shu and his co-workers [L. M. Yang, C. Shu, and J. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 274, 611 (2014)]. For the circular function-based GKS, the integrals for conservation forms of moments in the infinity domain for the Maxwellian function-based GKS are simplified to those integrals along the circle. As a result, the explicit formulations of conservative variables and fluxes are derived. However, these explicit formulations of circular function-based GKS for viscous flows are still complicated, which may not be easy for the application by new users. By using certain discrete points to represent the circle in the phase velocity space, the complicated formulations can be replaced by a simple solution process. The basic requirement is that the conservation forms of moments for the circular function-based GKS can be accurately satisfied by weighted summation of distribution functions at discrete points. In this work, it is shown that integral quadrature by four discrete points on the circle, which forms the D2Q4 discrete velocity model, can exactly match the integrals. Numerical results showed that the present scheme can provide accurate numerical results for incompressible and compressible viscous flows with roughly the same computational cost as that needed by the Roe scheme.

  3. Discriminating Brazilian crude oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multiway principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, Paloma S; Alexandrino, Guilherme L; Mogollón, Noroska Gabriela S; Augusto, Fabio

    2016-11-11

    The geochemical characterization of petroleum is an essential task to develop new strategies and technologies when analyzing the commercial potential of crude oils for exploitation. Due to the chemical complexity of these samples, the use of modern analytical techniques along with multivariate exploratory data analysis approaches is an interesting strategy to extract relevant geochemical characteristics about the oils. In this work, important geochemical information obtained from crude oils from different production basins were obtained analyzing the maltene fraction of the oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-QMS), and performing multiway principal component analysis (MPCA) of the chromatographic data. The results showed that four MPC explained 93.57% of the data variance, expressing mainly the differences on the profiles of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction of the oils (C 13 -C 18 and C 19 -C 30 n-alkanes and the pristane/phytane ratio). The MPC1 grouped the samples severely biodegraded oils, while the type of the depositional paleoenvironments of the oils and its oxidation conditions (as well as their thermal maturity) could be inferred analysing others relevant MPC. Additionally, considerations about the source of the oil samples was also possible based on the overall distribution of relevant biomarkers such as the phenanthrene derivatives, tri-, tetra- and pentacyclic terpanes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chemical characterisation of two Australian-grown strawberry varieties by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samykanno, Kavitha; Pang, Edwin; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    The volatile compositions of two strawberry varieties ('Albion' and 'Juliette') grown in Australia were analysed with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS). A suitable data processing method was created that should be sufficiently robust to compare sample chromatograms within a harvest season as well as between seasons with relative ease. Ninety-four compounds were tentatively or positively identified between the two varieties of which 20 have apparently not been previously reported to be components of strawberry volatiles. It was determined that Albion and Juliette have comparable total soluble solids content close to 11°Brix. However, since Juliette exhibited a lower titratable acidity content than Albion, it consequently has a slightly larger sugar/acid ratio. The presence of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-(2H)-furan-3-one (furaneol) was detected only in Juliette and this variety also had a higher area percentage of 2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-(2H)-furan-3-one (mesifuran), according to the sampling protocol. These experimental results offer possible explanations as to why Juliette is perceived to have a sweeter flavour than Albion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analytic and numeric Green's functions for a two-dimensional electron gas in an orthogonal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresti, Alessandro; Grosso, Giuseppe; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori

    2006-01-01

    We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems

  6. Spin currents in a normal two-dimensional electron gas in contact with a spin-orbit interaction region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhanov, Aleksei A; Sablikov, Vladimir A; Tkach, Yurii Ya

    2009-01-01

    Spin effects in a normal two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in lateral contact with a 2D region with spin-orbit interaction are studied. The peculiarity of this system is the presence of spin-dependent scattering of electrons from the interface. This results in an equilibrium edge spin current and nontrivial spin responses to a particle current. We investigate the spatial distribution of the spin currents and spin density under non-equilibrium conditions caused by a ballistic electron current flowing normal or parallel to the interface. The parallel electron current is found to generate a spin density near the interface and to change the edge spin current. The perpendicular electron current changes the edge spin current proportionally to the electron current and produces a bulk spin current penetrating deep into the normal region. This spin current has two components, one of which is directed normal to the interface and polarized parallel to it, and the second is parallel to the interface and is polarized in the plane perpendicular to the contact line. Both spin currents have a high degree of polarization (∼40-60%).

  7. Geometric contribution leading to anomalous estimation of two-dimensional electron gas density in GaN based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Bhanu B.; Jha, Jaya; Takhar, Kuldeep; Ganguly, Swaroop; Saha, Dipankar

    2018-05-01

    We have observed that the estimation of two-dimensional electron gas density is dependent on the device geometry. The geometric contribution leads to the anomalous estimation of the GaN based heterostructure properties. The observed discrepancy is found to originate from the anomalous area dependent capacitance of GaN based Schottky diodes, which is an integral part of the high electron mobility transistors. The areal capacitance density is found to increase for smaller radii Schottky diodes, contrary to a constant as expected intuitively. The capacitance is found to follow a second order polynomial on the radius of all the bias voltages and frequencies considered here. In addition to the quadratic dependency corresponding to the areal component, the linear dependency indicates a peripheral component. It is further observed that the peripheral to areal contribution is inversely proportional to the radius confirming the periphery as the location of the additional capacitance. The peripheral component is found to be frequency dependent and tends to saturate to a lower value for measurements at a high frequency. In addition, the peripheral component is found to vanish when the surface is passivated by a combination of N2 and O2 plasma treatments. The cumulative surface state density per unit length of the perimeter of the Schottky diodes as obtained by the integrated response over the distance between the ohmic and Schottky contacts is found to be 2.75 × 1010 cm-1.

  8. Towards chemical profiling of ignitable liquids with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: Exploring forensic application to neat white spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Andjoe A S; Lopatka, Martin; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Schoenmakers, Peter J; van Asten, Arian C

    2016-10-01

    The application of GC×GC-FID and GC×GC-MS for the chemical analysis and profiling of neat white spirit is explored and the benefit of the enhanced peak capacity offered by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography is demonstrated. An extensive sampling exercise was conducted throughout The Netherlands and the production and logistics in terms of bottling and distribution of white spirits were studied. An exploratory approach based on target-peak tables and principal component analysis was employed to study the brand-to-brand differences and production variations over time. Despite the complex chemical composition of white spirit samples this study shows that chemical variation during productions is actually quite limited. Hence care has to be taken with the chemical comparison for forensic purposes. Although some clustering was noticed on brand level, the large scale production process leads to a very consistent composition across stores and brands. However, because of the broad specifications of this commodity product, substantial chemical variation was found over time. This temporal discrimination could be of forensic value when considering white spirits supplies in individual households. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Durability-enhanced two-dimensional hole gas of C-H diamond surface for complementary power inverter applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawarada, Hiroshi; Yamada, Tetsuya; Xu, Dechen; Tsuboi, Hidetoshi; Kitabayashi, Yuya; Matsumura, Daisuke; Shibata, Masanobu; Kudo, Takuya; Inaba, Masafumi; Hiraiwa, Atsushi

    2017-02-20

    Complementary power field effect transistors (FETs) based on wide bandgap materials not only provide high-voltage switching capability with the reduction of on-resistance and switching losses, but also enable a smart inverter system by the dramatic simplification of external circuits. However, p-channel power FETs with equivalent performance to those of n-channel FETs are not obtained in any wide bandgap material other than diamond. Here we show that a breakdown voltage of more than 1600 V has been obtained in a diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FET with a p-channel based on a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG). Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al 2 O 3 induces the 2DHG ubiquitously on a hydrogen-terminated (C-H) diamond surface and also acts as both gate insulator and passivation layer. The high voltage performance is equivalent to that of state-of-the-art SiC planar n-channel FETs and AlGaN/GaN FETs. The drain current density in the on-state is also comparable to that of these two FETs with similar device size and V B .

  10. Comparative Analysis of Mass Spectral Similarity Measures on Peak Alignment for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Peak alignment is a critical procedure in mass spectrometry-based biomarker discovery in metabolomics. One of peak alignment approaches to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) data is peak matching-based alignment. A key to the peak matching-based alignment is the calculation of mass spectral similarity scores. Various mass spectral similarity measures have been developed mainly for compound identification, but the effect of these spectral similarity measures on the performance of peak matching-based alignment still remains unknown. Therefore, we selected five mass spectral similarity measures, cosine correlation, Pearson's correlation, Spearman's correlation, partial correlation, and part correlation, and examined their effects on peak alignment using two sets of experimental GC×GC-MS data. The results show that the spectral similarity measure does not affect the alignment accuracy significantly in analysis of data from less complex samples, while the partial correlation performs much better than other spectral similarity measures when analyzing experimental data acquired from complex biological samples. PMID:24151524

  11. A comparison of the transport properties of bilayer graphene,monolayer graphene, and two-dimensional electron gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Li-Feng; Dong Li-Min; Wu Zhi-Fang; Fang Chao

    2013-01-01

    we studied and compared the transport properties of charge carriers in bilayer graphene,monolayer graphene,and the conventional semiconductors (the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG)).It is elucidated that the normal incidence transmission in the bilayer graphene is identical to that in the 2DEG but totally different from that in the monolayer graphene.However,resonant peaks appear in the non-normal incidence transmission profile for a high barrier in the bilayer graphene,which do not occur in the 2DEG.Furthermore,there are tunneling and forbidden regions in the transmission spectrum for each material,and the division of the two regions has been given in the work.The tunneling region covers a wide range of the incident energy for the two graphene systems,but only exists under specific conditions for the 2DEG.The counterparts of the transmission in the conductance profile are also given for the three materials,which may be used as high-performance devices based on the bilayer graphene.

  12. Epitaxial engineering of polar ɛ-Ga2O3 for tunable two-dimensional electron gas at the heterointerface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Beom; Mishra, Rohan

    2018-04-01

    We predict the formation of a polarization-induced two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface of ɛ-Ga2O3 and CaCO3, wherein the density of the 2DEG can be tuned by reversing the spontaneous polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, for example, with an applied electric field. ɛ-Ga2O3 is a polar and metastable ultra-wide band-gap semiconductor. We use density-functional theory (DFT) calculations and coincidence-site lattice model to predict the region of epitaxial strain under which ɛ-Ga2O3 can be stabilized over its other competing polymorphs and suggest promising substrates. Using group-theoretical methods and DFT calculations, we show that ɛ-Ga2O3 is a ferroelectric material where the spontaneous polarization can be reversed through a non-polar phase by using an electric field. Based on the calculated band alignment of ɛ-Ga2O3 with various substrates, we show the formation of a 2DEG with a high sheet charge density of 1014 cm-2 at the interface with CaCO3 due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization in ɛ-Ga2O3, which makes the system attractive for high-power and high-frequency applications.

  13. Supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated with twin comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for ultimate analysis of middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Thiébaut, Didier; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Courtiade, Marion; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2010-02-19

    This paper reports the conditions of online hyphenation of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with twin comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (twin-GCxGC) for detailed characterization of middle distillates; this is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining processes. In this configuration, saturated and unsaturated compounds that have been fractionated by SFC are transferred on two different GC x GC columns sets (twin-GCxGC) placed in the same GC oven. Cryogenic focusing is used for transfer of fractions into the first dimension columns before simultaneous GCxGC analysis of both saturated and unsaturated fractions. The benefits of SFC-twin-GC x GC are demonstrated for the extended alkane, iso-alkane, alkene, naphthenes and aromatics analysis (so-called PIONA analysis) of diesel samples which can be achieved in one single injection. For that purpose, saturated and unsaturated compounds have been separated by SFC using a silver loaded silica column prior to GC x GC analysis. Alkenes and naphthenes are quantitatively recovered in the unsaturated and saturated fractions, respectively, allowing their identification in various diesel samples. Thus, resolution between each class of compounds is significantly improved compared to a single GCxGC run, and for the first time, an extended PIONA analysis of diesel samples is presented. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-06-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models.

  15. A NEW METHOD OF PEAK DETECTION FOR ANALYSIS OF COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY DATA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Ouyang, Ming; Jeong, Jaesik; Shen, Changyu; Zhang, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    We develop a novel peak detection algorithm for the analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF MS) data using normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) and mixture probability models. The algorithm first performs baseline correction and denoising simultaneously using the NEB model, which also defines peak regions. Peaks are then picked using a mixture of probability distribution to deal with the co-eluting peaks. Peak merging is further carried out based on the mass spectral similarities among the peaks within the same peak group. The algorithm is evaluated using experimental data to study the effect of different cut-offs of the conditional Bayes factors and the effect of different mixture models including Poisson, truncated Gaussian, Gaussian, Gamma, and exponentially modified Gaussian (EMG) distributions, and the optimal version is introduced using a trial-and-error approach. We then compare the new algorithm with two existing algorithms in terms of compound identification. Data analysis shows that the developed algorithm can detect the peaks with lower false discovery rates than the existing algorithms, and a less complicated peak picking model is a promising alternative to the more complicated and widely used EMG mixture models. PMID:25264474

  16. Normal-Gamma-Bernoulli Peak Detection for Analysis of Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongho; Jang, Hyejeong; Koo, Imhoi; Lee, Joohyoung; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other analytical platforms, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has much increased separation power for analysis of complex samples and thus is increasingly used in metabolomics for biomarker discovery. However, accurate peak detection remains a bottleneck for wide applications of GC×GC-MS. Therefore, the normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) model is generalized by gamma distribution and a new peak detection algorithm using the normal-gamma-Bernoulli (NGB) model is developed. Unlike the NEB model, the NGB model has no closed-form analytical solution, hampering its practical use in peak detection. To circumvent this difficulty, three numerical approaches, which are fast Fourier transform (FFT), the first-order and the second-order delta methods (D1 and D2), are introduced. The applications to simulated data and two real GC×GC-MS data sets show that the NGB-D1 method performs the best in terms of both computational expense and peak detection performance.

  17. Tuning the conductivity threshold and carrier density of two-dimensional electron gas at oxide interfaces through interface engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Harsan Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO3 (LAO and non-polar SrTiO3 (STO. Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La0.5Sr0.5TiO3 (LSTO layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.

  18. Relaxation dynamics of a driven two-level system coupled to a Bose-Einstein condensate: application to quantum dot-dipolar exciton gas hybrid systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vadim M; Tse, Wang-Kong

    2017-11-22

    We develop a microscopic theory for the relaxation dynamics of an optically pumped two-level system (TLS) coupled to a bath of weakly interacting Bose gas. Using Keldysh formalism and diagrammatic perturbation theory, expressions for the relaxation times of the TLS Rabi oscillations are derived when the boson bath is in the normal state and the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) state. We apply our general theory to consider an irradiated quantum dot coupled with a boson bath consisting of a two-dimensional dipolar exciton gas. When the bath is in the BEC regime, relaxation of the Rabi oscillations is due to both condensate and non-condensate fractions of the bath bosons for weak TLS-light coupling and pre dominantly due to the non-condensate fraction for strong TLS-light coupling. Our theory also shows that a phase transition of the bath from the normal to the BEC state strongly influences the relaxation rate of the TLS Rabi oscillations. The TLS relaxation rate is approximately independent of the pump field frequency and monotonically dependent on the field strength when the bath is in the low-temperature regime of the normal phase. Phase transition of the dipolar exciton gas leads to a non-monotonic dependence of the TLS relaxation rate on both the pump field frequency and field strength, providing a characteristic signature for the detection of BEC phase transition of the coupled dipolar exciton gas.

  19. Decay of superfluid currents in the interacting one-dimensional Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Caux, Jean-Sebastien; Brand, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    We examine the superfluid properties of a one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas in a ring trap based on the model of Lieb and Liniger. While the 1D Bose gas has nonclassical rotational inertia and exhibits quantization of velocities, the metastability of currents depends sensitively on the strength of interactions in the gas: the stronger the interactions, the faster the current decays. It is shown that the Landau critical velocity is zero in the thermodynamic limit due to the first supercurrent state, which has zero energy and finite probability of excitation. We calculate the energy dissipation rate of ring currents in the presence of weak defects, which should be observable on experimental time scales.

  20. [Determination of fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruize; Zhou, Ya; Mao, Ting; Jiang, Jie

    2018-01-08

    A method for the determination of 37 fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream was developed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). The samples were extracted with toluene and acetyl chloride-methanol (1:9,v/v) solution was added to the extract for fat esterification. Finally, the fatty acids were analyzed by GC×GC-MS. The GC conditions were as follows:a DB-5 column (30 m×0.25 mm×0.25 μm) was set as the 1st dimensional column and a BPX-50 column (2.5 m×0.1 mm×0.25 μm) was the 2nd dimensional column. The primary oven temperature was programmed from 50℃ (held for 2 min) to 180℃ at a rate of 20℃/min, followed by an increase to 250℃ at 2.5℃/min, then raised up to 300℃ (held for 5 min) at 3℃/min. The ion source temperature was 200℃ with auxiliary temperature of 300℃ in scan mode. All fatty acids were separated effectively and determined accurately while the modulation period was 5s and the scan range of MS was m/z 40-385. This procedure was applied to analyze the fatty acids in commercial natural cream and artificial cream from Chinese markets, among which we found the characteristic components in different kinds of samples. Compared with gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), GC×GC-MS method was more sensitive and more components of fatty acids were detected. Conclusively, this work suggests a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acids in natural cream and artificial cream, which is meaningful to ensure the quality identification and safety of natural cream.

  1. Observation of Spin Superfluidity in a Bose Gas Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Eleonora; Bienaimé, Tom; Mordini, Carmelo; Colzi, Giacomo; Qu, Chunlei; Stringari, Sandro; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2018-04-01

    The spin dynamics of a harmonically trapped Bose-Einstein condensed binary mixture of sodium atoms is experimentally investigated at finite temperature. In the collisional regime the motion of the thermal component is shown to be damped because of spin drag, while the two condensates exhibit a counterflow oscillation without friction, thereby providing direct evidence for spin superfluidity. Results are also reported in the collisionless regime where the spin components of both the condensate and thermal part oscillate without damping, their relative motion being driven by a mean-field effect. We also measure the static polarizability of the condensed and thermal parts and we find a large increase of the condensate polarizability with respect to the T =0 value, in agreement with the predictions of theory.

  2. Two-dimensional thermofield bosonization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, R.L.P.G.; Belvedere, L.V.; Rothe, K.D.

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this paper was to obtain an operator realization for the bosonization of fermions in 1 + 1 dimensions, at finite, non-zero temperature T. This is achieved in the framework of the real-time formalism of Thermofield Dynamics. Formally, the results parallel those of the T = 0 case. The well-known two-dimensional Fermion-Boson correspondences at zero temperature are shown to hold also at finite temperature. To emphasize the usefulness of the operator realization for handling a large class of two-dimensional quantum field-theoretic problems, we contrast this global approach with the cumbersome calculation of the fermion-current two-point function in the imaginary-time formalism and real-time formalisms. The calculations also illustrate the very different ways in which the transmutation from Fermi-Dirac to Bose-Einstein statistics is realized

  3. Two-dimensional Molecular Gas and Ongoing Star Formation around H II Region Sh2-104

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin-Long; Xu, Ye; Yu, Naiping; Zhang, Chuan-peng; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Wang, Jun-Jie; Ning, Chang-chun; Ju, Bing-Gang; Zhang, Guo-Yin

    2017-11-01

    We performed a multi-wavelength study toward H II region Sh2-104. New maps of 12CO J = 1 - 0 and 13CO J = 1 - 0 were obtained from the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Sh2-104 displays a double-ring structure. The outer ring with a radius of 4.4 pc is dominated by 12, 500 μm, 12CO J = 1 - 0, and 13CO J = 1 - 0 emission, while the inner ring with a radius of 2.9 pc is dominated by 22 μm and 21 cm emission. We did not detect CO emission inside the outer ring. The north-east portion of the outer ring is blueshifted, while the south-west portion is redshifted. The present observations have provided evidence that the collected outer ring around Sh2-104 is a two-dimensional structure. From the column density map constructed by the Hi-GAL survey data, we extract 21 clumps. About 90% of all the clumps will form low-mass stars. A power-law fit to the clumps yields M=281 {M}⊙ {(r/{pc})}1.31+/- 0.08. The selected YSOs are associated with the collected material on the edge of Sh2-104. The derived dynamical age of Sh2-104 is 1.6× {10}6 yr. Comparing the Sh2-104 dynamical age with the YSO timescale and the fragmentation time of the molecular ring, we further confirm that the collect-and-collapse process operates in this region, indicating positive feedback from a massive star for surrounding gas.

  4. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-07

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes.

  5. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan; Rose, Gavin; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-12-15

    Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the (1)D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021-0.048 μmol L(-1), and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R(2)) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%-157% for 5 μg L(-1) and 80%-138% for 10 μg L(-1) spiked levels. Both (1)tR and (2)tR shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pulsed flow modulation two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliak, Marina; Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-11-07

    Pulsed flow modulation (PFM) two-dimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) was combined with quadrupole-based mass spectrometry (MS) via a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) interface using a triple-quadrupole system as the base platform, which enabled tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). PFM is a simple GC x GC modulator that does not consume cryogenic gases while providing tunable second GC x GC column injection time for enabling the use of quadrupole-based mass spectrometry regardless its limited scanning speed. The 20-ml/min second column flow rate involved with PFM is handled, splitless, by the SMB interface without affecting the sensitivity. The combinations of PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB and PFM GC x GC-MS-MS with SMB were explored with the analysis of diazinon and permethrin in coriander. PFM GC x GC-MS with SMB is characterized by enhanced molecular ion and tailing-free fast ion source response time. It enables universal pesticide analysis with full scan and data analysis with reconstructed single ion monitoring on the enhanced molecular ion and another prominent high mass fragment ion. The elimination of the third fragment ion used in standard three ions method results in significantly reduced matrix interference. GC x GC-MS with SMB improves the GC separation, and thereby our ability for sample identification using libraries. GC-MS-MS with SMB provides better reduction (elimination) of matrix interference than GC x GC-MS. However, it is a target method, which is not always applicable. GC x GC-MS-MS does not seem to further reduce matrix interferences over GC-MS-MS and unlike GC x GC-MS, it is incompatible with library identification, but it is beneficial to have both GC x GC and MS-MS capabilities in the same system.

  7. Quantitative analysis of essential oils in perfume using multivariate curve resolution combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Luiz Antonio Fonseca; Hantao, Leandro Wang; Pedroso, Marcio Pozzobon; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Augusto, Fabio

    2011-08-05

    The use of multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to build multivariate quantitative models using data obtained from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) is presented and evaluated. The MCR algorithm presents some important features, such as second order advantage and the recovery of the instrumental response for each pure component after optimization by an alternating least squares (ALS) procedure. A model to quantify the essential oil of rosemary was built using a calibration set containing only known concentrations of the essential oil and cereal alcohol as solvent. A calibration curve correlating the concentration of the essential oil of rosemary and the instrumental response obtained from the MCR-ALS algorithm was obtained, and this calibration model was applied to predict the concentration of the oil in complex samples (mixtures of the essential oil, pineapple essence and commercial perfume). The values of the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and of the root mean square error of the percentage deviation (RMSPD) obtained were 0.4% (v/v) and 7.2%, respectively. Additionally, a second model was built and used to evaluate the accuracy of the method. A model to quantify the essential oil of lemon grass was built and its concentration was predicted in the validation set and real perfume samples. The RMSEP and RMSPD obtained were 0.5% (v/v) and 6.9%, respectively, and the concentration of the essential oil of lemon grass in perfume agreed to the value informed by the manufacturer. The result indicates that the MCR algorithm is adequate to resolve the target chromatogram from the complex sample and to build multivariate models of GC×GC-FID data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-distance behavior of temperature correlation functions in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M. [UMR 5672 du CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-15

    We describe a Bethe ansatz based method to derive, starting from a multiple integral representation, the long-distance asymptotic behavior at finite temperature of the density-density correlation function in the interacting onedimensional Bose gas. We compute the correlation lengths in terms of solutions of non-linear integral equations of the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz type. Finally, we establish a connection between the results obtained in our approach with the correlation lengths stemming from the quantum transfer matrix method. (orig.)

  9. Effects of Interaction Imbalance in a Strongly Repulsive One-Dimensional Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfknecht, R. E.; Foerster, A.; Zinner, N. T.

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the spatial distributions and the dynamics of a few-body two-component strongly interacting Bose gas confined to an effectively one-dimensional trapping potential. We describe the densities for each component in the trap for different interaction and population imbalances. We calculate the time evolution of the system and show that, for a certain ratio of interactions, the minority population travels through the system as an effective wave packet.

  10. Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction: evolution of soliton-like bubbles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, I.V.; Kholmurodov, Kh.T.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions of the non-linear Schroedinger equation (NSE) for the Bose gas with two- and three-particle interaction are considered. Problems of soliton-like bubble existence, stability and evolution of the moving soliton are studied. It is shown that at D=2.3 for low-amplitude waves propagating at the transonic velocity the NSE is reduced to a two- and three-dimensional Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (KP) equation and the NSE bubble soliton transfers to the KP one

  11. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallio, M.; Jussila, M.; Rissanen, T.; Anttila, P.; Hartonen, K.; Reissell, A.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Adahchour, M.; Hyotylainen, T.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF-MS) was applied in the identification of organic compounds in atmospheric aerosols from coniferous forest. The samples were collected at Hyytiälä, Finland, as part of the QUEST campaign, in

  12. Development and validation of a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the analysis of phytosterol oxidation products in human plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menéndez-Carreño, M.; Steenbergen, H.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2012-01-01

    Phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) have been suggested to exert adverse biological effects similar to, although less severe than, their cholesterol counterparts. For that reason, their analysis in human plasma is highly relevant. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled

  13. Improved determination of flavour compounds in butter by solid-phase (micro)extraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adahchour, M.; Wiewel, J.; Verdel, R.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    The practicability and potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled to both conventional flame ionisation (FID) and time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOF-MS) detection, were compared with those of conventional one-dimensional (1D) GC, with the determination of

  14. Identification and classification of components in flash pyrolysis oil and hydrodeoxygenated oils by two-dimensional gas chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, J. H.; Wildschut, J.; Evers, P.; Heeres, H. J.; Koning de, S.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenated pyrolysis oils (HDO) are considered promising renewable liquid energy carriers. To gain insights in the various reaction pathways taking place during the hydrodeoxygenation reaction of pyrolysis oil, two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric analyses

  15. Existence of a critical point in the phase diagram of the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    We explore the phase transitions of the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas confined in a cubic box, without assuming the thermodynamic limit nor continuous approximation. While the corresponding non-relativistic canonical partition function is essentially a one-variable function depending on a particular combination of temperature and volume, the relativistic canonical partition function is genuinely a two-variable function of them. Based on an exact expression for the canonical partition function, we performed numerical computations for up to 10 5 particles. We report that if the number of particles is equal to or greater than a critical value, which amounts to 7616, the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas features a spinodal curve with a critical point. This enables us to depict the phase diagram of the ideal Bose gas. The consequent phase transition is first order below the critical pressure or second order at the critical pressure. The exponents corresponding to the singularities are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. We also verify the recently observed 'Widom line' in the supercritical region.

  16. AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas structures studied by photo reflectance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Cervantes, A; Rivera Alvarez, Z; Hernandez, F; Huerta, J. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Mendez Garcia, V. H.; Lastras Martinez, A.; Zamora, L.; Saucedo, N. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Melendez Lira, M; Lopez, M [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-12-01

    Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) heterostructures were fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy in three different laboratories. The samples were characterized by room temperature Photo reflectance (PR) spectroscopy and measurements at 77 K. Internal electric fields were detected by the presence of Franz-Keldysh (FK) oscillations in the PR spectra. >From a FK analysis we obtained the GaAs band-gap energy and the built-in electric field strength in each sample. On the other hand, in the energy region corresponding to Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As a broad PR signal was registered typical of a highly doped material. Using the third derivative theory we obtained the Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As band-gap energy, and from this value the Al concentration in the samples. Results showed that the sample with highest electron mobility exhibited the lowest internal electric field strength. [Spanish] Se fabricaron heteroestructuras del tipo Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As/GaAs con un gas de electrones en dos dimensiones por medio de epitaxia de haces moleculares en tres laboratorios diferentes. Las muestras se caracterizaron por fotorreflectancia (FR) a temperatura ambiente y por mediciones del efecto mayor a 77 K. Campos electricos internos se detectaron por la presencia de oscilaciones Franz-Leldysh (FK) en los espectros de FR. Del analisis de las oscilaciones FK obtuvimos la energia de la brecha prohibida del GaAs y la intensidad del campo electrico interno en cada muestra. Por otra parte, en la region de energia correspondiente al Al{sub x} Ga{sub 1}-x As observamos una senal de FR ancha, tipica de un material altamente impurificado. Usando la teoria de la tercera derivada, obtuvimos el valor de la brecha de energia del Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1}-xAs, y de este valor la concentracion de Al en las muestras. Los resultados mostraron que la estructura con el valor de movilidad electronica mas alto tiene la intensidad de campo electrico interno mas baja.

