Sample records for two-dimensional 2d systems

  1. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa


    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  2. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.


    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  3. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE. (United States)

    Meleady, Paula


    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  4. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen


    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  5. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang


    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  6. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin


    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.


    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....

  8. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers. (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang


    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  9. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. (United States)

    Berkelman, Tom


    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  10. Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail:


    We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.

  11. Two-dimensional topological photonic systems (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Chen; He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Zhu, Shi-Ning; Chen, Yan-Feng


    The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.

  12. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.


    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library ( and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  13. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.


    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Filtering and control for classes of two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Ligang


    This book focuses on filtering, control and model-reduction problems for two-dimensional (2-D) systems with imperfect information. The time-delayed 2-D systems covered have system parameters subject to uncertain, stochastic and parameter-varying changes. After an initial introduction of 2-D systems and the ideas of linear repetitive processes, the text is divided into two parts detailing: ·         general theory and methods of analysis and optimal synthesis for 2-D systems; and ·         application of the general theory to the particular case of differential/discrete linear repetitive processes. The methods developed provide a framework for stability and performance analysis, optimal and robust controller and filter design and model approximation for the systems considered. Solutions to the design problems are couched in terms of linear matrix inequalities. For readers interested in the state of the art in linear filtering, control and model reduction, Filtering and Control for Classes of ...

  15. Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems. (United States)

    Torii, Keiko U


    Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems (United States)

    Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya


    Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.

  17. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.


    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  18. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates. (United States)

    Mitri, F G


    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  19. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment. (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B


    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  20. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.


    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  1. Magnetoconductivity of two-dimensional electron systems (United States)

    Kuehnel, Frank Oliver

    The conductivity sigmaxx(o) of a low-density nondegenerate 2D electron gas is investigated under conditions where hoc ≫ kBT ≫ hgamma (oc is the cyclotron frequency and hgamma is the disorder-induced width of the Landau level). Such conditions have been met for electrons on helium surface, and can also be achieved in ultra high quality heterostructures. Because of the random potential of defects, single-electron states of the lowest Landau level form a band of a width hgamma ≪ hoc. Almost all of these states are localized. Therefore, for ho c ≫ kBT ≫ hgamma, the static single-electron conductivity sigma xx(0) may be expected to be equal to zero. Since for o ≫ gamma the conductivity should decay, on the whole sigma xx(o) has a peak at a finite frequency. From scaling arguments, we show that in the single-electron approximation sigma xx(o) ∝ omu for o → 0, with the exponent mu in the range from 0.21 to 0.22, whereas the frequency dependence of the cyclotron resonance absorption peak is non-critical. The far tails of the conductivity peaks are obtained using the method of optimal fluctuation and are shown to be Gaussian. In order to investigate the shape of the low frequency peak and cyclotron resonance absorption peak, we use the method of moments (MOM). In MOM, the low-frequency conductivity is restored from its 14 spectral moments, whereas the cyclotron resonance absorption is restored from the calculated 10 spectral moments using the continuous fraction expansion. In combination with the analytical asymptotics, both expansions converge rapidly with increasing number of included moments, and give numerically accurate results throughout the region of interest. The effect of electron-electron interaction (EEI) on the low frequency conductivity is also investigated. EEI makes the static conductivity finite. For a low-density system, the effect can be described using the notion of a fluctuational field Efl which drives an electron because of electron

  2. Criticality in Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems: Tensor Network Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ran, Shi-Ju; Li, Wei; Lewenstein, Maciej; Su, Gang


    Determination and characterization of criticality in two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body systems belong to the most important challenges and problems of quantum physics. In this paper we propose an efficient scheme to solve this problem by utilizing the infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS), and tensor network (TN) representations. We show that the criticality of a 2D state is faithfully reproduced by the ground state (dubbed as boundary state) of a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian constructed from its iPEPS representation. We demonstrate that for a critical state the correlation length and the entanglement spectrum of the boundary state are essentially different from those of a gapped iPEPS. This provides a solid indicator that allows to identify the criticality of the 2D state. Our scheme is verified on the resonating valence bond (RVB) states on kagom\\'e and square lattices, where the boundary state of the honeycomb RVB is found to be described by a $c=1$ conformal field theory. We apply ...

  3. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko


    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  4. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine. (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel


    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  5. Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hun


    The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.

  6. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki


    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  7. Second invariant for two-dimensional classical super systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Roshan Lal; Veena Mishra


    Construction of superpotentials for two-dimensional classical super systems (for ≥ 2) is carried out. Some interesting potentials have been studied in their super form and also their integrability.

  8. Two-dimensional atom localization via probe absorption in a four-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhi-Ping; Ge Qiang; Ruan Yu-Hua; Yu Ben-Li


    We have investigated the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via probe absorption in a coherently driven fourlevel atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition.It is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D atom localization can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters.As a result,our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization.

  9. Singular analysis of two-dimensional bifurcation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Bifurcation properties of two-dimensional bifurcation system are studied in this paper.Universal unfolding and transition sets of the bifurcation equations are obtained.The whole parametric plane is divided into several different persistent regions according to the type of motion,and the different qualitative bifurcation diagrams in different persistent regions are given.The bifurcation properties of the two-dimensional bifurcation system are compared with its reduced one-dimensional system.It is found that the system which is reduced to one dimension has lost many bifurcation properties.

  10. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka


    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  11. Temperature derivative of the chemical potential and its magnetooscillations in two-dimensional system


    Tupikov, Y.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Burmistrov, I. S.


    We report first thermodynamic measurements of the temperature derivative of chemical potential (d{\\mu}/dT) in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. In order to test the technique we have chosen Schottky gated GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions and detected experimentally in this 2D system quantum magnetooscillations of d{\\mu}/dT. We also present a Lifshits-Kosevitch type theory for the d{\\mu}/dT magnetooscillations in 2D systems and compare the theory with experimental data. The magnetic field depe...

  12. The two-dimensional alternative binary L-J system: liquid-gas phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张陟; 陈立溁


    A two-dimensional (2D) binary system without considering the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential has been studied by using the Collins model. In this paper, we introduce the L-J potential into the 2D binary system and consider the existence of the holes that are called the "molecular fraction". The liquid-gas phase diagram of the 2D alternative binary L-J system is obtained. The results are quite analogous to the behaviour of 3D substances.

  13. Boundary-value problems for two-dimensional canonical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassi, Seppo; De Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik


    The two-dimensional canonical system Jy' = -lHy where the nonnegative Hamiltonian matrix function H(x) is trace-normed on (0,∞) has been studied in a function-theoretic way by L. de Branges. We show that the Hamiltonian system induces a closed symmetric relation which can be reduced to a, not necess

  14. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  15. Coll Positioning systems: a two-dimensional approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrando, J J


    The basic elements of Coll positioning systems (n clocks broadcasting electromagnetic signals in a n-dimensional space-time) are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allows us to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these relativistic positioning systems. The positioning system defined in flat metric by two geodesic clocks is analyzed. The interest of the Coll systems in gravimetry is pointed out.

  16. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.


    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  17. Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes (United States)

    Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.


    Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.

  18. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai


    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  19. A two-dimensional approach to relativistic positioning systems

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, B; Morales, J A; Coll, Bartolom\\'{e}; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio


    A relativistic positioning system is a physical realization of a coordinate system consisting in four clocks in arbitrary motion broadcasting their proper times. The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems are presented in the two-dimensional case. This simplified approach allow to explain and to analyze the properties and interest of these new systems. The positioning system defined by geodesic emitters in flat metric is developed in detail. The information that the data generated by a relativistic positioning system give on the space-time metric interval is analyzed, and the interest of these results in gravimetry is pointed out.

  20. Two-dimensional localized structures in harmonically forced oscillatory systems (United States)

    Ma, Y.-P.; Knobloch, E.


    Two-dimensional spatially localized structures in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation with 1:1 resonance are studied near the simultaneous presence of a steady front between two spatially homogeneous equilibria and a supercritical Turing bifurcation on one of them. The bifurcation structures of steady circular fronts and localized target patterns are computed in the Turing-stable and Turing-unstable regimes. In particular, localized target patterns grow along the solution branch via ring insertion at the core in a process reminiscent of defect-mediated snaking in one spatial dimension. Stability of axisymmetric solutions on these branches with respect to axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric perturbations is determined, and parameter regimes with stable axisymmetric oscillons are identified. Direct numerical simulations reveal novel depinning dynamics of localized target patterns in the radial direction, and of circular and planar localized hexagonal patterns in the fully two-dimensional system.

  1. The investigation on two-dimensional pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation method for OFDM system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Juying; Zhang Yanhua


    Channel estimation for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system has attracted widespread attention. In this paper, a novel efficient two-dimensional (2-D) channel estimation algorithm based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) is proposed for a time-variant, frequency-selective wideband wireless channel. Both theoretical analysis and simulation results are addressed in the paper. The simulation results prove that the proposed algorithm has simpler implementation, better performance and wider application than other traditional decision-directed algorithms.

  2. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0 (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.


    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  3. Undamped relativistic magnetoplasmons in lossy two-dimensional electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Volkov, V A


    We address electrodynamic effects in plasma oscillations of a lossy 2D electron system whose dc 2D conductivity is comparable to the speed of light. We argue that the perpendicular dc magnetic field B causes astonishing features of magnetoplasma dynamics. We show that plasmon-polariton spectra can be classified using a "relativistic" phase diagram 2D conductivity divided by the speed of light versus B. A novel, extraordinarily low damping branch in magnetoplasmon-polariton spectra emerges at two phases of this diagram. Some magnetoplasmons at these phases are predicted to be undamped waves.

  4. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems.


    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole; Hassenkam, T.; Shiraki, I.; Hasegawa, S.; Bøggild, Peter


    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1/15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the ...

  5. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov


    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  6. Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems (United States)

    Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng


    We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.

  7. Non-Achievability of Metal-Insulator Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. John Peter


    @@ We present a simple demonstration of the non feasibility of metal-insulator transition in an exactly two-dimensional (2D) system. The Hartree-Fock potential in the 3D system is suitably modified and presented for the 2D case.The many body effects are included in the screening function, and binding energies of a donor are obtained as a function of impurity concentration so as to find out the possible way leading metal-insulator transition in the 2D system. While solving for the binding energy for a shallow donor in an isolated well of a GaAs/Ga1-x Als As superlattice system within the effective mass approximation, it leads to unphysical results for higher concentrations.

  8. Patched Green's function techniques for two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Lin, Jun


    We present a numerically efficient technique to evaluate the Green's function for extended two-dimensional systems without relying on periodic boundary conditions. Different regions of interest, or “patches,” are connected using self-energy terms which encode the information of the extended parts...... of the system. The calculation scheme uses a combination of analytic expressions for the Green's function of infinite pristine systems and an adaptive recursive Green's function technique for the patches. The method allows for an efficient calculation of both local electronic and transport properties, as well...... as the inclusion of multiple probes in arbitrary geometries embedded in extended samples. We apply the patched Green's function method to evaluate the local densities of states and transmission properties of graphene systems with two kinds of deviations from the pristine structure: bubbles and perforations...

  9. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu


    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  10. Oscillation of Two-Dimensional Neutral Delay Dynamic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinli Zhang


    Full Text Available We consider a class of nonlinear two-dimensional dynamic systems of the neutral type (x(t-a(tx(τ1(tΔ=p(tf1(y(t, yΔ(t=-q(tf2(x(τ2(t. We obtain sufficient conditions for all solutions of the system to be oscillatory. Our oscillation results when a(t=0 improve the oscillation results for dynamic systems on time scales that have been established by Fu and Lin (2010, since our results do not restrict to the case where f(u=u. Also, as a special case when =ℝ, our results do not require an to be a positive real sequence. Some examples are given to illustrate the main results.

  11. Collins Model and Phase Diagram of 2D Ternary System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chuan-Mei; CHEN Li-Rong


    The Collins model is introduced into the two-dimensional (2D) alternative ternary system having the Lennard-Jones (L-J) potential. The Gibbs free energy of this ternary system is calculated, and according to thermodynamic theory, a group of equations that determine the solid-liquid diagram of ternary system are derived, some isothermal sectional diagrams of the 2D ternary system are obtained. The results are quite similar to the behavior of three-dimensional substances.

  12. Undamped relativistic magnetoplasmons in lossy two-dimensional electron systems (United States)

    Volkov, V. A.; Zabolotnykh, A. A.


    We address electrodynamic effects in plasma oscillations of a lossy 2D electron system whose dc 2D conductivity σ0 is comparable to the speed of light c . We argue that the perpendicular constant magnetic field B causes astonishing features of magnetoplasma dynamics. We show that plasmon-polariton spectra can be classified using a "relativistic" phase diagram σ0/c versus B . An extraordinarily low damping branch in magnetoplasmon-polariton spectra emerges at two phases of this diagram. Some magnetoplasmons at these phases are predicted to be undamped waves.

  13. Anomaly matching condition in two-dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dubinkin, O; Gubankova, E


    Based on Son-Yamamoto relation obtained for transverse part of triangle axial anomaly in ${\\rm QCD}_4$, we derive its analog in two-dimensional system. It connects the transverse part of mixed vector-axial current two-point function with diagonal vector and axial current two-point functions. Being fully non-perturbative, this relation may be regarded as anomaly matching for conductivities or certain transport coefficients depending on the system. We consider the holographic RG flows in holographic Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory via the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with respect to the radial coordinate. Within this holographic model it is found that the RG flows for the following relations are diagonal: Son-Yamamoto relation and the left-right polarization operator. Thus the Son-Yamamoto relation holds at wide range of energy scales.

  14. Collective Modes in Two Dimensional Binary Yukawa Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kalman, Gabor J; Donko, Zoltan; Golden, Kenneth I; Kyrkos, Stamatios


    We analyze via theoretical approaches and molecular dynamics simulations the collective mode structure of strongly coupled two-dimensional binary Yukawa systems, for selected density, mass and charge ratios, both in the liquid and crystalline solid phases. Theoretically, the liquid phase is described through the Quasi-Localized Charge Approximation (QLCA) approach, while in the crystalline phase we study the centered honeycomb and the staggered rectangular crystal structures through the standard harmonic phonon approximation. We identify "longitudinal" and "transverse" acoustic and optic modes and find that the longitudinal acoustic mode evolves from its weakly coupled counterpart in a discontinuous non-perturbative fashion. The low frequency acoustic excitations are governed by the oscillation frequency of the average atom, while the high frequency optic excitation frequencies are related to the Einstein frequencies of the systems.

  15. Curved Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Semiconductor Nanoscrolls (United States)

    Peters, Karen; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang

    The perfect control of strain and layer thickness in epitaxial semiconductor bilayers is employed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with precisely adjusted scroll diameter ranging between a few nanometers and several tens of microns. Furthermore, semiconductor heteroepitaxy allows us to incorporate quantum objects such as quantum wells, quantum dots, or modulation doped low-dimensional carrier systems into the nanoscrolls. In this review, we summarize techniques that we have developed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with well-defined location, orientation, geometry, and winding number. We focus on magneto-transport studies of curved two-dimensional electron systems in such nanoscrolls. An externally applied magnetic field results in a strongly modulated normal-to-surface component leading to magnetic barriers, reflection of edge channels, and local spin currents. The observations are compared to finite-element calculations and discussed on the basis of simple models taking into account the influence of a locally modulated state density on the conductivity. In particular, it is shown that the observations in high magnetic fields can be well described considering the transport in edge channels according to the Landauer-Büttiker model if additional magnetic field induced channels aligned along magnetic barriers are accounted for.

  16. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.


    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  17. Intelligent pulse light source in the performance calibration system of two-dimensional neutron detector (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Fang


    Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) project will use numerous two-dimensional (2D) neutron detectors whose ZnS (Ag) scintillator is doped with 6Li. To ensure the consistency of all neutron detectors, a calibration system for the performance of 2D neutron detectors is designed. For radiation protection, the state control of the radiation source gets more and more strict. It is impossible to directly carry out experiments with massive radioactive particles. Thus, the following scheme has been designed. The controlled pulsed laser light source on a 2D mobile platform is used to replace the neutron bombardment to generate the photon. The pulse signal drives the laser diode to generate pulse light. The pulse light source located on the 2D platform is controlled by the core controller, and goes to the wavelength shift fiber through the optical fiber. The host computer (PC) receives the signal from the electronics system, processes data, and automatically calibrates the performance parameters. As shown by the experimental results, the pulse light source can perfectly meet all requirements of 2D neutron detector calibration system.

  18. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorenko V.I.


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.

  19. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth


    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  20. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth


    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  1. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole;


    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1....../15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...... data as well as real measurements and is found to successfully deconvolute the four-point-probe measurements. In conjunction with a newly developed scanning four-point probe with electrode spacing of 1.1 µm, the method can resolve the conductivity with submicron resolution. ©2003 American Institute...

  2. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings. (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny


    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  3. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao


    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  4. ASTROP2-LE: A Mistuned Aeroelastic Analysis System Based on a Two Dimensional Linearized Euler Solver (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.; Mehmed, Oral


    An aeroelastic analysis system for flutter and forced response analysis of turbomachines based on a two-dimensional linearized unsteady Euler solver has been developed. The ASTROP2 code, an aeroelastic stability analysis program for turbomachinery, was used as a basis for this development. The ASTROP2 code uses strip theory to couple a two dimensional aerodynamic model with a three dimensional structural model. The code was modified to include forced response capability. The formulation was also modified to include aeroelastic analysis with mistuning. A linearized unsteady Euler solver, LINFLX2D is added to model the unsteady aerodynamics in ASTROP2. By calculating the unsteady aerodynamic loads using LINFLX2D, it is possible to include the effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response in the analysis. The stability is inferred from an eigenvalue analysis. The revised code, ASTROP2-LE for ASTROP2 code using Linearized Euler aerodynamics, is validated by comparing the predictions with those obtained using linear unsteady aerodynamic solutions.

  5. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji


    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  6. Structural analysis of a dipole system in two-dimensional channels. (United States)

    Haghgooie, Ramin; Doyle, Patrick S


    A system of magnetic dipoles in two-dimensional (2D) channels was studied using Brownian dynamics simulations. The dipoles interact with a purely repulsive r(-3) potential and are confined by two hard walls in one of the dimensions. Solid crystals were annealed in the 2D channels and the structural properties of the crystals were investigated. The long-ranged nature of the purely repulsive dipoles combined with the presence of hard walls led to structural deviations from the unbounded (infinite) 2D dipolar crystal. The structures in the channels were characterized by a high density of particles along the walls. The particles along the wall became increasingly localized as the channel width was increased. The spacing of the walls was important in determining the properties of the structures formed in the channel. Small changes in the width of the channel induced significant structural changes in the crystal. These structural changes were manifested in the density profiles, defect concentrations, and local bond-orientation order of the system. Oscillations in the structural properties were observed as the channel width was increased, indicating the existence of magic-number channel widths for this system. As the channel width was increased the properties of the confined system approached those of the unbounded system surprisingly slowly.

  7. Fault-tolerance in Two-dimensional Topological Systems (United States)

    Anderson, Jonas T.

    This thesis is a collection of ideas with the general goal of building, at least in the abstract, a local fault-tolerant quantum computer. The connection between quantum information and topology has proven to be an active area of research in several fields. The introduction of the toric code by Alexei Kitaev demonstrated the usefulness of topology for quantum memory and quantum computation. Many quantum codes used for quantum memory are modeled by spin systems on a lattice, with operators that extract syndrome information placed on vertices or faces of the lattice. It is natural to wonder whether the useful codes in such systems can be classified. This thesis presents work that leverages ideas from topology and graph theory to explore the space of such codes. Homological stabilizer codes are introduced and it is shown that, under a set of reasonable assumptions, any qubit homological stabilizer code is equivalent to either a toric code or a color code. Additionally, the toric code and the color code correspond to distinct classes of graphs. Many systems have been proposed as candidate quantum computers. It is very desirable to design quantum computing architectures with two-dimensional layouts and low complexity in parity-checking circuitry. Kitaev's surface codes provided the first example of codes satisfying this property. They provided a new route to fault tolerance with more modest overheads and thresholds approaching 1%. The recently discovered color codes share many properties with the surface codes, such as the ability to perform syndrome extraction locally in two dimensions. Some families of color codes admit a transversal implementation of the entire Clifford group. This work investigates color codes on the 4.8.8 lattice known as triangular codes. I develop a fault-tolerant error-correction strategy for these codes in which repeated syndrome measurements on this lattice generate a three-dimensional space-time combinatorial structure. I then develop an

  8. Novel layered two-dimensional semiconductors as the building blocks for nano-electronic/photonic systems (United States)

    Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing


    Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.

  9. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi


    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  10. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi


    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  11. Aging in the two-dimensional random-field systems (United States)

    Cheng, Xiang; Ma, Tianyu; Urazhdin, Sergei; Boettcher, Stefan

    Random fields introduced into the classical Ising and Heisenberg spin models can roughen the energy landscape, leading to complex nonequilibrium dynamics. The effects of random fields on magnetism have been previously studied in the context of dilute antiferromagnets (AF), impure substrates, and magnetic alloys [ 1 ] . We utilized random-field spin models to simulate the observed magnetic aging in thin-film ferromagnet/antiferromagnet (F/AF) bilayers. Our experiments show extremely slow cooperative relaxation over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields [ 2 ] . In our simulations, the experimental system is coarse-grained into a random field Ising model on a 2D square lattice. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that aging processes may be associated with the glassy evolution of the magnetic domain walls, due to the pinning by the random fields. The scaling of the simulated aging agrees well with experiments. Both are consistent with either a small power-law or logarithmic dependence on time. We further discuss the topological effects on aging due to the dimensional crossover from the Ising to the Heisenberg regime. Supported through NSF grant DMR-1207431.

  12. Magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems and Shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küppersbusch, C.S.


    In the first part of the thesis I derive a full quantitative formula which describes the amplitude and frequency of magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems. The investigations are on the basis of graphene, but they generally also hold for other two-dimensional Dirac systems. Starting

  13. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo


    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  14. Structures and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Confined Dusty Plasma System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Feng; LIU Yan-Hong; WANG Long


    The influence of the confining potential strength and temperature on the structures and dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma system is investigated through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The circular symmetric confining potential leads to the nonuniform packing of particles, that is, an inner core with a hexagon lattice surrounded by a few outer circular shells. Under the appropriate confining potential and temperature, the particle trajectories on middle shells form a series of concentric and nested hexagons due to tangential movements of particles.Mean square displacement, self-diffusion constant, pair correlation function, and the nearest bond are used to characterize the structural and dynamical properties of the system. With the increase of the confining potential, the radial and tangential movements of particles have different behaviors. With the increase of temperature, the radial and tangential motions strengthen, particle trajectories gradually become disordered, and the system gradually changes from a crystal or liquid state to a gas state.

  15. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals


    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai


    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  16. Controllable and Observable Polynomial Description for 2D Noncausal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Boudellioua


    Full Text Available Two-dimensional state-space systems arise in applications such as image processing, iterative circuits, seismic data processing, or more generally systems described by partial differential equations. In this paper, a new direct method is presented for the polynomial realization of a class of noncausal 2D transfer functions. It is shown that the resulting realization is both controllable and observable.

  17. Evolutionary learning in the 2D artificial life system "avida"

    CERN Document Server

    Adami, C; Chris Adami


    We present a new tierra-inspired artificial life system with local interactions and two-dimensional geometry, based on an update mechanism akin to that of 2D cellular automata. We find that the spatial geometry is conducive to the development of diversity and thus improves adaptive capabilities. We also demonstrate the adaptive strength of the system by breeding cells with simple computational abilities, and study the dependence of this adaptability on mutation rate and population size.

  18. Pattern Coarsening in a Two Dimensional Hexagonal System (United States)

    Chaikin, Paul


    We have been studying the ordering, annealing, coarsening and alignment of two dimensional periodically ordered structures in thin films of diblock copolymers*. Coarsening by dislocation and disclination annihilation is clearly observed in AFM studies of monolayer films of cylindrical patterns with a time dependence given by t^α, with α about 1/4. However in hexagonal structures the mechanism is less well defined and appears to involve the collapse of small grains entrained in the grain boundaries of larger domains. Remarkably the exponent of α about 1/4 remains. We also report on shear aligned samples and samples quenched in a gradient after alignment. * Harrison C, Angelescu DE, Trawick M, Cheng ZD, Huse DA, Chaikin PM, Vega DA, Sebastian JM, Register RA, Adamson DH, EUROPHYSICS LETTERS 67 800-806 (2004)

  19. Two-dimensional spectroscopy of molecular excitons in a model dimer system (United States)

    Halpin, Alexei

    The physics of molecular excitons has been the subject of many recent studies using electronic two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy (2DPE), particularly in the context of light harvesting in photosynthesis. Since the spectra for multichromophoric aggregates are congested, particularly so at room temperature, we present a study of a model dimer comprised of identical chromophores with a well defined electronic coupling strength, to provide clear signatures for coherences between vibronic excitons in 2D spectra. We begin by describing the design of a broadband passively phase-stabilized interferometer for collection of 2D spectra, which also allows for the investigation of state preparation in 2D spectroscopy by using shaped excitation pulses. In experiments on the model dimer we observe strong oscillating off-diagonal features in the 2D spectra which are present only before the onset of dephasing, which occurs in less than 100 fs due to strong system-bath coupling. This is in contrast with the parent dye, where low amplitude oscillations associated with Raman active vibrations persist for several ps following excitation. The results of this comparative study indicate that the signals observed earlier in photosynthetic proteins likely reflect vibrational motion in isolated pigments, and not delocalized quantum coherence. While long-lived vibrational coherences are of questionable biological relevance at face value, we conclude with a discussion on initial findings using coherently controlled 2D spectroscopy, where we observe long-lived signatures associated to vibronic coherences at room temperature. These results point to new directions of study using multidimensional spectroscopy to unravel the role of coherence in excitation energy transfer in molecular aggregates in an experimentally direct fashion.

  20. Two-dimensional NMR exchange spectroscopy. Quantitative treatment of multisite exchanging systems (United States)

    Abel, Edward W.; Coston, Timothy P. J.; Orrell, Keith G.; Šik, Vladimir; Stephenson, David

    A general method for evaluating rate constants in complex exchange networks with N-sites from two-dimensional EXSY (NOESY) NMR spectra is proposed. A computer program D2DNMR capable of performing signal intensity to exchange rate calculations (and vice versa), based on a matrix formalism, is outlined. The method is illustrated by 195Pt 2D NMR studies of the A ⇌ B ⇌ C spin system arising from pyramidal sulfur inversion in platinum(IV) complexes of type [Pt XMe 3(MeSCH 2CH 2SMe)] ( X = Cl, I). Comparison with 1H NMR bandshape analyses of the same compounds shows high agreement between the rate constants and activation parameters determined by both techniques. Mechanisms of 195Pt spin-lattice relaxation are briefly discussed.

  1. Results from laboratory tests of the two-dimensional Time-Encoded Imaging System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brennan, James S.; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D; Le Galloudec, Nathalie Joelle


    A series of laboratory experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of two dimensional time-encoded imaging. A prototype two-dimensional time encoded imaging system was designed and constructed. Results from imaging measurements of single and multiple point sources as well as extended source distributions are presented. Time encoded imaging has proven to be a simple method for achieving high resolution two-dimensional imaging with potential to be used in future arms control and treaty verification applications.

  2. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed. (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia


    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  3. Design and Analysis of Integrated Predictive Iterative Learning Control for Batch Process Based on Two-dimensional System Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chen; Zhihua Xiong; Yisheng Zhong


    Based on the two-dimensional (2D) system theory, an integrated predictive iterative learning control (2D-IPILC) strategy for batch processes is presented. First, the output response and the error transition model predictions along the batch index can be calculated analytically due to the 2D Roesser model of the batch process. Then, an integrated framework of combining iterative learning control (ILC) and model predictive control (MPC) is formed reasonably. The output of feedforward ILC is estimated on the basis of the predefined process 2D model. By min-imizing a quadratic objective function, the feedback MPC is introduced to obtain better control performance for tracking problem of batch processes. Simulations on a typical batch reactor demonstrate that the satisfactory tracking performance as wel as faster convergence speed can be achieved than traditional proportion type (P-type) ILC despite the model error and disturbances.

  4. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.


    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  5. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  6. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao


    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  7. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing


    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  8. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  9. Deformed oscillator algebras for two dimensional quantum superintegrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonatsos, Dennis; Kokkotas, K D; Bonatsos, Dennis


    Quantum superintegrable systems in two dimensions are obtained from their classical counterparts, the quantum integrals of motion being obtained from the corresponding classical integrals by a symmetrization procedure. For each quantum superintegrable systema deformed oscillator algebra, characterized by a structure function specific for each system, is constructed, the generators of the algebra being functions of the quantum integrals of motion. The energy eigenvalues corresponding to a state with finite dimensional degeneracy can then be obtained in an economical way from solving a system of two equations satisfied by the structure function, the results being in agreement to the ones obtained from the solution of the relevant Schrodinger equation. The method shows how quantum algebraic techniques can simplify the study of quantum superintegrable systems, especially in two dimensions.

  10. System identification of two-dimensional continuous-time systems using wavelets as modulating functions. (United States)

    Sadabadi, Mahdiye Sadat; Shafiee, Masoud; Karrari, Mehdi


    In this paper, parameter identification of two-dimensional continuous-time systems via two-dimensional modulating functions is proposed. In the proposed method, trigonometric functions and sine-cosine wavelets are used as modulating functions. By this, a partial differential equation on the finite-time intervals is converted into an algebraic equation linear in parameters. The parameters of the system can then be estimated using the least square algorithms. The underlying computations utilize a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform algorithm, without the need for estimating the unknown initial or boundary conditions, at the beginning of each finite-time interval. Numerical simulations are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Stability analysis and control synthesis of uncertain Roesser-type discrete-time two-dimensional systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jia; Hui Guo-Tao; Xie Xiang-Peng


    We study the stability analysis and control synthesis of uncertain discrete-time two-dimensional (2D) systems.The mathematical model of the discrete-time 2D system is established upon the well-known Roesser model,and the uncertainty phenomenon,which appears typically in practical environments,is modeled by a convex bounded (polytope type) uncertain domain.The stability analysis and control synthesis of uncertain discrete-time 2D systems are then developed by applying the Lyapunov stability theory.In the processes of stability analysis and control synthesis,the obtained stability/stabilzaition conditions become less conservative by applying some novel relaxed techniques.Moreover,the obtained results are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities,which can be easily solved via standard numerical software.Finally,numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  12. Sequentially generated states for the study of two dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari-Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Perez-Garcia, David [Depto. Analisis Matematico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Wolf, Michael M. [Niels Bohr Institut, Copenhagen (Denmark); Verstraete, Frank [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Universitaet Wien (Austria)


    The family of Matrix Product States represents a powerful tool for the study of physical one-dimensional quantum many-body systems, such as spin chains. Besides, Matrix Product States can be defined as the family of quantum states that can be sequentially generated in a one-dimensional system. We have introduced a new family of states which extends this sequential definition to two dimensions. Like in Matrix Product States, expectation values of few body observables can be efficiently evaluated and, for the case of translationally invariant systems, the correlation functions decay exponentially with the distance. We show that such states are a subclass of Projected Entangled Pair States and investigate their suitability for approximating the ground states of local Hamiltonians.

  13. Two-Dimensional Lattice Gravity as a Spin System

    CERN Document Server

    Beirl, W; Riedler, J


    Quantum gravity is studied in the path integral formulation applying the Regge calculus. Restricting the quadratic link lengths of the originally triangular lattice the path integral can be transformed to the partition function of a spin system with higher couplings on a Kagome lattice. Various measures acting as external field are considered. Extensions to matter fields and higher dimensions are discussed.

  14. Two-dimensional diffusion limited system for cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlatky, L.


    A new cell system, the ''sandwich'' system, was developed to supplement multicellular spheroids as tumor analogues. Sandwiches allow new experimental approaches to questions of diffusion, cell cycle effects and radiation resistance in tumors. In this thesis the method for setting up sandwiches is described both theoretically and experimentally followed by its use in x-ray irradiation studies. In the sandwich system, cells are grown in a narrow gap between two glass slides. Where nutrients and waste products can move into or out of the local environment of the cells only by diffusing through the narrow gap between the slides. Due to the competition between cells, self-created gradients of nutrients and metabolic products are set up resulting in a layer of cells which resembles a living spheroid cross section. Unlike the cells of the spheroid, however, cells in all regions of the sandwich are visible. Therefore, the relative sizes of the regions and their time-dependent growth can be monitored visually without fixation or sectioning. The oxygen and nutrient gradients can be ''turned off'' at any time without disrupting the spatial arrangement of the cells by removing the top slide of the assembly and subsequently turned back on if desired. Removal of the top slide also provides access to all the cells, including those near the necrotic center, of the sandwich. The cells can then be removed for analysis outside the sandwich system. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  15. Occurrence conditions for two-dimensional Borromean systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Volosniev, A.; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.


    Borromean systems. We show that Borromean states can only appear for potentials with substantial attractive and repulsive parts. Borromean states are most easily found when a barrier is present outside an attractive pocket. Extensive numerical search did not reveal Borromean states for potentials without...

  16. New generation of two-dimensional spintronic systems realized by coupling of Rashba and Dirac fermions. (United States)

    Eremeev, Sergey V; Tsirkin, Stepan S; Nechaev, Ilya A; Echenique, Pedro M; Chulkov, Evgueni V


    Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems.

  17. Two-dimensional hole systems in indium-based quantum well heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loher, Josef


    The complex spin-orbit interaction (SOI) of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) systems - the relativistic coupling of the hole spin degree of freedom to their movement in an electric field - is of fundamental interest in spin physics due to its key role for spin manipulation in spintronic devices. In this work, we were able to evaluate the tunability of Rashba-SOI-related parameters in the 2DHG system of InAlAs/InGaAs/InAs:Mn quantum well heterostructures experimentally by analyzing the hole density evolution of quantum interference effects at low magnetic fields. We achieved to cover a significant range of hole densities by the joint action of the variation of the manganese modulation doping concentration during molecular beam epitaxy and external field-effect-mediated manipulation of the 2D carrier density in Hall bar devices by a metallic topgate. Within these magnetotransport experiments, a reproducible phenomenon of remarkable robustness emerged in the transverse Hall magnetoresistivity of the indium 2DHG systems which are grown on a special InAlAs step-graded metamorphic buffer layer structure to compensate crystal lattice mismatch. As a consequence of the strain relaxation process, these material systems are characterized by anisotropic properties along different crystallographic directions. We identify a puzzling offset phenomenon in the zero-field Hall magnetoresistance and demonstrate it to be a universal effect in systems with spatially anisotropic transport properties.

  18. A fast adaptive convex hull algorithm on two-dimensional processor arrays with a reconfigurable BUS system (United States)

    Olariu, S.; Schwing, J.; Zhang, J.


    A bus system that can change dynamically to suit computational needs is referred to as reconfigurable. We present a fast adaptive convex hull algorithm on a two-dimensional processor array with a reconfigurable bus system (2-D PARBS, for short). Specifically, we show that computing the convex hull of a planar set of n points taken O(log n/log m) time on a 2-D PARBS of size mn x n with 3 less than or equal to m less than or equal to n. Our result implies that the convex hull of n points in the plane can be computed in O(1) time in a 2-D PARBS of size n(exp 1.5) x n.

  19. General criteria for determining rotation or oscillation in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Yoshinaga, Natsuhiko; Kitahata, Hiroyuki


    A self-propelled particle in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system, such as a particle in a central force field or confined in a circular region, may show rotational or oscillatory motion. These motions do not require asymmetry of the particle or the boundary, but arise through spontaneous symmetry breaking. We propose a generic model for a self-propelled particle in a two-dimensional axisymmetric system. A weakly nonlinear analysis establishes criteria for determining rotational or oscillatory motion.

