WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional 2d space

  1. Topology as fluid geometry two-dimensional spaces, volume 2

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, James W

    2017-01-01

    This is the second of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. The second volume deals with the topology of 2-dimensional spaces. The attempts encountered in Volume 1 to understand length and area in the plane lead to examples most easily described by the methods of topology (fluid geometry): finite curves of infinite length, 1-dimensional curves of positive area, space-filling curves (Peano curves), 0-dimensional subsets of the plane through which no straight path can pass (Cantor sets), etc. Volume 2 describes such sets. All of the standard topological results about 2-dimensional spaces are then proved, such as the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra (two...

  2. Multiple-canister flow and transport code in 2-dimensional space. MCFT2D: user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Doo-Hyun

    2006-03-01

    A two-dimensional numerical code, MCFT2D (Multiple-Canister Flow and Transport code in 2-Dimensional space), has been developed for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport analyses in a water-saturated high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository with multiple canisters. A multiple-canister configuration and a non-uniform flow field of the host rock are incorporated in the MCFT2D code. Effects of heterogeneous flow field of the host rock on migration of nuclides can be investigated using MCFT2D. The MCFT2D enables to take into account the various degrees of the dependency of canister configuration for nuclide migration in a water-saturated HLW repository, while the dependency was assumed to be either independent or perfectly dependent in previous studies. This report presents features of the MCFT2D code, numerical simulation using MCFT2D code, and graphical representation of the numerical results. (author)

  3. Method of solving conformal models in D-dimensional space 2: A family of exactly solvable models in D > 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Palchik, M.Ya.

    1996-02-01

    We study a family of exactly solvable models of conformally-invariant quantum field theory in D-dimensional space. We demonstrate the existence of D-dimensional analogs of primary and secondary fields. Under the action of energy-momentum tensor and conserved currents, the primary fields creates an infinite set of (tensor) secondary fields of different generations. The commutators of secondary fields with zero components of current and energy-momentum tensor include anomalous operator terms. We show that the Hilbert space of conformal theory has a special sector which structure is solely defined by the Ward identities independently on the choice of dynamical model. The states of this sector are constructed from secondary fields. Definite self-consistent conditions on the states of the latter sector fix the choice of the field model uniquely. In particular, Lagrangian models do belong to this class of models. The above self-consistent conditions are formulated as follows. Special superpositions Q s , s = 1,2,... of secondary fields are constructed. Each superposition is determined by the requirement that the form of its commutators with energy-momentum tensor and current (i.e. transformation properties) should be identical to that of a primary field. Each equation Q s (x) = 0 is consistent, and defines an exactly solvable model for D ≥ 3. The structure of these models are analogous to that of well-known two dimensional conformal models. The states Q s (x) modul 0> are analogous to the null-vectors of two dimensional theory. In each of these models one can obtain a closed set of differential equations for all the higher Green functions, as well as algebraic equations relating the scale dimension of fundamental field to the D-dimensional analog of a central charge. As an example, we present a detailed discussion of a pair of exactly solvable models in even-dimensional space D ≥ 4. (author). 28 refs

  4. The use of virtual reality to reimagine two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fath, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    A familiar realm in the world of two-dimensional art is the craft of taking a flat canvas and creating, through color, size, and perspective, the illusion of a three-dimensional space. Using well-explored tricks of logic and sight, impossible landscapes such as those by surrealists de Chirico or Salvador Dalí seem to be windows into new and incredible spaces which appear to be simultaneously feasible and utterly nonsensical. As real-time 3D imaging becomes increasingly prevalent as an artistic medium, this process takes on an additional layer of depth: no longer is two-dimensional space restricted to strategies of light, color, line and geometry to create the impression of a three-dimensional space. A digital interactive environment is a space laid out in three dimensions, allowing the user to explore impossible environments in a way that feels very real. In this project, surrealist two-dimensional art was researched and reimagined: what would stepping into a de Chirico or a Magritte look and feel like, if the depth and distance created by light and geometry were not simply single-perspective illusions, but fully formed and explorable spaces? 3D environment-building software is allowing us to step into these impossible spaces in ways that 2D representations leave us yearning for. This art project explores what we gain--and what gets left behind--when these impossible spaces become doors, rather than windows. Using sketching, Maya 3D rendering software, and the Unity Engine, surrealist art was reimagined as a fully navigable real-time digital environment. The surrealist movement and its key artists were researched for their use of color, geometry, texture, and space and how these elements contributed to their work as a whole, which often conveys feelings of unexpectedness or uneasiness. The end goal was to preserve these feelings while allowing the viewer to actively engage with the space.

  5. Intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghababaei Samani, Keivan; Zarei, Mina

    2005-01-01

    The problem of intertwined Hamiltonians in two-dimensional curved spaces is investigated. Explicit results are obtained for Euclidean plane, Minkowski plane, Poincare half plane (AdS 2 ), de Sitter plane (dS 2 ), sphere, and torus. It is shown that the intertwining operator is related to the Killing vector fields and the isometry group of corresponding space. It is shown that the intertwined potentials are closely connected to the integral curves of the Killing vector fields. Two problems are considered as applications of the formalism presented in the paper. The first one is the problem of Hamiltonians with equispaced energy levels and the second one is the problem of Hamiltonians whose spectrum is like the spectrum of a free particle

  6. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  7. Evaluation of aqueductal patency in patients with hydrocephalus: Three-dimensional high-sampling efficiency technique(SPACE) versus two-dimensional turbo spin echo at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucar, Murat; Guryildirim, Melike; Tokgoz, Nil; Kilic, Koray; Borcek, Alp; Oner, Yusuf; Akkan, Koray; Tali, Turgut [School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-12-15

    To compare the accuracy of diagnosing aqueductal patency and image quality between high spatial resolution three-dimensional (3D) high-sampling-efficiency technique (sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip angle evolutions [SPACE]) and T2-weighted (T2W) two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) at 3-T in patients with hydrocephalus. This retrospective study included 99 patients diagnosed with hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE was added to the routine sequences which consisted of T2W 2D-TSE, 3D-constructive interference steady state (CISS), and cine phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI). Two radiologists evaluated independently the patency of cerebral aqueduct and image quality on the T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE. PC-MRI and 3D-CISS were used as the reference for aqueductal patency and image quality, respectively. Inter-observer agreement was calculated using kappa statistics. The evaluation of the aqueductal patency by T2W 3D-SPACE and T2W 2D-TSE were in agreement with PC-MRI in 100% (99/99; sensitivity, 100% [83/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]) and 83.8% (83/99; sensitivity, 100% [67/83]; specificity, 100% [16/16]), respectively (p < 0.001). No significant difference in image quality between T2W 2D-TSE and T2W 3D-SPACE (p = 0.056) occurred. The kappa values for inter-observer agreement were 0.714 for T2W 2D-TSE and 0.899 for T2W 3D-SPACE. Three-dimensional-SPACE is superior to 2D-TSE for the evaluation of aqueductal patency in hydrocephalus. T2W 3D-SPACE may hold promise as a highly accurate alternative treatment to PC-MRI for the physiological and morphological evaluation of aqueductal patency.

  8. Two-trace two-dimensional (2T2D) correlation spectroscopy - A method for extracting useful information from a pair of spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Isao

    2018-05-01

    Two-trace two-dimensional (2T2D) correlation spectroscopy, where a pair of spectra are compared as 2D maps by a form of cross correlation analysis, is introduced. In 2T2D, spectral intensity changes of bands arising from the same origin, which cannot change independently of each other, are synchronized. Meanwhile, those arising from different sources may and often do change asynchronously. By taking advantage of this property, one can distinguish and classify a number of contributing bands present in the original pair of spectra in a systematic manner. Highly overlapped neighboring bands originating from different sources can also be identified by the presence of asynchronous cross peaks, thus enhancing the apparent spectral resolution. Computational procedure to obtain 2T2D correlation spectra and their interpretation method, as well as an illustrative description of the basic concept in the vector phase space, are provided. 2T2D spectra may also be viewed as individual building blocks of the generalized 2D correlation spectra derived from a series of more than two spectral data. Some promising application potentials of 2T2D correlation and integration with established advanced 2D correlation techniques are discussed.

  9. Two-Dimensional (2D Slices Encryption-Based Security Solution for Three-Dimensional (3D Printing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, three-dimensional (3D printing technology is applied to many areas of life and changes the world based on the creation of complex structures and shapes that were not feasible in the past. But, the data of 3D printing is often attacked in the storage and transmission processes. Therefore, 3D printing must be ensured security in the manufacturing process, especially the data of 3D printing to prevent attacks from hackers. This paper presents a security solution for 3D printing based on two-dimensional (2D slices encryption. The 2D slices of 3D printing data is encrypted in the frequency domain or in the spatial domain by the secret key to generate the encrypted data of 3D printing. We implemented the proposed solution in both the frequency domain based on the Discrete Cosine Transform and the spatial domain based on geometric transform. The entire 2D slices of 3D printing data is altered and secured after the encryption process. The proposed solution is responsive to the security requirements for the secured storage and transmission. Experimental results also verified that the proposed solution is effective to 3D printing data and is independent on the format of 3D printing models. When compared to the conventional works, the security and performance of the proposed solution is also better.

  10. Spinors and supersymmetry in four-dimensional Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    Spinors in four-dimensional Euclidean space are treated using the decomposition of the Euclidean space SO(4) symmetry group into SU(2)xSU(2). Both 2- and 4-spinor representations of this SO(4) symmetry group are shown to differ significantly from the corresponding spinor representations of the SO(3, 1) symmetry group in Minkowski space. The simplest self conjugate supersymmetry algebra allowed in four-dimensional Euclidean space is demonstrated to be an N=2 supersymmetry algebra which resembles the N=2 supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Minkowski space. The differences between the two supersymmetry algebras gives rise to different representations; in particular an analysis of the Clifford algebra structure shows that the momentum invariant is bounded above by the central charges in 4dE, while in 4dM the central charges bound the momentum invariant from below. Dimensional reduction of the N=1 SUSY algebra in six-dimensional Minkowski space (6dM) to 4dE reproduces our SUSY algebra in 4dE. This dimensional reduction can be used to introduce additional generators into the SUSY algebra in 4dE. Well known interpolating maps are used to relate the N=2 SUSY algebra in 4dE derived in this paper to the N=2 SUSY algebra in 4dM. The nature of the spinors in 4dE allows us to write an axially gauge invariant model which is shown to be both Hermitian and anomaly-free. No equivalent model exists in 4dM. Useful formulae in 4dE are collected together in two appendixes

  11. Nucleation front instability in two-dimensional (2D) nanosheet gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (CGO) formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Moraes, Leticia Poras Reis; Gualandris, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Herein we report for the first time the synthesis of ceramic–organic three-dimensional (3D) layered gadolinium-doped cerium oxide (Ce1−XGdXO2−δ, CGO) and its exfoliation into two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets. We adopt a water-based synthetic route via a homogenous precipitation approach at low...... temperatures (10–80 °C). The reaction conditions are tuned to investigate the effects of thermal energy on the final morphology. A low temperature (40 °C) morphological transition from nanoparticles (1D) to two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is observed and associated with a low thermal energy transition of ca. 2.......6 kJ mol−1. For the 3D-layered material, exfoliation experiments are conducted in water/ethanol solutions. Systems at volume fractions ranging from 0.15 to 0.35 are demonstrated to promote under ultrasonic treatment the delamination into 2D nanosheets....

  12. Two-dimensional black holes and non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, J.

    2008-01-01

    We study the effects of non-commutative spaces on two-dimensional black hole. The event horizon of two-dimensional black hole is obtained in non-commutative space up to second order of perturbative calculations. A lower limit for the non-commutativity parameter is also obtained. The observer in that limit in contrast to commutative case see two horizon

  13. Method of solving conformal models in D-dimensional space I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Palchik, M.Y.

    1996-01-01

    We study the Hilbert space of conformal field theory in D-dimensional space. The latter is shown to have model-independent structure. The states of matter fields and gauge fields form orthogonal subspaces. The dynamical principle fixing the choice of model may be formulated either in each of these subspaces or in their direct sum. In the latter case, gauge interactions are necessarily present in the model. We formulate the conditions specifying the class of models where gauge interactions are being neglected. The anomalous Ward identities are derived. Different values of anomalous parameters (D-dimensional analogs of a central charge, including operator ones) correspond to different models. The structure of these models is analogous to that of 2-dimensional conformal theories. Each model is specified by D-dimensional analog of null vector. The exact solutions of the simplest models of this type are examined. It is shown that these models are equivalent to Lagrangian models of scalar fields with a triple interaction. The values of dimensions of such fields are calculated, and the closed sets of differential equations for higher Green functions are derived. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  14. Principal Component Analysis Based Two-Dimensional (PCA-2D) Correlation Spectroscopy: PCA Denoising for 2D Correlation Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young Mee

    2003-01-01

    Principal component analysis based two-dimensional (PCA-2D) correlation analysis is applied to FTIR spectra of polystyrene/methyl ethyl ketone/toluene solution mixture during the solvent evaporation. Substantial amount of artificial noise were added to the experimental data to demonstrate the practical noise-suppressing benefit of PCA-2D technique. 2D correlation analysis of the reconstructed data matrix from PCA loading vectors and scores successfully extracted only the most important features of synchronicity and asynchronicity without interference from noise or insignificant minor components. 2D correlation spectra constructed with only one principal component yield strictly synchronous response with no discernible a asynchronous features, while those involving at least two or more principal components generated meaningful asynchronous 2D correlation spectra. Deliberate manipulation of the rank of the reconstructed data matrix, by choosing the appropriate number and type of PCs, yields potentially more refined 2D correlation spectra

  15. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...

  16. Three-body problem in d-dimensional space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbiner, Alexander V.; Miller, Willard; Escobar-Ruiz, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    As a straightforward generalization and extension of our previous paper [A. V. Turbiner et al., "Three-body problem in 3D space: Ground state, (quasi)-exact-solvability," J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 50, 215201 (2017)], we study the aspects of the quantum and classical dynamics of a 3-body system with equal masses, each body with d degrees of freedom, with interaction depending only on mutual (relative) distances. The study is restricted to solutions in the space of relative motion which are functions of mutual (relative) distances only. It is shown that the ground state (and some other states) in the quantum case and the planar trajectories (which are in the interaction plane) in the classical case are of this type. The quantum (and classical) Hamiltonian for which these states are eigenfunctions is derived. It corresponds to a three-dimensional quantum particle moving in a curved space with special d-dimension-independent metric in a certain d-dependent singular potential, while at d = 1, it elegantly degenerates to a two-dimensional particle moving in flat space. It admits a description in terms of pure geometrical characteristics of the interaction triangle which is defined by the three relative distances. The kinetic energy of the system is d-independent; it has a hidden sl(4, R) Lie (Poisson) algebra structure, alternatively, the hidden algebra h(3) typical for the H3 Calogero model as in the d = 3 case. We find an exactly solvable three-body S3-permutationally invariant, generalized harmonic oscillator-type potential as well as a quasi-exactly solvable three-body sextic polynomial type potential with singular terms. For both models, an extra first order integral exists. For d = 1, the whole family of 3-body (two-dimensional) Calogero-Moser-Sutherland systems as well as the Tremblay-Turbiner-Winternitz model is reproduced. It is shown that a straightforward generalization of the 3-body (rational) Calogero model to d > 1 leads to two primitive quasi

  17. Numerical relativity for D dimensional axially symmetric space-times: Formalism and code tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos; Witek, Helvi; Nerozzi, Andrea; Sperhake, Ulrich; Cardoso, Vitor; Gualtieri, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    The numerical evolution of Einstein's field equations in a generic background has the potential to answer a variety of important questions in physics: from applications to the gauge-gravity duality, to modeling black hole production in TeV gravity scenarios, to analysis of the stability of exact solutions, and to tests of cosmic censorship. In order to investigate these questions, we extend numerical relativity to more general space-times than those investigated hitherto, by developing a framework to study the numerical evolution of D dimensional vacuum space-times with an SO(D-2) isometry group for D≥5, or SO(D-3) for D≥6. Performing a dimensional reduction on a (D-4) sphere, the D dimensional vacuum Einstein equations are rewritten as a 3+1 dimensional system with source terms, and presented in the Baumgarte, Shapiro, Shibata, and Nakamura formulation. This allows the use of existing 3+1 dimensional numerical codes with small adaptations. Brill-Lindquist initial data are constructed in D dimensions and a procedure to match them to our 3+1 dimensional evolution equations is given. We have implemented our framework by adapting the Lean code and perform a variety of simulations of nonspinning black hole space-times. Specifically, we present a modified moving puncture gauge, which facilitates long-term stable simulations in D=5. We further demonstrate the internal consistency of the code by studying convergence and comparing numerical versus analytic results in the case of geodesic slicing for D=5, 6.

  18. Fast Estimation Method of Space-Time Two-Dimensional Positioning Parameters Based on Hadamard Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiwen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation speed of positioning parameters determines the effectiveness of the positioning system. The time of arrival (TOA and direction of arrival (DOA parameters can be estimated by the space-time two-dimensional multiple signal classification (2D-MUSIC algorithm for array antenna. However, this algorithm needs much time to complete the two-dimensional pseudo spectral peak search, which makes it difficult to apply in practice. Aiming at solving this problem, a fast estimation method of space-time two-dimensional positioning parameters based on Hadamard product is proposed in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system, and the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB is also presented. Firstly, according to the channel frequency domain response vector of each array, the channel frequency domain estimation vector is constructed using the Hadamard product form containing location information. Then, the autocorrelation matrix of the channel response vector for the extended array element in frequency domain and the noise subspace are calculated successively. Finally, by combining the closed-form solution and parameter pairing, the fast joint estimation for time delay and arrival direction is accomplished. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can significantly reduce the computational complexity and guarantee that the estimation accuracy is not only better than estimating signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and 2D matrix pencil (MP algorithm but also close to 2D-MUSIC algorithm. Moreover, the proposed algorithm also has certain adaptability to multipath environment and effectively improves the ability of fast acquisition of location parameters.

  19. Few helium atoms in quasi two-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Srecko; Vranjes, Leandra

    2003-01-01

    Two, three and four 3 He and 4 He atoms in quasi two-dimensional space above graphite and cesium surfaces and in 'harmonic' potential perpendicular to the surface have been studied. Using some previously examined variational wave functions and the Diffusion Monte Carlo procedure, it has been shown that all molecules: dimers, trimers and tetramers, are bound more strongly than in pure two- and three-dimensional space. The enhancement of binding with respect to unrestricted space is more pronounced on cesium than on graphite. Furthermore, for 3 He 3 ( 3 He 4 ) on all studied surfaces, there is an indication that the configuration of a dimer and a 'free' particle (two dimers) may be equivalently established

  20. Two-dimensional Dirac fermions in thin films of C d3A s2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletti, Luca; Schumann, Timo; Shoron, Omor F.; Goyal, Manik; Kealhofer, David A.; Kim, Honggyu; Stemmer, Susanne

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional states in confined thin films of the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal C d3A s2 are probed by transport and capacitance measurements under applied magnetic and electric fields. The results establish the two-dimensional Dirac electronic spectrum of these states. We observe signatures of p -type conduction in the two-dimensional states as the Fermi level is tuned across their charge neutrality point and the presence of a zero-energy Landau level, all of which indicate topologically nontrivial states. The resistance at the charge neutrality point is approximately h /e2 and increases rapidly under the application of a magnetic field. The results open many possibilities for gate-tunable topological devices and for the exploration of novel physics in the zero-energy Landau level.

  1. Lorentz covariant tempered distributions in two-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of describing Lorentz covariant distributions without any spectral condition has hitherto remained unsolved even for two-dimensional space-time. Attempts to solve this problem have already been made. Zharinov obtained an integral representation for the Laplace transform of Lorentz invariant distributions with support in the product of two-dimensional future light cones. However, this integral representation does not make it possible to obtain a complete description of the corresponding Lorentz invariant distributions. In this paper the author gives a complete description of Lorentz covariant distributions for two-dimensional space-time. No spectral conditions is assumed

  2. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  3. Unconventional Topological Phase Transition in Two-Dimensional Systems with Space-Time Inversion Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Junyeong; Yang, Bohm-Jung

    2017-04-01

    We study a topological phase transition between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator in two-dimensional (2D) systems with time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries. Contrary to the case of ordinary time-reversal invariant systems, where a direct transition between two insulators is generally predicted, we find that the topological phase transition in systems with an additional twofold rotation symmetry is mediated by an emergent stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase between two insulators. Here the central role is played by the so-called space-time inversion symmetry, the combination of time-reversal and twofold rotation symmetries, which guarantees the quantization of the Berry phase around a 2D Weyl point even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. Pair creation and pair annihilation of Weyl points accompanying partner exchange between different pairs induces a jump of a 2D Z2 topological invariant leading to a topological phase transition. According to our theory, the topological phase transition in HgTe /CdTe quantum well structure is mediated by a stable 2D Weyl semimetal phase because the quantum well, lacking inversion symmetry intrinsically, has twofold rotation about the growth direction. Namely, the HgTe /CdTe quantum well can show 2D Weyl semimetallic behavior within a small but finite interval in the thickness of HgTe layers between a normal insulator and a quantum spin Hall insulator. We also propose that few-layer black phosphorus under perpendicular electric field is another candidate system to observe the unconventional topological phase transition mechanism accompanied by the emerging 2D Weyl semimetal phase protected by space-time inversion symmetry.

  4. Two-and three-dimensional CT reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishman, E.K.; Ney, D.R.; Magid, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the optimal imaging sequence for creating two- and three-dimensional (2D/3D) skeletal reconstructions from CT data. A cadaver femur, a bone phantom, and a surgically created fracture were scanned with varying protocols to determine the optimal protocol for creating 2D/3D images. The scanning protocols used varying section thickness (2, 4, and 8 mm) as well as scan spacing (2, 3, 4 and 8 mm). All images were reconstructed into 2D data sets with a bicubic interpolation and 3D datasets with volumetric rendering. The results were reviewed by two reviewers to determine the quality of images reconstruction

  5. SLAP tears: diagnosis using 3-T shoulder MR arthrography with the 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo space sequence versus conventional 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Yong [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang-Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with three-dimensional (3D) isotropic intermediate-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimised contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) in the diagnosis of superior labrum anterior-to-posterior (SLAP) lesions compared with two-dimensional (2D) TSE at 3.0 T. MR arthrograms, including 2D TSE and 3D TSE-SPACE, in 87 patients who underwent arthroscopy were retrospectively analysed by two reviewers for the presence and type of SLAP lesions. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using McNemar's test, and inter-observer agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90%, 85% and 86% for 2D TSE, and 81%, 86% and 85% for 3D TSE-SPACE respectively, with no statistically significant differences. Inter-observer agreements were substantial in 2D TSE ({kappa} = 0.76) and 3D TSE-SPACE ({kappa} = 0.68). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.92 for 2D TSE and 0.90 for 3D TSE-SPACE, which were not significantly different. MR arthrography with 3D TSE-SPACE showed comparable accuracy and substantial inter-observer agreement for the diagnosis of SLAP lesions circle MR arthrography is regarded as the definitive method of shoulder imaging circle Different MR sequences are evolving for SLAP lesions circle 3D TSE-SPACE demonstrated comparable overall accuracy to 2D TSE for SLAP lesions. (orig.)

  6. Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spin in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, M A

    1988-04-25

    Free massless fermionic fields of arbitrary spins, corresponding to fully symmetric tensor-spinor irreducible representations of the flat little group SO(d-2), are described in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in terms of differential forms. Appropriate linearized higher-spin curvature 2-forms are found. Explicitly gauge invariant higher-spin actions are constructed in terms of these linearized curvatures.

  7. Confined catalysis under two-dimensional materials

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haobo; Xiao, Jianping; Fu, Qiang; Bao, Xinhe

    2017-01-01

    Small spaces in nanoreactors may have big implications in chemistry, because the chemical nature of molecules and reactions within the nanospaces can be changed significantly due to the nanoconfinement effect. Two-dimensional (2D) nanoreactor formed under 2D materials can provide a well-defined model system to explore the confined catalysis. We demonstrate a general tendency for weakened surface adsorption under the confinement of graphene overlayer, illustrating the feasible modulation of su...

  8. Extended supersymmetry in four-dimensional Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    Since the generators of the two SU(2) groups which comprise SO(4) are not Hermitian conjugates of each other, the simplest supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space more closely resembles the N=2 than the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Minkowski space. An extended supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space is considered in this paper; its structure resembles that of N=4 supersymmetry in four-dimensional Minkowski space. The relationship of this algebra to the algebra found by dimensionally reducing the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in ten-dimensional Euclidean space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is examined. The dimensional reduction of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory in ten-dimensional Minkowski space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is also considered

  9. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Fulling, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed. (author)

  10. Quantum vacuum energy in two dimensional space-times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P C.W.; Fulling, S A [King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics

    1977-04-21

    The paper presents in detail the renormalization theory of the energy-momentum tensor of a two dimensional massless scalar field which has been used elsewhere to study the local physics in a model of black hole evaporation. The treatment is generalized to include the Casimir effect occurring in spatially finite models. The essence of the method is evaluation of the field products in the tensor as functions of two points, followed by covariant subtraction of the discontinuous terms arising as the points coalesce. In two dimensional massless theories, conformal transformations permit exact calculations to be performed. The results are applied here to some special cases, primarily space-times of constant curvature, with emphasis on the existence of distinct 'vacuum' states associated naturally with different conformal coordinate systems. The relevance of the work to the general problems of defining observables and of classifying and interpreting states in curved-space quantum field theory is discussed.

  11. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Soerensen, N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-08-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risoe. Two airfoils are investigated by computing the flow at several angles of attack ranging from the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency, convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given. (au)

  12. Induction of Chirality in Two-Dimensional Nanomaterials: Chiral 2D MoS2 Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Milton, Finn; McKenna, Robert; Brennan, Lorcan J; Cullen, Conor P; Guillemeney, Lilian; Tepliakov, Nikita V; Baimuratov, Anvar S; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Perova, Tatiana S; Duesberg, Georg S; Baranov, Alexander V; Fedorov, Anatoly V; Gun'ko, Yurii K

    2018-02-27

    Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have been intensively investigated due to their interesting properties and range of potential applications. Although most research has focused on graphene, atomic layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and particularly MoS 2 have gathered much deserved attention recently. Here, we report the induction of chirality into 2D chiral nanomaterials by carrying out liquid exfoliation of MoS 2 in the presence of chiral ligands (cysteine and penicillamine) in water. This processing resulted in exfoliated chiral 2D MoS 2 nanosheets showing strong circular dichroism signals, which were far past the onset of the original chiral ligand signals. Using theoretical modeling, we demonstrated that the chiral nature of MoS 2 nanosheets is related to the presence of chiral ligands causing preferential folding of the MoS 2 sheets. There was an excellent match between the theoretically calculated and experimental spectra. We believe that, due to their high aspect ratio planar morphology, chiral 2D nanomaterials could offer great opportunities for the development of chiroptical sensors, materials, and devices for valleytronics and other potential applications. In addition, chirality plays a key role in many chemical and biological systems, with chiral molecules and materials critical for the further development of biopharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, and this research therefore should have a strong impact on relevant areas of science and technology such as nanobiotechnology, nanomedicine, and nanotoxicology.

  13. Positioning with stationary emitters in a two-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales, Juan Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The basic elements of the relativistic positioning systems in a two-dimensional space-time have been introduced in a previous work [Phys. Rev. D 73, 084017 (2006)] where geodesic positioning systems, constituted by two geodesic emitters, have been considered in a flat space-time. Here, we want to show in what precise senses positioning systems allow to make relativistic gravimetry. For this purpose, we consider stationary positioning systems, constituted by two uniformly accelerated emitters separated by a constant distance, in two different situations: absence of gravitational field (Minkowski plane) and presence of a gravitational mass (Schwarzschild plane). The physical coordinate system constituted by the electromagnetic signals broadcasting the proper time of the emitters are the so called emission coordinates, and we show that, in such emission coordinates, the trajectories of the emitters in both situations, the absence and presence of a gravitational field, are identical. The interesting point is that, in spite of this fact, particular additional information on the system or on the user allows us not only to distinguish both space-times, but also to complete the dynamical description of emitters and user and even to measure the mass of the gravitational field. The precise information under which these dynamical and gravimetric results may be obtained is carefully pointed out

  14. TripAdvisor^{N-D}: A Tourism-Inspired High-Dimensional Space Exploration Framework with Overview and Detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Julia EunJu; Mueller, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    Gaining a true appreciation of high-dimensional space remains difficult since all of the existing high-dimensional space exploration techniques serialize the space travel in some way. This is not so foreign to us since we, when traveling, also experience the world in a serial fashion. But we typically have access to a map to help with positioning, orientation, navigation, and trip planning. Here, we propose a multivariate data exploration tool that compares high-dimensional space navigation with a sightseeing trip. It decomposes this activity into five major tasks: 1) Identify the sights: use a map to identify the sights of interest and their location; 2) Plan the trip: connect the sights of interest along a specifyable path; 3) Go on the trip: travel along the route; 4) Hop off the bus: experience the location, look around, zoom into detail; and 5) Orient and localize: regain bearings in the map. We describe intuitive and interactive tools for all of these tasks, both global navigation within the map and local exploration of the data distributions. For the latter, we describe a polygonal touchpad interface which enables users to smoothly tilt the projection plane in high-dimensional space to produce multivariate scatterplots that best convey the data relationships under investigation. Motion parallax and illustrative motion trails aid in the perception of these transient patterns. We describe the use of our system within two applications: 1) the exploratory discovery of data configurations that best fit a personal preference in the presence of tradeoffs and 2) interactive cluster analysis via cluster sculpting in N-D.

  15. Two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shuning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang; Yang, Yonghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the mathematical models of 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Present the definition of the two-dimensional N 2 -partitioned multiplicative cascading process. • Do the comparative analysis of 2D-MC by 2D-MFXPF, 2D-MFXDFA and 2D-MFXDMA. • Provide a reference on the choice and parameter settings of these methods in practice. - Abstract: There are a number of situations in which several signals are simultaneously recorded in complex systems, which exhibit long-term power-law cross-correlations. This paper presents two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the partition function (2D-MFXPF), two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended moving average analysis (2D-MFXDMA). We apply these methods to pairs of two-dimensional multiplicative cascades (2D-MC) to do a comparative study. Then, we apply the two-dimensional multifractal cross-correlation analysis based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFXDFA) to real images and unveil intriguing multifractality in the cross correlations of the material structures. At last, we give the main conclusions and provide a valuable reference on how to choose the multifractal algorithms in the potential applications in the field of SAR image classification and detection.

  16. MRI of the lumbar spine: comparison of 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus conventional 2D sequences at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Lee, So-Yeon; Ryu, Kyeung-Sik; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo sequence with variable flip-angle refocusing pulse allows retrospective alignments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in any desired plane. To compare isotropic 3D T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) with standard two-dimensional (2D) T2W TSE imaging for evaluating lumbar spine pathology at 3.0 T MRI. Forty-two patients who had spine surgery for disk herniation and had 3.0 T spine MRI were included in this study. In addition to standard 2D T2W TSE imaging, sagittal 3D T2W TSE-SPACE was obtained to produce multiplanar (MPR) images. Each set of MR images from 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE were independently scored for the degree of lumbar neural foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression by two reviewers. These scores were compared with operative findings and the sensitivities were evaluated by McNemar test. Inter-observer agreements and the correlation with symptoms laterality were assessed with kappa statistics. The 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE had similar sensitivity in detecting foraminal stenosis (78.9% versus 78.9% in 32 foramen levels), spinal stenosis (100% versus 100% in 42 spinal levels), and nerve compression (92.9% versus 81.8% in 59 spinal nerves). The inter-observer agreements (κ = 0.849 vs. 0.451 for foraminal stenosis, κ = 0.809 vs. 0.503 for spinal stenosis, and κ = 0.681 vs. 0.429 for nerve compression) and symptoms correlation (κ = 0.449 vs. κ = 0.242) were better in 3D TSE-SPACE compared to 2D TSE. 3D TSE-SPACE with oblique coronal MPR images demonstrated better inter-observer agreements compared to 3D TSE-SPACE without oblique coronal MPR images (κ = 0.930 vs. κ = 0.681). Isotropic 3D T2W TSE-SPACE at 3.0 T was comparable to 2D T2W TSE for detecting foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression with better inter-observer agreements and symptom correlation. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and

  17. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  18. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-03

    In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution.