  17. Trapped Bose gas. Mean-field approximation and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitaevskii, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The recent realization of Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases opens new possibilities for observation of macroscopic quantum phenomena. There are two important features of the system - weak interaction and significant spatial inhomogeneity. Because of this inhomogeneity a non-trivial 'zeroth-order' theory exists, compared to the 'first-order' Bogoliubov theory. This theory is based on the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the condensate ψ -function. The equation is classical in its essence but contains the ℎ constant explicitly. Phenomena such as collective modes, interference, tunneling, Josephson-like current and quantized vortex lines can be described using this equation. The study of deviations from the zeroth-order theory arising from zero-point and thermal fluctuations is also of great interest. Thermal fluctuations are described by elementary excitations which define the thermodynamic behaviour of the system and result in Landau-type damping of collective modes. Fluctuations of the phase of the condensate wave function restrict the monochromaticity of the Josephson current. Fluctuations of the numbers of quanta result in the quantum collapse-revival of the collective oscillations. This phenomenon is considered in some details. Collapse time for the JILA experimental conditions turns out to be of the order of seconds. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  18. Organophosphorus pesticide and ester analysis by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiangping; Li, Dengkun; Li, Jiequan [Nanjing Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, Zizhulin Street, Gulou 210003, Nanjing (China); Rose, Gavin [Department of Environment and Primary Industries, Macleod Centre, Ernest Jones Drive, Macleod, Vic 3085 (Australia); Marriott, Philip J., E-mail: philip.marriott@monash.edu [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Chemistry, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800 (Australia)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • GC × GC-FPD(P-mode) was applied to detection of 37 phosphorus (P)-containing compounds. • The method improves resolution of P-compounds that coelute in the first dimension. • P-compounds are analyzed with excellent sensitivity supported by cryogenic modulation. • The FPD(P-mode) selectivity allows analysis in high hydrocarbon (H/C) matrix. • Soil samples and spiked chemical weapon compounds in H/C matrix are readily screened. -- Abstract: Thirty-seven phosphorus (P)-containing compounds comprising organophosphorus pesticides and organophosphate esters were analyzed by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with flame photometric detection in P mode (GC × GC-FPD(P)), with a non-polar/moderately polar column set. A suitable modulation temperature and period was chosen based on experimental observation. A number of co-eluting peak pairs on the {sup 1}D column were well separated in 2D space. Excellent FPD(P) detection selectivity, responding to compounds containing the P atom, produces clear 2D GC × GC plots with little interference from complex hydrocarbon matrices. Limits of detection (LOD) were within the range of 0.0021–0.048 μmol L{sup −1}, and linear calibration correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) for all 37 P-compounds were at least 0.998. The P-compounds were spiked in 2% diesel and good reproducibility for their response areas and retention times was obtained. Spiked recoveries were 88%–157% for 5 μg L{sup −1} and 80%–138% for 10 μg L{sup −1} spiked levels. Both {sup 1}t{sub R} and {sup 2}t{sub R} shifts were noted when the content of diesel was in excess of 5% in the matrix. Soil samples were analyzed by using the developed method; some P-compounds were positively detected. In general, this study shows that GC × GC-FPD(P) is an accurate, sensitive and simple method for P-compound analysis in complicated environmental samples.

  19. An electrical characterization of a two-dimensional electron gas in GaN/AlGaN on silicon substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhamri, S.; Berney, R.; Mitchel, W.C.; Mitchell, W.D.; Roberts, J.C.; Rajagopal, P.; Gehrke, T.; Piner, E.L.; Linthicum, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    We present results of transport measurements performed on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown on silicon substrates. Variable temperature Hall effect measurements revealed that the temperature dependence of the carrier density and mobility were characteristic of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Carrier densities greater than 1x10 13 cm -2 and Hall mobilities in excess of 1500 cm2/V s were measured at room temperature. Variable field Hall measurements at low temperatures, and in magnetic fields up to 6 T, indicated that conduction is dominated by a single carrier type in these samples. Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) measurements were also performed, but no oscillations were observed in fields up to 8 T and at temperatures as low as 1.2 K. Illuminating some of the samples with a blue (λ=470 nm) light emitting diode (LED) induced a persistent increase in the carrier density. SdH measurements were repeated and again no oscillations were present following illumination. However, exposing the samples to radiation from an UV (λ=395 nm) LED induced well-defined SdH oscillations in fields as low as 4 T. The observation of SdH oscillations confirmed the presence of a 2DEG in these structures. It is hypothesized that small angle scattering suppressed the oscillations before exposure to UV light. This conclusion is supported by the observed increase in the quantum scattering time, τ q , with the carrier density and the calculated quantum to transport scattering times ratio, τ q /τ c . For instance, in one of the samples the τ q increased by 32% while the τ c changed by only 3% as the carrier density increased; an indication of an increase in the screening of small angle scattering. The absence of SdH oscillations in fields up to 8 T and at temperatures as low as 1.2 K is not unique to AlGaN/GaN on silicon. This behavior was observed in AlGaN/GaN on sapphire and on silicon carbide. SdH oscillations were observed in one AlGaN/GaN on silicon carbide sample following exposure to

  20. Isobars of an ideal Bose gas within the grand canonical ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Imtak; Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the isobar of an ideal Bose gas confined in a cubic box within the grand canonical ensemble for a large yet finite number of particles, N. After solving the equation of the spinodal curve, we derive precise formulas for the supercooling and the superheating temperatures that reveal an N -1/3 or N -1/4 power correction to the known Bose-Einstein condensation temperature in the thermodynamic limit. Numerical computations confirm the accuracy of our analytical approximation, and further show that the isobar zigzags on the temperature-volume plane if N≥14 393. In particular, for the Avogadro's number of particles, the volume expands discretely about 10 5 times. Our results quantitatively agree with a previous study on the canonical ensemble within 0.1% error.

  1. Ground-state properties of a dilute homogeneous Bose gas of hard disks in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, F.; Polls, A.; Fabrocini, A.

    2005-01-01

    The energy and structure of a dilute hard-disks Bose gas are studied in the framework of a variational many-body approach based on a Jastrow correlated ground-state wave function. The asymptotic behaviors of the radial distribution function and the one-body density matrix are analyzed after solving the Euler equation obtained by a free minimization of the hypernetted chain energy functional. Our results show important deviations from those of the available low density expansions, already at gas parameter values x∼0.001. The condensate fraction in 2D is also computed and found generally lower than the 3D one at the same x

  2. Voltage- and Light-Controlled Spin Properties of a Two-Dimensional Hole Gas in p-Type GaAs/AlAs Resonant Tunneling Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeti, H. V. A.; Galvão Gobato, Y.; Brasil, M. J. S. P.; Taylor, D.; Henini, M.

    2018-03-01

    We have investigated the spin properties of a two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) formed at the contact layer of a p-type GaAs/AlAs resonant tunneling diode (RTD). We have measured the polarized-resolved photoluminescence of the RTD as a function of bias voltage, laser intensity and external magnetic field up to 15T. By tuning the voltage and the laser intensity, we are able to change the spin-splitting from the 2DHG from almost 0 meV to 5 meV and its polarization degree from - 40% to + 50% at 15T. These results are attributed to changes of the local electric field applied to the two-dimensional gas which affects the valence band and the hole Rashba spin-orbit effect.

  3. The Interplay of Rashba Spin-Orbit Interaction and Landau Level Broadening on a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Under a Tilted Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammag, Rayda; Villagonzalo, Cristine

    2012-01-01

    A two-dimensional electron gas in a tilted magnetic field with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (RSOI) was studied. The RSOI is accredited to the asymmetry of the heterostructure where the two-dimensional electron gas is found. The effects of the disorder-attributed Landau level broadening and the RSOI on the spin splitting were identified by simulating the density of states which was assumed to take a Gaussian shape. Increased Landau level broadening obscures the spin splitting and increases the overlap between spin states resulting to stout Gaussian peaks. On the other hand, stronger RSOI amplifies the splitting and lessens the overlap between spin states of the Landau levels. The splitting, however, results to stouter peaks. The similarity in the RSOI and Landau level broadening effects can be explained by recognizing that the asymmetry of the heterostructure is in itself a form of structural disorder.

  4. Stepwise Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Spinor Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frapolli, C; Zibold, T; Invernizzi, A; Jiménez-García, K; Dalibard, J; Gerbier, F

    2017-08-04

    We observe multistep condensation of sodium atoms with spin F=1, where the different Zeeman components m_{F}=0,±1 condense sequentially as the temperature decreases. The precise sequence changes drastically depending on the magnetization m_{z} and on the quadratic Zeeman energy q (QZE) in an applied magnetic field. For large QZE, the overall structure of the phase diagram is the same as for an ideal spin-1 gas, although the precise locations of the phase boundaries are significantly shifted by interactions. For small QZE, antiferromagnetic interactions qualitatively change the phase diagram with respect to the ideal case, leading, for instance, to condensation in m_{F}=±1, a phenomenon that cannot occur for an ideal gas with q>0.

  5. Gas-Liquid Transition in a Two-Dimensional System of Millimeter-Sized Like-Charged Metal Balls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, B. V. R.; Rajamani, P. V.; Chakrabarti, J.; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, D. T.

    2000-01-01

    Metal balls with a diameter of 1.59 mm, gently rubbed against a dielectric surface using a shaker, are seen to spontaneously exhibit a two-dimensional liquidlike order with macroscopic dimensions, viz., interball distances of several millimeters. This liquidlike order transforms to a gaslike order through coexistence upon decreasing the area fraction of the balls. The measured pair interaction of like-charged balls surprisingly exhibits a long-range attractive term analogous to that in charged colloids. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  6. An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a weakly interacting Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Lixuan; Chen Jincan

    2004-01-01

    An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a trapped interacting Bose gas is presented by using a simple approach that is based on the principle of the constancy of chemical potentials in equilibrium and the local-density approximation. Several thermodynamic quantities, which include the ground-state fraction, chemical potential, total energy, entropy and heat capacity, are derived analytically. It is shown that the results obtained here are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and the theoretical predictions based on the numerical calculation. Meanwhile, by selecting a suitable variable, the divergent problem existing in some papers is solved

  7. Vortices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates in the large-gas-parameter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, J.K.; Mur-Petit, J.; Guilleumas, M.; Polls, A.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we compare the results of the Gross-Pitaevskii and modified Gross-Pitaevskii equations with ab initio variational Monte Carlo calculations for Bose-Einstein condensates of atoms in axially symmetric traps. We examine both the ground state and excited states having a vortex line along the z axis at high values of the gas parameter and demonstrate an excellent agreement between the modified Gross-Pitaevskii and ab initio Monte Carlo methods, both for the ground and vortex states

  8. The free Bose gas with flowing condensate in algebraic quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, S.

    1979-01-01

    After the definition of the Weyl-algebra as a universal C* algebra of the canonical commutation relations the author classifies the equilibrium states of the free dynamics of a Bose gas in a representation independent way starting from the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger boundary conditions. The role of the Laplace equation is studied in this connection. It is shown that states with a two-point function can be described by simple natural hydrodynamics using a precise definition of the term vortex. The transition to these states is considered regarding the thermodynamic limit. (HSI)

  9. Renormalisation group approach to the ideal Bose gas in d dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.K.

    1981-01-01

    Critical behaviour of a d-dimensional ideal Bose gas is investigated from the point of view of the renormalisation-group approach. Rescaling of quantum-field amplitudes is avoided by introducing a scaling variable inversely proportional to the thermal momentum of the particles. The scaling properties of various thermodynamic quantities are seen to emerge as a consequence of the irrelevant nature of this variable. Critical behaviour is discussed at fixed particle density as well as at fixed pressure. Connection between susceptibility and correlation function of the order-parameter for a quantum system is elucidated. (author)

  10. Momentum-Resolved Observation of Thermal and Quantum Depletion in a Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R.; Bouton, Q.; Cayla, H.; Qu, C.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the single-atom-resolved measurement of the distribution of momenta ℏk in a weakly interacting Bose gas after a 330 ms time of flight. We investigate it for various temperatures and clearly separate two contributions to the depletion of the condensate by their k dependence. The first one is the thermal depletion. The second contribution falls off as k-4, and its magnitude increases with the in-trap condensate density as predicted by the Bogoliubov theory at zero temperature. These observations suggest associating it with the quantum depletion. How this contribution can survive the expansion of the released interacting condensate is an intriguing open question.

  11. Comparison of an Electronic Nose Based on Ultrafast Gas Chromatography, Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography, and Sensory Evaluation for an Analysis of Type of Whisky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wiśniewska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Whisky is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages. There are many types of whisky, for example, Scotch, Irish, and American whisky (called bourbon. The whisky market is highly diversified, and, because of this, it is important to have a method which would enable rapid quality evaluation and authentication of the type of whisky. The aim of this work was to compare 3 methods: an electronic nose based on the technology of ultrafast gas chromatography (Fast-GC, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC, and sensory evaluation. The selected whisky brands included 6 blended whiskies from Scotland, 4 blended whiskies from Ireland, and 4 bourbons produced in the USA. For data analysis, peak heights of chromatograms were used. The panelists who took part in sensory evaluations included 4 women and 4 men. The obtained data were analyzed by 2 chemometric methods: partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA and discrimination function analysis (DFA. E-nose and GC × GC allowed for differentiation between whiskies by type. Sensory analysis did not allow for differentiation between whiskies by type, but it allowed giving consumer preferences.

  12. Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas with k-cubic spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawrie, Alestin; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2016-01-28

    We present a detailed theoretical study on zero-frequency Drude weight and optical conductivity of a two-dimensional heavy-hole gas (2DHG) with k-cubic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions. The presence of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings strongly modifies the Drude weight in comparison to the electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings. For large hole density and strong k-cubic spin-orbit couplings, the density dependence of Drude weight deviates from the linear behavior. We establish a relation between optical conductivity and the Berry connection. Unlike two-dimensional electron gas with k-linear spin-orbit couplings, we explicitly show that the optical conductivity does not vanish even for equal strength of the two spin-orbit couplings. We attribute this fact to the non-zero Berry phase for equal strength of k-cubic spin-orbit couplings. The least photon energy needed to set in the optical transition in hole gas is one order of magnitude smaller than that of electron gas. Types of two van Hove singularities appear in the optical spectrum are also discussed.

  13. The internal energy and thermodynamic behaviour of a boson gas below the Bose-Einstein temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeney, F.A.; O'Leary, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    We have examined the issue of the kinetic energy of particles in the ground state of an ideal boson gas. By assuming that the particles, on dropping into the ground state, retain the kinetic energy they possess at the Bose-Einstein temperature T B , we obtain new expressions for the pressure and internal energy of the gas below T B , that are free of the difficulties associated with the corresponding expressions in current theory. Furthermore, these new equations yield a value for the maximum density temperature in liquid 4 He that is very close to the measured value. - Highlights: → A new equation of state for an ideal boson gas that is anomaly-free. → A prediction of the existence of a density maximum in all ideal boson gases. → Calculation of the temperature at which a density maximum will occur in liquid 4 He.

  14. The performance evaluation of a micro/nano-scaled cooler working with an ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2012-01-01

    Based on the size effect of a confined ideal Bose gas, the design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. The cooler consists of two long tubes with the same length but different sizes of cross section, which are filled up with the ideal Bose gas, and is operated between two heat reservoirs. Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. -- Highlights: ► The design concept of a quantum cooler is originally put forward. ► Expressions for the refrigeration rate and coefficient of performance (COP) of the cooler are derived. ► The effects of the size effect on the refrigeration rate and COP are discussed. ► The general performance characteristics of the cooler are revealed. ► The results obtained are more general and significant than those in the current literature.

  15. Evolution of the Normal State of a Strongly Interacting Fermi Gas from a Pseudogap Phase to a Molecular Bose Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perali, A.; Palestini, F.; Pieri, P.; Strinati, G. C.; Stewart, J. T.; Gaebler, J. P.; Drake, T. E.; Jin, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    Wave-vector resolved radio frequency spectroscopy data for an ultracold trapped Fermi gas are reported for several couplings at T c , and extensively analyzed in terms of a pairing-fluctuation theory. We map the evolution of a strongly interacting Fermi gas from the pseudogap phase into a fully gapped molecular Bose gas as a function of the interaction strength, which is marked by a rapid disappearance of a remnant Fermi surface in the single-particle dispersion. We also show that our theory of a pseudogap phase is consistent with a recent experimental observation as well as with quantum Monte Carlo data of thermodynamic quantities of a unitary Fermi gas above T c .

  16. Offline coupling of high-speed counter-current chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry generates a two-dimensional plot of toxaphene components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Thomas; Vetter, Walter

    2009-11-20

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), a separation technique based solely on the partitioning of solutes between two immiscible liquid phases, was applied for the fractionation of technical toxaphene, an organochlorine pesticide which consists of a complex mixture of structurally closely related compounds. A solvent system (n-hexane/methanol/water 34:24:1, v/v/v) was developed which allowed to separate compounds of technical toxaphene (CTTs) with excellent retention of the stationary phase (S(f) = 88%). Subsequent analysis of all HSCCC fractions by gas chromatography coupled to electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) provided a wealth of information regarding separation characteristics of HSCCC and the composition of technical toxaphene. The visualization of the large amount of data obtained from the offline two-dimensional HSCCC-GC/ECNI-MS experiment was facilitated by the creation of a two-dimensional (2D) contour plot. The contour plot not only provided an excellent overview of the HSCCC separation progress, it also illustrated the differences in selectivity between HSCCC and GC. The results of this proof-of-concept study showed that the 2D chromatographic approach involving HSCCC facilitated the separation of CTTs that coelute in unidimensional GC. Furthermore, the creation of 2D contour plots may provide a useful means of enhancing data visualization for other offline two-dimensional separations.

  17. Violation of self-similarity in the expansion of a one-dimensional Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedri, P.; Santos, L.; Oehberg, P.; Stringari, S.

    2003-01-01

    The expansion of a one-dimensional Bose gas after releasing its initial harmonic confinement is investigated employing the Lieb-Liniger equation of state within the local-density approximation. We show that during the expansion the density profile of the gas does not follow a self-similar solution, as one would expect from a simple scaling ansatz. We carry out a variational calculation, which recovers the numerical results for the expansion, the equilibrium properties of the density profile, and the frequency of the lowest compressional mode. The variational approach allows for the analysis of the expansion in all interaction regimes between the mean-field and the Tonks-Girardeau limits, and in particular shows the range of parameters for which the expansion violates self-similarity

  18. Condensed Fraction of an Atomic Bose Gas Induced by Critical Correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Robert P.; Tammuz, Naaman; Campbell, Robert L. D.; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Holzmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We study the condensed fraction of a harmonically trapped atomic Bose gas at the critical point predicted by mean-field theory. The nonzero condensed fraction f 0 is induced by critical correlations which increase the transition temperature T c above T c MF . Unlike the T c shift in a trapped gas, f 0 is sensitive only to the critical behavior in the quasiuniform part of the cloud near the trap center. To leading order in the interaction parameter a/λ 0 , where a is the s-wave scattering length and λ 0 the thermal wavelength, we expect a universal scaling f 0 ∝(a/λ 0 ) 4 . We experimentally verify this scaling using a Feshbach resonance to tune a/λ 0 . Further, using the local density approximation, we compare our measurements with the universal result obtained from Monte Carlo simulations for a uniform system, and find excellent quantitative agreement.

  19. Critical behavior of the ideal-gas Bose-Einstein condensation in the Apollonian network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, I N; dos Santos, T B; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L; Serva, M

    2013-08-01

    We show that the ideal Boson gas displays a finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensation transition in the complex Apollonian network exhibiting scale-free, small-world, and hierarchical properties. The single-particle tight-binding Hamiltonian with properly rescaled hopping amplitudes has a fractal-like energy spectrum. The energy spectrum is analytically demonstrated to be generated by a nonlinear mapping transformation. A finite-size scaling analysis over several orders of magnitudes of network sizes is shown to provide precise estimates for the exponents characterizing the condensed fraction, correlation size, and specific heat. The critical exponents, as well as the power-law behavior of the density of states at the bottom of the band, are similar to those of the ideal Boson gas in lattices with spectral dimension d(s)=2ln(3)/ln(9/5)~/=3.74.

  20. Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P D C; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; de la Torre, A; Eknapakul, T; Buaphet, P; Mo, S-K; Meevasana, W; Bahramy, M S; Baumberger, F

    2014-02-27

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties.

  1. A bias-tunable electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Jianduo, E-mail: l_j316@163.co [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Li Yunbao; Yun Meijuan [Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Systems Science in Metallurgical Process, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430081 (China); Zheng Wei [Key Laboratory of Dynamic Geodesy, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077 (China)

    2011-03-28

    We investigate the effect of the bias in an electron-spin filter based on a two-dimensional electron gas modulated by ferromagnetic-Schottky metal stripes. The numerical results show that the electron transmission and the conductance as well as the spin polarization are strongly dependent on the bias applied to the device. - Research highlights: We propose a bias-tunable electron-spin filter. The transmission and the conductance depend on the bias and the electron energy. The spin polarization depends on the bias and the electron energy. The results are helpful for making new types of bias-tunable spin filters.

  2. Suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas in LaGaO3/SrTiO3 by cation intermixing

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, S.

    2013-12-03

    Cation intermixing at the n-type polar LaGaO 3 /SrTiO 3 (001) interface is investigated by first principles calculations. Ti"Ga, Sr"La, and SrTi"LaGa intermixing are studied in comparison to each other, with a focus on the interface stability. We demonstrate in which cases intermixing is energetically favorable as compared to a clean interface. A depopulation of the Ti 3d xy orbitals under cation intermixing is found, reflecting a complete suppression of the two-dimensional electron gas present at the clean interface.

  3. Effects of SiNx on two-dimensional electron gas and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Ren; Zhi-Biao, Hao; Lei, Wang; Lai, Wang; Hong-Tao, Li; Yi, Luo

    2010-01-01

    SiN x is commonly used as a passivation material for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In this paper, the effects of SiN x passivation film on both two-dimensional electron gas characteristics and current collapse of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs are investigated. The SiN x films are deposited by high- and low-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition, and they display different strains on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, which can explain the experiment results. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Tuning the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Interfaces with Ti-O Configurations: Evidence from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yu; Gan, Yulin; Niu, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Chemical redox reaction can lead to a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface between a TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 (STO) substrate and an amorphous LaAlO3 (a-LAO) capping layer. When replacing the STO substrate with rutile and anatase TiO2 substrates, considerable differences...... in interfacial conduction are observed. Based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transport measurements, we conclude that the interfacial conduction comes from redox reactions, and that the differences among the materials systems result mainly from variations in the activation energies...

  5. Two-dimensional errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements

  6. Effects of a delta-attractive impurity in the thermodynamics properties of an one-dimensional ideal Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioriatti Junior, L.C.

    1976-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the one-dimensional bose gas-attractive delta impurity system is studied. The system is shown to undergo the Bose-Einstein condensation and the cause of the phase transition is attributed to the bound state introduced by the impurity in the free particle energy spectrum. The condensed phase is composed by particles captured by the impurity, forming a drop of particles well localized in space. This gives to the Bose-Einstein condensation in this system the appearance of the ordinary vapor-liquid phase transition. The order of the phase transition is analized with the aid of the Clausius-Clayperon equation, leading to the conclusion that the transition is a first order one. This reinforces the interpretation of a vapor-liquid transition. The evaluation of the heat capacity at constant length shows the existence of a finite discontinuity at the transition temperature [pt

  7. Magnetic two-dimensional electron gas at the manganite-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Zhang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, H.

    2017-01-01

    Fabrication of highly mobile spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucially important for both fundamental and applied research. Usually, spin polarization appears below 10 K for the 2DEG of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, stemming from the magnetic ordering of Ti3+ ions with the mediat......Fabrication of highly mobile spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is crucially important for both fundamental and applied research. Usually, spin polarization appears below 10 K for the 2DEG of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, stemming from the magnetic ordering of Ti3+ ions...... with the mediation of itinerant electrons. Herein, we report a magnetic 2DEG at a La7/8Sr1/8MnO3-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, which simultaneously shows electrically tunable anomalous Hall effect and high conductivity. The spin-polarized temperature for the 2DEG is promoted to 30 K while the mobility remains...... high. The magnetism likely results from a gradient manganese interdiffusion into SrTiO3. The present work demonstrates the great potential of manganite-buffered LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces for spintronic applications....

  8. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N.C.; Struik, Paul C.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2016-01-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model

  9. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of pyrolysis oil by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfetsas, Themistoklis; Michailof, Chrysa; Lappas, Angelos; Li, Qiangyi; Kneale, Brian

    2011-05-27

    Pyrolysis oils have attracted a lot of interest, as they are liquid energy carriers and general sources of chemicals. In this work, gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) techniques were used to provide both qualitative and quantitative results of the analysis of three different pyrolysis oils. The chromatographic methods and parameters were optimized and solvent choice and separation restrictions are discussed. Pyrolysis oil samples were diluted in suitable organic solvent and were analyzed by GC×GC-TOFMS. An average of 300 compounds were detected and identified in all three samples using the ChromaToF (Leco) software. The deconvoluted spectra were compared with the NIST software library for correct matching. Group type classification was performed by use of the ChromaToF software. The quantification of 11 selected compounds was performed by means of a multiple-point external calibration curve. Afterwards, the pyrolysis oils were extracted with water, and the aqueous phase was analyzed both by GC-FID and, after proper change of solvent, by GC×GC-TOFMS. As previously, the selected compounds were quantified by both techniques, by means of multiple point external calibration curves. The parameters of the calibration curves were calculated by weighted linear regression analysis. The limit of detection, limit of quantitation and linearity range for each standard compound with each method are presented. The potency of GC×GC-TOFMS for an efficient mapping of the pyrolysis oil is undisputable, and the possibility of using it for quantification as well has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the GC-FID analysis provides reliable results that allow for a rapid screening of the pyrolysis oil. To the best of our knowledge, very few papers have been reported with quantification attempts on pyrolysis oil samples using GC×GC-TOFMS most of which make use of the

  10. Characterisation of middle-distillates by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC): A powerful alternative for performing various standard analysis of middle-distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendeuvre, Colombe; Ruiz-Guerrero, Rosario; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Duval, Laurent; Thiébaut, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2005-09-09

    The detailed characterisation of middle distillates is essential for a better understanding of reactions involved in refining process. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) is a powerful tool for improving characterisation of petroleum samples. The aim of this paper is to compare GC x GC and various ASTM methods -- gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) -- for group type separation and detailed hydrocarbon analysis. Best features of GC x GC are demonstrated and compared to these techniques in terms of cost, time consumption and accuracy. In particular, a new approach of simulated distillation (SimDis-GC x GC) is proposed: compared to the standard method ASTM D2887 it gives unequal information for better understanding of conversion process.

  11. The Ground State Energy of a Dilute Bose Gas in Dimension $n\\geq 3$

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Anders Gottfred

    We consider a Bose gas in spatial dimension n≥3 with a repulsive, radially symmetric two-body potential V. In the limit of low density ρ, the ground state energy per particle in the thermodynamic limit is shown to be (n−2)|Sn−1|an−2ρ, where |Sn−1| denotes the surface measure of the unit sphere...... in Rn, and a is the scattering length of V. Furthermore, for smooth and compactly supported two-body potentials, we derive an upper bound to the ground state energy with a correction term (1+γ)8π4a6ρ2|ln(a4ρ)| in 4 dimensions, where 0... dimensions. Finally, we use a grand canonical construction to give a simplified proof of the second order upper bound to the Lee-Huang-Yang formula, a result first obtained by Yau and Yin. We also test this method in 4 dimensions, but with a negative outcome....