  20. Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced cross-grating in a four-level N-type atomic system (United States)

    Wu, Jianchun; Ai, Baoquan


    We propose a scheme for a two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetically induced cross-grating (EICG) in a four-level N-type atomic system. By employing standing-wave fields interacting with the atomic system, the absorption and dispersion of the probe field will change with the spatial periodical modulation. The first-order diffraction intensity sensitively depends on the parameters (the probe detuning, and the amplitude and detuning of the standing-wave fields), and can reach its maximum on varying the system parameters. The present studies may be instructive to design new devices in all-optical switching and optical imaging.

  1. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials. (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine


    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.

  2. Photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials and hybrid systems. (United States)

    Koppens, F H L; Mueller, T; Avouris, Ph; Ferrari, A C; Vitiello, M S; Polini, M


    Graphene and other two-dimensional materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides, have rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for optoelectronic applications, with a strong focus on various photodetection platforms. The versatility of these material systems enables their application in areas including ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz frequency ranges. These detectors can be integrated with other photonic components based on the same material, as well as with silicon photonic and electronic technologies. Here, we provide an overview and evaluation of state-of-the-art photodetectors based on graphene, other two-dimensional materials, and hybrid systems based on the combination of different two-dimensional crystals or of two-dimensional crystals and other (nano)materials, such as plasmonic nanoparticles, semiconductors, quantum dots, or their integration with (silicon) waveguides.

  3. Characterizing classical periodic orbits from quantum Green's functions in two-dimensional integrable systems: Harmonic oscillators and quantum billiards (United States)

    Chen, Y. F.; Tung, J. C.; Tuan, P. H.; Yu, Y. T.; Liang, H. C.; Huang, K. F.


    A general method is developed to characterize the family of classical periodic orbits from the quantum Green's function for the two-dimensional (2D) integrable systems. A decomposing formula related to the beta function is derived to link the quantum Green's function with the individual classical periodic orbits. The practicality of the developed formula is demonstrated by numerically analyzing the 2D commensurate harmonic oscillators and integrable quantum billiards. Numerical analyses reveal that the emergence of the classical features in quantum Green's functions principally comes from the superposition of the degenerate states for 2D harmonic oscillators. On the other hand, the damping factor in quantum Green's functions plays a critical role to display the classical features in mesoscopic regime for integrable quantum billiards, where the physical function of the damping factor is to lead to the coherent superposition of the nearly degenerate eigenstates.

  4. Investigation of two-dimensional electron systems at low density on hydrogen-terminated silicon (111) surface (United States)

    Hu, Binhui; Kott, Tomasz M.; Kane, B. E.


    Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces show very high quality. The peak electron mobility of 325,000 cm2/Vs can be reached at T =90 mK and 2D electron density n2 d = 4 . 15 ×1011 cm-2, and the device shows the fractional quantum hall effect[1]. 2DESs on H-Si(111) at lower densities may exhibit new physics, because both valley degeneracy and effective mass lead to a large Wigner-Seitz radius rs at accessible densities. In these devices, phosphorus ion implantation is used to defined the contacts to the 2DESs[2]. The contacts themselves work at low temperature. However, at lower 2D electron density (ion implantation annealing parameters are adjusted to mitigate the issue. Possible measurement technique is also explored to overcome the problem.

  5. Performance of Thomas-Fermi and linear response approaches in periodic two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderin, L; Stott, M J [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario, K7 L 3N6 (Canada)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    A study of the performance of Thomas-Fermi and linear response theories in the case of a two-dimensional periodic model system is presented. The calculated density distribution and total energy per unit cell compare very well with exact results except when there is a small number of particles per cell, even though the potential has narrow tight-binding bands. The results supplement earlier findings of Koivisto and Stott for a localized impurity in a two-dimensional uniform gas.

  6. Detection of topological states in two-dimensional Dirac systems by the dynamic spin susceptibility (United States)

    Nakamura, Masaaki; Tokuno, Akiyuki


    We discuss dynamic spin susceptibility (DSS) in two-dimensional (2D) Dirac electrons with spin-orbit interactions to characterize topological insulators. The imaginary part of the DSS appears as an absorption rate in response to a transverse ac magnetic field, just as in an electron spin resonance experiment for localized spin systems. We found that when the system is in a static magnetic field, the topological state can be identified by an anomalous resonant peak of the imaginary part of the DSS as a function of the frequency of the transverse magnetic field ω . In the absence of a static magnetic field, the imaginary part of the DSS becomes a continuous function of ω with a threshold frequency ωc. In this case, the topological and the trivial phases can also be distinguished by the values of ωc and by the line shapes. Thus the DSS is an experimentally observable physical quantity to characterize a topological insulator directly from bulk properties, without observing a topological transition.

  7. Communication: radial distribution functions in a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere system. (United States)

    Thorneywork, Alice L; Roth, Roland; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Dullens, Roel P A


    Two-dimensional hard disks are a fundamentally important many-body model system in classical statistical mechanics. Despite their significance, a comprehensive experimental data set for two-dimensional single component and binary hard disks is lacking. Here, we present a direct comparison between the full set of radial distribution functions and the contact values of a two-dimensional binary colloidal hard sphere model system and those calculated using fundamental measure theory. We find excellent quantitative agreement between our experimental data and theoretical predictions for both single component and binary hard disk systems. Our results provide a unique and fully quantitative mapping between experiments and theory, which is crucial in establishing the fundamental link between structure and dynamics in simple liquids and glass forming systems.

  8. Theoretical and experimental study of the normal modes in a coupled two-dimensional system

    CERN Document Server

    Giménez, Marcos H; Gómez-Tejedor, José Antonio; Velazquez, Luisberis; Monsoriu, Juan A


    In this work, the normal modes of a two-dimensional oscillating system have been studied from a theoretical and experimental point of view. The normal frequencies predicted by the Hessian matrix for a coupled two-dimensional particle system are compared to those obtained for a real system consisting of two oscillating smartphones coupled one to the other by springs. Experiments are performed on an air table in order to remove the friction forces. The oscillation data are captured by the acceleration sensor of the smartphones and exported to file for further analysis. The experimental frequencies compare reasonably well with the theoretical predictions, namely, within 1.7 % of discrepancy.

  9. Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects and Dimensional Crossover in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongHong; WANG YongGang; LIU Mei; WANG Jin


    Two kinds of spin-depcndcnt scattering effects (magnetic-iinpurity and spin-orbit scatterings) axe investi-gated theoretically in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system. By making use of the diagrammatictechniques in perturbation theory, we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localizationeffects, the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the charac-teristic times: elastic, inelastic, magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times. The relevant dimensional crossover behaviorfrom 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed, and the condition for the crossover is shown to bedependent on the aforementioned scattering times. At low temperature there exists a spin-dcpendent-scattering-induccddimensional crossover in this system.

  10. The two dimensional electron system as a nanoantenna in the microwave and terahertz bands (United States)

    Iñarrea, Jesús


    We study the magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems under several radiation sources of different frequencies for moderate power. We use the model of radiation-driven electron orbits extended to this regime. First, we consider the case of two different radiations and we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions, i.e., a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case where we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device or ultrasensitive detector for the microwave and terahertz bands. Thus, these results could be of special interest in nanophotonics and nanoelectronics.

  11. On the equivalence between stochastic baker's maps and two-dimensional spin systems (United States)

    Lindgren, K.


    We show that there is a class of stochastic bakers transformations that is equivalent to the class of equilibrium solutions of two-dimensional spin systems with finite interaction. The construction is such that the equilibrium distribution of the spin lattice is identical to the invariant measure in the corresponding bakers transformation. We illustrate the equivalence by deriving two stochastic bakers maps representing the Ising model at a temperature above and below the critical temperature, respectively. A calculation of the invariant measure and the free energy in the baker system is then shown to be in agreement with analytic results of the two-dimensional Ising model.

  12. Construction of exact complex dynamical invariant of a two-dimensional classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fakir Chand; S C Mishra


    We present the construction of exact complex dynamical invariant of a two-dimensional classical dynamical system on an extended complex space utilizing Lie algebraic approach. These invariants are expected to play a vital role in understanding the complex trajectories of both classical and quantum systems.

  13. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)


    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  14. Non-monotonic magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems in the ballistic regime


    Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Minkov, G. M.; Sherstobitov, A. A.; Pudalov, V. M.


    We report experimental observations of a novel magnetoresistance (MR) behavior of two-dimensional electron systems in perpendicular magnetic field in the ballistic regime, for k_BT\\tau/\\hbar>1. The MR grows with field and exhibits a maximum at fields B>1/\\mu, where \\mu is the electron mobility. As temperature increases the magnitude of the maximum grows and its position moves to higher fields. This effect is universal: it is observed in various Si- and GaAs- based two-dimensional electron sys...

  15. Two-dimensional electromagnetically induced grating via gain and phase modulation in a two-level system (United States)

    Cheng, Guang-Ling; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi


    A scheme for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetically induced grating via spatial gain and phase modulation is presented in a two-level atomic system. Based on the interactions of two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atom could diffract the weak probe beam into high-order directions and a 2D diffraction grating is generated. It is shown that the diffraction efficiency of the grating can be efficiently manipulated by controlling the Rabi frequencies of control fields, the detunings of the control and probe fields, and interaction length. Different from 2D cross-grating via electromagnetically induced transparency in a four-level atomic system, the present scheme results from the spatial modulation of gain and phase in a simple two-level system, which could lead to 2D gain-phase grating with larger diffraction intensities in the diffraction directions. The studies we present may have potential applications in developing photon devices for optical-switching, optical imaging and quantum information processing.

  16. A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for the online toxicity prediction of pharmaceuticals and related substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Xu, Li [Tongji School of Pharmacy, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Shi, Zhi-guo, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu, Min [Hubei Instrument for Food and Drug Control, Wuhan (China)


    Highlights: • A novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system was developed. • The 1st dimension was ODS to separate components in the sample. • The 2nd dimension was biopartitioning micellar chromatography to predict toxicity. • The system was used to screen toxicity of pharmaceuticals and related substances. • It was promising for fast online toxicity screening of complex sample in one step. - Abstract: In this study, a novel two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (2D-LC) system was developed for simultaneous separation and toxicity prediction of pharmaceutical and its related substances. A conventional ODS column was used on the 1st-D to separate the sample; while, bio-partitioning micellar chromatography served as the 2nd-D to predict toxicity of the components. The established system was tested for the toxicity of ibuprofen and its impurities with known toxicity. With only one injection, ibuprofen and its impurities were separated on the 1st-D; and LC50 values of individual impurity were obtained based on the quantitative retention–activity relationships, which agreed well with the reported data. Furthermore, LC50 values of photolysis transformation products (TPs) of carprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac acid (as unknown compounds) were screened in this 2D-LC system, which could be an indicator of the toxicity of these TPs and was meaningful for the environmental monitoring and drinking water treatment. The established 2D-LC system was cost-effective, time-saving and reliable, and was promising for fast online screening of toxicity of known and unknown analytes in the complex sample in a single step. It may find applications in environment, pharmaceutical and food, etc.

  17. Density of states of Frenkel excitons in strongly disordered two-dimensional systems (United States)

    Siemann, Robert; Boukahil, Abdelkrim


    We present the calculation of the density of states of Frenkel excitons in strongly disordered two-dimensional systems. A random distribution of transition frequencies with variance σ2 characterizes the disorder. The Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) calculations show a strong dependence of the density of states (DOS) on the disorder parameter σ.

  18. Two-dimensional metric and tetrad gravities as constrained second order systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kiriushcheva, N; Ghalati, R N


    Using the Gitman-Lyakhovich-Tyutin generalization of the Ostrogradsky method for analyzing singular systems, we consider the Hamiltonian formulation of metric and tetrad gravities in two-dimensional Riemannian spacetime treating them as constrained higher-derivative theories. The algebraic structure of the Poisson brackets of the constraints and the corresponding gauge transformations are investigated in both cases.

  19. Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezayi, Edward


    Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.

  20. Absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave radiation


    Ryzhii, Victor


    We overview mechanisms of absolute negative conductivity in two-dimensional electron systems in a magnetic field irradiated with microwaves and provide plausible explanations of the features observed in recent experiments related to the so-called zero-resistance (zero-conductance) states.

  1. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, A.C.; Dekker, C.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.; Van Der Zant, H.S.J.; et. al.


    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European Graphen

  2. Two-dimensional trace-normed canonical systems of differential equations and selfadjoint interface conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Snoo, H; Winkler, Henrik


    The class of two-dimensional trace-normed canonical systems of differential equations on R is considered with selfadjoint interface conditions at 0. If one or both of the intervals around 0 are H-indivisible the interface conditions which give rise to selfadjoint relations (multi-valued operators) a

  3. Feedback stabilisation of a two-dimensional pool-boiling system by modal control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gils, R.W.; Speetjens, M.F.M; Zwart, Heiko J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    The present study concerns the feedback stabilisation of the unstable equilibria of a two-dimensional nonlinear pool-boiling system with essentially heterogeneous temperature distributions in the fluid-heater interface. Regulation of such equilibria has great potential for application in, for

  4. Negative Dispersion of Lattice Waves in a Two-Dimensional Yukawa System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 刘斌; 杨思泽; 王龙


    Collective motion modes existing in a two-dimensional Yukawa system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The dispersion relations of transverse and longitudinal lattice waves obtained for hexagonal lattice are in agreement with the theoretical results. The negative dispersion of the parallel longitudinal wave is demonstrated by the simulation, and is explained by a physical model.

  5. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Konstantin S.; Roche, Stephan; Boggild, Peter; Borini, Stefano; Koppens, Frank H. L.; Palermo, Vincenzo; Pugno, Nicola; Garrido, Jose A.; Sordan, Roman; Bianco, Alberto; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Kivioja, Jani; Marinelli, Claudio; Ryhaenen, Tapani; Morpurgo, Alberto; Coleman, Jonathan N.; Nicolosi, Valeria; Colombo, Luigi; Fert, Albert; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Bachtold, Adrian; Schneider, Gregory F.; Guinea, Francisco; Dekker, Cees; Barbone, Matteo; Sun, Zhipei; Galiotis, Costas; Grigorenko, Alexander N.; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Kis, Andras; Katsnelson, Mikhail; Vandersypen, Lieven; Loiseau, Annick; Morandi, Vittorio; Neumaier, Daniel; Treossi, Emanuele; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Polini, Marco; Tredicucci, Alessandro; Williams, Gareth M.; Hong, Byung Hee; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Jong Min; Zirath, Herbert; van Wees, Bart J.; van der Zant, Herre; Occhipinti, Luigi; Di Matteo, Andrea; Kinloch, Ian A.; Seyller, Thomas; Quesnel, Etienne; Feng, Xinliang; Teo, Ken; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Hakonen, Pertti; Neil, Simon R. T.; Tannock, Quentin; Loefwander, Tomas; Kinaret, Jari


    We present the science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. This roadmap was developed within the framework of the European

  6. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim


    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  7. Two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography of tryptic bovine albumin digest using normal- and reverse-phase systems with silanized silica stationary phase. (United States)

    Gwarda, Radosław Łukasz; Dzido, Tadeusz Henryk


    Among many advantages of planar techniques, two-dimensional (2D) separation seems to be the most important for analysis of complex samples. Here we present quick, simple and efficient two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography (2D HPTLC) of bovine albumin digest using commercial HPTLC RP-18W plates (silica based stationary phase with chemically bonded octadecyl ligands of coverage density 0.5μmol/m(2) from Merck, Darmstadt). We show, that at low or high concentration of water in the mobile phase comprised methanol and some additives the chromatographic systems with the plates mentioned demonstrate normal- or reversed-phase liquid chromatography properties, respectively, for separation of peptides obtained. These two systems show quite different separation selectivity and their combination into 2D HPTLC process provides excellent separation of peptides of the bovine albumin digest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth and electronic properties of two-dimensional systems on (110) oriented GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, F.


    As the only non-polar plane the (110) surface has a unique role in GaAs. Together with Silicon as a dopant it is an important substrate orientation for the growth of n-type or p-type heterostructures. As a consequence, this thesis will concentrate on growth and research on that surface. In the course of this work we were able to realize two-dimensional electron systems with the highest mobilities reported so far on this orientation. Therefore, we review the necessary growth conditions and the accompanying molecular process. The two-dimensional electron systems allowed the study of a new, intriguing transport anisotropy not explained by current theory. Moreover, we were the first growing a two-dimensional hole gas on (110) GaAs with Si as dopant. For this purpose we invented a new growth modulation technique necessary to retrieve high mobility systems. In addition, we discovered and studied the metal-insulator transition in thin bulk p-type layers on (110) GaAs. Besides we investigated the activation process related to the conduction in the valence band and a parallelly conducting hopping band. The new two-dimensional hole gases revealed interesting physics. We studied the zero B-field spin splitting in these systems and compared it with the known theory. Furthermore, we investigated the anisotropy of the mobility. As opposed to the expectations we observed a strong persistent photoconductivity in our samples. Landau levels for two dimensional hole systems are non-linear and can show anticrossings. For the first time we were able to resolve anticrossings in a transport experiment and study the corresponding activation process. Finally, we compared these striking results with theoretical calculations. (orig.)

  9. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU


    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  10. Conformal Laplace superintegrable systems in 2D: polynomial invariant subspaces (United States)

    Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.; Miller, Willard, Jr.


    2nd-order conformal superintegrable systems in n dimensions are Laplace equations on a manifold with an added scalar potential and 2n-1 independent 2nd order conformal symmetry operators. They encode all the information about Helmholtz (eigenvalue) superintegrable systems in an efficient manner: there is a 1-1 correspondence between Laplace superintegrable systems and Stäckel equivalence classes of Helmholtz superintegrable systems. In this paper we focus on superintegrable systems in two-dimensions, n = 2, where there are 44 Helmholtz systems, corresponding to 12 Laplace systems. For each Laplace equation we determine the possible two-variate polynomial subspaces that are invariant under the action of the Laplace operator, thus leading to families of polynomial eigenfunctions. We also study the behavior of the polynomial invariant subspaces under a Stäckel transform. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial variables and the conditions on parameters of the potential corresponding to polynomial solutions. The hidden gl 3-algebraic structure is exhibited for the exact and quasi-exact systems. For physically meaningful solutions, the orthogonality properties and normalizability of the polynomials are presented as well. Finally, for all Helmholtz superintegrable solvable systems we give a unified construction of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) quasi-exactly solvable potentials possessing polynomial solutions, and a construction of new 2D PT-symmetric potentials is established.

  11. Two-dimensional systems from introduction to state of the art

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah; Tadeo, Fernando


    A solution permitting the stabilization of 2-dimensional (2-D) continuous-time saturated system under state feedback control is presented in this book. The problems of delay and saturation are treated at the same time. The authors obtain novel results on continuous 2-D systems using the unidirectional Lyapunov function. The control synthesis and the saturation and delay conditions are presented as linear matrix inequalities. Illustrative examples are worked through to show the effectiveness of the approach and many comparisons are made with existing results. The second half of the book moves on to consider robust stabilization and filtering of 2-D systems with particular consideration being given to 2-D fuzzy systems. Solutions for the filter-design problems are demonstrated by computer simulation. The text builds up to the development of state feedback control for 2-D Takagi–Sugeno systems with stochastic perturbation. Conservatism is reduced by using slack matrices and the coupling between the Lyapunov ma...

  12. Optimal Control Strategies in a Two Dimensional Differential Game Using Linear Equation under a Perturbed System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Danjuma SHEHU


    Full Text Available This paper lays emphasis on formulation of two dimensional differential games via optimal control theory and consideration of control systems whose dynamics is described by a system of Ordinary Differential equation in the form of linear equation under the influence of two controls U(. and V(.. Base on this, strategies were constructed. Hence we determine the optimal strategy for a control say U(. under a perturbation generated by the second control V(. within a given manifold M.

  13. Solitons and Vortices in Two-dimensional Discrete Nonlinear Schrodinger Systems with Spatially Modulated Nonlinearity

    CERN Document Server

    Kevrekidis, P G; Saxena, A; Frantzeskakis, D J; Bishop, A R


    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anti-continuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual "extended" unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being what was considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (analytically, whenever possible). Typical scenarios ...

  14. Nonequilibrium Phase Transition in a Two-Dimensional Driven Open Quantum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dagvadorj


    Full Text Available The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism, in which a phase transition is mediated by the proliferation of topological defects, governs the critical behavior of a wide range of equilibrium two-dimensional systems with a continuous symmetry, ranging from spin systems to superconducting thin films and two-dimensional Bose fluids, such as liquid helium and ultracold atoms. We show here that this phenomenon is not restricted to thermal equilibrium, rather it survives more generally in a dissipative highly nonequilibrium system driven into a steady state. By considering a quantum fluid of polaritons of an experimentally relevant size, in the so-called optical parametric oscillator regime, we demonstrate that it indeed undergoes a phase transition associated with a vortex binding-unbinding mechanism. Yet, the exponent of the power-law decay of the first-order correlation function in the (algebraically ordered phase can exceed the equilibrium upper limit: this shows that the ordered phase of driven-dissipative systems can sustain a higher level of collective excitations before the order is destroyed by topological defects. Our work suggests that the macroscopic coherence phenomena, observed recently in interacting two-dimensional light-matter systems, result from a nonequilibrium phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless rather than the Bose-Einstein condensation type.

  15. Electronic transport in two-dimensional systems in the quantum hall regime (United States)

    Tarquini, Vinicio

    The integer and the fractional quantum Hall effects are essential to the exploration of quantum matters characterized by topological phases. A quantum Hall system hosts one-dimensional (1D) chiral edge channels that manifest zero magnetoresistance, dissipationless due to the broken time reversal symmetry, and quantized Hall resistance vhe2 with v being the topological invariant (or Chern number). The 1-1 correspondence between the conducting gapless edge channels to the gapped incompressible bulk states is a defining character of a topological insulator (TI). Understanding this correspondence in real systems, especially the origin of its robustness (in terms of the limit of breakdown), is important both fundamentally and practically (i.e. in relation to spintronics). However, the breakdown mechanism, especially in light of the edge-bulk correlation, is still an open question. We adopt GaAs two-dimensional (2D) high-mobility hole systems confined in a 20 nm wide (100)-GaAs quantum wells and have perform transport measurement for a range of charge densities between 4 and 5 x 1010 cm -2 with a carrier mobility of 2 - 4 x 106 cm 2/V·s down to millikelvin temperatures. Systematic characterization of the 2D systems through Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations yields an effective mass between 0.30 and 0.50me, in good agreement with the cyclotron resonance results. We then modify a regular Hall bar system into a unique anti-Hall bar geometry that provides an extra set of independent chiral edge channels without altering the topological invariant. We perform systematic measurement of quantum oscillations via chiral edges while simultaneously probing the bulk dynamics, through measuring across independent edges, in respond to the edge excitations. The edge-bulk correspondence reveals a non-equilibrium dynamical development of the incompressible bulk states that leads to a novel asymmetrical 1-0 Hall potential distribution. Moreover, probing the breakdown via inner and outer

  16. Local doping of two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.


    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  17. One- and two-dimensional solitons in PT-symmetric systems emulating the spin-orbit coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu


    We introduce a two-dimensional (2D) system, which can be implemented in dual-core planar optical couplers with the Kerr nonlinearity in its cores, making it possible to blend effects of the PT symmetry, represented by the balanced linear gain and loss in the two cores, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC), emulated by a spatially biased coupling between the cores. Families of 1D and 2D solitons and their stability boundaries are identified. In the 1D setting, the addition of the SOC terms leads, at first, to shrinkage of the stability area for PT-symmetric solitons, which is followed by its rapid expansion. 2D solitons have their stability region too, in spite of the simultaneous action of two major destabilizing factors, viz., the collapse driven by the Kerr nonlinearity, and a trend towards spontaneous breakup of the gain-loss balance. In the limit of the SOC terms dominating over the intrinsic diffraction, the 1D system gives rise to a new model for gap solitons, which admits exact analytical solutions.

  18. EMC/FDTD/MD simulation of carrier transport and electrodynamics in two-dimensional electron systems


    Sule, N.; Willis, K. J.; Hagness, S. C.; Knezevic, I.


    We present the implementation and application of a multiphysics simulation technique to carrier dynamics under electromagnetic excitation in supported two-dimensional electronic systems. The technique combines ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC) for carrier transport with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) for electrodynamics and molecular dynamics (MD) for short-range Coulomb interactions among particles. We demonstrate the use of this EMC/FDTD/MD technique by calculating the room-temperature dc an...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Applying the theory of stratification, it is proved that the system of the two-dimensional non-hydrostatic revolving fluids is unstable in the two-order continuous function class. The construction of solution space is given and the solution approach is offered. The sufficient and necessary conditions of the existence of formal solutions are expressed for some typical initial and boundary value problems and the calculating formulae to formal solutions are presented in detail.

  20. Modeling of the optical properties of a two-dimensional system of small conductive particles. (United States)

    Kondikov, A. A.; Tonkaev, P. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.


    Software was developed for quick numerical calculations and graphic display of the absorption, reflection and transmittance spectra of two-dimensional systems of small conductive particles. It allowed us to make instant comparison of calculation results and experimental data. A lattice model was used to simulate nearly distributed particles, and the coherent-potential approximation was applied to obtain a solution to the problem of interacting particles. The Delphi programming environment was used.

  1. Third order finite volume evolution Galerkin (FVEG) methods for two-dimensional wave equation system


    Lukácová-Medvid'ová, Maria; Warnecke, Gerald; Zahaykah, Yousef


    The subject of the paper is the derivation and analysis of third order finite volume evolution Galerkin schemes for the two-dimensional wave equation system. To achieve this the first order approximate evolution operator is considered. A recovery stage is carried out at each level to generate a piecewise polynomial approximation from the piecewise constants, to feed into the calculation of the fluxes. We estimate the truncation error and give numerical examples to demonstrate the higher order...

  2. Magnetotransport in Two Dimensional Electron Systems Under Microwave Excitation and in Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (United States)


    remark- able electronic properties observed in graphene. Chapter 2 reviews the basic physical con- cepts of 2DES including a brief introduction to...magnetotransport in high quality GaAs/ AlGaAs heterostructure two dimensional electron systems. The effect of microwave (MW) radiation on electron...This thesis consists of two parts. The rst part considers the e ect of microwave radiation on magnetotransport in high quality GaAs/ AlGaAs

  3. Analysis of 2D CS Spectra for Systems with Non-Gaussian Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, Santanu; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.


    We investigate how accurate different methods of the spectral line shape analysis work in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D CS) for systems with non-Gaussian dynamics. A direct link is established between the frequency dependent correlation functions and a number of line shape metrics. Tw

  4. On Relations between One-Dimensional Quantum and Two-Dimensional Classical Spin Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hutchinson


    Full Text Available We exploit mappings between quantum and classical systems in order to obtain a class of two-dimensional classical systems characterised by long-range interactions and with critical properties equivalent to those of the class of one-dimensional quantum systems treated by the authors in a previous publication. In particular, we use three approaches: the Trotter-Suzuki mapping, the method of coherent states, and a calculation based on commuting the quantum Hamiltonian with the transfer matrix of a classical system. This enables us to establish universality of certain critical phenomena by extension from the results in the companion paper for the classical systems identified.

  5. Quasiparticle interference in unconventional 2D systems (United States)

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Peng; Wu, Kehui


    At present, research of 2D systems mainly focuses on two kinds of materials: graphene-like materials and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Both of them host unconventional 2D electronic properties: pseudospin and the associated chirality of electrons in graphene-like materials, and spin-valley-coupled electronic structures in the TMDs. These exotic electronic properties have attracted tremendous interest for possible applications in nanodevices in the future. Investigation on the quasiparticle interference (QPI) in 2D systems is an effective way to uncover these properties. In this review, we will begin with a brief introduction to 2D systems, including their atomic structures and electronic bands. Then, we will discuss the formation of Friedel oscillation due to QPI in constant energy contours of electron bands, and show the basic concept of Fourier-transform scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (FT-STM/STS), which can resolve Friedel oscillation patterns in real space and consequently obtain the QPI patterns in reciprocal space. In the next two parts, we will summarize some pivotal results in the investigation of QPI in graphene and silicene, in which systems the low-energy quasiparticles are described by the massless Dirac equation. The FT-STM experiments show there are two different interference channels (intervalley and intravalley scattering) and backscattering suppression, which associate with the Dirac cones and the chirality of quasiparticles. The monolayer and bilayer graphene on different substrates (SiC and metal surfaces), and the monolayer and multilayer silicene on a Ag(1 1 1) surface will be addressed. The fifth part will introduce the FT-STM research on QPI in TMDs (monolayer and bilayer of WSe2), which allow us to infer the spin texture of both conduction and valence bands, and present spin-valley coupling by tracking allowed and forbidden scattering channels.

  6. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields (United States)

    Drzewiński, A.; Maciołek, A.; Barasiński, A.; Dietrich, S.


    Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large ℓ as slow as ℓ-δ with δinterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Švrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases δ=2 and δ=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

  7. Two-dimensional analysis of gold nanoparticle effects on dye molecule system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qaradaghi, Vahid [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), P.O. Box 14115-194, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, Davood, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University (TMU), P.O. Box 14115-194, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This paper presents a two-dimensional analysis of a dye molecule system in the presence of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP). This configuration has been used widely for the practical applications such as optoelectronics and also the biomedical applications such as cancer. The effects of coupling between the nanoparticle (AuNP) and dye molecules around it are simulated and studied in a two-dimensional plane. The three relative momentum polarizations of dye molecule near the AuNP (perpendicular, parallel and random) are considered. With the change of nanoparticle radius and its distances from the dye molecules, the output fluorescence signal will be changed. The obtained results show that, the perpendicular polarized dye w.r.t. the AuNP surface leads to the increase of output fluorescence signal nearly 1.5 times the input intensity.

  8. Critical wetting transitions in two-dimensional systems subject to long-ranged boundary fields. (United States)

    Drzewiński, A; Maciołek, A; Barasiński, A; Dietrich, S


    Using the quasiexact density-matrix renormalization-group method and ground-state analysis we study interface delocalization transitions in wide two-dimensional Ising strips subject to long-ranged boundary fields with opposite signs at the two surfaces. Based on this approach, our explicit calculations demonstrate that critical wetting transitions do exist for semi-infinite two-dimensional systems even if the corresponding effective interface potentials decay asymptotically for large l as slow as l(-delta) with deltainterface position from the one-dimensional surface. This supersedes opposite claims by Kroll and Lipowsky [Phys. Rev. B 28, 5273 (1983)] and by Privman and Svrakić [Phys. Rev. B 37, 5974 (1988)] obtained within effective interface models. The corresponding wetting phase diagram is determined, including the cases delta=2 and delta=49 with the latter mimicking short-ranged surface fields. Our analysis highlights the limits of reliability of effective interface models.

  9. Prediction of two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors: Doped monolayer MoS2 systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun


    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: monolayer MoS2 doped by transition metals. Doping of transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups results in nonmagnetic states, since the number of valence electrons is smaller or equal to that of Mo. Doping of atoms from the VIIB to IIB groups becomes energetically less and less favorable. Magnetism is observed for Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, and Hg doping, while for the other dopants from these groups it is suppressed by Jahn-Teller distortions. Analysis of the binding energies and magnetic properties indicates that (Mo,X)S2 (X=Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  10. Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system. (United States)

    Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo


    The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.

  11. Two-dimensional HRCT for monitoring postoperative results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Zweidimensionale (2-D) CT-Arthrotomographie zur postoperativen Kontrolle einer neuen vorderen Kreuzbandplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)


    Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).

  12. Replica exchange molecular simulation of Lennard-Jones particles in a two-dimensional confined system (United States)

    Doi, Hideo; Yasuoka, Kenji


    Confined systems exhibit interesting properties that are applied to the fields of lubrication, adhesion and nanotechnology. The replica exchange molecular simulation method was applied to calculate the phase equilibrium points of Lennard-Jones particles in a two-dimensional confined system. The liquid-solid phase equilibrium points and the solid structure with a dependency of the slit width were determined and the order parameter of the solid structure was analyzed. Such confined systems are shown to be favorable for manipulation of the phase equilibrium points.

  13. Micropreparative one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis: improvement with new photopolymerization systems. (United States)

    Rabilloud, T; Vincon, M; Garin, J


    To improve the efficiency of one- and two-dimensional electrophoresis for micropreparative purposes, the use of gels polymerized with other initiators than the standard N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED)/persulfate systems for sodium dodecyl sulfate electrophoresis has been investigated. We show here that the recently described photoinitiator system, composed of methylene blue, toluene sulfinate and diphenyliodonium chloride, leads to a decreased resolution. Resolution can be restored if methylene blue is replaced by riboflavin. Two-dimensional electrophoresis with mg loadings of proteins has also been evaluated with these systems. Independently of the polymerization system, resolution for the first dimension is low with rod gels, increases with gel strips and is further improved when immobilized pH gradients are used. Here too, only the riboflavin/sulfinate/iodonium system results in a resolution that matches the one obtained with the standard TEMED/persulfate system. Gels polymerized with the riboflavin/sulfinate/iodonium system yield better results upon N-terminal microsequencing after blotting than gels polymerized with the standard TEMED/persulfate system.

  14. Tunneling in two-dimensional systems using a higher-order Herman-Kluk approximation. (United States)

    Hochman, Gili; Kay, Kenneth G


    A principal weakness of the Herman-Kluk (HK) semiclassical approximation is its failure to provide a reliably accurate description of tunneling between different classically allowed regions. It was previously shown that semiclassical corrections significantly improve the HK treatment of tunneling for the particular case of the one-dimensional Eckart system. Calculations presented here demonstrate that the lowest-order correction also substantially improves the HK description of tunneling across barriers in two-dimensional systems. Numerical convergence issues either do not arise or are easily overcome, so that the calculations require only a moderate number of ordinary, real, classical trajectories.

  15. Spin current and polarization in impure two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit coupling. (United States)

    Mishchenko, E G; Shytov, A V; Halperin, B I


    We derive the transport equations for two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba spin-orbit interaction and short-range spin-independent disorder. In the limit of slow spatial variations, we obtain coupled diffusion equations for the electron density and spin. Using these equations we calculate electric-field induced spin accumulation and spin current in a finite-size sample for an arbitrary ratio between spin-orbit energy splitting Delta and elastic scattering rate tau(-1). We demonstrate that the spin-Hall conductivity vanishes in an infinite system independent of this ratio.

  16. On the Classical Solutions of Two Dimensional Inviscid Rotating Shallow Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Bin


    We prove global existence and asymptotic behavior of classical solutions for two dimensional inviscid Rotating Shallow Water system with small initial data subject to the zero-relative-vorticity constraint. One of the key steps is a reformulation of the problem into a symmetric quasilinear Klein-Gordon system, for which the global existence of classical solutions is then proved with combination of the vector field approach and the normal forms. We also probe the case of general initial data and reveal a lower bound for the lifespan that is almost inversely proportional to the size of the initial relative vorticity.

  17. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis. (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P


    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  18. Simulation of Dynamics in Two-Dimensional Vortex Systems in Random Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; SUN Li-Zhen; LUO Meng-Bo


    Dynamics in two-dimensional vortex systems with random pinning centres is investigated using molecular dy-namical simulations. The driving force and temperature dependences of vortex velocity are investigated. Below the critical depinning force Fc, a creep motion of vortex is found at low temperature. At forces slightly above Fc, a part of vortices flow in winding channels at zero temperature. In the vortex channel flow region, we ob-serve the abnormal behaviour of vortex dynamics: the velocity is roughly independent of temperature or even decreases with temperature at low temperatures. A phase diagram that describes different dynamics of vortices is presented.

  19. Zero-differential resistance state of two-dimensional electron systems in strong magnetic fields. (United States)

    Bykov, A A; Zhang, Jing-qiao; Vitkalov, Sergey; Kalagin, A K; Bakarov, A K


    We report the observation of a zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) in response to a direct current above a threshold value I>I th applied to a two-dimensional system of electrons at low temperatures in a strong magnetic field. Entry into the ZDRS, which is not observable above several Kelvins, is accompanied by a sharp dip in the differential resistance. Additional analysis reveals an instability of the electrons for I>I th and an inhomogeneous, nonstationary pattern of the electric current. We suggest that the dominant mechanism leading to the new electron state is a redistribution of electrons in energy space induced by the direct current.