  19. Neutrino stress tensor regularization in two-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.C.W.; Unruh, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The method of covariant point-splitting is used to regularize the stress tensor for a massless spin 1/2 (neutrino) quantum field in an arbitrary two-dimensional space-time. A thermodynamic argument is used as a consistency check. The result shows that the physical part of the stress tensor is identical with that of the massless scalar field (in the absence of Casimir-type terms) even though the formally divergent expression is equal to the negative of the scalar case. (author)

  20. Two Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (2D-XRD) studies on Olivine of U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, S.; Raza, S.M.; Ahmed, M.A.; Zai, M.Y.; Elacher, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Olivine (Mg, Fe) 2SiO/sub 4/ of USA has been studied with two dimensional X-ray diffractometer (D8 discover with GADDS). The two distinct phases of orthorhombic structure, one with Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] and the other with Mg/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/ is observed. We also observed phase transitions due to presence of iron and Silicon preferably the structural change of Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] from orthorhombic to spinel like (spinel chord) structure. Magnesium ions in Mg/sub 8/[Fe/sub 2/SiO/sub 4/] shuffle, arrange at the five vertices of a pentagon and the remaining three at the central but with displaced position from the plane of the pentagon, Thus resulting into a three dimensional spinel chord like structure. We evidenced the same from diverse orientations of phase peaks and indeed from Kossel lines. (author)

  1. Two-dimensional inverse opal hydrogel for pH sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Meng, Zihui; Qi, Fenglian; Xue, Min; Wang, Fengyan; Chen, Wei; Yan, Zequn

    2014-12-07

    A novel hydrogel film with a highly ordered macropore monolayer on its surface was prepared by templated photo-polymerization of hydrogel monomers on a two-dimensional (2D) polystyrene colloidal array. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel has prominent advantages over traditional three-dimensional (3D) inverse opal hydrogels. First, the formation of the 2D array template through a self-assembly method is considerably faster and simpler. Second, the stable ordering structure of the 2D array template makes it easier to introduce the polymerization solution into the template. Third, a simple measurement, a Debye diffraction ring, is utilized to characterize the neighboring pore spacing of the 2D inverse opal hydrogel. Acrylic acid was copolymerized into the hydrogel; thus, the hydrogel responded to pH through volume change, which resulted from the formation of the Donnan potential. The 2D inverse opal hydrogel showed that the neighboring pore spacing increased by about 150 nm and diffracted color red-shifted from blue to red as the pH increased from pH 2 to 7. In addition, the pH response kinetics and ionic strength effect of this 2D mesoporous polymer film were also investigated.

  2. A 3D Polymer Based Printed Two-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyman, H A; Yalcinkaya, A D; Gokdel, Y D; Ferhanoglu, O

    2016-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) polymer based scanning mirror with magnetic actuation is developed for imaging applications. Proposed device consists of a circular suspension holding a rectangular mirror and can generate a 2D scan pattern. Three dimensional (3D) printing technology which is used for implementation of the device, offers added flexibility in controlling the cross-sectional profile as well as the stress distribution compared to the traditional planar process technologies. The mirror device is developed to meet a portable, miniaturized confocal microscope application in mind, delivering 4.5 and 4.8 degrees of optical scan angles at 111 and 267 Hz, respectively. As a result of this mechanical performance, the resulting microscope incorporating the mirror is estimated to accomplish a field of view (FOV) of 350 µm × 350 µm. (paper)

  3. Screened Raman response in two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductors: Relative intensities in different symmetry channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenger, F.; Käll, M.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the Raman-scattering response in a two-dimensional d(x2-y2)-wave superconductor and point out a strong suppression of relative intensity in the screened A(1g) channel compared to the B-1g channel for a generic tight-binding model. This is in contrast with the observed behavior in high...

  4. 2D and 3D Traveling Salesman Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxhimusa, Yll; Carpenter, Edward; Catrambone, Joseph; Foldes, David; Stefanov, Emil; Arns, Laura; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2011-01-01

    When a two-dimensional (2D) traveling salesman problem (TSP) is presented on a computer screen, human subjects can produce near-optimal tours in linear time. In this study we tested human performance on a real and virtual floor, as well as in a three-dimensional (3D) virtual space. Human performance on the real floor is as good as that on a…

  5. Lie algebra contractions on two-dimensional hyperboloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogosyan, G. S.; Yakhno, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Inoenue-Wigner contraction from the SO(2, 1) group to the Euclidean E(2) and E(1, 1) group is used to relate the separation of variables in Laplace-Beltrami (Helmholtz) equations for the four corresponding two-dimensional homogeneous spaces: two-dimensional hyperboloids and two-dimensional Euclidean and pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We show how the nine systems of coordinates on the two-dimensional hyperboloids contracted to the four systems of coordinates on E 2 and eight on E 1,1 . The text was submitted by the authors in English.

  6. FireStem2D — A two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efthalia K. Chatziefstratiou; Gil Bohrer; Anthony S. Bova; Ravishankar Subramanian; Renato P.M. Frasson; Amy Scherzer; Bret W. Butler; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2013-01-01

    FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem) and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by...

  7. Canonical Groups for Quantization on the Two-Dimensional Sphere and One-Dimensional Complex Projective Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumadi A H A; H, Zainuddin

    2014-01-01

    Using Isham's group-theoretic quantization scheme, we construct the canonical groups of the systems on the two-dimensional sphere and one-dimensional complex projective space, which are homeomorphic. In the first case, we take SO(3) as the natural canonical Lie group of rotations of the two-sphere and find all the possible Hamiltonian vector fields, and followed by verifying the commutator and Poisson bracket algebra correspondences with the Lie algebra of the group. In the second case, the same technique is resumed to define the Lie group, in this case SU (2), of CP'.We show that one can simply use a coordinate transformation from S 2 to CP 1 to obtain all the Hamiltonian vector fields of CP 1 . We explicitly show that the Lie algebra structures of both canonical groups are locally homomorphic. On the other hand, globally their corresponding canonical groups are acting on different geometries, the latter of which is almost complex. Thus the canonical group for CP 1 is the double-covering group of SO(3), namely SU(2). The relevance of the proposed formalism is to understand the idea of CP 1 as a space of where the qubit lives which is known as a Bloch sphere

  8. Two-dimensional numerical experiments with DRIX-2D on two-phase-water-flows referring to the HDR-blowdown-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moesinger, H.

    1979-08-01

    The computer program DRIX-2D has been developed from SOLA-DF. The essential elements of the program structure are described. In order to verify DRIX-2D an Edwards-Blowdown-Experiment is calculated and other numerical results are compared with steady state experiments and models. Numerical experiments on transient two-phase flow, occurring in the broken pipe of a PWR in the case of a hypothetic LOCA, are performed. The essential results of the two-dimensional calculations are: 1. The appearance of a radial profile of void-fraction, velocity, sound speed and mass flow-rate inside the blowdown nozzle. The reason for this is the flow contraction at the nozzle inlet leading to more vapour production in the vicinity of the pipe wall. 2. A comparison between modelling in axisymmetric and Cartesian coordinates and calculations with and without the core barrel show the following: a) The three-dimensional flow pattern at the nozzle inlet is poorly described using Cartesian coordinates. In consequence a considerable difference in pressure history results. b) The core barrel alters the reflection behaviour of the pressure waves oscillating in the blowdown-nozzle. Therefore, the core barrel should be modelled as a wall normal to the nozzle axis. (orig./HP) [de

  9. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko

    1997-10-01

    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  10. Development of 2-D/1-D fusion method for three-dimensional whole-core heterogeneous neutron transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gil Soo

    2006-02-01

    To describe power distribution and multiplication factor of a reactor core accurately, it is necessary to perform calculations based on neutron transport equation considering heterogeneous geometry and scattering angles. These calculations require very heavy calculations and were nearly impossible with computers of old days. From the limitation of computing power, traditional approach of reactor core design consists of heterogeneous transport calculation in fuel assembly level and whole core diffusion nodal calculation with assembly homogenized properties, resulting from fuel assembly transport calculation. This approach may be effective in computation time, but it gives less accurate results for highly heterogeneous problems. As potential for whole core heterogeneous transport calculation became more feasible owing to rapid development of computing power during last several years, the interests in two and three dimensional whole core heterogeneous transport calculations by deterministic method are increased. For two dimensional calculation, there were several successful approaches using even parity transport equation with triangular meshes, S N method with refined rectangular meshes, the method of characteristics (MOC) with unstructured meshes, and so on. The work in this thesis originally started from the two dimensional whole core heterogeneous transport calculation by using MOC. After successful achievement in two dimensional calculation, there were efforts in three-dimensional whole-core heterogeneous transport calculation using MOC. Since direct extension to three dimensional calculation of MOC requires too much computing power, indirect approach to three dimensional calculation was considered.Thus, 2D/1D fusion method for three dimensional heterogeneous transport calculation was developed and successfully implemented in a computer code. The 2D/1D fusion method is synergistic combination of the MOC for radial 2-D calculation and S N -like methods for axial 1

  11. Infinite-parametric extension of the conformal algebra in D>2 space-time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.

    1990-09-01

    On the basis of the analytic continuations of semisimple Lie algebras discovered recently by us we construct manifestly quasiconformal infinite-dimensional algebras AC(so(4,1)) and PAC(so(3,2)) extending the conformal algebras in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space-time like the Virasoro algebra extends so(2,1). Their higher spin generalizations are also constructed. A counterpart of the central extension for D>2 and possible applications in exactly solvable conformal quantum field models in D>2 are discussed. (author). 31 refs, 2 figs

  12. Numerical relativity for D dimensional space-times: Head-on collisions of black holes and gravitational wave extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witek, Helvi; Nerozzi, Andrea; Zilhao, Miguel; Herdeiro, Carlos; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Cardoso, Vitor; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Higher dimensional black holes play an exciting role in fundamental physics, such as high energy physics. In this paper, we use the formalism and numerical code reported in [1] to study the head-on collision of two black holes. For this purpose we provide a detailed treatment of gravitational wave extraction in generic D dimensional space-times, which uses the Kodama-Ishibashi formalism. For the first time, we present the results of numerical simulations of the head-on collision in five space-time dimensions, together with the relevant physical quantities. We show that the total radiated energy, when two black holes collide from rest at infinity, is approximately (0.089±0.006)% of the center of mass energy, slightly larger than the 0.055% obtained in the four-dimensional case, and that the ringdown signal at late time is in very good agreement with perturbative calculations.

  13. The sequence d(CGGCGGCCGC) self-assembles into a two dimensional rhombic DNA lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkadesh, S.; Mandal, P.K.; Gautham, N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This is the first crystal structure of a four-way junction with sticky ends. → Four junction structures bind to each other and form a rhombic cavity. → Each rhombus binds to others to form 'infinite' 2D tiles. → This is an example of bottom-up fabrication of a DNA nano-lattice. -- Abstract: We report here the crystal structure of the partially self-complementary decameric sequence d(CGGCGGCCGC), which self assembles to form a four-way junction with sticky ends. Each junction binds to four others through Watson-Crick base pairing at the sticky ends to form a rhombic structure. The rhombuses bind to each other and form two dimensional tiles. The tiles stack to form the crystal. The crystal diffracted in the space group P1 to a resolution of 2.5 A. The junction has the anti-parallel stacked-X conformation like other junction structures, though the formation of the rhombic net noticeably alters the details of the junction geometry.

  14. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Linear embeddings of finite-dimensional subsets of Banach spaces into Euclidean spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, James C

    2009-01-01

    This paper treats the embedding of finite-dimensional subsets of a Banach space B into finite-dimensional Euclidean spaces. When the Hausdorff dimension of X − X is finite, d H (X − X) k are injective on X. The proof motivates the definition of the 'dual thickness exponent', which is the key to proving that a prevalent set of such linear maps have Hölder continuous inverse when the box-counting dimension of X is finite and k > 2d B (X). A related argument shows that if the Assouad dimension of X − X is finite and k > d A (X − X), a prevalent set of such maps are bi-Lipschitz with logarithmic corrections. This provides a new result for compact homogeneous metric spaces via the Kuratowksi embedding of (X, d) into L ∞ (X)

  16. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of metastatic brain tumor at 3 Tesla. Utility of T1-weighted SPACE compared with 2D spin echo and 3D gradient echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Tomohiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the newly developed whole-brain, isotropic, 3-dimensional turbo spin-echo imaging with variable flip angle echo train (SPACE) for contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted imaging in detecting brain metastases at 3 tesla (T). Twenty-two patients with suspected brain metastases underwent postcontrast study with SPACE, magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MP-RAGE), and 2-dimensional T 1 -weighted spin echo (2D-SE) imaging at 3 T. We quantitatively compared SPACE, MP-RAGE, and 2D-SE images by using signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for GM-to-WM, lesion-to-GM, and lesion-to-WM. Two blinded radiologists evaluated the detection of brain metastases by segment-by-segment analysis and continuously-distributed test. The CNR between GM and WM was significantly higher on MP-RAGE images than on SPACE images (P 1 -weighted imaging. (author)

  17. Geodesics on a hot plate: an example of a two-dimensional curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkal, Cahit

    2006-01-01

    The equation of the geodesics on a hot plate with a radially symmetric temperature profile is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Numerical solutions are presented with an eye towards (a) teaching two-dimensional curved space and the metric used to determine the geodesics (b) revealing some characteristics of two-dimensional curved spacetime and (c) providing insight into understanding the curved space which emerges in teaching relativity. In order to provide a deeper insight, we also present the analytical solutions and show that they represent circles whose characteristics depend on curvature of the space, conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion

  18. Geodesics on a hot plate: an example of a two-dimensional curved space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkal, Cahit [Department of Geology, Geography, and Physics, University of Tennessee, Martin, TN 38238 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The equation of the geodesics on a hot plate with a radially symmetric temperature profile is derived using the Lagrangian approach. Numerical solutions are presented with an eye towards (a) teaching two-dimensional curved space and the metric used to determine the geodesics (b) revealing some characteristics of two-dimensional curved spacetime and (c) providing insight into understanding the curved space which emerges in teaching relativity. In order to provide a deeper insight, we also present the analytical solutions and show that they represent circles whose characteristics depend on curvature of the space, conductivity and the coefficient of thermal expansion.

  19. (d -2 ) -Dimensional Edge States of Rotation Symmetry Protected Topological States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhida; Fang, Zhong; Fang, Chen

    2017-12-01

    We study fourfold rotation-invariant gapped topological systems with time-reversal symmetry in two and three dimensions (d =2 , 3). We show that in both cases nontrivial topology is manifested by the presence of the (d -2 )-dimensional edge states, existing at a point in 2D or along a line in 3D. For fermion systems without interaction, the bulk topological invariants are given in terms of the Wannier centers of filled bands and can be readily calculated using a Fu-Kane-like formula when inversion symmetry is also present. The theory is extended to strongly interacting systems through the explicit construction of microscopic models having robust (d -2 )-dimensional edge states.

  20. Euclidean D-branes and higher-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, B.S.; Figueroa-O'Farrill, J.M.; Spence, B.; O'Loughlin, M.

    1997-07-01

    We consider euclidean D-branes wrapping around manifolds of exceptional holonomy in dimensions seven and eight. The resulting theory on the D-brane-that is, the dimensional reduction of 10-dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory-is a cohomological field theory which describes the topology of the moduli space of instantons. The 7-dimensional theory is an N T =2 (or balanced) cohomological theory given by an action potential of Chern-Simons type. As a by-product of this method, we construct a related cohomological field theory which describes the monopole moduli space on a 7-manifold of G 2 holonomy. (author). 22 refs, 3 tabs

  1. On construction of two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds embedded into enveloping Euclidean (pseudo-Euclidean) space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach a construction of exactly integrable two-dimensional Riemannian manifolds embedded into enveloping Euclidean (pseudo-Euclidean) space Rsub(N) of an arbitrary dimension is presented. The construction is based on a reformulation of the Gauss, Peterson-Codazzi and Ricci equations in the form of a Lax-type representation in two-dimensional space. Here the Lax pair operators take the values in algebra SO(N)

  2. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) IPHEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) IPHEx dataset was collected during the GPM Ground Validation Integrated Precipitation and...

  3. Quantization of coset space σ-models coupled to two-dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, D.; Samtleben, H.

    1996-07-01

    The mathematical framework for an exact quantization of the two-dimensional coset space σ-models coupled to dilaton gravity, that arise from dimensional reduction of gravity and supergravity theories, is presented. The two-time Hamiltonian formulation is obtained, which describes the complete phase space of the model in the whole isomonodromic sector. The Dirac brackets arising from the coset constraints are calculated. Their quantization allows to relate exact solutions of the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equations to solutions of a modified (Coset) Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov system. On the classical level, a set of observables is identified, that is complete for essential sectors of the theory. Quantum counterparts of these observables and their algebraic structure are investigated. Their status in alternative quantization procedures is discussed, employing the link with Hamiltonian Chern-Simons theory. (orig.)

  4. Comparison of post-contrast 3D-T1-MPRAGE, 3D-T1-SPACE and 3D-T2-FLAIR MR images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities at 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Kalyanpur, Tejas; Gupta, Prashant; Cherian, Mathew

    2017-06-01

    This study was to assess the usefulness of newer three-dimensional (3D)-T 1 sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) and 3D-T 2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities. 78 patients who presented with high suspicion of meningeal abnormalities were evaluated using post-contrast 3D-T 2 -FLAIR, 3D-T 1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) and 3D-T 1 -SPACE sequences. The images were evaluated independently by two radiologists for cortical gyral, sulcal space, basal cisterns and dural enhancement. The diagnoses were confirmed by further investigations including histopathology. Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images yielded significantly more information than MPRAGE images (p evaluation of meningeal abnormalities and when used in combination have the maximum sensitivity for leptomeningeal abnormalities. The negative-predictive value is nearly 100%, where no leptomeningeal abnormality was detected on these sequences. Advances in knowledge: Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images are more useful than 3D-T 1 -MPRAGE images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities.

  5. Non-Euclidean geometry and curvature two-dimensional spaces, volume 3

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, James W

    2017-01-01

    This is the final volume of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. Einstein showed how to interpret gravity as the dynamic response to the curvature of space-time. Bill Thurston showed us that non-Euclidean geometries and curvature are essential to the understanding of low-dimensional spaces. This third and final volume aims to give the reader a firm intuitive understanding of these concepts in dimension 2. The volume first demonstrates a number of the most important properties of non-Euclidean geometry by means of simple infinite graphs that approximate that geometry. This is followed by a long chapter taken from lectures the author gave at MSRI, wh...

  6. Path integral approach for superintegrable potentials on spaces of non-constant curvature. Pt. 1. Darboux spaces D{sub I} and D{sub II}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosche, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pogosyan, G.S. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics]|[Guadalajara Univ., Jalisco (Mexico). Dept. de Matematicas CUCEI; Sissakian, A.N. [Joint Inst. of Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theoretical Physics

    2006-07-15

    In this paper the Feynman path integral technique is applied for superintegrable potentials on two-dimensional spaces of non-constant curvature: these spaces are Darboux spaces D{sub I} and D{sub II}, respectively. On D{sub I} there are three and on D{sub II} foru such potentials, respectively. We are able to evaluate the path integral in most of the separating coordinate systems, leading to expressions for the Green functions, the discrete and continuous wave-functions, and the discrete energy-spectra. In some cases, however, the discrete spectrum cannot be stated explicitly, because it is either determined by a transcendental equation involving parabolic cylinder functions (Darboux space I), or by a higher order polynomial equation. The solutions on D{sub I} in particular show that superintegrable systems are not necessarily degenerate. We can also show how the limiting cases of flat space (Constant curvature zero) and the two-dimensional hyperboloid (constant negative curvature) emerge. (Orig.)

  7. Model space dimensionalities for multiparticle fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.; Valdes, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    A menu driven program for determining the dimensionalities of fixed-(J) [or (J,T)] model spaces built by distributing identical fermions (electrons, neutrons, protons) or two distinguihable fermion types (neutron-proton and isospin formalisms) among any mixture of positive and negative parity spherical orbitals is presented. The algorithm, built around the elementary difference formula d(J)=d(M=J)-d(M=J+1), takes full advantage of M->-M and particle-hole symmetries. A 96 K version of the program suffices for as compilated a case as d[(+1/2, +3/2, + 5/2, + 7/2-11/2)sup(n-26)J=2 + ,T=7]=210,442,716,722 found in the 0hω valence space of 56 126 Ba 70 . The program calculates the total fixed-(Jsup(π)) or fixed-(Jsup(π),T) dimensionality of a model space generated by distributing a specified number of fermions among a set of input positive and negative parity (π) spherical (j) orbitals. The user is queried at each step to select among various options: 1. formalism - identical particle, neutron-proton, isospin; 2. orbits -bumber, +/-2*J of all orbits; 3. limits -minimum/maximum number of particles of each parity; 4. specifics - number of particles, +/-2*J (total), 2*T; 5. continue - same orbit structure, new case quit. Though designed for nuclear applications (jj-coupling), the program can be used in the atomic case (LS-coupling) so long as half integer spin values (j=l+-1/2) are input for the valnce orbitals. Mutiple occurrences of a given j value are properly taken into account. A minor extension provides labelling information for a generalized seniority classification scheme. The program logic is an adaption of methods used in statistical spectroscopy to evaluate configuration averages. Indeed, the need for fixed symmetry leve densities in spectral distribution theory motivated this work. The methods extend to other group structures where there are M-like additive quantum labels. (orig.)

  8. Dynamics of a neuron model in different two-dimensional parameter-spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Paulo C.

    2011-03-01

    We report some two-dimensional parameter-space diagrams numerically obtained for the multi-parameter Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. Several different parameter planes are considered, and we show that regardless of the combination of parameters, a typical scenario is preserved: for all choice of two parameters, the parameter-space presents a comb-shaped chaotic region immersed in a large periodic region. We also show that exist regions close these chaotic region, separated by the comb teeth, organized themselves in period-adding bifurcation cascades.

  9. 2-D deformation of two welded half-spaces due to a blind dip-slip fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solution of two-dimensional problem of an interface breaking long inclined dip-slip fault in two welded half-spaces is well known.The purpose of this note is to obtain the corresponding solution for a blind fault.The solution is valid for arbitrary values of the fault-depth and the dip angle.Graphs showing the variation of the ...

  10. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted cervical MRI at 3 T: Comparison with two-dimensional T2-weighted sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, J.W.; Yoon, Y.C.; Choi, S.-H.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences and reformation with two-dimensional (2D) T2-weighted sequences regarding image quality of the cervical spine at 3 T. Materials and methods: A phantom study was performed using a water-filled cylinder. The signal-to-noise and image homogeneity were evaluated. Fourteen (n = 14) volunteers were examined at 3 T using 3D isotropic T2-weighted sagittal and conventional 2D T2-weighted sagittal, axial, and oblique sagittal MRI. Multiplanar reformation (MPR) of the 3D T2-weighted sagittal dataset was performed simultaneously with image evaluation. In addition to artefact assessment, the visibility of anatomical structures in the 3D and 2D sequences was qualitatively assessed by two radiologists independently. Cohen’s kappa and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for the statistical analysis. Result: The 3D isotropic T2-weighted sequence resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and lowest non-uniformity (NU) among the sequences in the phantom study. Quantitative evaluation revealed lower NU values of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and muscles in 2D T2-weighted sagittal sequences compared to the 3D volume isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA) sequence. The other NU values revealed no statistically significant difference between the 2D turbo spin-echo (TSE) and 3D VISTA sequences (0.059 < p < 0.959). 3D VISTA images showed significantly fewer CSF flow artefacts (p < 0.001) and better delineated intradural nerve rootlets (p = 0.001) and neural foramina (p = 0.016) compared to 2D sequences. Conclusion: A 3D T2 weighted sequence is superior to conventional 2D sequences for the delineation of intradural nerve rootlets and neural foramina and is less affected by CSF flow artefacts.

  11. Gauge fields in nonlinear group realizations involving two-dimensional space-time symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machacek, M.E.; McCliment, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that gauge fields may be consistently introduced into a model Lagrangian previously considered by the authors. The model is suggested by the spontaneous breaking of a Lorentz-type group into a quasiphysical two-dimensional space-time and one internal degree of freedom, loosely associated with charge. The introduction of zero-mass gauge fields makes possible the absorption via the Higgs mechanism of the Goldstone fields that appear in the model despite the fact that the Goldstone fields do not transform as scalars. Specifically, gauge invariance of the Yang-Mills type requires the introduction of two sets of massless gauge fields. The transformation properties in two-dimensional space-time suggest that one set is analogous to a charge doublet that behaves like a second-rank tensor in real four-dimensional space time. The other set suggests a spin-one-like charge triplet. Via the Higgs mechanism, the first set absorbs the Goldstone fields and acquires mass. The second set remains massless. If massive gauge fields are introduced, the associated currents are not conserved and the Higgs mechanism is no longer fully operative. The Goldstone fields are not eliminated, but coupling between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields does shift the mass of the antisymmetric second-rank-tensor gauge field components

  12. GPM GROUND VALIDATION TWO-DIMENSIONAL VIDEO DISDROMETER (2DVD) IFLOODS V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Two-Dimensional Video Disdrometer (2DVD) IFloodS dataset was collected during the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) field...

  13. Novel target design algorithm for two-dimensional optical storage (TwoDOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Li; Chong, T.C.; Vijaya Kumar, B.V.K.; Kobori, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the Hankel transform based channel model of Two-Dimensional Optical Storage (TwoDOS) system. Based on this model, the two-dimensional (2D) minimum mean-square error (MMSE) equalizer has been derived and applied to some simple but common cases. The performance of the 2D

  14. The simulation of a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region with Lattice Boltzmann method with two-relaxation-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyanto, S.; Hardyanto, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2018-03-01

    Transport phenomena are found in many problems in many engineering and industrial sectors. We analyzed a Lattice Boltzmann method with Two-Relaxation Time (LTRT) collision operators for simulation of pollutant moving through the medium as a two-dimensional (2D) transport problem in a rectangular region model. This model consists of a 2D rectangular region with 54 length (x), 27 width (y), and it has isotropic homogeneous medium. Initially, the concentration is zero and is distributed evenly throughout the region of interest. A concentration of 1 is maintained at 9 < y < 18, whereas the concentration of zero is maintained at 0 < y < 9 and 18 < y < 27. A specific discharge (Darcy velocity) of 1.006 is assumed. A diffusion coefficient of 0.8333 is distributed uniformly with a uniform porosity of 0.35. A computer program is written in MATLAB to compute the concentration of pollutant at any specified place and time. The program shows that LTRT solution with quadratic equilibrium distribution functions (EDFs) and relaxation time τa=1.0 are in good agreement result with other numerical solutions methods such as 3DLEWASTE (Hybrid Three-dimensional Lagrangian-Eulerian Finite Element Model of Waste Transport Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media) obtained by Yeh and 3DFEMWATER-LHS (Three-dimensional Finite Element Model of Water Flow Through Saturated-Unsaturated Media with Latin Hypercube Sampling) obtained by Hardyanto.

  15. Time-dependent behavior of D-dimensional ideal quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Suhk Kun

    1985-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of D-dimensional ideal quantum gases is studied within the Mori formalism and its extension by Lee. In the classical limit, the time-dependent behavior is found to be independent of the dimensionality D of the system and is characterized by an extremely damped Gaussian relaxation function. However, at T=0K, it depends on the particular statistics adopted for the system and also on the dimensionality of the system. For the ideal Bose gas at T=0 K, complete Bose condensation is manifested by collapse of the dimensionality of a Hilbert space, spanned by basis vectors fsub(ν), from infinity to two. On the other hand, the dimensional effect for the ideal Fermi gas is exhibited by a change in Hilbert space structure, which is determined by the recurrants Δsub(ν) and the basis vectors fsub(ν) More specifically, the structural form of the recurrants is modified such that the relaxation function becomes more damped as D is increased. (Author)

  16. Comparison of 3D turbo spin-echo SPACE sequences with conventional 2D MRI sequences to assess the shoulder joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloth, Jost Karsten, E-mail: jost.kloth@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Winterstein, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.winterstein@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Akbar, Michael, E-mail: michael.akbar@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Heidelberg, Schlierbacher Landstraße 200a, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Meyer, Esther, E-mail: esther.meyer@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Paul, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.paul@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Kauczor, Haus-Ulrich, E-mail: hans-ulrich.kauczor@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, Marc-André, E-mail: marcandre.weber@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • 3D SPACE and conventional 2D TSE MRI for assessment of the shoulder joint were compared. • Concordance for most pathologys was substantial to almost perfect. • Examination time could be reduced up to 8 min (27%). • Regarding rotator cuff injuries an additional sagittal T2w TSE sequence in 3D protocol is recommended. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional (3D) T1- and proton density (PD)-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolution (SPACE) compared with conventional 2D sequences in assessment of the shoulder-joint. Materials and methods: Ninety-three subjects were examined on a 3-T MRI system with both conventional 2D-TSE sequences in T1-, T2- and PD-weighting and 3D SPACE sequences in T1- and PD-weighting. All examinations were assessed independently by two reviewers for common pathologies of the shoulder-joint. Agreement between 2D- and 3D-sequences and inter-observer-agreement was evaluated using kappa-statistics. Results: Using conventional 2D TSE sequences as standard of reference, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of 3D SPACE were 81.8%, 95.1%, and 93.5% for injuries of the supraspinatus-tendon (SSP), 81.3%, 93.5%, and 91.4% for the cartilage layer and 82.4%, 98.5%, and 97.5% for the long biceps tendon. Concordance between 2D and 3D was almost perfect for tendinopathies of the SSP (κ = 0.85), osteoarthritis (κ = 1), luxation of the biceps tendon (κ = 1) and adjacent bone marrow (κ = 0.92). Inter-observer-agreement was generally higher for conventional 2D TSE sequences (κ, 0.23–1.0), when compared to 3D SPACE sequences (κ, −0.33 to 1.0) except for disorders of the long biceps tendon and supraspinatus tendon rupture. Conclusion: Because of substantial and almost perfect concordance with conventional 2D TSE sequences for common shoulder pathologies, MRI examination-time can be reduced by nearly 40

  17. Two dimensional infinite conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, N.N.; Tripathy, K.C.

    1993-01-01

    The invariant discontinuous (discrete) conformal transformation groups, namely the Kleinian and Fuchsian groups Gamma (with an arbitrary signature) of H (the Poincare upper half-plane l) and the unit disc Delta are explicitly constructed from the fundamental domain D. The Riemann surface with signatures of Gamma and conformally invariant automorphic forms (functions) with Peterson scalar product are discussed. The functor, where the category of complex Hilbert spaces spanned by the space of cusp forms constitutes the two dimensional conformal field theory. (Author) 7 refs

  18. Enhanced job control language procedures for the SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavitis, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    The SIMSYS2D two-dimensional water-quality simulation system is a large-scale digital modeling software system used to simulate flow and transport of solutes in freshwater and estuarine environments. Due to the size, processing requirements, and complexity of the system, there is a need to easily move the system and its associated files between computer sites when required. A series of job control language (JCL) procedures was written to allow transferability between IBM and IBM-compatible computers. (USGS)

  19. Pair production of Dirac particles in a d + 1-dimensional noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousmane Samary, Dine [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin); N' Dolo, Emanonfi Elias; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert [University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin)

    2014-11-15

    This work addresses the computation of the probability of fermionic particle pair production in d + 1-dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using Seiberg-Witten maps, which establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, up to the first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent, and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed. (orig.)

  20. Similarity of the leading contributions to the self-energy and the thermodynamics in two- and three-dimensional Fermi Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, D.; Bedell, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    We compare the self-energy and entropy of a two- and three-dimensional Fermi Liquids (FLs) using a model with a contact interaction between fermions. For a two-dimensional (2D) FL we find that there are T 2 contributions to the entropy from interactions separate from those due to the collective modes. These T 2 contributions arise from nonanalytic corrections to the real part of the self-energy and areanalogous to T 3 lnT contributions present in the entropy of a three-dimensional (3D) FL. The difference between the 2D and 3D results arises solely from the different phase space factors

  1. Superintegrability in two-dimensional Euclidean space and associated polynomial solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, E.G.; Miller, W. Jr; Pogosyan, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    In this work we examine the basis functions for those classical and quantum mechanical systems in two dimensions which admit separation of variables in at least two coordinate systems. We do this for the corresponding systems defined in Euclidean space and on the two dimensional sphere. We present all of these cases from a unified point of view. In particular, all of the spectral functions that arise via variable separation have their essential features expressed in terms of their zeros. The principal new results are the details of the polynomial base for each of the nonsubgroup base, not just the subgroup cartesian and polar coordinate case, and the details of the structure of the quadratic algebras. We also study the polynomial eigenfunctions in elliptic coordinates of the N-dimensional isotropic quantum oscillator. 28 refs., 1 tab

  2. D-branes in a big bang/big crunch universe: Misner space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hikida, Yasuaki; Nayak, Rashmi R.; Panigrahi, Kamal L.

    2005-01-01

    We study D-branes in a two-dimensional lorentzian orbifold R 1,1 /Γ with a discrete boost Γ. This space is known as Misner or Milne space, and includes big crunch/big bang singularity. In this space, there are D0-branes in spiral orbits and D1-branes with or without flux on them. In particular, we observe imaginary parts of partition functions, and interpret them as the rates of open string pair creation for D0-branes and emission of winding closed strings for D1-branes. These phenomena occur due to the time-dependence of the background. Open string 22 scattering amplitude on a D1-brane is also computed and found to be less singular than closed string case

  3. D-branes in a big bang/big crunch universe: Misner space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikida, Yasuaki [Theory Group, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nayak, Rashmi R. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome 00133 (Italy); Panigrahi, Kamal L. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Roma 2, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome 00133 (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    We study D-branes in a two-dimensional lorentzian orbifold R{sup 1,1}/{gamma} with a discrete boost {gamma}. This space is known as Misner or Milne space, and includes big crunch/big bang singularity. In this space, there are D0-branes in spiral orbits and D1-branes with or without flux on them. In particular, we observe imaginary parts of partition functions, and interpret them as the rates of open string pair creation for D0-branes and emission of winding closed strings for D1-branes. These phenomena occur due to the time-dependence of the background. Open string 2{yields}2 scattering amplitude on a D1-brane is also computed and found to be less singular than closed string case.