  12. Non-thermal fixed points and solitons in a one-dimensional Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Maximilian; Erne, Sebastian; Nowak, Boris; Sexty, Dénes; Gasenzer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Single-particle momentum spectra for a dynamically evolving one-dimensional Bose gas are analysed in the semi-classical wave limit. Representing one of the simplest correlation functions, these provide information on a possible universal scaling behaviour. Motivated by the previously discovered connection between (quasi-) topological field configurations, strong wave turbulence and non-thermal fixed points of quantum field dynamics, soliton formation is studied with respect to the appearance of transient power-law spectra. A random-soliton model is developed for describing the spectra analytically, and the analogies and differences between the emerging power laws and those found in a field theory approach to strong wave turbulence are discussed. The results open a new perspective on solitary wave dynamics from the point of view of critical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium and the possibility of studying this dynamics by experiment without the need for detecting solitons in situ. (paper)

  13. Slow quench dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jean-Sébastien; Roux, Guillaume; Kollath, Corinna

    2011-05-20

    We analyze the effect of a linear time variation of the interaction strength on a trapped one-dimensional Bose gas confined to an optical lattice. The evolution of different observables such as the experimentally accessible on site particle distribution are studied as a function of the ramp time by using time-dependent numerical techniques. We find that the dynamics of a trapped system typically displays two regimes: For long ramp times, the dynamics is governed by density redistribution, while at short ramp times, local dynamics dominates as the evolution is identical to that of an homogeneous system. In the homogeneous limit, we also discuss the nontrivial scaling of the energy absorbed with the ramp time.

  14. Aspects of hyperspherical adiabaticity in an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushibe, Daisuke; Mutou, Masaki; Morishita, Toru; Watanabe, Shinichi; Matsuzawa, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Excitation of an atomic-gas Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the zeroth-order ground-state channel is studied with the hyperspherical adiabatic method of Bohn et al. [Bohn et al., Phys. Rev. A 58, 584 (1998)] suitably generalized to accommodate the anisotropic trapping potential. The method exploits the system's size as an adiabatic parameter so that the explicit size dependence is immediately conducive to the virial theorem. The oscillation frequencies associated with the monopole (breathing) and quadrupole modes thus emerge naturally and converge to the well-known Thomas-Fermi limits. Analysis of the single-particle density and the projected excitation wave function shows that the excitation in the single hyperspherical ground-state channel merely represents a progressive increase in occupancy of the first excited single-particle state. The work paves the way for applying the adiabatic picture to other BEC phenomena

  15. Multivariate analytical figures of merit as a metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Parastar, Hadi

    2016-09-30

    The present contribution is devoted to develop multivariate analytical figures of merit (AFOMs) as a new metric for evaluation of quantitative measurements using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS). In this regard, new definition of sensitivity (SEN) is extended to GC×GC-MS data and then, other multivariate AFOMs including analytical SEN (γ), selectivity (SEL) and limit of detection (LOD) are calculated. Also, two frequently used second- and third-order calibration algorithms of multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) as representative of multi-set methods and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) as representative of multi-way methods are discussed to exploit pure component profiles and to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Different GC×GC-MS data sets with different number of components along with various levels of artifacts are simulated and analyzed. Noise, elution time shifts in both chromatographic dimensions, peak overlap and interferences are considered as the main artifacts in this work. Additionally, a new strategy is developed to estimate the noise level using variance-covariance matrix of residuals which is very important to calculate multivariate AFOMs. Finally, determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aromatic fraction of heavy fuel oil (HFO) analyzed by GC×GC-MS is considered as real case to confirm applicability of the proposed metric in real samples. It should be pointed out that the proposed strategy in this work can be used for other types of comprehensive two-dimensional chromatographic (CTDC) techniques like comprehensive two dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Two-dimensional perturbations of the accelerated motion of inhomogeneous gas layers and shells in the interstellar medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnobaev, K. V.; Kotova, G. Yu.; Tagirova, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    The evolution of perturbations in a two-layer spherical shell and a plane layer with a two-step density distribution has been simulated numerically. The clumps formed by instability are shown to have qualitatively different structures, depending on the ratio of the densities in the inner and outer layers of the shell. Inhomogeneities bordered by a dense gas are formed in shells with an outwardly decreasing density. If, however, a denser gas is in the outer layer, then cores surrounded by a more rarefied material appear. These results are used to analyze the expansion of the HII region RCW 82. Since the inhomogeneities observed in the 13CO emission in the outer parts of this region have sharply delineated boundaries, our calculations argue for the model of the expansion of a shell with an outwardly decreasing density. The interaction of an accelerating shell with clumps in front of it has also been investigated. The deformations of a clump during its penetration into the shell and the formation of a groove in the shell gradually fillingwith a cold gas have been revealed. Thereafter, the shell material collapses to form a cumulative jet. As applied to the HII region RCW 82, we conclude that the existence of jets is possible if there are inhomogeneities with a scale of ˜1018 cm in the interstellar medium. The lack of data on such jet flows at the boundary of this region is an additional argument for the model where the inhomogeneous structure of the boundaries is attributable to the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  17. A two-dimensional microscale model of gas exchange during photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retta, Moges; Ho, Quang Tri; Yin, Xinyou; Verboven, Pieter; Berghuijs, Herman N C; Struik, Paul C; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2016-05-01

    CO2 exchange in leaves of maize (Zea mays L.) was examined using a microscale model of combined gas diffusion and C4 photosynthesis kinetics at the leaf tissue level. Based on a generalized scheme of photosynthesis in NADP-malic enzyme type C4 plants, the model accounted for CO2 diffusion in a leaf tissue, CO2 hydration and assimilation in mesophyll cells, CO2 release from decarboxylation of C4 acids, CO2 fixation in bundle sheath cells and CO2 retro-diffusion from bundle sheath cells. The transport equations were solved over a realistic 2-D geometry of the Kranz anatomy obtained from light microscopy images. The predicted responses of photosynthesis rate to changes in ambient CO2 and irradiance compared well with those obtained from gas exchange measurements. A sensitivity analysis showed that the CO2 permeability of the mesophyll-bundle sheath and airspace-mesophyll interfaces strongly affected the rate of photosynthesis and bundle sheath conductance. Carbonic anhydrase influenced the rate of photosynthesis, especially at low intercellular CO2 levels. In addition, the suberin layer at the exposed surface of the bundle sheath cells was found beneficial in reducing the retro-diffusion. The model may serve as a tool to investigate CO2 diffusion further in relation to the Kranz anatomy in C4 plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Off-diagonal long-range order, cycle probabilities, and condensate fraction in the ideal Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Maguelonne; Krauth, Werner

    2007-11-01

    We discuss the relationship between the cycle probabilities in the path-integral representation of the ideal Bose gas, off-diagonal long-range order, and Bose-Einstein condensation. Starting from the Landsberg recursion relation for the canonic partition function, we use elementary considerations to show that in a box of size L3 the sum of the cycle probabilities of length k>L2 equals the off-diagonal long-range order parameter in the thermodynamic limit. For arbitrary systems of ideal bosons, the integer derivative of the cycle probabilities is related to the probability of condensing k bosons. We use this relation to derive the precise form of the pik in the thermodynamic limit. We also determine the function pik for arbitrary systems. Furthermore, we use the cycle probabilities to compute the probability distribution of the maximum-length cycles both at T=0, where the ideal Bose gas reduces to the study of random permutations, and at finite temperature. We close with comments on the cycle probabilities in interacting Bose gases.

  19. Detailed analysis and group-type separation of natural fats and oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casilli, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Paola; Dugo, Giovanni

    2003-11-26

    Comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) is an adequate methodology for the separation and identification of very complex samples. It is based on the coupling of two capillary columns that each give a different but substantial contribution to the unprecedented resolving power of this technique. The 2D space chromatograms that derive from GC x GC analysis have great potential for identification. This is due to the fact that the contour plot positions, pinpointed by two retention time coordinates, give characteristic patterns for specific families of compounds that can be mathematically translated. This investigation concerned the application of this principle to fatty acid methyl esters that were grouped on an equal double bond number basis. The ester samples were derived from various lipids and all underwent bidimensional analysis on two sets of columns. Peak attribution was supported by mass spectra, linear retention indices and information reported in the literature.

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry in perfume analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondello, Luigi; Casillia, Alessandro; Tranchida, Peter Quinto; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

    2005-03-04

    Single column gas chromatography (GC) in combination with a flame ionization detector (FID) and/or a mass spectrometer is routinely employed in the determination of perfume profiles. The latter are to be considered medium to highly complex matrices and, as such, can only be partially separated even on long capillaries. Inevitably, several monodimensional peaks are the result of two or more overlapping components, often hindering reliable identification and quantitation. The present investigation is based on the use of a comprehensive GC (GC x GC) method, in vacuum outlet conditions, for the near to complete resolution of a complex perfume sample. A rapid scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (qMS) system, employed for the assignment of GC x GC peaks, supplied high quality mass spectra. The validity of the three-dimensional (3D) GC x GC-qMS application was measured and compared to that of GC-qMS analysis on the same matrix. Peak identification, in all applications, was achieved through MS spectra library matching and the interactive use of linear retention indices (LRI).

  1. Gas sensors boosted by two-dimensional h-BN enabled transfer on thin substrate foils: towards wearable and portable applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Taha; Bishop, Chris; Jordan, Matthew B; Sundaram, Suresh; Li, Xin; Alam, Saiful; ElGmili, Youssef; Patriarche, Gilles; Voss, Paul L; Salvestrini, Jean Paul; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2017-11-09

    The transfer of GaN based gas sensors to foreign substrates provides a pathway to enhance sensor performance, lower the cost and extend the applications to wearable, mobile or disposable systems. The main keys to unlocking this pathway is to grow and fabricate the sensors on large h-BN surface and to transfer them to the flexible substrate without any degradation of the performances. In this work, we develop a new generation of AlGaN/GaN gas sensors with boosted performances on a low cost flexible substrate. We fabricate 2-inch wafer scale AlGaN/GaN gas sensors on sacrificial two-dimensional (2D) nano-layered h-BN without any delamination or cracks and subsequently transfer sensors to an acrylic surface on metallic foil. This technique results in a modification of relevant device properties, leading to a doubling of the sensitivity to NO 2 gas and a response time that is more than 6 times faster than before transfer. This new approach for GaN-based sensor design opens new avenues for sensor improvement via transfer to more suitable substrates, and is promising for next-generation wearable and portable opto-electronic devices.

  2. All-optical evaluation of spin-orbit interaction based on diffusive spin motion in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohda, M. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Department of Materials Science, Tohoku University, 980-8579 Sendai (Japan); Altmann, P.; Salis, G. [IBM Research–Zürich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D. [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Wegscheider, W. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-26

    A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.

  3. The effect of charged quantum dots on the mobility of a two-dimensional electron gas: How important is the Coulomb scattering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzmann, A.; Beckel, A.; Lorke, A.; Geller, M.; Ludwig, A.; Wieck, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of a layer of charged self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) on the mobility of a nearby two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Time-resolved transconductance spectroscopy was used to separate the two contributions of the change in mobility, which are: (i) The electrons in the QDs act as Coulomb scatterers for the electrons in the 2DEG. (ii) The screening ability and, hence, the mobility of the 2DEG decreases when the charge carrier density is reduced by the charged QDs, i.e., the mobility itself depends on the charge carrier concentration. Surprisingly, we find a negligible influence of the Coulomb scattering on the mobility for a 2DEG, separated by a 30 nm tunneling barrier to the layer of QDs. This means that the mobility change is completely caused by depletion, i.e., reduction of the charge carrier density in the 2DEG, which indirectly influences the mobility

  4. Theoretical evaluation of two dimensional electron gas characteristics of quaternary AlxInyGa1-x-yN/GaN hetero-junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbardar Mojaver, Hassan; Manouchehri, Farzin; Valizadeh, Pouya

    2016-04-01

    The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) characteristics of gated metal-face wurtzite AlInGaN/GaN hetero-junctions including positions of subband energy levels, fermi energy level, and the 2DEG concentration as functions of physical and compositional properties of the hetero-junction (i.e., barrier thickness and metal mole-fractions) are theoretically evaluated using the variational method. The calculated values of the 2DEG concentration are in good agreement with the sparsely available experimental data reported in the literature. According to our simulation results, a considerable shift in the positive direction of threshold voltage of AlInGaN/GaN hetero-junction field-effect transistors can be achieved by engineering both the spontaneous and the piezoelectric polarizations using a quaternary AlInGaN barrier-layer of appropriate mole-fractions.

  5. Determination of steroids, caffeine and methylparaben in water using solid phase microextraction-comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Barnes, Brian B; Santos-Neto, Álvaro J; Lancas, Fernando M; Snow, Nicholas H

    2013-07-19

    Analysis of several emerging contaminants (steroids, caffeine and methylparaben) in water using automated solid-phase microextraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS) is presented. Experimental design was used to determine the best SPME extraction conditions and the steroids were not derivatized prior to injection. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS provided linear ranges from 0.6 to 1200μgL(-1) and limits of detection and quantitation from 0.02 to 100μgL(-1). A series of river water samples obtained locally were subjected to analysis. SPME-GCxGC-ToF/MS is readily automated, straightforward and competitive with other methods for low level analysis of emerging contaminants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Resolution of co-eluting compounds of Cannabis Sativa in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry detection with Multivariate Curve Resolution-Alternating Least Squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Amigo, José Manuel; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2014-04-01

    Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC/qMS) analysis of Cannabis sativa extracts shows a high complexity due to the large variety of terpenes and cannabinoids and to the fact that the complete resolution of the peaks is not straightforwardly achieved. In order to support the resolution of the co-eluted peaks in the sesquiterpene and the cannabinoid chromatographic region the combination of Multivariate Curve Resolution and Alternating Least Squares algorithms was satisfactorily applied. As a result, four co-eluting areas were totally resolved in the sesquiterpene region and one in the cannabinoid region in different samples of Cannabis sativa. The comparison of the mass spectral profiles obtained for each resolved peak with theoretical mass spectra allowed the identification of some of the co-eluted peaks. Finally, the classification of the studied samples was achieved based on the relative concentrations of the resolved peaks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Prediction of two-dimensional electron gas mediated magnetoelectric coupling at ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lan-ying; Lian, Chao; Meng, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    First-principles calculations predict the emergence of magnetoelectric coupling mediated by two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Free electrons endowed by naturally existing oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 are driven to the heterostructure interface under the polarizing field of ferroelectric PbTiO3 to form a 2DEG. The electrons are captured by interfacial Ti atoms, which surprisingly exhibits ferromagnetism even at room temperature with a small critical density of ˜15.5 μ C /cm2 . The ferroelectricity-controlled ferromagnetism mediated by interfacial 2DEG shows strong magnetoelectric coupling strength, enabling convenient control of magnetism by electric field and vice versa. The PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure is cheap, easily grown, and controllable, promising future applications in low-cost spintronics and information storage at ambient condition.

  8. Universality and Quantum Criticality of the One-Dimensional Spinor Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    PâÅ£u, Ovidiu I.; Klümper, Andreas; Foerster, Angela

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the universal thermodynamics of the two-component one-dimensional Bose gas with contact interactions in the vicinity of the quantum critical point separating the vacuum and the ferromagnetic liquid regime. We find that the quantum critical region belongs to the universality class of the spin-degenerate impenetrable particle gas which, surprisingly, is very different from the single-component case and identify its boundaries with the peaks of the specific heat. In addition, we show that the compressibility Wilson ratio, which quantifies the relative strength of thermal and quantum fluctuations, serves as a good discriminator of the quantum regimes near the quantum critical point. Remarkably, in the Tonks-Girardeau regime, the universal contact develops a pronounced minimum, reflected in a counterintuitive narrowing of the momentum distribution as we increase the temperature. This momentum reconstruction, also present at low and intermediate momenta, signals the transition from the ferromagnetic to the spin-incoherent Luttinger liquid phase and can be detected in current experiments with ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices.

  9. Analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Ambient Aerosols by Using One-Dimensional and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combined with Mass Spectrometric Method: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Gyong Ahn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced separation technology paired with mass spectrometry is an ideal method for the analysis of atmospheric samples having complex chemical compositions. Due to the huge variety of both natural and anthropogenic sources of organic compounds, simultaneous quantification and identification of organic compounds in aerosol samples represents a demanding analytical challenge. In this regard, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS has become an effective analytical method. However, verification and validation approaches to quantify these analytes have not been critically evaluated. We compared the performance of gas chromatography with quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS and GC×GC-TOFMS for quantitative analysis of eighteen target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The quantitative obtained results such as limits of detection (LODs, limits of quantification (LOQs, and recoveries of target PAHs were approximately equivalent based on both analytical methods. Furthermore, a larger number of analytes were consistently identified from the aerosol samples by GC×GC-TOFMS compared to GC-qMS. Our findings suggest that GC×GC-TOFMS would be widely applicable to the atmospheric and related sciences with simultaneous target and nontarget analysis in a single run.

  10. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for the analysis of oxygenates in middle distillates I. Determination of the nature of biodiesels blend in diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Frédérick; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Coupard, Vincent; Charon, Nadège; Thiébaut, Didier; Espinat, Didier; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2008-04-04

    In the current energetic context (increasing consumption of vehicle fuels, greenhouse gas emission etc.) government policies lead to mandatory introduction in fossil fuels of fuels resulting from renewable sources of energy such as biomass. Blending of fatty acid alkyl esters from vegetable oils (also known as biodiesel) with conventional diesel fuel is one of the solutions technologically available; B5 blends (up to 5%w/w esters in fossil fuel) are marketed over Europe. Therefore, for quality control as well as for forensic reasons, it is of major importance to monitor the biodiesel origin (i.e. the fatty acid ester distribution) and its content when it is blend with petroleum diesel. This paper reports a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) method that was developed for the individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in middle distillates matrices. Several first and the second dimension columns have been investigated and their performances to achieve (i) a group type separation of hydrocarbons and (ii) individual identification and quantitation of fatty acid ester blend with diesel are reported and discussed. Finally, comparison of quantitative GC x GC results with reference methods demonstrates the benefits of GC x GC approach which enables fast and reliable individual quantitation of fatty acid esters in one single run. Results show that under developed chromatographic conditions, quantitative group type analysis of hydrocarbons is also possible, meaning that simultaneous quantification of hydrocarbons and fatty acid esters can be achieved in one single run.

  11. Evolution of potent odorants within the volatile metabolome of high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.): evaluation by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marta Cialiè; Liberto, Erica; Spigolon, Nicola; Fontana, Mauro; Somenzi, Marco; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-01-09

    Within the pattern of volatiles released by food products (volatilome), potent odorants are bio-active compounds that trigger aroma perception by activating a complex array of odor receptors (ORs) in the regio olfactoria. Their informative role is fundamental to select optimal post-harvest and storage conditions and preserve food sensory quality. This study addresses the volatile metabolome from high-quality hazelnuts (Corylus avellana L.) from the Ordu region (Turkey) and Tonda Romana from Italy, and investigates its evolution throughout the production chain (post-harvest, industrial storage, roasting) to find functional correlations between technological strategies and product quality. The volatile metabolome is analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextration combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dedicated pattern recognition, based on 2D data (targeted fingerprinting), is used to mine analytical outputs, while principal component analysis (PCA), Fisher ratio, hierarchical clustering, and analysis of variance are used to find decision makers among the most informative chemicals. Low-temperature drying (18-20 °C) has a decisive effect on quality; it correlates negatively with bacteria and mold metabolic activity, nut viability, and lipid oxidation products (2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, 2-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, hexanal, octanal and (E)-2-heptanal). Protective atmosphere storage (99% N 2 -1% O 2 ) effectively limits lipid oxidation for 9-12 months after nut harvest. The combination of optimal drying and storage preserves the aroma potential; after roasting at different shelf-lives, key odorants responsible for malty and buttery (2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2,3-butanedione and 2,3-pentanedione), earthy (methylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-5-methyl pyrazine and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine) and caramel-like and musty notes (2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone - furaneol and acetyl pyrrole) show no

  12. Quantitative study of quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas experiments via the stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockburn, S. P.; Gallucci, D.; Proukakis, N. P.

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation is shown to be an excellent model for quasi-one-dimensional Bose gas experiments, accurately reproducing the in situ density profiles recently obtained in the experiments of Trebbia et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 250403 (2006)] and van Amerongen et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090402 (2008)] and the density fluctuation data reported by Armijo et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 230402 (2010)]. To facilitate such agreement, we propose and implement a quasi-one-dimensional extension to the one-dimensional stochastic Gross-Pitaevskii equation for the low-energy, axial modes, while atoms in excited transverse modes are treated as independent ideal Bose gases.

  13. Quantum particle-number fluctuations in a two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, Pawel; Oles, Bartlomiej; Sacha, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    A two-component Bose gas in a double-well potential with repulsive interactions may undergo a phase separation transition if the interspecies interactions outweigh the intraspecies ones. We analyze the transition in the strong interaction limit within the two-mode approximation. Numbers of particles in each potential well are equal and constant. However, at the transition point, the ground state of the system reveals huge fluctuations of numbers of particles belonging to the different gas components; that is, the probability for observation of any mixture of particles in each potential well becomes uniform.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation of a charged relativistic ideal gas in a general homogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown how the effective action formalism and ζ-function regularization can be used to study Bose-Einstein condensation for a relativistic charged scalar field in a general homogeneous magnetic field in a spacetime of arbitrary dimension. In the special case where the magnetic field has only one component, Bose-Einstein condensation occurs at high temperature only for D≥5 where D is the spatial dimension. When Bose-Einstein condensation does occur the ground-state expectation value of the scalar field is not constant and we determine its value. If the magnetic field has p independent nonzero components we show that the condition for Bose-Einstein condensation is D≥3+2p. In particular, Bose-Einstein condensation can never occur if the magnetic field has all of its independent components nonzero. The problem of Bose-Einstein condensation in a cylindrical box in D spatial dimensions with a uniform magnetic field directed along the axis of the cylinder is also discussed

  15. Evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchina, Flavio A; Maimone, Mariarosa; Sciarrone, Danilo; Purcaro, Giorgia; Tranchida, Peter Q; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-07-10

    The present research is focused on the use and evaluation of a novel helium ionization detector, defined as barrier discharge ionization detector (BID), within the context of (low-)flow modulation comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (FM GC×GC). The performance of the BID device was compared to that of a flame ionization detector (FID), under similar FM GC×GC conditions. Following development and optimization of the FM GC×GC method, the BID was subjected to fine tuning in relation to acquisition frequency and discharge flow. Moreover, the BID performance was measured and compared to that of the FID, in terms of extra-column band broadening, sensitivity and dynamic range. The comparative study was carried out by using standard compounds belonging to different chemical classes, along with a sample of diesel fuel. Advantages and disadvantages of the BID system, also within the context of FM GC×GC, are critically discussed. In general, the BID system was characterized by a more limited dynamic range and increased sensitivity, compared to the FID. Additionally, BID and FID contribution to band broadening was found to be similar under the operational conditions applied. Particular attention was devoted to the behaviour of the FM GC×GC-BID system toward saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, for a possible future use in the field of mineral-oil food contamination research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of plasmonic resonances in the two-dimensional electron gas of an InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Justin W.; Peale, Robert E.; Saxena, Himanshu; Buchwald, Walter R.

    2011-05-01

    The observation of THz regime transmission resonances in an InGaAs/InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) can be attributed to excitation of plasmons in its two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Properties of grating-based, gate-voltage tunable resonances are shown to be adequately modeled using commercial finite element method (FEM) software when the HEMT layer structure, gate geometry and sheet charge concentration are taken into account. The FEM results are shown to produce results consistent with standard analytical theories in the 10-100 cm-1 wavenumber range. An original analytic formula presented here describes how the plasmonic resonance may change in the presence of a virtual gate, or region of relatively high free charge carriers that lies in the HEMT between the physical grating gate and the 2DEG. The virtual gate and corresponding analytic formulation are able to account for the red-shifting experimentally observed in plasmonic resonances. The calculation methods demonstrated here have the potential to greatly aid in the design of future detection devices that require specifically tuned plasmonic modes in the 2DEG of a HEMT, as well as giving new insights to aid in the development of more complete analytic theories.

  17. Effect of asymmetric interface on charge and spin transport across two dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling/ferromagnet junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisongmuang, B.; Pasanai, K.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically studied the effect of interfacial scattering on the transport of charge and spin across the junction of a two-dimensional electron gas with Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling and ferromagnetic material junction, via the conductance (G) and the spin-polarization of the conductance spectra (P) using the scattering method. At the interface, not only were the effects of spin-conserving (Z0) and spin-flip scattering (Zf) considered, but also the interfacial Rashba spin-orbit coupling scattering (ZRSOC) , which was caused by the asymmetry of the interface, was taken into account, and all of them were modeled by the delta potential. It was found that G was suppressed with increasing Z0 , as expected. Interestingly, a particular value of Zf can cause G and P to reach a maximum value. In particular, ZRSOC plays a crucial role to reduce G and P in the metallic limit, but its influence on the tunneling limit was quite weak. On the other hand, the effect of ZRSOC was diminished in the tunneling limit of the magnetic junction.

  18. Analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatiles by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using a single-stage thermal modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntlhokwe, Gaalebalwe; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Górecki, Tadeusz; Edwards, Matthew; Vestner, Jochen; Muller, Magdalena; Erasmus, Lené; Joubert, Elizabeth; Christel Cronje, J; de Villiers, André

    2017-07-01

    The applicability of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) using a single-stage thermal modulator was explored for the analysis of honeybush tea (Cyclopia spp.) volatile compounds. Headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was used in combination with GC×GC separation on a non-polar × polar column set with flame ionisation (FID) detection for the analysis of fermented Cyclopia maculata, Cyclopia subternata and Cyclopia genistoides tea infusions of a single harvest season. Method optimisation entailed evaluation of the effects of several experimental parameters on the performance of the modulator, the choice of columns in both dimensions, as well as the HS-SPME extraction fibre. Eighty-four volatile compounds were identified by co-injection of reference standards. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed clear differentiation between the species based on their volatile profiles. Due to the highly reproducible separations obtained using the single-stage thermal modulator, multivariate data analysis was simplified. The results demonstrate both the complexity of honeybush volatile profiles and the potential of GC×GC separation in combination with suitable data analysis techniques for the investigation of the relationship between sensory properties and volatile composition of these products. The developed method therefore offers a fast and inexpensive methodology for the profiling of honeybush tea volatiles. Graphical abstract Surface plot obtained for the GC×GC-FID analysis of honeybush tea volatiles.

  19. Metabolomics strategy for the mapping of volatile exometabolome from Saccharomyces spp. widely used in the food industry based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cátia; Brandão, Tiago; Almeida, Adelaide; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2017-05-01

    Saccharomyces spp. are widely used in the food and beverages industries. Their cellular excreted metabolites are important for general quality of products and can contribute to product differentiation. This exploratory study presents a metabolomics strategy for the comprehensive mapping of cellular metabolites of two yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. pastorianus (both collected in an industrial context) through a multidimensional chromatography platform. Solid-phase microextraction was used as a sample preparation method. The yeast viability, a specific technological quality parameter, was also assessed. This untargeted analysis allowed the putative identification of 525 analytes, distributed over 14 chemical families, the origin of which may be explained through the pathways network associated with yeasts metabolism. The expression of the different metabolic pathways was similar for both species, event that seems to be yeast genus dependent. Nevertheless, these species showed different growth rates, which led to statistically different metabolites content. This was the first in-depth approach that characterizes the headspace content of S. cerevisiae and S. pastorianus species cultures. The combination of a sample preparation method capable of providing released volatile metabolites directly from yeast culture headspace with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography was successful in uncovering a specific metabolomic pattern for each species. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Screening of oil sources by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanfeng; Zhu, Shukui; He, Sheng; Wang, Yanxin

    2015-02-06

    Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOFMS), volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds in crude oil samples from different reservoirs or regions were analyzed for the development of a molecular fingerprint database. Based on the GC×GC/TOFMS fingerprints of crude oils, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis were used to distinguish the oil sources and find biomarkers. As a supervised technique, the geological characteristics of crude oils, including thermal maturity, sedimentary environment etc., are assigned to the principal components. The results show that tri-aromatic steroid (TAS) series are the suitable marker compounds in crude oils for the oil screening, and the relative abundances of individual TAS compounds have excellent correlation with oil sources. In order to correct the effects of some other external factors except oil sources, the variables were defined as the content ratio of some target compounds and 13 parameters were proposed for the screening of oil sources. With the developed model, the crude oils were easily discriminated, and the result is in good agreement with the practical geological setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Suppressed carrier density for the patterned high mobility two-dimensional electron gas at γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 heterointerfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Wei; Gan, Yulin; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the non-isostructural interface between spinel γ-Al2O3 and perovskite SrTiO3 is featured by a record electron mobility among complex oxide interfaces in addition to a high carrier density up to the order of 1015 cm-2. Herein, we report on the patterning...... is found to be approximately 3×1013 cm-2, much lower than that of the unpatterned sample (~1015 cm-2). Remarkably, a high electron mobility of approximately 3,600 cm2V-1s-1 was obtained at low temperatures for the patterned 2DEG at a carrier density of ~ 7×1012 cm-2, which exhibits clear Shubnikov-de Hass...... quantum oscillations. The patterned high-mobility 2DEG at the γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 interface paves the way for the design and application of spinel/perovskite interfaces for high-mobility all-oxide electronic devic...