  20. A computer program for generating two-dimensional boundary-fitted orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaro, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche `Ezio Clementel`, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione


    A numerical method is described which generates an orthogonal curvilinear mesh, subject to the constraint that mesh lines are matched to all boundaries of a closed, simply connected two-dimensional region of arbitrary shape. The method is based on the solution, by an iterative finite-difference technique, of an elliptic differential system of equations for the Cartesian coordinates of the orthogonal grid nodes. The interior grid distribution is controlled by a technique which ensures that coordinate lines can be concentrated as desired. Examples of orthogonal meshes inscribed in various geometrical figures are included.

  1. Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots

    CERN Document Server

    Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K


    The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangwei Yuan; Longjun Shen


    In this paper we are going to discuss the difference schemes with intrinsic parallelismfor the boundary value problem of the two dimensional semilinear parabolic systems. Theunconditional stability of the general finite difference schemes with intrinsic parallelismis justified in the sense of the continuous dependence of the discrete vector solution ofthe difference schemes on the discrete data of the original problems in the discrete W2(2,1)norms. Then the uniqueness of the discrete vector solution of this difference scheme followsas the consequence of the stability.

  3. Hall Conductivity in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong-Hong; WANG Yong-Gang; LIU Mei


    By making use of the diagrammatic techniques in perturbation theory,we have investigated the Hall effect in a quasi-two-dimensional disordered electron system.In the weakly localized regime,the analytical expression for quantum correction to Hall conductivity has been obtained using the Kubo formalism and quasiclassical approximation.The relevant dimensional crossover behavior from three dimensions to two dimensions with decreasing the interlayer hopping energy is discussed.The quantum interference effect is shown to have a vanishing correction t,o the Hall coefficient.

  4. Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies ofTwo-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Anthony Marshall [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In order to better understand the fundamental components that govern catalytic activity, two-dimensional model platinum nanocatalyst arrays have been designed and fabricated. These catalysts arrays are meant to model the interplay of the metal and support important to industrial heterogeneous catalytic reactions. Photolithography and sub-lithographic techniques such as electron beam lithography, size reduction lithography and nanoimprint lithography have been employed to create these platinum nanoarrays. Both in-situ and ex-situ surface science techniques and catalytic reaction measurements were used to correlate the structural parameters of the system to catalytic activity.

  5. Dynamics of a multimode system coupled to multiple heat baths probed by two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ishizaki, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka


    Reduced equation of motion for a multimode system coupled to multiple heat baths is constructed by extending the quantum Fokker-Planck equation with low-temperature correction terms (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 2005, 74, 3131). Unlike such common approaches used to describe intramolecular multimode vibration as a Bloch-Redfield theory and a stochastic theory, the present formalism is defined by the molecular coordinates. To explore the correlation among different modes through baths, we consider two cases of system-bath couplings. One is a correlated case in which two modes are coupled to a single bath, and the other is an uncorrelated case in which each mode is coupled to a different bath. We further classify the correlated case into two cases, the plus- and minus-correlated cases, according to distinct correlation manners. For these, one-dimensional and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectra are calculated numerically by solving the equation of motion. It is demonstrated that 2D-IR spectroscopy has the ability to analyze the correlation of fluctuation-dissipation processes among different modes.

  6. Robust two-dimensional superconductivity and vortex system in Bi2Te3/FeTe heterostructures. (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chao; Li, Hui; He, Qing Lin; Sou, Iam Keong; Goh, Swee K; Wang, Jiannong


    The discovery of two-dimensional superconductivity in Bi2Te3/FeTe heterostructures provides a new platform for the search of Majorana fermions in condensed matter systems. Since Majorana fermions are expected to reside at the core of the vortices, a close examination of the vortex dynamics in superconducting interface is of paramount importance. Here, we report the robustness of the interfacial superconductivity and 2D vortex dynamics in four as-grown and aged Bi2Te3/FeTe heterostructure with different Bi2Te3 epilayer thickness (3, 5, 7, 14 nm). After two years' air exposure, superconductivity remains robust even when the thickness of Bi2Te3 epilayer is down to 3 nm. Meanwhile, a new feature at ~13 K is induced in the aged samples, and the high field studies reveal its relevance to superconductivity. The resistance of all as-grown and aged heterostructures, just below the superconducting transition temperature follows the Arrhenius relation, indicating the thermally activated flux flow behavior at the interface of Bi2Te3 and FeTe. Moreover, the activation energy exhibits a logarithmic dependence on the magnetic field, providing a compelling evidence for the 2D vortex dynamics in this novel system. The weak disorder associated with aging-induced Te vacancies is possibly responsible for these observed phenomena.

  7. Mesoscopic quantum interference experiments in InGaAs and GaAs two-dimensional systems (United States)

    Ren, Shaola

    The study of quantum interference in solid-state systems yields insight in fundamental properties of mesoscopic systems. Electron quantum interference constitutes an important method to explore mesoscopic physics and quantum decoherence. This dissertation focuses on two-dimensional (2D) electron systems in delta-Si doped n-type In0:64Ga0:36As/In 0:45Al0:55As, 2D hole systems in Si-doped p-type GaAs/Al 0:35Ga0:65As and C-doped p-type GaAs/Al0:24Ga 0:76As heterostructures. The low temperature experiments study the magnetotransport of nano- and micro-scale lithographically defined devices fabricated on the heterostructures. These devices include a single ring interferometer and a ring interferometer array in 2D electron system, Hall bar geometries and narrow wires in 2D hole systems. The single ring interferometer yields pronounced Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations with magnetic flux periodicity of h/e over a wide range of magnetic field. The periodicity was confirmed by Fourier transformation of the oscillations. The AB oscillation amplitude shows a quasi-periodic modulation over applied magnetic field due to local magnetic flux threading through the interferometer arms. Further study of current and temperature dependence of the amplitude of the oscillations indicates that the Thouless energy forms the measure of excitation energies giving quantum decoherence. An in-plane magnetic field was applied to the single ring interferometer to study the Berry's phase and the Aharonov-Casher effect. The ring interferometer array yields both AB oscillations and Altshuler-Aronov-Spivak (AAS) oscillations, the latter with magnetic flux periodicity of h/2e. The AAS oscillations require time-reversal symmetry and hence can be used to qualify time-reversal symmetry breaking. More importantly, the fundamental mesoscopic dephasing length associated with time-reversal symmetry breaking under applied magnetic field, an effective magnetic length, can be obtained by the analysis of the AAS

  8. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics. (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo


    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  9. Epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor two-dimensional systems: platforms for quantum circuits (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Shabani, Javad


    Theory suggests that the interface between a one-dimensional semiconductor (Sm) with strong spin-orbit coupling and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties. A key challenge in fabrication of such hybrid devices is forming highly transparent contacts between the active electrons in the semiconductor and the superconducting metal. Recently, it has been shown that a near perfect interface and a highly transparent contact can be achieved using epitaxial growth of aluminum on InAs nanowires. In this work, we present the first two-dimensional epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor material system that can serve as a platform for topological superconductivity. We show that our material system, Al-InAs, satisfies all the requirements necessary to reach into the topological superconducting regime by individual characterization of the semiconductor two dimensional electron system, superconductivity of Al and performance of S-Sm-S junctions. This exciting development might lead to a number of useful applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computing.

  10. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.


    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  11. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can fully characterize the population transfer in molecular systems (United States)

    Dostál, Jakub; Benešová, Barbora; Brixner, Tobias


    Excitation energy transfer in complex systems often proceeds through series of intermediate states. One of the goals of time-resolved spectroscopy is to identify the spectral signatures of all of them in the acquired experimental data and to characterize the energy transfer scheme between them. It is well known that in the case of transient absorption spectra such decomposition is ambiguous even if many simplifying considerations are taken. In contrast to transient absorption, absorptive 2D spectra intuitively resemble population transfer matrices. Therefore, it seems possible to decompose the 2D spectra unambiguously. Here we show that all necessary information is encoded in the combination of absorptive 2D and linear absorption spectra. We set up a simple model describing a broad class of absorptive 2D spectra and prove analytically that they can be inverted uniquely towards physical parameters fully determining the species-associated spectra of individual constituents together with all connecting intrinsic rate constants. Due to the matrix formulation of the model, it is suitable for fast computer calculation necessary to efficiently perform the inversion numerically by fitting the combination of experimental 2D and absorption spectra. Moreover, the model allows for decomposition of the 2D spectrum into its stimulated emission, ground-state bleach, and excited-state absorption components almost unambiguously. The numerical procedure is illustrated exemplarily.

  12. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim


    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  13. Plasmonic terahertz modulator based on a grating-coupled two-dimensional electron system (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.; Yu, Y.; Qin, H.; Sun, J. D.; Zhang, Z. P.; Li, X. X.; Huang, J. J.; Cai, Y.


    Electrically driven broadband modulator with large modulation depth and high speed is in high demand to meet the technical advancing and applications in terahertz fields recently. So far, the single-particle non-resonant absorption mechanism described by the Drude conductivity has been utilized in most of the related researches but is still not efficient enough. Here we proposed and demonstrated a terahertz modulator based on the collective electron plasma excitations (plasmons) in a grating-coupled two-dimensional electron gas in GaN/AlGaN heterostructure. By switching between the resonant and non-resonant conditions of the 2D plasmon excitation enabled by applying proper gate biases, the transmission of terahertz electromagnetic waves can be efficiently manipulated. Taking advantage of its resonant characteristic combined with the strong electric field enhancement in the active region, we experimentally achieved a maximum intensity modulation depth of 93%, a 3 dB operation bandwidth of ˜400 kHz, and a small required driving voltage amplitude of 2 V at a cryogenic temperature of 8.7 K. Owing to its excellent performances, this active plasmon-based terahertz modulator may offer some promising solutions in several fields of terahertz technology in the future.

  14. Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements (United States)

    Kessler, Brian Maxwell

    The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.

  15. Transport properties of magnetic-codoped two-dimensional hole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Stefan; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Hansen, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)


    The interaction of localized magnetic moments with a two dimensional hole system (2DHS) is studied with low-temperature magneto-transport measurements on molecular beam epitaxially grown InAs or InAlGaAs quantum-well structures that are C-modulation and Mn co-doped. Measurements in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the 2DHS reveal the typical transport behaviour of a two-dimensional charge carrier system indicated by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantum-Hall plateaus. Investigations at milli-Kelvin temperatures show a metal-insulator transition in the low field region. The fully spin-polarized quantum Hall state at filling factor {nu}=1 is very pronounced, i.e. over a field range of more than 4 T the longitudinal resistance vanishes and the Hall resistance is constant. Surprisingly, the {nu}=2 state seems to be fully suppressed whereas the {nu}=3 state is clearly resolved by an indistinct structure in the Hall resistance and a minimum in the longitudinal resistance. Transport measurements in tilted magnetic fields are carried out to resolve the nature of the observed quantum-Hall states.

  16. Multiple photoexcitation of two-dimensional electron systems: Bichromatic magnetoresistance oscillations (United States)

    Iñarrea, Jesús


    We analyze theoretically magnetoresistance of high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems being illuminated by multiple radiation sources. In particular, we study the influence on the striking effect of microwave-induced resistance oscillations. We consider moderate radiation intensities without reaching the zero-resistance states regime. We use the model of radiation-driven Larmor orbits extended to several light sources. First, we study the case of two different radiations polarized in the same direction with different or equal frequencies. For both cases, we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions. When the frequencies are different, we obtain a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. On the other hand, when the frequencies are the same, we find that the final result will depend on the phase difference between both radiation fields going from an enhanced response to a total collapse of oscillations, reaching an outcome similar to darkness. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case (three different frequencies) in which we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device for microwaves.

  17. Two-dimensional cubic convolution. (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank


    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  18. Fiber-optic interferometric two-dimensional scattering-measurement system. (United States)

    Zhu, Yizheng; Giacomelli, Michael G; Wax, Adam


    We present a fiber-optic interferometric system for measuring depth-resolved scattering in two angular dimensions using Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry. The system is a unique hybrid of the Michelson and Sagnac interferometer topologies. The collection arm of the interferometer is scanned in two dimensions to detect angular scattering from the sample, which can then be analyzed to determine the structure of the scatterers. A key feature of the system is the full control of polarization of both the illumination and the collection fields, allowing for polarization-sensitive detection, which is essential for two-dimensional angular measurements. System performance is demonstrated using a double-layer microsphere phantom. Experimental data from samples with different sizes and acquired with different polarizations show excellent agreement with Mie theory, producing structural measurements with subwavelength accuracy.

  19. Hilbert-Schmidt Geometry of n-Level Jakobczyk-Siennicki Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Slater, P B


    Jakobczyk and Siennicki studied two-dimensional sections of a set of Bloch vectors corresponding to n x n density matrices of two-qubit systems (that is, the case n=4). They found essentially five different types of (nontrivial) separability regimes. We compute the Euclidean/Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) separability probabilities assigned to these regimes, and conduct parallel two-dimensional section analyses for the cases n=6,8,9 and 10. We obtain a very wide variety of exact HS-probabilities. For n>6, the probabilities are those of having a partial positive transpose (PPT). For the n=6 case, we also obtain biseparability probabilities; in the n=8,9 instances, bi-PPT probabilities; and for n=8, tri-PPT probabilities. By far, the most frequently recorded probability for n>4 is Pi/4 = 0.785398$. We also conduct a number of related analyses, pertaining to the (one-dimensional) boundaries (both exterior and interior) of the separability and PPT domains, and discuss some exact calculations pertaining to the 9-dimensional...

  20. Two-dimensional habitat modeling in the Yellowstone/Upper Missouri River system (United States)

    Waddle, T. J.; Bovee, K.D.; Bowen, Z.H.


    This study is being conducted to provide the aquatic biology component of a decision support system being developed by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. In an attempt to capture the habitat needs of Great Plains fish communities we are looking beyond previous habitat modeling methods. Traditional habitat modeling approaches have relied on one-dimensional hydraulic models and lumped compositional habitat metrics to describe aquatic habitat. A broader range of habitat descriptors is available when both composition and configuration of habitats is considered. Habitat metrics that consider both composition and configuration can be adapted from terrestrial biology. These metrics are most conveniently accessed with spatially explicit descriptors of the physical variables driving habitat composition. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic models have advanced to the point that they may provide the spatially explicit description of physical parameters needed to address this problem. This paper reports progress to date on applying two-dimensional hydraulic and habitat models on the Yellowstone and Missouri Rivers and uses examples from the Yellowstone River to illustrate the configurational metrics as a new tool for assessing riverine habitats.

  1. Two-dimensional electron-hole capture in a disordered hopping system (United States)

    Greenham, N. C.; Bobbert, P. A.


    We model the two-dimensional recombination of electrons and holes in a system where the mean free path is short compared with the thermal capture radius. This recombination mechanism is relevant to the operation of bilayer organic light-emitting diodes (LED’s), where electrons and holes accumulate on either side of the internal heterojunction. The electron-hole recombination rate can be limited by the time taken for these charge carriers to drift and diffuse to positions where electrons and holes are directly opposite to each other on either side of the interface, at which point rapid formation of an emissive neutral state can occur. In this paper, we use analytical and numerical techniques to find the rate of this two-dimensional electron-hole capture process. Where one species of carrier is significantly less mobile than the other, we find that the recombination rate depends superlinearly on the density of the less mobile carrier. Numerical simulations allow the effects of disorder to be taken into account in a microscopic hopping model. Direct solution of the master equation for hopping provides more efficient solutions than Monte Carlo simulations. The rate constants extracted from our model are consistent with efficient emission from bilayer LED’s without requiring independent hopping of electrons and holes over the internal barrier at the heterojunction.

  2. A method of boundary parameter estimation for a two-dimensional diffusion system under noisy observations (United States)

    Sunahara, Y.; Kojima, F.


    The purpose of this paper is to establish a method for identifying unknown parameters involved in the boundary state of a class of diffusion systems under noisy observations. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is given by a two-dimensional diffusion equation. Noisy observations are made by sensors allocated on the system boundary. Starting with the mathematical model mentioned above, an online parameter estimation algorithm is proposed within the framework of the maximum likelihood estimation. Existence of the optimal solution and related necessary conditions are discussed. By solving a local variation of the cost functional with respect to the perturbation of parameters, the estimation mechanism is proposed in a form of recursive computations. Finally, the feasibility of the estimator proposed here is demonstrated through results of digital simulation experiments.

  3. Two-Dimensional River Flow Patterns Observed with a Pair of UHF Radar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yidong Hou


    Full Text Available A pair of ultrahigh-frequency (UHF radars system for measuring the two-dimensional river flow patterns is presented. The system consists of two all-digital UHF radars with exactly the same hardware structure, operating separately at 329–339 MHz and 341–351 MHz. The adoption of direct radio frequency (RF sampling technique and digital pulse compression simplifies the structure of radar system and eliminates the distortion introduced by the analog mixer, which improves the SNR and dynamic range of the radar. The field experiment was conducted at Hanjiang River, Hubei province, China. Over a period of several weeks, the radar-derived surface velocity has been very highly correlated with the measurements of EKZ-I, with a correlation coefficient of 0.958 and a mean square error of 0.084 m/s.

  4. Effect of pulse propagation on the two-dimensional photon echo spectrum of multilevel systems (United States)

    Keusters, Dorine; Warren, Warren S.


    The effect of pulse propagation on the two-dimensional photon echo (2DPE) spectrum of multilevel systems is investigated using a perturbative method. At high optical densities (OD) peak profiles are broadened asymmetrically, in most cases more strongly along the ω2 direction than along the ω1 direction. The amount of broadening is determined both by the OD and by the dynamics of the system. In addition, especially if the different transitions in the system are of unequal strength, the relative intensity of the peaks changes with OD. But even if the transition strengths are the same, the behavior of the cross peaks is different from the diagonal peaks. Since peak shape and relative intensity are important parameters in the interpretation of 2DPE spectra, such OD effects should be taken into account.

  5. 76 FR 18769 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Device and System for Two Dimensional Analysis of... (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Device and System... continuing applications and foreign counterparts to 2-D Bio, LLC, having a place of business in Gaithersburg... exclusive license to the University of Maryland's rights in the invention. The prospective exclusive license...

  6. Science and technology roadmap for graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Andrea C.; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Falko, Vladimir;


    We present the science and technology roadmap (STR) for graphene, related twodimensional (2d) crystals, and hybrid systems, targeting an evolution in technology, that might lead to impacts and benefits reaching into most areas of society. The roadmap was developed within the framework of the Euro...

  7. Density of states of two-dimensional systems with long-range logarithmic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somoza, Andrés M.; Ortuño, Miguel; Baturina, Tatyana I.; Vinokur, Valerii M.


    We investigate a single-particle density of states (DOS) in strongly disordered two- dimensional high dielectric permittivity systems with logarithmic Coulomb interaction between particles. We derive self-consistent DOS at zero temperature and show that it is appreciably suppressed as compared to the DOS expected from the Efros-Shklovskii approach.We carry out zero- and finite-temperature Monte Carlo numerical studies of the DOS and find the perfect agreement between the numerical and analytical results at zero temperature, observing, in particular, a hardening of the Coulomb gap with the increasing electrostatic screening length. At finite temperatures, we reveal a striking scaling of the DOS as a function of energy normalized to the temperature of the system.

  8. Pair formation in Fermi systems with population imbalance in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices (United States)

    Batrouni, George


    I will discuss pairing in fermionic systems in one- and two-dimensional optical lattices with population imbalance. This will be done in the context of the attractive fermionic Hubbard model using the Stochastic Green Function algorithm in d=1 while for d=2 we use Determinant Quantum Monte Carlo. This is the first exact QMC study examining the effects of finite temperature which is very important in experiments on ultra-cold atoms. Our results show that, in the ground state, the dominant pairing mechanism is at nonzero center of mass momentum, i.e. FFLO. I will then discuss the effect of finite temperature in the uniform and confined systems and present finite temperature phase diagrams. The numerical results will be compared with experiments. With M. J. Wolak (CQT, National University of Singapore) and V. G. Rousseau (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University).

  9. Two-dimensional PSD based automatic docking of self-reconfiguration modular exploration robot system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Liping; Ma Shugen; Li Bin; Zhang Zheng; Cao Binggang


    Based on the design of a docking mechanism, this paper thoroughly investigates the space automatic docking of self-reconfiguration modular exploration robot system (RMERS). The method that leads robot to achieve space docking by using two-dimensional PSD is put forward innovatively for the median size robot system. At the same time, in order to enlarge the detecting extension and the precision of PSD and reduce its dependence on lighting signal, the PSD was remade by increasing the optical device over its light-sensitive surface. The emission board and LED light scheduling were designed according to docking arithmetic, and the operating principle of docking process was analyzed based on these. The simulation experiments were carried out and their results are presented.

  10. Resonant state expansion applied to two-dimensional open optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Doost, M B; Muljarov, E A


    The resonant state expansion (RSE), a rigorous perturbative method in electrodynamics, is applied to two-dimensional open optical systems. The analytically solvable homogeneous dielectric cylinder is used as unperturbed system, and its Green's function is shown to contain a cut in the complex frequency plane, which is included in the RSE basis. The complex eigenfrequencies of modes are calculated using the RSE for a selection of perturbations which mix unperturbed modes of different orbital momentum, such as half-cylinder, thin-film and thin-wire perturbation, demonstrating the accuracy and convergency of the method. The resonant states for the thin-wire perturbation are shown to reproduce an approximative analytical solution.

  11. Anomalous edge states and the bulk-edge correspondence for periodically-driven two dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudner, Mark Spencer; Lindner, Netanel; Berg, Erez;


    the crucial distinctions between static and driven 2D systems, and construct a new topological invariant that yields the correct edge-state structure in the driven case. We provide formulations in both the time and frequency domains, which afford additional insight into the origins of the “anomalous” spectra...... that arise in driven systems. Possibilities for realizing these phenomena in solid-state and cold-atomic systems are discussed....

  12. Wetting controlled phase transitions in two-dimensional systems of colloids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth; Tejero, T.F.


    The phase behavior of disk colloids, embedded in a two-dimensional fluid matrix that undergoes a first-order phase transition, is studied in the complete wetting regime where the thermodynamically metastable fluid phase is stabilized at the surface of the disks. In dilute collections of disks......, the tendency to minimize the extent of the fluid-fluid interface and the extent of the unfavorable wetting phase in the system gives rise to aggregation phenomena and to separation of large domains of disks that have the characteristics of bulk colloidal phases. The conditions for phase transitions among...... cluster gas, liquid, and solid phases of the disk colloids are determined from the corresponding values of the disk chemical potential within an analytic representation of the grand partition function for the excess energy associated with a gas of disk clusters in the low-disk-density limit. The wetting...

  13. Spontaneous chiral resolution in two-dimensional systems of patchy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-González, J. A.; Chapela, G. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Quintana-H, J., E-mail: [Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México - Apdo. Postal 70213, 04510 Coyoacán, México D.F. (Mexico)


    Short ranged potentials and their anisotropy produce spontaneous chiral resolution in a two dimensional model of patchy particles introduced in this paper. This model could represent an equimolar binary mixture (racemic mixture) of two kinds of chiral molecules (enantiomers) adsorbed to a bi-dimensional domain where only lateral short ranged interactions are present. Most racemic mixtures undergo chiral resolution due to their spatial anisotropy, the combined effect of long range forces and the thermodynamic conditions. The patchy particles are modeled as a hard disk and four different bonding sites located to produce chirality. Phase behavior and structural properties are analysed using Discontinuous Molecular Dynamics in the canonical ensemble. When the four patchy particles are separated by the angles (60°, 120°, 60°, 120°), spontaneous chiral resolution is produced, given by the formation of homochiral clusters, if started from the corresponding racemic mixture. Gel behavior is also obtained in all the systems for low temperatures and low densities.

  14. Entanglement distribution in a two-dimensional 5-site frustrated J1-J2 spin system (United States)

    Jafarpour, Mojtaba; Ghanavati, Soghra; Afshar, Davood


    We have studied several ground states and their entanglement structure for a two-dimensional 5-site frustrated J1-J2 system in the presence and absence of an external magnetic field. We have used concurrence as a measure of bipartite entanglement and the Meyer-Wallach measure and its generalizations as the measures of multipartite entanglement. They provide a total of eight measures which lead to 30 entanglement quantities for each possible ground state. Computing these 30 quantities for several ground states, we have provided a detailed exposition of the entanglement distribution in each state. We have also categorized them into separable states, not showing entanglement for any bipartition; globally-entangled states, showing entanglement for all the bipartitions, and the states in between. It turns out that by adjusting the external magnetic field, conditioned on the values of the interaction parameters, one may generate specific ground states belonging to a specific class, appropriate for specific tasks in quantum information theory.

  15. The longitudinal optical conductivity in bilayer graphene and other two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.H., E-mail: [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China); Ao, Z.M., E-mail: [Centre for Clean Energy Technology, School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology, Sydney ,PO Box 123, Broadway, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Wei, X.F. [West Anhui University, Luan 237012 (China); Jiang, J.J. [Department of Physics, Sanjing College, Nanjing 210012 (China)


    The longitudinal optical conductivity in bilayer graphene is calculated using the dielectric function by defining the density operator theoretically, while the effect of the broadening width determined by the scattering sources on the optical conductivity is also investigated. Some features, such as chirality, energy dispersion and density of state (DOS) in bilayer graphene, are similar to those in monolayer graphene and a traditional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Therefore, in this paper, the bilayer graphene optical conductivity is compared with the results in these two systems. The analytical and numerical results show that the optical conductivity per graphene layer is almost a constant and close to e{sup 2}/(4ℏ), which agrees with the experimental results.

  16. Phase coherence and spectral functions in the two-dimensional excitonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apinyan, V., E-mail:; Kopeć, T.K.


    The nonlocal correlation mechanism between excitonic pairs is considered for a two dimensional exciton system. On the base of the unitary decomposition of the usual electron operator, we include the electron phase degrees of freedom into the problem of interacting excitons. Applying the path integral formalism, we treat the excitonic insulator state (EI) and the Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC) of preformed excitonic pairs as two independent problems. For the BEC of excitons the phase field variables play a crucial role. We derive the expression of the local EI order parameter by integrating out the phase variables. Then, considering the zero temperature limit, we obtain the excitonic BEC transition probability function, by integrating out the fermions. We calculate the normal excitonic Green functions for the conduction and valence band electrons and we derive the excitonic spectral functions, both analytically and numerically. Different values of the Coulomb interaction parameter are considered.

  17. Corner-Space Renormalization Method for Driven-Dissipative Two-Dimensional Correlated Systems. (United States)

    Finazzi, S; Le Boité, A; Storme, F; Baksic, A; Ciuti, C


    We present a theoretical method to study driven-dissipative correlated quantum systems on lattices with two spatial dimensions (2D). The steady-state density matrix of the lattice is obtained by solving the master equation in a corner of the Hilbert space. The states spanning the corner space are determined through an iterative procedure, using eigenvectors of the density matrix of smaller lattice systems, merging in real space two lattices at each iteration and selecting M pairs of states by maximizing their joint probability. The accuracy of the results is then improved by increasing the dimension M of the corner space until convergence is reached. We demonstrate the efficiency of such an approach by applying it to the driven-dissipative 2D Bose-Hubbard model, describing lattices of coupled cavities with quantum optical nonlinearities.

  18. Method and system for determining a volume of an object from two-dimensional images (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [Knoxville, TN; Schlicher, Bob G [Portsmouth, NH


    The invention provides a method and a computer program stored in a tangible medium for automatically determining a volume of three-dimensional objects represented in two-dimensional images, by acquiring at two least two-dimensional digitized images, by analyzing the two-dimensional images to identify reference points and geometric patterns, by determining distances between the reference points and the component objects utilizing reference data provided for the three-dimensional object, and by calculating a volume for the three-dimensional object.

  19. Bifurcations of a two-dimensional discrete time plant-herbivore system (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Qadeer; Ma, Jiying; Xiao, Dongmei


    In this paper, bifurcations of a two dimensional discrete time plant-herbivore system formulated by Allen et al. (1993) have been studied. It is proved that the system undergoes a transcritical bifurcation in a small neighborhood of a boundary equilibrium and a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in a small neighborhood of the unique positive equilibrium. An invariant closed curve bifurcates from the unique positive equilibrium by Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, which corresponds to the periodic or quasi-periodic oscillations between plant and herbivore populations. For a special form of the system, which appears in Kulenović and Ladas (2002), it is shown that the system can undergo a supercritical Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in a small neighborhood of the unique positive equilibrium and a stable invariant closed curve appears. This bifurcation analysis provides a theoretical support on the earlier numerical observations in Allen et al. (1993) and gives a supportive evidence of the conjecture in Kulenović and Ladas (2002). Some numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate our theocratical results.

  20. Modelling floor heating systems using a validated two-dimensional ground coupled numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzmann, Peter; Kragh, Jesper; Roots, Peter


    the floor. This model can be used to design energy efficient houses with floor heating focusing on the heat loss through the floor construction and foundation. It is found that it is impor-tant to model the dynamics of the floor heating system to find the correct heat loss to the ground, and further......This paper presents a two-dimensional simulation model of the heat losses and tempera-tures in a slab on grade floor with floor heating which is able to dynamically model the floor heating system. The aim of this work is to be able to model, in detail, the influence from the floor construction...... and foundation on the performance of the floor heating sys-tem. The ground coupled floor heating model is validated against measurements from a single-family house. The simulation model is coupled to a whole-building energy simu-lation model with inclusion of heat losses and heat supply to the room above...

  1. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E


    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  2. Stability Test for 2-D Continuous-Discrete Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Models of 2-D continuous-discrete systems are introduced, which can be used to describe some complex systems. Different from classical 2-D continuous systems or 2-D discrete systems, the asymptotic stability of the continuous-discrete systems is determined by Hurwitz-Schur stability (hybrid one) of 2-D characteristic polynomials of the systems. An algebraic algorithm with simpler test procedure for Hurwitz-Schur stability test of 2-D polynomials is developed. An example to illustrate the applications of the test approach is provided.

  3. 2D and 3D Mechanobiology in Human and Nonhuman Systems. (United States)

    Warren, Kristin M; Islam, Md Mydul; LeDuc, Philip R; Steward, Robert


    Mechanobiology involves the investigation of mechanical forces and their effect on the development, physiology, and pathology of biological systems. The human body has garnered much attention from many groups in the field, as mechanical forces have been shown to influence almost all aspects of human life ranging from breathing to cancer metastasis. Beyond being influential in human systems, mechanical forces have also been shown to impact nonhuman systems such as algae and zebrafish. Studies of nonhuman and human systems at the cellular level have primarily been done in two-dimensional (2D) environments, but most of these systems reside in three-dimensional (3D) environments. Furthermore, outcomes obtained from 3D studies are often quite different than those from 2D studies. We present here an overview of a select group of human and nonhuman systems in 2D and 3D environments. We also highlight mechanobiological approaches and their respective implications for human and nonhuman physiology.

  4. Classification of the sign of the critical Casimir force in two dimensional systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rajabpour, M A


    We classify the sign of the critical Casimir force between two finite objects separated by a large distance in the two dimensional systems that can be described by conformal field theory (CFT). In particular, we show that as far as the smallest scaling dimension present in the spectrum of the system is smaller than one, the sign of the force is independent of the shape of the objects and can be determined by the elements of the modular $S$-matrix of the CFT. The provided formula for the sign of the force indicates that the force is always attractive for equal boundary conditions independent of the shape of the objects. However, different boundary conditions can lead to attractive or repulsive forces. Using the derived formula, we prove the known results regarding the Ising model and the free bosons. As new examples, we give detailed results regarding the Q=3-states Potts model and the compactified bosons. In particular, for the latter model we show that Dirichlet boundary condition does not always lead to an ...

  5. Local imaging of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems with virtual scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelliccione, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Sciambi, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, 348 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)


    Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called “virtual scanning tunneling microscopy” that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.

  6. Nonlinear chemoconvection in the methylene-blue-glucose system: Two-dimensional shallow layers (United States)

    Pons, A. J.; Batiste, O.; Bees, M. A.


    Interfacial hydrodynamic instabilities arise in a range of chemical systems. One mechanism for instability is the occurrence of unstable density gradients due to the accumulation of reaction products. In this paper we conduct two-dimensional nonlinear numerical simulations for a member of this class of system: the methylene-blue-glucose reaction. The result of these reactions is the oxidation of glucose to a relatively, but marginally, dense product, gluconic acid, that accumulates at oxygen permeable interfaces, such as the surface open to the atmosphere. The reaction is catalyzed by methylene-blue. We show that simulations help to disassemble the mechanisms responsible for the onset of instability and evolution of patterns, and we demonstrate that some of the results are remarkably consistent with experiments. We probe the impact of the upper oxygen boundary condition, for fixed flux, fixed concentration, or mixed boundary conditions, and find significant qualitative differences in solution behavior; structures either attract or repel one another depending on the boundary condition imposed. We suggest that measurement of the form of the boundary condition is possible via observation of oxygen penetration, and improved product yields may be obtained via proper control of boundary conditions in an engineering setting. We also investigate the dependence on parameters such as the Rayleigh number and depth. Finally, we find that pseudo-steady linear and weakly nonlinear techniques described elsewhere are useful tools for predicting the behavior of instabilities beyond their formal range of validity, as good agreement is obtained with the simulations.

  7. Emergent topology and dynamical quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional closed quantum systems (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit


    Dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) manifested in the nonanalyticities in the temporal evolution of a closed quantum system generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian, following a quench (or ramping) of a parameter of the Hamiltonian, is an emerging frontier of nonequilibrium quantum dynamics. We, here, introduce the notion of a dynamical topological order parameter (DTOP) that characterizes these DQPTs occurring in quenched (or ramped) two-dimensional closed quantum systems; this is quite a nontrivial generalization of the notion of DTOP introduced in Budich and Heyl [Phys. Rev. B 93, 085416 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.085416] for one-dimensional situations. This DTOP is obtained from the "gauge-invariant" Pancharatnam phase extracted from the Loschmidt overlap, i.e., the modulus of the overlap between the initially prepared state and its time-evolved counterpart reached following a temporal evolution generated by the time-independent final Hamiltonian. This generic proposal is illustrated considering DQPTs occurring in the subsequent temporal evolution following a sudden quench of the staggered mass of the topological Haldane model on a hexagonal lattice where it stays fixed to zero or unity and makes a discontinuous jump between these two values at critical times at which DQPTs occur. What is remarkable is that while the topology of the equilibrium model is characterized by the Chern number, the emergent topology associated with the DQPTs is characterized by a generalized winding number.

  8. Unbinding transition in semi-infinite two-dimensional localized systems (United States)

    Somoza, A. M.; Le Doussal, P.; Ortuño, M.


    We consider a two-dimensional strongly localized system defined in a half-plane and whose transfer integral in the edge can be different than in the bulk. We predict an unbinding transition, as the edge transfer integral is varied, from a phase where conduction paths are distributed across the bulk to a bound phase where propagation is mainly along the edge. At criticality the logarithm of the conductance follows the F1 Tracy-Widom distribution. We verify numerically these predictions for both the Anderson and the Nguyen, Spivak, and Shklovskii models. We also check that for a half-plane, i.e., when the edge transfer integral is equal to the bulk transfer integral, the distribution of the conductance is the F4 Tracy-Widom distribution. These findings are strong indications that random sign directed polymer models and their quantum extensions belong to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. We have analyzed finite-size corrections at criticality and for a half-plane.

  9. Quadratic band touching points and flat bands in two-dimensional topological Floquet systems (United States)

    Du, Liang; Zhou, Xiaoting; Fiete, Gregory A.