  4. Three-dimensional reciprocal space x-ray coherent scattering tomography of two-dimensional object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zheyuan; Pang, Shuo

    2018-04-01

    X-ray coherent scattering tomography is a powerful tool in discriminating biological tissues and bio-compatible materials. Conventional x-ray scattering tomography framework can only resolve isotropic scattering profile under the assumption that the material is amorphous or in powder form, which is not true especially for biological samples with orientation-dependent structure. Previous tomography schemes based on x-ray coherent scattering failed to preserve the scattering pattern from samples with preferred orientations, or required elaborated data acquisition scheme, which could limit its application in practical settings. Here, we demonstrate a simple imaging modality to preserve the anisotropic scattering signal in three-dimensional reciprocal (momentum transfer) space of a two-dimensional sample layer. By incorporating detector movement along the direction of x-ray beam, combined with a tomographic data acquisition scheme, we match the five dimensions of the measurements with the five dimensions (three in momentum transfer domain, and two in spatial domain) of the object. We employed a collimated pencil beam of a table-top copper-anode x-ray tube, along with a panel detector to investigate the feasibility of our method. We have demonstrated x-ray coherent scattering tomographic imaging at a spatial resolution ~2 mm and momentum transfer resolution 0.01 Å -1 for the rotation-invariant scattering direction. For any arbitrary, non-rotation-invariant direction, the same spatial and momentum transfer resolution can be achieved based on the spatial information from the rotation-invariant direction. The reconstructed scattering profile of each pixel from the experiment is consistent with the x-ray diffraction profile of each material. The three-dimensional scattering pattern recovered from the measurement reveals the partially ordered molecular structure of Teflon wrap in our sample. We extend the applicability of conventional x-ray coherent scattering tomography to

  5. Two-Stage Regularized Linear Discriminant Analysis for 2-D Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhua; Shi, Lei; Zhu, Ji

    2015-08-01

    Fisher linear discriminant analysis (LDA) involves within-class and between-class covariance matrices. For 2-D data such as images, regularized LDA (RLDA) can improve LDA due to the regularized eigenvalues of the estimated within-class matrix. However, it fails to consider the eigenvectors and the estimated between-class matrix. To improve these two matrices simultaneously, we propose in this paper a new two-stage method for 2-D data, namely a bidirectional LDA (BLDA) in the first stage and the RLDA in the second stage, where both BLDA and RLDA are based on the Fisher criterion that tackles correlation. BLDA performs the LDA under special separable covariance constraints that incorporate the row and column correlations inherent in 2-D data. The main novelty is that we propose a simple but effective statistical test to determine the subspace dimensionality in the first stage. As a result, the first stage reduces the dimensionality substantially while keeping the significant discriminant information in the data. This enables the second stage to perform RLDA in a much lower dimensional subspace, and thus improves the two estimated matrices simultaneously. Experiments on a number of 2-D synthetic and real-world data sets show that BLDA+RLDA outperforms several closely related competitors.

  6. Two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) reveals structure and dynamics of a surface-bound peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaser, Jennifer E.; Skoff, David R.; Ho, Jia-Jung; Joo, Yongho; Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Steinkruger, Jay D.; Gopalan, Padma; Gellman, Samuel H.; Zanni, Martin T.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-bound polypeptides and proteins are increasingly used to functionalize inorganic interfaces such as electrodes, but their structural characterization is exceedingly difficult with standard technologies. In this paper, we report the first two-dimensional sum-frequency generation (2D SFG) spectra of a peptide monolayer, which is collected by adding a mid-IR pulse shaper to a standard femtosecond SFG spectrometer. On a gold surface, standard FTIR spectroscopy is inconclusive about the peptide structure because of solvation-induced frequency shifts, but the 2D lineshapes, anharmonic shifts, and lifetimes obtained from 2D SFG reveal that the peptide is largely α-helical and upright. Random coil residues are also observed, which do not themselves appear in SFG spectra due to their isotropic structural distribution, but which still absorb infrared light and so can be detected by cross-peaks in 2D SFG spectra. We discuss these results in the context of peptide design. Because of the similar way in which the spectra are collected, these 2D SFG spectra can be directly compared to 2D IR spectra, thereby enabling structural interpretations of surface-bound peptides and biomolecules based on the well-studied structure/2D IR spectra relationships established from soluble proteins. PMID:24372101

  7. Two-dimensional orbital ordering in d{sup 1} Mott insulator Sr{sub 2}VO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viennois, R; Giannini, E; Teyssier, J; Elia, J; Van der Marel, D [DPMC, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve (Switzerland); Deisenhofer, J, E-mail: Romain.Viennois@unige.c [Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, Augsburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The Mott insulator Sr{sub 2}VO{sub 4} is a unique d{sup 1} two-dimensional compound exhibiting an orbital ordering transition. In addition to the orbital ordering transition at about 100 K, we discovered a ferromagnetic transition below 10 K, thus confirming the predictions of recent band structure calculations. The magnetic properties proved to be strongly sensitive to the material purity, the actual oxygen stoichiometry and the crystallographic parameters. An additional transition is observed at 125 K, which is believed to be due to structural modifications.

  8. Monte Carlo analysis of the SU(2)xU(1) and U(2) lattice gauge theories at different space-time dimensionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.; Colet, J.

    1986-01-01

    Using Monte Carlo simulations the SU(2)xU(1) lattice gauge theory has been analyzed, which is equivalent for the Wilson action to a U(2) theory, at space-time dimensionalities from d=3 to 5. It has been shown that there exist first-order phase transitions for both d=4 and d=5. A monopole-condensation mechanism seems to be responsible for these phase transitions. At d=3 no phase transitions have been detected. (orig.)

  9. Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis was applied to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)...

  10. Two-dimensional N=(2,2) lattice gauge theories with matter in higher representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Anosh

    2014-06-01

    We construct two-dimensional N=(2,2) supersymmetric gauge theories on a Euclidean spacetime lattice with matter in the two-index symmetric and anti-symmetric representations of SU(N c ) color group. These lattice theories preserve a subset of the supercharges exact at finite lattice spacing. The method of topological twisting is used to construct such theories in the continuum and then the geometric discretization scheme is used to formulate them on the lattice. The lattice theories obtained this way are gauge-invariant, free from fermion doubling problem and exact supersymmetric at finite lattice spacing. We hope that these lattice constructions further motivate the nonperturbative explorations of models inspired by technicolor, orbifolding and orientifolding in string theories and the Corrigan-Ramond limit.

  11. 3-dimensional interactive space (3DIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veitch, S.; Veitch, J.; West, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 3DIS security system which uses standard CCTV cameras to create 3-Dimensional detection zones around valuable assets within protected areas. An intrusion into a zone changes light values and triggers an alarm that is annunciated, while images from multiple cameras are recorded. 3DIS lowers nuisance alarm rates and provides superior automated surveillance capability. Performance is improved over 2-D systems because activity around, above or below the zone does to cause an alarm. Invisible 3-D zones protect assets as small as a pin or as large as a 747 jetliner. Detection zones are created by excising subspaces from the overlapping fields of view of two or more video cameras. Hundred of zones may co-exist, operating simultaneously. Intrusion into any 3-D zone will cause a coincidental change in light values, triggering an alarm specific to that space

  12. Large parallel volumes of finite and compact sets in d-dimensional Euclidean space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Jürgen; Kiderlen, Markus

    The r-parallel volume V (Cr) of a compact subset C in d-dimensional Euclidean space is the volume of the set Cr of all points of Euclidean distance at most r > 0 from C. According to Steiner’s formula, V (Cr) is a polynomial in r when C is convex. For finite sets C satisfying a certain geometric...

  13. Electrical conductivity of quasi-two-dimensional foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Honorez, Clément; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2015-04-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) foams consist of monolayers of bubbles squeezed between two narrowly spaced plates. These simplified foams have served successfully in the past to shed light on numerous issues in foam physics. Here we consider the electrical conductivity of such model foams. We compare experiments to a model which we propose, and which successfully relates the structural and the conductive properties of the foam over the full range of the investigated liquid content. We show in particular that in the case of quasi-2D foams the liquid in the nodes needs to be taken into account even at low liquid content. We think that these results may provide different approaches for the characterization of foam properties and for the in situ characterization of the liquid content of foams in confining geometries, such as microfluidics.

  14. Dynamics of a neuron model in different two-dimensional parameter-spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, Paulo C.

    2011-01-01

    We report some two-dimensional parameter-space diagrams numerically obtained for the multi-parameter Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. Several different parameter planes are considered, and we show that regardless of the combination of parameters, a typical scenario is preserved: for all choice of two parameters, the parameter-space presents a comb-shaped chaotic region immersed in a large periodic region. We also show that exist regions close these chaotic region, separated by the comb teeth, organized themselves in period-adding bifurcation cascades. - Research highlights: → We report parameter-spaces obtained for the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron model. → Regardless of the combination of parameters, a typical scenario is preserved. → The scenario presents a comb-shaped chaotic region immersed in a periodic region. → Periodic regions near the chaotic region are in period-adding bifurcation cascades.

  15. On infinite-dimensional state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p]=i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p]=i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V −1 U 2 V=U 3 , then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV −1 UV=V −1 UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V −1 U 2 V=U 3 holds only up to ε and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.

  16. On infinite-dimensional state spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that the canonical commutation relation [x, p] = i can be realized only on an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. While any finite set of experimental data can also be explained in terms of a finite-dimensional Hilbert space by approximating the commutation relation, Occam's razor prefers the infinite-dimensional model in which [x, p] = i holds on the nose. This reasoning one will necessarily have to make in any approach which tries to detect the infinite-dimensionality. One drawback of using the canonical commutation relation for this purpose is that it has unclear operational meaning. Here, we identify an operationally well-defined context from which an analogous conclusion can be drawn: if two unitary transformations U, V on a quantum system satisfy the relation V-1U2V = U3, then finite-dimensionality entails the relation UV-1UV = V-1UVU; this implication strongly fails in some infinite-dimensional realizations. This is a result from combinatorial group theory for which we give a new proof. This proof adapts to the consideration of cases where the assumed relation V-1U2V = U3 holds only up to ɛ and then yields a lower bound on the dimension.

  17. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  18. Topological properties of function spaces $C_k(X,2)$ over zero-dimensional metric spaces $X$

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriyelyan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Let $X$ be a zero-dimensional metric space and $X'$ its derived set. We prove the following assertions: (1) the space $C_k(X,2)$ is an Ascoli space iff $C_k(X,2)$ is $k_\\mathbb{R}$-space iff either $X$ is locally compact or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (2) $C_k(X,2)$ is a $k$-space iff either $X$ is a topological sum of a Polish locally compact space and a discrete space or $X$ is not locally compact but $X'$ is compact, (3) $C_k(X,2)$ is a sequential space iff $X$ is a Pol...

  19. Improving 3d Spatial Queries Search: Newfangled Technique of Space Filling Curves in 3d City Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uznir, U.; Anton, F.; Suhaibah, A.; Rahman, A. A.; Mioc, D.

    2013-09-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc.. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using web standards. However, these 3D city models consume much more storage compared to two dimensional (2D) spatial data. They involve extra geometrical and topological information together with semantic data. Without a proper spatial data clustering method and its corresponding spatial data access method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban objects. In this research, we propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Hilbert mappings, in this research, we extend the Hilbert space-filling curve to one higher dimension for 3D city model data implementations. The query performance was tested using a CityGML dataset of 1,000 building blocks and the results are presented in this paper. The advantages of implementing space-filling curves in 3D city modeling will improve data retrieval time by means of optimized 3D adjacency, nearest neighbor information and 3D indexing. The Hilbert mapping, which maps a subinterval of the [0, 1] interval to the corresponding portion of the d-dimensional Hilbert's curve, preserves the Lebesgue measure and is Lipschitz continuous. Depending on the applications, several alternatives are possible in order to cluster spatial data together in the third dimension compared to its

  20. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  1. Solution of the two-dimensional space-time reactor kinetics equation by a locally one-dimensional method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.S.; Christenson, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present some initial results from an investigation of the application of a locally one-dimensional (LOD) finite difference method to the solution of the two-dimensional, two-group reactor kinetics equations. Although the LOD method is relatively well known, it apparently has not been previously applied to the space-time kinetics equations. In this investigation, the LOD results were benchmarked against similar computational results (using the same computing environment, the same programming structure, and the same sample problems) obtained by the TWIGL program. For all of the problems considered, the LOD method provided accurate results in one-half to one-eight of the time required by the TWIGL program

  2. Three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems reduced from Kaehler spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2004-01-01

    We define the oscillator and Coulomb systems on four-dimensional spaces with U(2)-invariant Kaehler metric and perform their Hamiltonian reduction to the three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems specified by the presence of Dirac monopoles. We find the Kaehler spaces with conic singularity, where the oscillator and Coulomb systems on three-dimensional sphere and two-sheet hyperboloid originate. Then we construct the superintegrable oscillator system on three-dimensional sphere and hyperboloid, coupled to a monopole, and find their four-dimensional origins. In the latter case the metric of configuration space is a non-Kaehler one. Finally, we extend these results to the family of Kaehler spaces with conic singularities

  3. Novel two-dimensional uranyl-organic assemblages in the citrate and D(-)-citramalate families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuery, P.

    2008-01-01

    Uranyl nitrate reacts with D(-)-citramalic acid (H(3)citml) under mild hydrothermal conditions to give the two-dimensional polymer [UO 2 (Hcitml)] 1, in which each ligand chelates one metal atom through its hydroxyl and alpha- carboxylate groups and binds to three others in monodentate fashion. The resulting neutral layers display isolated uranyl pentagonal bipyramidal polyhedra. Whereas citric acid (H(4)cit) has been shown previously to give various three- and mono-dimensional uranyl organic assemblages, complexation under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of either NaOH/NEt 4 Cl or pyridine yields the complexes [NEt 4 ] 2 [(UO 2 ) 3 (cit) 2 (H 2 O) 22H 2 O 2 and [Hpy] 2 )[(UO 2 ) 3 (cit)(Hcit)(OH)] 3, respectively, which both crystallize as two- dimensional frameworks. The layers are either planar and separated by the counter ions in 2 or corrugated and hydrogen bonded to one another in 3. In both 2 and 3, [UO 2 (cit)] 2 4- dimeric subunits with edge-sharing pentagonal bipyramidal uranium coordination polyhedra are present but, in both cases and in contrast with previous structures containing [UO 2 (Hcit)] 2 2- dimers, the carboxylate group not involved in the dimer formation is coordinated to another uranyl unit, which is part of either a centrosymmetric hexagonal bipyramidal bis-aquated group or a different, [(UO 2 ) 2 (Hcit)(OH)] dimer. These examples of two- dimensional assemblages further illustrate the variety of architectures which can be obtained with citric and related acids and the important structure-directing effects of the counter ions. (author)

  4. Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional iron phosphates containing ethylenediamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yanning; Zavalij, Peter Y.; Chernova, Natasha A.; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Whittingham, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A new two-dimensional (2d) iron phosphate, (C 2 N 2 H 10 )Fe 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions in the system of FeCl 3 -H 3 PO 4 -C 2 N 2 H 8 -H 2 O. The crystal data is: space group P2 1 /c, a=10.670(1) A, b=10.897(1) A, c=9.918(1) A, β=105.632(1) deg. , Z=4. The layered structure consists of double sheet layers, of composition Fe 2 O(PO 4 ) 2 , built from FeO 5 trigonal bipyramids and PO 4 tetrahedra. The amine holds the layers together via H-bonding. The study of the magnetic properties reveals two magnetic transitions at 160 and 30 K with spin-glass-like behavior below 160 K. By varying the hydrothermal conditions, three other iron phosphates were synthesized: the one-dimensional (1d) (C 2 N 2 H 10 )Fe(HPO 4 ) 2 (OH)·H 2 O, the 2d (C 2 N 2 H 10 )Fe 2 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 2 , and the three-dimensional (3d) (C 2 N 2 H 10 ) 2 Fe 4 O(PO 4 ) 4 ·H 2 O. The 1d compound can be used as the starting reagent in the synthesis of both the 2d compound and the 3d lipscombite Fe 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (OH) 2 due to the similar building blocks in their structures. In the 3d phosphate (C 2 N 2 H 10 ) 2 Fe 4 O(PO 4 ) 4 ·H 2 O, manganese can substitute for half of the iron atoms. Magnetic study shows ordering transitions at about 30 K, however, manganese substitution depresses the magnetic ordering temperature

  5. Effective field theory and integrability in two-dimensional Mott transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottesi, Federico L.; Zemba, Guillermo R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Mott transition in 2d lattice fermion model. → 3D integrability out of 2D. → Effective field theory for Mott transition in 2d. → Double Chern-Simons. → d-Density waves. - Abstract: We study the Mott transition in a two-dimensional lattice spinless fermion model with nearest neighbors density-density interactions. By means of a two-dimensional Jordan-Wigner transformation, the model is mapped onto the lattice XXZ spin model, which is shown to possess a quantum group symmetry as a consequence of a recently found solution of the Zamolodchikov tetrahedron equation. A projection (from three to two space-time dimensions) property of the solution is used to identify the symmetry of the model at the Mott critical point as U q (sl(2)-circumflex)xU q (sl(2)-circumflex), with deformation parameter q = -1. Based on this result, the low-energy effective field theory for the model is obtained and shown to be a lattice double Chern-Simons theory with coupling constant k = 1 (with the standard normalization). By further employing the effective filed theory methods, we show that the Mott transition that arises is of topological nature, with vortices in an antiferromagnetic array and matter currents characterized by a d-density wave order parameter. We also analyze the behavior of the system upon weak coupling, and conclude that it undergoes a quantum gas-liquid transition which belongs to the Ising universality class.

  6. Anisotropic strain in YBa2Cu3O7-δ films analysed by deconvolution of two-dimensional intensity data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broetz, J.; Fuess, H.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the instrumental resolution on two-dimensional reflection profiles of epitaxic YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films on SrTiO 3 (001) has been studied in order to investigate the strain in the superconducting films. The X-ray diffraction intensity data were obtained by two-dimensional scans in reciprocal space (q-scan). Since the reflection broadening caused by the apparatus differs for each position in reciprocal space, a highly crystalline substrate was used as a standard. Thus it was possible to measure a standard very close to the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ reflections in reciprocal space. The two-dimensional deconvolution of reflections by a new computer program revealed an anisotropic strain of the two twinning systems of the film. (orig.)

  7. ENERGY DISSIPATION AND LANDAU DAMPING IN TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL PLASMA TURBULENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tak Chu; Howes, Gregory G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Klein, Kristopher G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); TenBarge, Jason M. [IREAP, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, playing an important role in plasma energization, but the physical mechanisms leading to dissipation of the turbulent energy remain to be definitively identified. Kinetic simulations in two dimensions (2D) have been extensively used to study the dissipation process. How the limitation to 2D affects energy dissipation remains unclear. This work provides a model of comparison between two- and three-dimensional (3D) plasma turbulence using gyrokinetic simulations; it also explores the dynamics of distribution functions during the dissipation process. It is found that both 2D and 3D nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of a low-beta plasma generate electron velocity-space structures with the same characteristics as that of the linear Landau damping of Alfvén waves in a 3D linear simulation. The continual occurrence of the velocity-space structures throughout the turbulence simulations suggests that the action of Landau damping may be responsible for the turbulent energy transfer to electrons in both 2D and 3D, and makes possible the subsequent irreversible heating of the plasma through collisional smoothing of the velocity-space fluctuations. Although, in the 2D case where variation along the equilibrium magnetic field is absent, it may be expected that Landau damping is not possible, a common trigonometric factor appears in the 2D resonant denominator, leaving the resonance condition unchanged from the 3D case. The evolution of the 2D and 3D cases is qualitatively similar. However, quantitatively, the nonlinear energy cascade and subsequent dissipation is significantly slower in the 2D case.

  8. Digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme enhanced by two-dimensional key space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Xiao, Shilin; Zhang, Lu; Bi, Meihua; Zhang, Yunhao; Fang, Jiafei; Hu, Weisheng

    2017-09-01

    A digital chaos-masked optical encryption scheme is proposed and demonstrated. The transmitted signal is completely masked by interference chaotic noise in both bandwidth and amplitude with analog method via dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulator (DDMZM), making the encrypted signal analog, noise-like and unrecoverable by post-processing techniques. The decryption process requires precise matches of both the amplitude and phase between the cancellation and interference chaotic noises, which provide a large two-dimensional key space with the help of optical interference cancellation technology. For 10-Gb/s 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal over the maximum transmission distance of 80 km without dispersion compensation or inline amplifier, the tolerable mismatch ranges of amplitude and phase/delay at the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3 are 0.44 dB and 0.08 ns respectively.

  9. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago; Naether, Uta; Delgado, Aldo; Vicencio, Rodrigo A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  10. Nonlinear localized modes in dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Rojas, Santiago, E-mail: srojas@cefop.cl [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Naether, Uta [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Delgado, Aldo [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Vicencio, Rodrigo A. [Center for Optics and Photonics and MSI-Nucleus on Advanced Optics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-09-16

    Highlights: • We study discrete two-dimensional breathers in dipolar Bose–Einstein Condensates. • Important differences in the properties of three fundamental modes are found. • Norm threshold for existence of 2D breathers varies with dipolar interaction. • The Effective Potential Method is implemented for stability analysis. • Uncommon mobility of 2D discrete solitons is observed. - Abstract: We analyze the existence and properties of discrete localized excitations in a Bose–Einstein condensate loaded into a periodic two-dimensional optical lattice, when a dipolar interaction between atoms is present. The dependence of the Number of Atoms (Norm) on the energy of solutions is studied, along with their stability. Two important features of the system are shown, namely, the absence of the Norm threshold required for localized solutions to exist in finite 2D systems, and the existence of regions in the parameter space where two fundamental solutions are simultaneously unstable. This feature enables mobility of localized solutions, which is an uncommon feature in 2D discrete nonlinear systems. With attractive dipolar interaction, a non-trivial behavior of the Norm dependence is obtained, which is well described by an analytical model.

  11. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K.; Dai, W.; Hunger, M.

    2014-01-01

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of 23 Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 23 Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed

  12. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  13. Evaluating two-dimensional skeletal structure parameters using radiological bone morphometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asa, Kensuke; Sakurai, Takashi; Kashima, Isamu; Kumasaka, Satsuki

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the reliability of two-dimensional (2D) skeletal structure parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis. The 2D skeletal parameters in the regions of interest (ROIs) were measured on computed radiography (CR) images of first phalanges from racehorses, using radiological bone morphometric analysis. Cancellous bone blocks were made from the phalanges in the same position as the ROI determined on CR images. Three-dimensional (3D) trabecular parameters were measured using micro-computed tomography (μCT). The correlations between the 2D skeletal parameters and 3D trabecular parameters were evaluated in relation to the measured bone strength. The following 2D skeletal structure parameters were correlated with bone strength (r=0.61-0.69): skeletal perimeter (Sk.Pm), skeletal number (Sk.N), skeletal separation (Sk.Sp), skeletal spacing (Sk.Spac), fractal dimension (FD), and skeletal pattern factor (SkPf). The 3D trabecular structure parameters were closely correlated with bone strength (r=0.74-0.86). The 2D skeletal parameters Sk.N, Sk.Pm, FD, SkPf, and Sk.Spac were correlated with the 3D trabecular parameters (r=0.61-0.70). The 2D skeletal parameters obtained using radiological bone morphometric analysis may be useful indicators of trabecular strength. (author)

  14. Functionalization of liquid-exfoliated two-dimensional 2H-MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Claudia; Berner, Nina C; Chen, Xin; Lafargue, Paul; LaPlace, Pierre; Freeley, Mark; Duesberg, Georg S; Coleman, Jonathan N; McDonald, Aidan R

    2015-02-23

    Layered two-dimensional (2D) inorganic transition-metal dichalchogenides (TMDs) have attracted great interest as a result of their potential application in optoelectronics, catalysis, and medicine. However, methods to functionalize and process such 2D TMDs remain scarce. We have established a facile route towards functionalized layered MoS2 . We found that the reaction of liquid-exfoliated 2D MoS2 , with M(OAc)2 salts (M=Ni, Cu, Zn; OAc=acetate) yielded functionalized MoS2 -M(OAc)2 materials. Importantly, this method furnished the 2H-polytype of MoS2 which is a semiconductor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT-IR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provide strong evidence for the coordination of MoS2 surface sulfur atoms to the M(OAc)2 salt. Interestingly, functionalization of 2H-MoS2 allows for its dispersion/processing in more conventional laboratory solvents. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dirac Magnon Nodal Loops in Quasi-2D Quantum Magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owerre, S A

    2017-07-31

    In this report, we propose a new concept of one-dimensional (1D) closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in two-dimensional (2D) momentum space of quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. They are termed "2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops". We utilize the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets with intralayer coupling J and interlayer coupling J L , which is realizable in the honeycomb chromium compounds CrX 3 (X ≡ Br, Cl, and I). However, our results can also exist in other layered quasi-2D quantum magnetic systems. Here, we show that the magnon bands of the bilayer honeycomb ferromagnets overlap for J L  ≠ 0 and form 1D closed lines of Dirac magnon nodes in 2D momentum space. The 2D Dirac magnon nodal-line loops are topologically protected by inversion and time-reversal symmetry. Furthermore, we show that they are robust against weak Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction Δ DM  magnon edge modes.

  16. Massive quantum field theory in two-dimensional Robertson-Walker space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, T.S.; Christensen, S.M.; Fulling, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The stress tensor of a massive scalar field, as an integral over normal modes (which are not mere plane waves), is regularized by covariant point separation. When the expectation value in a Parker-Fulling adiabatic vacuum state is expanded in the limit of small curvature-to-mass ratios, the series coincides in each order with the Schwinger-DeWitt-Christensen proper-time expansion. The renormalization ansatz suggested by these expansions (which applies to arbitrary curvature-to-mass ratios and arbitrary quantum state) can be implemented at the integrand level for practical computations. The renormalized tensor (1) passes in the massless limit, for appropriate choice of state, to the known vacuum stress of a massless field, (2) agrees with the explicit results of Bernard and Duncan for a special model, and (3) has a nonzero vacuum expectation value in the two-dimensional ''Milne universe'' (flat space in hyperbolic coordinates). Following Wald, we prove that the renormalized tensor is conserved and point out that there is no arbitrariness in the renormalization procedure. The general approach of this paper is applicable to four-dimensional models

  17. Two dimensional solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kentgens, A.P.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis illustrates, by discussing some existing and newly developed 2D solid state experiments, that two-dimensional NMR of solids is a useful and important extension of NMR techniques. Chapter 1 gives an overview of spin interactions and averaging techniques important in solid state NMR. As 2D NMR is already an established technique in solutions, only the basics of two dimensional NMR are presented in chapter 2, with an emphasis on the aspects important for solid spectra. The following chapters discuss the theoretical background and applications of specific 2D solid state experiments. An application of 2D-J resolved NMR, analogous to J-resolved spectroscopy in solutions, to natural rubber is given in chapter 3. In chapter 4 the anisotropic chemical shift is mapped out against the heteronuclear dipolar interaction to obtain information about the orientation of the shielding tensor in poly-(oxymethylene). Chapter 5 concentrates on the study of super-slow molecular motions in polymers using a variant of the 2D exchange experiment developed by us. Finally chapter 6 discusses a new experiment, 2D nutation NMR, which makes it possible to study the quadrupole interaction of half-integer spins. 230 refs.; 48 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards

  19. Thermodynamics of (d+1)-dimensional NUT-charged AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.; Fatibene, L.; Mann, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of (d+1)-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either (d-1)-dimensional (called 'bolts') or of lower dimensionality (pure 'NUTs'). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge methods and the AdS/CFT-inspired counterterm approach. We then generalize these results to arbitrary dimensionality. We find in 4k+2 dimensions that there are no regions in parameter space in the pure NUT case for which the entropy and specific heat are both positive, and so all such spacetimes are thermodynamically unstable. For the pure NUT case in 4k dimensions a region of stability exists in parameter space that decreases in size with increasing dimensionality. All bolt cases have some region of parameter space for which thermodynamic stability can be realized

  20. Classification problem for exactly integrable embeddings of two-dimensional manifolds and coefficients of the third fundametal forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saveliev, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    A method is proposed for classification of exactly and completely integrable embeddings of two dimensional manifoilds into Riemann or non-Riemann enveloping space, which are based on the algebraic approach to the integration of nonlinear dynamical systems.Here the grading conditions and spectral structure of the Lax-pair operators taking the values in a graded Lie algebra that pick out the integrable class of nonlinear systems are formulated 1n terms of a structure of the 3-d fundamental form tensors. Corresponding to every embedding of three-dimensional subalgebra sb(2) into a simple finite-dimensional (infinite-dimensional of finite growth) Lie algebra L is a definite class of exactly (completely) integrable embeddings of two dimensional manifold into the corresponding enveloping space supplied with the structure of L

  1. State-space representation of instationary two-dimensional airfoil aerodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Marcus; Matthies, Hermann G. [Institute of Scientific Computing, Technical University Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Str. 65, Braunschweig 38106 (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In the aero-elastic analysis of wind turbines the need to include a model of the local, two-dimensional instationary aerodynamic loads, commonly referred to as dynamic stall model, has become obvious in the last years. In this contribution an alternative choice for such a model is described, based on the DLR model. Its derivation is governed by the flow physics, thus enabling interpolation between different profile geometries. An advantage of the proposed model is its state-space form, i.e. a system of differential equations, which facilitates the important tasks of aeroelastic stability and sensitivity investigations. The model is validated with numerical calculations.

  2. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji

    2017-01-01

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H_6) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t_0, with t_0 some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t_0) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H_6. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  3. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. Applications for chemists and biochemists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croasmun, W.R.; Carlson, R.M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2-D NMR) has become a very powerful class of experiments (in the hands of an adept scientist) with broad adaptability to new situations. It is the product of a happy marriage between modern pulse FT-NMR technology, with its large memory and high-speed computers, and the physicists and chemists who love to manipulate spin systems. Basic 2-D experiments are now a standard capability of modern NMR spectrometers, and this timely book intends to make 2-D NMR users of those who are familiar with normal 1-D NMR. The 2-D NMR goal is correlation of the lines of the observed NMR spectrum with other properties of the system. This book deals with applications to high-resolution spectrum analysis, utilizing either coupling between the NMR-active nuclei or chemical exchange to perform the correlation. The coupling can be scalar (through bonds) or direct through space (within 5 A). The coupling may be homonuclear (between like nuclei) or heteronuclear

  4. Convergent-beam electron diffraction study of incommensurately modulated crystals. Pt. 2. (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Mariko; Tanaka, Michiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    The convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) method for determining three-dimensional space groups is extended to the determination of the (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups for one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystals. It is clarified than an approximate dynamical extinction line appears in the CBED discs of the reflections caused by an incommensurate modulation. The extinction enables the space-group determination of the (3 + 1)-dimensional crystals or the one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystals. An example of the dynamical extinction line is shown using an incommensurately modulated crystal of Sr 2 Nb 2 O 7 . Tables of the dynamical extinction lines appearing in CBED patterns are given for all the (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups of the incommensurately modulated crystal. (orig.)

  5. Construction of two-dimensional quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, S.; Kondracki, W.

    1987-12-01

    We present a sketch of the construction of the functional measure for the SU(2) quantum chromodynamics with one generation of fermions in two-dimensional space-time. The method is based on a detailed analysis of Wilson loops.

  6. Dirac and Weyl fermion dynamics on two-dimensional surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavalov, A.R.; Sedrakyan, A.G.; Kostov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fermions on 2-dimensional surface, embedded into a 3-dimensional space are investigated. The determinant of induced Dirac operator for the Dirac and Weyl fermions is calculated. The reparametrization-invariant effective action is determined by conformal anomaly (giving Liouville action) and also by Lorentz anomaly leading to Wess-Zumino term, the structure of which at d=3 is determined by the Hopf topological invariant of the S 3 → S 2 map

  7. Design of a rotational three-dimensional nonimaging device by a compensated two-dimensional design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Qian, Ke-Yuan; Luo, Yi

    2006-07-20

    A compensation process has been developed to design rotational three-dimensional (3D) nonimaging devices. By compensating the desired light distribution during a two-dimensional (2D) design process for an extended Lambertian source using a compensation coefficient, the meridian plane of a 3D device with good performance can be obtained. This method is suitable in many cases with fast calculation speed. Solutions to two kinds of optical design problems have been proposed, and the limitation of this compensated 2D design method is discussed.

  8. Identification of Architectural Functions in A Four-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firza Utama

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has explored the possibilities and concept of architectural space in a virtual environment. The virtual environment exists as a different concept, and challenges the constraints of the physical world. One of the possibilities in a virtual environment is that it is able to extend the spatial dimension higher than the physical three-dimension. To take the advantage of this possibility, this research has applied some geometrical four-dimensional (4D methods to define virtual architectural space. The spatial characteristics of 4D space is established by analyzing the four-dimensional structure that can be comprehended by human participant for its spatial quality, and by developing a system to control the fourth axis of movement. Multiple three-dimensional spaces that fluidly change their volume have been defined as one of the possibilities of virtual architecturalspace concept in order to enrich our understanding of virtual spatial experience.