  2. The quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediment samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with μECD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples is a challenge due to the very large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of chlorinated n-alkanes with varying chain lengths (C 10 to C 30 ) and degree of chlorination (30 to 70% by weight). Their physical-chemical properties make these compounds persistent in the environment and able to bioaccumulate in living organisms. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with micro-electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and quantify short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) in sediment samples. Distinct ordered bands were observed in the GC × GC chromatograms pointing to group separation. Using the Classification function of the ChromaTOF software, summary tables were generated to determine total area counts to set up multilevel-calibration curves for different technical mixes. Fortified sediment samples were analyzed by GC × GC-μECD with minimal extraction and cleanup. Recoveries ranged from 120 to 130%. To further validate the proposed method for the analysis of SCCPs, the laboratory participated in interlaboratory studies for the analysis of standards and sediment samples. The results showed recoveries between 75 and 95% and z-score values <2, demonstrating that the method is suitable for the analysis of SCCPs in soil/sediment samples. Graphical abstract Quantification of SCCPs by 2D-GC-μECD.

  3. Scattering times in the two-dimensional electron gas of AlxGa1-xN/AlN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiuxun; Honda, Yoshio; Narita, Tetsuo; Yamaguchi, Masahito; Sawaki, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Tooru; Guo Qixin; Nishio, Mitsushiro

    2009-01-01

    Low-field Hall and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) measurements were performed on two-dimensional electron gas of Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/GaN and Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/AlN/GaN heterostructures at a low temperature. A dramatic improvement in electron mobility is observed in Al 0.24 Ga 0.76 N/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 1 and 2 nm thick AlN interlayers. A further increase in the AlN thickness degrades the transport behaviour. Transport and quantum scattering times were derived from the corresponding Hall mobility and the oscillatory part of the SdH signal. The ratio of the transport scattering time and the quantum scattering time increases from 3.87 in the heterostructure without the AlN interlayer to 14.34 with the 1 nm AlN interlayer and to 12.45 with the 2 nm AlN interlayer. A modified scattering calculation due to charged dislocation with a finite length suggests that dislocation related long-range scattering event tends to dominate both transport and quantum scattering times when a thin AlN interlayer is introduced.

  4. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari; Sharma, Rajesh K.; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan; Thakur, Om Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness

  5. Comprehensive magnetotransport characterization of two dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structures leading to the assessment of interface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Manna Kumari [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India); Sharma, Rajesh K., E-mail: rksharma@sspl.drdo.in; Manchanda, Rachna; Bag, Rajesh K.; Muralidharan, Rangarajan [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi-110054 (India); Thakur, Om Prakash [Netaji Subhas Institute of Technology, Dwarka, New Delhi-110078 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Magnetotransport in two distinct AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on Fe-doped templates is investigated using Shubnikov de-Haas Oscillations in the temperature range of 1.8–6 K and multicarrier fitting in the temperature range of 1.8–300 K. The temperature dependence of the two dimensional electron gas mobility is extracted from simultaneous multicarrier fitting of transverse and longitudinal resistivity as a function of magnetic field and the data is utilized to estimate contribution of interface roughness to the mobility and the corresponding transport lifetime. The quantum scattering time obtained from the analysis of Shubnikov de Haas Oscillations in transverse magnetoresistance along with the transport lifetime time were used to estimate interface roughness amplitude and lateral correlation length. The results indicate that the insertion of AlN over layer deposited prior to the growth of GaN base layer on Fe doped GaN templates for forming HEMT structures reduced the parallel conduction but resulted in an increase in interface roughness.

  6. Comparison of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with sulfur-chemiluminescence detector to standard methods for speciation of sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Guerrero, Rosario; Vendeuvre, Colombe; Thiébaut, Didier; Bertoncini, Fabrice; Espinat, Didier

    2006-10-01

    The monitoring of total sulfur content and speciation of individual sulfur-containing compounds in middle distillates is required for efficient catalyst selection and for a better understanding of the kinetics of the reactions involved in hydrotreament processes. Owing to higher resolution power and enhanced sensitivity, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) hyphenated to sulfur chemiluminescence detection (SCD) has recently evolved as a powerful tool for improving characterization and identification of sulfur compounds. The aim of this paper is to compare quantitatively GCxGC-SCD and various other methods commonly employed in the petroleum industry, such as X-ray fluorescence, conventional GC-SCD, and high-resolution mass spectrometry, for total sulfur content determination and speciation analysis. Different samples of middle distillates have been analyzed to demonstrate the high potential and important advantages of GCxGC-SCD for innovative and quantitative analysis of sulfur-containing compounds. More accurate and detailed results for benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes are presented, showing that GCxGC-SCD should become, in the future, an essential tool for sulfur speciation analysis.

  7. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunming Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae (Chenpi in Chinese has been widely used as an herbal medicine in Korea, China, and Japan. Chenpi extracts are used to treat indigestion and inflammatory syndromes of the respiratory tract such as bronchitis and asthma. This thesis will analyze chemical compositions of Chenpi volatile oil, which was performed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HR-TOFMS. One hundred and sixty-seven components were tentatively identified, and terpene compounds are the main components of Chenpi volatile oil, a significant larger number than in previous studies. The majority of the eluted compounds, which were identified, were well separated as a result of high-resolution capability of the GC × GC method, which significantly reduces, the coelution. β-Elemene is tentatively qualified by means of GC × GC in tandem with high-resolution TOFMS detection, which plays an important role in enhancing the effects of many anticancer drugs and in reducing the side effects of chemotherapy. This study suggests that GC × GC-HR-TOFMS is suitable for routine characterization of chemical composition of volatile oil in herbal medicines.

  8. Enhanced Characterization of the Smell of Death by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues; Brasseur, Catherine; Haubruge, Eric; Focant, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Soon after death, the decay process of mammalian soft tissues begins and leads to the release of cadaveric volatile compounds in the surrounding environment. The study of postmortem decomposition products is an emerging field of study in forensic science. However, a better knowledge of the smell of death and its volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. Domestic pigs are the most widely used human body analogues in forensic experiments, mainly due to ethical restrictions. Indeed, decomposition trials on human corpses are restricted in many countries worldwide. This article reports on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) for thanatochemistry applications. A total of 832 VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass in terrestrial ecosystem, i.e. a forest biotope, were identified by GCxGC-TOFMS. These postmortem compounds belong to many kinds of chemical class, mainly oxygen compounds (alcohols, acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters), sulfur and nitrogen compounds, aromatic compounds such as phenolic molecules and hydrocarbons. The use of GCxGC-TOFMS in study of postmortem volatile compounds instead of conventional GC-MS was successful. PMID:22723918

  9. Enhanced characterization of the smell of death by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Dekeirsschieter

    Full Text Available Soon after death, the decay process of mammalian soft tissues begins and leads to the release of cadaveric volatile compounds in the surrounding environment. The study of postmortem decomposition products is an emerging field of study in forensic science. However, a better knowledge of the smell of death and its volatile constituents may have many applications in forensic sciences. Domestic pigs are the most widely used human body analogues in forensic experiments, mainly due to ethical restrictions. Indeed, decomposition trials on human corpses are restricted in many countries worldwide. This article reports on the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS for thanatochemistry applications. A total of 832 VOCs released by a decaying pig carcass in terrestrial ecosystem, i.e. a forest biotope, were identified by GCxGC-TOFMS. These postmortem compounds belong to many kinds of chemical class, mainly oxygen compounds (alcohols, acids, ketones, aldehydes, esters, sulfur and nitrogen compounds, aromatic compounds such as phenolic molecules and hydrocarbons. The use of GCxGC-TOFMS in study of postmortem volatile compounds instead of conventional GC-MS was successful.

  10. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  11. Two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, Bert; Freie Universitaet, Berlin

    2005-02-01

    It is not possible to compactly review the overwhelming literature on two-dimensional models in a meaningful way without a specific viewpoint; I have therefore tacitly added to the above title the words 'as theoretical laboratories for general quantum field theory'. I dedicate this contribution to the memory of J. A. Swieca with whom I have shared the passion of exploring 2-dimensional models for almost one decade. A shortened version of this article is intended as a contribution to the project 'Encyclopedia of mathematical physics' and comments, suggestions and critical remarks are welcome. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional ferroelectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinov, L M; Fridkin, Vladimir M; Palto, Sergei P [A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russian Federaion (Russian Federation); Bune, A V; Dowben, P A; Ducharme, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, Center for Materials Research and Analysis, University of Nebraska-Linkoln, Linkoln, NE (United States)

    2000-03-31

    The investigation of the finite-size effect in ferroelectric crystals and films has been limited by the experimental conditions. The smallest demonstrated ferroelectric crystals had a diameter of {approx}200 A and the thinnest ferroelectric films were {approx}200 A thick, macroscopic sizes on an atomic scale. Langmuir-Blodgett deposition of films one monolayer at a time has produced high quality ferroelectric films as thin as 10 A, made from polyvinylidene fluoride and its copolymers. These ultrathin films permitted the ultimate investigation of finite-size effects on the atomic thickness scale. Langmuir-Blodgett films also revealed the fundamental two-dimensional character of ferroelectricity in these materials by demonstrating that there is no so-called critical thickness; films as thin as two monolayers (1 nm) are ferroelectric, with a transition temperature near that of the bulk material. The films exhibit all the main properties of ferroelectricity with a first-order ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition: polarization hysteresis (switching); the jump in spontaneous polarization at the phase transition temperature; thermal hysteresis in the polarization; the increase in the transition temperature with applied field; double hysteresis above the phase transition temperature; and the existence of the ferroelectric critical point. The films also exhibit a new phase transition associated with the two-dimensional layers. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. The relation between the Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov descriptions of a dilute Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, A J

    2003-01-01

    I formulate a 'pseudo-paradox' in the theory of a dilute Bose gas with repulsive interactions: the standard expression for the ground state energy within the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) approximation is lower than that in the Bogoliubov approximation, and hence, by the standard variational argument, the former should prima facie be a better approximation than the latter to the true ground state - a conclusion which is of course opposite to the established wisdom concerning this problem. It is shown that the pseudo-paradox is (unsurprisingly) resolved by a correct transcription of the two-body scattering theory to the many-body case; however, contrary to what appears to be a widespread belief, the resolution has nothing to do with any spurious ultraviolet divergences which result from the replacement of the true interatomic potential by a delta-function pseudopotential. Rather, it relates to an infrared divergence which has the consequence that (a) the most obvious form of the GP 'approximation' actually does not correspond to any well-defined ansatz for the many-body wavefunction, and (b) that the 'best shot' at such a wavefunction always produces an energy which exceeds, or at best equals, that calculated in the Bogoliubov approximation. In fact, the necessity of the latter may be seen as a consequence of the need to reduce the Fock term in the energy, which is absent in the two-particle problem but dominant in the many-body case; it does this by increasing the density correlations, at distances less than or approximately equal to the correlation length ξ, above the value extrapolated from the two-body case. As a by-product I devise an alternative formulation of the Bogoliubov approximation which does not require the explicit replacement of the true interatomic potential by a delta-function pseudopotential

  14. The relation between the Gross-Pitaevskii and Bogoliubov descriptions of a dilute Bose gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, A J [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL 61801-3080 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    I formulate a 'pseudo-paradox' in the theory of a dilute Bose gas with repulsive interactions: the standard expression for the ground state energy within the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) approximation is lower than that in the Bogoliubov approximation, and hence, by the standard variational argument, the former should prima facie be a better approximation than the latter to the true ground state - a conclusion which is of course opposite to the established wisdom concerning this problem. It is shown that the pseudo-paradox is (unsurprisingly) resolved by a correct transcription of the two-body scattering theory to the many-body case; however, contrary to what appears to be a widespread belief, the resolution has nothing to do with any spurious ultraviolet divergences which result from the replacement of the true interatomic potential by a delta-function pseudopotential. Rather, it relates to an infrared divergence which has the consequence that (a) the most obvious form of the GP 'approximation' actually does not correspond to any well-defined ansatz for the many-body wavefunction, and (b) that the 'best shot' at such a wavefunction always produces an energy which exceeds, or at best equals, that calculated in the Bogoliubov approximation. In fact, the necessity of the latter may be seen as a consequence of the need to reduce the Fock term in the energy, which is absent in the two-particle problem but dominant in the many-body case; it does this by increasing the density correlations, at distances less than or approximately equal to the correlation length {xi}, above the value extrapolated from the two-body case. As a by-product I devise an alternative formulation of the Bogoliubov approximation which does not require the explicit replacement of the true interatomic potential by a delta-function pseudopotential.

  15. Automating data analysis for two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry non-targeted analysis of comparative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Ivan A; Ogba, O Maduka; Chibwe, Leah; Hoh, Eunha; Cheong, Paul H-Y; Simonich, Staci L Massey

    2018-03-16

    Non-targeted analysis of environmental samples, using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/ToF-MS), poses significant data analysis challenges due to the large number of possible analytes. Non-targeted data analysis of complex mixtures is prone to human bias and is laborious, particularly for comparative environmental samples such as contaminated soil pre- and post-bioremediation. To address this research bottleneck, we developed OCTpy, a Python™ script that acts as a data reduction filter to automate GC × GC/ToF-MS data analysis from LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software and facilitates selection of analytes of interest based on peak area comparison between comparative samples. We used data from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminated soil, pre- and post-bioremediation, to assess the effectiveness of OCTpy in facilitating the selection of analytes that have formed or degraded following treatment. Using datasets from the soil extracts pre- and post-bioremediation, OCTpy selected, on average, 18% of the initial suggested analytes generated by the LECO ® ChromaTOF ® software Statistical Compare feature. Based on this list, 63-100% of the candidate analytes identified by a highly trained individual were also selected by OCTpy. This process was accomplished in several minutes per sample, whereas manual data analysis took several hours per sample. OCTpy automates the analysis of complex mixtures of comparative samples, reduces the potential for human error during heavy data handling and decreases data analysis time by at least tenfold. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  17. Tile-based Fisher-ratio software for improved feature selection analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Parsons, Brendon A; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2013-10-15

    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a highly capable instrumental platform that produces complex and information-rich multi-dimensional chemical data. The data can be initially overwhelming, especially when many samples (of various sample classes) are analyzed with multiple injections for each sample. Thus, the data must be analyzed in such a way as to extract the most meaningful information. The pixel-based and peak table-based Fisher ratio algorithmic approaches have been used successfully in the past to reduce the multi-dimensional data down to those chemical compounds that are changing between the sample classes relative to those that are not changing (i.e., chemical feature selection). We report on the initial development of a computationally fast novel tile-based Fisher-ratio software that addresses the challenges due to 2D retention time misalignment without explicitly aligning the data, which is often a shortcoming for both pixel-based and peak table-based algorithmic approaches. Concurrently, the tile-based Fisher-ratio algorithm significantly improves the sensitivity contrast of true positives against a background of potential false positives and noise. In this study, eight compounds, plus one internal standard, were spiked into diesel at various concentrations. The tile-based F-ratio algorithmic approach was able to "discover" all spiked analytes, within the complex diesel sample matrix with thousands of potential false positives, in each possible concentration comparison, even at the lowest absolute spiked analyte concentration ratio of 1.06, the ratio between the concentrations in the spiked diesel sample to the native concentration in diesel. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fast comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography method for fatty acid methyl ester separation and quantification using dual ionic liquid columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosheen, Asia; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Bano, Asghari; Marriott, Philip J

    2013-10-18

    Safflower oil is a complex mixture of C18 saturated and unsaturated fatty acids amongst other fatty acids, and achieving separation between these similar structure components using one dimensional gas chromatography (GC) may be difficult. This investigation aims to obtain improved separation of fatty acid methyl esters in safflower oil, and their quantification using comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). Here, GC×GC separation is accomplished by the coupling of two ionic liquid (IL) column phases: the combination of SLB-IL111 with IL59 column phases was finally selected since it provided excellent separation of a FAME standard mixture, as well as fatty acids in safflower and linseed oil, compared to other tested column sets. Safflower oil FAME were well separated in a short run of 16min. FAME validation was demonstrated by method reproducibility, linearity over a range up to 500mgL(-1), and limits of detection which ranged from 1.9mgL(-1) to 5.2mgL(-1) at a split ratio of 20:1. Quantification was carried out using two dilution levels of 200-fold for major components and 20-fold for trace components. The fatty acids C15:0 and C17:0 were not reported previously in safflower oil. The SLB-IL111/IL59 column set proved to be an effective and novel configuration for separation and quantification of vegetable and animal oil fatty acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined untargeted and targeted fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography: revealing fructose-induced changes in mice urinary metabolic signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressanello, Davide; Liberto, Erica; Collino, Massimo; Chiazza, Fausto; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara

    2018-04-01

    This study exploits the information potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography configured with a parallel dual secondary column-dual detection by mass spectrometry and flame ionization (GC×2GC-MS/FID) to study changes in urinary metabolic signatures of mice subjected to high-fructose diets. Samples are taken from mice fed with normal or fructose-enriched diets provided either in aqueous solution or in solid form and analyzed at three stages of the dietary intervention (1, 6, and 12 weeks). Automated Untargeted and Targeted fingerprinting for 2D data elaboration is adopted for the most inclusive data mining of GC×GC patterns. The UT fingerprinting strategy performs a fully automated peak-region features fingerprinting and combines results from pre-targeted compounds and unknowns across the sample-set. The most informative metabolites, with statistically relevant differences between sample groups, are obtained by unsupervised multivariate analysis (MVA) and cross-validated by multi-factor analysis (MFA) with external standard quantitation by GC-MS. Results indicate coherent clustering of mice urine signatures according to dietary manipulation. Notably, the metabolite fingerprints of mice fed with liquid fructose exhibited greater derangement in fructose, glucose, citric, pyruvic, malic, malonic, gluconic, cis-aconitic, succinic and 2-keto glutaric acids, glycine acyl derivatives (N-carboxy glycine, N-butyrylglycine, N-isovaleroylglycine, N-phenylacetylglycine), and hippuric acid. Untargeted fingerprinting indicates some analytes which were not a priori pre-targeted which provide additional insights: N-acetyl glucosamine, N-acetyl glutamine, malonyl glycine, methyl malonyl glycine, and glutaric acid. Visual features fingerprinting is used to track individual variations during experiments, thereby extending the panorama of possible data elaboration tools. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Comparison of two algorithmic data processing strategies for metabolic fingerprinting by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almstetter, Martin F; Appel, Inka J; Dettmer, Katja; Gruber, Michael A; Oefner, Peter J

    2011-09-28

    The alignment algorithm Statistical Compare (SC) developed by LECO Corporation for the processing of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) data was validated and compared to the in-house developed retention time correction and data alignment tool INCA (Integrative Normalization and Comparative Analysis) by a spike-in experiment and the comparative metabolic fingerprinting of a wild type versus a double mutant strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli). Starting with the same peak lists generated by LECO's ChromaTOF software, the accuracy of peak alignment and detection of 1.1- to 4-fold changes in metabolite concentration was assessed by spiking 20 standard compounds into an aqueous methanol extract of E. coli. To provide the same quality input signals for both alignment routines, the universal m/z 73 trace of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) group was used as a quantitative measure for all features. The performance of data processing and alignment was evaluated and illustrated by ROC curves. Statistical Compare performed marginally better at the lower fold changes, while INCA did so at the higher fold changes. Using SC, quantitative precision could be improved substantially by exploiting the signal intensities of metabolite-specific unique (U) m/z ion traces rather than the universal m/z 73 trace. A list of 56 features that distinguished the two E. coli strains was obtained by the SC alignment using m/z U with an estimated false discovery rate (FDR) of <0.05. Ultimately, 23 metabolites could be identified, one additional and five less than with INCA due to the failure of SC to extract unitized m/z U's across all fingerprints with suitable spectral intensities for the latter metabolites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative analysis of fragrance in selectable one dimensional or two dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with simultaneous detection of multiple detectors in single injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui Peng; Wan, Tow Shi; Min, Christina Liew Shu; Osborne, Murray; Ng, Khim Hui

    2014-03-14

    A selectable one-dimensional ((1)D) or two-dimensional ((2)D) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system coupled with flame ionization detector (FID) and olfactory detection port (ODP) was employed in this study to analyze perfume oil and fragrance in shower gel. A split/splitless (SSL) injector and a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) injector are connected via a 2-way splitter of capillary flow technology (CFT) in this selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP system to facilitate liquid sample injections and thermal desorption (TD) for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) technique, respectively. The dual-linked injectors set-up enable the use of two different injector ports (one at a time) in single sequence run without having to relocate the (1)D capillary column from one inlet to another. Target analytes were separated in (1)D GC-MS/FID/ODP and followed by further separation of co-elution mixture from (1)D in (2)D GC-MS/FID/ODP in single injection without any instrumental reconfiguration. A (1)D/(2)D quantitative analysis method was developed and validated for its repeatability - tR; calculated linear retention indices (LRI); response ratio in both MS and FID signal, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), as well as linearity over a concentration range. The method was successfully applied in quantitative analysis of perfume solution at different concentration level (RSD≤0.01%, n=5) and shower gel spiked with perfume at different dosages (RSD≤0.04%, n=5) with good recovery (96-103% for SSL injection; 94-107% for stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption (SBSE-TD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Method translation and full metadata transfer from thermal to differential flow modulated comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography: Profiling of suspected fragrance allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Chiara; Rubiolo, Patrizia; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Carretta, Andrea; Cobelli, Luigi; Giardina, Matthew; Bicchi, Carlo

    2017-01-13

    The possibility to transfer methods from thermal to differential-flow modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatographic (GC×GC) platforms is of high interest to improve GC×GC flexibility and increase the compatibility of results from different platforms. The principles of method translation are here applied to an original method, developed for a loop-type thermal modulated GC×GC-MS/FID system, suitable for quali-quantitative screening of suspected fragrance allergens. The analysis conditions were translated to a reverse-injection differential flow modulated platform (GC×2GC-MS/FID) with a dual-parallel secondary column and dual detection. The experimental results, for a model mixture of suspected volatile allergens and for raw fragrance mixtures of different composition, confirmed the feasibility of translating methods by preserving 1 D elution order, as well as the relative alignment of resulting 2D peak patterns. A correct translation produced several benefits including an effective transfer of metadata (compound names, MS fragmentation pattern, response factors) by automatic template transformation and matching from the original/reference method to its translated counterpart. The correct translation provided: (a) 2D pattern repeatability, (b) MS fragmentation pattern reliability for identity confirmation, and (c) comparable response factors and quantitation accuracy within a concentration range of three orders of magnitude. The adoption of a narrow bore (i.e. 0.1mm d c ) first-dimension column to operate under close-to-optimal conditions with the differential-flow modulation GC×GC platform was also advantageous in halving the total analysis under the translated conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  4. Web Server for Peak Detection, Baseline Correction, and Alignment in Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tze-Feng; Wang, San-Yuan; Kuo, Tien-Chueh; Tan, Cheng-En; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Kuo, Ching-Hua; Chen, Chi-Hsin Sally; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Lin, Olivia A; Tseng, Y Jane

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) is superior for chromatographic separation and provides great sensitivity for complex biological fluid analysis in metabolomics. However, GC×GC/TOF-MS data processing is currently limited to vendor software and typically requires several preprocessing steps. In this work, we implement a web-based platform, which we call GC 2 MS, to facilitate the application of recent advances in GC×GC/TOF-MS, especially for metabolomics studies. The core processing workflow of GC 2 MS consists of blob/peak detection, baseline correction, and blob alignment. GC 2 MS treats GC×GC/TOF-MS data as pictures and clusters the pixels as blobs according to the brightness of each pixel to generate a blob table. GC 2 MS then aligns the blobs of two GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets according to their distance and similarity. The blob distance and similarity are the Euclidean distance of the first and second retention times of two blobs and the Pearson's correlation coefficient of the two mass spectra, respectively. GC 2 MS also directly corrects the raw data baseline. The analytical performance of GC 2 MS was evaluated using GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets of Angelica sinensis compounds acquired under different experimental conditions and of human plasma samples. The results show that GC 2 MS is an easy-to-use tool for detecting peaks and correcting baselines, and GC 2 MS is able to align GC×GC/TOF-MS data sets acquired under different experimental conditions. GC 2 MS is freely accessible at http://gc2ms.web.cmdm.tw .

  5. Cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas from 0.4 to 100 K at high filling factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, Jeremy A. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Tokumoto, Takahisa [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States); Cherian, Judy G. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Kuno, J. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Reno, John L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McGill, Stephen A. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Karaiskaj, Denis [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Hilton, David J. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the cyclotron mobility of a Landau-quantized two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature (0.4 --100 K) at a fixed magnetic field (1.25 T) using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy in a sample with a low frequency mobility of μdc = 3.6 x 106 cm2 V-1 s-1 and a carrier concentration of ns = 2 x 106 cm-2. The low temperature mobility in this sample results from both impurity scattering and acoustic deformation potential scattering, with μ$-1\\atop{CR}$ ≈ (2.1 x 105 cm2 V-1 s-1)-1 + (3.8 x 10-8 V sK-1 cm-2 x T)-1 at low temperatures. Above 50 K, the cyclotron oscillations show a strong reduction in both the oscillation amplitude and lifetime that is dominated by the contribution due to polar optical phonons. These results suggest that electron dephasing times as long as ~ 300 ps are possible even at this high lling factor (v = 6:6) in higher mobility samples (> 107 cm2 V-1 s-1) that have lower impurity concentrations and where the cyclotron mobility at this carrier concentration would be limited by acoustic deformation potential scattering.

  6. Impurity profiling of a chemical weapon precursor for possible forensic signatures by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggard, Jamin C; Wahl, Jon H; Synovec, Robert E; Mong, Gary M; Fraga, Carlos G

    2010-01-15

    In this report we present the feasibility of using analytical and chemometric methodologies to reveal and exploit the chemical impurity profiles from commercial dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) samples to illustrate the type of forensic information that may be obtained from chemical-attack evidence. Using DMMP as a model compound of a toxicant that may be used in a chemical attack, we used comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC/TOF-MS) to detect and identify trace organic impurities in six samples of commercially acquired DMMP. The GC x GC/TOF-MS data was analyzed to produce impurity profiles for all six DMMP samples using 29 analyte impurities. The use of PARAFAC for the mathematical resolution of overlapped GC x GC peaks ensured clean spectra for the identification of many of the detected analytes by spectral library matching. The use of statistical pairwise comparison revealed that there were trace impurities that were quantitatively similar and different among five of the six DMMP samples. Two of the DMMP samples were revealed to have identical impurity profiles by this approach. The use of nonnegative matrix factorization indicated that there were five distinct DMMP sample types as illustrated by the clustering of the multiple DMMP analyses into five distinct clusters in the scores plots. The two indistinguishable DMMP samples were confirmed by their chemical supplier to be from the same bulk source. Sample information from the other chemical suppliers supported the idea that the other four DMMP samples were likely from different bulk sources. These results demonstrate that the matching of synthesized products from the same source is possible using impurity profiling. In addition, the identified impurities common to all six DMMP samples provide strong evidence that basic route information can be obtained from impurity profiles. Finally, impurities that may be unique to the sole bulk manufacturer of DMMP were

  7. Static properties and spin dynamics of the ferromagnetic spin-1 Bose gas in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kis-Szabo, Krisztian; Szepfalusy, Peter; Szirmai, Gergely

    2005-01-01

    The properties of spin-1 Bose gases with ferromagnetic interactions in the presence of a nonzero magnetic field are studied. The equation of state and thermodynamic quantities are worked out with the help of a mean-field approximation. The phase diagram besides Bose-Einstein condensation contains a first-order transition where two values of the magnetization coexist. The dynamics is investigated with the help of the random phase approximation. The soft mode corresponding to the critical point of the magnetic phase transition is found to behave like in conventional theory

  8. Solid phase extraction in combination with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry for the detailed investigation of volatiles in South African red wines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weldegergis, B.T.; Crouch, A.M.; Górecki, T.; Villiers, de A.