    In this paper we theoretically study, using Floquet-Bloch theory, the influence of circularly and linearly polarized light on two-dimensional band structures with Dirac and quadratic band touching points, and flat bands, taking the nearest neighbor hopping model on the kagome lattice as an example. We find circularly polarized light can invert the ordering of this three-band model, while leaving the flat band dispersionless. We find a small gap is also opened at the quadratic band touching point by two-photon and higher order processes. By contrast, linearly polarized light splits the quadratic band touching point (into two Dirac points) by an amount that depends only on the amplitude and polarization direction of the light, independent of the frequency, and generally renders dispersion to the flat band. The splitting is perpendicular to the direction of the polarization of the light. We derive an effective low-energy theory that captures these key results. Finally, we compute the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity for this three-band model and analyze the various interband contributions of the Floquet modes. Our results suggest strategies for optically controlling band structure and interaction strength in real systems.

  10. Spin-orbit edge states in semiconductor two-dimensional systems (United States)

    Xu, L. L.; Ren, Shaola; Heremans, J. J.; Minic, Djordje; Gaspe, C. K.; Vijeyaragunathan, S.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.


    The electromagnetic duality between the Aharonov-Casher and the Aharonov-Bohm topological phases can lead to magnetoelectronic edge effects in two-dimensional systems. Based on this duality, we propose and experimentally explore a quantized Hall effect in which magnetization transport may be quantized analogously to charge transport. When the magnetic moment is fully projected, the edge effect is a magnetization dual to the integer quantum Hall effect. An analogy also exists between this dual and the bosonic quantum Hall effect currently under investigation. In experiments we search for edge states induced by the equivalent vector potential from Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. We use mesoscopic side-gated channel structures on InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures where backscattering between edge states can experimentally form evidence for edge states. The side-gate voltage varies the effective gauge field and resistance as function of side-gate voltage is measured across the mesoscopic structures at either low applied magnetic field or at fixed magnetic filling factors to obtain states of defined spin (DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).

  11. New Frontiers in Optical Science: Terahertz Spectroscopy ot Two Dimensional Systems (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Shik


    Terahertz (THz) radiation is electromagnetic radiation whose frequency lies between the microwave and infrared regions of the spectrum. Naturally occurring THz radiation fills up the space of everyday life providing warmth, yet this part of the spectrum remains the least explored region mainly due to the technical difficulties. The technological gap, however, has been rapidly diminishing for the last two decades. The new and exciting frontier of the THz science and technology has encroached on many different disciplines producing a broad range of applications such as medical imaging, sensing of biochemical agents, and ultra-high speed communication. Furthermore, the unique and advanced techniques of the THz spectroscopy have been proved to be a powerful tool to investigate the material properties inaccessible until recently. For example, THz waves strongly interact with electrons and holes in two dimensional systems, in which their dynamics are governed mainly by many-body Coulomb interactions. I will present our experimental studies demonstrating remarkable quantum effects in semiconductor nanostructures and exotic charge carrier dynamics in graphene.

  12. Excitation, detection, and electrostatic manipulation of terahertz-frequency range plasmons in a two-dimensional electron system

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jingbo; Wood, Christopher D; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Cunningham, John E


    Terahertz time domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit blocks its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally defined nanostructures, however. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz-frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures.

  13. Coupled KdV Equations and Their Explicit Solutions Through Two-Dimensional Hamiltonian System with a Quartic Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Lun-Xun; CAO Jian-Li; PAN Jun-Ting; ZHANG Hua; JIAO Wan-Tang


    Based on the second integrable case of known two-dimensional Hamiltonian system with a quartic potential, we propose a 4×4 matrix spectral problem and derive a hierarchy of coupled KdV equations and their Hamiltonian structures. It is shown that solutions of the coupled KdV equations in the hierarchy are reduced to solving two compatible systems of ordinary differential equations. As an application, quite a few explicit solutions of the coupled KdV equations are obtained via using separability for the second integrable case of the two-dimensional Hamiltonian system.

  14. Insight into the Local Solvent Environment of Biologically Relevant Iron-nitroysl Systems through Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy (United States)

    Brookes, Jennifer Faith

    Iron-nitrosyl systems, particularly in the form of heme proteins, with their iron metal active sites play an important role in biological systems. Heme proteins act as storage, transporters, and receptors for nitric oxide (NO), a signaling molecule that is important in immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems of mammals. By better understanding the local environment of the active site of NO binding heme proteins we can gain insight into disease in which the NO pathways have been implicated. This is an important step to being able to develop pharmaceuticals targeting NO pathways in humans. Sodium nitroprusside ((SNP, Na2[Fe(CN)5is NO]·2H 2O) investigated as a model system for the active site of nitric oxide binding heme proteins. Using two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2D IR) to obtain dephasing dynamics of the nitrosyl stretch (nuNO) in a series of solvents we are able to better understand the local environment of the more complicated metalloproteins. Rigorous line shape analysis is performed by using nonlinear response theory to simulate 2D IR spectra which are then fit to experimental data in an iterative process to extract frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs). The time scales obtained are then correlated to empirical solvent polarity parameters. The analysis of the 2D IR lineshapes reveal that the spectral diffusion timescale of the nuNO in SNP varies from 0.8 -- 4 ps and is negatively correlated with the empirical solvent polarity scales. We continue to investigate NO binding of metalloproteins through 2D IR experiments on nitrophorin 4 (NP4). NP4 is a pH-sensitive NO transporter protein present in the salivary gland of the blood sucking insect Rhodius prolixus which undergoes a pH sensitive structural change between a closed and open conformation allowing for the storage and delivery of NO. The two structures are observed spectroscopically as two distinct pH-dependent nu NO frequencies at ~1904 and ~1917 cm-1. We obtain FFCFs by globally

  15. Numerical study on a canonized Hamiltonian system representing reduced magnetohydrodynamics and its comparison with two-dimensional Euler system

    CERN Document Server

    Kaneko, Yuta


    Introducing a Clebsch-like parameterization, we have formulated a canonical Hamiltonian system on a symplectic leaf of reduced magnetohydrodynamics. An interesting structure of the equations is in that the Lorentz-force, which is a quadratic nonlinear term in the conventional formulation, appears as a linear term -{\\Delta}Q, just representing the current density (Q is a Clebsch variable, and {\\Delta} is the two-dimensional Laplacian); omitting this term reduces the system into the two-dimensional Euler vorticity equation of a neutral fluid. A heuristic estimate shows that current sheets grow exponentially (even in a fully nonlinear regime) together with the action variable P that is conjugate to Q. By numerical simulation, the predicted behavior of the canonical variables, yielding exponential growth of current sheets, has been demonstrated.

  16. Digital communication of two-dimensional messages in a chaotic optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yun; Wu Liang; Zhu Shi-Qun


    The digital communication of two-dimensional messages is investigated when two solid state multi-mode chaotic lasers are employed in a master-slave configuration. By introducing the time derivative of intensity difference between the receiver (carrier) and the transmittal (carrier plus signal), several signals can be encoded into a single pulse. If one signal contains several binary bits, two-dimensional messages in the form of a matrix can be encoded and transmitted on a single pulse. With these improvements in secure communications using chaotic multi-mode lasers, not only the transmission rate can be increased but also the privacy can be enhanced greatly.

  17. Application of Evolutionary Encryption 2D Barcode Generation Technology in Agricultural Product Quality and Safety Traceability System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun; ZHONG; Zhijie; LAI; Yan; CHEN; Jianxin; QIAN; Xiaocong; HONG; Caiyi; LI


    Two-dimensional(2D) barcode technology is an electronic tagging technology based on combination of computer and optical technology. It is an important way of information collection and input. 2D barcode technology has been widely used in various fields of logistics,production automation,and e-commerce,but it also has brought about a series of safety problems. Based on evolutionary encryption technology,this paper improved algorithm of traditional 2D barcode generation,to improve forgery- proof performance of 2D barcode. This algorithm is applied to agricultural products quality and safety traceability system and the results show that it is effective.

  18. Photovoltage detection of edge magnetoplasmon oscillations and giant magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional hole system (United States)

    Mi, Jian; Wang, Jianli; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.; Zhang, Chi


    In our high mobility p -type AlGaAs/GaAs two-dimensional hole samples, we originally observe the B -periodic oscillation induced by microwave (MW) in photovoltage (PV) measurements. In the frequency range of our measurements (5-40 GHz), the period (Δ B ) is inversely proportional to the microwave frequency (f ). The distinct oscillations come from the edge magnetoplasmon (EMP) in the high quality heavy hole system. Simultaneously, we observe the giant plasmon resonance signals in our measurements on the shallow two-dimensional hole system (2DHS).

  19. 2-D algebraic test for robust stability of time-delay systems with interval parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Yang


    The robust stability test of time-delay systems with interval parameters can be concluded into the robust stability of the interval quasipolynomials. It has been revealed that the robust stability of the quasipolynomials depends on that of their edge polynomials. This paper transforms the interval quasipolynomials into two-dimensional (2-D) interval polynomials (2-D s-z hybrid polynomials), proves that the robust stability of interval 2-D polynomials are sufficient for the stability of given quasipolynomials. Thus, the stability test of interval quasipolynomials can be completed in 2-D s-z domain instead of classical 1-D s domain. The 2-D s-z hybrid polynomials should have different forms under the time delay properties of given quasipolynomials. The stability test proposed by the paper constructs an edge test set from Kharitonov vertex polynomials to reduce the number of testing edge polynomials. The 2-D algebraic tests are provided for the stability test of vertex 2-D polynomials and edge 2-D polynomials family. To verify the results of the paper to be correct and valid, the simulations based on proposed results and comparison with other presented results are given.

  20. Self-Oscillations of a spontaneous electric field in a nonequilibrium two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.


    Self-oscillations of a microwave photovoltage with irregular interruptions have been discovered in the states with vanishing dc dissipation emerging in two-dimensional electron systems under microwave irradiation. The observed picture can be caused by transitions between a stable pole and a limiting cycle in the phase space of the systems (Andronov-Hopf bifurcation) that occur owing to fluctuations.

  1. Coherent electron dynamics in a two-dimensional random system with mobility edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.; Dominguez-Adame, F.; Malyshev, V.A.


    We study numerically the dynamics of a one-electron wavepacket in a two-dimensional random lattice with long-range correlated diagonal disorder in the presence of a uniform electric field. The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is used for this purpose. We find that the wavepacket displays Bloch-li

  2. Low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy investigation of two-dimensional crystallization of C60: pentacence binary system on Ag(111) (United States)

    Lin Zhang, Jia; Hong Liang Zhang, Kelvin; Qiang Zhong, Jian; Chao Niu, Tian; Chen, Wei


    Atomic scale investigation of temperature-dependent two-dimensional (2 D) crystallization processes of fullerene-C60 on pentacene-covered Ag(111) surface has been carried out by in situ low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (LT-STM) experiments. To evaluate the effect of molecule-substrate interfacial interactions on the 2 D crystallization of C60: pentacene binary system, we also carried out the same self-assembly experiments of C60 on monolayer pentacene covered graphite substrate. It is revealed that temperature-dependent structural transition of various ordered C60 nanoassemblies is strongly influenced by the molecule-Ag(111) interfacial interactions, and further mediated by the weak C60-pentacene intermolecular interactions. In situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) has been used to evaluate the nature of the intermolecular interactions between C60 and pentacene films.

  3. Approximation of the Long-term Dynamics of the Dynamical System Generated by the Two-dimensional Thermohydraulics Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Tone, Florentina


    Pursuing our work in [18], [17], [20], [5], we consider in this article the two-dimensional thermohydraulics equations. We discretize these equations in time using the implicit Euler scheme and we prove that the global attractors generated by the numerical scheme converge to the global attractor of the continuous system as the time-step approaches zero.

  4. Two-dimensional heteroclinic attractor in the generalized Lotka-Volterra system (United States)

    Afraimovich, Valentin S.; Moses, Gregory; Young, Todd


    We study a simple dynamical model exhibiting sequential dynamics. We show that in this model there exist sets of parameter values for which a cyclic chain of saddle equilibria, O k , k=1,\\ldots,p , have two-dimensional unstable manifolds that contain orbits connecting each O k to the next two equilibrium points O k+1 and O k+2 in the chain ({{O}p+1}={{O}1} ). We show that the union of these equilibria and their unstable manifolds form a two-dimensional surface with a boundary that is homeomorphic to a cylinder if p is even and a Möbius strip if p is odd. If, further, each equilibrium in the chain satisfies a condition called ‘dissipativity’, then this surface is asymptotically stable.

  5. Sequential identification of model parameters by derivative double two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy and calibration-free approach for chemical reaction systems. (United States)

    Spegazzini, Nicolas; Siesler, Heinz W; Ozaki, Yukihiro


    A sequential identification approach by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis for the identification of a chemical reaction model, activation, and thermodynamic parameters is presented in this paper. The identification task is decomposed into a sequence of subproblems. The first step is the construction of a reaction model with the suggested information by model-free 2D correlation analysis using a novel technique called derivative double 2D correlation spectroscopy (DD2DCOS), which enables one to analyze intensities with nonlinear behavior and overlapped bands. The second step is a model-based 2D correlation analysis where the activation and thermodynamic parameters are estimated by an indirect implicit calibration or a calibration-free approach. In this way, a minimization process for the spectral information by sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy and kinetic hard modeling (using ordinary differential equations) of the chemical reaction model is carried out. The sequential identification by 2D correlation analysis is illustrated with reference to the isomeric structure of diphenylurethane synthesized from phenylisocyanate and phenol. The reaction was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of the isomeric structures of diphenylurethane linked through a hydrogen bonding equilibrium were studied by means of an integration of model-free and model-based 2D correlation analysis called a sequential identification approach. The study determined the enthalpy (ΔH = 15.25 kJ/mol) and entropy (TΔS = 13.20 kJ/mol) of C═O···H hydrogen bonding of diphenylurethane through direct calculation from the differences in the kinetic parameters (δΔ(‡)H, -TδΔ(‡)S) at equilibrium in the chemical reaction system.

  6. Control and measuring system of a two-dimensional scanning nanopositioning stage based on LabVIEW (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Jun; Gao, Si-Tian; Li, Wei; Chen, Ben-Yong; Shi, Yu-Shu; Li, Qi


    A control and measuring system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is designed for the multiple selection and combinations control based on LabVIEW. The signal generator of the system can not only generate the commonly used control signals such as sine, square, triangle and sawtooth waves, but also generate special signals such as trapezoidal wave and step wave with DAQ data acquisition card. The step wave can be triggered by the other signals for the strict timing corresponding relation between X-Y control signals. Finally, the performance of the control system of two-dimensional nanopositioning stage is conducted by the heterodyne interferometer. The results show that the operation of the system is stable and reliable and the noise peak - valley value is superior to 2nm while the stage moving with 6nm step. The system can apply to the field requiring the precise control to the positioning stage in nano-measurement and metrology.

  7. Modulation on the collective response behavior by the system size in two-dimensional coupled cell systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Jiqian; SHEN; Chuansheng; CUI; Zhifeng


    By the intracellular calcium ionic minimal model proposed by Berridge, we investigated the collective response of two-dimensional (N×N) coupled cell systems to the external stimulation using numerical simulation methods. With a coupled intensity fixed and an appropriate coupled cell number chosen, the kinetic system size resonance was discovered. At the same time, it was found that the system size responding to the external stimulation for different coupled intensities transferred too, especially when the coupled intensity increased, the range of the corresponding system size extended. These phenomena illustrate that the coupled cell number and the coupled intensity can play constructive roles in noisy coupled systems, by which the biology system would probably improve its capability to respond to the external stimulation.

  8. Stellar fibril magnetic systems. II - Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations. III - Convective counterflow (United States)

    Parker, E. N.


    The dynamics of magnetic fibrils in the convective zone of a star is investigated analytically, deriving mean-field equations for the two-dimensional transverse motion of an incompressible fluid containing numerous small widely spaced circular cylinders. The equations of Parker (1982) are extended to account for the inertial effects of local flow around the cylinders. The linear field equation for the stream function at the onset of convection is then rewritten, neglecting large-scale heat transport, and used to construct a model of convective counterflow. The Kelvin impulse and fluid momentum, convective motion initiated by a horizontal impulse, and the effects of a viscous boundary layer are considered in appendices.

  9. Existence and Uniqueness Theorems for the Two-Dimensional Ericksen-Leslie System (United States)

    Chechkin, Gregory A.; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Romanov, Maxim S.; Samokhin, Vyacheslav N.


    In this paper we study the two dimensional Ericksen-Leslie equations for the nematodynamics of liquid crystals if the moment of inertia of the molecules does not vanish. We prove short time existence and uniqueness of strong solutions for the initial value problem in two situations: the space-periodic problem and the case of a bounded domain with spatial Dirichlet boundary conditions on the Eulerian velocity and the cross product of the director field with its time derivative. We also show that the speed of propagation of the director field is finite and give an upper bound for it.

  10. Diffusion induced by bounded noise in a two-dimensional coupled memory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Xu


    Full Text Available The diffusion behavior driven by bounded noise under the influence of a coupled harmonic potential is investigated in a two-dimensional coupled-damped model. With the help of the Laplace analysis we obtain exact descriptions for a particle's two-time dynamics which is subjected to a coupled harmonic potential and a coupled damping. The time lag is used to describe the velocity autocorrelation function and mean square displacement of the diffusing particle. The diffusion behavior for the time lag is also discussed with respect to the coupled items and the amplitude of bounded noise.

  11. The Research of Mobile phone Entrance Guard System Model based on the Encryption Two-dimensional Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu Jianli


    Full Text Available This article designs a new mobile-phone entrance guard system, uses the encryption two-dimensional code for identity authentication. Different from other similar products in the market, this system does not rely on specialized mobile phone card or NFC (near field communication module. It can be directly realized through mobile-phone software, and it can be operated simple and safer. This article designs the whole system model, includes structure, function and workflow. It also analyzes and researches the main algorithms used in the system, which include security policy algorithm, encryption two-dimensional code algorithm and image recognition algorithm. Finally, it provides the solution method for the problem in the experimental simulation. It also evaluated and summarized the experimental results.

  12. Two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) cine acquisition of fetal non-central nervous system abnormalities. (United States)

    Shen, Shu-Huei; Guo, Wan-Yuo; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu


    To evaluate the value of two-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (2D FIESTA) cine MR with parallel imaging techniques in the diagnosis of fetal non-central nervous system (CNS) anomalies. A total of 28 pregnant women were referred for further MR evaluation on fetuses after abnormal sonographic results. A total of 33 fetal MR examinations were performed by a 1.5 T MR scanner with eight-channel phase-arrayed body coils. Single-shot fast spin-echo (SSFSE(R), GE) of three orthogonal planes and 2D FIESTA for cine fetal MR of three sagittal planes (midsagittal and 10 mm off midline on left and right) were routinely acquired. Additional planes on target organs with variable imaging frames were added if indicated. Nine of the 33 examinations (9/33; 27.3%) had motion artifacts obscuring the detail in SSFSE imaging; 2D FIESTA imaging provided motion-artifact-free imaging in all of them. Cine 2D FIESTA imaging provided additional information on the visceral peristalsis. The information helped in differentiating dilated gastrointestinal (GI) tract from other intraabdominal cystic lesions and in confirming the nature and level of GI tract obstruction. With sub-half-second temporal resolution of the 2D FIESTA sequences, fetal movement is no longer problematic. In addition to the anatomical information also provided by conventional SSFSE sequences, 2D FIESTA demonstrates information on motility and peristalsis of hollow organs and helps the diagnosis of fetal visceral anomalies. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones


    Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong


    Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...

  14. Robust stabilisation of 2D state-delayed stochastic systems with randomly occurring uncertainties and nonlinearities (United States)

    Duan, Zhaoxia; Xiang, Zhengrong; Karimi, Hamid Reza


    This paper is concerned with the state feedback control problem for a class of two-dimensional (2D) discrete-time stochastic systems with time-delays, randomly occurring uncertainties and nonlinearities. Both the sector-like nonlinearities and the norm-bounded uncertainties enter into the system in random ways, and such randomly occurring uncertainties and nonlinearities obey certain mutually uncorrelated Bernoulli random binary distribution laws. Sufficient computationally tractable linear matrix inequality-based conditions are established for the 2D nonlinear stochastic time-delay systems to be asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense, and then the explicit expression of the desired controller gains is derived. An illustrative example is provided to show the usefulness and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D.; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M.; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J. Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  16. Immobilization of single argon atoms in nano-cages of two-dimensional zeolite model systems. (United States)

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Wang, Mengen; Akter, Nusnin; Kestell, John D; Boscoboinik, Alejandro M; Kim, Taejin; Stacchiola, Dario J; Lu, Deyu; Boscoboinik, J Anibal


    The confinement of noble gases on nanostructured surfaces, in contrast to bulk materials, at non-cryogenic temperatures represents a formidable challenge. In this work, individual Ar atoms are trapped at 300 K in nano-cages consisting of (alumino)silicate hexagonal prisms forming a two-dimensional array on a planar surface. The trapping of Ar atoms is detected in situ using synchrotron-based ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atoms remain in the cages upon heating to 400 K. The trapping and release of Ar is studied combining surface science methods and density functional theory calculations. While the frameworks stay intact with the inclusion of Ar atoms, the permeability of gasses (for example, CO) through them is significantly affected, making these structures also interesting candidates for tunable atomic and molecular sieves. These findings enable the study of individually confined noble gas atoms using surface science methods, opening up new opportunities for fundamental research.

  17. Lognormality of gradients of diffusive scalars in homogeneous, two-dimensional mixing systems (United States)

    Kerstein, A. R.; Ashurst, W. T.


    Kolmogorov's third hypothesis, as extended by Gurvich and Yaglom, is found to be obeyed by a diffusive scalar for a class of homogeneous, two-dimensional mixing models. The mixing models all involve the advection of fluid by discrete vortices distributed in a square region with periodic boundary conditions. By computer simulation, it is found that the squared gradient of a diffusive scalar so advected is lognormally distributed, obeys the predicted scaling when a spatial smoothing is applied, and exhibits a power-law range in the spatial autocorrelation. In addition, it is found that the scaling property cuts off at the Batchelor length, as predicted by Gibson. Since the mixing models employed do not incorporate the dynamical features of high-Reynolds-number turbulence, these results suggest that scalar lognormality and associated scaling behavior may be more robust or persistent than the scaling laws of the flow field.

  18. High-frequency susceptibility of a multilayered ferromagnetic system with two-dimensional inhomogeneities (United States)

    Mankov, Yu. I.; Tsikalov, D. S.


    This paper reports on the results of the investigation of the high-frequency susceptibility of a layered ferromagnetic structure in which, apart from a periodic change in the magnetic anisotropy parameter from layer to layer, this parameter varies along layers according to a random law (the superlattice with two-dimensional phase inhomogeneities). The evolution of the frequency dependence of the imaginary part of the averaged Green’s function in the range of the energy gap (band gap) in the spectrum of waves propagating along the superlattice axis due to the change in the relative root-mean-square fluctuations of the phase γ2 has been studied at the boundaries of the odd Brillouin zones. It has been found that, for all odd Brillouin zones, the imaginary part of the Green’s function exhibits a universal behavior: the peak corresponding to the edge of the band gap with a lower frequency remains unchanged, and the peak corresponding to the edge of the band gap with a higher frequency is smoothed with an increase in the quantity γ2. These effects, which were initially revealed at the boundary of the first Brillouin zone of the sinusoidal superlattice, have been explained, as before, by the specific features of the energy conservation laws for the incident and scattered waves in the lattice with two-dimensional inhomogeneities. It has been demonstrated that an increase in the Brillouin zone number leads to a decrease in the value of γ2 at which the peak at the edge of the band gap with a higher frequency disappears.

  19. Dynamics of two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Qing-Bao [Department of Physics, Lishui University, Lishui 323000 (China); Luo, Meng-Bo, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    We study the dynamics of a two-dimensional vortex system in a strong square pinning array at the second matching field. Two kinds of depinning behaviors, a continuous depinning transition at weak pinning and a discontinuous one at strong pinning, are found. We show that the two different kinds of vortex depinning transitions can be identified in transport as a function of the pinning strength and temperature. Moreover, interstitial vortex state can be probed from the transport properties of vortices.

  20. Study of 2D DOA Estimation for Uniform Circular Array in Wireless Location System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping TAN


    Full Text Available in this paper, the use of a uniform circular antenna arrays (UCA for high resolution of two dimensional (2D direction of arrivals (DOAs estimation in wireless location system is investigated. Performance of 2D DOA estimation based on the real-valued unitary transformation MUSIC algorithm for UCA is presented, especially focusing on DOA estimation of multiple correlated signals. The determination of the number of incident signals on an antenna array is addressed in the condition of colored noise and coherent signal sources. Selected method for estimating the number of these sources is formulated based on the modified eigenvectors of the covariance matrix of the received signal at the antenna array. The calibration procedure is also presented for UCA especially. Simulation results are presented to confirm the performance analysis of algorithm, then the validations of Unitary Transformation MUSIC algorithm are performed based on the measurement data in a wireless location system.

  1. Suppression of electron magnetotunneling between parallel two-dimensional GaAs/InAs electron systems by the correlation interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanin, Yu. N.; Vdovin, E. E., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Makarovsky, O. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Henini, M. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Center (United Kingdom)


    Magnetotunneling between two-dimensional GaAs/InAs electron systems in vertical resonant tunneling GaAs/InAs/AlAs heterostructures is studied. A new-type of singularity in the tunneling density of states, specifically a dip at the Fermi level, is found; this feature is drastically different from that observed previously for the case of tunneling between two-dimensional GaAs tunnel systems in terms of both the kind of functional dependence and the energy and temperature parameters. As before, this effect manifests itself in the suppression of resonant tunneling in a narrow range near zero bias voltage in a high magnetic field parallel to the current direction. Magnetic-field and temperature dependences of the effect's parameters are obtained; these dependences are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The observed effect can be caused by a high degree of disorder in two-dimensional correlated electron systems as a result of the introduction of structurally imperfect strained InAs layers.

  2. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for controlling and comparing culture supernatants of mammalian cell culture productions systems. (United States)

    Wimmer, K; Harant, H; Reiter, M; Blüml, G; Gaida, T; Katinger, H


    A recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line, producing human erythropoietin, was cultivated in a continuous mode in a stirred tank reactor applying different dilution rates. In order to monitor the stability of this expression system, product and non-product proteins of the cell culture supernatant were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The consistency of the isoforms of the recombinant product was determined by western blot combined with specific staining. The same cell line was propagated in a high cell density cultivation system based on macro-cell-aggregates. The patterns of secreted proteins of the cell line cultivated in the different systems were compared in order to detect modifications in protein expression of the product and of non product proteins relevant for cell culture supernatant. Hardly any alterations in two-dimensional pattern were detectable. The isoforms of erythropoietin, as well as the overall pattern of secreted proteins, detectable with the two-dimensional electrophoresis method were remarkably stable under different cultivation conditions.

  3. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.


    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  4. Casimir interaction of rodlike particles in a two-dimensional critical system (United States)

    Eisenriegler, E.; Burkhardt, T. W.


    We consider the fluctuation-induced interaction of two thin, rodlike particles, or "needles," immersed in a two-dimensional critical fluid of Ising symmetry right at the critical point. Conformally mapping the plane containing the needles onto a simpler geometry in which the stress tensor is known, we analyze the force and torque between needles of arbitrary length, separation, and orientation. For infinite and semi-infinite needles we utilize the mapping of the plane bounded by the needles onto the half plane, and for two needles of finite length we use the mapping onto an annulus. For semi-infinite and infinite needles the force is expressed in terms of elementary functions, and we also obtain analytical results for the force and torque between needles of finite length with separation much greater than their length. Evaluating formulas in our approach numerically for several needle geometries and surface universality classes, we study the full crossover from small to large values of the separation to length ratio. In these two limits the numerical results agree with results for infinitely long needles and with predictions of the small-particle operator expansion, respectively.

  5. Spin-orbit or Aharonov-Casher edge states in semiconductor two-dimensional systems (United States)

    Xu, L. L.; Heremans, J. J.; Gaspe, C. K.; Vijeyaragunathan, S.; Mishima, T. D.; Santos, M. B.


    In semiconductors with spin-orbit interaction we experimentally search for edge states induced by the Aharonov-Casher vector potential or Rashba-type spin-orbit interaction. The Aharonov-Casher effect is electromagnetically dual to the Aharonov-Bohm effect and is predicted to lead to a possibly helical edge state structure at two-dimensional sample edges. We use InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructures patterned into mesoscopic side-gated channel structures, where the edge states can be induced, and where backscattering between edge states can be experimentally measured in the resistance. Sweeping side-gate voltage, low temperature resistances are measured across such mesoscopic closed-path structures at either low applied magnetic field, in-plane or normal to the plane, or at fixed magnetic filling factors of 5, 6, 7, and 8 to obtain states of defined spin. Resistance oscillations are observed at low magnetic fields and around filling factor 6 as function of side-gate voltage, and we analyze the oscillations in the light of the search for the edge states (DOE DE-FG02-08ER46532, NSF DMR-0520550).

  6. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin


    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  7. Low-Lying States of the A+B-A+B- Coulomb Systems in Two-Dimensional Quantum Dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang


    The features of the low-lying spectra of four-body A+B-A+B- systems have been deduced based on symmetry. Using the method of few-body physics, we calculate the energy spectra of A + B- A + B- systems in a harmonic quantum dot. We find that the biexciton in a two-dimensional quantum dot may have other bound excited states and the quantum mechanical symmetry plays a crucialrole in determining the energy levels and structures of the low-lying states.

  8. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Properties of Shocks in Two-Dimensional Yukawa Systems (United States)

    Marciante, M.; Murillo, M. S.


    Particle-level simulations of shocked plasmas are carried out to examine kinetic properties not captured by hydrodynamic models. In particular, molecular dynamics simulations of 2D Yukawa plasmas with variable couplings and screening lengths are used to examine shock features unique to plasmas, including the presence of dispersive shock structures for weak shocks. A phase-space analysis reveals several kinetic properties, including anisotropic velocity distributions, non-Maxwellian tails, and the presence of fast particles ahead of the shock, even for moderately low Mach numbers. We also examine the thermodynamics (Rankine-Hugoniot relations) of recent experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 015002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.015002] and find no anomalies in their equations of state.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A canonical form for AR 2-D systems representations is introduced. This yields a method for computing the system trajectories by means of a line-by-line recursion, and displays some relevant information about the system structure such as the choice of inputs and initial conditions.

  10. New Reductions and Nonlinear Systems for 2D Schrodinger Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Mironov, A


    New Completely Integrable (2+1)-System is studied. It is based on the so-called L-A-B-triples $L_t=[H,L]-fL$ where L is a 2D Schrodinger Operator. This approach was invented by S.Manakov and B.Dubrovin, I.Krichever, S.Novikov(DKN) in the works published in 1976. A nonstandard reduction for the 2D Schrodinger Operator (completely different from the one found by S.Novikov and A.Veselov in 1984) compatible with time dynamics of the new Nonlinear System, is studied here. It can be naturally treated as a 2D extension of the famous Burgers System. The Algebro-Geometric (AG) Periodic Solutions here are very specific and unusual (for general and reduced cases). The reduced system is linearizable like Burgers. However, the general one (and probably the reduced one also) certainly lead in the stationary AG case to the nonstandard examples of algebraic curves $\\Gamma\\subset W$ in the full complex 2D manifold of Bloch-Floquet functions W for the periodic elliptic 2D operator H where $H\\psi(x,y,P)=\\lambda(P)\\psi(x,y,P),P\\...

  11. Influence of Gauge Fluctuation on Electron Pairing Order Parameter and Correlation Functions of a Two-Dimensional System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Ming-Xi; QI Sheng-Wen; LIU Yu-Liang


    @@ Based on a two-dimensional electron system with pure gauge field, we demonstrate that the long range order of the electron pairing order parameter can be destroyed by the gauge fluctuation for both s-wave and d-wave symmetric Cooper pair parameters, even if the pure gauge field mediates attractive interaction between the spinup and spin-down electrons, while the signal of the Meissner effect is observable. This model can be used to explain the recent experimental data of the high Tc cuprate superconductors observed.

  12. [Effectiveness of social skills training for children with developmental disorders: behavioral analysis using a two-dimensional motion capture system]. (United States)

    Sakuma, Ryusuke; Gunji, Atsuko; Goto, Takaaki; Kita, Yosuke; Koike, Toshihide; Kaga, Makiko; Inagaki, Masumi


    The current study sought to develop a new behavioral analysis methods to evaluate the effects of social skills training (SST). SST is known to be an effective method to improve the social skills of children with behavioral problems. However, current evaluation methods involve behavioral rating scales that are heavily dependent on evaluators' particular experiences they have had. To quantitatively examine the behavioral effects of SST, we examined subjects' head-movements related to social behavior, using a two-dimensional motion capture system (Kissei Comtec, Japan). Four children (three male, one female, 7-8 years of age) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) participated in 16 sessions of SST. Before and after SST, head-coordinates on a two-dimensional plane were calculated using their behavior during a pair task, measured by four digital cameras. After SST, the number of communication behaviors was increased compared to before SST. In addition, children looked longer at another child within 30 degrees of the central visual field. Time-series analysis of the visual field during the detection of another child revealed significant auto-correlation from about -1.12 second. before to the beginning of communication behavior (p<0.05). The results suggested that our method can provide a quantitative index of characteristics related to skilled social behaviors. We conclude that a two-dimensional motion capture system would be useful for visualization of the interventional effects of SST, which would supplement assessments by the conventional observational strategies.

  13. Visual exploration of 2D autonomous dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Thomas


    In an introductory course on dynamical systems or Hamiltonian mechanics, vector field diagrams are a central tool to show a system's qualitative behaviour in a certain domain. Because of their low sampling rates and the involved issues of vector normalization, these plots give only a coarse insight and are unable to convey the vector field behaviour at locations with high variation, in particular in the neighborhood of critical points. Similarly, automatic generation of phase portraits based on traditional sampling cannot precisely capture separatrices or limit cylces. In this paper, we present ASysViewer, an application for the interactive visual exploration of two-dimensional autonomous dynamical systems using line integral convolution techniques for visualization, and grid-based techniques to extract critical points and separatrices. ASysViewer is addressed to undergraduate students during their first course in dynamical systems or Hamiltonian mechanics.

  14. The effects of two-dimensional bifurcations and quantum beats in a system of combined atomic force and scanning tunneling microscopes with quantum dots (United States)

    Zhukovsky, V. Ch.; Krevchik, V. D.; Semenov, M. B.; Krevchik, P. V.; Zaytsev, R. V.; Egorov, I. A.


    The field and temperature dependence of the probability of two-dimensional dissipative tunneling is studied in the framework of one-instanton approximation for a model double-well oscillator potential in an external electric field at finite temperature with account for the influence of two local phonon modes for quantum dots in a system of a combined atomic force and a scanning tunneling microscope. It is demonstrated that in the mode of synchronous parallel transfer of tunneling particles from the cantilever tip to the quantum dot the two local phonon modes result in the occurrence of two stable peaks in the curve of the 2D dissipative tunneling probability as a function of the field. Qualitative comparison of the theoretical curve in the limit of weak dissociation and the experimental current-voltage characteristic for quantum dots that grow from colloidal gold under a cantilever tip at the initial stage of quantum-dot formation when the quantum dot size does not exceed 10 nm is performed. It is established that one of the two stable peaks that correspond to interaction of tunneling particles with two local phonon modes in the temperature dependence of the 2D dissipative tunneling probability can be split in two, which corresponds to the tunneling channel interference mechanism. It is found that the theoretically predicted and experimentally observed mode of quantum beats occurs near the bifurcation point.

  15. Convection and segregation in fluidised granular systems exposed to two-dimensional vibration (United States)

    Windows-Yule, C. R. K.