  9. Dimensional regularization in configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.

    1995-09-01

    Dimensional regularization is introduced in configuration space by Fourier transforming in D-dimensions the perturbative momentum space Green functions. For this transformation, Bochner theorem is used, no extra parameters, such as those of Feynman or Bogoliubov-Shirkov are needed for convolutions. The regularized causal functions in x-space have ν-dependent moderated singularities at the origin. They can be multiplied together and Fourier transformed (Bochner) without divergence problems. The usual ultraviolet divergences appear as poles of the resultant functions of ν. Several example are discussed. (author). 9 refs

  10. Dynamic three-dimensional display of common congenital cardiac defects from reconstruction of two-dimensional echocardiographic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, K S; Lin, C C; Liu, W S; Chen, F L

    1996-01-01

    Two-dimensional echocardiography had long been a standard diagnostic modality for congenital heart disease. Further attempts of three-dimensional reconstruction using two-dimensional echocardiographic images to visualize stereotypic structure of cardiac lesions have been successful only recently. So far only very few studies have been done to display three-dimensional anatomy of the heart through two-dimensional image acquisition because such complex procedures were involved. This study introduced a recently developed image acquisition and processing system for dynamic three-dimensional visualization of various congenital cardiac lesions. From December 1994 to April 1995, 35 cases were selected in the Echo Laboratory here from about 3000 Echo examinations completed. Each image was acquired on-line with specially designed high resolution image grazmber with EKG and respiratory gating technique. Off-line image processing using a window-architectured interactive software package includes construction of 2-D ehcocardiographic pixel to 3-D "voxel" with conversion of orthogonal to rotatory axial system, interpolation, extraction of region of interest, segmentation, shading and, finally, 3D rendering. Three-dimensional anatomy of various congenital cardiac defects was shown, including four cases with ventricular septal defects, two cases with atrial septal defects, and two cases with aortic stenosis. Dynamic reconstruction of a "beating heart" is recorded as vedio tape with video interface. The potential application of 3D display of the reconstruction from 2D echocardiographic images for the diagnosis of various congenital heart defects has been shown. The 3D display was able to improve the diagnostic ability of echocardiography, and clear-cut display of the various congenital cardiac defects and vavular stenosis could be demonstrated. Reinforcement of current techniques will expand future application of 3D display of conventional 2D images.

  11. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  12. Two-dimensional MoS2: A promising building block for biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Xiaorong; Zhao, Huimin; Quan, Xie

    2017-03-15

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials have trigged intensive interest due to the intriguing physicochemical properties that stem from a quantum size effect connected with their ultra-thin structure. In particular, 2D molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ), as an emerging class of stable inorganic graphene analogs with intrinsic finite bandgap, would possibly complement or even surpass graphene in electronics and optoelectronics fields. In this review, we first discuss the historical development of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials. Then, we are concerned with 2D MoS 2 including its structure-property relationships, synthesis methods, characterization for the layer thickness, and biosensor applications over the past five years. Thereinto, we are highlighting recent advances in 2D MoS 2 -based biosensors, especially emphasize the preparation of sensing elements, roles of 2D MoS 2 , and assay strategies. Finally, on the basis of the current achievements on 2D MoS 2 and other ultrathin layered nanomaterials, perspectives on the challenges and opportunities for the exploration of 2D MoS 2 -based biosensors are put forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Kronecker product splitting preconditioner for two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Lv, Wen; Zhang, Tongtong

    2018-05-01

    We study preconditioned iterative methods for the linear system arising in the numerical discretization of a two-dimensional space-fractional diffusion equation. Our approach is based on a formulation of the discrete problem that is shown to be the sum of two Kronecker products. By making use of an alternating Kronecker product splitting iteration technique we establish a class of fixed-point iteration methods. Theoretical analysis shows that the new method converges to the unique solution of the linear system. Moreover, the optimal choice of the involved iteration parameters and the corresponding asymptotic convergence rate are computed exactly when the eigenvalues of the system matrix are all real. The basic iteration is accelerated by a Krylov subspace method like GMRES. The corresponding preconditioner is in a form of a Kronecker product structure and requires at each iteration the solution of a set of discrete one-dimensional fractional diffusion equations. We use structure preserving approximations to the discrete one-dimensional fractional diffusion operators in the action of the preconditioning matrix. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  14. Peak clustering in two-dimensional gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection based on theoretical calculation of two-dimensional peak shapes: the 2DAid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stee, Leo L P; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2011-10-28

    A method is presented to facilitate the non-target analysis of data obtained in temperature-programmed comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-ToF-MS). One main difficulty of GC×GC data analysis is that each peak is usually modulated several times and therefore appears as a series of peaks (or peaklets) in the one-dimensionally recorded data. The proposed method, 2DAid, uses basic chromatographic laws to calculate the theoretical shape of a 2D peak (a cluster of peaklets originating from the same analyte) in order to define the area in which the peaklets of each individual compound can be expected to show up. Based on analyte-identity information obtained by means of mass spectral library searching, the individual peaklets are then combined into a single 2D peak. The method is applied, amongst others, to a complex mixture containing 362 analytes. It is demonstrated that the 2D peak shapes can be accurately predicted and that clustering and further processing can reduce the final peak list to a manageable size. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Y.; Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

  16. Anisotropic SD2 brane: accelerating cosmology and Kasner-like space-time from compactification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayek, Kuntal; Roy, Shibaji [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India)

    2017-07-15

    Starting from an anisotropic (in all directions including the time direction of the brane) non-SUSY D2 brane solution of type IIA string theory we construct an anisotropic space-like D2 brane (or SD2 brane, for short) solution by the standard trick of a double Wick rotation. This solution is characterized by five independent parameters. We show that compactification on six-dimensional hyperbolic space (H{sub 6}) of a time-dependent volume of this SD2 brane solution leads to accelerating cosmologies (for some time t ∝ t{sub 0}, with t{sub 0} some characteristic time) where both the expansions and the accelerations are different in three spatial directions of the resultant four-dimensional universe. On the other hand at early times (t << t{sub 0}) this four-dimensional space, in certain situations, leads to four-dimensional Kasner-like cosmology, with two additional scalars, namely, the dilaton and a volume scalar of H{sub 6}. Unlike in the standard four-dimensional Kasner cosmology here all three Kasner exponents could be positive definite, leading to expansions in all three directions. (orig.)

  17. Noncontact Cohesive Swimming of Bacteria in Two-Dimensional Liquid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhai, He; Sanchez, Sandra; Kearns, Daniel B; Wu, Yilin

    2017-07-07

    Bacterial swimming in confined two-dimensional environments is ubiquitous in nature and in clinical settings. Characterizing individual interactions between swimming bacteria in 2D confinement will help to understand diverse microbial processes, such as bacterial swarming and biofilm formation. Here we report a novel motion pattern displayed by flagellated bacteria in 2D confinement: When two nearby cells align their moving directions, they tend to engage in cohesive swimming without direct cell body contact, as a result of hydrodynamic interaction but not flagellar intertwining. We further found that cells in cohesive swimming move with higher directional persistence, which can increase the effective diffusivity of cells by ∼3 times as predicted by computational modeling. As a conserved behavior for peritrichously flagellated bacteria, cohesive swimming in 2D confinement may be key to collective motion and self-organization in bacterial swarms; it may also promote bacterial dispersal in unsaturated soils and in interstitial space during infections.

  18. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1....../15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...

  19. Interference patterns of Bose-condensed gases in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shujuan; Xiong Hongwei; Xu Zhijun; Huang Guoxiang

    2003-01-01

    For a Bose-condensed gas confined in a magnetic trap and in a two-dimensional (2D) optical lattice, the non-uniform distribution of atoms in different lattice sites is considered based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. A propagator method is used to investigate the time evolution of 2D interference patterns after (i) only the optical lattice is switched off, and (ii) both the optical lattice and the magnetic trap are switched off. An analytical description on the motion of side peaks in the interference patterns is presented by using the density distribution in a momentum space

  20. Exact lattice supersymmetry: The two-dimensional N=2 Wess-Zumino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catterall, Simon; Karamov, Sergey

    2002-01-01

    We study the two-dimensional Wess-Zumino model with extended N=2 supersymmetry on the lattice. The lattice prescription we choose has the merit of preserving exactly a single supersymmetric invariance at finite lattice spacing a. Furthermore, we construct three other transformations of the lattice fields under which the variation of the lattice action vanishes to O(ga 2 ) where g is a typical interaction coupling. These four transformations correspond to the two Majorana supercharges of the continuum theory. We also derive lattice Ward identities corresponding to these exact and approximate symmetries. We use dynamical fermion simulations to check the equality of the mass gaps in the boson and fermion sectors and to check the lattice Ward identities. At least for weak coupling we see no problems associated with a lack of reflection positivity in the lattice action and find good agreement with theory. At strong coupling we provide evidence that problems associated with a lack of reflection positivity are evaded for small enough lattice spacing

  1. Design and implementation of an array of micro-electrochemical detectors for two-dimensional liquid chromatography--proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abia, Jude A; Putnam, Joel; Mriziq, Khaled; Guiochon, Georges A

    2010-03-05

    Simultaneous two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) is an implementation of two-dimensional liquid chromatography which has the potential to provide very fast, yet highly efficient separations. It is based on the use of time x space and space x space separation systems. The basic principle of this instrument has been validated long ago by the success of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. The construction of a pressurized wide and flat column (100 mm x 100 mm x 1 mm) operated under an inlet pressure of up to 50 bar was described previously. However, to become a modern analytical method, simultaneous 2D-LC requires the development of detectors suitable for the monitoring of the composition of the eluent of this pressurized planar, wide column. An array of five equidistant micro-electrochemical sensors was built for this purpose and tested. Each sensor is a three-electrode system, with the working electrode being a 25 microm polished platinum micro-electrode. The auxiliary electrode is a thin platinum wire and the reference electrode an Ag/AgCl (3M sat. KCl) electrode. In this first implementation, proof of principle is demonstrated, but the final instrument will require a much larger array. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. String vacuum backgrounds with covariantly constant null Killing vector and two-dimensional quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional sigma model with a (2+N)-dimensional Minkowski signature target space metric having a covariantly constant null Killing vector. We study solutions of the conformal invariance conditions in 2+N dimensions and find that generic solutions can be represented in terms of the RG flow in N-dimensional 'transverse space' theory. The resulting conformal invariant sigma model is interpreted as a quantum action of the two-dimensional scalar ('dilaton') quantum gravity model coupled to a (non-conformal) 'transverse' sigma model. The conformal factor of the two-dimensional metric is identified with a light-cone coordinate of the (2+N)-dimensional sigma model. We also discuss the case when the transverse theory is conformal (with or without the antisymmetric tensor background) and reproduce in a systematic way the solutions with flat transverse space known before. (orig.)

  3. Learning 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Geometry with Geogebra: Which Would Students Do Better?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleha Ismail

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the geometric thinking of young children who worked with GeoGebra to learn two-dimensional (2-D and three-dimensional (3-D geometry. GeoGebra is an open sourced dynamic mathematics software which is applicable for learning mathematics from primary school to secondary school and to higher education. Thirty pupils studying in second grade (Year 2 at a school located in Pontian, a district in one of the Malaysian state participated in the study. They attended GeoGebra sessions to construct and analyze dynamics of two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry after learning these topics in the conventional setting. Pretest and posttest on two-dimensional and three-dimensional spatial ability based on Van Hiele level of geometric thinking were administered to the pupils. The comparison between pretest and posttest results demonstrate significant enhancement in visualization and informal deduction for both 2-D and 3-D geometry. Moreover from the intervention, the students benefit most in analyzing 3-D and visualizing 2-D geometry. Interestingly, skills and knowledge acquired through activities using GeoGebra in student-centered learning environment could be successfully transferred to paper and pencil test.

  4. Sufficient Controllability Condition for Affine Systems with Two-Dimensional Control and Two-Dimensional Zero Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Fetisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The controllability conditions are well known if we speak about linear stationary systems: a linear stationary system is controllable if and only if the dimension of the state vector is equal to the rank of the controllability matrix. The concept of the controllability matrix is extended to affine systems, but relations between affine systems controllability and properties of this matrix are more complicated. Various controllability conditions are set for affine systems, but they deal as usual either with systems of some special form or with controllability in some small neighborhood of the concerned point. An affine system is known to be controllable if the system is equivalent to a system of a canonical form, which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. In this case, the system is said to be feedback linearizable in the space of states. However there are examples, which illustrate that a system can be controllable even if it is not feedback linearizable in any open subset in the space of states. In this article we deal with such systems.Affine systems with two-dimensional control are considered. The system in question is assumed to be equivalent to a system of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional zero dynamics which is defined and regular in the whole space of states. Therefore the controllability of the original system is equivalent to the controllability of the received system of a quasicanonical form. In this article the sufficient condition for an available solution of the terminal problem is proven for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. The condition is valid in the case of an arbitrary time interval and arbitrary initial and finite states of the system. Therefore the controllability condition is set for systems of a quasicanonical form with two-dimensional control and two-dimensional zero dynamics. An example is given which illustrates how the proved

  5. 2D biological representations with reduced speckle obtained from two perpendicular ultrasonic arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, Miguel A; Gomez-Sacristan, Angel; Sempere-Payá, Víctor M

    2016-04-29

    Ultrasound diagnosis is a widely used medical tool. Among the various ultrasound techniques, ultrasonic imaging is particularly relevant. This paper presents an improvement to a two-dimensional (2D) ultrasonic system using measurements taken from perpendicular planes, where digital signal processing techniques are used to combine one-dimensional (1D) A-scans were acquired by individual transducers in arrays located in perpendicular planes. An algorithm used to combine measurements is improved based on the wavelet transform, which includes a denoising step during the 2D representation generation process. The inclusion of this new denoising stage generates higher quality 2D representations with a reduced level of speckling. The paper includes different 2D representations obtained from noisy A-scans and compares the improvements obtained by including the denoising stage.

  6. Impurity states in two - and three-dimensional disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.F. da; Fabbri, M.

    1984-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the impurity states in two-and three-dimensional (2D and 3d) disordered systems. A cluster model is outlined for the donor impurity density of states (DIDS) of doped semiconductors. It is shown that the impurity states are very sensitive to a change in the dimensionality of the system, i.e from 3D to 2D system. It is found that all eigenstates become localized in 2D disordered system for a large range of concentration. (Author) [pt

  7. Impurity states in two-and three-dimensional disordered systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.F. da; Fabbri, M.

    1984-04-01

    The microscopic structure of the impurity states in two-and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) disordered systems is investigated. A cluster model is outlined for the donor impurity density of states (DIDS) of doped semiconductors. It is shown that the impurity states are very sensitive to a change in the dimensionality of the system, i.e., from 3D to 2D system. It is found that all eigenstates become localized in 2D disordered system for a large range of concentration. (Author) [pt

  8. Solution of the two-dimensional spectral factorization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    An approximation theorem is proven which solves a classic problem in two-dimensional (2-D) filter theory. The theorem shows that any continuous two-dimensional spectrum can be uniformly approximated by the squared modulus of a recursively stable finite trigonometric polynomial supported on a nonsymmetric half-plane.

  9. Surface Reconstruction-Induced Coincidence Lattice Formation Between Two-Dimensionally Bonded Materials and a Three-Dimensionally Bonded Substrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, Jos E.; Momand, Jamo; Bragaglia, Valeria; Wang, Ruining; Perumal, Karthick; Giussani, Alessandro; Kooi, Bart J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    Sb2Te3 films are used for studying the epitaxial registry between two-dimensionally bonded (2D) materials and three-dimensional bonded (3D) substrates. In contrast to the growth of 3D materials, it is found that the formation of coincidence lattices between Sb2Te3 and Si(111) depends on the geometry

  10. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-01

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  11. Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng

    2016-08-19

    Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as

  12. Subjective figure reversal in two- and three-dimensional perceptual space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radilová, J; Radil-Weiss, T

    1984-08-01

    A permanently illuminated pattern of Mach's truncated pyramid can be perceived according to the experimental instruction given, either as a three-dimensional reversible figure with spontaneously changing convex and concave interpretation (in one experiment), or as a two-dimensional reversible figure-ground pattern (in another experiment). The reversal rate was about twice as slow, without the subjects being aware of it, if it was perceived as a three-dimensional figure compared to the situation when it was perceived as two-dimensional. It may be hypothetized that in the three-dimensional case, the process of perception requires more sequential steps than in the two-dimensional one.

  13. Assessment of RELAP5-3D copyright using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.B.

    1998-01-01

    The capability of the RELAP5-3D copyright computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code's logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved

  14. Positioning in a flat two-dimensional space-time: The delay master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Bartolome; Ferrando, Joan Josep; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The basic theory on relativistic positioning systems in a two-dimensional space-time has been presented in two previous papers [B. Coll, J. J. Ferrando, and J. A. Morales, Phys. Rev. D 73, 084017 (2006); ibid.74, 104003 (2006)], where the possibility of making relativistic gravimetry with these systems has been analyzed by considering specific examples. Here, generic relativistic positioning systems in the Minkowski plane are studied. The information that can be obtained from the data received by a user of the positioning system is analyzed in detail. In particular, it is shown that the accelerations of the emitters and of the user along their trajectories are determined by the sole knowledge of the emitter positioning data and of the acceleration of only one of the emitters. Moreover, as a consequence of the so-called master delay equation, the knowledge of this acceleration is only required during an echo interval, i.e., the interval between the emission time of a signal by an emitter and its reception time after being reflected by the other emitter. These results are illustrated with the obtention of the dynamics of the emitters and of the user from specific sets of data received by the user.

  15. Method for coupling two-dimensional to three-dimensional discrete ordinates calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.L.; Emmett, M.B.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) discrete ordinates transport code, TORT, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for radiation penetration studies. It is not feasible to solve some 3-D penetration problems with TORT, such as a building located a large distance from a point source, because (a) the discretized 3-D problem is simply too big to fit on the computer or (b) the computing time (and corresponding cost) is prohibitive. Fortunately, such problems can be solved with a hybrid approach by coupling a two-dimensional (2-D) description of the point source, which is assumed to be azimuthally symmetric, to a 3-D description of the building, the region of interest. The purpose of this paper is to describe this hybrid methodology along with its implementation and evaluation in the DOTTOR (Discrete Ordinates to Three-dimensional Oak Ridge Transport) code

  16. Dimensional reduction from entanglement in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Yarom, Amos

    2005-01-01

    Using a quantum field theoretic setting, we present evidence for dimensional reduction of any sub-volume of Minkowksi space. First, we show that correlation functions of a class of operators restricted to a sub-volume of D-dimensional Minkowski space scale as its surface area. A simple example of such area scaling is provided by the energy fluctuations of a free massless quantum field in its vacuum state. This is reminiscent of area scaling of entanglement entropy but applies to quantum expectation values in a pure state, rather than to statistical averages over a mixed state. We then show, in a specific case, that fluctuations in the bulk have a lower-dimensional representation in terms of a boundary theory at high temperature. (author)

  17. The emergence of geometry: a two-dimensional toy model

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, Jorge; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D) X GL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zwei-bein is generated from a topological theory without any pre-existing metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several non-standard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared re...

  18. Two-dimensional membranes in motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis revolves around nanomechanical membranes made of suspended two - dimensional materials. Chapters 1-3 give an introduction to the field of 2D-based nanomechanical devices together with an overview of the underlying physics and the measurementtools used in subsequent chapters. The research

  19. Interfacial nondegenerate doping of MoS2 and other two-dimensional semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behura, Sanjay; Berry, Vikas

    2015-03-24

    Controlled nondegenerate doping of two-dimensional semiconductors (2DSs) with their ultraconfined carriers, high quantum capacitance, and surface-sensitive electronics can enable tuning their Fermi levels for rational device design. However, doping techniques for three-dimensional semiconductors, such as ion implantation, cannot be directly applied to 2DSs because they inflict high defect density. In this issue of ACS Nano, Park et al. demonstrate that interfacing 2DSs with substrates having dopants can controllably inject carriers to achieve nondegenerate doping, thus significantly broadening 2DSs' functionality and applications. Futuristically, this can enable complex spatial patterning/contouring of energy levels in 2DSs to form p-n junctions, integrated logic, and opto/electronic devices. The process is also extendable to biocellular-interfaced devices, band-continuum structures, and intricate 2D circuitry.

  20. Dimensional reduction of a general advection–diffusion equation in 2D channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinay, Pavol; Slanina, František

    2018-06-01

    Diffusion of point-like particles in a two-dimensional channel of varying width is studied. The particles are driven by an arbitrary space dependent force. We construct a general recurrence procedure mapping the corresponding two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation onto the longitudinal coordinate x. Unlike the previous specific cases, the presented procedure enables us to find the one-dimensional description of the confined diffusion even for non-conservative (vortex) forces, e.g. caused by flowing solvent dragging the particles. We show that the result is again the generalized Fick–Jacobs equation. Despite of non existing scalar potential in the case of vortex forces, the effective one-dimensional scalar potential, as well as the corresponding quasi-equilibrium and the effective diffusion coefficient can be always found.

  1. FLUST-2D - A computer code for the calculation of the two-dimensional flow of a compressible medium in coupled retangular areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, G.

    1979-01-01

    The computer-code FLUST-2D is able to calculate the two-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid in arbitrary coupled rectangular areas. In a finite-difference scheme the program computes pressure, density, internal energy and velocity. Starting with a basic set of equations, the difference equations in a rectangular grid are developed. The computational cycle for coupled fluid areas is described. Results of test calculations are compared to analytical solutions and the influence of time step and mesh size are investigated. The program was used to precalculate the blowdown experiments of the HDR experimental program. Downcomer, plena, internal vessel region, blowdown pipe and a containment area have been modelled two-dimensionally. The major results of the precalculations are presented. This report also contains a description of the code structure and user information. (orig.) [de

  2. Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites for Emerging New- Generation Photodetectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yingying; Cao, Xianyi; Chi, Qijin

    2018-01-01

    Compared to their conventional three-dimensional (3D) counterparts, two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites have attracted more interests recently in a variety of areas related to optoelectronics because of their unique structural characteristics and enhanced performances. In general, there are two...... distinct types of 2D halide perovskites. One represents those perovskites with an intrinsic layered crystal structure (i.e. MX6 layers, M = metal and X = Cl, Br, I), the other defines the perovskites with a 2D nanostructured morphology such as nanoplatelets and nanosheets. Recent studies have shown that 2D...... halide perovskites hold promising potential for the development of new-generation photodetectors, mainly arising from their highly efficient photoluminescence and absorbance, color tunability in the visible-light range and relatively high stability. In this chapter, we present the summary and highlights...

  3. Two-dimensional Cu2Si sheet: a promising electrode material for nanoscale electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng Yam, Kah; Guo, Na; Zhang, Chun

    2018-06-01

    Building electronic devices on top of two-dimensional (2D) materials has recently become one of most interesting topics in nanoelectronics. Finding high-performance 2D electrode materials is one central issue in 2D nanoelectronics. In the current study, based on first-principles calculations, we compare the electronic and transport properties of two nanoscale devices. One device consists of two single-atom-thick planar Cu2Si electrodes, and a nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) molecule in the middle. The other device is made of often-used graphene electrodes and a NiPc molecule. Planer Cu2Si is a new type of 2D material that was recently predicted to exist and be stable under room temperature [11]. We found that at low bias voltages, the electric current through the Cu2Si–NiPc–Cu2Si junction is about three orders higher than that through graphene–NiPc–graphene. Detailed analysis shows that the surprisingly high conductivity of Cu2Si–NiPc–Cu2Si originates from the mixing of the Cu2Si state near Fermi energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital of NiPc. These results suggest that 2D Cu2Si may be an excellent candidate for electrode materials for future nanoscale devices.

  4. Equatorial spread F studies using SAMI3 with two-dimensional and three-dimensional electrostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Aveiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents a study of equatorial F region irregularities using the NRL SAMI3/ESF model, comparing results using a two-dimensional (2-D and a three-dimensional (3-D electrostatic potential solution. For the 3-D potential solution, two cases are considered for parallel plasma transport: (1 transport based on the parallel ambipolar field, and (2 transport based on the parallel electric field. The results show that the growth rate of the generalized Rayleigh–Taylor instability is not affected by the choice of the potential solution. However, differences are observed in the structures of the irregularities between the 2-D and 3-D solutions. Additionally, the plasma velocity along the geomagnetic field computed using the full 3-D solution shows complex structures that are not captured by the simplified model. This points out that only the full 3-D model is able to fully capture the complex physics of the equatorial F region.

  5. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  6. Three dimensional range geometry and texture data compression with space-filling curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Zhang, Song

    2017-10-16

    This paper presents a novel method to effectively store three-dimensional (3D) data and 2D texture data into a regular 24-bit image. The proposed method uses the Hilbert space-filling curve to map the normalized unwrapped phase map to two 8-bit color channels, and saves the third color channel for 2D texture storage. By further leveraging existing 2D image and video compression techniques, the proposed method can achieve high compression ratios while effectively preserving data quality. Since the encoding and decoding processes can be applied to most of the current 2D media platforms, this proposed compression method can make 3D data storage and transmission available for many electrical devices without requiring special hardware changes. Experiments demonstrate that if a lossless 2D image/video format is used, both original 3D geometry and 2D color texture can be accurately recovered; if lossy image/video compression is used, only black-and-white or grayscale texture can be properly recovered, but much higher compression ratios (e.g., 1543:1 against the ASCII OBJ format) are achieved with slight loss of 3D geometry quality.

  7. Iterative Two- and One-Dimensional Methods for Three-Dimensional Neutron Diffusion Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Deokjung; Downar, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods are proposed for solving the three-dimensional neutron diffusion equation by iterating between solutions of the two-dimensional (2-D) radial and one-dimensional (1-D) axial solutions. In the first method, the 2-D/1-D equations are coupled using a current correction factor (CCF) with the average fluxes of the lower and upper planes and the axial net currents at the plane interfaces. In the second method, an analytic expression for the axial net currents at the interface of the planes is used for planar coupling. A comparison of the new methods is made with two previously proposed methods, which use interface net currents and partial currents for planar coupling. A Fourier convergence analysis of the four methods was performed, and results indicate that the two new methods have at least three advantages over the previous methods. First, the new methods are unconditionally stable, whereas the net current method diverges for small axial mesh size. Second, the new methods provide better convergence performance than the other methods in the range of practical mesh sizes. Third, the spectral radii of the new methods asymptotically approach zero as the mesh size increases, while the spectral radius of the partial current method approaches a nonzero value as the mesh size increases. Of the two new methods proposed here, the analytic method provides a smaller spectral radius than the CCF method, but the CCF method has several advantages over the analytic method in practical applications

  8. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    -dimensional separation space. Optimization of gradients in online RP×RP is more difficult than in normal HPLC as a result of the increased number of parameters and their influence on each other. Modeling the coverage of the compounds across the two-dimensional chromatogram as a result of a change in gradients could...... be used for optimization purposes, and reduce the time spend on optimization. In this thesis (chapter 6), and manuscript B, a measure of the coverage of the compounds in the twodimensional separation space is defined. It is then shown that this measure can be modeled for changes in the gradient in both...

  9. D-brane propagation in two-dimensional black hole geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yu; Rey, Soo-Jong; Sugawara, Yuji

    2005-01-01

    We study propagation of D0-brane in two-dimensional lorentzian black hole backgrounds by the method of boundary conformal field theory of SL(2,R)/U(1) supercoset at level k. Typically, such backgrounds arise as near-horizon geometries of k coincident non-extremal NS5-branes, where 1/k measures curvature of the backgrounds in string unit and hence size of string worldsheet effects. At classical level, string worldsheet effects are suppressed and D0-brane propagation in the lorentzian black hole geometry is simply given by the Wick rotation of D1-brane contour in the euclidean black hole geometry. Taking account of string worldsheet effects, boundary state of the lorentzian D0-brane is formally constructible via Wick rotation from that of the euclidean D1-brane. However, the construction is subject to ambiguities in boundary conditions. We propose exact boundary states describing the D0-brane, and clarify physical interpretations of various boundary states constructed from different boundary conditions. As it falls into the black hole, the D0-brane radiates off to the horizon and to the infinity. From the boundary states constructed, we compute physical observables of such radiative process. We find that part of the radiation to infinity is in effective thermal distribution at the Hawking temperature. We also find that part of the radiation to horizon is in the Hagedorn distribution, dominated by massive, highly non-relativistic closed string states, much like the tachyon matter. Remarkably, such distribution emerges only after string worldsheet effects are taken exactly into account. From these results, we observe that nature of the radiation distribution changes dramatically across the conifold geometry k = 1 (k = 3 for the bosonic case), exposing the 'string - black hole transition' therein

  10. Strain-engineered growth of two-dimensional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Geun Ho; Amani, Matin; Rasool, Haider; Lien, Der-Hsien; Mastandrea, James P; Ager Iii, Joel W; Dubey, Madan; Chrzan, Daryl C; Minor, Andrew M; Javey, Ali

    2017-09-20

    The application of strain to semiconductors allows for controlled modification of their band structure. This principle is employed for the manufacturing of devices ranging from high-performance transistors to solid-state lasers. Traditionally, strain is typically achieved via growth on lattice-mismatched substrates. For two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, this is not feasible as they typically do not interact epitaxially with the substrate. Here, we demonstrate controlled strain engineering of 2D semiconductors during synthesis by utilizing the thermal coefficient of expansion mismatch between the substrate and semiconductor. Using WSe 2 as a model system, we demonstrate stable built-in strains ranging from 1% tensile to 0.2% compressive on substrates with different thermal coefficient of expansion. Consequently, we observe a dramatic modulation of the band structure, manifested by a strain-driven indirect-to-direct bandgap transition and brightening of the dark exciton in bilayer and monolayer WSe 2 , respectively. The growth method developed here should enable flexibility in design of more sophisticated devices based on 2D materials.Strain engineering is an essential tool for modifying local electronic properties in silicon-based electronics. Here, Ahn et al. demonstrate control of biaxial strain in two-dimensional materials based on the growth substrate, enabling more complex low-dimensional electronics.

  11. Edge Epitaxy of Two-dimensional MoSe2 and MoS2 Nanosheets on One-dimensional Nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Junze; Wu, Xue-Jun; Gong, Yue; Zhu, Yihan; Yang, Zhenzhong; Li, Bing; Lu, Qipeng; Yu, Yifu; Han, Shikui; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zong, Yun; Han, Yu; Gu, Lin; Zhang, Hua

    2017-01-01

    the longitudinal direction of one-dimensional (1D) Cu2-xS nanowires (NWs) in an epitaxial manner. The obtained Cu2-xS-TMD heterostructures with tunable loading amount and lateral size of TMD NSs are achieved by the consecutive growth of TMD NSs on Cu2-xS NWs

  12. 3D Oscillator and Coulomb Systems reduced from Kahler spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2003-01-01

    We define the oscillator and Coulomb systems on four-dimensional spaces with U(2)-invariant Kahler metric and perform their Hamiltonian reduction to the three-dimensional oscillator and Coulomb systems specified by the presence of Dirac monopoles. We find the Kahler spaces with conic singularity, where the oscillator and Coulomb systems on three-dimensional sphere and two-sheet hyperboloid are originated. Then we construct the superintegrable oscillator system on three-dimensional sphere and ...

  13. Polytypism and unexpected strong interlayer coupling in two-dimensional layered ReS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Xiao-Fen; Wu, Jiang-Bin; Zhou, Linwei; Qiao, Jingsi; Shi, Wei; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Wei; Tan, Ping-Heng

    2016-04-01

    Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and anisotropic-like (AI) N layer (NL, N > 1) ReS2 are revealed by ultralow- and high-frequency Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and first-principles density functional theory calculation. Two interlayer shear modes are observed in AI-NL-ReS2 while only one shear mode appears in IS-NL-ReS2, suggesting anisotropic- and isotropic-like stacking orders in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2, respectively. This explicit difference in the observed frequencies identifies an unexpected strong interlayer coupling in IS- and AI-NL-ReS2. Quantitatively, the force constants of them are found to be around 55-90% of those of multilayer MoS2. The revealed strong interlayer coupling and polytypism in multi-layer ReS2 may stimulate future studies on engineering physical properties of other anisotropic 2D materials by stacking orders.Anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) layered materials, with both scientific interest and application potential, offer one more dimension than isotropic 2D materials to tune their physical properties. Various physical properties of 2D multi-layer materials are modulated by varying their stacking orders owing to significant interlayer vdW coupling. Multilayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2), a representative anisotropic 2D material, was expected to be randomly stacked and lack interlayer coupling. Here, we demonstrate two stable stacking orders, namely isotropic-like (IS) and

  14. Entanglement of arbitrary superpositions of modes within two-dimensional orbital angular momentum state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jack, B.; Leach, J.; Franke-Arnold, S.; Ireland, D. G.; Padgett, M. J.; Yao, A. M.; Barnett, S. M.; Romero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We use spatial light modulators (SLMs) to measure correlations between arbitrary superpositions of orbital angular momentum (OAM) states generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Our technique allows us to fully access a two-dimensional OAM subspace described by a Bloch sphere, within the higher-dimensional OAM Hilbert space. We quantify the entanglement through violations of a Bell-type inequality for pairs of modal superpositions that lie on equatorial, polar, and arbitrary great circles of the Bloch sphere. Our work shows that SLMs can be used to measure arbitrary spatial states with a fidelity sufficient for appropriate quantum information processing systems.