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography in combination with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) has been applied for the analysis of volatile compounds in three young South African red wines. In spite of the significant benefits offered by GC × GC–TOFMS for the separation and

  9. Exact Local Correlations and Full Counting Statistics for Arbitrary States of the One-Dimensional Interacting Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastianello, Alvise; Piroli, Lorenzo; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2018-05-01

    We derive exact analytic expressions for the n -body local correlations in the one-dimensional Bose gas with contact repulsive interactions (Lieb-Liniger model) in the thermodynamic limit. Our results are valid for arbitrary states of the model, including ground and thermal states, stationary states after a quantum quench, and nonequilibrium steady states arising in transport settings. Calculations for these states are explicitly presented and physical consequences are critically discussed. We also show that the n -body local correlations are directly related to the full counting statistics for the particle-number fluctuations in a short interval, for which we provide an explicit analytic result.

  10. Relativistic density matrix in the diagonal momentum representation. Bose-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlin, A.N.; Sinyukov, Yu.M.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic-invariance treatment of the ideal Bose-system arising from the diagonal momentum representation for the density matrix is developed. The average occupation members and their correlators for statistical systems in arbitrary inertial frames are found on the equal-time hypersurfaces. The relativistic partition function method for the calculation of thermodynamic properties of gases moving as a whole is constructed

  11. Accelerated expansion of a universe containing a self-interacting Bose-Einstein gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, German; Besprosvany, Jaime, E-mail: german.izquierdo@gmail.co, E-mail: bespro@fisica.unam.m [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito de la Investigacion CientIfica S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 04510, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2010-03-21

    Acceleration of the universe is obtained from a model of non-relativistic particles with a short-range attractive interaction, at low enough temperature to produce a Bose-Einstein condensate. Conditions are derived for negative-pressure behavior. In particular, we show that a phantom-accelerated regime at the beginning of the universe solves the horizon problem, consistently with nucleosynthesis.

  12. Identification of volatiles from pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) pulp by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Marcio P; Ferreira, Ernesto C; Hantao, Leandro W; Bogusz, Stanislau; Augusto, Fabio

    2011-07-01

    Combining qualitative data from the chromatographic structure of 2-D gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC×GC-FID) and that from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) should result in a more accurate assignment of the peak identities than the simple analysis by GC/MS, where coelution of analytes is unavoidable in highly complex samples (rendering spectra unsuitable for qualitative purposes) or for compounds in very low concentrations. Using data from GC×GC-FID combined with GC/MS can reveal coelutions that were not detected by mass spectra deconvolution software. In addition, some compounds can be identified according to the structure of the GC×GC-FID chromatogram. In this article, the volatile fractions of fresh and dehydrated pineapple pulp were evaluated. The extraction of the volatiles was performed by dynamic headspace extraction coupled to solid-phase microextraction (DHS-SPME), a technique appropriate for slurries or solid matrices. Extracted analytes were then analyzed by GC×GC-FID and GC/MS. The results obtained using both techniques were combined to improve compound identifications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Tracking changes in composition and amount of dissolved organic matter throughout drinking water treatment plants by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiong; Xu, Meijia; Wang, Zijian; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2017-12-31

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) can affect the performance of water treatment processes and produce undesirable disinfection by-products during disinfection. Several studies have been undertaken on the structural characterization of DOM, but its fate during drinking water treatment processes is still not fully understood. In this work, the nontargeted screening method of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC-qMS) was used to reveal the detailed changes of different chemical classes of compounds in DOM during conventional and advanced drinking water treatment processes at three drinking water treatment plants in China. The results showed that when the dissolved organic carbon removal was low, shifts in the DOM composition could not be detected with the specific ultraviolet absorbance at 254nm, but the changes were clear in the three-dimensional fluorescence excitation-emission matrix or GC×GC-qMS analyses. Coagulation-sedimentation processes selectively removed 37-59% of the nitrogenous compounds, alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons but increased the concentrations of halogen-containing compounds by 17-26% because of the contact time with chlorine in this step. Filtration was less efficient at removing DOM but preferentially removed 21-60% of the acids. However, other organic matter would be released from the filter (e.g., nitrogenous compounds, acids, and aromatic hydrocarbons). Biological activated carbon (BAC) treatment removed most of the compounds produced from ozonation, particularly ketones, alcohols, halogen-containing compounds and acids. However, it should be noted that certain highly polar or high molecular weight compounds not identified in this study might be released from the BAC bed. After the whole treatment processes, the concentrations of nitrogenous compounds, alcohols, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons and ketones were decreased more by the advanced treatment processes than by the conventional treatment

  14. Detection of Synthetic Testosterone Use by Novel Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Herbert J.; Zhang, Ying; Auchus, Richard J.; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of Comprehensive Two-dimensional Gas Chromatography Combustion Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC×GCC-IRMS) for the analysis of urinary steroids to detect illicit synthetic testosterone use, of interest in sport doping. GC coupled to IRMS (GCC-IRMS) is currently used to measure the carbon isotope ratios (CIR, δ13C) of urinary steroids in anti-doping efforts; however, extensive cleanup of urine extracts is required prior to analysis to enable baseline separation of target steroids. With its greater separation capabilities, GC×GC has the potential to reduce sample preparation requirements and enable CIR analysis of minimally processed urine extracts. Challenges addressed include on-line reactors with minimized dimensions to retain narrow peaks shapes, baseline separation of peaks in some cases, and reconstruction of isotopic information from sliced steroid chromatographic peaks. Difficulties remaining include long-term robustness of on-line reactors and urine matrix effects that preclude baseline separation and isotopic analysis of low concentration and trace components. In this work, steroids were extracted, acetylated, and analyzed using a refined, home-built GC×GCC-IRMS system. 11-hydroxy-androsterone (11OHA) and 11-ketoetiocolanolone (11KE) were chosen as endogenous reference compounds (ERC) because of their satisfactory signal intensity, and their CIR was compared to target compounds (TC) androsterone (A) and etiocholanolone (E). Separately, a GC×GC-qMS system was used to measure testosterone (T)/EpiT concentration ratios. Urinary extracts of urine pooled from professional athletes, and urine from one individual that received testosterone gel (T-gel) and one individual that received testosterone injections (T-shot) were analyzed. The average precisions of δ13C and Δδ13C measurements were SD(δ13C) approximately ± 1‰ (n=11). The T-shot sample resulted in a positive for T use with a T/EpiT ratio of > 9 and CIR

  15. ν-Dimensional ideal quantum q-gas: Bose-Einstein condensation and λ-point transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R-Monteiro, M.; Roditi, I.; Rodrigues, L.M.C.S.

    1994-01-01

    The authors consider an ideal quantum q-gas in ν spatial dimensions and energy spectrum ω i αp α . Departing from the Hamiltonian H = ω[N], the authors study the effect of the deformation on thermodynamic functions and equation of state of that system. The virial expansion is obtained for the high temperature (or low density) regime. The critical temperature is higher than in non-deformed ideal gases. They show that Bose-Einstein condensation always exists (unless when ν/α = 1) for finite q but not for q = ∞. Employing numerical calculations and selecting for ν/α the values 3/2, 2 and 3, the authors show the critical temperature as a function of q, the specific heat C V and the chemical potential μ as functions of T/T c q for q = 1.05 and q= 4.5. C V exhibits a λ-point discontinuity in all cases, instead of the cusp singularity found in the usual ideal gas. The results indicate that physical systems which have quantum symmetries can exhibit Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon, the critical temperature being favored by the deformation parameter

  16. Collision dynamics of two-dimensional non-Abelian vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Thomas; Petersen, Timothy C.; Simula, Tapio

    2017-09-01

    We study computationally the collision dynamics of vortices in a two-dimensional spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensate. In contrast to Abelian vortex pairs, which annihilate or pass through each other, we observe non-Abelian vortex pairs to undergo rungihilation—an event that converts the colliding vortices into a rung vortex. The resulting rung defect subsequently decays to another pair of non-Abelian vortices of different type, accompanied by a magnetization reversal.

  17. Vortex Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Bose-Einstein Condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Groszek, Andrew James

    2018-01-01

    Fluid turbulence remains an open problem in contemporary physics. In gases or liquids encountered in daily life, turbulence is comprised of swirling vortices of varying sizes, shapes and strengths. The impossibility of making detailed predictions of turbulent flows comes, in part, from the complicated nature of these vortices. Turbulence in quantum mechanical superfluids, on the other hand, is comparatively simple. When stirred, a superfluid produces well-defined, discretised vortex lines, an...

  18. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL"−"1 for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL"−"1 for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL"−"1 for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g"−"1 and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g"−"1 in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic

  19. Simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes by isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Dan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Gao, Lirong, E-mail: gaolr@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zheng, Minghui; Wang, Shasha; Liu, Guorui [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2016-09-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are listed as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) under the Stockholm Convention. Because they have similar physical and chemical properties, they are coeluted and are usually analyzed separately by different gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) methods. In this study, a novel method was developed for simultaneous analysis of six indicator PCBs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 16 PCNs using isotope dilution comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-HRTOF-MS). The method parameters, including the type of GC column, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. Complete separation of all target analytes and the matrix was achieved with a DB-XLB column in the first dimension and a BPX-70 column in the second dimension. The isotope dilution method was used for quantification of the PCBs and PCNs by GC × GC-HRTOF-MS. The method showed good linearity from 5 to 500 pg μL{sup −1} for all the target compounds. The instrumental limit of detection ranged from 0.03 to 0.3 pg μL{sup −1} for the 18 PCB congeners and from 0.09 to 0.6 pg μL{sup −1} for the 16 PCN congeners. Repeatability for triplicate injections was always lower than 20%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of 18 PCBs present at 0.9–2054 pg g{sup −1} and 16 PCNs present at 0.2–15.7 pg g{sup −1} in three species of fish. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS results agreed with those obtained by GC-HRMS. The GC × GC-HRTOF-MS method proved to be a sensitive and accurate technique for simultaneous analysis of the selected PCBs and PCNs. With the excellent chromatographic separation offered by GC × GC and accurate mass measurements offered by HRTOF-MS, this method allowed identification of non-target contaminants in the fish samples, including organochlorine pesticides and

  20. Tonks-Girardeau and super-Tonks-Girardeau states of a trapped one-dimensional spinor Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girardeau, M. D.

    2011-01-01

    A harmonically trapped, ultracold, one-dimensional (1D) spin-1 Bose gas with strongly repulsive or attractive 1D even-wave interactions induced by a three-dimensional (3D) Feshbach resonance is studied. The exact ground state, a hybrid of Tonks-Girardeau (TG) and ideal Fermi gases, is constructed in the TG limit of infinite even-wave repulsion by a spinor Fermi-Bose mapping to a spinless ideal Fermi gas. It is then shown that in the limit of infinite even-wave attraction this same state remains an exact many-body eigenstate, now highly excited relative to the collapsed generalized McGuire-cluster ground state, showing that the hybrid TG state is completely stable against collapse to this cluster ground state under a sudden switch from infinite repulsion to infinite attraction. It is shown to be the TG limit of a hybrid super-Tonks-Girardeau (STG) state, which is metastable under a sudden switch from finite but very strong repulsion to finite but very strong attraction. It should be possible to create it experimentally by a sudden switch from strongly repulsive to strongly attractive interaction, as in the recent Innsbruck experiment on a spin-polarized bosonic STG gas. In the case of strong attraction, there should also exist another STG state of much lower energy, consisting of strongly bound dimers, a bosonic analog of a recently predicted STG state which is an ultracold gas of strongly bound bosonic dimers of fermionic atoms, but it is shown that this STG state cannot be created by such a switch from strong repulsion to strong attraction.

  1. Full evaporation dynamic headspace in combination with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of suspected fragrance allergens in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Christophe; Ochiai, Nobuo; Sasamoto, Kikuo; Sandra, Pat; David, Frank

    2012-09-14

    Suspected fragrance allergens were determined in cosmetic products using a combination of full evaporation-dynamic headspace (FEDHS) with selectable one-dimensional/two-dimensional GC-MS. The full evaporation dynamic headspace approach allows the non-discriminating extraction and injection of both apolar and polar fragrance compounds, without contamination of the analytical system by high molecular weight non-volatile matrix compounds. The method can be applied to all classes of cosmetic samples, including water containing matrices such as shower gels or body creams. In combination with selectable (1)D/(2)D GC-MS, consisting of a dedicated heart-cutting GC-MS configuration using capillary flow technology (CFT) and low thermal mass GC (LTM-GC), a highly flexible and easy-to-use analytical solution is offered. Depending on the complexity of the perfume fraction, analyses can be performed in one-dimensional GC-MS mode or in heart-cutting two-dimensional GC-MS mode, without the need of hardware reconfiguration. The two-dimensional mode with independent temperature control of the first and second dimension column is especially useful to confirm the presence of detected allergen compounds when mass spectral deconvolution is not possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oed, A [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.

  3. Anindita Bose

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Anindita Bose. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 11 November 2001 pp 18-26 General Article. Necklaces, Periodic Points and Permutation Representations - Fermat's Little Theorem · Somnath Basu Anindita Bose ...

  4. Anisotropic transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas in ordered-disordered GaInP2 homojunctions: The structure of ordered domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, F. A. J. M.; Bauhuis, G. J.; Hageman, P. R.; van Geelen, A.; Giling, L. J.

    1994-12-01

    The modulation-doped ordered-GaInP2/disordered-GaInP2 homojunction is presented. Capacitance-voltage (CV) profiling techniques, temperature-dependent Hall and resistivity measurements, cross-sectional transverse electron micrographs (TEM), and high-field magnetotransport have been used to characterize this structure grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. The CV measurements showed a narrow profile at the homointerface with an order of magnitude reduction in carrier density within 3 nm. Typical two-dimensional behavior was observed from Hall data showing sheet carrier densities as high as 3.6×1013 cm-2 without carrier freeze-out, and constant mobilities around 900 cm2 V-1 s-1 below T=100 K. The 300-K channel conductivity of this junction is 3.2×10-3 Ω-1, which is higher than reported for other two-dimensional electron gases. By proper choice of the substrate orientation, domains of only the (111¯) ordering variant were present. TEM showed elongated shapes of average thickness 3.5-6 nm and length 75 nm in the (011) plane. By using Hall bars with different current directions, an asymmetry is observed for the contributions to the scattering mechanisms which determine the mobility: ``mesoscopic'' interface-roughness scattering for T300 K indicates strong electron-phonon coupling. This asymmetry shows that the domain length in the (011) plane is larger than that in the (011¯) plane. The magnetoresistance ρxx and the Hall resistance ρxy show oscillations in reciprocal magnetic field involving an excited subband i with ni2D=7.6×1011 cm-2, where 2D denotes two dimensional. The ρxy versus B curve shows features of a slight parallel conduction.

  5. Damping-free collective oscillations of a driven two-component Bose gas in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, Gavriil; Jaschke, Daniel; Carr, Lincoln D.

    2018-04-01

    We explore the quantum many-body physics of a driven Bose-Einstein condensate in optical lattices. The laser field induces a gap in the generalized Bogoliubov spectrum proportional to the effective Rabi frequency. The lowest-lying modes in a driven condensate are characterized by zero group velocity and nonzero current. Thus, the laser field induces roton modes, which carry interaction in a driven condensate. We show that collective excitations below the energy of the laser-induced gap remain undamped, while above the gap they are characterized by a significantly suppressed Landau damping rate.

  6. Transport of a Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices at the fluid-insulator transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzi, Luca; Lucioni, Eleonora; Chaudhuri, Saptarishi; Gori, Lorenzo; Kumar, Avinash; D'Errico, Chiara; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni

    2013-09-13

    We investigate the momentum-dependent transport of 1D quasicondensates in quasiperiodic optical lattices. We observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. In the limit of nondisordered lattices the observations suggest a contribution of quantum phase slips to the dissipation. We identify a set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, separating a fluid regime from an insulating one. We relate our observation to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  7. Collapse and revival oscillations as a probe for the tunneling amplitude in an ultracold Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, F. Alexander; Hen, Itay; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the quantum corrections to the revival time due to finite tunneling in the collapse and revival of matter-wave interference after a quantum quench. We study hard-core bosons in a superlattice potential and the Bose-Hubbard model by means of exact numerical approaches and mean-field theory. We consider systems without and with a trapping potential present. We show that the quantum corrections to the revival time can be used to accurately determine the value of the hopping parameter in experiments with ultracold bosons in optical lattices.

  8. Monopole excitations of a harmonically trapped one-dimensional Bose gas from the ideal gas to the Tonks-Girardeau regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S; Dunjko, V; Zhang, Z D; Olshanii, M

    2015-09-11

    Using a time-dependent modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (MNLSE)-where the conventional chemical potential proportional to the density is replaced by the one inferred from Lieb-Liniger's exact solution-we study frequencies of the collective monopole excitations of a one-dimensional Bose gas. We find that our method accurately reproduces the results of a recent experimental study [E. Haller et al., Science 325, 1224 (2009)] in the full spectrum of interaction regimes from the ideal gas, through the mean-field regime, through the mean-field Thomas-Fermi regime, all the way to the Tonks-Giradeau gas. While the former two are accessible by the standard time-dependent NLSE and inaccessible by the time-dependent local density approximation, the situation reverses in the latter case. However, the MNLSE is shown to treat all these regimes within a single numerical method.

  9. Bose condensation in (random traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Zagrebnov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a non-interacting (perfect Bose-gas in random external potentials (traps. It is shown that a generalized Bose-Einstein condensation in the random eigenstates manifests if and only if the same occurs in the one-particle kinetic-energy eigenstates, which corresponds to the generalized condensation of the free Bose-gas. Moreover, we prove that the amounts of both condensate densities are equal. This statement is relevant for justification of the Bogoliubov approximation} in the theory of disordered boson systems.

  10. Analysis of human plasma lipids by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual detection and with the support of high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry for structural elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivo, Simona; Beccaria, Marco; Sullini, Giuseppe; Tranchida, Peter Q; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of the present research is the analysis of the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of human plasma by using data derived from comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual quadrupole mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection. This approach enabled us to attain both mass spectral information and analyte percentage data. Furthermore, gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to increase the reliability of identification of several unsaponifiable lipid constituents. The synergism between both the high-resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry processes enabled us to attain a more in-depth knowledge of the unsaponifiable fraction of human plasma. Additionally, information was attained on the fatty acid and triacylglycerol composition of the plasma samples, subjected to investigation by using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with dual quadrupole mass spectrometry and flame ionization detection and high-performance liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bose and his statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkataraman, G.

    1992-01-01

    Treating radiation gas as a classical gas, Einstein derived Planck's law of radiation by considering the dynamic equilibrium between atoms and radiation. Dissatisfied with this treatment, S.N. Bose derived Plank's law by another original way. He treated the problem in generality: he counted how many cells were available for the photon gas in phase space and distributed the photons into these cells. In this manner of distribution, there were three radically new ideas: The indistinguishability of particles, the spin of the photon (with only two possible orientations) and the nonconservation of photon number. This gave rise to a new discipline of quantum statistical mechanics. Physics underlying Bose's discovery, its significance and its role in development of the concept of ideal gas, spin-statistics theorem and spin particles are described. The book has been written in a simple and direct language in an informal style aiming to stimulate the curiosity of a reader. (M.G.B.)

  12. Effect of the nanofilm thickness on the properties of the two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between two dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadiev, R. M., E-mail: gadiev.radik@gmail.com; Lachinov, A. N. [M. Akmullah Baskir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation); Karamov, D. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa Scientific Center (Russian Federation); Kiselev, D. A. [National University of Science and Technology MISiS (Russian Federation); Kornilov, V. M. [M. Akmullah Baskir State Pedagogical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The mechanism of formation of the two-dimensional conductivity along the interface between two polymer dielectrics is experimentally studied. The idea of “polar catastrophe,” which was successfully used earlier to explain the electronic properties of the interface between two perovskites LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, is chosen as a base hypothesis. Piezoelectric response microscopy is used to reveal the presence of spontaneous polarization on the surface of a polymer film, and the remanent polarization is found to decrease with increasing film thickness. As in the case of perovskites, the polymer film thickness is found to strongly affect the electrical conductivity along the interface. Substantial differences between these phenomena are detected. The change in the electrical conductivity is shown to be caused by a significant increase in the charge carrier mobility when the film thickness decreases below a certain critical value. The relation between the change in the carrier mobility and the change in the spontaneous surface polarization of the polymer film when its thickness decreases is discussed.

  13. TWO-DIMENSIONAL MAPPING OF YOUNG STARS IN THE INNER 180 pc OF NGC 1068: CORRELATION WITH MOLECULAR GAS RING AND STELLAR KINEMATICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-08-20

    We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.

  14. Bose-Einstein condensation in a general static homogeneous magnetic fieldinebreak and the effective action: The nonrelativistic ideal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of Bose-Einstein condensation for a system of nonrelativistic spin-0 bosons in a space of arbitrary dimension D. A general static homogeneous magnetic field is imposed. The effective action approach and ζ-function regularization are used. If D=2δ or 2δ+1, a constant magnetic field is characterized by δ independent components. If p≤δ of these components are nonzero, the condition for Bose-Einstein condensation to occur is D-2p≥3. This means that if D=2δ, then Bose-Einstein condensation never occurs for p=δ-1 or δ. If D=2δ+1, Bose-Einstein condensation never occurs for p=δ. For D-2p≥3, Bose-Einstein condensation does occur, and we show how it may be interpreted as symmetry breaking to give a ground state which is not constant

  15. Nobel Lecture: Bose-Einstein condensation in a dilute gas, the first 70 years and some recent experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, E.A.; Wieman, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, or BEC, has a long and rich history dating from the early 1920s. In this article we will trace briefly over this history and some of the developments in physics that made possible our successful pursuit of BEC in a gas. We will then discuss what was involved in this quest. In this discussion we will go beyond the usual technical description to try and address certain questions that we now hear frequently, but are not covered in our past research papers. These are questions along the lines of: How did you get the idea and decide to pursue it? Did you know it was going to work? How long did it take you and why? We will review some our favorites from among the experiments we have carried out with BEC. There will then be a brief encore on why we are optimistic that BEC can be created with nearly any species of magnetically trappable atom. Throughout this article we will try to explain what makes BEC in a dilute gas so interesting, unique, and experimentally challenging

  16. Qualitative characteristics and comparison of volatile fraction of vodkas made from different botanical materials by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and the electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-03-01

    Vodka is a spirit-based beverage made from ethyl alcohol of agricultural origin. At present, increasingly more vodka brands have labels that specify the botanical origin of the product. Until now, the techniques for distinguishing between vodkas of different botanical origin have been costly, time-consuming and insufficient for making a distinction between vodka produced from similar raw materials. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to find a fast and relatively inexpensive technique for conducting such tests. In the present study, we employed comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and an electronic nose based on the technology of ultra-fast GC with chemometric methods such as partial least square discriminant analysis, discriminant function analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogy. Both techniques allow a distinction between the vodkas produced from different raw materials. In the case of GC×GC, the differences between vodkas were more noticeable than in the analysis by electronic nose; however, the electronic nose allowed the significantly faster analysis of vodkas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Biosynthetic Studies of the Male Marking Pheromone in Bumblebees by Using Labelled Fatty Acids and Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with Mass Detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žáček, Petr; Kindl, Jiří; Frišonsová, K.; Průchová, Markéta; Votavová, A.; Hovorka, Oldřich; Kovalczuk, T.; Valterová, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2015), s. 839-850 ISSN 2192-6506 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biosynthesis * bumblebees * fatty acids * gas chromatography * pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2015

  18. Prediction of a mobile two-dimensional electron gas at the LaSc O3 /BaSn O3 (001) interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Tula R.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEG) at oxide interfaces, such as LaAl O3 /SrTi O3 (001), have aroused significant interest due to their high carrier density (˜1014c m-2 ) and strong lateral confinement (˜1 nm). However, these 2DEGs are normally hosted by the weakly dispersive and degenerate d bands (e.g., Ti -3 d bands), which are strongly coupled to the lattice, causing mobility of such 2DEGs to be relatively low at room temperature (˜1 c m2/Vs ). Here, we propose using oxide host materials with the conduction bands formed from s electrons to increase carrier mobility and soften its temperature dependence. Using first-principles density functional theory calculations, we investigate LaSc O3 /BaSn O3 (001) heterostructure and as a model system, where the conduction band hosts the s -like carriers. We find that the polar discontinuity at this interface leads to electronic reconstruction resulting in the formation of the 2DEG at this interface. The conduction electrons reside in the highly dispersive Sn -5 s bands, which have a large band width and a low effective mass. The predicted 2DEG is expected to be highly mobile even at room temperature due to the reduced electron-phonon scattering via the inter-band scattering channel. A qualitatively similar behavior is predicted for a doped BaSn O3 , where a monolayer of BaO is replaced with LaO. We anticipate that the quantum phenomena associated with these 2DEGs to be more pronounced owing to the high mobility of the carriers.

  19. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  20. Quasi-two-dimensional holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutzner, J.; Erhard, A.; Wuestenberg, H.; Zimpfer, J.

    1980-01-01

    The acoustical holography with numerical reconstruction by area scanning is memory- and time-intensive. With the experiences by the linear holography we tried to derive a scanning for the evaluating of the two-dimensional flaw-sizes. In most practical cases it is sufficient to determine the exact depth extension of a flaw, whereas the accuracy of the length extension is less critical. For this reason the applicability of the so-called quasi-two-dimensional holography is appropriate. The used sound field given by special probes is divergent in the inclined plane and light focussed in the perpendicular plane using cylindrical lenses. (orig.) [de

  1. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G. [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, and CNR-INO, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-08-20

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition.

  2. Transport of an interacting Bose gas in 1D disordered lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Errico, C.; Chaudhuri, S.; Gori, L.; Kumar, A.; Lucioni, E.; Tanzi, L.; Inguscio, M.; Modugno, G.

    2014-01-01

    We use ultracold atoms in a quasiperiodic lattice to study two outstanding problems in the physics of disordered systems: a) the anomalous diffusion of a wavepacket in the presence of disorder, interactions and noise; b) the transport of a disordered superfluid. a) Our results show that the subdiffusion, observed when interaction alone is present, can be modelled with a nonlinear diffusion equation and the peculiar shape of the expanding density profiles can be connected to the microscopic nonlinear diffusion coefficients. Also when noise alone is present we can describe the observed normal diffusion dynamics by existing microscopic models. In the unexplored regime in which noise and interaction are combined, instead, we observe an anomalous diffusion, that we model with a generalized diffusion equation, where noise- and interaction-induced contributions add each other. b) We find that an instability appearing at relatively large momenta can be employed to locate the fluid-insulator crossover driven by disorder. By investigating the momentum-dependent transport, we observe a sharp crossover from a weakly dissipative regime to a strongly unstable one at a disorder-dependent critical momentum. The set of critical disorder and interaction strengths for which such critical momentum vanishes, can be identified with the separation between a fluid regime and an insulating one and can be related to the predicted zero-temperature superfluid-Bose glass transition

  3. Decay of homogeneous two-dimensional quantum turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, Andrew W.; Barenghi, Carlo F.

    2018-03-01

    We numerically simulate the free decay of two-dimensional quantum turbulence in a large, homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate. The large number of vortices, the uniformity of the density profile, and the absence of boundaries (where vortices can drift out of the condensate) isolate the annihilation of vortex-antivortex pairs as the only mechanism which reduces the number of vortices, Nv, during the turbulence decay. The results clearly reveal that vortex annihilation is a four-vortex process, confirming the decay law Nv˜t-1 /3 where t is time, which was inferred from experiments with relatively few vortices in small harmonically trapped condensates.

  4. Two-dimensional metamaterial optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyaninov, I I

    2010-01-01

    While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes

  5. Acoustic phonon emission by two dimensional plasmons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    1990-06-01

    Acoustic wave emission of the two dimensional plasmons in a semiconductor or superconductor microstructure is investigated by using the phenomenological deformation potential within the jellium model. The plasmons are excited by the external electromagnetic (e.m.) field. The power conversion coefficient of e.m. energy into acoustic wave energy is also estimated. It is shown, the coherent transformation has a sharp resonance at the plasmon frequency of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The incoherent transformation of the e.m. energy is generated by ohmic dissipation of 2DEG. The method proposed for coherent phonon beam generation can be very effective for high mobility 2DEG and for thin superconducting layers if the plasmon frequency ω is smaller than the superconducting gap 2Δ. (author). 21 refs, 1 fig

  6. Two-dimensional flexible nanoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinwande, Deji; Petrone, Nicholas; Hone, James

    2014-12-01

    2014/2015 represents the tenth anniversary of modern graphene research. Over this decade, graphene has proven to be attractive for thin-film transistors owing to its remarkable electronic, optical, mechanical and thermal properties. Even its major drawback--zero bandgap--has resulted in something positive: a resurgence of interest in two-dimensional semiconductors, such as dichalcogenides and buckled nanomaterials with sizeable bandgaps. With the discovery of hexagonal boron nitride as an ideal dielectric, the materials are now in place to advance integrated flexible nanoelectronics, which uniquely take advantage of the unmatched portfolio of properties of two-dimensional crystals, beyond the capability of conventional thin films for ubiquitous flexible systems.