    Convection and segregation in granular systems not only provide a rich phenomenology of scientifically interesting behaviours but are also crucial to numerous ‘real-world’ processes ranging from important and widely used industrial procedures to potentially cataclysmic geophysical phenomena. Simple, small-scale experimental or simulated test systems are often employed by researchers in order to gain an understanding of the fundamental physics underlying the behaviours of granular media. Such systems have been the subject of extensive research over several decades, with numerous system geometries and manners of producing excitation explored. Energy is commonly provided to granular assemblies through the application of vibration—the simplicity of the dynamical systems produced and the high degree of control afforded over their behaviour make vibrated granular beds a valuable canonical system by which to explore a diverse range of phenomena. Although a wide variety of vibrated systems have been explored in the existing literature, the vast majority are exposed to vibration along only a single spatial direction. In this paper, we study highly fluidised systems subjected to strong, multi-directional driving, providing a first insight into the dynamics and behaviours of these systems which may potentially hold valuable new information relevant to important industrial and natural processes. With a particular focus on the processes of convection and segregation, we analyse the various states and phase transitions exhibited by our system, detailing a number of previously unobserved dynamical phenomena and system states.

  16. Developing mobile BIM/2D barcode-based automated facility management system. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Cheng; Su, Yu-Chih; Chen, Yen-Pei


    Facility management (FM) has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D) graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM) uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D) object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD). This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM) system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment.

  17. Developing Mobile BIM/2D Barcode-Based Automated Facility Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Cheng Lin


    Full Text Available Facility management (FM has become an important topic in research on the operation and maintenance phase. Managing the work of FM effectively is extremely difficult owing to the variety of environments. One of the difficulties is the performance of two-dimensional (2D graphics when depicting facilities. Building information modeling (BIM uses precise geometry and relevant data to support the facilities depicted in three-dimensional (3D object-oriented computer-aided design (CAD. This paper proposes a new and practical methodology with application to FM that uses an integrated 2D barcode and the BIM approach. Using 2D barcode and BIM technologies, this study proposes a mobile automated BIM-based facility management (BIMFM system for FM staff in the operation and maintenance phase. The mobile automated BIMFM system is then applied in a selected case study of a commercial building project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate its effectiveness in FM practice. The combined results demonstrate that a BIMFM-like system can be an effective mobile automated FM tool. The advantage of the mobile automated BIMFM system lies not only in improving FM work efficiency for the FM staff but also in facilitating FM updates and transfers in the BIM environment.

  18. Learning control system design based on 2-D theory - An application to parallel link manipulator (United States)

    Geng, Z.; Carroll, R. L.; Lee, J. D.; Haynes, L. H.


    An approach to iterative learning control system design based on two-dimensional system theory is presented. A two-dimensional model for the iterative learning control system which reveals the connections between learning control systems and two-dimensional system theory is established. A learning control algorithm is proposed, and the convergence of learning using this algorithm is guaranteed by two-dimensional stability. The learning algorithm is applied successfully to the trajectory tracking control problem for a parallel link robot manipulator. The excellent performance of this learning algorithm is demonstrated by the computer simulation results.

  19. Two-Dimensional Regular Shock Reflection for the Pressure Gradient System of Conservation Laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxi Zheng


    We establish the existence of a global solution to a regular reflection of a shock hitting a ramp for the pressure gradient system of equations. The set-up of the reflection is the same as that of Mach's experiment for the compressible Euler system, i.e., a straight shock hitting a ramp. We assume that the angle of the ramp is close to 90 degrees. The solution has a reflected bow shock wave, called the diffraction of the planar shock at the compressive corner, which is mathematically regarded as a free boundary in the self-similar variable plane.The pressure gradient system of three equations is a subsystem, and an approximation, of the full Euler system,and we offer a couple of derivations.

  20. Formation of nanowires at the percolation threshold in rectangular 2D systems (United States)

    Schmelzer, J., Jr.; Brown, Simon A.; Schulze, M.; Dunbar, Alan; Partridge, J.; Gourley, S.; Ramsay, B.; Wurl, A.; Hyslop, M.; Blaikie, Richard J.


    Random deposition of conducting nanoparticles on a flat two dimensional (2D) substrate leads to the formation of a conducting path at the percolation threshold. In sufficiently small systems significant finite size effects are expected. However, in the 2D square systems that are usually studied, the random deposition means that the main effect of small system sizes is that stochastic fluctuations become increasingly large. We have performed experiments and simulations on rectangular 2D nanoparticle films with nanoscale overall dimensions. The sample geometry is chosen to limit stochastic fluctuations in the film"s properties. In the experiments bismuth nanoparticles with mean diameters in the range 20-60nm are deposited between contacts with separations down to 300nm. At small contact separations there is a significant shift in the percolation threshold (pc) and the conducting path formed close to pc resembles a nanowire. Percolation theory describes the experimental onset of conduction well: there is good agreement between predicted and measured values of the power law exponent for the correlation length.

  1. Numerical Bifurcation Diagram for the Two-Dimensional Boundary-fed CDIMA System

    CERN Document Server

    Setayeshgar, S


    We present numerical solution of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction-diffusion system in two dimensions in a boundary-fed system using a realistic model. The bifurcation diagram for the transition from non-symmetry breaking structures along boundary feed gradients to transverse symmetry breaking patterns in a single layer is numerically determined. We find this transition to be discontinuous. We make connection with earlier results and discuss prospects for future work.

  2. Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Two-Dimensional Electron Systems (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi


    Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed.

  3. A simple two-dimensional extension of the HLL Riemann solver for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws (United States)

    Vides, Jeaniffer; Nkonga, Boniface; Audit, Edouard


    We derive a simple method to numerically approximate the solution of the two-dimensional Riemann problem for gas dynamics, using the literal extension of the well-known HLL formalism as its basis. Essentially, any strategy attempting to extend the three-state HLL Riemann solver to multiple space dimensions will by some means involve a piecewise constant approximation of the complex two-dimensional interaction of waves, and our numerical scheme is not the exception. In order to determine closed form expressions for the involved fluxes, we rely on the equivalence between the consistency condition and the use of Rankine-Hugoniot conditions that hold across the outermost waves. The proposed scheme is carefully designed to simplify its eventual numerical implementation and its advantages are analytically attested. In addition, we show that the proposed solver can be applied to obtain the edge-centered electric fields needed in the constrained transport technique for the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. We present several numerical results for hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics that display the scheme's accuracy and its ability to be applied to various systems of conservation laws.

  4. Unconventional phases in quantum spin and pseudospin systems in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices (United States)

    Xu, Cenke

    Several examples of quantum spin systems and pseudo spin systems have been studied, and unconventional states of matters and phase transitions have been realized in all these systems under consideration. In the p +/- ip superconductor Josephson lattice and the p--band cold atomic system trapped in optical lattices, novel phases which behave similarly to 1+1 dimensional systems are realized, despite the fact that the real physical systems are in two or three dimensional spaces. For instance, by employing a spin-wave analysis together with a new duality transformation, we establish the existence and stability of a novel gapless "critical phase", which we refer to as a "bond algebraic liquid". This novel critical phase is analogous to the 1+1 dimensional algebraic boson liquid phase. The reason for the novel physics is that there is a quasilocal gauge symmetry in the effective low energy Hamiltonian. In a spin-1 system on the kagome lattice, and a hard-core boson system on the honeycomb lattice, the low energy physics is controlled by two components of compact U(1) gauge symmetries that emerge at low energy. Making use of the confinement nature of the 2+1 dimensional compact gauge theories and the powerful duality between gauge theories and height field theories, the crystalline phase diagrams are studied for both systems, and the transitions to other phases are also considered. These phase diagrams might be accessible in strongly correlated materials, or atomic systems in optical lattices. A novel quantum ground state of matter is realized in a bosonic model on three dimensional fcc lattice with emergent low energy excitations. The novel phase obtained is a stable gapless boson liquid phase, with algebraic boson density correlations. The stability of this phase is protected against the instanton effect and superfluidity by self-duality and large gauge symmetries on both sides of the duality. The gapless collective excitations of this phase closely resemble the

  5. A new method of boundary parameter estimation for a two-dimensional diffusion system under noisy observations (United States)

    Sunahara, Y.; Kojima, F.


    The purpose of this paper is to establish a method for identifying unknown parameters involved in the boundary state of a class of diffusion systems under noisy observations. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is given by a two-dimensional diffusion equation. Noisy observations are made by sensors allocated on the system boundary. Starting with the mathematical model mentioned above, an online parameter estimation algorithm is proposed within the framework of the maximum likelihood estimation. Existence of the optimal solution and related necessary conditions are discussed. By solving a local variation of the cost functional with respect to the perturbation of parameters, the estimation mechanism is proposed in a form of recursive computations. Finally, the feasibility of the estimator proposed here is demonstrated through results of digital simulation experiments.

  6. Development of an ultra-fast data-acquisition system for a two-dimensional microstrip gas chamber. (United States)

    Ochi, A; Tanimori, T; Nishi, Y; Aoki, S; Nishi, Y


    A high-performance data-acquisition system has been developed in order to obtain time-resolved sequential images from a two-dimensional microstrip gas chamber (MSGC). This was achieved using fully digital processing with a synchronized pipeline method. Complex logical circuits for processing large numbers of signals are mounted on a small number of complex programmable logic devices. The system is operated with a 10 MHz synchronous clock, and has the capability of handling more than 3 x 10(6) counts s(-1) for asynchronous events. The system was examined using a 5 x 5 cm MSGC and the recently developed 10 x 10 cm MSGC (1024 outputs); the anticipated performances were achieved.

  7. Dephasing in the quasi-two-dimensional exciton-biexciton system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    The polarization decay in the exciton-biexciton system of a homogeneously broadened single quantum well is studied by transient four-wave mixing. All three decay rates in the exciton-biexciton three-level system are deduced. The relation between the rates unravels correlations between scattering...... processes of excitons and biexcitons. Density and temperature dependences show that the involved processes are mainly radiative decay and phonon scattering. The radiative decay rate of the biexcitons is found to be comparable to the one of the excitons, and the involved spontaneous photon emissions from...

  8. Numerical evidence of drift term in two-dimensional point vortex system at negative absolute temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Yatsuyanagi, Yuichi


    The drift term appearing in an anaylitically obtained kinetic equation for a point vortex system is evidenced numerically. It is revealed that the local temperature in a region where the vortices are frequently transported by the diffusion and the drift terms characterizes system temperature and its sign is definitely negative. Simulation results clearly show a ransport process of the vortices by the diffusion term (outside the clumps) and the drift term (inside the clumps), which gives a key mechanism of the self-organization, i.e., condensation of the same-sign vortices.

  9. Walk-Rally Support System Using Two-Dimensional Codes and Mobile Phones (United States)

    Miyagawa, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Yoshio; Mizuno, Shun


    "Walk Rally" (WR), an orienteering-like recreation game, is common, especially in Japan. Numerous trials to combine WR with educational activities are being carried out by some educators. However, participants are always at the risk of straying and subjected to various accidents during the WR. We developed a WR support system based on…

  10. Construction of wave operator for two-dimensional Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger systems with Yukawa coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Tsuruta


    Full Text Available We prove the existence of the wave operator for the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system with Yukawa coupling. This non-linearity type is below Strichartz scaling, and therefore classic perturbation methods will fail in any Strichartz space. Instead, we follow the "first iteration method" to handle these critical non-linearities.

  11. Walk-Rally Support System Using Two-Dimensional Codes and Mobile Phones (United States)

    Miyagawa, Tetsuya; Yamagishi, Yoshio; Mizuno, Shun


    "Walk Rally" (WR), an orienteering-like recreation game, is common, especially in Japan. Numerous trials to combine WR with educational activities are being carried out by some educators. However, participants are always at the risk of straying and subjected to various accidents during the WR. We developed a WR support system based on…

  12. Two-dimensional electronic readout system for multi-step-avalanche chambers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlén, L.; Garpmann, S.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Löhner, H.; Nystrand, J.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Svensson, T.; Stenlund, E.; Söderström, K.; Whitlow, H.J.


    We present prototype studies of a new technical solution of detector readout for measurements of charged particles at very high particle densities. In particular, this paper describes a readout system for Multi-Step Avalanche Chambers designed for the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS. Results from th

  13. Numerical investigation into the existence of limit cycles in two-dimensional predator�prey systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quay van der Hoff


    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in developing and analysing models of interacting species in ecosystems, with specific interest in investigating the existence of limit cycles in systems describing the dynamics of these species. The original Lotka–Volterra model does not possess any limit cycles. In recent years this model has been modified to take disturbances into consideration and allow populations to return to their original numbers. By introducing logistic growth and a Holling Type II functional response to the traditional Lotka–Volterra-type models, it has been proven analytically that a unique, stable limit cycle exists. These proofs make use of Dulac functions, Liénard equations and invariant regions, relying on theory developed by Poincaré, Poincaré-Bendixson, Dulac and Liénard, and are generally perceived as difficult. Computer algebra systems are ideally suited to apply numerical methods to confirm or refute the analytical findings with respect to the existence of limit cycles in non-linear systems. In this paper a class of predator–prey models of a Gause type is used as the vehicle to illustrate the use of a simple, yet novel numerical algorithm. This algorithm confirms graphically the existence of at least one limit cycle that has analytically been proven to exist. Furthermore, adapted versions of the proposed algorithm may be applied to dynamic systems where it is difficult, if not impossible, to prove analytically the existence of limit cycles.

  14. Construction of exact dynamical invariants of two-dimensional classical system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Mishra; Fakir Chand


    A general method is used for the construction of second constant of motion of fourth order in momenta using the complex coordinates $(z, \\bar{z})$. A fourth-order potential equation is obtained whose solutions directly provide a large class of integrable systems. The potential equation is tested with an interesting example which admits second constants of motion.

  15. Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷2D C/SiC复合材料的抗氧化性能%Oxidation resistance of two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左新章; 张立同; 刘永胜; 成来飞; 龚慧灵


    Two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Properties and structure evolution and self-healing mechanisms of the C/SiC composite were studied after oxidation for 10 h during 700-1200 ℃.At the same time,the evolution of morphologies,composition and phase for Si-B-C ceramic were also investigated.The experimental results show that the oxidation of Si-B-C ceramic accelerates with the temperature increasing,however,the oxidation scale is shallow and no more than 7 μm.With the temperature increasing,viscosity of borosilicate glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic reduces but volatilization accelerates.When the temperature increases to 1200 ℃,SiO2 crystallizes from borosilicate glass.C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic shows an excellent oxidation resistance.Mass loss increases with temperature increasing,which is only 0.47% after oxidation for 10 h at 1200 ℃.Furthermore,the strength retention ratio is 91.6% at 1000 ℃,higher than that at other temperatures.The main mechanisms for excellent oxidation resistance of C/SiC composite is that borosilicatc glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic can seal cracks in composite effectively.%利用化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备了Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的2D C/SiC复合材料,研究了其在700~1200℃氧化10 h性能和结构的演变规律以及自愈合机制,同时获得了Si-B-C涂层在不同温度氧化后的形貌、组分和物相转变规律.结果表明:涂敷在复合材料表面的Si-B-C陶瓷随温度的升高氧化加快,但氧化程度较低,不深于7μm;随温度的升高,氧化形成的硅硼玻璃黏度降低,挥发增强;当温度达到1200℃时,硅硼玻璃析出SiO2晶体;Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的C/SiC具有优良的抗氧化性能,随氧化温度的升高,复合材料失重率增加,但在1200℃氧化10h后失重率仅为0.47%;此外材料在1000℃氧化后的强度保持率最高,达到91.6%,Si-B-C陶瓷氧化形

  16. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems. (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen


    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  17. Numerical calculation of interaction forces between paramagnetic colloids in two-dimensional systems. (United States)

    Du, Di; Toffoletto, Frank; Biswal, Sibani Lisa


    Typically the force between paramagnetic particles in a uniform magnetic field is described using the dipolar model, which is inaccurate when particles are in close proximity to each other. Instead, the exact force between paramagnetic particles can be determined by solving a three-dimensional Laplace's equation for magnetostatics under specified boundary conditions and calculating the Maxwell stress tensor. The analytical solution to this multi-boundary-condition Laplace's equation can be obtained by using a solid harmonics expansion in conjunction with the Hobson formula. However, for a multibody system, finite truncation of the Hobson formula does not lead to convergence of the expansion at all points, which makes the approximation physically unrealistic. Here we present a numerical method for solving this Laplace's equation for magnetostatics. This method uses a smoothed representation to replace all the boundary conditions. A two-step propagation is used to dramatically accelerate the calculation without losing accuracy. Using this method, we calculate the force between two paramagnetic particles in a uniform and a rotational external field and compare our results with other models. Furthermore, the many-body effects for three-particle, ten-particle, and 24-particle systems are examined using the same method. We also calculate the interaction between particles with different magnetic susceptibilities and particle diameters. The Laplace's equation solver method described in this article that is used to determine the force between paramagnetic particles is shown to be very useful for dynamic simulations for both two-particle systems and a large cluster of particles.

  18. Simple and rapid CD4 testing based on large-field imaging system composed of microcavity array and two-dimensional photosensor. (United States)

    Saeki, Tatsuya; Sugamura, Yuriko; Hosokawa, Masahito; Yoshino, Tomoko; Lim, Tae-Kyu; Harada, Manabu; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi


    This study presents a novel method for CD4 testing based on one-shot large-field imaging. The large-field imaging system was fabricated by a microcavity array and a two-dimensional (2D) photosensor within the desk-top-sized instrument. The microcavity array was employed to separate leukocytes from whole blood based on differences in the size of leukocytes and other blood cells. The large-field imaging system with lower side irradiation enabled acquisition of cell signatures with high signal-to-noise ratio, because the metallic substrate of the microcavity array obstructed excessive excitation light. In this setting, dual-color imaging of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells was achieved within the entire image area (64 mm(2)) in 2s. The practical performance of the large-field imaging system was demonstrated by determining the CD4/CD8 ratio in a few microliter of control whole blood as small as those obtained by a finger prick. The CD4/CD8 ratios measured using the large-field imaging system correlated well with those measured by microscopic analysis. These results indicate that our proposed system provides a simple and rapid CD4 testing for the application of HIV/AIDS treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of horizontal vibration on pile of cylinder avalanches as a pseudo-two dimensional granular system (United States)

    Mardiansyah, Y.; Yulia; Khotimah, S. N.; Suprijadi; Viridi, S.


    Dynamics of pseudo-two dimensional granular material consisted of two layers cylinder piles positioned on top of a horizontally vibrated plate is reported in this work. It is aimed to observe structural change of the cylinder pile vibrated in certain frequency and amplitude. Dimensionless acceleration Γ= 4π2f2A/g (with g is gravitational acceleration), which is generally used in granular materials to observe transition between states, e.g. stable, rotating without slipping, rolling and slipping in Γ-f plane, does not work well for this system. For this system additional states for the piles can also be observed, e.g. stable and flowing states. Observations parameters are frequency f (measured in Hz) and amplitude A (measured in cm). These parameters are used to construct the A-f plane instead of Γ-f one.

  20. An ultrasonic sensor system based on a two-dimensional state method for highway vehicle violation detection applications. (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang; Lv, Hongqiang; Li, Bing


    With the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule violation (TRV) detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs). Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%.

  1. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg


    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method for analys......Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... for analysing and re-designing the MPC system in order to support lean improvement. We reflect on the current literature regarding value stream mapping, and use practical insights in order to develop and propose a two-dimensional value stream mapping tool that integrates the design of the MPC system within...

  2. Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Two-Dimensional System with Sixty Bosons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Cheng-Guang


    A 60-boson system confined on a sphere has been qualitatively studied based on symmetry considerations. The low-lying spectrum is dominated by the ground rotation band based on the fullerene structure. In this band all the L=1 to L=5 states are found to be prohibited by symmetry. Therefore, there is a large gap lying between the ground state and the first excited state. The magnitude of this gap, which is associated with the critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation, has been evaluated. It is found that, the smaller the radius of the sphere of confinement, the higher the critical temperature.

  3. Nature of transitions in uniformly frustrated two-dimensional planar spin systems (United States)

    Berge, B.; Diep, H. T.; Ghazali, A.; Lallemand, P.


    We have investigated a generalized Villain's model by varying the strength η of the negative bond. We show that there exists a critical value ηc= (1)/(3) below which the twofold degeneracy disappears; the ground state becomes ferromagnetic. A detailed numerical study shows that, for a given η>ηc, the system exhibits in general, two distinct transitions: The low temperature one corresponds to Ising-type transition; the high temperature one corresponds to KT type. These two transitions seem to coincide in the Villain's model (η=1). Comparison with recent related models is presented.

  4. Final Report - Composite Fermion Approach to Strongly Interacting Quasi Two Dimensional Electron Gas Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, John


    Work related to this project introduced the idea of an effective monopole strength Q* that acted as the effective angular momentum of the lowest shell of composite Fermions (CF). This allowed us to predict the angular momentum of the lowest band of energy states for any value of the applied magnetic field simply by determining N{sub QP} the number of quasielectrons (QE) or quasiholes (QH) in a partially filled CF shell and adding angular momenta of the N{sub QP} Fermions excitations. The approach reported treated the filled CF level as a vacuum state which could support QE and QH excitations. Numerical diagonalization of small systems allowed us to determine the angular momenta, the energy, and the pair interaction energies of these elementary excitations. The spectra of low energy states could then be evaluated in a Fermi liquid-like picture, treating the much smaller number of quasiparticles and their interactions instead of the larger system of N electrons with Coulomb interactions.

  5. Dynamics of a two-dimensional system of rational difference equations of Leslie--Gower type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulenović MRS


    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate global dynamics of the following systems of difference equations x n + 1 = α 1 + β 1 x n A 1 + y n y n + 1 = γ 2 y n A 2 + B 2 x n + y n , n = 0 , 1 , 2 , … where the parameters α 1, β 1, A 1, γ 2, A 2, B 2 are positive numbers, and the initial conditions x 0 and y 0 are arbitrary nonnegative numbers. We show that this system has rich dynamics which depends on the region of parametric space. We show that the basins of attractions of different locally asymptotically stable equilibrium points or non-hyperbolic equilibrium points are separated by the global stable manifolds of either saddle points or non-hyperbolic equilibrium points. We give examples of a globally attractive non-hyperbolic equilibrium point and a semi-stable non-hyperbolic equilibrium point. We also give an example of two local attractors with precisely determined basins of attraction. Finally, in some regions of parameters, we give an explicit formula for the global stable manifold. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000 Primary: 39A10, 39A11 Secondary: 37E99, 37D10

  6. A two dimensional clinostat experiment for microalgae cultures - basic work for bio- regenerativ life support systems (United States)

    Harting, Benjamin; Slenzka, Klaus


    To investigate the influence of microgravity environments on photosynthetic organisms we designed a 2 dimensional clinostatexperiment for a suspended cell culture of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A novel approach of online measurments concerning relevant parameters important for the clasification of photosynthesis was obtained. To adress the photosynthesis rate we installed and validated an optical mesurement system to monitor the evolution and consumption of dissolved oxygen. Simultaneously a PAM sensor to analyse the flourescence quantum yield of the photochemical reaction was integarted. Thus it was possible to directly classify important parameters of the phototrophic metabolism during clinorotation. The experiment design including well suited light conditions and further biochemical analysis were directly performed for microalgal cell cultures. Changes in the photosynthetic efficiancy of phototrophic cyanobacteria has been observed during parabolic flight campaign but the cause is already not understood. Explenations could be the dependency of gravitaxis by intracellular ionconcentartion or the existance of mechanosensitive ionchannels for example associated in chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The purpuse of the microalgal clinostat are studies in a qasi microgravity environment for the process design of future bioregenerative life suport systems in spaceflight missions. First results has indicated the need for special nourishment of the cell culture during microgravity experiments. Further data will be presented during the assembly.

  7. Random-fractal Ansatz for the configurations of two-dimensional critical systems (United States)

    Lee, Ching Hua; Ozaki, Dai; Matsueda, Hiroaki


    Critical systems have always intrigued physicists and precipitated the development of new techniques. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the information contained in the configurations of classical critical systems, whose computation do not require full knowledge of the wave function. Inspired by holographic duality, we investigated the entanglement properties of the classical configurations (snapshots) of the Potts model by introducing an Ansatz ensemble of random fractal images. By virtue of the central limit theorem, our Ansatz accurately reproduces the entanglement spectra of actual Potts snapshots without any fine tuning of parameters or artificial restrictions on ensemble choice. It provides a microscopic interpretation of the results of previous studies, which established a relation between the scaling behavior of snapshot entropy and the critical exponent. More importantly, it elucidates the role of ensemble disorder in restoring conformal invariance, an aspect previously ignored. Away from criticality, the breakdown of scale invariance leads to a renormalization of the parameter Σ in the random fractal Ansatz, whose variation can be used as an alternative determination of the critical exponent. We conclude by providing a recipe for the explicit construction of fractal unit cells consistent with a given scaling exponent.

  8. Some mathematical aspects of the scaling limit of critical two-dimensional systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wendelin Werner


    It has been observed long ago that many systems from statistical physics behave randomly on macroscopic level at their critical temperature. In two dimensions, these phenomena have been classified by theoretical physicists thanks to conformal field theory, that led to the derivation of the exact value of various critical exponents that describe their behavior near the critical temperature. In the last couple of years, combining ideas of complex analysis and probability theory, mathematicians have constructed and studied a family of random fractals (called `Schramm–Loewner evolutions' or SLE) that describe the only possible conformally invariant limits of the interfaces for these models. This gives a concrete construction of these random systems, puts various predictions on a rigorous footing, and leads to further understanding of their behavior. The goal of this paper is to survey some of these recent mathematical developments, and to describe a couple of basic underlying ideas. We will also briefly describe some very recent and ongoing developments relating SLE, Brownian loop soups and conformal field theory.

  9. Control of Limit Cycle Oscillations of a Two-Dimensional Aeroelastic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghommem


    Full Text Available Linear and nonlinear static feedback controls are implemented on a nonlinear aeroelastic system that consists of a rigid airfoil supported by nonlinear springs in the pitch and plunge directions and subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The normal form is used to investigate the Hopf bifurcation that occurs as the freestream velocity is increased and to analytically predict the amplitude and frequency of the ensuing limit cycle oscillations (LCO. It is shown that linear control can be used to delay the flutter onset and reduce the LCO amplitude. Yet, its required gains remain a function of the speed. On the other hand, nonlinear control can be effciently implemented to convert any subcritical Hopf bifurcation into a supercritical one and to significantly reduce the LCO amplitude.

  10. Zero temperature magnetic phase diagram of Wigner crystal in anisotropic two-dimensional electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Chenggang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail:; Bhatt, Ravin N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, and Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    We study the effect of mass anisotropy on the magnetic ordering of the Wigner crystal phase of low density electron systems in two dimensions at T=0. We apply the instanton approximation to various ring exchange processes, which includes the lowest order Gaussian fluctuations beyond the WKB approximation. The multi-particle exchange frequencies are calculated with effective mass anisotropy, both with and without ensuing lattice distortions. We find that when sufficient mass anisotropy is present, the two-spin exchange process between the nearest neighbors becomes more frequent than the three particle processes. Therefore, its corresponding antiferromagnetic exchange exceeds the ferromagnetic exchange from the three-spin process and becomes dominant. Numerical diagonalization of small clusters with two, three, and four-spin exchange terms shows a transition from a ferromagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state with increasing mass anisotropy.

  11. Two-Dimensional Vibrational Spectroscopy of a Dissipative System with the Optimized Mean-Trajectory Approximation (United States)


    The optimized mean-trajectory (OMT) approximation is a semiclassical method for computing vibrational response functions from action-quantized classical trajectories connected by discrete transitions representing radiation–matter interactions. Here we apply this method to an anharmonic chromophore coupled to a harmonic bath. A forward–backward trajectory implementation of the OMT method is described that addresses the numerical challenges of applying the OMT to large systems with disparate frequency scales. The OMT is shown to well reproduce line shapes and waiting time dynamics in the pure dephasing limit of weak coupling to an off-resonant bath. The OMT is also shown to describe a case where energy transfer is the predominant source of line broadening. PMID:25275943

  12. The quantum spectral analysis of the two-dimensional annular billiard system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Yan-Hui; Zhang Ji-Ouan; Xu Xue-You; Lin Sheng-Lu


    Based on the extended closed-orbit theory together with spectral analysis, this paper studies the correspondence between quantum mechanics and the classical counterpart in a two-dimeusional annular billiard. The results demonstrate that the Fourier-transformed quantum spectra are in very good accordance with the lengths of the classical ballistic trajectories, whereas spectral strength is intimately associated with the shapes of possible open orbits connecting arbitrary two points in the annular cavity. This approach facilitates an intuitive understanding of basic quantum features such as quantum interference, locations of the wavefunctions, and allows quantitative calculations in the range of high energies, where full quantum calculations may become impractical in general. This treatment provides a thread to explore the properties of microjunction transport and even quantum chaos under the much more general system.

  13. Observations of the sedimentation of individual particles in a quasi-two dimensional system (United States)

    Ramos, Eduardo; Lee, Andrew; Goldman, Daniel; Swinney, Harry


    We report observations of single sedimenting acrylic spheres (diameter = 3.175 mm, relative density = 1.19) in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell formed by two parallel glass plates and filled with water. The distance between walls of the cell varies from 1.1 to 1.3 sphere diameters; the corresponding sedimenting Reynolds number varies from 220 to 300. In the narrower cell, a wake was formed by an attached vortical region behind the sphere with two asymetrical branches. These branches oscillated and shed vortices alternately; this structure is similar to the Von Karman vortex street generated by a fixed cylinder exposed to a constant flow at approximately the same Reynolds number. In contrast, the wake of a sphere falling in a cell with a gap of 1.3 diameters was similar to that for a sphere in an infinite system at Reynolds numbers slightly larger than the threshhold for the onset of periodic wake oscillations (Re 300): the sphere sheds vortex loops, which are separated by counterotating pairs of vortex filaments.

  14. Nonlinear photocurrents in two-dimensional systems based on graphene and boron nitride (United States)

    Hipolito, F.; Pedersen, Thomas G.; Pereira, Vitor M.


    The dc photoelectrical currents can be generated purely as a nonlinear effect in uniform media lacking inversion symmetry without the need for a material junction or bias voltages to drive it, in what is termed photogalvanic effect. These currents are strongly dependent on the polarization state of the radiation, as well as on topological properties of the underlying Fermi surface such as its Berry curvature. In order to study the intrinsic photogalvanic response of gapped graphene, biased bilayer graphene (BBG), and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), we compute the nonlinear current using a perturbative expansion of the density matrix. This allows a microscopic description of the quadratic response to an electromagnetic field in these materials, which we analyze as a function of temperature and electron density. We find that the intrinsic response is robust across these systems and allows for currents in the range of pA cm/W to nA cm/W. At the independent-particle level, the response of hBN-based structures is significant only in the ultraviolet due to their sizable band gap. However, when Coulomb interactions are accounted for by explicit solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation, we find that the photoconductivity is strongly modified by transitions involving exciton levels in the gap region, whose spectral weight dominates in the overall frequency range. Biased bilayers and gapped monolayers of graphene have a strong photoconductivity in the visible and infrared window, allowing for photocurrent densities of several nA cm/W. We further show that the richer electronic dispersion of BBG at low energies and the ability to change its band gap on demand allows a higher tunability of the photocurrent, including not only its magnitude but also, and significantly, its polarity.

  15. Security Issues for 2D Barcodes Ticketing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Toma


    Full Text Available The paper presents a solution for endcoding/decoding access to the subway public transportation systems. First part of the paper is dedicated through section one and two to the most used 2D barcodes used in the market – QR and DataMatrix. The sample for DataMatrix is author propietary and the QR sample is from the QR standard [2]. The section three presents MMS and Digital Rights Management topics used for issuing the 2D barcodes tickets. The second part of the paper, starting with section four shows the architecture of Subway Ticketing Systems and the proposed procedure for the ticket issuing. The conclusions identify trends of the security topics in the public transportation systems.

  16. Evaluation of cardiac functions in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. (United States)

    Dedeoglu, Reyhan; Şahin, Sezgin; Koka, Aida; Öztunç, Funda; Adroviç, Amra; Barut, Kenan; Cengiz, Dicle; Kasapçopur, Özgür


    The aim of this study was to investigate subclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunction in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (j-SLE) patients with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and the effects of disease activity on left ventricular (LV) regional functions. Thirty-five patients with j-SLE and 30 healthy children (control group) were evaluated between January and August 2015. STE was performed on all patients and controls. Medical records, including diagnosis criteria, age at diagnosis, and duration of disease, were evaluated. SLE disease activity was assessed using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). j-SLE patients had lower ejection fraction than did control subjects but still within normal range. LV end-diastolic and end-systolic dimensions were significantly larger in j-SLE patients (32.43 ± 3.2 vs 28.3 ± 3.1 and 21.1 ± 1.9 vs 18.9.0 ± 2.2, respectively; p = 0.001). There was a significant reduction in longitudinal strain of LV segments in the j-SLE patients compared with controls. J-SLE patients were further divided into subgroups. Group 1 comprised patients having SLEDAI scores >8 at the onset of disease but who improved with therapy during follow-up. Group 2 included j-SLE patients with SLEDAI scores >8 at diagnosis and persistently >4 at the end of follow-up. In the LV mid-inferior and mid-inferolateral segments, STE strain measurements of group 2 were significantly lower than those of group 1 (15.9 ± 6.4 vs 20.0 ± 4.4, 17.9 ± 7.2 vs 23.2 ± 3.8; p = 0.075, p = 0.055, respectively). Simple and non-invasive STE would be helpful in predicting cardiovascular prognosis with new therapeutic medications/interventions or in objectively comparing the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in comparison with preceding STE evaluation.

  17. A Two-dimensional Heat Transfer Model for Atmosphere-land System in the Lake-dominated Alaskan Arctic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Feng; ZHANG Ting-jun


    Understanding lake ice growth and its sensitivity to climate change is vital to understand the thermal regime of thaw lake systems and predict their response to climate change. In this paper, a physically-based, two-dimensional, non-steady mathematical model is developed for studying the role of shallow tundra lakes in the Alaskan Arctic. Both the radiation absorption in lake water and the phasechange in permafrost are considerd in the model. The materials the model includes are snow, ice, water, unfrozen and frozen soil (peat, silt,sand and gravel). The basic inputs to the model observed mean daily air temperature and snow depth. The ability of this model to simulate lake ice growth and thickness variation, lake water temperature distribution, the thermal regime of permafrost and talik dynamics beneath lakes, and thawing rate of permafrost below and adjacent to shallow thaw lakes offers the potential to describe the effects of climate change in the Alaskan Arctic.

  18. Spin-Hall effect in two-dimensional electron systems with Rashba spin-orbit coupling and disorder. (United States)

    Sheng, L; Sheng, D N; Ting, C S


    Using the four-terminal Landauer-Bu ttiker formula and Green's function approach, we calculate numerically the spin-Hall conductance in a two-dimensional junction system with the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling and disorder. We find that the spin-Hall conductance can be much greater or smaller than the universal value e/8pi, depending on the magnitude of the SO coupling, the electron Fermi energy, and the disorder strength. The spin-Hall conductance does not vanish with increasing sample size for a wide range of disorder strength. Our numerical calculation reveals that a nonzero SO coupling can induce electron delocalization for disorder strength smaller than a critical value, and the nonvanishing spin-Hall effect appears mainly in the metallic regime.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng; Cheng Shixin; Chen Ming


    The paper deals with two-dimensional (2D) channel estimation of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system in slow fading wireless channel. We concentrate on two channel estimation schemes: Least Square (LS)+Weighted BiLinear (WBL) and LS+Linear Minimum Mean-Squared Error (LMMSE) where the first method is proposed in this paper. After theory analysis and simulation in Typical Urban (TU) channel, we find that LS+LMMSE achieves the optimal performance by exploiting prior knowledge of channel whereas LS+WBL, without requiring channel knowledge and with only half of the computational amount of LS+LMMSE, approaches LS+LMMSE in Bit Error Ratio (BER) performance when the distance of two adjoining pilot symbols along frequency direction is sufficiently small. This makes LS+WBL very suitable for wideband wireless applications.