  15. Application of space-angle synthesis to two-dimensional neutral-particle transport problems of weapon physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberds, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A space-angle synthesis (SAS) method has been developed for treating the steady-state, two-dimensional transport of neutrons and gamma rays from a point source of simulated nuclear weapon radiation in air. The method was validated by applying it to the problem of neutron transport from a point source in air over a ground interface, and then comparing the results to those obtained by DOT, a state-of-the-art, discrete-ordinates code. In the SAS method, the energy dependence of the Boltzmann transport equation was treated in the standard multigroup manner. The angular dependence was treated by expanding the flux in specially tailored trial functions and applying the method of weighted residuals which analytically integrated the transport equation over all angles. The weighted-residual approach was analogous to the conventional spherical-harmonics (P/sub N/) method with the exception that the tailored expansion allowed for more rapid convergence than a spherical-harmonics P 1 expansion and resulted in a greater degree of accuracy. The trial functions used in the expansion were odd and even combinations of selected trial solutions, the trial solutions being shaped ellipsoids which approximated the angular distribution of the neutron flux in one-dimensional space. The parameters which described the shape of the ellipsoid varied with energy group and the spatial medium, only, and were obtained from a one-dimensional discrete-ordinates calculation. Thus, approximate transport solutions were made available for all two-dimensional problems of a certain class by using tabulated parameters obtained from a single, one-dimensional calculation

  16. A new method for the determination of peak distribution across a two-dimensional separation space for the identification of optimal column combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Juri; Teutenberg, Thorsten; Buschmann, Greta; Gassner, Oliver; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-11-01

    For the identification of the optimal column combinations, a comparative orthogonality study of single columns and columns coupled in series for the first dimension of a microscale two-dimensional liquid chromatographic approach was performed. In total, eight columns or column combinations were chosen. For the assessment of the optimal column combination, the orthogonality value as well as the peak distributions across the first and second dimension was used. In total, three different methods of orthogonality calculation, namely the Convex Hull, Bin Counting, and Asterisk methods, were compared. Unfortunately, the first two methods do not provide any information of peak distribution. The third method provides this important information, but is not optimal when only a limited number of components are used for method development. Therefore, a new concept for peak distribution assessment across the separation space of two-dimensional chromatographic systems and clustering detection was developed. It could be shown that the Bin Counting method in combination with additionally calculated histograms for the respective dimensions is well suited for the evaluation of orthogonality and peak clustering. The newly developed method could be used generally in the assessment of 2D separations. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. Efficient two-dimensional compressive sensing in MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Nafiseh; Abbasfar, Aliazam; Jabbarian-Jahromi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Compressive sensing (CS) has been a way to lower sampling rate leading to data reduction for processing in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems. In this paper, we further reduce the computational complexity of a pulse-Doppler collocated MIMO radar by introducing a two-dimensional (2D) compressive sensing. To do so, we first introduce a new 2D formulation for the compressed received signals and then we propose a new measurement matrix design for our 2D compressive sensing model that is based on minimizing the coherence of sensing matrix using gradient descent algorithm. The simulation results show that our proposed 2D measurement matrix design using gradient decent algorithm (2D-MMDGD) has much lower computational complexity compared to one-dimensional (1D) methods while having better performance in comparison with conventional methods such as Gaussian random measurement matrix.

  18. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  19. RADON reconstruction in longitudinal phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Wei, J.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal particle motion in circular accelerators is typically monitoring by one dimensional (1-D) profiles. Adiabatic particle motion in two dimensional (2-D) phase space can be reconstructed with tomographic techniques, using 1-D profiles. A computer program RADON has been developed in C++ to process digitized mountain range data and perform the phase space reconstruction for the AGS, and later for Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

  20. Efficient construction of two-dimensional cluster states with probabilistic quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qing; Cheng Jianhua; Wang Kelin; Du Jiangfeng

    2006-01-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for constructing arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) cluster states using probabilistic entangling quantum gates. In our scheme, the 2D cluster state is constructed with starlike basic units generated from 1D cluster chains. By applying parallel operations, the process of generating 2D (or higher-dimensional) cluster states is significantly accelerated, which provides an efficient way to implement realistic one-way quantum computers

  1. Explorative analysis of 2D color maps

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, Martin; Bernard, Jürgen; Thum, Simon; Mittelstädt, Sebastian; Hutter, Marco; Keim, Daniel A.; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2015-01-01

    Color is one of the most important visual variables in information visualization. In many cases, two-dimensional information can be color-coded based on a 2D color map. A variety of color maps as well as a number of quality criteria for the use of color have been presented. The choice of the best color map depends on the analytical task users intend to perform and the design space in choosing an appropriate 2D color map is large. In this paper, we present the ColorMap-Explorer, a visual-inter...

  2. Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2017-03-01

    Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.

  3. Needle path planning and steering in a three-dimensional non-static environment using two-dimensional ultrasound images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrooijink, Gustaaf J.; Abayazid, Momen; Patil, Sachin; Alterovitz, Ron; Misra, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    Needle insertion is commonly performed in minimally invasive medical procedures such as biopsy and radiation cancer treatment. During such procedures, accurate needle tip placement is critical for correct diagnosis or successful treatment. Accurate placement of the needle tip inside tissue is challenging, especially when the target moves and anatomical obstacles must be avoided. We develop a needle steering system capable of autonomously and accurately guiding a steerable needle using two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound images. The needle is steered to a moving target while avoiding moving obstacles in a three-dimensional (3D) non-static environment. Using a 2D ultrasound imaging device, our system accurately tracks the needle tip motion in 3D space in order to estimate the tip pose. The needle tip pose is used by a rapidly exploring random tree-based motion planner to compute a feasible needle path to the target. The motion planner is sufficiently fast such that replanning can be performed repeatedly in a closed-loop manner. This enables the system to correct for perturbations in needle motion, and movement in obstacle and target locations. Our needle steering experiments in a soft-tissue phantom achieves maximum targeting errors of 0.86 ± 0.35 mm (without obstacles) and 2.16 ± 0.88 mm (with a moving obstacle). PMID:26279600

  4. Extended Polymorphism of Two-Dimensional Material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoshida, Masaro; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Imai, Yasuhiko; Kimura, Shigeru; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Nishizaki, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Norio; Nakano, Masaki; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    When controlling electronic properties of bulk materials, we usually assume that the basic crystal structure is fixed. However, in two-dimensional (2D) materials, atomic structure or to functionalize their properties. Various polymorphs can exist in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) from

  5. On the size distribution of one-, two- and three-dimensional Voronoi cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marthinsen, K.

    1994-03-01

    The present report gives a presentation of the different cell size distribution obtained by computer simulations of random Voronoi cell structures in one-, two- and three-dimensional space. The random Voronoi cells are constructed from cell centroids randomly distributed along a string, in the plane and in three-dimensional space, respectively. The size distributions are based on 2-3 · 10 4 cells. For the spacial polyhedra both the distribution of volumes, areas and radii are presented, and the two latter quantities are compared to the distributions of areas and radii from a planar section through the three-dimensional structure as well as to the corresponding distributions obtained from a pure two-dimensional cell structure. 11 refs., 11 figs

  6. Two-dimensional profiling of Xanthomonas campestris pv. viticola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the analysis of the 2D-PAGE gel images revealed a larger number of spots in the lysis method when compared to the others. Taking ... Keywords: Bacterial canker, Vitis vinifera, proteomics, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE).

  7. Conformal symmetry in two-dimensional space: recursion representation of conformal block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The four-point conformal block plays an important part in the analysis of the conformally invariant operator algebra in two-dimensional space. The behavior of the conformal block is calculated in the present paper in the limit in which the dimension Δ of the intermediate operator tends to infinity. This makes it possible to construct a recursion relation for this function that connects the conformal block at arbitrary Δ to the blocks corresponding to the dimensions of the zero vectors in the degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra. The relation is convenient for calculating the expansion of the conformal block in powers of the uniformizing parameters q = i π tau

  8. Emergence of geometry: A two-dimensional toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, Jorge; Espriu, Domene; Puigdomenech, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We review the similarities between the effective chiral Lagrangrian, relevant for low-energy strong interactions, and the Einstein-Hilbert action. We use these analogies to suggest a specific mechanism whereby gravitons would emerge as Goldstone bosons of a global SO(D)xGL(D) symmetry broken down to SO(D) by fermion condensation. We propose a two-dimensional toy model where a dynamical zweibein is generated from a topological theory without any preexisting metric structure, the space being endowed only with an affine connection. A metric appears only after the symmetry breaking; thus the notion of distance is an induced effective one. In spite of several nonstandard features this simple toy model appears to be renormalizable and at long distances is described by an effective Lagrangian that corresponds to that of two-dimensional gravity (Liouville theory). The induced cosmological constant is related to the dynamical mass M acquired by the fermion fields in the breaking, which also acts as an infrared regulator. The low-energy expansion is valid for momenta k>M, i.e. for supra-horizon scales. We briefly discuss a possible implementation of a similar mechanism in four dimensions.

  9. Half-metallic ferromagnetism prediction in MoS2-based two-dimensional superlattice from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Yan-Ni; Gao, Peng-Fei; Xia, Ming-Gang; Zhang, Sheng-Li

    2018-03-01

    Half-metallic ferromagnetism (HMFM) has great potential application in spin filter. However, it is extremely rare, especially in two-dimensional (2D) materials. At present, 2D materials have drawn international interest in spintronic devices. Here, we use ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study the structural stability and electrical and magnetic properties of the MoS2-based 2D superlattice formed by inserting graphene hexagonal ring in 6 × 6 × 1 MoS2 supercell. Two kinds of structures with hexagonal carbon ring were predicted with structural stability and were shown HMFM. The two structures combine the spin transport capacity of graphene with the magnetism of the defective 2D MoS2. And they have strong covalent bonding between the C and S or Mo atoms near the interface. This work is very useful to help us to design reasonable MoS2-based spin filter.

  10. Three-dimensional space-time kinetic analysis with CORETRAN and RETRAN-3D of the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroukhi, H.; Coddington, P

    2001-03-01

    One of the activities within the STARS project, in the Laboratory for Reactor Physics and System Behaviour; is the development of a coupling methodology between the three-dimensional, space-time kinetics codes CORETRAN and RETRAN-3D in order to perform core and plant transient analyses of the Swiss LWRs. The CORETRAN code is a 3-D full-core simulator, intended to be used for core-related analyses, while RETRAN-3D is the three-dimensional kinetics version of the plant system code RETRAN, and can therefore be used for best-estimate analyses of a wide range of transients in both PWRs and BWRs. Because the neutronics solver in both codes is based on the same kinetics model, one important advantage is that the codes can be coupled so that the initial conditions for a RETRAN-3D plant analysis are generated by a detailed-core, steady-state calculation using CORETRAN. As a first step towards using CORETRAN and RETRAN-3D for kinetic applications, the NEACRP PWR rod ejection benchmark has been analyzed with both codes, and is presented in this paper. The first objective is to verify the consistency between the static and kinetic solutions of the two codes, and so gain confidence in the coupling methodology. The second objective is to assess the CORETRAN and RETRAN-3D solutions for a well-defined RIA transient, comparing with previously published results. In parallel, several sensitivity studies have been performed in an attempt to identify models and calculational options important for a correct analysis of an RIA event in a LWR using these two codes. (author)

  11. The Use of Sparse Direct Solver in Vector Finite Element Modeling for Calculating Two Dimensional (2-D) Magnetotelluric Responses in Transverse Electric (TE) Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yihaa Roodhiyah, Lisa’; Tjong, Tiffany; Nurhasan; Sutarno, D.

    2018-04-01

    The late research, linear matrices of vector finite element in two dimensional(2-D) magnetotelluric (MT) responses modeling was solved by non-sparse direct solver in TE mode. Nevertheless, there is some weakness which have to be improved especially accuracy in the low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) which is not achieved yet and high cost computation in dense mesh. In this work, the solver which is used is sparse direct solver instead of non-sparse direct solverto overcome the weaknesses of solving linear matrices of vector finite element metod using non-sparse direct solver. Sparse direct solver will be advantageous in solving linear matrices of vector finite element method because of the matrix properties which is symmetrical and sparse. The validation of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element has been done for a homogen half-space model and vertical contact model by analytical solution. Thevalidation result of sparse direct solver in solving linear matrices of vector finite element shows that sparse direct solver is more stable than non-sparse direct solver in computing linear problem of vector finite element method especially in low frequency. In the end, the accuracy of 2D MT responses modelling in low frequency (10-3 Hz-10-5 Hz) has been reached out under the efficient allocation memory of array and less computational time consuming.

  12. 10Gbps 2D MGC OCDMA Code over FSO Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professor Urmila Bhanja, Associate, Dr.; Khuntia, Arpita; Alamasety Swati, (Student

    2017-08-01

    Currently, wide bandwidth signal dissemination along with low latency is a leading requisite in various applications. Free space optical wireless communication has introduced as a realistic technology for bridging the gap in present high data transmission fiber connectivity and as a provisional backbone for rapidly deployable wireless communication infrastructure. The manuscript highlights on the implementation of 10Gbps SAC-OCDMA FSO communications using modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) that possesses better auto correlation, minimum cross correlation and high cardinality. A comparison based on pseudo orthogonal (PSO) matrix code and modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) is developed in the proposed SAC OCDMA-FSO communication module taking different parameters into account. The simulative outcome signifies that the communication radius is bounded by the multiple access interference (MAI). In this work, a comparison is made in terms of bit error rate (BER), and quality factor (Q) based on modified two dimensional Golomb code (2D MGC) and PSO matrix code. It is observed that the 2D MGC yields better results compared to the PSO matrix code. The simulation results are validated using optisystem version 14.

  13. Noncommutative spaces and matrix embeddings on flat ℝ{sup 2n+1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-23

    We conjecture an embedding operator which assigns, to any 2n+1 hermitian matrices, a 2n-dimensional hypersurface in flat (2n+1)-dimensional Euclidean space. This corresponds to precisely defining a fuzzy D(2n)-brane corresponding to N D0-branes. Points on the emergent hypersurface correspond to zero eigenstates of the embedding operator, which have an interpretation as coherent states underlying the emergent noncommutative geometry. Using this correspondence, all physical properties of the emergent D(2n)-brane can be computed. We apply our conjecture to noncommutative flat and spherical spaces. As a by-product, we obtain a construction of a rotationally symmetric flat noncommutative space in 4 dimensions.

  14. The (2+1)-dimensional axial universes—solutions to the Einstein equations, dimensional reduction points and Klein–Fock–Gordon waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiziev, P P; Shirkov, D V

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a generalization and further development of our recent publications, where solutions of the Klein–Fock–Gordon equation defined on a few particular D = (2 + 1)-dimensional static spacetime manifolds were considered. The latter involve toy models of two-dimensional spaces with axial symmetry, including dimensional reduction to the one-dimensional space as a singular limiting case. Here, the non-static models of space geometry with axial symmetry are under consideration. To make these models closer to physical reality, we define a set of ‘admissible’ shape functions ρ(t, z) as the (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein equation solutions in the vacuum spacetime, in the presence of the Λ-term and for the spacetime filled with the standard ‘dust’. It is curious that in the last case the Einstein equations reduce to the well-known Monge–Ampère equation, thus enabling one to obtain the general solution of the Cauchy problem, as well as a set of other specific solutions involving one arbitrary function. A few explicit solutions of the Klein–Fock–Gordon equation in this set are given. An interesting qualitative feature of these solutions relates to the dimensional reduction points, their classification and time behavior. In particular, these new entities could provide us with novel insight into the nature of P- and T-violations and of the Big Bang. A short comparison with other attempts to utilize the dimensional reduction of the spacetime is given. (paper)

  15. Three-dimensionality of space and the quantum bit: an information-theoretic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Markus P; Masanes, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    It is sometimes pointed out as a curiosity that the state space of quantum two-level systems, i.e. the qubit, and actual physical space are both three-dimensional and Euclidean. In this paper, we suggest an information-theoretic analysis of this relationship, by proving a particular mathematical result: suppose that physics takes place in d spatial dimensions, and that some events happen probabilistically (not assuming quantum theory in any way). Furthermore, suppose there are systems that carry ‘minimal amounts of direction information’, interacting via some continuous reversible time evolution. We prove that this uniquely determines spatial dimension d = 3 and quantum theory on two qubits (including entanglement and unitary time evolution), and that it allows observers to infer local spatial geometry from probability measurements. (paper)

  16. Bethe ansatz for two-magnon scattering states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibikov, P. N.

    2018-04-01

    Two different versions of Bethe ansatz are suggested for evaluation of scattering two-magnon states in 2D and 3D Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnets on square and simple cubic lattices. It is shown that the two-magnon sector is subdivided on two subsectors related to non-interacting and scattering magnons. The former subsector possess an integrable regular dynamics and may be described by a natural modification of the usual Bethe Ansatz. The latter one is characterized by a non-integrable chaotic dynamics and may be treated only within discrete degenerative version of Bethe Ansatz previously suggested by the author. Some of these results are generalized for multi-magnon states of the Heisenberg–Ising ferromagnet on a D dimensional hyper cubic lattice. Dedicated to the memory of L D Faddeev.

  17. Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  18. Two-dimensional characterization of atmospheric profile retrievals from limb sounding observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, J.R.; Bowman, K.W.; Jones, D.B.

    2004-01-01

    Limb sounders measure atmospheric radiation that is dependent on atmospheric temperature and constituents that have a radial and angular distribution in Earth-centered coordinates. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of a limb retrieval to radial and angular distributions of trace gas concentrations, we perform and characterize one-dimensional (vertical) and two-dimensional (radial and angular) atmospheric profile retrievals. Our simulated atmosphere for these retrievals is a distribution of carbon monoxide (CO), which represents a plume off the coast of south-east Asia. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) limb retrievals are characterized by evaluating their averaging kernels and error covariances on a radial and angular grid that spans the plume. We apply this 2D characterization of a limb retrieval to a comparison of the 2D retrieval with the 1D (vertical) retrieval. By characterizing a limb retrieval in two dimensions the location of the air mass where the retrievals are most sensitive can be determined. For this test case the retrievals are most sensitive to the CO concentrations about 2 deg.latitude in front of the tangent point locations. We find the information content for the 2D retrieval is an order of magnitude larger and the degrees of freedom is about a factor of two larger than that of the 1D retrieval primarily because the 2D retrieval can estimate angular distributions of CO concentrations. This 2D characterization allows the radial and angular resolution as well as the degrees of freedom and information content to be computed for these limb retrievals. We also use the 2D averaging kernel to develop a strategy for validation of a limb retrieval with an in situ measurement

  19. Violating Bell inequalities maximally for two d-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jingling; Wu Chunfeng; Oh, C. H.; Kwek, L. C.; Ge Molin

    2006-01-01

    We show the maximal violation of Bell inequalities for two d-dimensional systems by using the method of the Bell operator. The maximal violation corresponds to the maximal eigenvalue of the Bell operator matrix. The eigenvectors corresponding to these eigenvalues are described by asymmetric entangled states. We estimate the maximum value of the eigenvalue for large dimension. A family of elegant entangled states |Ψ> app that violate Bell inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled state but are somewhat close to these eigenvectors is presented. These approximate states can potentially be useful for quantum cryptography as well as many other important fields of quantum information

  20. The Make 2D-DB II package: conversion of federated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis databases into a relational format and interconnection of distributed databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaguir, Khaled; Hoogland, Christine; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Appel, Ron D

    2003-08-01

    The Make 2D-DB tool has been previously developed to help build federated two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) databases on one's own web site. The purpose of our work is to extend the strength of the first package and to build a more efficient environment. Such an environment should be able to fulfill the different needs and requirements arising from both the growing use of 2-DE techniques and the increasing amount of distributed experimental data.

  1. Decoherence in two-dimensional quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A. C.; Portugal, R.; Donangelo, R.

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the decoherence in quantum walks in two-dimensional lattices generated by broken-link-type noise. In this type of decoherence, the links of the lattice are randomly broken with some given constant probability. We obtain the evolution equation for a quantum walker moving on two-dimensional (2D) lattices subject to this noise, and we point out how to generalize for lattices in more dimensions. In the nonsymmetric case, when the probability of breaking links in one direction is different from the probability in the perpendicular direction, we have obtained a nontrivial result. If one fixes the link-breaking probability in one direction, and gradually increases the probability in the other direction from 0 to 1, the decoherence initially increases until it reaches a maximum value, and then it decreases. This means that, in some cases, one can increase the noise level and still obtain more coherence. Physically, this can be explained as a transition from a decoherent 2D walk to a coherent 1D walk

  2. MERRA DAS 2D Constants V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0NXASM or const_2d_asm_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...

  3. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  4. [Simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions by online two-dimensional liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhai; Qibule, Hasi; Jin, Yan; Wang, Jia; Ma, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult nutritions has been developed using online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). First of all, C8 and polar embedded C18 columns were chosen as the first and second dimensional column respectively according to hydrophobic-subtraction model, which constituted excellent orthogonal separation system. The detection wavelengths were set at 263 nm for vitamin D3, 296 nm for vitamin E and 325 nm for vitamin A. The purification of vitamin D3 and quantifications of vitamins A and E were completed simultaneously in the first dimensional separation using the left pump of Dual Gradient LC (DGLC) with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The heart-cutting time window of vitamin D3 was confirmed according to the retention time of vitamin D3 in the first dimensional separation. The elute from the first dimensional column (1-D column) which contained vitamin D3 was collected by a 500 µL sample loop and then taken into the second dimensional column (2-D column) by the right pump of DGLC with methanol, acetonitrile and water as mobile phases. The quantification of vitamin D3 was performed in the second dimensional separation with vitamin D2 as internal standard. At last, this method was applied for the analysis of the three vitamins in milk powder, cheese and yogurt. The injected sample solution with no further purification was pre-treated by hot-saponification using 1. 25 kg/L KOH solution and extracted by petroleum ether solvent. The recoveries of vitamin D3 spiked in all samples were 75.50%-85.00%. There was no statistically significant difference for the results between this method and standard method through t-test. The results indicate that vitamins A, D3 and E in infant formula and adult fortified dairy can be determined rapidly and accurately with this method.

  5. Two imaging techniques for 3D quantification of pre-cementation space for CAD/CAM crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungruanganunt, Patchanee; Kelly, J Robert; Adams, Douglas J

    2010-12-01

    Internal three-dimensional (3D) "fit" of prostheses to prepared teeth is likely more important clinically than "fit" judged only at the level of the margin (i.e. marginal "opening"). This work evaluates two techniques for quantitatively defining 3D "fit", both using pre-cementation space impressions: X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and quantitative optical analysis. Both techniques are of interest for comparison of CAD/CAM system capabilities and for documenting "fit" as part of clinical studies. Pre-cementation space impressions were taken of a single zirconia coping on its die using a low viscosity poly(vinyl siloxane) impression material. Calibration specimens of this material were fabricated between the measuring platens of a micrometre. Both calibration curves and pre-cementation space impression data sets were obtained by examination using micro-CT and quantitative optical analysis. Regression analysis was used to compare calibration curves with calibration sets. Micro-CT calibration data showed tighter 95% confidence intervals and was able to measure over a wider thickness range than for the optical technique. Regions of interest (e.g., lingual, cervical) were more easily analysed with optical image analysis and this technique was more suitable for extremely thin impression walls (impressions. Each has advantages and limitations but either technique has the potential for use as part of clinical studies or CAD/CAM protocol optimization. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of the three dimensional flow model in the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Myung Taek; Park, Chan Eok; Kim, Shin Whan

    2014-01-01

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE) is a nuclear plant safety analysis code, which has been developed in the Republic of Korea through a joint research between the Korean nuclear industry and research institutes. The SPACE code has been developed with multi-dimensional capabilities as a requirement of the next generation safety code. It allows users to more accurately model the multi-dimensional flow behavior that can be exhibited in components such as the core, lower plenum, upper plenum and downcomer region. Based on generalized models, the code can model any configuration or type of fluid system. All the geometric quantities of mesh are described in terms of cell volume, centroid, face area, and face center, so that it can naturally represent not only the one dimensional (1D) or three dimensional (3D) Cartesian system, but also the cylindrical mesh system. It is possible to simulate large and complex domains by modelling the complex parts with a 3D approach and the rest of the system with a 1D approach. By 1D/3D co-simulation, more realistic conditions and component models can be obtained, providing a deeper understanding of complex systems, and it is expected to overcome the shortcomings of 1D system codes. (author)

  7. On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ¿-¿, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of

  8. Enhanced 2D-DOA Estimation for Large Spacing Three-Parallel Uniform Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation algorithm for large spacing three-parallel uniform linear arrays (ULAs is proposed in this paper. Firstly, we use the propagator method (PM to get the highly accurate but ambiguous estimation of directional cosine. Then, we use the relationship between the directional cosine to eliminate the ambiguity. This algorithm not only can make use of the elements of the three-parallel ULAs but also can utilize the connection between directional cosine to improve the estimation accuracy. Besides, it has satisfied estimation performance when the elevation angle is between 70° and 90° and it can automatically pair the estimated azimuth and elevation angles. Furthermore, it has low complexity without using any eigen value decomposition (EVD or singular value decompostion (SVD to the covariance matrix. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm.

  9. Syntheses, crystal structures and luminescent properties of two new 1D d 1 coordination polymers constructed from 2,2'-bibenzimidazole and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Lili; Li Yizhi; Dang Dongbin; Tian Zhengfang; Ni Zhaoping; Meng Qingjin

    2005-01-01

    Two novel interesting d 1 metal coordination polymers, [Zn(H 2 bibzim)(BDC)] n (1) and [Cd(H 2 bibzim)(BDC)] n (2) [H 2 bibzim=2,2'-bibenzimidazole, BDC=1,4-benzenedicarboxylate] have been synthesized under solvothermal conditions and structurally characterized. Both 1 and 2 are constructed from infinite neutral zigzag-like one-dimensional (1D) chains. The π-π interactions and interchain hydrogen-bonding interactions further extend the 1D arrangement to generate a 3D supramolecular architecture for 1 and 2. Both complexes have high thermal stability and display strong blue fluorescent emissions in the solid state upon photo-excitation at 365 nm at room temperature. They are the first two examples that 2,2'-bibenzimidazole has been introduced into the d 1 coordination polymeric framework

  10. Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia by two-dimensional and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Chen, Xin-lin; Yang, Xiao-hong; Ma, Hui-jing

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the contribution of two-dimensional ultrasound (2D-US) and three-dimensional skeletal imaging ultrasound (3D-SUIS) in the prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia. Between September 2010 and April 2014, a prospective study was conducted in a single referral center using 3D-SUIS performed after 2D-US in 10 cases of sirenomelia. Diagnostic accuracy and detailed findings were compared with postnatal three-dimensional helical computed tomography (3D-HCT), radiological findings and autopsy. Pregnancy was terminated in all 10 sirenomelia cases, including 9 singletons and 1 conjoined twin pregnancy, for a total of 5 males and 5 females. These cases of sirenomelia were determined by autopsy and/or chromosomal examination. Initial 2D-US showed that there were 10 cases of oligohydramnios, bilateral renal agenesis, bladder agenesis, single umbilical artery, fusion of the lower limbs and spinal abnormalities; 8 cases of dipus or monopus; 2 cases of apus; and 8 cases of cardiac abnormalities. Subsequent 3D-SUIS showed that there were 9 cases of scoliosis, 10 cases of sacrococcygeal vertebra dysplasia, 3 cases of hemivertebra, 1 case of vertebral fusion, 3 cases of spina bifida, and 5 cases of rib abnormalities. 3D-SUIS identified significantly more skeletal abnormalities than did 2D-US, and its accuracy was 79.5% (70/88) compared with 3D-HCT and radiography. 3D-SUIS seems to be a useful complementary method to 2D-US and may improve the accuracy of identifying prenatal skeletal abnormalities related to sirenomelia.

  11. MERRA CHM 2D Constants V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAC0FXCHM or const_2d_chm_Fx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional Constants at native Fv resolution. MERRA, or the Modern Era...

  12. Does one-dimensional (1D) adatom and cluster diffusion of Pt on the Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface lead to 1D ripening?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, T R; Horch, S; Petersen, L; Laegsgaard, E; Stensgaard, I; Besenbacher, F

    2005-01-01

    The technique of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) uniquely allows dynamic processes on surfaces to be followed directly in real space and at atomic resolution. Results for the 551225 surface diffusion of Pt adatoms and clusters on the anisotropic, missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface are briefly reviewed. Mass transport in this system is entirely one-dimensional (1D) since, at low adatom coverage, atoms and clusters are confined to the missing row troughs. In this paper, we therefore address the question if Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) is a 1D model system to study late stage growth phenomena such as island ripening? From STM measurements, we quantify the morphology changes resulting from annealing a surface configuration with small 1D Pt islands in the missing row troughs to temperatures in the interval 369-395 K. Interestingly, the resulting increase in island sizes (ripening) cannot be accounted for by the known island and adatom mobilities within a 1D model. An explanation is provided from dynamic, time-resolved 'STM-movies' that directly reveal two novel island-mediated mechanisms for inter-trough mass transport which cause the Pt/Pt(110)-(1 x 2) system not to be purely 1D at the higher surface coverage used in the annealing experiments

  13. 3D MR cisternography to identify distal dural rings. Comparison of 3D-CISS and 3D-SPACE sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Makidono, Akari; Nakamura, Miho; Saida, Yukihisa

    2011-01-01

    The distal dural ring (DDR) is an anatomical landmark used to distinguish intra- and extradural aneurysms. We investigated identification of the DDR using 2 three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance (MR) cisternography sequences-3D constructive interference in steady state (CISS) and 3D sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE)-at 3.0 tesla. Ten healthy adult volunteers underwent imaging with 3D-CISS, 3D-SPACE, and time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (TOF-MRA) sequences at 3.0T. We analyzed DDR identification and internal carotid artery (ICA) signal intensity and classified the shape of the carotid cave. We identified the DDR using both 3D-SPACE and 3D-CISS, with no significant difference between the sequences. Visualization of the outline of the ICA in the cavernous sinus (CS) was significantly clearer with 3D-SPACE than 3D-CISS. In the CS and petrous portions, signal intensity was lower with 3D-SPACE, and the flow void was poor with 3D-CISS in some subjects. We identified the DDR with both 3D-SPACE and 3D-CISS, but the superior contrast of the ICA in the CS using 3D-SPACE suggests the superiority of this sequence for evaluating the DDR. (author)

  14. Two-dimensional magnetism in the triangular antiferromagnet NiGa2S4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    At sufficiently low temperatures, electron spins in normal magnets generally order into some fashion, for instance, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. Geometrical frustration and/or reduced dimensionality can suppress such conventional orders, and occasionally induce unknown states of matter. This is the case for the two-dimensional (2D) triangular antiferromagnet Ni(Ga 2 S 4 , in which S=1 nickel spins do not order, instead show an exotic magnetism. We found (1) a resonant critical slowing down toward T*=8.5 K followed by a viscous spin liquid behavior, and (2) a spin-size dependent ground state. To elucidate (1), spin dynamics ranging from 10 -13 to 10 0 seconds were quantitatively explored through the experimental techniques such as inelastic neutron scattering, backscattering, neutron spin echo, ac and nonlinear susceptibilities. The finding of (2) is evidenced by impurity effects. Integer spins substituted systems such as zinc and iron ions retain a quadratic temperature dependence of the magnetic specific heat as for the parent compound. However, substitutions of half-odd integer spins, cobalt and manganese ions, eventually induce a distinct behavior, indicating an importance of integer size of spins to stabilize the 2D magnetism realized in NiGa 2 S 4 . The article gives our experimental findings and as well as some relevant theoretical scenarios. (author)

  15. Two-Dimensional SiO2/VO2 Photonic Crystals with Statically Visible and Dynamically Infrared Modulated for Smart Window Deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yujie; Balin, Igal; Wang, Ning; Lu, Qi; Tok, Alfred Iing Yoong; White, Timothy J; Magdassi, Shlomo; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim; Long, Yi

    2016-12-07

    Two-dimensional (2D) photonic structures, widely used for generating photonic band gaps (PBG) in a variety of materials, are for the first time integrated with the temperature-dependent phase change of vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ). VO 2 possesses thermochromic properties, whose potential remains unrealized due to an undesirable yellow-brown color. Here, a SiO 2 /VO 2 core/shell 2D photonic crystal is demonstrated to exhibit static visible light tunability and dynamic near-infrared (NIR) modulation. Three-dimensional (3D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations predict that the transmittance can be tuned across the visible spectrum, while maintaining good solar regulation efficiency (ΔT sol = 11.0%) and high solar transmittance (T lum = 49.6%). Experiments show that the color changes of VO 2 films are accompanied by NIR modulation. This work presents a novel way to manipulate VO 2 photonic structures to modulate light transmission as a function of wavelength at different temperatures.