  7. Two-dimensional topological photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Shvets, Gennady

    2017-12-01

    Originating from the studies of two-dimensional condensed-matter states, the concept of topological order has recently been expanded to other fields of physics and engineering, particularly optics and photonics. Topological photonic structures have already overturned some of the traditional views on wave propagation and manipulation. The application of topological concepts to guided wave propagation has enabled novel photonic devices, such as reflection-free sharply bent waveguides, robust delay lines, spin-polarized switches and non-reciprocal devices. Discrete degrees of freedom, widely used in condensed-matter physics, such as spin and valley, are now entering the realm of photonics. In this Review, we summarize the latest advances in this highly dynamic field, with special emphasis on the experimental work on two-dimensional photonic topological structures.

  8. Two-dimensional critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleur, H.

    1987-09-01

    Two dimensional critical systems are studied using transformation to free fields and conformal invariance methods. The relations between the two approaches are also studied. The analytical results obtained generally depend on universality hypotheses or on renormalization group trajectories which are not established rigorously, so numerical verifications, mainly using the transfer matrix approach, are presented. The exact determination of critical exponents; the partition functions of critical models on toruses; and results as the critical point is approached are discussed [fr

  9. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  10. Finding two-dimensional peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silagadze, Z.K.

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional generalization of the original peak finding algorithm suggested earlier is given. The ideology of the algorithm emerged from the well-known quantum mechanical tunneling property which enables small bodies to penetrate through narrow potential barriers. We merge this 'quantum' ideology with the philosophy of Particle Swarm Optimization to get the global optimization algorithm which can be called Quantum Swarm Optimization. The functionality of the newborn algorithm is tested on some benchmark optimization problems

  11. Ground-state energy of the interacting Bose gas in two dimensions: An explicit construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beane, Silas R.

    2010-01-01

    The isotropic scattering phase shift is calculated for nonrelativistic bosons interacting at low energies via an arbitrary finite-range potential in d space-time dimensions. Scattering on a (d-1)-dimensional torus is then considered, and the eigenvalue equation relating the energy levels on the torus to the scattering phase shift is derived. With this technology in hand, and focusing on the case of two spatial dimensions, a perturbative expansion is developed for the ground-state energy of N identical bosons which interact via an arbitrary finite-range potential in a finite area. The leading nonuniversal effects due to range corrections and three-body forces are included. It is then shown that the thermodynamic limit of the ground-state energy in a finite area can be taken in closed form to obtain the energy per particle in the low-density expansion by explicitly summing the parts of the finite-area energy that diverge with powers of N. The leading and subleading finite-size corrections to the thermodynamic limit equation of state are also computed. Closed-form results--some well known, others perhaps not--for two-dimensional lattice sums are included in an Appendix.

  12. Theory of a condensed charged-Bose, charged Fermi gas and Ginzburg--Landau studies of superfluid 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Two independent topics in the field of condensed matter physics are examined: the condensed charged-Bose, charged Fermi gas and superfluid 3 He. Green's function (field theoretic) methods are used to derive the low-temperature properties of a dense, neutral gas of condensed charged bosons and degenerate charged fermions. Restriction is made to the case where the fermion mass is much lighter than the boson mass. Linear response and the density-density correlation function are examined and shown to exhibit two collective modes: a plasmon branch and a phonon branch with speed equal to that of ionic sound in solids. Comparison with a possible astrophysical application (white dwarf stars) is made. The behavior near the superfluid transition temperature (Ginzburg--Landau regime) of 3 He is then studied. Gorkov equations are derived and studied in the weak-coupling limit. In this way the form and order of magnitude estimates of coefficients appearing in the Ginzburg--Landau theory are obtained. Weak-coupling particle and spin currents are derived. Various perturbations break the large degeneracy of the states and have experimental implications. The electric contribution to the Ginzburg--Landau free energy is studied for the proposed A and B phases. Imposition of an electric field orients the axial state, but does not give rise to shifts in the NMR resonances. Shifts and discontinuous jumps in the longitudinal and transverse signals are predicted for the Balian--Werthamer state, the details depending on the relative strengths of the fields, as well as the angle between them

  13. Comprehensive lipidomic analysis of human plasma using multidimensional liquid- and gas-phase separations: Two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry vs. liquid chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglai, Anna; Gargano, Andrea F G; Jordens, Jan; Mengerink, Ynze; Honing, Maarten; van der Wal, Sjoerd; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2017-12-29

    Recent advancements in separation science have resulted in the commercialization of multidimensional separation systems that provide higher peak capacities and, hence, enable a more-detailed characterization of complex mixtures. In particular, two powerful analytical tools are increasingly used by analytical scientists, namely online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC×LC, having a second-dimension separation in the liquid phase) and liquid chromatography-ion mobility-spectrometry (LC-IMS, second dimension separation in the gas phase). The goal of the current study was a general assessment of the liquid-chromatography-trapped-ion-mobility-mass spectrometry (LC-TIMS-MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC×LC-MS) platforms for untargeted lipid mapping in human plasma. For the first time trapped-ion-mobility spectrometry (TIMS) was employed for the separation of the major lipid classes and ion-mobility-derived collision-cross-section values were determined for a number of lipid standards. The general effects of a number of influencing parameters have been inspected and possible directions for improvements are discussed. We aimed to provide a general indication and practical guidelines for the analyst to choose an efficient multidimensional separation platform according to the particular requirements of the application. Analysis time, orthogonality, peak capacity, and an indicative measure for the resolving power are discussed as main characteristics for multidimensional separation systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-Dimensional Materials for Sensing: Graphene and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seba Sara Varghese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-dimensional materials have attracted great scientific attention due to their unusual and fascinating properties for use in electronics, spintronics, photovoltaics, medicine, composites, etc. Graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS2, phosphorene, etc., which belong to the family of two-dimensional materials, have shown great promise for gas sensing applications due to their high surface-to-volume ratio, low noise and sensitivity of electronic properties to the changes in the surroundings. Two-dimensional nanostructured semiconducting metal oxide based gas sensors have also been recognized as successful gas detection devices. This review aims to provide the latest advancements in the field of gas sensors based on various two-dimensional materials with the main focus on sensor performance metrics such as sensitivity, specificity, detection limit, response time, and reversibility. Both experimental and theoretical studies on the gas sensing properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene are also discussed. The article concludes with the current challenges and future prospects for two-dimensional materials in gas sensor applications.

  15. Vortex sorter for Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, Graeme; Veitch, John; Courtial, Johannes; Oehberg, Patrik

    2004-01-01

    We have designed interferometers that sort Bose-Einstein condensates into their vortex components. The Bose-Einstein condensates in the two arms of the interferometer are rotated with respect to each other through fixed angles; different vortex components then exit the interferometer in different directions. The method we use to rotate the Bose-Einstein condensates involves asymmetric phase imprinting and is itself new. We have modeled rotation through fixed angles and sorting into vortex components with even and odd values of the topological charge of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates in a number of states (pure or superposition vortex states for different values of the scattering length). Our scheme may have applications for quantum information processing

  16. Bose-Einstein condensation of paraxial light

    OpenAIRE

    Klaers, J.; Schmitt, J.; Damm, T.; Vewinger, F.; Weitz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Photons, due to the virtually vanishing photon-photon interaction, constitute to very good approximation an ideal Bose gas, but owing to the vanishing chemical potential a (free) photon gas does not show Bose-Einstein condensation. However, this is not necessarily true for a lower-dimensional photon gas. By means of a fluorescence induced thermalization process in an optical microcavity one can achieve a thermal photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Experimentally, we have obs...

  17. Satyendranath Bose: Co-Founder of Quantum Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanpied, William A.

    1972-01-01

    Satyendranath Bose was first to prove Planck's Law by using ideal quantum gas. Einstein credited Bose for this first step in the development of quantum statistical mechanics. Bose did not realize the importance of his work, perhaps because of peculiar academic settings in India under British rule. (PS)

  18. Research Update: Diode performance of the Pt/Al2O3/two-dimensional electron gas/SrTiO3 structure and its time-dependent resistance evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwan Moon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Time domain electric pulse measurements were conducted on a capacitor consisting of a Pt film as the top electrode, atomic-layer-deposited 6.5-nm-thick amorphous Al2O3 as the dielectric layer, and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG at the interface between Al2O3 and SrTiO3 as the bottom electrode. The sample showed highly useful current-voltage characteristics as the selector in cross-bar array resistance switching random access memory. The long-term (order of second variation in the leakage current when the Pt electrode was positively biased was attributed to the field-induced migration of oxygen vacancies between the interior of the Al2O3 and the 2DEG region. Relaxation of the vacancy concentration occurred even at room temperature.

  19. Temperature Dependence of the Spin-Hall Conductivity of a Two-Dimensional Impure Rashba Electron Gas in the Presence of Electron-Phonon and Electron-Electron Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavari, H.; Mokhtari, M.; Bayervand, A.

    2015-03-01

    Based on Kubo's linear response formalism, temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional impure (magnetic and nonmagnetic impurities) Rashba electron gas in the presence of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions is analyzed theoretically. We will show that the temperature dependence of the spin-Hall conductivity is determined by the relaxation rates due to these interactions. At low temperature, the elastic lifetimes ( and are determined by magnetic and nonmagnetic impurity concentrations which are independent of the temperature, while the inelastic lifetimes ( and related to the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, decrease when the temperature increases. We will also show that since the spin-Hall conductivity is sensitive to temperature, we can distinguish the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions.

  20. Correlation Between Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Mobility and Crystal Quality in AlGaN/GaN High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Structure Grown on 4H-SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Cheon; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyngjae; So, Byungchan; Lee, Kyungbae; Ko, Kwangse; Nam, Okhyun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the correlation between the crystal quality and two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) mobility of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. For the structure with an AlN nucleation layer grown at 1100 °C, the 2DEG mobility and sheet carrier density were 1627 cm²/V·s and 3.23 × 10¹³ cm⁻², respectively, at room temperature. Further, it was confirmed that the edge dislocation density of the GaN buffer layer was related to the 2DEG mobility and sheet carrier density in the AlGaN/GaN HEMT.

  1. Creating Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in Nonpolar/Nonpolar Oxide Interface via Polarization Discontinuity: First-Principles Analysis of CaZrO3/SrTiO3 Heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Safdar; Cheng, Jianli; Yang, Kesong

    2016-01-13

    We studied strain-induced polarization and resulting conductivity in the nonpolar/nonpolar CaZrO3/SrTiO3 (CZO/STO) heterostructure (HS) system by means of first-principles electronic structure calculations. By modeling four types of CZO/STO HS-based slab systems, i.e., TiO2/CaO and SrO/ZrO2 interface models with CaO and ZrO2 surface terminations in each model separately, we found that the lattice-mismatch-induced compressive strain leads to a strong polarization in the CZO film and that as the CZO film thickness increases there exists an insulator-to-metal transition. The polarization direction and critical thickness of the CZO film for forming interfacial metallic states depend on the surface termination of CZO film in both types of interface models. In the TiO2/CaO and SrO/ZrO2 interface models with CaO surface termination, the strong polarization drives the charge transfer from the CZO film to the first few TiO2 layers in the STO substrate, leading to the formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the interface. In the HS models with ZrO2 surface termination, two polarization domains with opposite directions are in the CZO film, which results in the charge transfer from the middle CZO layer to the interface and surface, respectively, leading to the coexistence of the 2DEG on the interface and the two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) at the middle CZO layer. These findings open a new avenue to achieve 2DEG (2DHG) in perovskite-based HS systems via polarization discontinuity.

  2. Quantum quench dynamics of the attractive one-dimensional Bose gas via the coordinate Bethe ansatz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Zill, Tod M. Wright, Karen V. Kheruntsyan, Thomas Gasenzer, Matthew J. Davis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to study the Lieb-Liniger model of a one-dimensional gas of bosons on a finite-sized ring interacting via an attractive delta-function potential. We calculate zero-temperature correlation functions for seven particles in the vicinity of the crossover to a localized solitonic state and study the dynamics of a system of four particles quenched to attractive interactions from the ideal-gas ground state. We determine the time evolution of correlation functions, as well as their temporal averages, and discuss the role of bound states in shaping the postquench correlations and relaxation dynamics.

  3. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  4. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  5. Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: From weak to strong coupling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozieres, P.; Schmitt-Rink, S.

    1985-01-01

    We consider a gas of fermions interacting via an attractive potential. We study the ground state of that system and calculate the critical temperature for the onset of superconductivity as a function of the coupling strength. We compare the behavior of continuum and lattice models and show that the evolution from weak to strong coupling superconductivity is smooth

  6. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  7. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  8. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  9. Two-dimensional turbulent convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzino, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the most relevant, and sometimes contrasting, theoretical approaches to Rayleigh-Taylor and mean-gradient-forced Rayleigh-Bénard two-dimensional turbulence together with numerical and experimental evidences for their support. The main aim of this overview is to emphasize that, despite the different character of these two systems, especially in relation to their steadiness/unsteadiness, turbulent fluctuations are well described by the same scaling relationships originated from the Bolgiano balance. The latter states that inertial terms and buoyancy terms balance at small scales giving rise to an inverse kinetic energy cascade. The main difference with respect to the inverse energy cascade in hydrodynamic turbulence [R. H. Kraichnan, "Inertial ranges in two-dimensional turbulence," Phys. Fluids 10, 1417 (1967)] is that the rate of cascade of kinetic energy here is not constant along the inertial range of scales. Thanks to the absence of physical boundaries, the two systems here investigated turned out to be a natural physical realization of the Kraichnan scaling regime hitherto associated with the elusive "ultimate state of thermal convection" [R. H. Kraichnan, "Turbulent thermal convection at arbitrary Prandtl number," Phys. Fluids 5, 1374-1389 (1962)].

  10. Guiding-center dynamics of vortex dipoles in Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelkamp, S.; Schmelcher, P.; Torres, P. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Carretero-Gonzalez, R.; Freilich, D. V.; Hall, D. S.

    2011-01-01

    A quantized vortex dipole is the simplest vortex molecule, comprising two countercirculating vortex lines in a superfluid. Although vortex dipoles are endemic in two-dimensional superfluids, the precise details of their dynamics have remained largely unexplored. We present here several striking observations of vortex dipoles in dilute-gas Bose-Einstein condensates, and develop a vortex-particle model that generates vortex line trajectories that are in good agreement with the experimental data. Interestingly, these diverse trajectories exhibit essentially identical quasiperiodic behavior, in which the vortex lines undergo stable epicyclic orbits.

  11. Universal fine structure of the specific heat at the critical λ-point for an ideal Bose gas in an arbitrary trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, S V; Kocharovsky, Vl V; Kocharovsky, V V

    2014-01-01

    We analytically find the universal fine structure of the noted discontinuity in the value and/or derivative of the specific heat of an ideal Bose gas in an arbitrary trap in the whole critical region around the λ-point of the Bose–Einstein condensation. The result reveals a remarkable dependence of the λ-point structure on the trap's form and boundary conditions, even for a macroscopically large system. We suggest measuring this strong effect in the experiments with a controllable trap potential. (paper)

  12. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  13. Exact dynamics of a one dimensional Bose gas in a periodic time-dependent harmonic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopa, Stefano; Unterberger, Jéremie; Karevski, Dragi

    2018-05-01

    We study the unitary dynamics of a 1D gas of hard-core bosons trapped into a harmonic potential which varies periodically in time with frequency . Such periodic systems can be classified into orbits of different monodromies corresponding to two different physical situations, namely the case in which the bosonic cloud remains stable during the time-evolution and the case where it turns out to be unstable. In the present work we derive in the large particle number limit exact results for the stroboscopic evolution of the energy and particle densities in both physical situations.

  14. Statistics of an ideal homogeneous Bose gas with a fixed number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, Vladimir A

    2001-01-01

    The distribution function w 0 (n 0 ) of the number n 0 of particles is found for the condensate of an ideal gas of free bosons with a fixed total number N of particles. It is shown that above the critical temperature (T > T c ) this function has the usual form w 0 (n 0 ) = (1 - e μ )e μn 0 , where μ is the chemical potential in temperature units. In a narrow vicinity of the critical temperature |T/T c - 1| ≤ N -1/3 , this distribution changes and at T c acquires the form of a resonance. The width of the resonance depends on the shape of the volume occupied by the gas and it has exponential (but not the Gaussian) wings. As the temperature is lowered, the resonance maximum shifts to larger values of n 0 and its width tends to zero, which corresponds to the suppression of fluctuations. For N → ∞, this change occurs abruptly. The distribution function of the number of particles in excited states for the systems with a fixed and a variable number of particles (when only a mean number of particles is fixed) prove to be identical and have the usual form. (physical basis of quantum electronics)

  15. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  16. Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media

  17. Identification of organic sulfur compounds in coal bitumen obtained by different extraction techniques using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Maria Elisabete; Cappelli Fontanive, Fernando; Bastos Caramao, Elina; Alcaraz Zini, Claudia [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Instituto de Quimica, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Oliveira, Jose Vladimir de [URI, Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes, Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    The determination of organic sulfur compounds (OSC) in coal is of great interest. Technically and operationally these compounds are not easily removed and promote corrosion of equipment. Environmentally, the burning of sulfur compounds leads to the emission of SO{sub x} gases, which are major contributors to acid rain. Health-wise, it is well known that these compounds have mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Bitumen can be extracted from coal by different techniques, and use of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric detection enables identification of compounds present in coal extracts. The OSC from three different bitumens were tentatively identified by use of three different extraction techniques: accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), ultrasonic extraction (UE), and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). Results obtained from one-dimensional gas chromatography (1D GC) coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometric detection (GC-qMS) and from two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometric detection (GC x GC-TOFMS) were compared. By use of 2D GC, a greater number of OSC were found in ASE bitumen than in SFE and UE bitumens. No OSC were identified with 1D GC-qMS, although some benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes were detected by use of EIM and SIM modes. GC x GC-TOFMS applied to investigation of OSC in bitumens resulted in analytical improvement, as more OSC classes and compounds were identified (thiols, sulfides, thiophenes, naphthothiophenes, benzothiophenes, and benzonaphthothiophenes). The roof-tile effect was observed for OSC and PAH in all bitumens. Several co-elutions among analytes and with matrix interferents were solved by use of GC x GC. (orig.)

  18. Equilibrium: two-dimensional configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In Chapter 6, the problem of toroidal force balance is addressed in the simplest, nontrivial two-dimensional geometry, that of an axisymmetric torus. A derivation is presented of the Grad-Shafranov equation, the basic equation describing axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium. The solutions to equations provide a complete description of ideal MHD equilibria: radial pressure balance, toroidal force balance, equilibrium Beta limits, rotational transform, shear, magnetic wall, etc. A wide number of configurations are accurately modeled by the Grad-Shafranov equation. Among them are all types of tokamaks, the spheromak, the reversed field pinch, and toroidal multipoles. An important aspect of the analysis is the use of asymptotic expansions, with an inverse aspect ratio serving as the expansion parameter. In addition, an equation similar to the Grad-Shafranov equation, but for helically symmetric equilibria, is presented. This equation represents the leading-order description low-Beta and high-Beta stellarators, heliacs, and the Elmo bumpy torus. The solutions all correspond to infinitely long straight helices. Bending such a configuration into a torus requires a full three-dimensional calculation and is discussed in Chapter 7

  19. Pressure of two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yan; Wang, Lei; Tian, Wen-de; Goree, J; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    A simple analytic expression for the pressure of a two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is found by fitting results from a molecular dynamics simulation. The results verify that the pressure can be written as the sum of a potential term which is a simple multiple of the Coulomb potential energy at a distance of the Wigner–Seitz radius, and a kinetic term which is a multiple of the one for an ideal gas. Dimensionless coefficients for each of these terms are found empirically, by fitting. The resulting analytic expression, with its empirically determined coefficients, is plotted as isochores, or curves of constant area. These results should be applicable to monolayer dusty plasmas. (paper)

  20. Enhanced two dimensional electron gas transport characteristics in Al2O3/AlInN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedsman, J. J.; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y.; Egawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al 2 O 3 as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al 2 O 3 /Al 0.85 In 0.15 N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics

  1. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: I. Characterization of pineapple aroma compounds by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied via headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Early green-ripe stage, post-harvest ripened, and green-ripe fruits at the end of their commercial shelf-life were compared to air-freighted pineapples harvested at full maturity. In total, more than 290 volatiles could be identified by mass spectrometry and their linear retention indices. The majority of compounds comprise esters (methyl and ethyl esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, acetates), terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, 2-ketones, free fatty acids, and miscellaneous γ- and δ-lactones. The structured separation space obtained by GC×GC allowed revealing various homologous series of compound classes as well as clustering of sesquiterpenes. Post-harvest ripening increased the diversity of the volatile profile compared to both early green-ripe maturity stages and on-plant ripened fruits.

  2. Properties of the quantum Hall effect of the two-dimensional electron gas in the n-inversion layer of InSb grain boundaries under high hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraak, W.; Nachtwei, G.; Herrmann, R.; Glinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetotransport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the interface of the grain boundary in p-type InSb bicrystals are investigated. Under high hydrostatic pressures and in high magnetic fields (B > 5 T) the integral quantum Hall regime is reached, where the Hall resistance ρ xy is quantized to h/e 2 j (j is the number of filled Landau levels of the 2DEG). In this high field regime detailed measurements are given of the resistivity ρ xx and the Hall resistance ρ xy as function of temperature T and current density j x . An unexpected high accuracy of the Hall resistance ρ xy at magnetic field values close to a fully occupied Landau level is found, despite the high value of the diagonal resistivity ρ xx . At high current densities j x in the quantum Hall regime (j = 1) a sudden breakdown of the quantized resistance value associated with a jump-like switching to the next lower quantized value h/2e 2 is observed. A simple macroscopic picture is proposed to account for these novel transport properties associated with the quantum Hall effect. (author)

  3. Analysis of volatile organic compounds released from the decay of surrogate human models simulating victims of collapsed buildings by thermal desorption-comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapiou, A; Zorba, E; Mikedi, K; McGregor, L; Spiliopoulou, C; Statheropoulos, M

    2015-07-09

    Field experiments were devised to mimic the entrapment conditions under the rubble of collapsed buildings aiming to investigate the evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the early dead body decomposition stage. Three pig carcasses were placed inside concrete tunnels of a search and rescue (SAR) operational field terrain for simulating the entrapment environment after a building collapse. The experimental campaign employed both laboratory and on-site analytical methods running in parallel. The current work focuses only on the results of the laboratory method using thermal desorption coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TD-GC×GC-TOF MS). The flow-modulated TD-GC×GC-TOF MS provided enhanced separation of the VOC profile and served as a reference method for the evaluation of the on-site analytical methods in the current experimental campaign. Bespoke software was used to deconvolve the VOC profile to extract as much information as possible into peak lists. In total, 288 unique VOCs were identified (i.e., not found in blank samples). The majority were aliphatics (172), aromatics (25) and nitrogen compounds (19), followed by ketones (17), esters (13), alcohols (12), aldehydes (11), sulfur (9), miscellaneous (8) and acid compounds (2). The TD-GC×GC-TOF MS proved to be a sensitive and powerful system for resolving the chemical puzzle of above-ground "scent of death". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Room-temperature mobility above 2200 cm{sup 2}/V·s of two-dimensional electron gas in a sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jr-Tai, E-mail: jrche@ifm.liu.se; Persson, Ingemar; Nilsson, Daniel; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Palisaitis, Justinas; Forsberg, Urban; Persson, Per O. Å.; Janzén, Erik [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, SE 581 83 Linköping (Sweden)

    2015-06-22

    A high mobility of 2250 cm{sup 2}/V·s of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a metalorganic chemical vapor deposition-grown AlGaN/GaN heterostructure was demonstrated. The mobility enhancement was a result of better electron confinement due to a sharp AlGaN/GaN interface, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis, not owing to the formation of a traditional thin AlN exclusion layer. Moreover, we found that the electron mobility in the sharp-interface heterostructures can sustain above 2000 cm{sup 2}/V·s for a wide range of 2DEG densities. Finally, it is promising that the sharp-interface AlGaN/GaN heterostructure would enable low contact resistance fabrication, less impurity-related scattering, and trapping than the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure, as the high-impurity-contained AlN is removed.

  5. Correlation of rocket propulsion fuel properties with chemical composition using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by partial least squares regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehimkar, Benjamin; Hoggard, Jamin C; Marney, Luke C; Billingsley, Matthew C; Fraga, Carlos G; Bruno, Thomas J; Synovec, Robert E

    2014-01-31

    There is an increased need to more fully assess and control the composition of kerosene-based rocket propulsion fuels such as RP-1. In particular, it is critical to make better quantitative connections among the following three attributes: fuel performance (thermal stability, sooting propensity, engine specific impulse, etc.), fuel properties (such as flash point, density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and hydrogen content), and the chemical composition of a given fuel, i.e., amounts of specific chemical compounds and compound classes present in a fuel as a result of feedstock blending and/or processing. Recent efforts in predicting fuel chemical and physical behavior through modeling put greater emphasis on attaining detailed and accurate fuel properties and fuel composition information. Often, one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is employed to provide chemical composition information. Building on approaches that used GC-MS, but to glean substantially more chemical information from these complex fuels, we recently studied the use of comprehensive two dimensional (2D) gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) using a "reversed column" format: RTX-wax column for the first dimension, and a RTX-1 column for the second dimension. In this report, by applying chemometric data analysis, specifically partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we are able to readily model (and correlate) the chemical compositional information provided by use of GC×GC-TOFMS to RP-1 fuel property information such as density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and so on. Furthermore, we readily identified compounds that contribute significantly to measured differences in fuel properties based on results from the PLS models. We anticipate this new chemical analysis strategy will have broad implications for the development of high fidelity composition-property models, leading to an

  6. Exactly integrable two-dimensional dynamical systems related with supersymmetric algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leznov, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    A wide class of exactly integrable dynamical systems in two-dimensional space related with superalgebras, which generalize supersymmetric Liouville equation, is constructed. The equations can be interpretated as nonlinearly interacting Bose and Fermi fields belonging within classical limit to even and odd parts of the Grassman space. Explicit expressions for the solutions of the constructed systems are obtained on the basis of standard perturbation theory

  7. Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.

  8. Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaers, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a 'white-wall' photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.

  9. Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klärs, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a "white-wall" photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.

  10. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  11. Analog model of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe in Bose-Einstein condensates: Application of the classical field method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Piyush; Weinfurtner, Silke; Visser, Matt; Gardiner, C. W.

    2007-01-01

    Analog models of gravity have been motivated by the possibility of investigating phenomena not readily accessible in their cosmological counterparts. In this paper, we investigate the analog of cosmological particle creation in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe by numerically simulating a Bose-Einstein condensate with a time-dependent scattering length. In particular, we focus on a two-dimensional homogeneous condensate using the classical field method via the truncated Wigner approximation. We show that for various forms of the scaling function the particle production is consistent with the underlying theory in the long wavelength limit. In this context, we further discuss the implications of modified dispersion relations that arise from the microscopic theory of a weakly interacting Bose gas

  12. Quasi-two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} heterostructures grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo, Thong Q.; McDaniel, Martin D.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@che.utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Goble, Nicholas J.; Gao, Xuan P. A. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Kormondy, Kristy J.; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Lu, Sirong [School of Engineering for Matter, Transport and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Jordan-Sweet, Jean [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We report the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) at the interface of γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}-terminated SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The ALD growth of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on STO(001) single crystal substrates was performed at temperatures in the range of 200–345 °C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as co-reactants. In situ reflection high energy electron diffraction, ex situ x-ray diffraction, and ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the crystallinity of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. As-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films grown above 300 °C were crystalline with the γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase. In situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/STO interface, indicating that a Ti{sup 3+} feature in the Ti 2p spectrum of STO was formed after 2–3 ALD cycles of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 345 °C and even after the exposure to trimethylaluminum alone at 300 and 345 °C. The interface quasi-2-DEG is metallic and exhibits mobility values of ∼4 and 3000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at room temperature and 15 K, respectively. The interfacial conductivity depended on the thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. The Ti{sup 3+} signal originated from the near-interfacial region and vanished after annealing in an oxygen environment.