  20. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou


    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  1. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C


    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  2. Two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Ying-Kun, E-mail:; Chen, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Yan, Xia; Chen, Lin; Fang, Mei-Juan; Wu, Zhen, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Preparative MDLC system was developed for separation of complicated natural products. • Medium-pressure LC and preparative HPLC were connected by interface of SPE. • Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds was achieved by using this system. - Abstract: An on-line comprehensive two-dimensional preparative liquid chromatography system was developed for preparative separation of minor amount components from complicated natural products. Medium-pressure liquid chromatograph (MPLC) was applied as the first dimension and preparative HPLC as the second one, in conjunction with trapping column and makeup pump. The performance of the trapping column was evaluated, in terms of column size, dilution ratio and diameter-height ratio, as well as system pressure from the view of medium pressure liquid chromatograph. Satisfactory trapping efficiency can be achieved using a commercially available 15 mm × 30 mm i.d. ODS pre-column. The instrument operation and the performance of this MPLC × preparative HPLC system were illustrated by gram-scale isolation of crude macro-porous resin enriched water extract of Rheum hotaoense. Automated multi-step preparative separation of 25 compounds, whose structures were identified by MS, {sup 1}H NMR and even by less-sensitive {sup 13}C NMR, could be achieved in a short period of time using this system, exhibiting great advantages in analytical efficiency and sample treatment capacity compared with conventional methods.

  3. Tradeoffs for reliable quantum information storage in 2D systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara


    We ask whether there are fundamental limits on storing quantum information reliably in a bounded volume of space. To investigate this question, we study quantum error correcting codes specified by geometrically local commuting constraints on a 2D lattice of finite-dimensional quantum particles. For these 2D systems, we derive a tradeoff between the number of encoded qubits k, the distance of the code d, and the number of particles n. It is shown that kd^2=O(n) where the coefficient in O(n) depends only on the locality of the constraints and dimension of the Hilbert spaces describing individual particles. We show that the analogous tradeoff for the classical information storage is k\\sqrt{d} =O(n).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A two-dimensional model of unsteady turbulent flow induced by high-speed elevator system was established in the present study. The research was focused on the instantaneous variation of the aerodynamic force on the car structure during traversing motion of the counter weight in the hoistway. A dynamic meshing method was employed to treat the multi-body motion system to avoid poor distortion of meshes. A comprehensive understanding of this significant aspect was obtained by varying the horizontal gap (δ=0.1m, 0.2m, and 0.3m) between the elevator car and the counter weight, and the moving speed (U0=2m/s, 6m/s, and 10m/s) of the elevator system. A pulsed intensification of the aerodynamic force on the elevator car and subsequent appearance of large valley with negative aerodynamic force were clearly observed in the numerical results. In parameters studied (δ=0.1m, U0=2m/s, 6m/s, 10m/s), the peaked horizontal and vertical forces are respectively 7-11 and 4.3-5.65 times of that when the counter weight is far from the car. These results demonstrated the prominent influence of the traversing counter weight on aerodynamic force on the elevator car, which is of great significance to designers of high-speed elevator system.

  5. Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)


    Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.

  6. Wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems test of a two-dimensional scramjet inlet unstart model at Mach 6 (United States)

    Holland, Scott D.


    The present study examines the wind-tunnel blockage and actuation systems effectiveness in starting and forcibly unstarting a two-dimensional scramjet inlet in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The intent of the overall test program is to study (both experimentally and computationally) the dynamics of the inlet unstart; however, prior to the design and fabrication of an expensive, instrumented wind-tunnel model, it was deemed necessary first to examine potential wind-tunnel blockage issues related to model sizing and to examine the adequacy of the actuation systems in accomplishing the start and unstart. The model is equipped with both a moveable cowl and aft plug. Windows in the inlet sidewalls allow limited optical access to the internal shock structure; schlieren video was used to identify inlet start and unstart. A chronology of each actuation sequence is provided in tabular form along with still frames from the schlieren video. A pitot probe monitored the freestream conditions throughout the start/unstart process to determine if there was a blockage effect due to the model start or unstart. Because the purpose of this report is to make the phase I (blockage and actuation systems) data rapidly available to the community, the data is presented largely without analysis of the internal shock interactions or the unstart process. This series of tests indicated that the model was appropriately sized for this facility and identified operability limits required first to allow the inlet to start and second to force the unstart.

  7. Critical behavior of two-dimensional spin systems under the random-bond six-state clock model (United States)

    Wu, Raymond P. H.; Lo, Veng-cheong; Huang, Haitao


    The critical behavior of the clock model in two-dimensional square lattice is studied numerically using Monte Carlo method with Wolff algorithm. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transition is observed in the six-state clock model, where an intermediate phase exists between the low-temperature ordered phase and the high-temperature disordered phase. The bond randomness is introduced to the system by assuming a Gaussian distribution for the coupling coefficients with the mean μ =1 and different values of variance, from σ2=0.1 to σ2=3.0. An abrupt jump in the helicity modulus at the transition, which is the key characteristic of the KT transition, is verified with a stability argument. The critical temperature Tc for both pure and disordered systems is determined from the critical exponent η(Tc)=1/4. The results showed that a small amount of disorder (small σ) reduces the critical temperature of the system, without altering the nature of transition. However, a larger amount of disorder changes the transition from the KT-type into that of non-KT-type.

  8. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;


    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  9. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing and Management, University Park, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail:; Vloeberghs, M. [Queen' s Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15{sup o} degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  10. An Ultrasonic Sensor System Based on a Two-Dimensional State Method for Highway Vehicle Violation Detection Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu


    Full Text Available With the continuing growth of highway construction and vehicle use expansion all over the world, highway vehicle traffic rule violation (TRV detection has become more and more important so as to avoid traffic accidents and injuries in intelligent transportation systems (ITS and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. Since very few works have contributed to solve the TRV detection problem by moving vehicle measurements and surveillance devices, this paper develops a novel parallel ultrasonic sensor system that can be used to identify the TRV behavior of a host vehicle in real-time. Then a two-dimensional state method is proposed, utilizing the spacial state and time sequential states from the data of two parallel ultrasonic sensors to detect and count the highway vehicle violations. Finally, the theoretical TRV identification probability is analyzed, and actual experiments are conducted on different highway segments with various driving speeds, which indicates that the identification accuracy of the proposed method can reach about 90.97%.

  11. Fluctuations in an ordered c (2×2) two-dimensional lattice-gas system with repulsive interactions (United States)

    Argyrakis, P.; Chumak, A. A.; Maragakis, M.


    Fluctuations of the particle density in an ordered c(2×2) two-dimensional lattice-gas system are studied both analytically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations. The ordering is caused by a strong interparticle repulsive interaction resulting in the second order phase transition. The lattice of adsorption sites is divided into two sublattices (almost filled and almost empty sublattices) each of which contains a small number of structural “defects,” i.e., vacancies and excess particles. The relaxation of the correlation function of fluctuations turns out to be governed by two different functions. This peculiarity is to be contrasted with the traditional fluctuation theory which predicts the existence of a single damping constant, determined by the collective diffusion coefficient. A specific thesis of the proposed approach is that transport phenomena in ordered systems may be described in terms of both displacements and generation-recombination of structural defects. Accordingly, the correlation function of fluctuations depends on diffusion coefficients of two defect species as well as on the generation-recombination frequency. Our theory reduces to the usual one when fluctuations occur under local equilibrium conditions, i.e., for a sufficiently large size of probe areas and not too great values of interaction parameter. The analytical results agree well with those obtained in the Monte Carlo framework.

  12. GPU-based Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm for the simulation of two-dimensional classical spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Komura, Yukihiro


    We present the GPU calculation with the common unified device architecture (CUDA) for the Swendsen-Wang multi-cluster algorithm of two-dimensional classical spin systems. We adjust the two connected component labeling algorithms recently proposed with CUDA for the assignment of the cluster in the Swendsen-Wang algorithm. Starting with the q-state Potts model, we extend our implementation to the system of vector spins, the q-state clock model, with the idea of embedded cluster. We test the performance, and the calculation time on GTX580 is obtained as 2.51 nano sec per a spin flip for the q=2 Potts model (Ising model) and 2.42 nano sec per a spin flip for the q=6 clock model with the linear size L=4096 at the critical temperature, respectively. The computational speed for the q=2 Potts model on GTX580 is 12.4 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core. That for the q=6 clock model on GTX580 is 35.6 times as fast as the calculation speed on a current CPU core.

  13. Classification of the sign of the critical Casimir force in two-dimensional systems at asymptotically large separations (United States)

    Rajabpour, M. A.


    We classify the sign of the critical Casimir force between two finite objects separated by a large distance in the two-dimensional systems that can be described by conformal field theory (CFT). Specifically, we show that, as long as the smallest scaling dimension present in the spectrum of the system is smaller than one, the sign of the force is independent of the shape of the objects and can be determined by the elements of the modular S matrix of the CFT. The provided formula for the sign of the force indicates that the force is always attractive for equal boundary conditions, independent of the shape of the objects. However, different boundary conditions can lead to attractive or repulsive forces. Using the derived formula, we prove the known results regarding the Ising model and the free bosons. As new examples, we give detailed results regarding the Q =3 state Potts model and the compactified bosons. For example, for the latter model we show that the Dirichlet boundary condition does not always lead to an attractive force.

  14. Comparison of the performance between portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional array system on pretreatment quality assurance for volumetric-modulated arc and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (United States)

    Kim, Yon-Lae; Chung, Jin-Beom; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jeong-Woo; Choi, Kyoung-Sik


    The aim of this study was to compare the dosimetric performance and to evaluate the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of a portal dosimetry and a commercial two-dimensional (2-D) array system. In the characteristics comparison study, the measured values for the dose linearity, dose rate response, reproducibility, and field size dependence for 6-MV photon beams were analyzed for both detector systems. To perform the qualitative evaluations of the 10 IMRT and the 10 VMAT plans, we used the Gamma index for quantifying the agreement between calculations and measurements. The performance estimates for both systems show that overall, minimal differences in the dosimetric characteristics exist between the Electron portal imaging device (EPID) and 2-D array system. In the qualitative analysis for pretreatment quality assurance, the EPID and 2-D array system yield similar passing rate results for the majority of clinical Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) cases. These results were satisfactory for IMRT and VMAT fields and were within the acceptable criteria of γ%≤1, γ avg <0.5. The EPDI and the 2-D array systems showed comparable dosimetric results. In this study, the results revealed both systems to be suitable for patient-specific QA measurements for IMRT and VMAT. We conclude that, depending on the status of clinic, both systems can be used interchangeably for routine pretreatment QA.

  15. Two-dimensional systems with competing interactions: microphase formation under the effect of a disordered porous matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Schwanzer


    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of a disordered porous matrix on the cluster microphase formation of a two dimensional system where particles interact via competing interactions. To this end we have performed extensive Monte Carlo simulations and have systematically varied the densities of the fluid and of the matrix as well as the interaction between the matrix particles and between the matrix and fluid particles. Our results provide evidence that the matrix {it does} have a distinct effect on the microphase formation of the fluid particles: as long as the particles interact both among themselves as well as with the fluid particles via a simple hard sphere potential, they essentially reduce the available space, in which the fluid particles form a cluster microphase. On the other hand, if we turn on a long-range tail in the matrix-matrix and in the matrix-fluid interactions, the matrix particles become nucleation centers for the clusters formed by the fluid particles.

  16. Right atrial morphology and function in patients with systemic sclerosis compared to healthy controls: a two-dimensional strain study. (United States)

    D'Andrea, Antonello; D'Alto, Michele; Di Maio, Marco; Vettori, Serena; Benjamin, Nicola; Cocchia, Rosangela; Argiento, Paola; Romeo, Emanuele; Di Marco, Giovanni; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Valentini, Gabriele; Calabrò, Raffaele; Bossone, Eduardo; Grünig, Ekkehard


    Enlargement and dysfunction of the right atrium might be an early sign for pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This is the first study to analyse right atrial morphology and function in SSc patients compared to healthy controls by speckle-tracking two-dimensional strain echocardiography (2DSE) at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, right atrial function was correlated with further clinical findings. Adult patients with SSc for >3 years (n = 90) and 55 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent a panel of non-invasive assessments including transthoracic echocardiography, pulsed Doppler myocardial imaging and 2DSE at rest and during exercise. Furthermore, serological tests and high-resolution chest computed tomography were performed. SSc patients showed significant impairment of right atrial function and the right atrial enlargement, measured by 2DSE at rest and during exercise compared to controls (both p right atrial lateral strain was significantly associated with PAPs during effort, right atrial area, left ventricle stroke volume and inferior vena cava diameter using multivariable analysis. The findings of this study suggest that a high proportion of SSc patients reveal right atrial dysfunction even without manifest pulmonary hypertension. Impaired right atrial function occurred mostly in patients with pulmonary fibrosis and/or elevated PAPs during exercise, was independently associated with prognostic factors and may therefore be useful for risk stratification. Further studies are needed to analyse if right atrial dysfunction assessed by 2DSE may help to improve early diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.

  17. High-Throughput Design of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Systems Based on Polar/Nonpolar Perovskite Oxide Heterostructures (United States)

    Yang, Kesong; Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Cheng, Jianli


    The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface between two insulating oxides such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (STO) is of fundamental and practical interest because of its novel interfacial conductivity and its promising applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Here we show that a group of combinatorial descriptors that characterize the polar character, lattice mismatch, band gap, and the band alignment between the perovskite-oxide-based band insulators and the STO substrate, can be introduced to realize a high-throughput (HT) design of SrTiO3-based 2DEG systems from perovskite oxide quantum database. Equipped with these combinatorial descriptors, we have carried out a HT screening of all the polar perovskite compounds, uncovering 42 compounds of potential interests. Of these, Al-, Ga-, Sc-, and Ta-based compounds can form a 2DEG with STO, while In-based compounds exhibit a strain-induced strong polarization when deposited on STO substrate. In particular, the Ta-based compounds can form 2DEG with potentially high electron mobility at (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interface. Our approach, by defining materials descriptors solely based on the bulk materials properties, and by relying on the perovskite-oriented quantum materials repository, opens new avenues for the discovery of perovskite-oxide-based functional interface materials in a HT fashion.

  18. Conformal Field Theory at central charge c=0 and Two-Dimensional Critical Systems with Quenched Disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Gurarie, V


    We examine two-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) at central charge c=0. These arise typically in the description of critical systems with quenched disorder, but also in other contexts including dilute self-avoiding polymers and percolation. We show that such CFTs must in general possess, in addition to their stress energy tensor T(z), an extra field whose holomorphic part, t(z), has conformal weight two. The singular part of the Operator Product Expansion (OPE) between T(z) and t(z) is uniquely fixed up to a single number b, defining a new `anomaly' which is a characteristic of any c=0 CFT, and which may be used to distinguish between different such CFTs. The extra field t(z) is not primary (unless b=0), and is a so-called `logarithmic operator' except in special cases which include affine (Kac-Moody) Lie-super current algebras. The number b controls the question of whether Virasoro null-vectors arising at certain conformal weights contained in the c=0 Kac table may be set to zero or not, in these n...

  19. A data acquisition system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors with delay-line readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanu, A.R., E-mail: [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1 (Canada); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Prestwich, W.V.; Byun, S.H. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4K1 (Canada)


    We present a data acquisition (DAQ) system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors using the delay-line method for readout. The DAQ system consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the main data processor and our time-to-digital (TDC) mezzanine card for making time measurements. We developed the TDC mezzanine card around the Acam TDC-GPX ASIC and it features four independent stop channels referenced to a common start, a typical timing resolution of ~81 ps, and a 17-bit measurement range, and is compliant with the VITA 57.1 standard. For our DAQ system, we have chosen the Xilinx SP601 development kit which features a single Spartan 6 FPGA, 128 MB of DDR2 memory, and a serial USB interface for communication. Output images consist of 1024×1024 square pixels, where each pixel has a 32-bit depth and corresponds to a time difference of 162 ps relative to its neighbours. When configured for a 250 ns acquisition window, the DAQ can resolve periodic event rates up to 1.8×10{sup 6} Hz without any loses and will report a maximum event rate of 6.11×10{sup 5} Hz for events whose arrival times follow Poisson statistics. The integral and differential non-linearities have also been measured and are better than 0.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Unlike commercial units, our DAQ system implements the delay-line image reconstruction algorithm entirely in hardware and is particularly attractive for its modularity, low cost, ease of integration, excellent linearity, and high throughput rate.

  20. Ultra high pressure in the second dimension of a comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic system for carotenoid separation in red chili peppers. (United States)

    Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Giuffrida, Daniele; Torre, Germana; Dugo, Paola; Mondello, Luigi


    A comprehensive normal-phase × reversed-phase (NP-LC × RP-LC) liquid chromatography system was developed, and applied for analysis of the intact carotenoid composition of red chili peppers, with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. A micro-bore cyano column (250 mm × 1.0 mm, 5 μm d.p.) was chosen for the first dimension ((1)D) separation, interfaced to a second dimension ((2)D) C18 column (30 mm × 4.6 mm, 2.7 μm d.p.) packed with fused-core particles. Subsequently, two columns of the same stationary phase were coupled serially for second dimension separation, and operated under ultra high pressure LC conditions (UHPLC), within a cycle time of 1.50 or 1.00 min, and equal modulation times. Performances of the three different set-ups were evaluated, in terms of peak capacity values (n(c)), and afterwards corrected by taking into account both the under-sampling, and the orthogonality effects. After these adjustments, the peak capacity values were estimated as follows: n(c) 526, for the NP-LC × RP-LC system, n(c) 373, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system with a 1.50 min modulation time, n(c) 639, for the NP-LC × RP-UHPLC system, with a 1.00 min modulation time. A total of 33 compounds were separated into 10 different chemical classes in the two-dimensional space, and identified by accurate IT-TOF (ion trap-time of flight) MS detection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Design and Performance Analysis of 2D OCDMA System with Polarization States (United States)

    Bharti, Manisha; Sharma, Ajay K.; Kumar, Manoj


    This paper focuses on increasing the number of subscribers in optical code-division multiple access (OCDMA) system by using one of the features of light signal that it can be propagated in two polarization states. The performance of two-dimensional (2D) OCDMA system based on wavelength-time coding scheme by adding polarization state is investigated at varying data rates from 1 GHz to 6 GHz and for various modulation formats. It is reported that with increase in data rate of system, the performance of the system deteriorates due to polarization mode dispersion. Non-return to-zero (RZ), return to-zero (RZ), carrier suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation formats are simulated for a single user system with polarization. Investigations reveal that differential phase shift keying (DPSK) modulation format suits best to the proposed system and exhibit the potential to improve the flexibility of system for more number of users. The investigations are reported in terms of Q-factor, BER, received optical power (ROP) and eye diagrams.

  2. Negative differential conductivity induced current instability in two-dimensional electron gas system in high magnetic fields (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung


    High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of I. As the current exceed Ith, Vxx suddenly drops a ΔVxx and becomes irregular associated with the appearance of hysteresis with sweeping I. We find that Ith increases with the increase of B and of T; meanwhile, ΔVxx is larger at higher B but lower T. Data analysis suggest that the onset of voltage fluctuation can be described by a NDC model proposed by Kurosawa et al. in 1976. The general behaviors of T and B dependence of current instability are analog to those recently reported at lower both T and B. This consistence suggests the same genuine mechanism of NDC phenomena observed in 2DEG system.

  3. High-Throughput Computational Design of Advanced Functional Materials: Topological Insulators and Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Systems (United States)

    Yang, Kesong

    As a rapidly growing area of materials science, high-throughput (HT) computational materials design is playing a crucial role in accelerating the discovery and development of novel functional materials. In this presentation, I will first introduce the strategy of HT computational materials design, and take the HT discovery of topological insulators (TIs) as a practical example to show the usage of such an approach. Topological insulators are one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. Here I will show that, by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. Next, I will talk about our recent research work on the HT computational design of the perovskite-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. The 2DEG formed on the perovskite oxide heterostructure (HS) has potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In order to achieve practical implementation of the 2DEG in the device design, desired physical properties such as high charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. Here I show that, using the same strategy with the HT discovery of TIs, by introducing a series of combinatorial descriptors, we have successfully identified a series of candidate 2DEG systems based on the perovskite oxides. This work provides another exemplar of applying HT computational design approach for the discovery of advanced functional materials.

  4. Mid-Infrared Pulse Shaping and Two-Dimensional Spectroscopy of Open Quantum Systems in Liquid Solution (United States)

    Ross, Matthew R.

    The primary focus of this work is the development of a mid-infrared pulse shaping system. The primary motivation for this system is for two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) spectroscopy, however, the mid-infrared pulse shaper also allows for more sophisticated spectroscopic experiments not previously attempted in the mid-infrared. Moreover, many can be implemented without changes or realignment of the optical setup. Example spectra are presented along with a discussion of capabilities and diagnostics. A second major project presented is 2DIR spectroscopy of iron pentacarbonyl, Fe(CO)5, a small metal carbonyl. This molecule undergoes Berry pseudorotation, a form of fluxtionality. This fast exchange of ligands mixes axial and equatorial modes and occurs on a timescale of picoseconds, too fast for NMR and other methods of measuring chemical structure and isomerization. Ultrafast chemical exchange spectroscopy, a measurement within 2DIR spectroscopy, is capable of resolving the time scales of this motion. We found that this process is affected by the solvent environment, specifically the solvent viscosity in alkanes and hydrogen bonding environments in alcohols. Lastly, a study is presented in which a series of synthetic metalloenzymes with a metal active site are studied by 2DIR spectroscopy. In this case a carbonyl is ligated to a copper-I atom in the active site, which then serves as our spectroscopic probe. We find, unexpectedly, that the shape of the carbonyl vibrational potential, as measured by the anharmonicity, is time-dependent. We attribute this to a geometrical rearrangement and are able to suggest that this effect is dependent on local site structure and dynamics and not significantly affected by electric potential near the peptide.

  5. Stability Analysis of State Saturation 2D Discrete Time-Delay Systems Based on F-M Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Chen


    Full Text Available The problem of stability analysis is investigated for a class of state saturation two-dimensional (2D discrete time-delay systems described by the Fornasini-Marchesini (F-M model. The delay is allowed to be a bounded time-varying function. By constructing the delay-dependent 2D discrete Lyapunov functional and introducing a nonnegative scalar β, a sufficient condition is proposed to guarantee the global asymptotic stability of the addressed systems. Subsequently, the criterion is converted into the linear matrix inequalities (LMIs which can be easily tested by using the standard numerical software. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed stability criterion.

  6. Sintering of two-dimensional nanoclusters in metal(100) homoepitaxial systems: Deviations from predictions of Mullins continuum theory (United States)

    Liu, Da-Jiang; Evans, J. W.


    We present a comparison of the predictions of atomistic and continuum models for the sintering of pairs of near-square two-dimensional nanoclusters adsorbed on the (100) surface in fcc metal homoepitaxial systems. Mass transport underlying these processes is dominated by periphery diffusion (PD) of adatoms along the edge of the clusters. A Mullins-type continuum model for cluster evolution incorporates anisotropy in the step edge stiffness (reflecting the energetics and adsorption site lattice structure in the atomistic model), and can also account for anisotropy in the step edge mobility (reflecting details of the kinetics). In such continuum treatments, the characteristic time τeq for relaxation of clusters with linear size of order L satisfies τeq~L4. Deviations may generally be expected for small sizes L or low temperatures T. However, for the relaxation of dumbbell-shaped clusters (formed by corner-to-corner coalescence of square clusters), atomistic simulations for PD with no kink rounding barrier (δ=0) reveal that τeq~L4 always applies. In contrast, atomistic simulations with a large kink rounding barrier (δ>0) reveal distinct scaling with τeq~L3, for low T or small L, thus providing an effective way to test for δ>0. For the relaxation of faceted rectangular clusters (formed by side-to-side coalescence of square clusters), atomistic simulations for PD with δ=0 reveal that τeq~L2, for low T or small L. This is consistent with a recent proposal by Combe and Larralde. For large δ>0, τeq has an even weaker dependence on L. We elucidate scaling behavior and the effective activation barrier for relaxation in terms of the individual atomistic PD processes and their barriers.

  7. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection. (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A


    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  8. Simulating geomagnetic reversals through 2D Ising systems

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, J O O; Papa, A R R; Franco, Jorge O. O.; Dias, Vitor H. A.; Papa, Andres R. R.


    In this work 2D Ising systems were used to simulate the reversals of the Earth's magnetic field. Each spin was supposed to be a ring current in the Earth dynamo and the magnetization to be proportional to the field intensity. Given the relative success of some physical few-discs modeling of this system all the simulations were implemented in small systems. The temperature T was used as a tunning parameter. It plays the role of external perturbations. Power laws were obtained for the distribution of times between reversals. When the system size was increased the exponent of the power law asymptotically tended towards values very near -1.5, generally accepted as the right value for this phenomenon. Depending on the proximity of T and Tc the average duration of reversal period changes. In this way it is possible to establish a parallel between the model and more or less well defined periods of the reversal record. Some possible trends for future works are advanced.

  9. Adiabatic Amplification of Plasmons and Demons in 2D Systems. (United States)

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Basov, D N; Fogler, M M


    We theoretically investigate charged collective modes in a two-dimensional conductor with hot electrons where the instantaneous mode frequencies gradually increase or decrease with time. We show that the loss compensation or even amplification of the modes may occur. We apply our theory to two types of collective modes in graphene, the plasmons and the energy waves, which can be probed in optical pump-probe experiments.

  10. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith


    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  11. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  12. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei


    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  13. Vibrational vs. electronic coherences in 2D spectrum of molecular systems

    CERN Document Server

    Butkus, Vytautas; Valkunas, Leonas; Abramavicius, Darius


    The two-dimensional spectroscopy has recently revealed oscillatory behavior of excitation dynamics in molecular systems. However, in the majority of cases it is strongly debated if excitonic or vibrational wavepackets, or evidences of quantum transport have been observed. In this letter, the method for distinguishing between vibrational and excitonic wavepacket motion is presented, based on the phase and amplitude relationships of oscillations of distinct peaks, which has been revealed using fundamental analysis of two-dimensional spectrum of two representative systems.

  14. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;


    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  15. Random-lattice models and simulation algorithms for the phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles with coupled internal and translational degrees of freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Miao, Ling; Ipsen, John Hjorth;


    In this work we concentrate on phase equilibria in two-dimensional condensed systems of particles where both translational and internal degrees of freedom are present and coupled through microscopic interactions, with a focus on the manner of the macroscopic coupling between the two types...

  16. Comparison of a three-dimensional and two-dimensional camera system for automated measurement of back posture in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viazzi, S.; Bahr, C.; Hertem, van T.; Schlageter-Tello, A.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Halachmi, I.; Lokhorst, C.; Berckmans, D.


    In this study, two different computer vision techniques to automatically measure the back posture in dairy cows were tested and evaluated. A two-dimensional and a three-dimensional camera system were used to extract the back posture from walking cows, which is one measurement used by experts to

  17. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter


    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  18. Seebeck effect in dilute two-dimensional electron systems: temperature dependencies of diffusion and phonon-drag thermoelectric powers


    Liu, S Y; Lei, X. L.; Horing, Norman J. M.


    Considering screeening of electron scattering interactions in terms of the finite-temperature STLS theory and solving the linearized Boltzmann equation (with no appeal to a relaxation time approximation), we present a theoretical analysis of the low-temperature Seebeck effect in two-dimensional semiconductors with dilute electron densities. We find that the temperature ($T$) dependencies of the diffusion and phonon-drag thermoelectric powers ($S_d$ and $S_g$) can no longer be described by the...

  19. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao


    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph


    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  1. Stability for delayed generalized 2D discrete logistic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanrong Chen


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with delayed generalized 2D discrete logistic systems of the form xm+1,n=f(m,n,xm,n,xm,n+1,xm−σ,n−τ , where σ and τ are positive integers, f:ℕ02×ℝ3→ℝ is a real function, which contains the logistic map as a special case, and m and n are nonnegative integers, where ℕ0={0,1,…} and ℝ=(−∞,∞. Some sufficient conditions for this system to be stable and exponentially stable are derived.

  2. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert


    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  3. Two dimensional vernier (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)


    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  4. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.


    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  5. First-Principle Molecular Dynamics Study of Selected Schiff and Mannich Bases:  Application of Two-Dimensional Potential of Mean Force to Systems with Strong Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds. (United States)

    Jezierska, Aneta; Panek, Jarosław J


    Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics simulations were performed for selected anharmonic systems, i.e., Schiff and Mannich base-type compounds, to investigate the vibrational properties associated with O-H stretching. All calculations were performed in the gas phase to compare them with available experimental data. First the vibrational properties of the two compounds were analyzed on the basis of well-established approaches:  Fourier transformation of the autocorrelation function of both the atomic velocities and dipole moments. Then path integral molecular dynamics simulations were performed to demonstrate the influence of quantum effects on the proton's position in the hydrogen bridge. In addition, quantum effects were incorporated a posteriori into calculations of O-H stretching envelopes for the Schiff and Mannich bases. Proton potential snapshots were extracted from the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory. Vibrational Schrödinger equations (one- and two-dimensional) were solved numerically for the snapshots, and the O-H stretching envelopes were calculated as a superposition of the 0→1 transitions. Subsequently, one- and two-dimensional potentials of mean force (1D and 2D pmf) were calculated for the proton stretching mode from the proton vibrational eigenfunctions and eigenvalues incorporating statistical sampling and nuclear quantum effects. The results show that the applied methodologies are in good agreement with experimental infrared spectra. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the 2D pmf method could be applied in systems with strong anharmonicity to describe the properties of the O-H stretching mode more accurately. Future applications of the 2D pmf technique include, in principle, large biomolecular systems treated within the QM/MM framework.

  6. Development and testing of a two-dimensional ultrasonic laboratory model system for seismic imaging of heterogeneous structures (United States)

    Mo, Yike; Karaman, Hakki; Greenhalgh, Stewart


    To tackle the challenges and imaging problems of complex structures, we have recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zürich a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility in which the simulated geological structures are constructed from thin (2 mm thickness) metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The models were used, in full recognition of the similitude relations, to investigate reflections from beneath a low velocity distorting overburden. Besides uniform and irregular near surface layers, flat and dipping interfaces as well as rectangular high and low velocity block inserts were investigated. The experiments entailed the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies (20-300 kHz) to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under SignalExpress software control. In the lab system, a single cycle sinusoidal pulse with a negative onset (5 μs pulse width and 600 V pulse voltage) was selected as the optimized source pulse. Transducers can be placed along the thin edges of the plate in reflection mode (same edge) or transmission mode (opposite edges, or perpendicular edges). Alternatively they can be mounted on the flat planar surface of the plate to simulate a crosshole survey. Data were originally collected in all different recording geometries over a homogenous aluminium model for calibration purposes and to examine wave modes and propagation characteristics. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, which is normally absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Only the symmetric Lamb mode can be used as a proxy for 2D propagation in an extended medium (the field situation). Experimental group and phase velocity

  7. Two-dimensional laser servoing for precision motion control of an ODV robotic license plate recognition system (United States)

    Song, Zhen; Moore, Kevin L.; Chen, YangQuan; Bahl, Vikas


    As an outgrowth of series of projects focused on mobility of unmanned ground vehicles (UGV), an omni-directional (ODV), multi-robot, autonomous mobile parking security system has been developed. The system has two types of robots: the low-profile Omni-Directional Inspection System (ODIS), which can be used for under-vehicle inspections, and the mid-sized T4 robot, which serves as a ``marsupial mothership'' for the ODIS vehicles and performs coarse resolution inspection. A key task for the T4 robot is license plate recognition (LPR). For a successful LPR task without compromising the recognition rate, the robot must be able to identify the bumper locations of vehicles in the parking area and then precisely position the LPR camera relative to the bumper. This paper describes a 2D-laser scanner based approach to bumper identification and laser servoing for the T4 robot. The system uses a gimbal-mounted scanning laser. As the T4 robot travels down a row of parking stalls, data is collected from the laser every 100ms. For each parking stall in the range of the laser during the scan, the data is matched to a ``bumper box'' corresponding to where a car bumper is expected, resulting in a point cloud of data corresponding to a vehicle bumper for each stall. Next, recursive line-fitting algorithms are used to determine a line for the data in each stall's ``bumper box.'' The fitting technique uses Hough based transforms, which are robust against segmentation problems and fast enough for real-time line fitting. Once a bumper line is fitted with an acceptable confidence, the bumper location is passed to the T4 motion controller, which moves to position the LPR camera properly relative to the bumper. The paper includes examples and results that show the effectiveness of the technique, including its ability to work in real-time.

  8. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  9. An ESPRIT-Based Approach for 2-D Localization of Incoherently Distributed Sources in Massive MIMO Systems (United States)

    Hu, Anzhong; Lv, Tiejun; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Zhang; Yang, Shaoshi


    In this paper, an approach of estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT) is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) localization of incoherently distributed (ID) sources in large-scale/massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The traditional ESPRIT-based methods are valid only for one-dimensional (1-D) localization of the ID sources. By contrast, in the proposed approach the signal subspace is constructed for estimating the nominal azimuth and elevation direction-of-arrivals and the angular spreads. The proposed estimator enjoys closed-form expressions and hence it bypasses the searching over the entire feasible field. Therefore, it imposes significantly lower computational complexity than the conventional 2-D estimation approaches. Our analysis shows that the estimation performance of the proposed approach improves when the large-scale/massive MIMO systems are employed. The approximate Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound of the proposed estimator for the 2-D localization is also derived. Numerical results demonstrate that albeit the proposed estimation method is comparable with the traditional 2-D estimators in terms of performance, it benefits from a remarkably lower computational complexity.

  10. Orbital and escape dynamics in barred galaxies - I. The 2D system

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Christof


    In this paper we use the two-dimensional (2D) version of a new analytical gravitational model in order to explore the orbital as well as the escape dynamics of the stars in a barred galaxy composed of a spherically symmetric central nucleus, a bar, a flat disk and a dark matter halo component. A thorough numerical investigation is conducted for distinguishing between bounded and escaping motion. Furthermore bounded orbits are further classified into non-escaping regular and trapped chaotic using the Smaller ALingment Index (SALI) method. Our aim is to determine the basins of escape through the two symmetrical escape channels around the Lagrange points $L_2$ and $L_3$ and also to relate them with the corresponding distribution of the escape rates of the orbits. We integrate initial conditions of orbits in several types of planes so as to obtain a more complete view of the overall orbital properties of the dynamical system. We also present evidence that the unstable manifolds which guide the orbits in and out t...

  11. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.


    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  12. Growth optimization and characterization of high mobility two-dimensional electron systems in AlAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Shivaji


    In this work two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) based on AlAs/AlGaAs heterostructures doped with Si are investigated. The electrons are confined in AlAs quantum wells (QWs) sandwiched between AlGaAs buffers. Analytical calculations and simulations for AlAs QWs are presented in the first chapter. The results show a cross-over width, above which the wide (001)-oriented QWs show double valley occupancy and wide (110)-oriented QWs show single valley occupancy. We solve the Schroedinger equation analytically for anisotropic masses. The solution shows the orientation dependence of the elliptical cyclotron orbit due to the anisotropic mass. We also present an introduction to the Landau level crossings based on g{sup *}m{sup *} product. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the double-valley (001)-oriented AlAs QWs. We present the different structures of the deep AlAs QWs along with the low temperature magnetotransport data for these QWs. Thereafter, we present the results on shallow AlAs QWs. We achieved a mobility of 4.2 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK for the deep backside doped AlAs QW. For the shallow QWs, we achieved a mobility of2.3 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2}/Vs at 330 mK, for a density of 2.9 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}. From the magneto-transport data, we see evidence of the double-valley occupation for the (001)-oriented AlAs wide QWs. In the next chapter, we present experimental results for the single-valley (110)-oriented AlAs QWs. We deduced the donor binding energy and the doping efficiency for this facet from a doping series of double-sided doped QWs. Thereafter, we designed different structures for the (110)-oriented AlAs QWs, which we present along with their respective low temperature magneto-transport data. We measured one of the double-sided doped AlAs QWs at very high magnetic fields and low temperatures, down to 60 mK. At the end of the chapter, we present a spike feature observed in the magneto-transport data of these QWs. This

  13. De-Li-DAQ-2D - a new data acquisition system for position-sensitive neutron detectors with delay-line readout (United States)

    Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Murashkevich, S. M.