  16. Crystal structure of a two-dimensional grid-type iron(II coordination polymer: poly[[diaquatetra-μ-cyanido-diargentate(Iiron(II] trans-1,2-bis(pyridin-2-ylethylene disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jintana Othong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, {[Ag2Fe(CN4(H2O22C12H10N2}n, the asymmetric unit contains one FeII cation, two water molecules, two dicyanidoargentate(I anions and two uncoordinating 1,2-bis(pyridin-2-ylethylene (2,2′-bpe molecules. Each FeII atom is six-coordinated in a nearly regular octahedral geometry by four N atoms from dicyanidoargentate(I bridges and two coordinating water molecules. The FeII atoms are bridged by dicyanidoargentate(I units to give a two-dimensional layer with square-grid spaces. The intergrid spaces with interlayer distance of 6.550 (2 Å are occupied by 2,2′-bpe guest molecules which form O—H...N hydrogen bonds to the host layers. This leads to an extended three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. The structure of the title compound is compared with some related compounds containing dicyanidoargentate(I ligands and N-donor organic co-ligands.

  17. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere

  18. Image Making in Two Dimensional Art; Experiences with Straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Image making in art is professionally referred to as bust in Sculpture andPortraiture in Painting. It is an art form executed in three dimensional (3D)and two dimensional (2D) formats respectively. Uncountable materials havebeen used to achieve these forms of art; like clay cement, marble, stone,different metals and, fibre ...

  19. Spin-Dependent Scattering Effects and Dimensional Crossover in a Quasi-Two-Dimensional Disordered Electron System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG YongHong; WANG YongGang; LIU Mei; WANG Jin

    2002-01-01

    Two kinds of spin-depcndcnt scattering effects (magnetic-iinpurity and spin-orbit scatterings) axe investi-gated theoretically in a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) disordered electron system. By making use of the diagrammatictechniques in perturbation theory, we have calculated the dc conductivity and magnetoresistance due to weak-localizationeffects, the analytical expressions of them are obtained as functions of the interlayer hopping energy and the charac-teristic times: elastic, inelastic, magnetic and spin-orbit scattering times. The relevant dimensional crossover behaviorfrom 3D to 2D with decreasing the interlayer coupling is discussed, and the condition for the crossover is shown to bedependent on the aforementioned scattering times. At low temperature there exists a spin-dcpendent-scattering-induccddimensional crossover in this system.

  20. Waterlike anomalies in a two-dimensional core-softened potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, José Rafael; Barbosa, Marcia C.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the structural, thermodynamic, and dynamic behavior of a two-dimensional (2D) core-corona system using Langevin dynamics simulations. The particles are modeled by employing a core-softened potential which exhibits waterlike anomalies in three dimensions. In previous studies in a quasi-2D system a new region in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram of structural anomalies was observed. Here we show that for the two-dimensional case two regions in the pressure versus temperature phase diagram with structural, density, and diffusion anomalies are observed. Our findings indicate that, while the anomalous region at lower densities is due the competition between the two length scales in the potential at higher densities, the anomalous region is related to the reentrance of the melting line.

  1. Geometrical aspects of solvable two dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    It was noted that there is a connection between the non-linear two-dimensional (2D) models and the scalar curvature r, i.e., when r = -2 the equations of motion of the Liouville and sine-Gordon models were obtained. Further, solutions of various classical nonlinear 2D models can be obtained from the condition that the appropriate curvature two form Ω = 0, which suggests that these models are closely related. This relation is explored further in the classical version by obtaining the equations of motion from the evolution equations, the infinite number of conserved quantities, and the common central charge. The Poisson brackets of the solvable 2D models are specified by the Virasoro algebra. 21 refs

  2. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Stine D; Savran, Mona Meral; Konge, Lars

    2016-01-01

    were cohort size and characteristics, skill trained or operation performed, instrument used, outcome measures, and conclusions. Two independent authors performed the search and data extraction. RESULTS: Three hundred and forty articles were screened for eligibility, and 31 RCTs were included...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...... in the review. Three trials were carried out in a clinical setting, and 28 trials used a simulated setting. Time was used as an outcome measure in all of the trials, and number of errors was used in 19 out of 31 trials. Twenty-two out of 31 trials (71 %) showed a reduction in performance time, and 12 out of 19...

  3. Differentiation of benign from malignant solid breast masses: comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional shear-wave elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Hyun; Chang, Jung Min; Kim, Won Hwa; Bae, Min Sun; Cho, Nariya; Yi, Ann; Koo, Hye Ryoung; Kim, Seung Ja; Kim, Jin You; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2013-04-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performances of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) for differentiating benign from malignant breast masses. B-mode ultrasound and SWE were performed for 134 consecutive women with 144 breast masses before biopsy. Quantitative elasticity values (maximum and mean elasticity in the stiffest portion of mass, Emax and Emean; lesion-to-fat elasticity ratio, Erat) were measured with both 2D and 3D SWE. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of B-mode, 2D, 3D SWE and combined data of B-mode and SWE were compared. Sixty-seven of the 144 breast masses (47 %) were malignant. Overall, higher elasticity values of 3D SWE than 2D SWE were noted for both benign and malignant masses. The AUC for 2D and 3D SWE were not significantly different: Emean, 0.938 vs 0.928; Emax, 0.939 vs 0.930; Erat, 0.907 vs 0.871. Either 2D or 3D SWE significantly improved the specificity of B-mode ultrasound from 29.9 % (23 of 77) up to 71.4 % (55 of 77) and 63.6 % (49 of 77) without a significant change in sensitivity. Two-dimensional and 3D SWE performed equally in distinguishing benign from malignant masses and both techniques improved the specificity of B-mode ultrasound.

  4. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  5. A Dirac-Kaehler approach to the two dimensional Wess-Zumino N=2 model on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimerman, A.H.; Aratyn, H.

    1983-08-01

    We introduce a Dirac-Kaehler model for the two dimensional Wess-Zumino N=2 Lagrangean. We can show that in the model, when we go to the euclidean space-time lattive, we have no energy doubling, the action has no lattice surface terms (contrary to other authors), while the Hamiltonians (when time is continuous) present lattice surface terms. (orig.)

  6. New indium selenite-oxalate and indium oxalate with two- and three-dimensional structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Junjun; Li Guodong; Chen Jiesheng

    2009-01-01

    Two new indium(III) compounds with extended structures, [In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 (C 2 O 4 )(H 2 O) 2 ].2H 2 O (I) and [NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 NH 3 ][In(C 2 O 4 ) 2 ] 2 .5H 2 O (II), have been prepared under mild hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and infrared spectroscopy. Compound I crystallizes in the triclinic system, space group P-1, with a=5.2596(11) A, b=6.8649(14) A, c=9.3289(19) A, α=101.78(3) o , β=102.03(3) o , γ=104.52(3) o , while compound II crystallizes in the orthorhombic system, space group Fdd2, with a=15.856(3) A, b=31.183(6) A, c=8.6688(17) A. In compound I, indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form two-dimensional (2D) In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers, separated by non-coordinating water molecules. In compound II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered channels. - Graphical abstract: Two new indium(III) compounds have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized. In I, the indium-selenite chains are bridged by oxalate units to form 2D In 2 (SeO 3 ) 2 C 2 O 4 layers. In II, the indium atoms are connected through the oxalate units to generate a 3D open framework containing cross-linked 12- and 8-membered ring channels

  7. Exciton Migration and Amplified Quenching on Two-Dimensional Metal–Organic Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingyun; Lin, Zekai; Shi, Wenjie; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Cankun; Hu, Xuefu; Wang, Cheng; Lin, Wenbin (UC); (Xiamen)

    2017-05-10

    The dimensionality dependency of resonance energy transfer is of great interest due to its importance in understanding energy transfer on cell membranes and in low-dimension nanostructures. Light harvesting two-dimensional metal–organic layers (2D-MOLs) and three-dimensional metal–organic frameworks (3D-MOFs) provide comparative models to study such dimensionality dependence with molecular accuracy. Here we report the construction of 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs from a donor ligand 4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE) and a doped acceptor ligand 3,3',3''-nitro-4,4',4''-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl-tris(ethyne-2,1-diyl))tribenzoate (BTE-NO2). These 2D-MOLs and 3D-MOFs are connected by similar hafnium clusters, with key differences in the topology and dimensionality of the metal–ligand connection. Energy transfer from donors to acceptors through the 2D-MOL or 3D-MOF skeletons is revealed by measuring and modeling the fluorescence quenching of the donors. We found that energy transfer in 3D-MOFs is more efficient than that in 2D-MOLs, but excitons on 2D-MOLs are more accessible to external quenchers as compared with those in 3D-MOFs. These results not only provide support to theoretical analysis of energy transfer in low dimensions, but also present opportunities to use efficient exciton migration in 2D materials for light-harvesting and fluorescence sensing.

  8. Control Operator for the Two-Dimensional Energized Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Augustus REJU

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the analytical model for the construction of the two-dimensional Energized wave equation. The control operator is given in term of space and time t independent variables. The integral quadratic objective cost functional is subject to the constraint of two-dimensional Energized diffusion, Heat and a source. The operator that shall be obtained extends the Conjugate Gradient method (ECGM as developed by Hestenes et al (1952, [1]. The new operator enables the computation of the penalty cost, optimal controls and state trajectories of the two-dimensional energized wave equation when apply to the Conjugate Gradient methods in (Waziri & Reju, LEJPT & LJS, Issues 9, 2006, [2-4] to appear in this series.

  9. Femtosecond X-ray diffraction from two-dimensional protein crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Frank

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available X-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D protein crystals obtained using femtosecond X-ray pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL are presented. To date, it has not been possible to acquire transmission X-ray diffraction patterns from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permit a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy approach at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Bragg diffraction was acquired to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples each less than 10 nm thick and maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

  10. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo; Li, Ming-yang; Jung, Gang-Seob; Marsalis, Mark A.; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.; Li, Lain-Jong; Muller, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2

  11. Driving performance of a two-dimensional homopolar linear DC motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Yamaguchi, M.; Kano, Y. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-05-01

    This paper presents a novel two-dimensional homopolar linear de motor (LDM) which can realize two-dimensional (2-D) motion. For position control purposes, two kinds of position detecting methods are proposed. The position in one position is detected by means of a capacitive sensor which makes the output of the sensor partially immune to the variation of the gap between electrodes. The position in the other direction is achieved by exploiting the position dependent property of the driving coil inductance, instead of using an independent sensor. The position control is implemented on the motor and 2-D tracking performance is analyzed. Experiments show that the motor demonstrates satisfactory driving performance, 2-D tracking error being within 5.5% when the angular frequency of reference signal is 3.14 rad./s. 7 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Complex dynamical invariants for two-dimensional complex potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex dynamical invariants are searched out for two-dimensional complex poten- tials using rationalization method within the framework of an extended complex phase space characterized by x = x1 + ip3, y = x2 + ip4, px = p1 + ix3, py = p2 + ix4. It is found that the cubic oscillator and shifted harmonic oscillator ...

  13. Sub-nanometre channels embedded in two-dimensional materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-12-04

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically thin p–n junctions2,3,4,5,6,7,8, metal–semiconductor contacts9,10,11, and metal–insulator barriers12,13,14 have been demonstrated. Although 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions is also necessary. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometre-wide one-dimensional (1D) MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalysed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified other combinations of 2D materials where 1D channels can also be formed. The electronic band structure of these 1D channels offers the promise of carrier confinement in a direct-gap material and the charge separation needed to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  14. Quantitative analysis of valsartan by two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) and its application in a bioequivalence study in Chinese volunteers
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Deng, Yang; Cai, Hua-Lin; Fang, Ping-Fei; Yan, Miao; Zhang, Bi-Kui; Wu, Yan-Qin

    2017-04-01

    To develop a sensitive, two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) method for determination of valsartan, applied to investigate bioequivalence of two valsartan tablets in Chinese volunteers under fasting condition. A full automatic 2D-HPLC system was used to quantify valsartan in human plasma. The analytes were extracted by protein precipitation, using telmisartan as internal standard. The analytical method was applied in a randomized, crossover bioequivalence study of valsartan tablets; the study enrolled 18 Chinese volunteers (12 were men and 6 were women). The subjects received a single 160-mg dose of test or reference preparation with 7-days of washout under fasting state. Plasma samples were collected, pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained and the bioequivalence was evaluated. The calibration range was 9.2 - 4213.8 ng×mL-1. Inter- and intraprecision was less than 7.0%, and accuracies ranged from 99.5 to 103.8%. The extraction recovery for valsartan varied between 89.3 and 97.8%, and the stability in all conditions was excellent. The 90% CI of AUC0→36h and Cmax were 96.5 - 109.4% and 94.2 - 108.6%, respectively. The relative bioavailability was 103.9 ± 15.7%. No gender difference was observed in pharmacokinetic parameters. A sensitive 2D-HPLC method was established for the estimation of valsartan in human plasma and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of valsartan, which suggests that these two formulations can be assumed to be bioequivalent.
.

  15. Two-dimensional versus three-dimensional treatment planning of tangential breast irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damen, E.M.F.; Bruinvis, I.A.D.; Mijnheer, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Full three-dimensional (3-D) treatment planning requires 3-D patient contours and density information, derived either from CT scanning or from other 3-D contouring methods. These contouring techniques are time consuming, and are often not available or cannot be used. Two-dimensional (2-D) treatment planning can be performed using only a few patient contours, made with much simpler techniques, in combination with simulator images for estimating the lung position. In order to investigate the need for full 3-D planning, we compared the performance of both a 2-D and a 3-D planning system in calculating absolute dose values and relative dose distributions in tangential breast irradiation. Methods: Two breast-shaped phantoms were used in this study. The first phantom consists of a polyethylene mould, filled with water and cork to mimic the lung. An ionization chamber can be inserted in the phantom at fixed positions. The second phantom is made of 25 transverse slices of polystyrene and cork, made with a computerized milling machine from CT information. In this phantom, films can be inserted in three sagittal planes. Both phantoms have been irradiated with two tangential 8 MV photon beams. The measured dose distribution has been compared with the dose distribution predicted by the two planning systems. Results: In the central plane, the 3-D planning system predicts the absolute dose with an accuracy of 0.5 - 4%. The dose at the isocentre of the beams agrees within 0.5% with the measured dose. The 2-D system predicts the dose with an accuracy of 0.9 - 3%. The dose calculated at the isocentre is 2.6% higher than the measured dose, because missing lateral scatter is not taken into account in this planning system. In off-axis planes, the calculated absolute dose agrees with the measured dose within 4% for the 2-D system and within 6% for the 3-D system. However, the relative dose distribution is predicted better by the 3-D planning system. Conclusions: This study

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc(II)-phosphonate coordination polymers with different dimensionality (0D, 2D, 3D) and dimensionality change in the solid phase (0D→3D) induced by temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-Zapico, Eva; Montejo-Bernardo, Jose; Fernández-González, Alfonso; García, José R., E-mail: jrgm@uniovi.es; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-05-15

    Three new zinc(II) coordination polymers, [Zn(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO)(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)] (1), [Zn{sub 3}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})](H{sub 2}O){sub 3.40} (2) and [Zn{sub 5}(HO{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(O{sub 3}PCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COO){sub 2}(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2}){sub 4}](H{sub 2}O){sub 0.32} (3), with different structural dimensionality (0D, 2D and 3D, respectively) have been prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, and their structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic system (P2{sub 1}/c) forming discrete dimeric units bonded through H-bonds, while compounds 2 and 3 crystallize in the triclinic (P−1) and the monoclinic (C2/c) systems, respectively. Compound 3, showing three different coordination numbers (4, 5 and 6) for the zinc atoms, has also been obtained by thermal treatment of 1 (probed by high-temperature XRPD experiments). The crystalline features of these compounds, related to the coordination environments for the zinc atoms in each structure, provoke the increase of the relative fluorescence for 2 and 3, compared to the free phenanthroline. Thermal analysis (TG and DSC) and XPS studies have been also carried out for all compounds. - Graphical abstract: Three new coordination compounds of zinc with 2-carboxyethylphosphonic acid (H{sub 2}PPA) and phenanthroline have been obtained by hydrothermal synthesis. The crystalline structure depends on the different coordination environments of the zinc atoms (see two comparative Zn{sub 6}-moieties). The influence of the different coordination modes of H{sub 2}PPA with the central atom in all structures have been studied, being found new coordination modes for this ligand. Several compounds show a significant increase in relative fluorescence with respect to the free phenanthroline. - Highlights: • Compounds have been obtained modifying the reaction time and the rate of

  17. Optical Studies of Excitonic Effects at Two-Dimensional Nanostructure Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Obafunso Ademilolu

    Atomically thin two-dimensional nanomaterials such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have seen a rapid growth of exploration since the isolation of monolayer graphene. These materials provide a rich field of study for physics and optoelectronics applications. Many applications seek to combine a two dimensional (2D) material with another nanomaterial, either another two dimensional material or a zero (0D) or one dimensional (1D) material. The work in this thesis explores the consequences of these interactions from 0D to 2D. We begin in Chapter 2 with a study of energy transfer at 0D-2D interfaces with quantum dots and graphene. In our work we seek to maximize the rate of energy transfer by reducing the distance between the materials. We observe an interplay with the distance-dependence and surface effects from our halogen terminated quantum dots that affect our observed energy transfer. In Chapter 3 we study supercapacitance in composite graphene oxide-carbon nanotube electrodes. At this 2D-1D interface we observe a compounding effect between graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes increase the accessible surface area of the supercapacitors and improve conductivity by forming a conductive pathway through electrodes. In Chapter 4 we investigate effective means of improving sample quality in TMDCs and discover the importance of the monolayer interface. We observe a drastic improvement in photoluminescence when encapsulating our TMDCs with Boron Nitride. We measure spectral linewidths approaching the intrinsic limit due to this 2D-2D interface. We also effectively reduce excess charge and thus the trion-exciton ratio in our samples through substrate surface passivation. In Chapter 5 we briefly discuss our investigations on chemical doping, heterostructures and interlayer decoupling in ReS2. We observe an increase in intensity for p-doped MoS2 samples. We investigated the charge transfer exciton previously identified in

  18. Classical and quantum investigations of four-dimensional maps with a mixed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Systems with more than two degrees of freedom are of fundamental importance for the understanding of problems ranging from celestial mechanics to molecules. Due to the dimensionality the classical phase-space structure of such systems is more difficult to understand than for systems with two or fewer degrees of freedom. This thesis aims for a better insight into the classical as well as the quantum mechanics of 4D mappings representing driven systems with two degrees of freedom. In order to analyze such systems, we introduce 3D sections through the 4D phase space which reveal the regular and chaotic structures. We introduce these concepts by means of three example mappings of increasing complexity. After a classical analysis the systems are investigated quantum mechanically. We focus especially on two important aspects: First, we address quantum mechanical consequences of the classical Arnold web and demonstrate how quantum mechanics can resolve this web in the semiclassical limit. Second, we investigate the quantum mechanical tunneling couplings between regular and chaotic regions in phase space. We determine regular-to-chaotic tunneling rates numerically and extend the fictitious integrable system approach to higher dimensions for their prediction. Finally, we study resonance-assisted tunneling in 4D maps.

  19. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; Meulen ,van der Martin; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core

  20. Sub-Nanometer Channels Embedded in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yimo

    2017-07-31

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are among the most promising candidates for next-generation electronics due to their atomic thinness, allowing for flexible transparent electronics and ultimate length scaling1. Thus far, atomically-thin p-n junctions2-7, metal-semiconductor contacts8-10, and metal-insulator barriers11-13 have been demonstrated. While 2D materials achieve the thinnest possible devices, precise nanoscale control over the lateral dimensions are also necessary. Although external one-dimensional (1D) carbon nanotubes14 can be used to locally gate 2D materials, this adds a non-trivial third dimension, complicating device integration and flexibility. Here, we report the direct synthesis of sub-nanometer 1D MoS2 channels embedded within WSe2 monolayers, using a dislocation-catalyzed approach. The 1D channels have edges free of misfit dislocations and dangling bonds, forming a coherent interface with the embedding 2D matrix. Periodic dislocation arrays produce 2D superlattices of coherent MoS2 1D channels in WSe2. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have identified other combinations of 2D materials that could form 1D channels. Density function theory (DFT) calculation predicts these 1D channels display type II band alignment needed for carrier confinement and charge separation to access the ultimate length scales necessary for future electronic applications.

  1. Twelve inequivalent Dirac cones in two-dimensional ZrB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Bezanilla, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical evidence of the existence of 12 inequivalent Dirac cones at the vicinity of the Fermi energy in monolayered ZrB2 is presented. Two-dimensional ZrB2 is a mechanically stable d- and p-orbital compound exhibiting a unique electronic structure with two Dirac cones out of high-symmetry points in the irreducible Brillouin zone with a small electron-pocket compensation. First-principles calculations demonstrate that while one of the cones is insensitive to lattice expansion, the second cone vanishes for small perturbation of the vertical Zr position. Internal symmetry breaking with external physical stimuli, along with the relativistic effect of spin-orbit coupling, is able to remove selectively the Dirac cones. A rational explanation in terms of d- and p-orbital mixing is provided to elucidate the origin of the infrequent Dirac cones in a flat structure. The versatility of transition-metal d orbitals combined with the honeycomb lattice provided by the B atoms yields particular features in a two-dimensional material.

  2. MERRA IAU 2d Vertical integrals V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXINT or tavg1_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  3. Two-dimensional grating guided-mode resonance tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Hsu, Che-Jung

    2017-11-27

    A two-dimensional (2D) grating guided-mode resonance (GMR) tunable filter is experimentally demonstrated using a low-cost two-step nanoimprinting technology with a one-dimensional (1D) grating polydimethylsiloxane mold. For the first nanoimprinting, we precisely control the UV LED irradiation dosage and demold the device when the UV glue is partially cured and the 1D grating mold is then rotated by three different angles, 30°, 60°, and 90°, for the second nanoimprinting to obtain 2D grating structures with different crossing angles. A high-refractive-index film ZnO is then coated on the surface of the grating structure to form the GMR filter devices. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the passband central wavelength of the filter can be tuned by rotating the device to change azimuth angle of the incident light. We compare these three 2D GMR filters with differential crossing angles and find that the filter device with a crossing angle of 60° exhibits the best performance. The tunable range of its central wavelength is 668-742 nm when the azimuth angle varies from 30° to 90°.

  4. Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.

  5. Multi-dimensional spectrum analysis for 2-D vector velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Fourier space, which is found through the 3-D Fourier transform of the data matrix, and that the plane is tilted according to the axial and lateral velocity components. Two estimators are derived for finding the plane in the 3-D Fourier space, where the integrated power spectrum is largest. The first uses...... the 3-D Fourier transform to find the power spectrum, while the second uses a minimum variance approach. Based on this plane, the axial and lateral velocity components are estimated. A number of phantom How measurements, for flow-to-beam angles of 60, 75, and 90 degrees, were performed to test...... the estimator. The data were collected using our RASMUS experimental ultrasound scanner and a 128 element commercial linear array transducer. The receive apodization function was manipulated, creating an oscillation in the lateral direction, and multiple parallel lines were beamformed simultaneously. The two...

  6. A FPC-ROOT Algorithm for 2D-DOA Estimation in Sparse Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the performance of two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (2D DOA estimation in sparse array, this paper presents a Fixed Point Continuation Polynomial Roots (FPC-ROOT algorithm. Firstly, a signal model for DOA estimation is established based on matrix completion and it can be proved that the proposed model meets Null Space Property (NSP. Secondly, left and right singular vectors of received signals matrix are achieved using the matrix completion algorithm. Finally, 2D DOA estimation can be acquired through solving the polynomial roots. The proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy of 2D DOA estimation in sparse array, without solving autocorrelation matrix of received signals and scanning of two-dimensional spectral peak. Besides, it decreases the number of antennas and lowers computational complexity and meanwhile avoids the angle ambiguity problem. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed FPC-ROOT algorithm can obtain the 2D DOA estimation precisely in sparse array.

  7. Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...

  8. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  9. Novel Au- and Ge-based two-dimensional materials formed through topotactic transitions of AlB2-like structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsetseris, Leonidas

    2016-07-01

    The topotactic reaction of a layered compound, for example CaGe2, with HCl solution is a common and facile method to produce two-dimensional (2D) materials. In this work we demonstrate with first-principles calculations that this technique can potentially lead to a whole new family of 2D materials starting from three-dimensional crystals with AlB2-like structures. As representative cases, we show here that the de-intercalation of Sc and Ca atoms from ScAuGe and Ca2AuGe3 crystals is strongly exothermic and produces the stable 2D monolayers AuGeH and AuGe3H3, respectively. Remarkably, both metals (AuGeH) and semiconductors (AuGe3H3) can be prepared by this method. Based on the broad availability of AlB2-like structures with varying stoichiometries, there are several possibilities to prepare novel functional 2D materials with suitable topotactic transitions.

  10. Novel solution conformation of DNA observed in d(GAATTCGAATTC) by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chary, K.V.R.; Hosur, R.V.; Govil, G.; Zu-kun, T.; Miles, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    Resonance assignments of nonexchangeable base and sugar protons of the self-complementary dodecanucleotide d(GAATTCGAATTC) have been obtained by using the two-dimensional Fourier transform NMR methods correlated spectroscopy and nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Conformational details about the sugar pucker, the glycosidic dihedral angle, and the overall secondary structure of the molecule has been derived from the relative intensities of cross peaks in the two-dimensional NMR spectra in aqueous solution. It is observed that d(GAATTCGAATTC) assumes a novel double-helical structure. The solution conformations of the two complementary strands are identical, unlike those observed in a related sequence in the solid state. Most of the five-membered sugar rings adopt an unusual O1'-endo geometry. All the glycosidic dihedral angles are in the anti domain. The AATT segments A2-T5 and A8-T11 show better stacking compared to the rest of the molecule. These features fit into a right-handed DNA model for the above two segments, with the sugar geometries different from the conventional ones. There are important structural variations in the central TCG portion, which is known to show preferences for DNase I activity, and between G1-A2 and G7-A8, which are cleavage points in the EcoRI recognition sequence. The sugar puckers for G1 and G7 are significantly different from the rest of the molecule. Further, in the three segments mentioned above, the sugar phosphate geometry is such that the distances between protons on adjacent nucleotides are much larger than those expected for a right-handed DNA. The authors suggest that such crevices in the DNA structure may act as hot points in initiation of protein recognition

  11. THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF MAGNETIZED MOLECULAR CLOUD CORES: A TWO-DIMENSIONAL-THREE-DIMENSIONAL COMPARISON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dib, Sami; Csengeri, Timea; Audit, Edouard; Hennebelle, Patrick; Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bontemps, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the rotational properties of magnetized and self-gravitating dense molecular cloud (MC) cores formed in a set of two very high resolution three-dimensional (3D) MC simulations with decaying turbulence. The simulations have been performed using the adaptative mesh refinement code RAMSES with an effective resolution of 4096 3 grid cells. One simulation represents a mildly magnetically supercritical cloud and the other a strongly magnetically supercritical cloud. We identify dense cores at a number of selected epochs in the simulations at two density thresholds which roughly mimic the excitation densities of the NH 3 (J - K) = (1,1) transition and the N 2 H + (1-0) emission line. A noticeable global difference between the two simulations is the core formation efficiency (CFE) of the high-density cores. In the strongly supercritical simulations, the CFE is 33% per unit free-fall time of the cloud (t ff,cl ), whereas in the mildly supercritical simulations this value goes down to ∼6 per unit t ff,cl . A comparison of the intrinsic specific angular momentum (j 3D ) distributions of the cores with the specific angular momentum derived using synthetic two-dimensional (2D) velocity maps of the cores (j 2D ) shows that the synthetic observations tend to overestimate the true value of the specific angular momentum by a factor of ∼8-10. We find that the distribution of the ratio j 3D /j 2D of the cores peaks at around ∼0.1. The origin of this discrepancy lies in the fact that contrary to the intrinsic determination of j which sums up the individual gas parcels' contributions to the angular momentum, the determination of the specific angular momentum using the standard observational procedure which is based on a measurement on the global velocity gradient under the hypothesis of uniform rotation smoothes out the complex fluctuations present in the 3D velocity field. Our results may well provide a natural explanation for the

  12. On the presence of lower dimensional confinement mechanisms in 4d SU2 lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.

    1983-11-01

    The presence of an essentially two-dimensional confinement mechanism in 4d SU 2 gauge theory has been conjectured. The authors present an explicit realization of this conjecture valid up to β = 1.8 based on variational investigations of lattice gauge theories. (Auth.)

  13. FLOWPLOT2, 2-D, 3-D Fluid Dynamic Plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, C.K.; Tunstall, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FLOWPLOT2 is a plotting program used with numerical or analytical fluid dynamics codes to create velocity vector plots, contour plots of up to three fluid parameters (e.g. pressure, density, and temperature), two-dimensional profile plots, three-dimensional curve plots, and/or three-dimensional surface plots for either the u or v velocity components. If the fluid dynamics code computes a transient or simulated time related solution, FLOWPLOT2 can also be used to generate these plots for any specified time interval. Multiple cases generating different plots for different time intervals may be run in one execution of the program. In addition, plots can be created for selected two- dimensional planes of three-dimensional steady-state problems. The user has the option of producing plots on CalComp or Versatec plotters or microfiche and of creating a compressed dataset before plotting. 2 - Method of solution: FLOWPLOT2 reads a dataset written by the fluid dynamics code. This dataset must be written in a specified format and must contain parametric data at the nodal points of a uniform or non-uniform rectangular grid formed by the intersection of the grid lines of the model. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2500 nodes, 40 y-values for 2-D profile plots and 3-D curve plots, 20 contour values, 3 fluid parameters

  14. Two dimensional nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xu; Peng, Lele; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-05-21

    Flexible supercapacitors, as one of most promising emerging energy storage devices, are of great interest owing to their high power density with great mechanical compliance, making them very suitable as power back-ups for future stretchable electronics. Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, including the quasi-2D graphene and inorganic graphene-like materials (IGMs), have been greatly explored to providing huge potential for the development of flexible supercapacitors with higher electrochemical performance. This review article is devoted to recent progresses in engineering 2D nanomaterials for flexible supercapacitors, which survey the evolution of electrode materials, recent developments in 2D nanomaterials and their hybrid nanostructures with regulated electrical properties, and the new planar configurations of flexible supercapacitors. Furthermore, a brief discussion on future directions, challenges and opportunities in this fascinating area is also provided.

  15. Mechanical stretching for tissue engineering: two-dimensional and three-dimensional constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehl, Brandon D; Park, Jae-Hong; Kwon, Il Keun; Lim, Jung Yul

    2012-08-01

    Mechanical cell stretching may be an attractive strategy for the tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues. It has been demonstrated that cell growth and differentiation can be guided by cell stretch with minimal help from soluble factors and engineered tissues that are mechanically stretched in bioreactors may have superior organization, functionality, and strength compared with unstretched counterparts. This review explores recent studies on cell stretching in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) setups focusing on the applications of stretch stimulation as a tool for controlling cell orientation, growth, gene expression, lineage commitment, and differentiation and for achieving successful tissue engineering of mechanically functional tissues, including cardiac, muscle, vasculature, ligament, tendon, bone, and so on. Custom stretching devices and lab-specific mechanical bioreactors are described with a discussion on capabilities and limitations. While stretch mechanotransduction pathways have been examined using 2D stretch, studying such pathways in physiologically relevant 3D environments may be required to understand how cells direct tissue development under stretch. Cell stretch study using 3D milieus may also help to develop tissue-specific stretch regimens optimized with biochemical feedback, which once developed will provide optimal tissue engineering protocols.

  16. Comparison of two-dimensional fast spin echo T2 weighted sequences and three-dimensional volume isotropic T2 weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) MRI in the evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Kang, Kyung A; Kim, Eun Young; Shin, Hun Kyu; Park, Se Jin; Park, Jai Hyung; Kim, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    To compare image quality of three-dimensional volume isotropic T 2 weighted fast spin echo (3D VISTA) and two-dimensional (2D) T 2 weighted images (T2WI) for evaluation of triangular fibrocartilage (TFC) and to investigate whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T 2 WI in evaluating TFC injury. This retrospective study included 69 patients who received wrist MRIs using both 2D T 2 WI and 3D VISTA techniques for assessment of wrist pathology, including TFC injury. Two radiologists measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the two sequences. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performance were independently assessed by two interpreters. The diagnostic abilities of 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI were analysed by sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for diagnosing TFC injury using surgically or clinically confirmed diagnostic reference standards. 17 cases (25%) were classified as having TFC injury. 2 cases (12%) were diagnosed surgically, and 15 cases (88%) were diagnosed by physical examination. 52 cases (75%) were diagnosed as having intact TFC. 8 of these cases (15%) were surgically confirmed, while the others were diagnosed by physical examination and clinical findings. The 3D VISTA images had significantly higher SNR and CNR values for the TFC than 2D T 2 WI images. The scores of 3D VISTA's total length, full width and sharpness were similar to those of 2D T 2 WI. We were unable to find a significant difference between 3D VISTA and 2D T 2 WI in the ability to diagnose TFC injury. 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment. Advances in knowledge: 3D VISTA image quality is similar to that of 2D T 2 WI for TFC evaluation and is also excellent for tissue contrast. 3D VISTA can replace 2D images in TFC injury assessment.