  13. Tile-based Fisher ratio analysis of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) data using a null distribution approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Marney, Luke C; Siegler, W Christopher; Hoggard, Jamin C; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2015-04-07

    Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS) is a versatile instrumental platform capable of collecting highly informative, yet highly complex, chemical data for a variety of samples. Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis applied to the supervised comparison of sample classes algorithmically reduces complex GC × GC-TOFMS data sets to find class distinguishing chemical features. F-ratio analysis, using a tile-based algorithm, significantly reduces the adverse effects of chromatographic misalignment and spurious covariance of the detected signal, enhancing the discovery of true positives while simultaneously reducing the likelihood of detecting false positives. Herein, we report a study using tile-based F-ratio analysis whereby four non-native analytes were spiked into diesel fuel at several concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 ppm. Spike level comparisons were performed in two regimes: comparing the spiked samples to the nonspiked fuel matrix and to each other at relative concentration factors of two. Redundant hits were algorithmically removed by refocusing the tiled results onto the original high resolution pixel level data. To objectively limit the tile-based F-ratio results to only features which are statistically likely to be true positives, we developed a combinatorial technique using null class comparisons, called null distribution analysis, by which we determined a statistically defensible F-ratio cutoff for the analysis of the hit list. After applying null distribution analysis, spiked analytes were reliably discovered at ∼1 to ∼10 ppm (∼5 to ∼50 pg using a 200:1 split), depending upon the degree of mass spectral selectivity and 2D chromatographic resolution, with minimal occurrence of false positives. To place the relevance of this work among other methods in this field, results are compared to those for pixel and peak table-based approaches.

  14. Characterization of organic aromatic compounds in soils affected by an uncontrolled tire landfill fire through the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar-Arnanz, J; Mekni, S; Blanco, G; Eljarrat, E; Barceló, D; Ramos, L

    2018-02-09

    Discarded vehicle tires have become an increasing concern worldwide due to the enormous amount of wastes generated and the increasing evidence of health problems associated to their disposal and accidental combustion. Previous studies conducted involving either simulated or open uncontrolled tire fires have identified aromatics belonging to two main classes, volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs), as the most relevant chemicals generated in these burning processes. As a consequence, and due to their recognized toxicity, most studies reported up to now have mainly focused on these two categories of compounds being information concerning the possible occurrence of other aromatic classes rather limited. In this study, the enhanced separation power and structural confirmation capabilities provided by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF MS) has been used, for the first time, for the non-targeted analysis of soils impacted by a tire fire and an ash collected at the scene of the fire. In total, 118 volatile and semi-volatile aromatic compounds have been differentiated. Among them, 104 compounds have been either positively or tentatively identified. PAHs with 3-5 rings and their alkyl-derivatives were the most numerous and relevant classes in the investigated samples. A significant number of sulfur, oxygen- and nitrogen-containing PAHs were also detected in the samples. The application of a script function to the raw GC×GC-ToF MS data allowed the fast filtering and automatic recognition of compounds containing halogens in their structure. This part of the study evidenced that only a limited number of regulated persistent organic pollutants were present in the investigated samples. However, it also revealed the presence of emerging organophosphorous flame retardants, whose levels in tire fire impacted soils are reported for the first time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Enhanced two dimensional electron gas transport characteristics in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AlInN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors on Si substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedsman, J. J., E-mail: freedy54@gmail.com; Watanabe, A.; Urayama, Y. [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Egawa, T., E-mail: egawa.takashi@nitech.ac.jp [Research Center for Nano-Devices and Advanced Materials, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan); Innovation Center for Multi-Business of Nitride Semiconductors, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466 8555 (Japan)

    2015-09-07

    The authors report on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (MOS-HEMT) on Si fabricated by using atomic layer deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate insulator and passivation layer. The MOS-HEMT with the gate length of 2 μm exhibits excellent direct-current (dc) characteristics with a drain current maximum of 1270 mA/mm at a gate bias of 3 V and an off-state breakdown voltage of 180 V for a gate-drain spacing of 4 μm. Also, the 1 μm-gate MOS-HEMT shows good radio-frequency (rf) response such as current gain and maximum oscillation cut-off frequencies of 10 and 34 GHz, respectively. The capacitance-voltage characteristics at 1 MHz revealed significant increase in two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density for the MOS-HEMT compared to conventional Schottky barrier HEMTs. Analyses using drain-source conductivity measurements showed improvements in 2DEG transport characteristics for the MOS-HEMT. The enhancements in dc and rf performances of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 0.85}In{sub 0.15}N/GaN MOS-HEMT are attributed to the improvements in 2DEG characteristics.

  16. Chemical characterisation of Piper amalago (Piperaceae) essential oil by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC/qMS) and their antilithiasic activity and acute toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Anaí L; Novaes, Antônio da Silva; Polidoro, Allan Dos S; de Barros, Márcio Eduardo; Mota, Jonas S; Lima, Daiane B M; Krause, Laiza C; Cardoso, Cláudia A L; Jacques, Rosângela A; Caramão, Elina B

    2018-02-26

    Piper amalago has a distribution from Mexico to Brazil; their aerial parts have been used in folk medicine to treat diuretic and kidney diseases. The purpose of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) extracted from both the leaves and stems of P. amalago, compare them, and evaluate their antilithiasic activity and acute toxicity. Extraction was performed by hydrodistillation, whereas chemical characterisation by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with rapid-scanning quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC×GC/qMS). The antilithiasic activity was evaluated by the effect of the EOs on calcium oxalate crystallisation in vitro. The turbidity index and the number of crystals formed were determined and used as an estimative of the activity. In the acute toxicity assay, the effects of a single oral dose of the EOs in Wistar rats were determined. General behaviour, adverse effects, and mortality were determined. A total of 322 compounds were identified in the EOs. The sesquiterpenes displayed the highest contribution in leaves EOs among which included bicyclogermacrene and δ-cadinene. Sesquiterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes displayed the highest contribution in EOs from stems, among which included bicyclogermacrene and α-cadinol. The EOs demonstrated an excellent action on the crystals growth inhibition, and the oral dose tested did not induce significant changes in the parameters for acute toxicity. The oils have a high chemical complexity, and there are differences between their compositions, which could explain the observed differences in antilithiasic activity. The findings support the use of this plant in folk medicine to treat kidney diseases. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Disordered spinor Bose-Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaPcki, Mateusz; Paganelli, Simone; Ahufinger, Veronica; Sanpera, Anna; Zakrzewski, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    We study the zero-temperature phase diagram of the disordered spin-1 Bose-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. To this aim, we use a mean-field Gutzwiller ansatz and a probabilistic mean-field perturbation theory. The spin interaction induces two different regimes, corresponding to a ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic order. In the ferromagnetic case, the introduction of disorder reproduces analogous features of the disordered scalar Bose-Hubbard model, consisting in the formation of a Bose glass phase between Mott insulator lobes. In the antiferromagnetic regime, the phase diagram differs more from the scalar case. Disorder in the chemical potential can lead to the disappearance of Mott insulator lobes with an odd-integer filling factor and, for sufficiently strong spin coupling, to Bose glass of singlets between even-filling Mott insulator lobes. Disorder in the spinor coupling parameter results in the appearance of a Bose glass phase only between the n and the n+1 lobes for n odd. Disorder in the scalar Hubbard interaction inhibits Mott insulator regions for occupation larger than a critical value.

  18. Two-dimensional molecular line transfer for a cometary coma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutowicz, S.

    2017-09-01

    In the proposed axisymmetric model of the cometary coma the gas density profile is described by an angular density function. Three methods for treating two-dimensional radiative transfer are compared: the Large Velocity Gradient (LVG) (the Sobolev method), Accelerated Lambda Iteration (ALI) and accelerated Monte Carlo (MC).

  19. Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...

  20. Bose-Einstein condensates in atomic gases: simple theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The author presents the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensation along with a discussion of experimental tests. The author deals successively with the following topics: - the ideal Bose gas in a trap (first in a harmonic trap and then in a more general trap), - a model for the atomic interaction, - interacting Bose gas in the Hartree-Fock approximation, - properties of the condensate wavefunction, - the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, - Bogoliubov approach and thermodynamical stability, - phase coherence properties at the Bose-Einstein condensate, and - symmetry-breaking description of condensates. (A.C.)

  1. Volatilizable Biogenic Organic Compounds (VBOCs with two dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS: sampling methods, VBOC complexity, and chromatographic retention data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC with detection by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS was applied in the rapid analysis of air samples containing highly complex mixtures of volatilizable biogenic organic compounds (VBOCs. VBOC analytical methodologies are briefly reviewed, and optimal conditions are discussed for sampling with both adsorption/thermal desorption (ATD cartridges and solid-phase microextraction (SPME fibers. Air samples containing VBOC emissions from leaves of two tree species (Cedrus atlantica and Calycolpus moritzianus were obtained by both ATD and SPME. The optimized gas chromatographic conditions utilized a 45 m, 0.25 mm I.D. low-polarity primary column (DB-VRX, 1.4 μm film and a 1.5 m, 0.25 mm I.D. polar secondary column (StabilwaxTM, 0.25 μm film. Excellent separation was achieved in a 36 min temperature programmed GC × GC chromatogram. Thousands of VBOC peaks were present in the sample chromatograms; hundreds of tentative identifications by NIST mass spectral matching are provided. Very few of the tentatively identified compounds are currently available as authentic standards. Minimum detection limit values for a 5 l ATD sample were 3.5 pptv (10 ng m−3 for isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, and methacrolein, and ~1.5 pptv (~10 ng m−3 for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Kovats-type chromatographic retention index values on the primary column and relative retention time values on the secondary column are provided for 21 standard compounds and for 417 tentatively identified VBOCs. 19 of the 21 authentic standard compounds were found in one of the Cedrus atlantica SPME samples. In addition, easily quantifiable levels of at least 13 sesquiterpenes were found in an ATD sample obtained from a branch enclosure of Calycolpus moritzianus. Overall, the results obtained via GC × GC-TOFMS highlight an extreme, and largely uncharacterized diversity of VBOCs, consistent with the hypothesis that sesquiterpenes and

  2. Volatilizable Biogenic Organic Compounds (VBOCs) with two dimensional Gas Chromatography-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS): sampling methods, VBOC complexity, and chromatographic retention data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J. F.; Luo, W.; Melnychenko, A. N.; Barsanti, K. C.; Isabelle, L. M.; Chen, C.; Guenther, A. B.; Rosenstiel, T. N.

    2012-02-01

    Two dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) with detection by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was applied in the rapid analysis of air samples containing highly complex mixtures of volatilizable biogenic organic compounds (VBOCs). VBOC analytical methodologies are briefly reviewed, and optimal conditions are discussed for sampling with both adsorption/thermal desorption (ATD) cartridges and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibers. Air samples containing VBOC emissions from leaves of two tree species (Cedrus atlantica and Calycolpus moritzianus) were obtained by both ATD and SPME. The optimized gas chromatographic conditions utilized a 45 m, 0.25 mm I.D. low-polarity primary column (DB-VRX, 1.4 μm film) and a 1.5 m, 0.25 mm I.D. polar secondary column (StabilwaxTM, 0.25 μm film). Excellent separation was achieved in a 36 min temperature programmed GC × GC chromatogram. Thousands of VBOC peaks were present in the sample chromatograms; hundreds of tentative identifications by NIST mass spectral matching are provided. Very few of the tentatively identified compounds are currently available as authentic standards. Minimum detection limit values for a 5 l ATD sample were 3.5 pptv (10 ng m-3) for isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, and methacrolein, and ~1.5 pptv (~10 ng m-3) for monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Kovats-type chromatographic retention index values on the primary column and relative retention time values on the secondary column are provided for 21 standard compounds and for 417 tentatively identified VBOCs. 19 of the 21 authentic standard compounds were found in one of the Cedrus atlantica SPME samples. In addition, easily quantifiable levels of at least 13 sesquiterpenes were found in an ATD sample obtained from a branch enclosure of Calycolpus moritzianus. Overall, the results obtained via GC × GC-TOFMS highlight an extreme, and largely uncharacterized diversity of VBOCs, consistent with the hypothesis that sesquiterpenes and other compounds

  3. Discrete Bose-Einstein spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Valentin I.; Ionescu-Pallas, Nicholas

    2001-03-01

    The Bose-Einstein energy spectrum of a quantum gas, confined in a rigid cubic box, is shown to become discrete and strongly dependent on the box geometry (size L), temperature, T and atomic mass number, A at , in the region of small γ=A at TV 1/3 . This behavior is the consequence of the random state degeneracy in the box. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the total energy does not obey the conventional law any longer, but a new law, which depends on γ and on the quantum gas fugacity. This energy law imposes a faster decrease to zero than it is classically expected, for γ→0. The lighter the gas atoms, the higher the temperatures or the box size, for the same effects in the discrete Bose-Einstein regime. (author)

  4. Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2003-01-01

    In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....

  5. Effective interactions in a quantum Bose-Bose mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utesov, O. I.; Baglay, M. I.; Andreev, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    We generalize the Beliaev diagrammatic theory of an interacting spinless Bose-Einstein condensate to the case of a binary mixture. We derive a set of coupled Dyson equations and find analytically the Green's functions of the system. The elementary excitation spectrum consists of two branches, one of which takes the characteristic parabolic form ω ∝p2 in the limit of a spin-independent interaction. We observe renormalization of the magnon mass and the spin-wave velocity due to the Andreev-Bashkin entrainment effect. For a three-dimensional weakly interacting gas the spectrum can be obtained by applying the Bogoliubov transformation to a second-quantized Hamiltonian in which the microscopic two-body potentials in each channel are replaced by the corresponding off-shell scattering amplitudes. The superfluid drag density can be calculated by considering a mixture of phonons and magnons interacting via the effective potentials. We show that this problem is identical to the second-order perturbative treatment of a Bose polaron. In two dimensions the drag contributes to the magnon dispersion already in the first approximation. Our consideration provides a basis for systematic study of emergent phases in quantum degenerate Bose-Bose mixtures.

  6. Dynamical class of a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Érica de Mello

    2015-10-01

    A current goal in plasmonic science and technology is to figure out how to manage the relaxational dynamics of surface plasmons in graphene since its damping constitutes a hinder for the realization of graphene-based plasmonic devices. In this sense we believe it might be of interest to enlarge the knowledge on the dynamical class of two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac systems. According to the recurrence relations method, different systems are said to be dynamically equivalent if they have identical relaxation functions at all times, and such commonality may lead to deep connections between seemingly unrelated physical systems. We employ the recurrence relations approach to obtain relaxation and memory functions of density fluctuations and show that a two-dimensional plasmonic Dirac system at long wavelength and zero temperature belongs to the same dynamical class of standard two-dimensional electron gas and classical harmonic oscillator chain with an impurity mass.

  7. Bose-Einstein-condensed gases with arbitrary strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.

    2006-01-01

    Bose-condensed gases are considered with an effective interaction strength varying in the whole range of the values between zero and infinity. The consideration is based on the usage of a representative statistical ensemble for Bose systems with broken global gauge symmetry. Practical calculations are illustrated for a uniform Bose gas at zero temperature, employing a self-consistent mean-field theory, which is both conserving and gapless

  8. On the number of Bose-selected modes in driven-dissipative ideal Bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexander; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2018-03-01

    In an ideal Bose gas that is driven into a steady state far from thermal equilibrium, a generalized form of Bose condensation can occur. Namely, the single-particle states unambiguously separate into two groups: the group of Bose-selected states, whose occupations increase linearly with the total particle number, and the group of all other states whose occupations saturate [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. However, so far very little is known about how the number of Bose-selected states depends on the properties of the system and its coupling to the environment. The answer to this question is crucial since systems hosting a single, a few, or an extensive number of Bose-selected states will show rather different behavior. While in the former two scenarios each selected mode acquires a macroscopic occupation, corresponding to (fragmented) Bose condensation, the latter case rather bears resemblance to a high-temperature state of matter. In this paper, we systematically investigate the number of Bose-selected states, considering different classes of the rate matrices that characterize the driven-dissipative ideal Bose gases in the limit of weak system-bath coupling. These include rate matrices with continuum limit, rate matrices of chaotic driven systems, random rate matrices, and rate matrices resulting from thermal baths that couple to a few observables only.

  9. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Brendon A.; Pinkerton, David K.; Wright, Bob W.; Synovec, Robert E.

    2016-04-01

    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of scientific interest, particularly to regulatory agencies which set fuel specifications, or excises based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC–TOFMS) is ideally suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. The tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) method reduces the abundance of data in a GC × GC–TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from different filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features which are likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and which will consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When

  10. The use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and structure-activity modeling for screening and preliminary risk assessment of organic contaminants in soil, sediment, and surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira Bastos, Patricia; Haglund, Peter [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: This article aims to investigate the use and benefits of using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) and structure-activity relationship modeling for screening and prioritization of organic contaminants in complex matrices. The benefit of applying comprehensive screening techniques to samples with high organic contaminant content is primarily that compounds with diverse physicochemical properties can be analyzed simultaneously. Here, a heavily contaminated industrial area was surveyed for organic pollutants by analyzing soil, sediment, and surface water samples. The hazard of the pollutants were ranked using SARs. Material and methods: The water samples were liquid-liquid extracted using dichloromethane and directly analyzed by GC x GC-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TofMS). Soil and sediment samples were extracted with dichloromethane in an ultrasonic bath and subjected to gel permeation chromatography to eliminate lipids and humic matter. The low molecular weight fraction was then analyzed with GC x GC-TofMS. Results and discussion: More than 10,000 components were found in each sample, of which ca. 300 individual compounds were unambiguously identified using the National Institute of Standards and Technology mass spectra library and authentic reference standards. Alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates were generally the most abundant and were found in all matrices. In contrast, chlorinated compounds such as chlorophenols, biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides were only detected in samples from a few hotspot regions. The toxicities of the most frequently detected compounds and of the compounds detected at the highest concentrations in samples from hotspot regions were estimated by ecological structure-activity relationships. The ratio of the measured concentration to the predicted toxicity level was then calculated for each compound and used for an initial risk assessment in order to prioritize compounds

  11. Chemical characterization of the acid alteration of diesel fuel: Non-targeted analysis by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry with tile-based Fisher ratio and combinatorial threshold determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Brendon A; Pinkerton, David K; Wright, Bob W; Synovec, Robert E

    2016-04-01

    The illicit chemical alteration of petroleum fuels is of keen interest, particularly to regulatory agencies that set fuel specifications, or taxes/credits based on those specifications. One type of alteration is the reaction of diesel fuel with concentrated sulfuric acid. Such reactions are known to subtly alter the chemical composition of the fuel, particularly the aromatic species native to the fuel. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) is well suited for the analysis of diesel fuel, but may provide the analyst with an overwhelming amount of data, particularly in sample-class comparison experiments comprised of many samples. Tile-based Fisher-ratio (F-ratio) analysis reduces the abundance of data in a GC×GC-TOFMS experiment to only the peaks which significantly distinguish the unaltered and acid altered sample classes. Three samples of diesel fuel from differently branded filling stations were each altered to discover chemical features, i.e., analyte peaks, which were consistently changed by the acid reaction. Using different fuels prioritizes the discovery of features likely to be robust to the variation present between fuel samples and may consequently be useful in determining whether an unknown sample has been acid altered. The subsequent analysis confirmed that aromatic species are removed by the acid alteration, with the degree of removal consistent with predicted reactivity toward electrophilic aromatic sulfonation. Additionally, we observed that alkenes and alkynes were also removed from the fuel, and that sulfur dioxide or compounds that degrade to sulfur dioxide are generated by the acid alteration. In addition to applying the previously reported tile-based F-ratio method, this report also expands null distribution analysis to algorithmically determine an F-ratio threshold to confidently select only the features which are sufficiently class-distinguishing. When applied to the acid

  12. A high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas at the spinel/perovskite interface of γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Bovet, N.; Trier, Felix

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of two-dimensional electron gases at the heterointerface between two insulating perovskite-type oxides, such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, provides opportunities for a new generation of all-oxide electronic devices. Key challenges remain for achieving interfacial electron mobilities much...

  13. Bose condensates make quantum leaps and bounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castin, Y.; Dum, R.; Sinatra, A.

    1999-01-01

    Since the first observation in 1995 of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases, atomic physicists have made extraordinary progress in understanding this unusual quantum state of matter. BOSE-EINSTEIN condensation is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon that was first predicted by Albert Einstein in the 1920s, at a time when quantum theory was still developing and was being applied to microscopic systems, such as individual particles and atoms. Einstein applied the new concept of Bose statistics to an ideal gas of identical atoms that were at thermal equilibrium and trapped in a box. He predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would accumulate in the lowest quantum state in the box, giving rise to a new state of matter with many unusual properties. The crucial point of Einstein's model is the absence of interactions between the particles in the box. However, this makes his prediction difficult to test in practice. In most real systems the complicating effect of particle interactions causes the gas to solidify well before the temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached. But techniques developed in the past four years have allowed physicists to form Bose-Einstein condensates for a wide range of elements. In this article the authors describe the latest advances in Bose-Einstein condensation. (UK)

  14. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  15. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  16. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 11. Development of Two-Dimensional NMR: Strucure Determination of Biomolecules in Solution. Anil Kumar. General Article Volume 20 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 995-1002 ...

  17. Phase transitions in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, S.R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Some experiences are related using synchrotron radiation beams, to characterize solid-liquid (fusion) and commensurate solid-uncommensurate solid transitions in two-dimensional systems. Some ideas involved in the modern theories of two-dimensional fusion are shortly exposed. The systems treated consist of noble gases (Kr,Ar,Xe) adsorbed in the basal plane of graphite and thin films formed by some liquid crystal shells. (L.C.) [pt

  18. Competition between Bose-Einstein Condensation and Spin Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, B; Brewczyk, M; Gajda, M; Gorceix, O; Maréchal, E; Vernac, L; Laburthe-Tolra, B

    2016-10-28

    We study the impact of spin-exchange collisions on the dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensation by rapidly cooling a chromium multicomponent Bose gas. Despite relatively strong spin-dependent interactions, the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is reached before the spin degrees of freedom fully thermalize. The increase in density due to Bose-Einstein condensation then triggers spin dynamics, hampering the formation of condensates in spin-excited states. Small metastable spinor condensates are, nevertheless, produced, and they manifest in strong spin fluctuations.

  19. Upper limit on the transition temperature for non-ideal Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show that for a non-ideal Bose gas there exists an upper limit on the transition temperature above which Bose-Einstein condensation cannot occur regardless of the pressure applied. Such upper limits for some realistic Bose gases are estimated

  20. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate fromation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field efects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  1. Condensate growth in trapped Bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.J.; Zaremba, E.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We study the dynamics of condensate formation in an inhomogeneous trapped Bose gas with a positive interatomic scattering length. We take into account both the nonequilibrium kinetics of the thermal cloud and the Hartree-Fock mean-field effects in the condensed and the noncondensed parts of the gas.

  2. Interaction effects on dynamic correlations in noncondensed Bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezett, A.; Van Driel, H. J.; Mink, M. P.; Stoof, H. T C; Duine, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider dynamic, i.e., frequency-dependent, correlations in noncondensed ultracold atomic Bose gases. In particular, we consider the single-particle correlation function and its power spectrum. We compute this power spectrum for a one-component Bose gas, and we show how it depends on the

  3. On an uncorrelated jet model with Bose-Einstein statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilic, N.; Dadic, I.; Martinis, M.

    1978-01-01

    Starting from the density of states of an ideal Bose-Einstein gas, an uncorrelated jet model with Bose-Einstein statistics has been formulated. The transition to continuum is based on the Touschek invariant measure. It has been shown that in this model average multiplicity increases logarithmically with total energy, while the inclusive distribution shows ln s violation of scaling. (author)

  4. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  5. Two-dimensional Yukawa interactions from nonlocal Proca quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Van Sérgio; Macrı, Tommaso; Magalhães, Gabriel C.; Marino, E. C.; Nascimento, Leandro O.

    2018-05-01

    We derive two versions of an effective model to describe dynamical effects of the Yukawa interaction among Dirac electrons in the plane. Such short-range interaction is obtained by introducing a mass term for the intermediate particle, which may be either scalar or an abelian gauge field, both of them in (3 +1 ) dimensions. Thereafter, we consider that the fermionic matter field propagates only in (2 +1 ) dimensions, whereas the bosonic field is free to propagate out of the plane. Within these assumptions, we apply a mechanism for dimensional reduction, which yields an effective model in (2 +1 ) dimensions. In particular, for the gauge-field case, we use the Stueckelberg mechanism in order to preserve gauge invariance. We refer to this version as nonlocal-Proca quantum electrodynamics (NPQED). For both scalar and gauge cases, the effective models reproduce the usual Yukawa interaction in the static limit. By means of perturbation theory at one loop, we calculate the mass renormalization of the Dirac field. Our model is a generalization of Pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED), which is a gauge-field model that provides a Coulomb interaction for two-dimensional electrons. Possibilities of application to Fermi-Bose mixtures in mixed dimensions, using cold atoms, are briefly discussed.

  6. Bose-Einstein Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksch, D

    2003-01-01

    The Gross-Pitaevskii equation, named after one of the authors of the book, and its large number of applications for describing the properties of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in trapped weakly interacting atomic gases, is the main topic of this book. In total the monograph comprises 18 chapters and is divided into two parts. Part I introduces the notion of BEC and superfluidity in general terms. The most important properties of the ideal and the weakly interacting Bose gas are described and the effects of nonuniformity due to an external potential at zero temperature are studied. The first part is then concluded with a summary of the properties of superfluid He. In Part II the authors describe the theoretical aspects of BEC in harmonically trapped weakly interacting atomic gases. A short and rather rudimentary chapter on collisions and trapping of atomic gases which seems to be included for completeness only is followed by a detailed analysis of the ground state, collective excitations, thermodynamics, and vortices as well as mixtures of BECs and the Josephson effect in BEC. Finally, the last three chapters deal with topics of more recent interest like BEC in optical lattices, low dimensional systems, and cold Fermi gases. The book is well written and in fact it provides numerous useful and important relations between the different properties of a BEC and covers most of the aspects of ultracold weakly interacting atomic gases from the point of view of condensed matter physics. The book contains a comprehensive introduction to BEC for physicists new to the field as well as a lot of detail and insight for those already familiar with this area. I therefore recommend it to everyone who is interested in BEC. Very clearly however, the intention of the book is not to provide prospects for applications of BEC in atomic physics, quantum optics or quantum state engineering and therefore the more practically oriented reader might sometimes wonder why exactly an equation is

  7. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bax, A.; Lerner, L.

    1986-01-01

    Great spectral simplification can be obtained by spreading the conventional one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum in two independent frequency dimensions. This so-called two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy removes spectral overlap, facilitates spectral assignment, and provides a wealth of additional information. For example, conformational information related to interproton distances is available from resonance intensities in certain types of two-dimensional experiments. Another method generates 1 H NMR spectra of a preselected fragment of the molecule, suppressing resonances from other regions and greatly simplifying spectral appearance. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy can also be applied to the study of 13 C and 15 N, not only providing valuable connectivity information but also improving sensitivity of 13 C and 15 N detection by up to two orders of magnitude. 45 references, 10 figures

  8. Giant tunability of the two-dimensional electron gas at the interface of γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Wei; Zhang, Yu; Gan, Yulin

    2017-01-01

    a dielectric solid insulator, i.e. in the configuration of conventional field-effect transistors. To surpass this long-standing limit, we used ionic liquids as the dielectric layer for electrostatic gating of oxide interfaces in an electric double layer transistor (EDLT) configuration. Herein, we reported......Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed at the interface between two oxide insulators provide a rich platform for the next generation of electronic devices. However, their high carrier density makes it rather challenging to control the interface properties under a low electric field through...

  9. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  10. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  11. Bose-Einstein condensation of paraxial light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaers, J.; Schmitt, J.; Damm, T.; Vewinger, F.; Weitz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Photons, due to the virtually vanishing photon-photon interaction, constitute to very good approximation an ideal Bose gas, but owing to the vanishing chemical potential a (free) photon gas does not show Bose-Einstein condensation. However, this is not necessarily true for a lower-dimensional photon gas. By means of a fluorescence induced thermalization process in an optical microcavity one can achieve a thermal photon gas with freely adjustable chemical potential. Experimentally, we have observed thermalization and subsequently Bose-Einstein condensation of the photon gas at room temperature. In this paper, we give a detailed description of the experiment, which is based on a dye-filled optical microcavity, acting as a white-wall box for photons. Thermalization is achieved in a photon number-conserving way by photon scattering off the dye molecules, and the cavity mirrors both provide an effective photon mass and a confining potential-key prerequisites for the Bose-Einstein condensation of photons. The experimental results are in good agreement with both a statistical and a simple rate equation model, describing the properties of the thermalized photon gas.