    Software for a data acquisition system of modern one- and two-dimensional position-sensitive detectors with delay-line readout, which includes a software interface to a new electronic module De-Li-DAQ-2D with a USB interface, is presented. The new system after successful tests on the stand and on several spectrometers of the IBR-2 reactor has been integrated into the software complex SONIX+ [1]. The De-Li- DAQ-2D module [2] contains an 8-channel time-code converter (TDC-GPX) with a time resolution of 80 ps, field programmable gate array (FPGA), 1 Gbyte histogram memory and high-speed interface with a fiber-optic communication line. A real count rate is no less than 106 events/s. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module is implemented in the NIM standard. The De-Li-DAQ-2D module can operate in two modes: histogram mode and list mode.

  14. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B


    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  15. Origin of the hysteresis in bilayer 2D systems in the quantum Hall regime


    Ho, L. H.; Taskinen, L. J.; Micolich, A.P.; Hamilton, A. R.; Atkinson, P.; Ritchie, D. A.


    The hysteresis observed in the magnetoresistance of bilayer 2D systems in the quantum Hall regime is generally attributed to the long time constant for charge transfer between the 2D systems due to the very low conductivity of the quantum Hall bulk states. We report electrometry measurements of a bilayer 2D system that demonstrate that the hysteresis is instead due to non-equilibrium induced current. This finding is consistent with magnetometry and electrometry measurements of single 2D syste...

  16. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng


    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  17. Two-Dimensional Electrons. (United States)


    Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme

  18. Electronic equivalence of optical negative refraction and retroreflection in the two-dimensional systems with inhomogeneous spin-orbit couplings (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Ma, Zhongshui


    The negative refracted transmission and retroreflection of electrons in low-electron-density semiconductors, in the presence of spin-orbit coupling, are theoretically predicted. It is shown that negative electronic transport may occur owing to the occurrence of additional states whose wave vectors are antiparallel to their group velocities. We conclude that the transport emerges as negative in nature in the scattering process if the sign of its ray equation is reversed with respect to that of the incidence's. We demonstrate this finding in the hybrid of two-dimensional electron gases with different Rashba spin-orbit couplings. We also show that the fundamental of negative electric transport is promising to focus a divergent electronic beam in a spintronic sandwich structure with flat surfaces.

  19. Temperature and magnetic field effects on electron transport through DNA molecules in a two-dimensional four-channel system. (United States)

    Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D


    We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.

  20. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy (United States)

    Fayer, Michael


    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  1. Magneto-transport characteristics of a 2D electron system driven to negative magneto-conductivity by microwave photoexcitation. (United States)

    Mani, R G; Kriisa, A


    Negative diagonal magneto-conductivity/resistivity is a spectacular- and thought provoking-property of driven, far-from-equilibrium, low dimensional electronic systems. The physical response of this exotic electronic state is not yet fully understood since it is rarely encountered in experiment. The microwave-radiation-induced zero-resistance state in the high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system is believed to be an example where negative magneto-conductivity/resistivity is responsible for the observed phenomena. Here, we examine the magneto-transport characteristics of this negative conductivity/resistivity state in the microwave photo-excited two-dimensional electron system (2DES) through a numerical solution of the associated boundary value problem. The results suggest, surprisingly, that a bare negative diagonal conductivity/resistivity state in the 2DES under photo-excitation should yield a positive diagonal resistance, with a concomitant sign reversal in the Hall voltage.

  2. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  3. Comparative analysis between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI acquisitions - clinical applications for the evaluation of the knees in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Analise comparativa entre aquisicao tri (3D) e bidimensional (2D) em ressonancia magnetica - aplicabilidade clinica em joelhos em artrite reumatoide juvenil (ARJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andre S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Rebelo, Marina de Sa [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Informatica; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica] [and others


    In this cross-sectional study in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis the authors compare two-dimensional evaluation of the maximum synovial diameter on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SE (spin-echo) sequences with volumetric (three-dimensional assessment) on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SPIR (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery) SE sequences. With the aim of determining their cost-effectiveness these two methods of assessment were compared to clinical and laboratorial parameters, as well as the presence of synovial enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  4. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile. (United States)

    Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T


    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  5. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)


    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  6. Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal. (United States)

    Merano, Michele


    The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.

  7. A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens


    A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.

  8. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki


    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  9. Robust stability test for 2-D continuous-discrete systems with interval parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    It is revealed that the dynamic stability of 2-D recursive continuous-discrete systems with interval parameters involves the problem of robust Hurwitz-Schur stability of bivariate polynomials family. It is proved that the HurwitzSchur stability of the denominator polynomials of the systems is necessary and sufficient for the asymptotic stability of the 2-D hybrid systems. The 2-D hybrid transformation, i.e. 2-D Laplace-Z transformation, has been proposed to solve the stability analysis of the 2-D continuous-discrete systems, to get the 2-D hybrid transfer functions of the systems. The edge test for the Hurwitz-Schur stability of interval bivariate polynomials is introduced. The Hurwitz-Schur stability of the interval family of 2-D polynomials can be guaranteed by the stability of its finite edge polynomials of the family. An algorithm about the stability test of edge polynomials is given.

  10. Scanning Hall-probe microscopy system for two-dimensional imaging of critical current density in RE-123 coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashikawa, K., E-mail: [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Inoue, M.; Kawaguchi, T.; Shiohara, K.; Imamura, K.; Kiss, T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Saitoh, T. [Material Technology Laboratory, Fujikura, 1-5-1, Kiba, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Izumi, T. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, International Superconductivity Technology Center, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)


    Nondestructive characterization method of in-plane distribution of critical current density for coated conductors. Current distribution in a coated conductor compared with that from theoretical analysis. Relationship between local critical current density and local magnetic field. We have developed a characterization method for two-dimensional imaging of critical current density in coated conductors (CCs) based on scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The distributions of the magnetic field around a sample were measured for several different conditions of external magnetic fields, and then were converted to those of the sheet current density which flowed to shield the external magnetic field or to trap the penetrated magnetic field. As a result, it was found that the amplitude of the sheet current density corresponded to that of critical current density almost in all the area of the sample except for the region where current direction changed. This indicates that we could obtain an in-plane distribution of the critical current density with a spatial resolution of around 100 {mu}m in non-destructive manner by this method. We believe that this measurement will be a multifunctional and comprehensive characterization method for coated conductors.

  11. CAVE: A computer code for two-dimensional transient heating analysis of conceptual thermal protection systems for hypersonic vehicles (United States)

    Rathjen, K. A.


    A digital computer code CAVE (Conduction Analysis Via Eigenvalues), which finds application in the analysis of two dimensional transient heating of hypersonic vehicles is described. The CAVE is written in FORTRAN 4 and is operational on both IBM 360-67 and CDC 6600 computers. The method of solution is a hybrid analytical numerical technique that is inherently stable permitting large time steps even with the best of conductors having the finest of mesh size. The aerodynamic heating boundary conditions are calculated by the code based on the input flight trajectory or can optionally be calculated external to the code and then entered as input data. The code computes the network conduction and convection links, as well as capacitance values, given basic geometrical and mesh sizes, for four generations (leading edges, cooled panels, X-24C structure and slabs). Input and output formats are presented and explained. Sample problems are included. A brief summary of the hybrid analytical-numerical technique, which utilizes eigenvalues (thermal frequencies) and eigenvectors (thermal mode vectors) is given along with aerodynamic heating equations that have been incorporated in the code and flow charts.

  12. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads


    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  13. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope. (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads


    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  14. Suppression of Direct Spin Hall Currents in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus Spin-Orbit Couplings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jian-Wen; HU Liang-Bin; ZHANG Zhen-Xi


    @@ Based on the Heisenberg equations of motion for the electron orbital and spin degrees of freedom in two-dimensional electronic systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings, we show that an ac electric field can cause an ac spin Hall current in such a system. In contrast to some previous theoretical prediction, the spin Hall current will be suppressed completely in the dc limit. We argue that the suppression of dc spin Hall currents in such a system is actually a much natural result of the dynamic spin evolution due to the combined action of a dc external electric field and the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling.

  15. Mapping and identification of interferon gamma-regulated HeLa cell proteins separated by immobilized pH gradient two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, AC; Rossel Larsen, M; Roepstorff, P


    magnitude of IFN-gamma responsive genes has been reported previously. Our goal is to identify and map IFN-gamma-regulated HeLa cell proteins to the two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the immobilized pH gradient (IPG) two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) system...

  16. A Method to Formulate the Unit Cell for Density Functional Theory (DFT) Calculations of the Electronic Band Structure of Heterostructures of Two-dimensional Nanosheets (United States)


    distribution is unlimited. i CONTENTS Page Introduction 1 Two-dimensional Material Geometry and Analogs with Close-packed Systems 1 Matching...distribution is unlimited. 1 INTRODUCTION Two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructures offer novel and compelling electronic and optical...methods have undoubtedly been created for matching lattice constants of dissimilar nanomaterials , very few are actually covered explicitly in literature

  17. Feasibility and Limitations of Vaccine Two-Dimensional Barcoding Using Mobile Devices


    Bell, Cameron; Guerinet, Julien; Atkinson, Katherine M.; Wilson, Kumanan


    Background Two-dimensional (2D) barcoding has the potential to enhance documentation of vaccine encounters at the point of care. However, this is currently limited to environments equipped with dedicated barcode scanners and compatible record systems. Mobile devices may present a cost-effective alternative to leverage 2D vaccine vial barcodes and improve vaccine product-specific information residing in digital health records. Objective Mobile devices have the potential to capture product-spec...

  18. A true order recursive algorithm for two-dimensional mean squared error linear prediction and filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glentis, George-Othon; Slump, Cornelis H.; Hermann, Otto E.


    In this paper a novel algorithm is presented for the efficient two-dimensional (2-D), mean squared error (MSE), FIR filtering and system identification. Filter masks of general boundaries are allowed. Efficient order updating recursions are developed by exploiting the spatial shift invariance

  19. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong


    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  20. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Reino, Marta; Schnitzer, H; Gomez-Reino, Marta; Naculich, Stephen; Schnitzer, Howard


    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N_2 D2 branes and N_6 D6 branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N_2) gauge theory with N_6 fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6 branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black brane horizon area/entropy. The leading order entropy, which is proportional to N_2^{3/2} N_6^{1/2} T_H^2, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N_2 ~ N_6.

  1. Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G


    We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.

  2. Renormalization of trace distance and multipartite entanglement close to the quantum phase transitions of one- and two-dimensional spin-chain systems (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo


    We investigate the quantum phase transitions of spin systems in one and two dimensions by employing trace distance and multipartite entanglement along with the real-space quantum renormalization group method. As illustration examples, a one-dimensional and a two-dimensional XY models are considered. It is shown that the quantum phase transitions of these spin-chain systems can be revealed by the singular behaviors of the first derivatives of renormalized trace distance and multipartite entanglement in the thermodynamics limit. Moreover, we find that the renormalized trace distance and multipartite entanglement obey certain universal exponential-type scaling laws in the vicinity of the quantum critical points.

  3. Classical Solution of a Two-Dimensional Dynamics System for Pure Forest%一个二维纯林发展系统的古典解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐龙封; 吴慧


    The research of two-dimensional forest dynamics system model is still open. First, for the peculiarity of two-dimensional forest dynamics systems with initial state depending only on total quantity of forest, and boundary condition depending only on initial state again, boundary of system not satisfying one of 3 kinds common conditions, by introducing a class of special family curves in presence region of " stand age-diameter", the problem of boundary conditions is avoided. Secondly, using the technique of selecting measure dimension of lumber diameter properly, a well-posed two-dimensional forest dynamics system model is propounded. At last, colligating the technique of pulling characteristic curve, a prior estimate, structuring integral equation of initial state, iteration, the existence and uniqueness of the global classical solution are proved for this system.%二维森林发展系统模型的研究还未见到任何结果.针对这类系统初始状态依赖于林木总量,而边界状态又依赖于初始状态,系统的边界不满足通常的三类条件之一的特点,采用在“树龄-直径”存在区域内引进一类特殊的曲线族,避开了提边界条件问题.再利用适当地选择林木直径尺度量纲的技巧,提出了一个适定的二维纯林发展系统模型,最后综合拉特征线、先验估计、构造初始状态积分方程、迭代等技巧证明了这个系统整体古典解的存在唯一性.

  4. A New Blind 2D-RAKE Receiver Based on CMA Criteria for Spread Spectrum Systems Suitable for Software Defined Radio Architecture (United States)

    Takayama, Kei; Kamiya, Yukihiro; Fujii, Takeo; Suzuki, Yasuo

    Spread Spectrum (SS) has been widely used for various wireless systems such as cellular systems, wireless local area network (LAN) and so on. Using multiple antennas at the receiver, two-dimensional (2D) RAKE is realized over the time- and the space-domain. However, it should be noted that the 2D-RAKE receiver must detect the bit timing prior to the RAKE combining. In case of deep fading, it is often difficult to detect it due to low signal-to-noise power ratio (SNR). To solve this problem, we propose a new blind 2D-RAKE receiver based on the constant modulus algorithm (CMA). Since it does not need a priori bit timing detection, it is possible to compensate frequency selective fading even in very low SNR environments. The proposed method is particularly suitable for the software defined radio (SDR) architecture. The performance of the proposed method is investigated through computer simulations.

  5. Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials. (United States)

    Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.

  6. Thermodynamics of the localized D2-D6 system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Reino, Marta [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail:; Naculich, Stephen G. [Department of Physics, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME 04011 (United States)]. E-mail:; Schnitzer, Howard J. [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)]. E-mail:


    An exact fully-localized extremal supergravity solution for N{sub 2} D2-branes and N{sub 6} D6-branes, which is dual to 3-dimensional supersymmetric SU(N{sub 2}) gauge theory with N{sub 6} fundamentals, was found by Cherkis and Hashimoto. In order to consider the thermal properties of the gauge theory we present the non-extremal extension of this solution to first order in an expansion near the core of the D6-branes. We compute the Hawking temperature and the black-brane horizon area/entropy. The leading-order entropy, which is proportional to N{sub 2}{sup 3/2}N{sub 6}{sup 1/2}T{sub H}{sup 2}, is not corrected to first order in the expansion. This result is consistent with the analogous weak-coupling result at the correspondence point N{sub 2} similar to N{sub 6}.

  7. Visualising the strain distribution in suspended two-dimensional materials under local deformation (United States)

    Elibol, Kenan; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hummel, Stefan; Kotakoski, Jani; Argentero, Giacomo; Meyer, Jannik C.


    We demonstrate the use of combined simultaneous atomic force microscopy (AFM) and laterally resolved Raman spectroscopy to study the strain distribution around highly localised deformations in suspended two-dimensional materials. Using the AFM tip as a nanoindentation probe, we induce localised strain in suspended few-layer graphene, which we adopt as a two-dimensional membrane model system. Concurrently, we visualise the strain distribution under and around the AFM tip in situ using hyperspectral Raman mapping via the strain-dependent frequency shifts of the few-layer graphene’s G and 2D Raman bands. Thereby we show how the contact of the nm-sized scanning probe tip results in a two-dimensional strain field with μm dimensions in the suspended membrane. Our combined AFM/Raman approach thus adds to the critically required instrumental toolbox towards nanoscale strain engineering of two-dimensional materials.

  8. Non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost control of uncertain 2-D discrete state-delayed systems (United States)

    Tandon, Akshata; Dhawan, Amit


    This paper is concerned with the problem of non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost control for a class of uncertain two-dimensional (2-D) discrete state-delayed systems described by the general model with norm-bounded uncertainties. Our attention is focused on the design of non-fragile state feedback controllers such that the resulting closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and the closed-loop cost function value is not more than a specified upper bound for all admissible parameter uncertainties and controller gain variations. A sufficient condition for the existence of such controllers is established under the linear matrix inequality framework. Moreover, a convex optimisation problem is proposed to select a non-fragile robust optimal guaranteed cost controller stabilising the 2-D discrete state-delayed system as well as achieving the least guaranteed cost for the resulting closed-loop system. The proposed method is compared with the previously reported criterion. Finally, illustrative examples are given to show the potential of the proposed technique.

  9. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy-based tomography system for on-line monitoring of two-dimensional distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lijun, E-mail:; Liu, Chang; Jing, Wenyang; Cao, Zhang [School of Instrument Science and Opto-Electronic Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ministry of Education’s Key Laboratory of Precision Opto-Mechatronics Technology, Beijing 100191 (China); Xue, Xin; Lin, Yuzhen [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)


    To monitor two-dimensional (2D) distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction, an on-line tomography system based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) was developed. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on a multi-view TDLAS-based system for simultaneous tomographic visualization of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction in real time. The system consists of two distributed feedback (DFB) laser diodes, a tomographic sensor, electronic circuits, and a computer. The central frequencies of the two DFB laser diodes are at 7444.36 cm{sup −1} (1343.3 nm) and 7185.6 cm{sup −1} (1391.67 nm), respectively. The tomographic sensor is used to generate fan-beam illumination from five views and to produce 60 ray measurements. The electronic circuits not only provide stable temperature and precise current controlling signals for the laser diodes but also can accurately sample the transmitted laser intensities and extract integrated absorbances in real time. Finally, the integrated absorbances are transferred to the computer, in which the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction are reconstructed by using a modified Landweber algorithm. In the experiments, the TDLAS-based tomography system was validated by using asymmetric premixed flames with fixed and time-varying equivalent ratios, respectively. The results demonstrate that the system is able to reconstruct the profiles of the 2D distributions of temperature and H{sub 2}O mole fraction of the flame and effectively capture the dynamics of the combustion process, which exhibits good potential for flame monitoring and on-line combustion diagnosis.

  10. Genetic polymorphism of CYP2D6 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. (United States)

    Barańska, Małgorzata; Rychlik-Sych, Mariola; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Dziankowska-Bartkowiak, Bożena; Skrętkowicz, Jadwiga; Waszczykowska, Elżbieta


    Human organism is constantly exposed to harmful exogenous factors (xenobiotics) including drugs and carcinogenic compounds that can induce development of a large number of diseases. The processes of biotransformation in the organism are multidirectional and xenobiotics can be transformed into active or inactive metabolites via the oxidative route. The knowledge of oxidation polymorphism in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis may be helpful in choosing more efficient and safer therapy, particularly in the case of a disease involving various organs and treated with drugs belonging to diverse therapeutic groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the CYP2D6 polymorphism in the SLE (systemic lupus erythematosus) and SSc (systemic sclerosis) patients and to investigate a possible correlation with disease susceptibility. The study was carried out in 296 patients: 65 patients with SLE, 81 patients with SSc, and 150 healthy volunteers. The CYP2D6 genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The relative risk of developing SSc, expressed by the odds ratio, was three-fold higher for persons with the CYP2D6*1/CYP2D6*4 genotype (OR = 2.9; statistically significant difference, p = 0.0002). A statistically significant correlation between the CYP2D6*4 allele prevalence and the risk for developing SSc was found (OR = 1.53; p = 0.047). No effect of the CYP2D6 gene mutations on the incidence of SLE was noted. The obtained results may suggest the influence of CYP2D6*4 gene variants alleles on increased incidence of systemic sclerosis.

  11. A comparison of two-dimensional and real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography and angiography for assessing the left atrial appendage anatomy for sizing a left atrial appendage occlusion system: impact of volume loading. (United States)

    Al-Kassou, Baravan; Tzikas, Apostolos; Stock, Friederike; Neikes, Fabian; Völz, Alexander; Omran, Heyder


    Correct sizing of a left atrial appendage (LAA) closure system is important to avoid redeployment of the device and peri-device leaks. The aims of this study were to assess the significance of two-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography (2D-TEE), real-time 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D-TEE) and angiography for measuring the size of the LAA landing zone and to determine the impact on sizing an LAA closure device. Furthermore, we investigated the relevance of volume loading on LAA size. In a prospective study, 46 patients underwent 2D-TEE and RT 3D-TEE 24 hours prior to LAA closure, at the beginning of the procedure and just before the procedure after volume loading with an average of 1,035±246 ml. Angiography was performed immediately before the implantation. Maximal diameter (2.2±0.4 versus 2.3±0.4 cm; pcorrelation (R) between measurements and LAA device size was found for RT 3D-TEE-derived perimeter (R=0.97) and area (R=0.96), whereas the maximal diameter (R=0.78) measured by 2D-TEE and angiography (R=0.76) correlated less closely. Sizing based on an RT 3D-TEE-measured perimeter resulted only in 4% of undersizing the implanted device. Peri-device leaks occurred in seven cases (15%) and were associated with a lower compression of LAA devices (7±1.3% versus 14±3.2% for patients without leaks, pcorrelation to LAA closure device size than 2D-TEE or angiographic measurements.

  12. Determination of the Critical Exponents for the Isotropic-Nematic Phase Transition in a System of Long Rods on Two-dimensional Lattices: Universality of the Transition


    Matoz-Fernandez, D. A.; Linares, D. H.; Ramirez-Pastor, A. J.


    Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis have been carried out to study the critical behavior and universality for the isotropic-nematic phase transition in a system of long straight rigid rods of length $k$ ($k$-mers) on two-dimensional lattices. The nematic phase, characterized by a big domain of parallel $k$-mers, is separated from the isotropic state by a continuous transition occurring at a finite density. The determination of the critical exponents, along with the behavi...

  13. Bolometric detection of magnetoplasma resonances in microwave absorption by two-dimensional electron systems based on doping layer conductivity measurements in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorozhkin, S. I., E-mail:; Sychev, D. V.; Kapustin, A. A. [Institute of Solid State Physics RAS, 142432 Chernogolovka, Moscow district (Russian Federation)


    We have implemented a new bolometric method to detect resonances in magneto-absorption of microwave radiation by two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Radiation is absorbed by the 2DES and the thermally activated conductivity of the doping layer supplying electrons to the 2DES serves as a thermometer. The resonant absorption brought about by excitation of the confined magnetoplasma modes appears as peaks in the magnetic field dependence of the low-frequency impedance measured between the Schottky gate and 2DES.

  14. Time-domain measurement of terahertz frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system by the direct injection of picosecond pulsed currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Cunningham, John E., E-mail: [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Sydoruk, Oleksiy [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    We have investigated terahertz (THz) frequency magnetoplasmon resonances in a two-dimensional electron system through the direct injection of picosecond duration current pulses. The evolution of the time-domain signals was measured as a function of magnetic field, and the results were found to be in agreement with calculations using a mode-matching approach for four modes observed in the frequency range above 0.1 THz. This introduces a generic technique suitable for sampling ultrafast carrier dynamics in low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures at THz frequencies.

  15. Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.


    Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...

  16. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. I. Gaussian-white case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steffen, T; Tanimura, Y


    The quantum Fokker-Planck equation is derived for a system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath. The system-bath interaction is assumed to be linear in the bath coordinates but quadratic in the system coordinate. The relaxation induced dynamics of a harmonic system are investigated by s

  17. Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikasue, Y., E-mail: [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Furukawa, M., E-mail: [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)


    The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斌; 陈天华


    An algorithm for constructing exact solitary wave solutions and singular solutions for a class of nonlinear dissipative-dispersive system is presented. With the aid of symbolic manipulation system Maple, some explicit solutions are obtained for the system in physically interesting but non-integrable cases.

  19. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers. (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R


    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  20. Spin-current resonances in a magnetically inhomogeneous 2D conducting system (United States)

    Charkina, O. V.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yanovsky, A. V.


    The high-frequency transport in a two-dimensional conducting ring having an inhomogeneous collinear magnetic structure has been considered in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that the frequency dependence on the radial electric conductivity of the ring exhibits resonances corresponding to new hybrid oscillations in such systems. The oscillation frequencies are essentially dependent on the applied electromagnetic field and the spin state of the system.

  1. On the attractive plasma-charge system in 2-d

    CERN Document Server

    Caprino, Silvia; Miot, Evelyne; Pulvirenti, Mario


    We study a positively charged Vlasov-Poisson plasma in which N negative point charges are immersed. The attractiveness of the system forces us to consider a possibly unbounded plasma density near the charges. We prove the existence of a global in time solution, assuming a suitable initial distribution of the velocities of the plasma particles. Uniqueness remains unsolved.

  2. Two-dimensional spectroscopy for harmonic vibrational modes with nonlinear system-bath interactions. II. Gaussian-Markovian case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanimura, Y; Steffen, T


    The relaxation processes in a quantum system nonlinearly coupled to a harmonic Gaussian-Markovian heat bath are investigated by the quantum Fokker-Planck equation in the hierarchy form. This model describes frequency fluctuations in the quantum system with an arbitrary correlation time and thus

  3. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro


    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  4. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai


    Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.

  5. Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorić, G; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A


    We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D \\textit{% soliton-based nano-antenna}, which should be stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.

  6. Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Pushpendra


    Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.

  7. Three-dimensional structural damage localization system and method using layered two-dimensional array of capacitance sensors (United States)

    Curry, Mark A (Inventor); Senibi, Simon D (Inventor); Banks, David L (Inventor)


    A system and method for detecting damage to a structure is provided. The system includes a voltage source and at least one capacitor formed as a layer within the structure and responsive to the voltage source. The system also includes at least one sensor responsive to the capacitor to sense a voltage of the capacitor. A controller responsive to the sensor determines if damage to the structure has occurred based on the variance of the voltage of the capacitor from a known reference value. A method for sensing damage to a structure involves providing a plurality of capacitors and a controller, and coupling the capacitors to at least one surface of the structure. A voltage of the capacitors is sensed using the controller, and the controller calculates a change in the voltage of the capacitors. The method can include signaling a display system if a change in the voltage occurs.

  8. Coherent potential approximation for the absorption spectra of a two-dimensional Frenkel exciton system with Gaussian diagonal disorder (United States)

    Boukahil, A.; Huber, D. L.


    We investigate the optical absorption and the density of states of a Frenkel exciton system on a square lattice with nearest-neighbor interactions and a Gaussian distribution of transition frequencies (i.e. Gaussian diagonal disorder). Results are presented for the absorption and the density of states of direct and indirect edge systems for a range of variances. There is reasonable agreement with the corresponding finite array calculations of Schreiber and Toyozawa. The existence of an Urbach tail is also investigated.

  9. Quantifying the limits of through-plane thermal dissipation in 2D-material-based systems (United States)

    Yasaei, Poya; Behranginia, Amirhossein; Hemmat, Zahra; El-Ghandour, Ahmed I.; Foster, Craig D.; Salehi-Khojin, Amin


    Through-plane thermal transport accounts for a major fraction of heat dissipation from hot-spots in many existing devices made of two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this report, we performed a set of electrical thermometry measurements and 3D finite element analyses to quantify the limits of power dissipation in monolayer graphene, a representative of 2D materials, fabricated on various technologically viable substrates such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, tape-casted (sintered) aluminum nitride (AlN), and single crystalline c-plane sapphire as well as silicon with different oxide layers. We demonstrate that the heat dissipation through graphene on AlN substrate near room temperature outperforms those of CVD diamond and other studied substrates, owing to its superior thermal boundary conductance (TBC). At room temperature, our measurements reveal a TBC of 33.5 MW · m-2 · K-1 for graphene on AlN compared to 6.2 MW · m-2 · K-1 on diamond. This study highlights the importance of simultaneous optimization of the interfaces and the substrate and provides a route to maximize the heat removal capability of 2D-material-based devices.

  10. An analysis of EH- type linear based on two- dimensional heterotic system string theory%对杂化弦EH型线性系统的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    由文献[4]中方程(2.25)-(2.31b)给出了对杂化弦EH型线性系统的分析。结果表明该线性系统等同于由文献[4]中方程(2.17)-(2.24b)给出的EH型线性系统。%An analysis is made of the EH - type linear system based on two - dimensional heterotic string theory, as is indicated in the equation of (2.25) - (2.31 b) in Bibliography [ 4 ]. The result shows that this system is equivalent to the EH -type linear system in the equations of (2.17) - (2.24b) in Bibliography [4].

  11. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine. (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea


    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

  12. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang


    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  13. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang


    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  14. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.


    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  15. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.


    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  16. Two-dimensional Fibonacci grating for far-field super-resolution imaging (United States)

    Wu, Kedi; Wang, Guo Ping


    A two-dimensional (2D) Fibonacci grating is used to transform evanescent waves into propagating waves for far-field super-resolution imaging. By detecting far-field intensity distributions of light field through objects in front of the 2D Fibonacci grating in free space at once, we can retrieve the image of objects with beyond λ/7 spatial resolution. We also find that the coherent illumination case can give a better resolution than incoherent illumination case by such 2D grating-assisted imaging system. The analytical results are verified by numerical simulation.

  17. Measurement system for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions, applied to the investigation of recording head fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenland, J.P.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.


    The system described is built around a very accurate positioner into which a sensitive transducer and the object of analysis is mounted. The properties of the applied magnetoresistive transducer are described. This transducer, a very narrow permalloy strip placed at the edge of a glass substratum,

  18. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray


    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  19. Novel exciton systems in 2D TMD monolayers and heterobilayers (United States)

    Yu, Hongyi

    In this talk, two exciton systems in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) monolayer and heterobilayer will be discussed. In TMD monolayers, the strong e-h Coulomb exchange interaction splits the exciton and trion dispersions into two branches with zero and finite gap, respectively. Each branch is a center-of-mass wave vector dependent coherent superposition of the two valleys, which leads to a valley-orbit coupling and possibly a trion valley Hall effect. The exchange interaction also eliminates the linear polarization of the negative trion PL emission. In TMD heterobilayers with a type-II band alignment, the low energy exciton has an interlayer configuration with the e and h localized in opposite layers. Because of the inevitable twist or/and lattice mismatch between the two layers, the bright interlayer excitons are located at finite center-of-mass velocities with a six-fold degeneracy. The corresponding photon emission is elliptically polarized, with the major axis locked to the direction of exciton velocity, and helicity determined by the valley indices of the e and h. Some experimental results on the interlayer excitons in the WSe2-MoSe2 heterobilayers will also be presented. The interlayer exciton exhibits a long lifetime as well as a long depolarization time, which facilitate the observation of a PL polarization ring pattern due to the valley dependent exciton-exciton interaction induced expansion. The works were supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (HKU17305914P, HKU705513P), the Croucher Foundation, and the HKU OYRA and ROP.

  20. Effects of electric field on structures and dynamics in a two-dimensional dust dipole particle system (United States)

    Hou, X. N.; Liu, Y. H.; Huang, F.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zhang, R. Y.


    Effects of radial electric field on the structures and dynamics of dust dipoles are studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The dipoles' configuration and mean distance to the system center are used to illustrate the structures of the whole system. It is shown that the dipole particles can arrange themselves into ring-like structures in the absence of external electric field, which can gradually transform to vortex, and then to radial arrangement with the increase of the strength of electric field. The trajectories, mean square displacement, and the mean speed in radial and tangential directions of dipoles are investigated to depict the effects of the radial electric filed on the collective motion of dust dipolar particles, which are closely associated with the growth of dust particle, especially for the formation of rod-like and some other complex fractal dust particles.

  1. Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry. (United States)

    Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A


    A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.

  2. Terahertz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in GaAs-based heterostructures; Terahertz-Antwort von zweidimensionalen Ladungstraegersystemen in GaAs-basierten Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Torben


    This thesis deals with the THz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in different semiconductor heterostructures under varying conditions. The utilized spectrometer is suitable for time-resolved optical pump - THz probe experiments, as well as for optical pump-probe experiments in the near infrared for identical conditions. It allows the investigation of the transverse dielectric function of both, a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well and a two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs-based heterostructure. First, the THz response of an electron-hole plasma is examined for different carrier densities. The plasma is generated by interband transitions in a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well. The measured transverse dielectric function reveals that the plasma behaves in accordance with the classical Drude oscillator model. It also conforms to the microscopic theory of the THz response of corresponding many-body systems. Evidence of a plasma resonance in the negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function is found. The squared peak frequency of the resonance is proportional to the carrier density of the plasma. This behavior corresponds to the plasma frequency of a three-dimensional plasma. Overall, it can be shown that the transverse THz response of a two-dimensional electron-hole plasma behaves like the response of a three-dimensional plasma. Therefore, the transversal THz response of an electron-hole plasma seems to be independent of the dimension of the charge carrier system. Secondly, the behavior of the quantum well for a 1s-exciton dominated carrier system is investigated. A good agreement between experiment and microscopic theory is obtained for the dielectric function. The negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function shows a resonance at the intraexcitonic 1s-2p transition frequency, even in weakly excited excitonic systems. Increasing the carrier density leads to a plasma-like behavior of the system. However, in these densities a significant

  3. Terahertz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in GaAs-based heterostructures; Terahertz-Antwort von zweidimensionalen Ladungstraegersystemen in GaAs-basierten Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Torben


    This thesis deals with the THz response of two-dimensional charge carrier systems in different semiconductor heterostructures under varying conditions. The utilized spectrometer is suitable for time-resolved optical pump - THz probe experiments, as well as for optical pump-probe experiments in the near infrared for identical conditions. It allows the investigation of the transverse dielectric function of both, a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well and a two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs-based heterostructure. First, the THz response of an electron-hole plasma is examined for different carrier densities. The plasma is generated by interband transitions in a (GaIn)As/GaAs quantum well. The measured transverse dielectric function reveals that the plasma behaves in accordance with the classical Drude oscillator model. It also conforms to the microscopic theory of the THz response of corresponding many-body systems. Evidence of a plasma resonance in the negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function is found. The squared peak frequency of the resonance is proportional to the carrier density of the plasma. This behavior corresponds to the plasma frequency of a three-dimensional plasma. Overall, it can be shown that the transverse THz response of a two-dimensional electron-hole plasma behaves like the response of a three-dimensional plasma. Therefore, the transversal THz response of an electron-hole plasma seems to be independent of the dimension of the charge carrier system. Secondly, the behavior of the quantum well for a 1s-exciton dominated carrier system is investigated. A good agreement between experiment and microscopic theory is obtained for the dielectric function. The negative imaginary part of the inverse dielectric function shows a resonance at the intraexcitonic 1s-2p transition frequency, even in weakly excited excitonic systems. Increasing the carrier density leads to a plasma-like behavior of the system. However, in these densities a significant

  4. Note on integrability of certain homogeneous Hamiltonian systems in 2D constant curvature spaces (United States)

    Maciejewski, Andrzej J.; Szumiński, Wojciech; Przybylska, Maria


    We formulate the necessary conditions for the integrability of a certain family of Hamiltonian systems defined in the constant curvature two-dimensional spaces. Proposed form of potential can be considered as a counterpart of a homogeneous potential in flat spaces. Thanks to this property Hamilton equations admit, in a general case, a particular solution. Using this solution we derive necessary integrability conditions investigating differential Galois group of variational equations.

  5. Use of a highly sensitive two-dimensional luminescence imaging system to monitor endogenous bioluminescence in plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor-Henry Michel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All living organisms emit spontaneous low-level bioluminescence, which can be increased in response to stress. Methods for imaging this ultra-weak luminescence have previously been limited by the sensitivity of the detection systems used. Results We developed a novel configuration of a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD for 2-dimensional imaging of light emission from biological material. In this study, we imaged photon emission from plant leaves. The equipment allowed short integration times for image acquisition, providing high resolution spatial and temporal information on bioluminescence. We were able to carry out time course imaging of both delayed chlorophyll fluorescence from whole leaves, and of low level wound-induced luminescence that we showed to be localised to sites of tissue damage. We found that wound-induced luminescence was chlorophyll-dependent and was enhanced at higher temperatures. Conclusions The data gathered on plant bioluminescence illustrate that the equipment described here represents an improvement in 2-dimensional luminescence imaging technology. Using this system, we identify chlorophyll as the origin of wound-induced luminescence from leaves.