  17. Evaluating mental workload of two-dimensional and three-dimensional visualization for anatomical structure localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jung-Leng; Martinez-Escobar, Marisol; Juhnke, Bethany; Cassidy, Keely; Hisley, Kenneth; Lobe, Thom; Winer, Eliot

    2013-01-01

    Visualization of medical data in three-dimensional (3D) or two-dimensional (2D) views is a complex area of research. In many fields 3D views are used to understand the shape of an object, and 2D views are used to understand spatial relationships. It is unclear how 2D/3D views play a role in the medical field. Using 3D views can potentially decrease the learning curve experienced with traditional 2D views by providing a whole representation of the patient's anatomy. However, there are challenges with 3D views compared with 2D. This current study expands on a previous study to evaluate the mental workload associated with both 2D and 3D views. Twenty-five first-year medical students were asked to localize three anatomical structures--gallbladder, celiac trunk, and superior mesenteric artery--in either 2D or 3D environments. Accuracy and time were taken as the objective measures for mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was used as a subjective measure for mental workload. Results showed that participants viewing in 3D had higher localization accuracy and a lower subjective measure of mental workload, specifically, the mental demand component of the NASA-TLX. Results from this study may prove useful for designing curricula in anatomy education and improving training procedures for surgeons.

  18. Electronic Transport in Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Vinod K.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have captured the attention of the scientific community due to the wide range of unique properties at nanometer-scale thicknesses. While significant exploratory research in 2D materials has been achieved, the understanding of 2D electronic transport and carrier dynamics remains in a nascent stage. Furthermore, because prior review articles have provided general overviews of 2D materials or specifically focused on charge transport in graphene, here we instead highlight charge transport mechanisms in post-graphene 2D materials, with particular emphasis on transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus. For these systems, we delineate the intricacies of electronic transport, including band structure control with thickness and external fields, valley polarization, scattering mechanisms, electrical contacts, and doping. In addition, electronic interactions between 2D materials are considered in the form of van der Waals heterojunctions and composite films. This review concludes with a perspective on the most promising future directions in this fast-evolving field.

  19. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  20. User's manual for DYNA2D: an explicit two-dimensional hydrodynamic finite-element code with interactive rezoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallquist, J.O.

    1982-02-01

    This revised report provides an updated user's manual for DYNA2D, an explicit two-dimensional axisymmetric and plane strain finite element code for analyzing the large deformation dynamic and hydrodynamic response of inelastic solids. A contact-impact algorithm permits gaps and sliding along material interfaces. By a specialization of this algorithm, such interfaces can be rigidly tied to admit variable zoning without the need of transition regions. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 4-node solid elements, and the equations-of motion are integrated by the central difference method. An interactive rezoner eliminates the need to terminate the calculation when the mesh becomes too distorted. Rather, the mesh can be rezoned and the calculation continued. The command structure for the rezoner is described and illustrated by an example.

  1. Quantum phase space for an ideal relativistic gas in d spatial dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Vera Mendoza, H.

    1992-01-01

    We present the closed formula for the d-dimensional invariant phase-space integral for an ideal relativistic gas in an exact integral form. In the particular cases of the nonrelativistic and the extreme relativistic limits the phase-space integrals are calculated analytically. Then we consider the d-dimensional invariant phase space with quantum statistic and derive the cluster decomposition for the grand canonical and canonical partition functions as well as for the microcanonical and grand microcanonical densities of states. As a showcase, we consider the black-body radiation in d dimensions (Author)

  2. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA...

  3. Two-dimensional N = 2 Super-Yang-Mills Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Daniel; Wellegehausen, Björn; Wipf, Andreas

    2018-03-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the possible scenarios for physics beyond the standard model. The building blocks of this scenario are supersymmetric gauge theories. In our work we study the N = 1 Super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory with gauge group SU(2) dimensionally reduced to two-dimensional N = 2 SYM theory. In our lattice formulation we break supersymmetry and chiral symmetry explicitly while preserving R symmetry. By fine tuning the bar-mass of the fermions in the Lagrangian we construct a supersymmetric continuum theory. To this aim we carefully investigate mass spectra and Ward identities, which both show a clear signal of supersymmetry restoration in the continuum limit.

  4. A two dimensional fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic problem for a half-space subjected to mechanical force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailawalia Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the two dimensional deformation of fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic medium in the context of Green-Lindsay theory of thermoelasticity. A mechanical force is applied along the interface of fluid half space and fibre reinforced micropolar thermoelastic half space. The normal mode analysis has been applied to obtain the exact expressions for displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress. The effect of anisotropy and micropolarity on the displacement component, force stress, temperature distribution and tangential couple stress has been depicted graphically.

  5. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  6. Solution-Based Processing and Applications of Two-Dimensional Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersam, Mark

    Two-dimensional materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics, but advances in scalable nanomanufacturing are required to exploit this potential in real-world technology. This talk will explore methods for improving the uniformity of solution-processed two-dimensional materials with an eye toward realizing dispersions and inks that can be deposited into large-area thin-films. In particular, density gradient ultracentrifugation allows the solution-based isolation of graphene, boron nitride, montmorillonite, and transition metal dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WS2, ReS2, MoSe2, WSe2) with homogeneous thickness down to the atomically thin limit. Similarly, two-dimensional black phosphorus is isolated in organic solvents or deoxygenated aqueous surfactant solutions with the resulting phosphorene nanosheets showing field-effect transistor mobilities and on/off ratios that are comparable to micromechanically exfoliated flakes. By adding cellulosic polymer stabilizers to these dispersions, the rheological properties can be tuned by orders of magnitude, thereby enabling two-dimensional material inks that are compatible with a range of additive manufacturing methods including inkjet, gravure, screen, and 3D printing. The resulting solution-processed two-dimensional heterostructures show promise in several device applications including photodiodes, anti-ambipolar transistors, gate-tunable memristors, and heterojunction photovoltaics.

  7. Diagnosis of nerve root compromise of the lumbar spine: Evaluation of the performance of three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jin Kyeong; Jee, Won Hee; Jung, Joon Yong; Jang, Jin Hee; Kim, Jin Sung; Kim, Young Hoon; Ha, Kee Yong [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To explore the performance of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application optimized contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) sequence on a 3T system, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise by disc herniation or stenosis from central to extraforaminal location of the lumbar spine, when used alone or in combination with conventional two-dimensional (2D) TSE sequence. Thirty-seven patients who had undergone 3T spine MRI including 2D and 3D sequences, and had subsequent spine surgery for nerve root compromise at a total of 39 nerve levels, were analyzed. A total of 78 nerve roots (48 symptomatic and 30 asymptomatic sites) were graded (0 to 3) using different MRI sets of 2D, 3D (axial plus sagittal), 3D (all planes), and combination of 2D and 3D sequences, with respect to the nerve root compromise caused by posterior disc herniations, lateral recess stenoses, neural foraminal stenoses, or extraforaminal disc herniations; grading was done independently by two readers. Diagnostic performance was compared between different imaging sets using the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. There were no statistically significant differences (p = 0.203 to > 0.999) in the ROC curve area between the imaging sets for both readers 1 and 2, except for combined 2D and 3D (0.843) vs. 2D (0.802) for reader 1 (p = 0.035), and combined 2D and 3D (0.820) vs. 3D including all planes (0.765) for reader 2 (p = 0.049). The performance of 3D isotropic T2-weighted TSE sequence of the lumbar spine, whether axial plus sagittal images, or all planes of images, was not significantly different from that of 2D TSE sequences, for the evaluation of nerve root compromise of the lumbar spine. Combining 2D and 3D might possibly improve the diagnostic accuracy compared with either one.

  8. Nonlinear dynamic characterization of two-dimensional materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovikj, D.; Alijani, F.; Cartamil Bueno, S.J.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Amabili, M.; Steeneken, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their atomic-scale thickness, the resonances of two-dimensional (2D) material membranes show signatures of nonlinearities at forces of only a few picoNewtons. Although the linear dynamics of membranes is well understood, the exact relation between the nonlinear response and the resonator's

  9. Band Alignment Determination of Two-Dimensional Heterojunctions and Their Electronic Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chiu, Ming-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials such as MoS2 have been recognized as high on-off ratio semiconductors which are promising candidates for electronic and optoelectronic devices. In addition to the use of individual 2D materials, the accelerated

  10. 3D-Ising model as a string theory in three-dimensional euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedrakyan, A.

    1992-11-01

    A three-dimensional string model is analyzed in the strong coupling regime. The contribution of surfaces with different topology to the partition function is essential. A set of corresponding models is discovered. Their critical indices, which depend on two integers (m,n) are calculated analytically. The critical indices of the three-dimensional Ising model should belong to this set. A possible connection with the chain of three dimensional lattice Pott's models is pointed out. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs

  11. Higher-dimensional relativistic-fluid spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, L. K.; Ahmedabad, Gujarat Univ.

    1997-01-01

    They consider the hydrostatic equilibrium of relativistic-fluid spheres for a D-dimensional space-time. Three physically viable interior solutions of the Einstein field equations corresponding to perfect-fluid spheres in a D-dimensional space-time are obtained. When D = 4 they reduce to the Tolman IV solution, the Mehra solution and the Finch-Skea solution. The solutions are smoothly matched with the D-dimensional Schwarzschild exterior solution at the boundary r = a of the fluid sphere. Some physical features and other related details of the solutions are briefly discussed. A brief description of two other new solutions for higher-dimensional perfect-fluid spheres is also given

  12. Comparing an accelerated 3D fast spin-echo sequence (CS-SPACE) for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging with traditional 3D fast spin-echo (SPACE) and routine 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altahawi, Faysal F.; Blount, Kevin J.; Omar, Imran M. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Morley, Nicholas P. [Marshfield Clinic, Department of Radiology, Marshfield, WI (United States); Raithel, Esther [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    To compare a faster, new, high-resolution accelerated 3D-fast-spin-echo (3D-FSE) acquisition sequence (CS-SPACE) to traditional 2D and high-resolution 3D sequences for knee 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty patients received knee MRIs that included routine 2D (T1, PD ± FS, T2-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 3 mm{sup 3}; ∝10 min), traditional 3D FSE (SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝7.5 min), and accelerated 3D-FSE prototype (CS-SPACE-PD-FS; 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 mm{sup 3}; ∝5 min) acquisitions on a 3-T MRI system (Siemens MAGNETOM Skyra). Three musculoskeletal radiologists (MSKRs) prospectively and independently reviewed the studies with graded surveys comparing image and diagnostic quality. Tissue-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were also compared. MSKR-perceived diagnostic quality of cartilage was significantly higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE and 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Assessment of diagnostic quality of menisci and synovial fluid was higher for CS-SPACE than for SPACE (p < 0.001). CS-SPACE was not significantly different from SPACE but had lower assessments than 2D sequences for evaluation of bones, ligaments, muscles, and fat (p ≤ 0.004). 3D sequences had higher spatial resolution, but lower overall assessed contrast (p < 0.001). Overall image quality from CS-SPACE was assessed as higher than SPACE (p = 0.007), but lower than 2D sequences (p < 0.001). Compared to SPACE, CS-SPACE had higher fluid SNR and CNR against all other tissues (all p < 0.001). The CS-SPACE prototype allows for faster isotropic acquisitions of knee MRIs over currently used protocols. High fluid-to-cartilage CNR and higher spatial resolution over routine 2D sequences may present a valuable role for CS-SPACE in the evaluation of cartilage and menisci. (orig.)

  13. A new method for information retrieval in two-dimensional grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Li; Gao Kun; Chen Jian; Ge Xin; Tian Yang-Chao; Wu Zi-Yu; Zhu Pei-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging has been demonstrated to be an extremely powerful phase-sensitive imaging technique. By using two-dimensional (2D) gratings, the observable contrast is extended to two refraction directions. Recently, we have developed a novel reverse-projection (RP) method, which is capable of retrieving the object information efficiently with one-dimensional (1D) grating-based phase contrast imaging. In this contribution, we present its extension to the 2D grating-based X-ray phase contrast imaging, named the two-dimensional reverse-projection (2D-RP) method, for information retrieval. The method takes into account the nonlinear contributions of two refraction directions and allows the retrieval of the absorption, the horizontal and the vertical refraction images. The obtained information can be used for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional phase gradient field, and for an improved phase map retrieval and reconstruction. Numerical experiments are carried out, and the results confirm the validity of the 2D-RP method

  14. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong; Otsuna, Hideo; Chien, Chi-Bin; Hansen, Charles

    2012-01-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  15. FluoRender: An application of 2D image space methods for 3D and 4D confocal microscopy data visualization in neurobiology research

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yong

    2012-02-01

    2D image space methods are processing methods applied after the volumetric data are projected and rendered into the 2D image space, such as 2D filtering, tone mapping and compositing. In the application domain of volume visualization, most 2D image space methods can be carried out more efficiently than their 3D counterparts. Most importantly, 2D image space methods can be used to enhance volume visualization quality when applied together with volume rendering methods. In this paper, we present and discuss the applications of a series of 2D image space methods as enhancements to confocal microscopy visualizations, including 2D tone mapping, 2D compositing, and 2D color mapping. These methods are easily integrated with our existing confocal visualization tool, FluoRender, and the outcome is a full-featured visualization system that meets neurobiologists\\' demands for qualitative analysis of confocal microscopy data. © 2012 IEEE.

  16. Dimensional degression in AdSd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artsukevich, A. Yu.; Vasiliev, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the pattern of fields in (d+1)-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in terms of those in d-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The procedure, which is neither dimensional reduction nor dimensional compactification, is called dimensional degression. The analysis is performed group theoretically for all totally symmetric bosonic and fermionic representations of the anti-de Sitter algebra. The field-theoretical analysis is done for a massive scalar field in AdS d+d ' and massless spin-one-half, spin-one, and spin-two fields in AdS d+1 . The mass spectra of the resulting towers of fields in AdS d are found. For the scalar field case, the obtained results extend to the shadow sector those obtained by Metsaev [Nucl. Phys. B, Proc. Suppl. 102, 100 (2001)] by a different method.

  17. Dimensional perturbation theory for the two-electron atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodson, D.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Perturbation theory in δ = 1/D, where D is the dimensionality of space, is applied to the two-electron atom. In Chapter 1 an efficient procedure for calculating the coefficients of the perturbation series for the ground-state energy is developed using recursion relations between the moments of the coordinate operators. Results through tenth order are presented. The series is divergent, but Pade summation gives results comparable in accuracy to the best configuration-interaction calculations. The singularity structure of the Pade approximants confirms the hypothesis that the energy as a function of δ has an infinite sequence of poles on the negative real axis that approaches an essential singularity at δ = O. The essential singularity causes the divergence of the perturbation series. There are also two poles at δ = 1 that slow the asymptotic convergence of the low-order terms. In Chapter 2, various techniques are demonstrated for removing the effect of these poles, and accurate results are thereby obtained, even at very low order. In Chapter 3, the large D limit of the correlation energy (CE) is investigated. In the limit D → infinity it is only 35% smaller than at D = 3. It can be made to vanish in the limit by modifying the Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunction. In Chapter 4, perturbation theory is applied to the Hooke's-law model of the atom. Prospects for treating more-complicated systems are briefly discussed

  18. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  19. Dynamical observations on the crack tip zone and stress corrosion of two-dimensional MoS2

    KAUST Repository

    Ly, Thuc Hue

    2017-01-18

    Whether and how fracture mechanics needs to be modified for small length scales and in systems of reduced dimensionality remains an open debate. Here, employing in situ transmission electron microscopy, atomic structures and dislocation dynamics in the crack tip zone of a propagating crack in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer MoS2 membrane are observed, and atom-to-atom displacement mapping is obtained. The electron beam is used to initiate the crack; during in situ observation of crack propagation the electron beam effect is minimized. The observed high-frequency emission of dislocations is beyond previous understanding of the fracture of brittle MoS2. Strain analysis reveals dislocation emission to be closely associated with the crack propagation path in nanoscale. The critical crack tip plastic zone size of nearly perfect 2D MoS2 is between 2 and 5 nm, although it can grow to 10 nm under corrosive conditions such as ultraviolet light exposure, showing enhanced dislocation activity via defect generation.

  20. Tunneling between parallel two-dimensional electron liquids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Tomáš; MacDonald, A. H.

    361/362, - (1996), s. 167-170 ISSN 0039-6028. [International Conference on the Electronic Properties of Two Dimensional Systems /11./. Nottingham, 07.08.1995-11.08.1995] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/94/1278 Grant - others:INT(XX) 9106888 Impact factor: 2.783, year: 1996

  1. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA MODELS WITH MULTI-DIMENSIONAL TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, Joshua C.; Burrows, Adam; Zhang, Weiqun

    2015-01-01

    We present new two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric neutrino radiation/hydrodynamic models of core-collapse supernova (CCSN) cores. We use the CASTRO code, which incorporates truly multi-dimensional, multi-group, flux-limited diffusion (MGFLD) neutrino transport, including all relevant O(v/c) terms. Our main motivation for carrying out this study is to compare with recent 2D models produced by other groups who have obtained explosions for some progenitor stars and with recent 2D VULCAN results that did not incorporate O(v/c) terms. We follow the evolution of 12, 15, 20, and 25 solar-mass progenitors to approximately 600 ms after bounce and do not obtain an explosion in any of these models. Though the reason for the qualitative disagreement among the groups engaged in CCSN modeling remains unclear, we speculate that the simplifying ''ray-by-ray'' approach employed by all other groups may be compromising their results. We show that ''ray-by-ray'' calculations greatly exaggerate the angular and temporal variations of the neutrino fluxes, which we argue are better captured by our multi-dimensional MGFLD approach. On the other hand, our 2D models also make approximations, making it difficult to draw definitive conclusions concerning the root of the differences between groups. We discuss some of the diagnostics often employed in the analyses of CCSN simulations and highlight the intimate relationship between the various explosion conditions that have been proposed. Finally, we explore the ingredients that may be missing in current calculations that may be important in reproducing the properties of the average CCSNe, should the delayed neutrino-heating mechanism be the correct mechanism of explosion

  2. Supraspinatus tendon tears at 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography: diagnosis with 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus 2D conventional sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Y.; Lee, So-Yeon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang-Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of shoulder MR arthrography with 3D isotropic fat-suppressed (FS) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) for supraspinatus tendon tears in comparison with 2D conventional sequences at 3.0 T. The study was HIPAA-compliant and approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Eighty-seven arthroscopically confirmed patients who underwent 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography with 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE were included in a consecutive fashion from March 2009 to February 2010. Two reviewers independently analyzed 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement ({kappa}) were compared between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE for full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together and for partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone. There were 33 full-thickness tears and 28 partial-thickness tears of supraspinatus tendons. For full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both readers were 96, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 91, 84, and 89% on 3D TSE-SPACE. For partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 84, 85, and 84% on 3D TSE-SPACE. There was no statistical difference between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Interobserver agreements were almost perfect on 2D conventional sequences and substantial on 3D TSE-SPACE. Compared with 2D conventional sequences, MR arthrography using 3D TSE-SPACE was comparable for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tears despite limitations in detecting small partial-thickness tears and in discriminating between full-thickness and deep partial-thickness tears. (orig.)

  3. Supraspinatus tendon tears at 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography: diagnosis with 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus 2D conventional sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Y.; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Yang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of shoulder MR arthrography with 3D isotropic fat-suppressed (FS) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) for supraspinatus tendon tears in comparison with 2D conventional sequences at 3.0 T. The study was HIPAA-compliant and approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Eighty-seven arthroscopically confirmed patients who underwent 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography with 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE were included in a consecutive fashion from March 2009 to February 2010. Two reviewers independently analyzed 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement (κ) were compared between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE for full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together and for partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone. There were 33 full-thickness tears and 28 partial-thickness tears of supraspinatus tendons. For full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both readers were 96, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 91, 84, and 89% on 3D TSE-SPACE. For partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 84, 85, and 84% on 3D TSE-SPACE. There was no statistical difference between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Interobserver agreements were almost perfect on 2D conventional sequences and substantial on 3D TSE-SPACE. Compared with 2D conventional sequences, MR arthrography using 3D TSE-SPACE was comparable for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tears despite limitations in detecting small partial-thickness tears and in discriminating between full-thickness and deep partial-thickness tears. (orig.)

  4. Airy beams on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Li, Rujiang; Jiang, Yuyu; Lin, Xiao; Zheng, Bin; Dehdashti, Shahram; Xu, Zhiwei; Wang, Huaping

    2018-05-01

    We propose that quasi-transverse-magnetic (quasi-TM) Airy beams can be supported on two dimensional (2D) materials. By taking graphene as a typical example, the solution of quasi-TM Airy beams is studied under the paraxial approximation. The analytical field intensity in a bilayer graphene-based planar plasmonic waveguide is confirmed by the simulation results. Due to the tunability of the chemical potential of graphene, the self-accelerating behavior of the quasi-TM Airy beam can be steered effectively. 2D materials thus provide a good platform to investigate the propagation of Airy beams.

  5. Two-dimensional materials for ultrafast lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fengqiu

    2017-01-01

    As the fundamental optical properties and novel photophysics of graphene and related two-dimensional (2D) crystals are being extensively investigated and revealed, a range of potential applications in optical and optoelectronic devices have been proposed and demonstrated. Of the many possibilities, the use of 2D materials as broadband, cost-effective and versatile ultrafast optical switches (or saturable absorbers) for short-pulsed lasers constitutes a rapidly developing field with not only a good number of publications, but also a promising prospect for commercial exploitation. This review primarily focuses on the recent development of pulsed lasers based on several representative 2D materials. The comparative advantages of these materials are discussed, and challenges to practical exploitation, which represent good future directions of research, are laid out. (paper)

  6. Efficient and accurate nearest neighbor and closest pair search in high-dimensional space

    KAUST Repository

    Tao, Yufei

    2010-07-01

    Nearest Neighbor (NN) search in high-dimensional space is an important problem in many applications. From the database perspective, a good solution needs to have two properties: (i) it can be easily incorporated in a relational database, and (ii) its query cost should increase sublinearly with the dataset size, regardless of the data and query distributions. Locality-Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is a well-known methodology fulfilling both requirements, but its current implementations either incur expensive space and query cost, or abandon its theoretical guarantee on the quality of query results. Motivated by this, we improve LSH by proposing an access method called the Locality-Sensitive B-tree (LSB-tree) to enable fast, accurate, high-dimensional NN search in relational databases. The combination of several LSB-trees forms a LSB-forest that has strong quality guarantees, but improves dramatically the efficiency of the previous LSH implementation having the same guarantees. In practice, the LSB-tree itself is also an effective index which consumes linear space, supports efficient updates, and provides accurate query results. In our experiments, the LSB-tree was faster than: (i) iDistance (a famous technique for exact NN search) by two orders ofmagnitude, and (ii) MedRank (a recent approximate method with nontrivial quality guarantees) by one order of magnitude, and meanwhile returned much better results. As a second step, we extend our LSB technique to solve another classic problem, called Closest Pair (CP) search, in high-dimensional space. The long-term challenge for this problem has been to achieve subquadratic running time at very high dimensionalities, which fails most of the existing solutions. We show that, using a LSB-forest, CP search can be accomplished in (worst-case) time significantly lower than the quadratic complexity, yet still ensuring very good quality. In practice, accurate answers can be found using just two LSB-trees, thus giving a substantial

  7. Two-dimensional NMR spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    This article is the second in a two-part series. In part one (ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, May 15) the authors discussed one-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra and some relatively advanced nuclear spin gymnastics experiments that provide a capability for selective sensitivity enhancements. In this article and overview and some applications of two-dimensional NMR experiments are presented. These powerful experiments are important complements to the one-dimensional experiments. As in the more sophisticated one-dimensional experiments, the two-dimensional experiments involve three distinct time periods: a preparation period, t 0 ; an evolution period, t 1 ; and a detection period, t 2

  8. Insight into Resolution Enhancement in Generalized Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lu; Sikirzhytski, Vitali; Hong, Zhenmin; Lednev, Igor K.; Asher, Sanford A.

    2013-01-01

    Generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) can be used to enhance spectral resolution in order to help differentiate highly overlapped spectral bands. Despite the numerous extensive 2D COS investigations, the origin of the 2D spectral resolution enhancement mechanism(s) are not completely understood. In the work here we studied the 2D COS of simulated spectra in order to develop new insights into the dependence of the 2D COS spectral features on the overlapping band separat...

  9. Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brix, Lau; Ringgaard, Steffen; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2014-04-01

    Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Axial, sagittal, and coronal 2D MRI series

  10. Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Lau, E-mail: lau.brix@stab.rm.dk [Department of Procurement and Clinical Engineering, Region Midt, Olof Palmes Allé 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen [MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Sørensen, Thomas Sangild [Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Aabogade 34, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Results: Axial, sagittal

  11. Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, Lau; Ringgaard, Steffen; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild; Poulsen, Per Rugaard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Results: Axial, sagittal

  12. A new two dimensional spectral/spatial multi-diagonal code for noncoherent optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadhim, Rasim Azeez; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan; Aljunid, S. A.; Razalli, Mohamad Shahrazel

    2014-10-01

    A new two dimensional codes family, namely two dimensional multi-diagonal (2D-MD) codes, is proposed for spectral/spatial non-coherent OCDMA systems based on the one dimensional MD code. Since the MD code has the property of zero cross correlation, the proposed 2D-MD code also has this property. So that, the multi-access interference (MAI) is fully eliminated and the phase induced intensity noise (PIIN) is suppressed with the proposed code. Code performance is analyzed in terms of bit error rate (BER) while considering the effect of shot noise, PIIN, and thermal noise. The performance of the proposed code is compared with the related MD, modified quadratic congruence (MQC), two dimensional perfect difference (2D-PD) and two dimensional diluted perfect difference (2D-DPD) codes. The analytical and the simulation results reveal that the proposed 2D-MD code outperforms the other codes. Moreover, a large number of simultaneous users can be accommodated at low BER and high data rate.

  13. On the space dimensionality based on metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelik, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to space time dimensionality is suggested, which permits to take into account the possibility of altering dimensionality depending on the phenomenon scale. An attempt is made to give the definition of dimensionality, equivalent to a conventional definition for the Euclidean space and variety. The conventional definition of variety dimensionality is connected with the possibility of homeomorphic reflection of the Euclidean space on some region of each variety point

  14. Two dimensional topological insulator in quantizing magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    The effect of quantizing magnetic field on the electron transport is investigated in a two dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) based on a 8 nm (013) HgTe quantum well (QW). The local resistance behavior is indicative of a metal-insulator transition at B ≈ 6 T. On the whole the experimental data agrees with the theory according to which the helical edge states transport in a 2D TI persists from zero up to a critical magnetic field Bc after which a gap opens up in the 2D TI spectrum.

  15. On spinless null propagation in five-dimensional space-times with approximate space-like Killing symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breban, Romulus [Institut Pasteur, Paris Cedex 15 (France)

    2016-09-15

    Five-dimensional (5D) space-time symmetry greatly facilitates how a 4D observer perceives the propagation of a single spinless particle in a 5D space-time. In particular, if the 5D geometry is independent of the fifth coordinate then the 5D physics may be interpreted as 4D quantum mechanics. In this work we address the case where the symmetry is approximate, focusing on the case where the 5D geometry depends weakly on the fifth coordinate. We show that concepts developed for the case of exact symmetry approximately hold when other concepts such as decaying quantum states, resonant quantum scattering, and Stokes drag are adopted, as well. We briefly comment on the optical model of the nuclear interactions and Millikan's oil drop experiment. (orig.)

  16. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  17. Development of new two-dimensional spectral/spatial code based on dynamic cyclic shift code for OCDMA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellali, Nabiha; Najjar, Monia; Ferchichi, Moez; Rezig, Houria

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a new two-dimensional spectral/spatial codes family, named two dimensional dynamic cyclic shift codes (2D-DCS) is introduced. The 2D-DCS codes are derived from the dynamic cyclic shift code for the spectral and spatial coding. The proposed system can fully eliminate the multiple access interference (MAI) by using the MAI cancellation property. The effect of shot noise, phase-induced intensity noise and thermal noise are used to analyze the code performance. In comparison with existing two dimensional (2D) codes, such as 2D perfect difference (2D-PD), 2D Extended Enhanced Double Weight (2D-Extended-EDW) and 2D hybrid (2D-FCC/MDW) codes, the numerical results show that our proposed codes have the best performance. By keeping the same code length and increasing the spatial code, the performance of our 2D-DCS system is enhanced: it provides higher data rates while using lower transmitted power and a smaller spectral width.

  18. Orbital order and effective mass enhancement in t2 g two-dimensional electron gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolsma, John; Principi, Alessandro; Polini, Marco; MacDonald, Allan

    2015-03-01

    It is now possible to prepare d-electron two-dimensional electron gas systems that are confined near oxide heterojunctions and contain t2 g electrons with a density much smaller than one electron per metal atom. I will discuss a generic model that captures all qualitative features of electron-electron interaction physics in t2 g two-dimensional electron gas systems, and the use of a GW approximation to explore t2 g quasiparticle properties in this new context. t2 g electron gases contain a high density isotropic light mass xy component and low-density xz and yz anisotropic components with light and heavy masses in orthogonal directions. The high density light mass band screens interactions within the heavy bands. As a result the wave vector dependence of the self-energy is reduced and the effective mass is increased. When the density in the heavy bands is low, the difference in anisotropy between the two heavy bands favors orbital order. When orbital order does not occur, interactions still reshape the heavy-band Fermi surfaces. I will discuss these results in the context of recently reported magnetotransport experiments.

  19. D-particle Recoil Space Times and "Glueball" Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Mavromatos, Nick E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    We discuss the properties of matter in a D-dimensional anti-de-Sitter-type space time induced dynamically by the recoil of a very heavy D(irichlet)-particle defect embedded in it. The particular form of the recoil geometry, which from a world-sheet view point follows from logarithmic conformal field theory deformations of the pertinent sigma-models, results in the presence of both infrared and ultraviolet (spatial) cut-offs. These are crucial in ensuring the presence of mass gaps in scalar matter propagating in the D-particle recoil space time. The analogy of this problem with the Liouville-string approach to QCD, suggested earlier by John Ellis and one of the present authors, prompts us to identify the resulting scalar masses with those obtained in the supergravity approach based on the Maldacena's conjecture, but without the imposition of any supersymmetry in our case. Within reasonable numerical uncertainties, we observe that agreement is obtained between the two approaches for a particular value of the ra...

  20. Numerical Study of Three Dimensional Effects in Longitudinal Space-Charge Impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [NICADD, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb

    2015-06-01

    Longitudinal space-charge (LSC) effects are generally considered as detrimental in free-electron lasers as they can seed instabilities. Such “microbunching instabilities” were recently shown to be potentially useful to support the generation of broadband coherent radiation pulses [1, 2]. Therefore there has been an increasing interest in devising accelerator beamlines capable of sustaining this LSC instability as a mechanism to produce a coherent light source. To date most of these studies have been carried out with a one-dimensional impedance model for the LSC. In this paper we use a N-body “Barnes-Hut” algorithm [3] to simulate the 3D space charge force in the beam combined with elegant [4] and explore the limitation of the 1D model often used

  1. Bounds on the Capacity of Weakly constrained two-dimensional Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Upper and lower bounds are presented for the capacity of weakly constrained two-dimensional codes. The maximum entropy is calculated for two simple models of 2-D codes constraining the probability of neighboring 1s as an example. For given models of the coded data, upper and lower bounds...... on the capacity for 2-D channel models based on occurrences of neighboring 1s are considered....

  2. We live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, W-Y. Pauchy

    2015-01-01

    We try to define "our world" by stating that "we live in the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time with the force-fields gauge group $SU_c(3) \\times SU_L(2) \\times U(1) \\times SU_f(3)$ built-in from the outset". We begin by explaining what "space" and "time" are meaning for us - the 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time, then proceeding to the quantum 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time. In our world, there are fields, or, point-like particles. Particle physics is described by the so-called ...

  3. Two Dimensional Electrophoresis of Galactosidase Relating to the Disappearance of Bombyx Lectin Activity

    OpenAIRE

    カトウ, ヤスオ; Yasuo, Kato

    2004-01-01

    "Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electroporesis (2 D-PAGE) analysis on the haemolymph of Bombyx mori was performed using the Mini-PROTEAN mini tube gel two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.). The result on various electrophoretical conditions using the haemolymph-protein showed the possibility that the haemolymph-protein was separated actually by means of this method. Moreover, the result of 2 D-PAGE analysis on Fraction II obtained by gel fi...

  4. Doping of two-dimensional MoS2 by high energy ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kang; Zhao, Yuda; Lin, Ziyuan; Long, Yan; Wang, Yi; Chan, Mansun; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been demonstrated to be promising candidates for next generation electronic circuits. Analogues to conventional Si-based semiconductors, p- and n-doping of 2D materials are essential for building complementary circuits. Controllable and effective doping strategies require large tunability of the doping level and negligible structural damage to ultrathin 2D materials. In this work, we demonstrate a doping method utilizing a conventional high-energy ion-implantation machine. Before the implantation, a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) protective layer is used to decelerate the dopant ions and minimize the structural damage to MoS2, thus aggregating the dopants inside MoS2 flakes. By optimizing the implantation energy and fluence, phosphorus dopants are incorporated into MoS2 flakes. Our Raman and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) results show that only negligibly structural damage is introduced to the MoS2 lattice during the implantation. P-doping effect by the incorporation of p+ is demonstrated by Photoluminescence (PL) and electrical characterizations. Thin PMMA protection layer leads to large kinetic damage but also a more significant doping effect. Also, MoS2 with large thickness shows less kinetic damage. This doping method makes use of existing infrastructures in the semiconductor industry and can be extended to other 2D materials and dopant species as well.