  12. Many-particle correlations in quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, Valentin

    2002-01-01

    This thesis reports a theoretical investigation of many-particle correlation effects in semiconductor heterostructures containing quantum wells. Particular attention is paid towards quasi-particle pair correlations. Using the Green's function technique and the ladder approximation as a basis, the generalized mass action law, which describes the redistribution of particles between correlated and uncorrelated states in quasi-two-dimensional systems for different temperatures and total densities, is derived. The expression is valid beyond the low-density limit, which allows us to investigate the transition of the system from a dilute exciton gas to a dense electron-hole plasma. A generalized Levinson theorem, which takes k-space filling into account, is formulated. Screening in quasi-two-dimensional systems is analyzed rigorously. Firstly, the qualitatively new mechanism of static local screening by indirect excitons is studied using the simple Thomas-Fermi approximation. Then, a detailed many-body description suitable for a proper account of dynamic screening by a quasi-2D electron-hole plasma, and consistent with the previously derived mass action law, is provided. The generalized Lindhard approximation and excitonic plasmon-pole approximations are also derived. The theory is applied to single and double quantum wells. A self-consistent procedure is developed for numerical investigation of the ionization degree of an electron-hole plasma at different values of temperature/exciton Rydberg ratios. This procedure accounts for screening, k-space filling (exciton bleaching), and the formation of excitons. An abrupt jump in the value of the ionization degree that happens with an increase of the carrier density or temperature (Mott transition) is found in a certain density-temperature region. It has been found that the critical density of the Mott transition for indirect excitons may be much smaller than that for direct excitons. A suggestion has been made that some of the

  13. Bose, Prof. Indrani

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2000 Section: Physics. Bose, Prof. Indrani Ph.D. (Calcutta), FNASc. Date of birth: 15 August 1951. Specialization: Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Statistical Physics, Biological Physics and Systems Biology Address: Emeritus Scientist, Department of Physics, Bose Institute, ...

  14. Analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would migrate ...

  15. Analytical Simulation of Two Dimensional Advection Dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: The study was designed to investigate the analytical simulation of two dimensional advection dispersion equation of contaminant transport. The steady state flow condition of the contaminant transport where inorganic contaminants in aqueous waste solutions are disposed of at the land surface where it would ...

  16. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  17. Stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhmaidi, D.; Provenzale, A.; Lili, T.; Babiano, A.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the results of a numerical study on the stability of two-dimensional vorticity filaments around a circular vortex. We illustrate how the stability of the filaments depends on the balance between the strain associated with the far field of the vortex and the local vorticity of the filament, and we discuss an empirical criterion for filament stability

  18. Two-Dimensional Motions of Rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the…

  19. Conformal invariance and two-dimensional physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Actually, physicists and mathematicians are very interested in conformal invariance: geometric transformations which keep angles. This symmetry is very important for two-dimensional systems as phase transitions, string theory or node mathematics. In this article, the author presents the conformal invariance and explains its usefulness

  20. Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar...

  1. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  2. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  3. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  4. Bose gases in one-dimensional harmonic trap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional Bose gas confined by a harmonic potential are studied using different ensemble approaches. Combining number theory methods, a new approach is presented to calculate the occupation numbers of different energy levels in ...

  5. Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t c 1 . For tunneling well below t c 1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids

  6. Coherent decay of positronium bose condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanyashin, V.S.

    1992-07-01

    The rate of self-stimulated emission of photon pairs by pseudoscalar particles from Bose condensate is calculated. Growing with density this rate exceeds the density independent rate of spontaneous two photon decay at plausible density values of positronium gas, thus opening in principle, the way to the annihilation gamma ray laser realization. (author). 2 refs

  7. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  8. Two-dimensional sensitivity calculation code: SENSETWO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Nakayama, Mitsuo; Minami, Kazuyoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Iida, Hiromasa.

    1979-05-01

    A SENSETWO code for the calculation of cross section sensitivities with a two-dimensional model has been developed, on the basis of first order perturbation theory. It uses forward neutron and/or gamma-ray fluxes and adjoint fluxes obtained by two-dimensional discrete ordinates code TWOTRAN-II. The data and informations of cross sections, geometry, nuclide density, response functions, etc. are transmitted to SENSETWO by the dump magnetic tape made in TWOTRAN calculations. The required input for SENSETWO calculations is thus very simple. The SENSETWO yields as printed output the cross section sensitivities for each coarse mesh zone and for each energy group, as well as the plotted output of sensitivity profiles specified by the input. A special feature of the code is that it also calculates the reaction rate with the response function used as the adjoint source in TWOTRAN adjoint calculation and the calculated forward flux from the TWOTRAN forward calculation. (author)

  9. Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-10-01

    The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.

  10. Toward two-dimensional search engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermann, L; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D

    2012-01-01

    We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank–CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed. (paper)

  11. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  12. Two-Dimensional Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jia

    2015-01-01

    (BP networks. However, like many other methods, ELM is originally proposed to handle vector pattern while nonvector patterns in real applications need to be explored, such as image data. We propose the two-dimensional extreme learning machine (2DELM based on the very natural idea to deal with matrix data directly. Unlike original ELM which handles vectors, 2DELM take the matrices as input features without vectorization. Empirical studies on several real image datasets show the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm.

  13. Superintegrability on the two dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopyan, E.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr

    1998-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of the quantum mechanical systems on the two dimensional hyperboloid which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. Here we consider two potentials introduced in a paper of C.P.Boyer, E.G.Kalnins and P.Winternitz, which haven't been studied yet. An example of an interbasis expansion is given and the structure of the quadratic algebra generated by the integrals of motion is carried out

  14. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  15. Mechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Enlai; Lin, Shao-Zhen; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Xu, Zhiping

    2018-06-01

    Two-dimensional materials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides have been identified and drawn much attention over the last few years for their unique structural and electronic properties. However, their rise begins only after these materials are successfully isolated from their layered assemblies or adhesive substrates into individual monolayers. Mechanical exfoliation and transfer are the most successful techniques to obtain high-quality single- or few-layer nanocrystals from their native multi-layer structures or their substrate for growth, which involves interfacial peeling and intralayer tearing processes that are controlled by material properties, geometry and the kinetics of exfoliation. This procedure is rationalized in this work through theoretical analysis and atomistic simulations. We propose a criterion to assess the feasibility for the exfoliation of two-dimensional sheets from an adhesive substrate without fracturing itself, and explore the effects of material and interface properties, as well as the geometrical, kinetic factors on the peeling behaviors and the torn morphology. This multi-scale approach elucidates the microscopic mechanism of the mechanical processes, offering predictive models and tools for the design of experimental procedures to obtain single- or few-layer two-dimensional materials and structures.

  16. Cooperative ring exchange and quantum melting of vortex lattices in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Tarun Kanti; Baskaran, G.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperative ring exchange is suggested as a mechanism of quantum melting of vortex lattices in a rapidly rotating quasi-two-dimensional atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). Using an approach pioneered by Kivelson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 873 (1986)] for the fractional quantized Hall effect, we calculate the condition for quantum melting instability by considering large-correlated ring exchanges in a two-dimensional Wigner crystal of vortices in a strong 'pseudomagnetic field' generated by the background superfluid Bose particles. BEC may be profitably used to address issues of quantum melting of a pristine Wigner solid devoid of complications of real solids

  17. Anisotropic mass density by two-dimensional acoustic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrent, Daniel; Sanchez-Dehesa, Jose [Wave Phenomena Group, Department of Electronic Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, C/Camino de Vera s/n, E-46022 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jsdehesa@upvnet.upv.es

    2008-02-15

    We show that specially designed two-dimensional arrangements of full elastic cylinders embedded in a nonviscous fluid or gas define (in the homogenization limit) a new class of acoustic metamaterials characterized by a dynamical effective mass density that is anisotropic. Here, analytic expressions for the dynamical mass density and the effective sound velocity tensors are derived in the long wavelength limit. Both show an explicit dependence on the lattice filling fraction, the elastic properties of cylinders relative to the background, their positions in the unit cell, and their multiple scattering interactions. Several examples of these metamaterials are reported and discussed.

  18. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enokizono, Masato

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  19. Two-dimensional Semiconductor-Superconductor Hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suominen, Henri Juhani

    This thesis investigates hybrid two-dimensional semiconductor-superconductor (Sm-S) devices and presents a new material platform exhibiting intimate Sm-S coupling straight out of the box. Starting with the conventional approach, we investigate coupling superconductors to buried quantum well....... To overcome these issues we integrate the superconductor directly into the semiconducting material growth stack, depositing it in-situ in a molecular beam epitaxy system under high vacuum. We present a number of experiments on these hybrid heterostructures, demonstrating near unity interface transparency...

  20. Optimized two-dimensional Sn transport (BISTRO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Gho, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an S n two-dimensional transport module developed for the French fast reactor code system CCRR to optimize algorithms in order to obtain the best performance in terms of computational time. A form of diffusion synthetic acceleration was adopted, and a special effort was made to solve the associated diffusion equation efficiently. The improvements in the algorithms, along with the use of an efficient programming language, led to a significant gain in computational time with respect to the DOT code

  1. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  2. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  3. Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric

    2014-06-01

    We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.

  4. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  5. Study of two-dimensional interchange turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugama, Hideo; Wakatani, Masahiro.

    1990-04-01

    An eddy viscosity model describing enstrophy transfer in two-dimensional turbulence is presented. This model is similar to that of Canuto et al. and provides an equation for the energy spectral function F(k) as a function of the energy input rate to the system per unit wavenumber, γ s (k). In the enstrophy-transfer inertial range, F(k)∝ k -3 is predicted by the model. The eddy viscosity model is applied to the interchange turbulence of a plasma in shearless magnetic field. Numerical simulation of the two-dimensional interchange turbulence demonstrates that the energy spectrum in the high wavenumber region is well described by this model. The turbulent transport driven by the interchange turbulence is expressed in terms of the Nusselt number Nu, the Rayleigh number Ra and Prantl number Pr in the same manner as that of thermal convection problem. When we use the linear growth rate for γ s (k), our theoretical model predicts that Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/2 for a constant background pressure gradient and Nu ∝ (Ra·Pr) 1/3 for a self-consistent background pressure profile with the stress-free slip boundary conditions. The latter agrees with our numerical result showing Nu ∝ Ra 1/3 . (author)

  6. Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Yaghmaie

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific representation is an interesting topic for philosophers of science, many of whom have recently explored it from different points of view. There are currently two competing approaches to the issue: cognitive and non-cognitive, and each of them claims its own merits over the other. This article tries to provide a hybrid theory of scientific representation, called Two-Dimensional Theory of Scientific Representation, which has the merits of the two accounts and is free of their shortcomings. To do this, we will argue that although scientific representation needs to use the notion of intentionality, such a notion is defined and realized in a simply structural form contrary to what cognitive approach says about intentionality. After a short introduction, the second part of the paper is devoted to introducing theories of scientific representation briefly. In the third part, the structural accounts of representation will be criticized. The next step is to introduce the two-dimensional theory which involves two key components: fixing and structural fitness. It will be argued that fitness is an objective and non-intentional relation, while fixing is intentional.

  7. Condensate fluctuations of interacting Bose gases within a microcanonical ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2011-05-01

    Based on counting statistics and Bogoliubov theory, we present a recurrence relation for the microcanonical partition function for a weakly interacting Bose gas with a finite number of particles in a cubic box. According to this microcanonical partition function, we calculate numerically the distribution function, condensate fraction, and condensate fluctuations for a finite and isolated Bose-Einstein condensate. For ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases, we compare the condensate fluctuations with those in the canonical ensemble. The present approach yields an accurate account of the condensate fluctuations for temperatures close to the critical region. We emphasize that the interactions between excited atoms turn out to be important for moderate temperatures.

  8. A Two-Dimensional Post-Stack Seismic Inversion for Acoustic Impedance of Gas and Hydrate Bearing Deep-Water Sediments Within the Continental Slope of the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keumsuk Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A post-stack inversion of 2D seismic data was conducted to estimate the spatial distribution of acoustic impedance associated with gas and hydrates in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, Korea constrained by logs from three boreholes drilled on its continental margin. A model-based inversion was applied to a Plio-Quaternary succession composed of alternations of unconsolidated mass-flow deposits/turbidites. A comparison of seismic reflections and synthetic data computed from impedance logs is shown for two zones. An upper (steep slope zone contains a moderately continuous, possibly bottom-simulating reflector feature along the corresponding section. This feature may be associated with a lithology boundary near a drill site in addition to, or instead of, a stability boundary of gas hydrates (i.e., gas below and hydrates above. The lower (gentle slope zone has locally cross-cutting reflection patterns that are more likely to be attributed to gas- and hydrate-related physical phenomena than to spatiotemporal changes in lithology. This seismic inversion is informative and useful, making a contribution to enhance the interpretability of the seismic profiles for a potential hydrate recovery.

  9. Rotational states of Bose gases with attractive interactions in anharmonic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundh, Emil; Collin, Anssi; Suominen, Kalle-Antti

    2004-01-01

    A rotated and harmonically trapped Bose gas with attractive interactions is expected to either remain stationary or escape from the trap. Here we report that, on the contrary, in an anharmonic trapping potential the Bose gas with attractive interactions responds to external rotation very differently, namely, through center-of-mass motion or by formation of vortices

  10. Resummation of Infrared Divergencies in the Theory of Atomic Bose Gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, H.T.C.; van Heugten, J. J. R. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a general strong-coupling approach for the description of an atomic Bose gas beyond the Bogoliubov approximation, when infrared divergences start to occur that need to be resummed exactly. We consider the determination of several important physical properties of the Bose gas, namely the

  11. Charge ordering in two-dimensional ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Aurélien; Urbic, Tomaz

    2018-04-01

    The structural properties of model two-dimensional (2D) ionic liquids are examined, with a particular focus on the charge ordering process, with the use of computer simulation and integral equation theories. The influence of the logarithmic form of the Coulomb interaction, versus that of a 3D screened interaction form, is analysed. Charge order is found to hold and to be analogous for both interaction models, despite their very different form. The influence of charge ordering in the low density regime is discussed in relation to well known properties of 2D Coulomb fluids, such as the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and criticality. The present study suggests the existence of a stable thermodynamic labile cluster phase, implying the existence of a liquid-liquid "transition" above the liquid-gas binodal. The liquid-gas and Kosterlitz-Thouless transitions would then take place inside the predicted cluster phase.

  12. Two-dimensional simulation of sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Pinto, Lucio Carlos Martins; Vasconcelos, Wander L.

    1996-01-01

    The results of two-dimensional simulations are directly applied to systems in which one of the dimensions is much smaller than the others, and to sections of three dimensional models. Moreover, these simulations are the first step of the analysis of more complex three-dimensional systems. In this work, two basic features of the sintering process are studied: the types of particle size distributions related to the powder production processes and the evolution of geometric parameters of the resultant microstructures during the solid-state sintering. Random packing of equal spheres is considered in the sintering simulation. The packing algorithm does not take into account the interactive forces between the particles. The used sintering algorithm causes the densification of the particle set. (author)

  13. Two dimensional generalizations of the Newcomb equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Pletzer, A.

    1989-11-01

    The Bineau reduction to scalar form of the equation governing ideal, zero frequency linearized displacements from a hydromagnetic equilibrium possessing a continuous symmetry is performed in 'universal coordinates', applicable to both the toroidal and helical cases. The resulting generalized Newcomb equation (GNE) has in general a more complicated form than the corresponding one dimensional equation obtained by Newcomb in the case of circular cylindrical symmetry, but in this cylindrical case , the equation can be transformed to that of Newcomb. In the two dimensional case there is a transformation which leaves the form of the GNE invariant and simplifies the Frobenius expansion about a rational surface, especially in the limit of zero pressure gradient. The Frobenius expansions about a mode rational surface is developed and the connection with Hamiltonian transformation theory is shown. 17 refs

  14. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  15. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  16. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  17. Two-dimensional phase fraction charts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morral, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A phase fraction chart is a graphical representation of the amount of each phase present in a system as a function of temperature, composition or other variable. Examples are phase fraction versus temperature charts used to characterize specific alloys and as a teaching tool in elementary texts, and Schaeffler diagrams used to predict the amount of ferrite in stainless steel welds. Isothermal-transformation diagrams (TTT diagrams) are examples that give phase (or microconstituent) amount versus temperature and time. The purpose of this communication is to discuss the properties of two-dimensional phase fraction charts in more general terms than have been reported before. It is shown that they can represent multi-component, multiphase equilibria in a way which is easier to read and which contains more information than the isotherms and isopleths of multi-component phase diagrams

  18. Two-dimensional motions of rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoonhwan; Bae, Saebyok

    2007-01-01

    We analyse the two-dimensional motions of the rockets for various types of rocket thrusts, the air friction and the gravitation by using a suitable representation of the rocket equation and the numerical calculation. The slope shapes of the rocket trajectories are discussed for the three types of rocket engines. Unlike the projectile motions, the descending parts of the trajectories tend to be gentler and straighter slopes than the ascending parts for relatively large launching angles due to the non-vanishing thrusts. We discuss the ranges, the maximum altitudes and the engine performances of the rockets. It seems that the exponential fuel exhaustion can be the most potent engine for the longest and highest flights

  19. Two dimensional NMR studies of polysaccharides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, R.A.; Egan, W.; Summers, M.F.

    1987-01-01

    Polysaccharides are very important components in the immune response system. Capsular polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides occupy cell surface sites of bacteria, play key roles in recognition and some have been used to develop vaccines. Consequently, the ability to determine chemical structures of these systems is vital to an understanding of their immunogenic action. The authors have been utilizing recently developed two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy for unambiguous assignment and structure determination of a number of polysaccharides. In particular, the 1 H-detected heteronuclear correlation experiments are essential to the rapid and sensitive determination of these structures. Linkage sites are determined by independent polarization transfer experiments and multiple quantum correlation experiments. These methods permit the complete structure determination on very small amounts of the polysaccharides. They present the results of a number of structural determinations and discuss the limits of these experiments in terms of their applications to polysaccharides

  20. Two-dimensional electroacoustic waves in silicene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-01-01

    In this letter, we investigate the propagation of two-dimensional electromagnetic waves in a piezoelectric medium built upon silicene. Ultrashort optical pulses of Gaussian form are considered to probe this medium. On the basis of Maxwell's equations supplemented with the wave equation for the medium's displacement vector, we obtain the effective governing equation for the vector potential associated with the electromagnetic field, as well as the component of the displacement vector. The dependence of the pulse shape on the bandgap in silicene and the piezoelectric coefficient of the medium was analyzed, thereby revealing a nontrivial triadic interplay between the characteristics of the pulse dynamics, the electronic properties of silicene, and the electrically induced mechanical vibrations of the medium. In particular, we uncovered the possibility for an amplification of the pulse amplitude through the tuning of the piezoelectric coefficient. This property could potentially offer promising prospects for the development of amplification devices for the optoelectronics industry.

  1. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  2. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  3. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  4. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  5. Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in an optical microcavity

    OpenAIRE

    Klaers, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state accumulation of particles with integer spin (bosons) at low temperature and high density, has been observed in several physical systems, including cold atomic gases and solid state physics quasiparticles. However, the most omnipresent Bose gas, blackbody radiation (radiation in thermal equilibrium with the cavity walls) does not show this phase transition, because the chemical potential of photons vanishes and, when the temperature is r...

  6. Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, R; Hatayama, N; Takahashi, Y; Nakano, H

    2009-01-01

    Thermal expansion of two-dimensional itinerant nearly ferromagnetic metal is investigated according to the recent theoretical development of magneto-volume effect for the three-dimensional weak ferromagnets. We particularly focus on the T 2 -linear thermal expansion of magnetic origin at low temperatures, so far disregarded by conventional theories. As the effect of thermal spin fluctuations we have found that the T-linear thermal expansion coefficient shows strong enhancement by assuming the double Lorentzian form of the non-interacting dynamical susceptibility justified in the small wave-number and low frequency region. It grows faster in proportional to y -1/2 as we approach the magnetic instability point than two-dimensional nearly antiferromagnetic metals with ln(1/y s ) dependence, where y and y s are the inverses of the reduced uniform and staggered magnetic susceptibilities, respectively. Our result is consistent with the Grueneisen's relation between the thermal expansion coefficient and the specific heat at low temperatures. In 2-dimensional electron gas we find that the thermal expansion coefficient is divergent with a finite y when the higher order term of non-interacting dynamical susceptibility is taken into account.

  7. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

  8. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  9. Stress distribution in two-dimensional silos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Pérez-Ángel, Gabriel

    2018-01-01

    Simulations of a polydispersed two-dimensional silo were performed using molecular dynamics, with different numbers of grains reaching up to 64 000, verifying numerically the model derived by Janssen and also the main assumption that the walls carry part of the weight due to the static friction between grains with themselves and those with the silo's walls. We vary the friction coefficient, the radii dispersity, the silo width, and the size of grains. We find that the Janssen's model becomes less relevant as the the silo width increases since the behavior of the stresses becomes more hydrostatic. Likewise, we get the normal and tangential stress distribution on the walls evidencing the existence of points of maximum stress. We also obtained the stress matrix with which we observe zones of concentration of load, located always at a height around two thirds of the granular columns. Finally, we observe that the size of the grains affects the distribution of stresses, increasing the weight on the bottom and reducing the normal stress on the walls, as the grains are made smaller (for the same total mass of the granulate), giving again a more hydrostatic and therefore less Janssen-type behavior for the weight of the column.

  10. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  11. Seismic isolation of two dimensional periodic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Y.; Mo, Y. L.; Laskar, A.; Cheng, Z.; Shi, Z.; Menq, F.; Tang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Phononic crystal is now used to control acoustic waves. When the crystal goes to a larger scale, it is called periodic structure. The band gaps of the periodic structure can be reduced to range from 0.5 Hz to 50 Hz. Therefore, the periodic structure has potential applications in seismic wave reflection. In civil engineering, the periodic structure can be served as the foundation of upper structure. This type of foundation consisting of periodic structure is called periodic foundation. When the frequency of seismic waves falls into the band gaps of the periodic foundation, the seismic wave can be blocked. Field experiments of a scaled two dimensional (2D) periodic foundation with an upper structure were conducted to verify the band gap effects. Test results showed the 2D periodic foundation can effectively reduce the response of the upper structure for excitations with frequencies within the frequency band gaps. When the experimental and the finite element analysis results are compared, they agree well with each other, indicating that 2D periodic foundation is a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations.

  12. Two-dimensional transport of tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshman, S.P.; Jardin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced set of two-fluid transport equations is obtained from the conservation equations describing the time evolution of the differential particle number, entropy, and magnetic fluxes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with nested magnetic surfaces. Expanding in the small ratio of perpendicular to parallel mobilities and thermal conductivities yields as solubility constraints one-dimensional equations for the surface-averaged thermodynamic variables and magnetic fluxes. Since Ohm's law E +u x B =R', where R' accounts for any nonideal effects, only determines the particle flow relative to the diffusing magnetic surfaces, it is necessary to solve a single two-dimensional generalized differential equation, (partial/partialt) delpsi. (delp - J x B) =0, to find the absolute velocity of a magnetic surface enclosing a fixed toroidal flux. This equation is linear but nonstandard in that it involves flux surface averages of the unknown velocity. Specification of R' and the cross-field ion and electron heat fluxes provides a closed system of equations. A time-dependent coordinate transformation is used to describe the diffusion of plasma quantities through magnetic surfaces of changing shape

  13. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng

    2017-09-01

    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  14. Turbulent equipartitions in two dimensional drift convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isichenko, M.B.; Yankov, V.V.

    1995-01-01

    Unlike the thermodynamic equipartition of energy in conservative systems, turbulent equipartitions (TEP) describe strongly non-equilibrium systems such as turbulent plasmas. In turbulent systems, energy is no longer a good invariant, but one can utilize the conservation of other quantities, such as adiabatic invariants, frozen-in magnetic flux, entropy, or combination thereof, in order to derive new, turbulent quasi-equilibria. These TEP equilibria assume various forms, but in general they sustain spatially inhomogeneous distributions of the usual thermodynamic quantities such as density or temperature. This mechanism explains the effects of particle and energy pinch in tokamaks. The analysis of the relaxed states caused by turbulent mixing is based on the existence of Lagrangian invariants (quantities constant along fluid-particle or other orbits). A turbulent equipartition corresponds to the spatially uniform distribution of relevant Lagrangian invariants. The existence of such turbulent equilibria is demonstrated in the simple model of two dimensional electrostatically turbulent plasma in an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The turbulence is prescribed, and the turbulent transport is assumed to be much stronger than the classical collisional transport. The simplicity of the model makes it possible to derive the equations describing the relaxation to the TEP state in several limits

  15. Radiation effects on two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, R.C. II; Robinson, J.A. [Department of Materials Science, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Center for Two-Dimensional Layered Materials, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Shi, T. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Penn State, University Park, PA (United States); Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Silva, E.C. [GlobalFoundries, Malta, NY (United States); Jovanovic, I. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-15

    The effects of electromagnetic and particle irradiation on two-dimensional materials (2DMs) are discussed in this review. Radiation creates defects that impact the structure and electronic performance of materials. Determining the impact of these defects is important for developing 2DM-based devices for use in high-radiation environments, such as space or nuclear reactors. As such, most experimental studies have been focused on determining total ionizing dose damage to 2DMs and devices. Total dose experiments using X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, protons, and heavy ions are summarized in this review. We briefly discuss the possibility of investigating single event effects in 2DMs based on initial ion beam irradiation experiments and the development of 2DM-based integrated circuits. Additionally, beneficial uses of irradiation such as ion implantation to dope materials or electron-beam and helium-beam etching to shape materials have begun to be used on 2DMs and are reviewed as well. For non-ionizing radiation, such as low-energy photons, we review the literature on 2DM-based photo-detection from terahertz to UV. The majority of photo-detecting devices operate in the visible and UV range, and for this reason they are the focus of this review. However, we review the progress in developing 2DMs for detecting infrared and terahertz radiation. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  17. Role of thermal two-phonon scattering for impurity dynamics in a low-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausch, Tobias; Widera, Artur; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We numerically study the relaxation dynamics of a single, heavy impurity atom interacting with a finite one- or two-dimensional, ultracold Bose gas. While there is a clear separation of time scales between processes resulting from single- and two-phonon scattering in three spatial dimensions, the thermalization in lower dimensions is dominated by two-phonon processes. This is due to infrared divergences in the corresponding scattering rates in the thermodynamic limit, which are a manifestation of the Mermin-Wagner-Hohenberg theorem. This makes it necessary to include second-order phonon scattering above a crossover temperature T2ph . T2ph scales inversely with the system size and is much smaller than currently experimentally accessible.

  18. More accurate theory for Bose-Einstein condensation fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Shyamal

    2008-01-01

    Bose-Einstein statistics is derived in the thermodynamic limit when the ratio of system size to thermal de Broglie wavelength goes to infinity. However, according to the experimental setup of Bose-Einstein condensation of harmonically trapped Bose gas of alkali atoms, the ratio near the condensation temperature (T o ) is 30-50. And, at ultralow temperatures well below T o , this ratio becomes comparable to 1. We argue that finite size as well as the ultralow temperature induces corrections to Bose-Einstein statistics. From the corrected statistics we plot condensation fraction versus temperature graph. This theoretical plot satisfies well with the experimental plot [A. Griesmaier et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 160401

  19. effect of the parameters of AlN/GaN/AlGaN and AlN/GaN/InAlN heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas on their electrical properties and the characteristics of transistors on their basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsulnikov, A. F., E-mail: andrew@beam.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Lundin, V. W.; Zavarin, E. E.; Yagovkina, M. A.; Sakharov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Usov, S. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Zemlyakov, V. E.; Egorkin, V. I. [National Research University of Electronic Technology (MIET) (Russian Federation); Bulashevich, K. A.; Karpov, S. Yu. [“Soft-Impact” Ltd. (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The effect of the layer thickness and composition in AlGaN/AlN/GaN and InAlN/AlN/GaN transistor heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas on their electrical and the static parameters of test transistors fabricated from such heterostructures are experimentally and theoretically studied. It is shown that the use of an InAlN barrier layer instead of AlGaN results in a more than twofold increase in the carrier concentration in the channel, which leads to a corresponding increase in the saturation current. In situ dielectric-coating deposition on the InAlN/AlN/GaN heterostructure surface during growth process allows an increase in the maximum saturation current and breakdown voltages while retaining high transconductance.

  20. Bose, Prof. Arup

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2006 Section: Mathematical Sciences. Bose, Prof. Arup Ph.D. (ISI, Calcutta), FNA, FNASc. Date of birth: 1 April 1959. Specialization: Probability and Statistics, Economics Address: Professor, Statistics & Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108, ...