  6. Global existence and boundedness of radial solutions to a two dimensional fully parabolic chemotaxis system with general sensitivity (United States)

    Fujie, Kentarou; Senba, Takasi


    This paper deals with positive radially symmetric solutions of the Neumann boundary value problem for the fully parabolic chemotaxis system, {ut=Δu-∇ṡ(u∇χ(v))in Ω×(0,∞),τvt=Δv-v+uin Ω×(0,∞), in a ball Ω \\subset {{{R}}2} with general sensitivity function χ (v) satisfying {χ\\prime}>0 and decaying property {χ\\prime}(s)\\to 0 (s\\to ∞ ), parameter τ \\in ≤ft(0,1\\right] and nonnegative radially symmetric initial data. It is shown that if τ \\in ≤ft(0,1\\right] is sufficiently small, then the problem has a unique classical radially symmetric solution, which exists globally and remains uniformly bounded in time. Especially, this result establishes global existence of solutions in the case χ (v)={χ0}log v for all {χ0}>0 , which has been left as an open problem.

  7. Highly ordered and highly aligned two-dimensional binary superlattice of a SWNT/cylindrical-micellar system. (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Hwan; Jang, Hyung-Sik; Ha, Jae-Min; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kwasniewski, Pawel; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Jin, Kyeong Sik; Choi, Sung-Min


    We report a highly ordered intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice of hydrophilically functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (p-SWNTs) and surfactant (C12 E5 ) cylindrical micelles. When p-SWNTs (with a diameter slightly larger than that of the C12 E5 cylinders) were added to the hexagonally packed C12 E5 cylindrical-micellar system, p-SWNTs positioned themselves in such a way that the free-volume entropies for both p-SWNTs and C12 E5 cylinders were maximized, thus resulting in the intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice. In this binary superlattice, a hexagonal array of p-SWNTs is embedded in a honeycomb lattice of C12 E5 cylinders. The intercalated hexagonal binary superlattice can be highly aligned in one direction by an oscillatory shear field and remains aligned after the shear is removed.

  8. Cooperative Reformable Channel System with Unique Recognition of Small Gas Molecules in a two-dimensional ZIF-membrane (United States)

    Motevalli, Benyamin; Taherifar, Neda; Liu, Zhe

    We report a cooperative reformable channel system in a coordination porous polymer, named as ZIF-L. Three types of local flexible ligands coexist in the crystal structure of this polymer, resulting in ultra-flexibility. The reformable channel is able to regulate permeation of a nonspherical guest molecule, such as N2 or CO2, based on its longer molecular dimension, which is in a striking contrast to conventional molecular sieves that regulate the shorter cross-sectional dimension of the guest molecules. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations reveal that the guest molecule induces dynamic motion of the flexible ligands, leading to the channel reformation, and then the guest molecule reorientates itself to fit in the reformed channel. Such a unique ``induced fit-in'' mechanism causes the gas molecule to pass through 6 membered-ring windows in the c- crystal direction of ZIF-L with its longer axis parallel to the window plane. Our experimental permeance of N2 through the ZIF-L membranes is about three times greater than that of CO2, supporting the DFT simulation predictions.

  9. Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio


    We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  10. Theory of two-dimensional transformations


    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.


    The article of record may be found at Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  11. Development of 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF/image files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Hongtao; Zhou Jianxin; Wang Lin; Liao Dunming; Tao Qing


    A casting process CAD is put forward to design and draw casting process. The 2D casting process CAD, most of the current systems are developed based on one certain version of the AutoCAD system. However the application of these 2D casting process CAD systems in foundry enterprises are restricted because they have several deficiencies, such as being overly dependent on the AutoCAD system, and some part files based on PDF format can not be opened directly. To overcome these deficiencies, for the first time an innovative 2D casting process CAD system based on PDF and image format file has been proposed, which breaks through the traditional research and application notion of the 2D casting process CAD system based on AutoCAD. Several key technologies of this system such as coordinate transformation, CAD interactive drawing, file storage, PDF and image format files display, and image recognition technologies were described in detail. A practical 2D CAD casting process system named HZCAD2D(PDF) was developed, which is capable of designing and drawing the casting process on the part drawing based on the PDF format directly, without spending time on drawing the part produced by AutoCAD system. Final y, taking two actual castings as examples, the casting processes were drawn using this system, demonstrating that this system can significantly shorten the cycle of casting process designing.

  12. Observation of the variations of the domain structure of a spontaneous electric field in a two-dimensional electron system under microwave irradiation (United States)

    Dorozhkin, S. I.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.


    It has been found on a sample of the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure with the two-dimensional electron system that different configurations of domains of a spontaneous electric field are possible within one microwave- induced state with the resistance tending to zero. Transitions between such configurations are observed at the variation of the radiation power and magnetic field. In the general case, the configuration of domains is more complicated than existing models. The fragment of the distribution of the electric field in the sample for one of the observed configurations is in agreement with the rhombic domain structure considered by I. G. Finkler and B. I. Halperin, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085315 (2009).

  13. Slip or not slip? A methodical examination of the interface formation model using two-dimensional droplet spreading on a horizontal planar substrate as a prototype system

    CERN Document Server

    Sibley, David N; Kalliadasis, Serafim


    We consider the spreading of a thin two-dimensional droplet on a planar substrate as a prototype system to compare the contemporary model for contact line motion based on interface formation of Shikhmurzaev [Int. J. Multiphas. Flow 19, 589 (1993)], to the more commonly used continuum fluid dynamical equations augmented with the Navier-slip condition. Considering quasistatic droplet evolution and using the method of matched asymptotics, we find that the evolution of the droplet radius using the interface formation model reduces to an equivalent expression for a slip model, where the prescribed microscopic dynamic contact angle has a velocity dependent correction to its static value. This result is found for both the original interface formation model formulation and for a more recent version, where mass transfer from bulk to surface layers is accounted for through the boundary conditions. Various features of the model, such as the pressure behaviour and rolling motion at the contact line, and their relevance, ...

  14. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers. (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I


    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan


    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  16. Conductivity magnetooscillations in 2D electron-impurity system under microwave irradiation: role of magnetoplasmons


    Takhtamirov, E. E.; V. A. Volkov


    It is developed a many-electron approach to explain the recently observed conductivity magnetooscillations in very high mobility 2D electron systems under microwave irradiation. For the first time a theory takes into account the microwave-induced renormalization of the screened impurity potential. As a result this potential has singular, dynamic and non-linear in electric field nature. That changes the picture of scattering of electrons at impurities in a ``clean'' 2D system essentially: for ...

  17. A matrix structured LED backlight system with 2D-DHT local dimming method (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Li, Yang; Du, Sidan

    To reduce the number of the drivers in the conventional local dimming method for LCDs, a novel LED backlight local dimming system is proposed in this paper. The backlight of this system is generated by 2D discrete Hadamard transform and its matrix structured LED modules. Compared with the conventional 2D local dimming method, the proposed method costs much fewer drivers but with little degradation.

  18. 2D materials for nanophotonic devices (United States)

    Xu, Renjing; Yang, Jiong; Zhang, Shuang; Pei, Jiajie; Lu, Yuerui


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have become very important building blocks for electronic, photonic, and phononic devices. The 2D material family has four key members, including the metallic graphene, transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) layered semiconductors, semiconducting black phosphorous, and the insulating h-BN. Owing to the strong quantum confinements and defect-free surfaces, these atomically thin layers have offered us perfect platforms to investigate the interactions among photons, electrons and phonons. The unique interactions in these 2D materials are very important for both scientific research and application engineering. In this talk, I would like to briefly summarize and highlight the key findings, opportunities and challenges in this field. Next, I will introduce/highlight our recent achievements. We demonstrated atomically thin micro-lens and gratings using 2D MoS2, which is the thinnest optical component around the world. These devices are based on our discovery that the elastic light-matter interactions in highindex 2D materials is very strong. Also, I would like to introduce a new two-dimensional material phosphorene. Phosphorene has strongly anisotropic optical response, which creates 1D excitons in a 2D system. The strong confinement in phosphorene also enables the ultra-high trion (charged exciton) binding energies, which have been successfully measured in our experiments. Finally, I will briefly talk about the potential applications of 2D materials in energy harvesting.

  19. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René


    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  20. Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Hu


    Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.

  1. Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim E. Vekslerchik


    Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.

  2. A benchmark-problem specification and calculation using SENSIBL, a one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code of the AARE system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muir, D.W.; Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Davierwalla, D.M.; Higgs, C.E.; Stepanek, J.


    The lack of suitable benchmark problems makes it difficult to test sensitivity codes with a covariance library. A benchmark problem has therefore been defined for one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainity analysis codes and code systems. The problem, representative of a fusion reactor blanket, has a simple, three-zone )tau)-z geometry containing a D-T fusion neutron source distributed in a central void region surrounded by a thick /sup 6/LiH annulus. The response of interest is the /sup 6/Li tritium production per source neutron, T/sub 6/. The calculation has been performed with SENSIBL using other codes from the AARE code system as a test of both SENSIBL and the linked, modular system. The caluclation was performed using the code system in the standard manner with a covariance data library in the COVFILS-2 format but modified to contain specifically tailored covariance data for H and /sup 6/Li (Path A). The calculation was also performed by a second method which uses specially perturbed H and Li cross sections (Path B). This method bypasses SENSIBL and allows a hand calculation of the benchmark T/sub 6/ uncertainties. The results of Path A and Path B were total uncertainties in T/sub 6/ of 0.21% and 0.19%, respectively. The closeness of the results for this challenging test gives confidence that SENSIBL and the AARE system will perform well for realistic sensitivity and uncertainty analyses

  3. Analyzing 2D THz-Raman spectroscopy using a non-Markovian Brownian oscillator model with nonlinear system-bath interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Tatsushi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka


    We explore and describe the roles of inter-molecular vibrations in terms of a Brownian oscillator (BO) model with linear-linear (LL) and square-linear (SL) system-bath interactions, which we use to analyze two-dimensional (2D) THz-Raman spectra obtained by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In addition to linear absorption (1D IR), we calculate 2D Raman-THz-THz, THz-Raman-THz, and THz-THz-Raman signals for liquid formamide, water, and methanol using an equilibrium non-equilibrium hybrid MD simulation. The calculated 1D IR and 2D THz-Raman signals are then accounted by the LL+SL BO model with the use of the hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations for a non-perturbative and non-Markovian noise. All of the characteristic 2D profiles of the simulated signals are reproduced using the LL+SL BO model, indicating that the present model captures the essential features of the inter-molecular motion. We analyze the fitted the 2D profiles in terms of anharmonicity, nonlinear polarizability, and dephasing time. The ...

  4. Two-dimensional novel optical lattices with multi-well traps for cold atoms or molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junfa Lu; Xianming Ji; Jianping Yin


    We propose some new schemes to constitute two-dimensional (2D) array of multi-well optical dipole traps for cold atoms (or molecules) by using an optical system consisting of a binary π-phase grating and a 2D array of rectangle microlens. We calculate the intensity distribution of each optical well in 2D array of multi-well traps and its geometric parameters and so on. The proposed 2D array of multi-well traps can be used to form novel 2D optical lattices with cold atoms (or molecules), and form various novel optical crystals with cold atoms (or molecules), or to perform quantum computing and quantum information processing on an atom chip, even to realize an array of all-optical multi-well atomic (or molecular) BoseEinstein condensates (BECs) on an all-optical integrated atom (or molecule) chip.

  5. Dielectric-barrier discharges in two-dimensional lattice potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Josiah


    We use a pin-grid electrode to introduce a corrugated electrical potential into a planar dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) system, so that the amplitude of the applied electric field has the profile of a two-dimensional square lattice. The lattice potential provides a template for the spatial distribution of plasma filaments in the system and has pronounced effects on the patterns that can form. The positions at which filaments become localized within the lattice unit cell vary with the width of the discharge gap. The patterns that appear when filaments either overfill or under-fill the lattice are reminiscent of those observed in other physical systems involving 2d lattices. We suggest that the connection between lattice-driven DBDs and other areas of physics may benefit from the further development of models that treat plasma filaments as interacting particles.

  6. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  7. An evaluation of 2D SLAM techniques available in Robot Operating System


    Machado Santos, Joao; Portugal, David; Rocha, Rui P.


    n this work, a study of several laser-based 2D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) techniques available in Robot Operating System (ROS) is conducted. All the approaches have been evaluated and compared in 2D simulations and real world experiments. In order to draw conclusions on the performance of the tested techniques, the experimental results were collected under the same conditions and a generalized performance metric based on the k-nearest neighbours concept was applied. Moreover...

  8. Spin dynamics in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems embedded in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griesbeck, Michael


    Since many years there has been great effort to explore the spin dynamics in low-dimensional electron systems embedded in GaAs/AlGaAs based heterostructures for the purpose of quantum computation and spintronics applications. Advances in technology allow for the design of high quality and well-defined two-dimensional electron systems (2DES), which are perfectly suited for the study of the underlying physics that govern the dynamics of the electron spin system. In this work, spin dynamics in high-mobility 2DES is studied by means of the all-optical time-resolved Kerr/Faraday rotation technique. In (001)-grown 2DES, a strong in-plane spin dephasing anisotropy is studied, resulting from the interference of comparable Rashba and Dresselhaus contributions to the spin-orbit field (SOF). The dependence of this anisotropy on parameters like the confinement length of the 2DES, the sample temperature, as well as the electron density is demonstrated. Furthermore, coherent spin dynamics of an ensemble of ballistically moving electrons is studied without and within an applied weak magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane, which forces the electrons to move on cyclotron orbits. Finally, strongly anisotropic spin dynamics is investigated in symmetric (110)-grown 2DES, using the resonant spin amplification method. Here, extremely long out-of-plane spin dephasing times can be achieved, in consequence of the special symmetry of the Dresselhaus SOF.

  9. Mathematical description of the two-dimensional Gabor transform. Application to image encryption (United States)

    Perez, Ronal; Vilardy, Juan M.; Torres, Cesar O.


    Information security with optical processing, such as the double random phase encoding and the Gabor transform (GT) has been investigated by various researchers. We present a two-dimensional (2-D) generalization of the one-dimensional GT. This 2-D GT is applied to encrypt digital images in this paper. The scaling factors of the GT can be used as new keys, providing a new encryption system with a high security characteristics. This method can encrypt and protect the information of the digital images with a high security for information processing systems.

  10. Terahertz Induced Photoconductivity of 2D Electron System in HEMT at Low Magnetic Field


    Chebotarev, Andrey; Chebotareva, Galina


    A few results of our study of two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in low magnetic fields in GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructures by cyclotron resonance (CR) and photoconductivity techniques are presented. We have first discovered "CR-vanishing effect"in 2DES as well-defined crevasse on CR line in low magnetic fields, when Hall resistance is not quantized. "CR-vanishing effect" indicates vanishing longitudinal resistance & conductivity in these magnetic fields. Observed "CR-vanishing effect" demons...

  11. Two-dimensional NQR using ultra-broadband electronics (United States)

    Mandal, S.; Song, Y.-Q.


    We have recently developed an ultra-broadband instrument that can effectively excite and detect NMR and NQR signals over a wide frequency range. Our current system operates between 100 kHz and 3.2 MHz using an un-tuned sample coil. The major benefits of this instrument compared to conventional NQR/NMR systems include increased robustness, ease of use (in particular for multi-frequency experiments), and elimination of the need for tuning adjustments in the hardware. Here we describe its use for performing two-dimensional (2D) scans, which allow improved interpretation of complex NQR spectra by detecting the connected resonances. Our method relies on population transfers between the three energy levels of spin-1 nuclei (such as 14N) by using multi-frequency excitation and a single RF coil. Experimental results on pure samples and mixtures are also presented.

  12. Interaction of microwave radiation with the high mobility two-dimensional electron system in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanayaka, A.N.; Ye, Tianyu; Liu, H.-C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Wegscheider, W. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mani, R.G., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)


    The influence of microwave excitation on the magnetotransport properties of the high mobility two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure system is investigated by exploring (a) the dependence of the amplitude of the microwave-induced magnetoresistance-oscillations on the polarization direction of the linearly polarized microwaves and (b) the microwave reflection from the 2DES. The polarization study indicates that the amplitude of the magnetoresistance oscillations is remarkably responsive to the relative orientation between the linearly polarized microwaves and the current-axis in the specimen. At low microwave power, P, experiments indicate a strong sinusoidal variation in the diagonal resistance R{sub xx} vs. θ at the oscillatory extrema of the microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations. The reflection study indicates strong correlations between the microwave induced magnetoresistance oscillations and oscillatory features in the microwave reflection in a concurrent measurement of the magnetoresistance and the microwave magnetoreflection from the 2DES. The correlations are followed as a function of the microwave frequency and the microwave power, and the results are reported.

  13. Adiabatic physics of an exchange-coupled spin-dimer system: Magnetocaloric effect, zero-point fluctuations, and possible two-dimensional universal behavior (United States)

    Brambleby, J.; Goddard, P. A.; Singleton, J.; Jaime, M.; Lancaster, T.; Huang, L.; Wosnitza, J.; Topping, C. V.; Carreiro, K. E.; Tran, H. E.; Manson, Z. E.; Manson, J. L.


    We present the magnetic and thermal properties of the bosonic-superfluid phase in a spin-dimer network using both quasistatic and rapidly changing pulsed magnetic fields. The entropy derived from a heat-capacity study reveals that the pulsed-field measurements are strongly adiabatic in nature and are responsible for the onset of a significant magnetocaloric effect (MCE). In contrast to previous predictions we show that the MCE is not just confined to the critical regions, but occurs for all fields greater than zero at sufficiently low temperatures. We explain the MCE using a model of the thermal occupation of exchange-coupled dimer spin states and highlight that failure to take this effect into account inevitably leads to incorrect interpretations of experimental results. In addition, the heat capacity in our material is suggestive of an extraordinary contribution from zero-point fluctuations and appears to indicate universal behavior with different critical exponents at the two field-induced critical points. The data at the upper critical point, combined with the layered structure of the system, are consistent with a two-dimensional nature of spin excitations in the system.

  14. Optical investigation of the quasi-two-dimensional Mott system Ca_2-xSr_xRuO4 (0.0<= x<= 2.0) (United States)

    Lee, J. S.; Noh, T. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Oh, S.-J.; Nakatsuji, S.; Maeno, Y.


    The doping and temperature dependent optical conductivity spectra σ (ω ) in the ab-plane of the quasi-two-dimensional system Ca_2-xSr_xRuO4 (0.0= 0.2, the σ (ω ) show features of the Mott-Hubbard system. However, the insulating spectra of x=0.00 and 0.06 show an unusual two-peak structure around 1.0 and 2.0 eV. From the systematic changes with doping, it was found that both excitations have the correlation-induced Ru 4 d characters. Interestingly, for the x=0.06 sample, softening of the streching phonon mode and strong spectral weight redistribution between these two peaks were observed with decreasing temperature. These could be understood by the orbital occupancy changes with the RuO6 octahedral flattening. Possible connections to the critical behaviors of the specific heat and susceptibility at x=0.5 will be also discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王坤; 关溪; 张阳; 蔡镇


    针对Web攻击,传统防火墙对应用层防护存在不足,而Web 应用防火墙可利用其架构的技术优势,应对繁多的攻击方式.给出二维安全防护系统及Web 服务器核心内嵌模型,进一步给出Web 应用防火墙设计实现方案.实验表明,该系统能够解决Web应用安全问题,具有较高的网络性能,支持策略的定制与扩展.%In light of the Web attacks, traditional firewall has its weakness in application layer protection, but Web application firewall can use its architecture technology advantage to deal with the various attack methods. The two-dimensional security protection system and the embedded model of Web server core are presented, and the Web application firewall design and implementation scheme are further provided. Experimental results show that, the system can solve the security problems of Web application, and has preferable network performance, and supports the customisation and extension of strategies as well.

  16. Optical probing of spin dynamics of two-dimensional and bulk electrons in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizo, P J; Pugzlys, A; Slachter, A; Denega, S Z; Van Loosdrecht, P H M; Van der Wal, C H [Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747AG Groningen (Netherlands); Reuter, D; Wieck, A D, E-mail: c.h.van.der.wal@rug.n [Angewandte Festkoerperphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)


    The electron spin dynamics in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction system containing a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) have been studied in this paper by using pump-probe time-resolved Kerr rotation experiments. Owing to the complex layer structure of this material, the transient Kerr response contains information about electron spins in the 2DEG, an epilayer and the substrate. We analyzed the physics that underlies this Kerr response, and established the conditions under which it is possible to unravel the signatures of the various photo-induced spin populations. This was used to explore how the electron spin dynamics of the various populations depend on the temperature, magnetic field and pump-photon density. The results show that the D'Yakonov-Perel' mechanism for spin dephasing (by spin-orbit fields) plays a prominent role in both the 2DEG and bulk populations over a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Our results are of importance for future studies on the 2DEG in this type of heterojunction system, which offers interesting possibilities for spin manipulation and control of spin relaxation via tunable spin-orbit effects.

  17. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal


    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  18. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio


    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  19. Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada


    Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.

  20. Solvent Exfoliation of Electronic-Grade, Two-Dimensional Black Phosphorus


    Kang, Joohoon; Wood, Joshua D.; Wells, Spencer A.; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Liu, Xiaolong; Chen, Kan-Sheng; Hersam, Mark C.


    Solution dispersions of two-dimensional (2D) black phosphorus (BP), often referred to as phosphorene, are achieved by solvent exfoliation. These pristine, electronic-grade BP dispersions are produced with anhydrous, organic solvents in a sealed tip ultrasonication system, which circumvents BP degradation that would otherwise occur via solvated oxygen or water. Among conventional solvents, n-methyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) is found to provide stable, highly concentrated (~0.4 mg/mL) BP dispersions. A...

  1. High performance CCD camera system for digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. (United States)

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Roesler, Stefan; Feenders, Christoph; Danzer, Daniel; Riemenschneider, Udo; Blasius, Bernd; Rabus, Ralf


    An essential step in 2D DIGE-based analysis of differential proteome profiles is the accurate and sensitive digitalisation of 2D DIGE gels. The performance progress of commercially available charge-coupled device (CCD) camera-based systems combined with light emitting diodes (LED) opens up a new possibility for this type of digitalisation. Here, we assessed the performance of a CCD camera system (Intas Advanced 2D Imager) as alternative to a traditionally employed, high-end laser scanner system (Typhoon 9400) for digitalisation of differential protein profiles from three different environmental bacteria. Overall, the performance of the CCD camera system was comparable to the laser scanner, as evident from very similar protein abundance changes (irrespective of spot position and volume), as well as from linear range and limit of detection.

  2. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials by selective extraction. (United States)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury


    CONSPECTUS: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from

  3. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich


    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  4. Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.

  5. Peak purity assessment in a triple-active fixed-dose combination drug product related substances method using a commercial two-dimensional liquid chromatography system. (United States)

    Shackman, Jonathan G; Kleintop, Brent L


    Pharmaceutical formulations containing multiple active components challenge the development of analytical methods, especially as the individual active ingredients diverge in their physicochemical properties. Establishing specificity, especially peak purity, is one of the major evaluation criteria when developing a related substances method for drug substances or products. Fixed-dose combination products may not be amenable to common strategies for assessing peak purity, such as performing orthogonal separations, due to the complexity of the separation and/or diversity of the active ingredients. An alternate approach to evaluating peak purity is demonstrated for a triple-active component fixed-dose combination product under development. A commercially available automated two-dimensional liquid chromatography system was used to perform a selective comprehensive multidimensional separation of an active ingredient peak. The first dimension performed the drug product impurity/degradant profiling method; the second dimension assayed these fractions using the drug substance profiling method, which was pseudo-orthogonal to the first dimension. A total of 14 targeted fractions were sampled across the first dimension main peak, with 11 containing detectable analytes and the remaining fractions bracketing the main peak. This degree of sampling allowed profiling of a coeluting degradant present at a 0.2% w/w level throughout the main peak.

  6. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)


    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  7. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.


    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  8. Two-dimensional visualization of cluster beams by microchannel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoukaz, A., E-mail:; Bonaventura, D.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.-K.; Köhler, E.; Täschner, A.


    An advanced technique for a two-dimensional real time visualization of cluster beams in a vacuum as well as of the overlap volume of cluster beams with particle accelerator beams is presented. The detection system consists of an array of microchannel plates (MCPs) in combination with a phosphor screen which is read out by a CCD camera. This setup together with the ionization of a cluster beam by an electron or ion beam allows for spatial resolved investigations of the cluster beam position, size, and intensity. Moreover, since electrically uncharged clusters remain undetected, the operation in an internal beam experiment opens the way to monitor the overlap region and thus the position and size of an accelerator beam crossing an originally electrically neutral cluster jet. The observed intensity distribution of the recorded image is directly proportional to the convolution of the spatial ion beam and cluster beam intensities and is by this a direct measure of the two-dimensional luminosity distribution. This information can directly be used for the reconstruction of vertex positions as well as for an input for numerical simulations of the reaction zone. The spatial resolution of the images is dominated by the granularity of the complete MCP device and was found to be in the order of σ≈100μm. -- Highlights: • We present a MCP system for a 2D real time visualization of cluster target beams. • With this device the vertex region of storage ring experiments can be investigated. • Time resolved 2D information about the target thickness distribution is accessible. • A spatial resolution of the MCP device of 0.1 mm was achieved. • The presented MCP system also allows for measurements on cluster masses.

  9. Towards Malaysian LADM Country Profile for 2D and 3D Cadastral Registration System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulkifli, N.A.; Abdul Rahman, A.; Jamil, H.; Teng, C.H.; Tan, L.C.; Looi, K.S.; Chan, K.L.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.


    This paper proposes a comprehensive Land Administration Domain Model (LADM, ISO 2012) country profile for 2D and 3D cadastral registration system for Malaysia. The proposed Malaysian country profile is partly based on the existing spatial (including survey) and administrative registration systems, a

  10. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard


    We have studied the behavior of micro four-point probe (M4PP) measurements on two-dimensional (2D) sheets composed of grains of varying size and grain boundary resistivity by Monte Carlo based finite element (FE) modelling. The 2D sheet of the FE model was constructed using Voronoi tessellation......-configurations depends on the dimensionality of the current transport (i.e., one- or two-dimensional). At low grain density or low grain boundary resistivity, two-dimensional transport is observed. In contrast, at moderate grain density and high grain resistivity, one-dimensional transport is seen. Ultimately......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....

  11. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen


    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  12. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)


    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  13. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors (United States)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.


    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  14. Exact two-body solutions and quantum defect theory of two-dimensional dipolar quantum gas (United States)

    Jie, Jianwen; Qi, Ran


    In this paper, we provide the two-body exact solutions of the two-dimensional (2D) Schrödinger equation with isotropic +/- 1/{r}3 interactions. An analytic quantum defect theory is constructed based on these solutions and it is applied to investigate the scattering properties as well as two-body bound states of an ultracold polar molecules confined in a quasi-2D geometry. Interestingly, we find that for the attractive case, the scattering resonance happens simultaneously in all partial waves, which has not been observed in other systems. The effect of this feature on the scattering phase shift across such resonances is also illustrated.

  15. Structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘艳红; 陈雁萍; 杨思泽; 王龙


    The structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma have been investigated in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. Pair correlation function, static structure factor, mean square displacement, and bond angle correlation function have been calculated to characterize the structural properties. The variation of internal energy, shear modulus, particle trajectories and structural properties with temperature has been monitored to study the phase transition of the 2D dusty plasma system. The simulation results are in favour of a two-step continuous transition for this kind of plasma.

  16. Numerical Solution of the Fractional Partial Differential Equations by the Two-Dimensional Fractional-Order Legendre Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukang Yin


    Full Text Available A numerical method is presented to obtain the approximate solutions of the fractional partial differential equations (FPDEs. The basic idea of this method is to achieve the approximate solutions in a generalized expansion form of two-dimensional fractional-order Legendre functions (2D-FLFs. The operational matrices of integration and derivative for 2D-FLFs are first derived. Then, by these matrices, a system of algebraic equations is obtained from FPDEs. Hence, by solving this system, the unknown 2D-FLFs coefficients can be computed. Three examples are discussed to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

  17. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens


    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  18. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.


    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  19. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.


    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  20. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn


    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  1. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J


    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  2. Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays. (United States)

    Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya


    A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Mapping of 34 minisatellite loci resolved by two-dimensional DNA typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Anders; Nyegaard, Mette; Kvistgaard, AB


    Two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing is based on electrophoretic separation of genomic DNA fragments in two dimensions according to independent criteria (size and base-pair sequence), followed by hybridization analysis using multilocus probes. The technique allows simultaneous visualization of several...... could be deduced, showing no evidence of clustering. In the analysis of spot patterns, use was made of a computerized image analysis system specifically designed for 2-D DNA typing. Since experimental variations between different separation patterns were automatically corrected for with this program......, rapid and reliable scorings could be obtained. The results presented demonstrate the availability of reliable genetic information throughout the 2-D separation pattern. Adding the use of semiautomated computerized pattern analysis, this study further substantiates the applicability of 2-D DNA typing...

  4. Strict System Equivalence of 2D Linear Discrete State Space Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Boudellioua


    Full Text Available The connection between the polynomial matrix descriptions (PMDs of the well-known regular and singular 2D linear discrete state space models is considered. It is shown that the transformation of strict system equivalence in the sense of Fuhrmann provides the basis for this connection. The exact form of the transformation is established for both the regular and singular cases.

  5. A plastic scintillator-based 2D thermal neutron mapping system for use in BNCT studies. (United States)

    Ghal-Eh, N; Green, S


    In this study, a scintillator-based measurement instrument is proposed which is capable of measuring a two-dimensional map of thermal neutrons within a phantom based on the detection of 2.22MeV gamma rays generated via nth+H→D+γ reaction. The proposed instrument locates around a small rectangular water phantom (14cm×15cm×20cm) used in Birmingham BNCT facility. The whole system has been simulated using MCNPX 2.6. The results confirm that the thermal flux peaks somewhere between 2cm and 4cm distance from the system entrance which is in agreement with previous studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Topologically robust transport of entangled photons in a 2D photonic system

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Sunil; Hafezi, Mohammad


    We theoretically study transport of time-bin entangled photon pairs in a two-dimensional topological photonic system of coupled ring resonators. This system implements the integer quantum Hall model using a synthetic gauge field and exhibits topologically robust edge states. We show that the topological edge states provide a robust channel for on-chip quantum communication when the information is encoded in temporal correlations of photons. In contrast to edge states, transport through bulk states does not preserve these correlations and can lead to significant unwanted temporal bunching or anti-bunching of photons. We also compare the transport of entangled two-photon states to separable two-photon states and show that the entangled states are more fragile. Furthermore, we study the effect of disorder on the quantum transport properties; while the edge transport remains robust, bulk transport is very susceptible, and in the limit of strong disorder, bulk states become localized. We show that this localizatio...

  7. Electronics based on two-dimensional materials. (United States)

    Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi


    The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.

  8. Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John


    NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.

  9. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail:; Lega, J., E-mail:


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  10. A dynamical systems approach to Bohmian trajectories in a 2D harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borondo, F [Departamento de Quimica, and Instituto Mixto de Ciencias Matematicas CSIC-UAM-UC3M-UCM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco-28049 Madrid (Spain); Luque, A; Villanueva, J [Departament de Matematica Aplicada I, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Wisniacki, D A [Departamento de Fisica ' J. J. Giambiagi' , FCEN, UBA, Pabellon 1, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    Vortices are known to play a key role in the dynamics of the quantum trajectories defined within the framework of the de Broglie-Bohm formalism of quantum mechanics. It has been rigourously proved that the motion of a vortex in the associated velocity field can induce chaos in these trajectories, and numerical studies have explored the rich variety of behaviors that due to their influence can be observed. In this paper, we go one step further and show how the theory of dynamical systems can be used to construct a general and systematic classification of such dynamical behaviors. This should contribute to establish some firm grounds on which the studies on the intrinsic stochasticity of Bohm's quantum trajectories can be based. An application to the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator is presented as an illustration.

  11. Green's function modeling of response of two-dimensional materials to point probes for scanning probe microscopy (United States)

    Tewary, V. K.; Quardokus, Rebecca C.; DelRio, Frank W.


    A Green's function (GF) method is developed for interpreting scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements on new two-dimensional (2D) materials. GFs for the Laplace/Poisson equations are calculated by using a virtual source method for two separate cases of a finite material containing a rectangular defect and a hexagonal defect. The prescribed boundary values are reproduced almost exactly by the calculated GFs. It is suggested that the GF is not just a mathematical artefact but a basic physical characteristic of material systems, which can be measured directly by SPM for 2D solids. This should make SPM an even more powerful technique for characterization of 2D materials.

  12. Topological aspect of disclinations in two-dimensional crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Wei-Kai; Zhu Tao; Chen Yong; Ren Ji-Rong


    By using topological current theory, this paper studies the inner topological structure of disclinations during the melting of two-dimensional systems. From two-dimensional elasticity theory, it finds that there are topological currents for topological defects in homogeneous equation. The evolution of disclinations is studied, and the branch conditions for generating, annihilating, crossing, splitting and merging of disclinations are given.

  13. 2D Face Recognition System Based on Selected Gabor Filters and Linear Discriminant Analysis LDA


    Hafez, Samir F.; Selim, Mazen M.; Hala H. Zayed


    We present a new approach for face recognition system. The method is based on 2D face image features using subset of non-correlated and Orthogonal Gabor Filters instead of using the whole Gabor Filter Bank, then compressing the output feature vector using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). The face image has been enhanced using multi stage image processing technique to normalize it and compensate for illumination variation. Experimental results show that the proposed system is effective for ...

  14. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)


    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  15. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.


    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  16. Two-dimensional symbiotic solitons and vortices in binary condensates with attractive cross-species interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Xuekai; Malomed, Boris A; Meier, Torsten; Schumacher, Stefan


    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) two-component spinor system with cubic attraction between the components and intra-species self-repulsion, which may be realized in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, as well as in a quasi-equilibrium condensate of microcavity polaritons. Including a 2D spatially periodic potential, which is necessary for the stabilization of the system against the critical collapse, we use detailed numerical calculations and an analytical variational approximation (VA) to predict the existence and stability of several types of 2D symbiotic solitons in the spinor system. Stability ranges are found for symmetric and asymmetric symbiotic fundamental solitons and vortices, including hidden-vorticity (HV) modes, with opposite vorticities in the two components. The VA produces exceptionally accurate predictions for the fundamental solitons and vortices. The fundamental solitons, both symmetric and asymmetric ones, are completely stable, in either case when they exist as gap solitons or regular one...

  17. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.


    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  18. Two-dimensional capillary origami (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.


    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  19. Cascades and spectra of a turbulent spinodal decomposition in two-dimensional symmetric binary liquid mixtures (United States)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, P. H.; Chacón, L.; Li, Hui


    We study the fundamental physics of cascades and spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes (CHNS) turbulence, and compare and contrast this system with 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The important similarities include basic equations, ideal quadratic invariants, cascades, and the role of linear elastic waves. Surface tension induces elasticity, and the balance between surface tension energy and turbulent kinetic energy determines a length scale (Hinze scale) of the system. The Hinze scale may be thought of as the scale of emergent critical balance between fluid straining and elastic restoring forces. The scales between the Hinze scale and dissipation scale constitute the elastic range of the 2D CHNS system. By direct numerical simulation, we find that in the elastic range, the mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ of the 2D CHNS system exhibits the same power law (-7 /3 ) as the mean square magnetic potential spectrum HkA in the inverse cascade regime of 2D MHD. This power law is consistent with an inverse cascade of Hψ, which is observed. The kinetic energy spectrum of the 2D CHNS system is EkK˜k-3 if forced at large scale, suggestive of the direct enstrophy cascade power law of 2D Navier-Stokes turbulence. The difference from the energy spectra of 2D MHD turbulence implies that the back reaction of the concentration field to fluid motion is limited. We suggest this is because the surface tension back reaction is significant only in the interfacial regions. The interfacial regions fill only a small portion of the 2D CHNS system, and their interface packing fraction is much smaller than that for 2D MHD.

  20. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.


    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.