  5. Almost two-dimensional treatment of drift wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, J.M.; Similon, P.L.; Sudan, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    The approximation of two-dimensionality is studied and extended for electrostatic drift wave turbulence in a three-dimensional, magnetized plasma. It is argued on the basis of the direct interaction approximation that in the absence of parallel viscosity, purely 2-D solutions exist for which only modes with k parallel =0 are excited, but that the 2-D spectrum is unstable to perturbations at nonzero k parallel . A 1-D equation for the parallel profile g k perpendicular (k parallel ) of the saturated spectrum at steady state is derived and solved, allowing for parallel viscosity; the spectrum has finite width in k parallel , and hence finite parallel correlation length, as a result of nonlinear coupling. The enhanced energy dissipation rate, a 3-D effect, may be incorporated in the 2-D approximation by a suitable renormalization of the linear dissipation term. An algorithm is presented that reduces the 3-D problem to coupled 1- and 2-D problems. Numerical results from a 2-D spectral direct simulation, thus modified, are compared with the results from the corresponding 3-D (unmodified) simulation for a specific model of drift wave excitation. Damping at high k parallel is included. It is verified that the 1-D solution for g k perpendicular (k parallel ) accurately describes the shape and width of the 3-D spectrum, and that the modified 2-D simulation gives a good estimate of the 3-D energy saturation level and distribution E(k perpendicular )

  6. Low dimensionality semiconductors: modelling of excitons via a fractional-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christol, P.; Lefebvre, P.; Mathieu, H.

    1993-09-01

    An interaction space with a fractionnal dimension is used to calculate in a simple way the binding energies of excitons confined in quantum wells, superlattices and quantum well wires. A very simple formulation provides this energy versus the non-integer dimensionality of the physical environment of the electron-hole pair. The problem then comes to determining the dimensionality α. We show that the latter can be expressed from the characteristics of the microstructure. α continuously varies from 3 (bulk material) to 2 for quantum wells and superlattices, and from 3 to 1 for quantum well wires. Quite a fair agreement is obtained with other theoretical calculations and experimental data, and this model coherently describes both three-dimensional limiting cases for quantum wells (L_wrightarrow 0 and L_wrightarrow infty) and the whole range of periods of the superlattice. Such a simple model presents a great interest for spectroscopists though it does not aim to compete with accurate but often tedious variational calculations. Nous utilisons un espace des interactions doté d'une dimension fractionnaire pour calculer simplement l'énergie de liaison des excitons confinés dans les puits quantiques, superréseaux et fils quantiques. Une formulation très simple donne cette énergie en fonction de la dimensionalité non-entière de l'environnement physique de la paire électron-trou. Le problème revient alors à déterminer cette dimensionalité α, dont nous montrons qu'une expression peut être déduite des caractéristiques de la microstructure. α varie continûment de 3 (matériau massif) à 2 pour un puits quantique ou un superréseau, et de 3 à 1 pour un fil quantique, selon le confinement du mouvement des porteurs. Les comparaisons avec d'autres calculs théoriques et données expérimentales sont toujours très convenables, et cette théorie décrit d'une façon cohérente les limites tridimensionnelles du puits quantique (L_wrightarrow 0 et L

  7. Newton-sor iterative method for solving the two-dimensional porous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we consider the application of the Newton-SOR iterative method in obtaining the approximate solution of the two-dimensional porous medium equation (2D PME). The nonlinear finite difference approximation equation to the 2D PME is derived by using the implicit finite difference scheme. The developed ...

  8. Shape-persistent two-component 2D networks with atomic-size tunability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Dong; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian; Stang, Peter J; Wan, Li-Jun

    2011-09-05

    Over the past few years, two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous networks have attracted great interest as templates for the precise localization and confinement of guest building blocks, such as functional molecules or clusters on the solid surfaces. Herein, a series of two-component molecular networks with a 3-fold symmetry are constructed on graphite using a truxenone derivative and trimesic acid homologues with carboxylic-acid-terminated alkyl chains. The hydrogen-bonding partner-recognition-induced 2D crystallization of alkyl chains makes the flexible alkyl chains act as rigid spacers in the networks to continuously tune the pore size with an accuracy of one carbon atom per step. The two-component networks were found to accommodate and regulate the distribution and aggregation of guest molecules, such as COR and CuPc. This procedure provides a new pathway for the design and fabrication of molecular nanostructures on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Forming three-dimensional closed shapes from two-dimensional soft ribbons by controlled buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Michio; Juang, Jia-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Conventional manufacturing techniques-moulding, machining and casting-exist to produce three-dimensional (3D) shapes. However, these industrial processes are typically geared for mass production and are not directly applicable to residential settings, where inexpensive and versatile tools are desirable. Moreover, those techniques are, in general, not adequate to process soft elastic materials. Here, we introduce a new concept of forming 3D closed hollow shapes from two-dimensional (2D) elastic ribbons by controlled buckling. We numerically and experimentally characterize how the profile and thickness of the ribbon determine its buckled shape. We find a 2D master profile with which various elliptical 3D shapes can be formed. More complex natural and artificial hollow shapes, such as strawberry, hourglass and wheel, can also be achieved via strategic design and pattern engraving on the ribbons. The nonlinear response of the post-buckling regime is rationalized through finite-element analysis, which shows good quantitative agreement with experiments. This robust fabrication should complement conventional techniques and provide a rich arena for future studies on the mechanics and new applications of elastic hollow structures.

  10. MicroRNA expression in the vildagliptin-treated two- and three-dimensional HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Yasunari; Asakura, Mitsutoshi; Mitsugi, Ryo; Fujii, Hideaki; Nagai, Kenichiro; Atsuda, Koichiro; Itoh, Tomoo; Fujiwara, Ryoichi

    2016-06-01

    Vildagliptin is an inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 that is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While vildagliptin can induce hepatic dysfunction in humans, the molecular mechanism has not been determined yet. Recent studies indicated that certain types of microRNA (miRNA) were linking to the development of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. In the present study, therefore, we identified hepatic miRNAs that were highly induced or reduced by the vildagliptin treatment in mice. MiR-222 and miR-877, toxicity-associated miRNAs, were induced 31- and 53-fold, respectively, by vildagliptin in the liver. While a number of miRNAs were significantly regulated by the orally treated vildagliptin in vivo, such regulation was not observed in the vildagliptin-treated HepG2 cells. In addition to the regular two-dimensional (2D) culture, we carried out the three-dimensional (3D) culturing of HepG2 cells. In the 3D-HepG2 cells, a significant reduction of miR-222 was observed compared to the expression level in 2D-HepG2 cells. A slight induction of miR-222 by vildagliptin was observed in the 3D-HepG2 cells, although miR-877 was not induced by vildagliptin even in the 3D-HepG2 cells. Further investigations are needed to overcome the discrepancy in the responsiveness of the miRNA expressions to vildagliptin between in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. On-stack two-dimensional conversion of MoS2 into MoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoung Ko, Taeg; Jeong, Areum; Kim, Wontaek; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Youngchan; Lee, Jung Eun; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Park, Kwanghee; Kim, Dogyeong; Lee, Zonghoon; Lee, Min Hyung; Lee, Changgu; Ryu, Sunmin

    2017-03-01

    Chemical transformation of existing two-dimensional (2D) materials can be crucial in further expanding the 2D crystal palette required to realize various functional heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a 2D ‘on-stack’ chemical conversion of single-layer crystalline MoS2 into MoO3 with a precise layer control that enables truly 2D MoO3 and MoO3/MoS2 heterostructures. To minimize perturbation of the 2D morphology, a nonthermal oxidation using O2 plasma was employed. The early stage of the reaction was characterized by a defect-induced Raman peak, drastic quenching of photoluminescence (PL) signals and sub-nm protrusions in atomic force microscopy images. As the reaction proceeded from the uppermost layer to the buried layers, PL and optical second harmonic generation signals showed characteristic modulations revealing a layer-by-layer conversion. The plasma-generated 2D oxides, confirmed as MoO3 by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, were found to be amorphous but extremely flat with a surface roughness of 0.18 nm, comparable to that of 1L MoS2. The rate of oxidation quantified by Raman spectroscopy decreased very rapidly for buried sulfide layers due to protection by the surface 2D oxides, exhibiting a pseudo-self-limiting behavior. As exemplified in this work, various on-stack chemical transformations can be applied to other 2D materials in forming otherwise unobtainable materials and complex heterostructures, thus expanding the palette of 2D material building blocks.

  12. Optimal conclusive teleportation of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yu-Guang; Wen Qiao-Yan; Zhu Fu-Chen

    2006-01-01

    A conclusive teleportation protocol of a d-dimensional two-particle unknown quantum state using three ddimensional particles in an arbitrary pure state is proposed. A sender teleports the unknown state conclusively to a receiver by using the positive operator valued measure(POVM) and introducing an ancillary qudit to perform the generalized Bell basis measurement. We calculate the optimal teleportation fidelity. We also discuss and analyse the reason why the information on the teleported state is lost in the course of the protocol.

  13. Flow Interactions of Two- and Three-Dimensional Networked Bio-Inspired Control Elements in an In-Line Arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith

    2018-04-19

    We present experiments that examine the modes of interaction, the collective performance and the role of three-dimensionality in two pitching propulsors in an in-line arrangement. Both two-dimensional foils and three-dimensional rectangular wings of $AR = 2$ are examined. \\kwm{In contrast to previous work, two interaction modes distinguished as the coherent and branched wake modes are not observed to be directly linked to the propulsive efficiency, although they are linked to peak thrust performance and minimum power consumption as previously described \\cite[]{boschitsch2014propulsive}.} \\kwm{In fact, in closely-spaced propulsors peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its minimum power and this condition \\kwm{ reveals a} branched wake mode. Alternatively, for propulsors spaced far apart peak propulsive efficiency of the follower occurs near its peak thrust and this condition \\kwm{reveals a} coherent wake mode.} By examining the collective performance, it is discovered that there is an optimal spacing between the propulsors to maximize the collective efficiency. For two-dimensional foils the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.75$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 2\\pi /3$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 50\\% and 32\\%, respectively, as compared to two isolated foils. In comparison, for $AR = 2$ wings the optimal spacing of $X^* = 0.25$ and the synchrony of $\\phi = 7\\pi /6$ leads to a collective efficiency and thrust enhancement of 30\\% and 22\\%, respectively. In addition, at the optimal conditions the collective lateral force coefficients in both the two- and three-dimensional cases are negligible, while operating off these conditions can lead to non-negligible lateral forces. Finally, the peak efficiency of the collective and the follower are shown to have opposite trends with increasing spacing in two- and three-dimensional flows. This is correlated to the breakdown of the impinging vortex on the follower wing in three

  14. Unidirectional Wave Vector Manipulation in Two-Dimensional Space with an All Passive Acoustic Parity-Time-Symmetric Metamaterials Crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tuo; Zhu, Xuefeng; Chen, Fei; Liang, Shanjun; Zhu, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Exploring the concept of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians respecting parity-time symmetry with classical wave systems is of great interest as it enables the experimental investigation of parity-time-symmetric systems through the quantum-classical analogue. Here, we demonstrate unidirectional wave vector manipulation in two-dimensional space, with an all passive acoustic parity-time-symmetric metamaterials crystal. The metamaterials crystal is constructed through interleaving groove- and holey-structured acoustic metamaterials to provide an intrinsic parity-time-symmetric potential that is two-dimensionally extended and curved, which allows the flexible manipulation of unpaired wave vectors. At the transition point from the unbroken to broken parity-time symmetry phase, the unidirectional sound focusing effect (along with reflectionless acoustic transparency in the opposite direction) is experimentally realized over the spectrum. This demonstration confirms the capability of passive acoustic systems to carry the experimental studies on general parity-time symmetry physics and further reveals the unique functionalities enabled by the judiciously tailored unidirectional wave vectors in space.

  15. Performance improvement of two-dimensional EUV spectroscopy based on high frame rate CCD and signal normalization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.M.; Morita, S.; Ohishi, T.; Goto, M.; Huang, X.L.

    2014-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the performance of two-dimensional (2-D) extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectroscopy with wavelength range of 30-650A has been improved by installing a high frame rate CCD and applying a signal intensity normalization method. With upgraded 2-D space-resolved EUV spectrometer, measurement of 2-D impurity emission profiles with high horizontal resolution is possible in high-density NBI discharges. The variation in intensities of EUV emission among a few discharges is significantly reduced by normalizing the signal to the spectral intensity from EUV_—Long spectrometer which works as an impurity monitor with high-time resolution. As a result, high resolution 2-D intensity distribution has been obtained from CIV (384.176A), CV(2x40.27A), CVI(2x33.73A) and HeII(303.78A). (author)

  16. On two-dimensionalization of three-dimensional turbulence in shell models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Sagar; Jensen, Mogens Høgh; Sarkar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Applying a modified version of the Gledzer-Ohkitani-Yamada (GOY) shell model, the signatures of so-called two-dimensionalization effect of three-dimensional incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic fully developed unforced turbulence have been studied and reproduced. Within the framework of shell m......-similar PDFs for longitudinal velocity differences are also presented for the rotating 3D turbulence case....

  17. Coupling effect of topological states and Chern insulators in two-dimensional triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Xue, Yang; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin

    2018-03-01

    We investigate topological states of two-dimensional (2D) triangular lattices with multiorbitals. Tight-binding model calculations of a 2D triangular lattice based on px and py orbitals exhibit very interesting doubly degenerate energy points at different positions (Γ and K /K' ) in momentum space, with quadratic non-Dirac and linear Dirac band dispersions, respectively. Counterintuitively, the system shows a global topologically trivial rather than nontrivial state with consideration of spin-orbit coupling due to the "destructive interference effect" between the topological states at the Γ and K /K' points. The topologically nontrivial state can emerge by introducing another set of triangular lattices to the system (bitriangular lattices) due to the breakdown of the interference effect. With first-principles calculations, we predict an intrinsic Chern insulating behavior (quantum anomalous Hall effect) in a family of the 2D triangular lattice metal-organic framework of Co(C21N3H15) (TPyB-Co) from this scheme. Our results provide a different path and theoretical guidance for the search for and design of new 2D topological quantum materials.

  18. Two-dimensional sonographic cine imaging improves confidence in the initial evaluation of the fetal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Patricia Sims; Chung, Romy; Lacoursiere, Yvette; Palmieri, Carolina Rossi; Hull, Andrew; Engelkemier, Dawn; Rochelle, Michele; Trivedi, Neha; Pretorius, Dolores H

    2013-06-01

    Initial screening sonography of the fetal heart with static images is often inadequate, resulting in repeated imaging or failure to detect abnormalities. We hypothesized that the addition of short cine clips would reduce the need for repeated imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) static sonograms and short 2D cine clips of the 4-chamber view and left and right ventricular outflow tracts were obtained from 342 patients with gestational ages of greater than 16 weeks. A diagnostic radiologist and a perinatologist retrospectively reviewed the static and cine images independently and graded them as normal, abnormal, or suboptimal. A statistically significant increase in the number of structures called normal was seen when 2D cine clips were added to static imaging for both observers (P cine images versus 61.9% with static images alone, whereas the perinatologist recorded 68.1% as normal versus 58.8%, respectively. The radiologist called 77.8% of structures normal with cine images only versus 61.9% with static images only (P cine images alone (38.9%) versus static images alone (58.8%). The use of cine loops alone resulted in no significant increase in the ability to clear the heart as normal. The maternal body mass index was inversely associated with the ability to clear structures when 2D cine images were added to static images (P cine clips to standard 2D static imaging of the fetal heart significantly improves the number of structures cleared as normal. Two-dimensional cine clips are easily obtained, add little time to a study, and require minimal archival space.

  19. Single-shot ultrabroadband two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the light-harvesting complex LH2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel, Elad; Long, Phillip D; Engel, Gregory S

    2011-05-01

    Here we present two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of the light-harvesting complex LH2 from purple bacteria using coherent pulses with bandwidth of over 100 nm FWHM. This broadband excitation and detection has allowed the simultaneous capture of both the B800 and B850 bands using a single light source. We demonstrate that one laser pulse is sufficient to capture the entire 2D electronic spectrum with a high signal-to-noise ratio. At a waiting time of 800 fs, we observe population transfer from the B800 to B850 band as manifested by a prominent cross peak. These results will enable observation of the dynamics of biological systems across both ultrafast (1 ms) timescales simultaneously.

  20. Simplification of one-dimensional hydraulic networks by automated processes evaluated on 1D/2D deterministic flood models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Steffen; Löwe, Roland; Thrysøe, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    Evaluation of pluvial flood risk is often based on computations using 1D/2D urban flood models. However, guidelines on choice of model complexity are missing, especially for one-dimensional (1D) network models. This study presents a new automatic approach for simplification of 1D hydraulic networ...

  1. Nonsingular 4d-flat branes in six-dimensional supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, V.P.; Randjbar-Daemi, S.

    2005-01-01

    We show that six-dimensional supergravity models admit nonsingular solutions in the presence of flat three-brane sources with positive tensions. The models studied in this paper involve nonlinear sigma model scalar fields targeted on noncompact manifolds. For the particular solutions of the scalar field equations which we consider, only two brane sources are possible which are positioned at those points where the scalar field densities diverge, without creating a divergence in the Ricci scalar or the total energy. These solutions are invariant under 1/2 of D=6 supersymmetries far away from the branes, which, however, do not integrate to global Killing spinors. Other branes can be introduced by hand by allowing for local deficit angles in the transverse space without generating any kind of curvature singularities. (author)

  2. Two-dimensional spin-orbit Dirac point in monolayer HfGeTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shan; Liu, Ying; Yu, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Shan-Shan; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Shengyuan A.

    2017-10-01

    Dirac points in two-dimensional (2D) materials have been a fascinating subject of research, with graphene as the most prominent example. However, the Dirac points in existing 2D materials, including graphene, are vulnerable against spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Here, based on first-principles calculations and theoretical analysis, we propose a new family of stable 2D materials, the HfGeTe-family monolayers, which host so-called spin-orbit Dirac points (SDPs) close to the Fermi level. These Dirac points are special in that they are formed only under significant SOC, hence they are intrinsically robust against SOC. We show that the existence of a pair of SDPs are dictated by the nonsymmorphic space group symmetry of the system, which are very robust under various types of lattice strains. The energy, the dispersion, and the valley occupation around the Dirac points can be effectively tuned by strain. We construct a low-energy effective model to characterize the Dirac fermions around the SDPs. Furthermore, we find that the material is simultaneously a 2D Z2 topological metal, which possesses nontrivial Z2 invariant in the bulk and spin-helical edge states on the boundary. From the calculated exfoliation energies and mechanical properties, we show that these materials can be readily obtained in experiment from the existing bulk materials. Our result reveals HfGeTe-family monolayers as a promising platform for exploring spin-orbit Dirac fermions and topological phases in two-dimensions.

  3. Lagrangian statistics in weakly forced two-dimensional turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Michael K; Ecke, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of Lagrangian single-point and multiple-point statistics in a quasi-two-dimensional stratified layer system are reported. The system consists of a layer of salt water over an immiscible layer of Fluorinert and is forced electromagnetically so that mean-squared vorticity is injected at a well-defined spatial scale ri. Simultaneous cascades develop in which enstrophy flows predominately to small scales whereas energy cascades, on average, to larger scales. Lagrangian correlations and one- and two-point displacements are measured for random initial conditions and for initial positions within topological centers and saddles. Some of the behavior of these quantities can be understood in terms of the trapping characteristics of long-lived centers, the slow motion near strong saddles, and the rapid fluctuations outside of either centers or saddles. We also present statistics of Lagrangian velocity fluctuations using energy spectra in frequency space and structure functions in real space. We compare with complementary Eulerian velocity statistics. We find that simultaneous inverse energy and enstrophy ranges present in spectra are not directly echoed in real-space moments of velocity difference. Nevertheless, the spectral ranges line up well with features of moment ratios, indicating that although the moments are not exhibiting unambiguous scaling, the behavior of the probability distribution functions is changing over short ranges of length scales. Implications for understanding weakly forced 2D turbulence with simultaneous inverse and direct cascades are discussed.

  4. Two-dimensional dynamics of a free molecular chain with a secondary structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Savin, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    A simple two-dimensional (2D) model of an isolated (free) molecular chain with primary and secondary structures has been suggested and investigated both analytically and numerically. This model can be considered as the simplest generalization of the well-known Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model of an anharmo......A simple two-dimensional (2D) model of an isolated (free) molecular chain with primary and secondary structures has been suggested and investigated both analytically and numerically. This model can be considered as the simplest generalization of the well-known Fermi-Pasta-Ulam model...

  5. Two-dimensional atom localization via two standing-wave fields in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongtao; Wang Hui; Wang Zhiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for the two-dimensional (2D) localization of an atom in a four-level Y-type atomic system. By applying two orthogonal standing-wave fields, the atoms can be localized at some special positions, leading to the formation of sub-wavelength 2D periodic spatial distributions. The localization peak position and number as well as the conditional position probability can be controlled by the intensities and detunings of optical fields.

  6. Euclidean scalar Green function in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time, i.e., a (1+d)-space-time with d≥3 which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of an infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, 2 (x)> Ren , and the energy-momentum tensor, μν (x)> Ren , for the global monopole space-time with spatial dimensions d=4 and d=5

  7. TWO-DIMENSIONAL APPROXIMATION OF EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS IN SHELL THEORY: FLEXURAL SHELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The eigenvalue problem for a thin linearly elastic shell, of thickness 2e, clamped along its lateral surface is considered. Under the geometric assumption on the middle surface of the shell that the space of inextensional displacements is non-trivial, the authors obtain, as ε→0,the eigenvalue problem for the two-dimensional"flexural shell"model if the dimension of the space is infinite. If the space is finite dimensional, the limits of the eigenvalues could belong to the spectra of both flexural and membrane shells. The method consists of rescaling the variables and studying the problem over a fixed domain. The principal difficulty lies in obtaining suitable a priori estimates for the scaled eigenvalues.

  8. Three-dimensional x-ray diffraction detection and visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahkarami, Masoud; Hanan, Jay C

    2014-01-01

    A new method of sensing and analyzing three-dimensional (3D) x-ray diffraction (XRD) cones was introduced. Using a two-dimensional area detector, a sequence of frames was collected while moving the detector away from the sample with small equally spaced steps and keeping all other parameters constant. A 3D dataset was created from the subsequent frames. The 3D x-ray diffraction (XRD 3 ) pattern contains far more information than a one-dimensional profile collected with the conventional diffractometer and 2D x-ray diffraction (XRD 2 ). The present work discusses some fundamentals about XRD 3 , such as the data collection method, 3D visualization, diffraction data interpretation and potential applications of XRD 3 . (paper)

  9. Performance analysis of three-dimensional-triple-level cell and two-dimensional-multi-level cell NAND flash hybrid solid-state drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaki, Yukiya; Yamada, Tomoaki; Matsui, Chihiro; Yamaga, Yusuke; Takeuchi, Ken

    2018-04-01

    In order to improve performance of solid-state drives (SSDs), hybrid SSDs have been proposed. Hybrid SSDs consist of more than two types of NAND flash memories or NAND flash memories and storage-class memories (SCMs). However, the cost of hybrid SSDs adopting SCMs is more expensive than that of NAND flash only SSDs because of the high bit cost of SCMs. This paper proposes unique hybrid SSDs with two-dimensional (2D) horizontal multi-level cell (MLC)/three-dimensional (3D) vertical triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash memories to achieve higher cost-performance. The 2D-MLC/3D-TLC hybrid SSD achieves up to 31% higher performance than the conventional 2D-MLC/2D-TLC hybrid SSD. The factors of different performance between the proposed hybrid SSD and the conventional hybrid SSD are analyzed by changing its block size, read/write/erase latencies, and write unit of 3D-TLC NAND flash memory, by means of a transaction-level modeling simulator.

  10. Space-Time Foam in 2D and the Sum Over Topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loll, R.; Westra, W.

    2003-01-01

    It is well-known that the sum over topologies in quantum gravity is ill-defined, due to a super-exponential growth of the number of geometries as a function of the space-time volume, leading to a badly divergent gravitational path integral. Not even in dimension 2, where a non-perturbative quantum gravity theory can be constructed explicitly from a (regularized) path integral, has this problem found a satisfactory solution. In the present work, we extend a previous 2d Lorentzian path integral, regulated in terms of Lorentzian random triangulations, to include space-times with an arbitrary number of handles. We show that after the imposition of physically motivated causality constraints, the combined sum over geometries and topologies is well-defined and possesses a continuum limit which yields a concrete model of space-time foam in two dimensions. (author)

  11. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXFLX or tavgU_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  12. Topotactic transformations of superstructures: from thin films to two-dimensional networks to nested two-dimensional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan Fei; Cao, Sihai; Zhang, Jianming; Tang, Haoying; Guo, Shengming; Tian, Ye; Liu, Qian

    2011-06-01

    Design and synthesis of super-nanostructures is one of the key and prominent topics in nanotechnology. Here we propose a novel methodology for synthesizing complex hierarchical superstructures using sacrificial templates composed of ordered two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures through lattice-directed topotactic transformations. The fabricated superstructures are nested 2D orthogonal Bi(2)S(3) networks composed of nanorods. Further investigation indicates that the lattice matching between the product and sacrificial template is the dominant mechanism for the formation of the superstructures, which agrees well with the simulation results based on an anisotropic nucleation and growth analysis. Our approach may provide a promising way toward a lattice-directed nonlithographic nanofabrication technique for making functional porous nanoarchitectures and electronic devices. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  13. Stable Graphene-Two-Dimensional Multiphase Perovskite Heterostructure Phototransistors with High Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yuchuan; Liu, Ye; Chen, Xiaolong; Chen, Chen; Sarpkaya, Ibrahim; Chen, Zhaolai; Fang, Yanjun; Kong, Jaemin; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Taylor, André; Huang, Jinsong; Xia, Fengnian

    2017-12-13

    Recently, two-dimensional (2D) organic-inorganic perovskites emerged as an alternative material for their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts in photovoltaic applications with improved moisture resistance. Here, we report a stable, high-gain phototransistor consisting of a monolayer graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) covered by a 2D multiphase perovskite heterostructure, which was realized using a newly developed two-step ligand exchange method. In this phototransistor, the multiple phases with varying bandgap in 2D perovskite thin films are aligned for the efficient electron-hole pair separation, leading to a high responsivity of ∼10 5 A W -1 at 532 nm. Moreover, the designed phase alignment method aggregates more hydrophobic butylammonium cations close to the upper surface of the 2D perovskite thin film, preventing the permeation of moisture and enhancing the device stability dramatically. In addition, faster photoresponse and smaller 1/f noise observed in the 2D perovskite phototransistors indicate a smaller density of deep hole traps in the 2D perovskite thin film compared with their 3D counterparts. These desirable properties not only improve the performance of the phototransistor, but also provide a new direction for the future enhancement of the efficiency of 2D perovskite photovoltaics.

  14. Approaches for Achieving Superlubricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Diana; Erdemir, Ali; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2018-03-27

    Controlling friction and reducing wear of moving mechanical systems is important in many applications, from nanoscale electromechanical systems to large-scale car engines and wind turbines. Accordingly, multiple efforts are dedicated to design materials and surfaces for efficient friction and wear manipulation. Recent advances in two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, molybdenum disulfide, and other 2D materials opened an era for conformal, atomically thin solid lubricants. However, the process of effectively incorporating 2D films requires a fundamental understanding of the atomistic origins of friction. In this review, we outline basic mechanisms for frictional energy dissipation during sliding of two surfaces against each other, and the procedures for manipulating friction and wear by introducing 2D materials at the tribological interface. Finally, we highlight recent progress in implementing 2D materials for friction reduction to near-zero values-superlubricity-across scales from nano- up to macroscale contacts.

  15. Standard 4D gravity on a brane in six-dimensional flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peloso, Marco; Sorbo, Lorenzo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2006-01-01

    We consider a six-dimensional space-time, in which two of the dimensions are compactified by a flux. Matter can be localized on a codimension one brane coupled to the bulk gauge field and wrapped around an axis of symmetry of the internal space. By studying the linear perturbations around this background, we show that the gravitational interaction between sources on the brane is described by Einstein 4D gravity at large distances. Our model provides a consistent setup for the study of gravity in the rugby (or football) compactification, without having to deal with the complications of a deltalike, codimension two brane. To our knowledge, this is the first complete study of gravity in a realistic brane model with two extra dimensions, in which the mechanism of stabilization of the extra space is fully taken into account

  16. SU(1,2) invariance in two-dimensional oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonos, Sergey [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen [Yerevan State University,1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia); Tomsk Polytechnic University,Lenin Ave. 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-01

    Performing the Hamiltonian analysis we explicitly established the canonical equivalence of the deformed oscillator, constructed in arXiv:1607.03756, with the ordinary one. As an immediate consequence, we proved that the SU(1,2) symmetry is the dynamical symmetry of the ordinary two-dimensional oscillator. The characteristic feature of this SU(1,2) symmetry is a non-polynomial structure of its generators written in terms of the oscillator variables.

  17. One-dimensional versus two-dimensional electronic states in vicinal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, J E; Ruiz-Oses, M; Cordon, J; Mugarza, A; Kuntze, J; Schiller, F

    2005-01-01

    Vicinal surfaces with periodic arrays of steps are among the simplest lateral nanostructures. In particular, noble metal surfaces vicinal to the (1 1 1) plane are excellent test systems to explore the basic electronic properties in one-dimensional superlattices by means of angular photoemission. These surfaces are characterized by strong emissions from free-electron-like surface states that scatter at step edges. Thereby, the two-dimensional surface state displays superlattice band folding and, depending on the step lattice constant d, it splits into one-dimensional quantum well levels. Here we use high-resolution, angle-resolved photoemission to analyse surface states in a variety of samples, in trying to illustrate the changes in surface state bands as a function of d

  18. Mappings with closed range and finite dimensional linear spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.

    1984-09-01

    This paper looks at two settings, each of continuous linear mappings of linear topological spaces. In one setting, the domain space is fixed while the range space varies over a class of linear topological spaces. In the second setting, the range space is fixed while the domain space similarly varies. The interest is in when the requirement that the mappings have a closed range implies that the domain or range space is finite dimensional. Positive results are obtained for metrizable spaces. (author)

  19. The theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olvera de la C, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exposition of the theory of critical phenomena in two-dimensional physical systems is presented. The first six chapters deal with the mean field theory of critical phenomena, scale invariance of the thermodynamic functions, Kadanoff's spin block construction, Wilson's renormalization group treatment of critical phenomena in configuration space, and the two-dimensional Ising model on a triangular lattice. The second part of this work is made of four chapters devoted to the application of the ideas expounded in the first part to the discussion of critical phenomena in superfluid films, two-dimensional crystals and the two-dimensional XY model of magnetic systems. Chapters seven to ten are devoted to the following subjects: analysis of long range order in one, two, and three-dimensional physical systems. Topological defects in the XY model, in superfluid films and in two-dimensional crystals. The Thouless-Kosterlitz iterated mean field theory of the dipole gas. The renormalization group treatment of the XY model, superfluid films and two-dimensional crystal. (author)

  20. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography for pregnancy diagnosis and antenatal fetal development in Beetal goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to compare two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D study of the pregnant uterus and antenatal development of the fetus. Materials and Methods: 2D and 3D ultrasound were performed from day 20 to 120 of gestation, twice in week from day 20 to 60 and once in week from day 60 to 120 of gestation on six goats. The ultrasonographic images were obtained using Toshiba, Nemio-XG (Japan 3D ultrasound machine. Results: On the 20th day of gestation, earliest diagnosis of pregnancy was done. First 3D ultrasonographic image of the conceptus, through transabdominal approach, was obtained on day 24. On 39th day, clear pictures of conceptus, amniotic membrane, and umbilicus were seen. On 76th day of gestation, internal organs of fetus viz heart, kidney, liver, urinary bladder, and stomach were seen both in 2D and 3D images. 3D imaging showed better details of uterine structures and internal organs of the fetus. Conclusions: Comparing 3D images with 2D images, it is concluded that 2D was better in visualizing fluid while 3D images were better to view details of attachment of fetus with endometrium.

  1. Synergism of Dewetting and Self-Wrinkling To Create Two-Dimensional Ordered Arrays of Functional Microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Hou, Jing; Xie, Jixun; Yin, Jian; Tong, Yi; Lu, Conghua; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-06-29

    Here we report a simple, novel, yet robust nonlithographic method for the controlled fabrication of two-dimensional (2-D) ordered arrays of polyethylene glycol (PEG) microspheres. It is based on the synergistic combination of two bottom-up processes enabling periodic structure formation for the first time: dewetting and the mechanical wrinkle formation. The deterministic dewetting results from the hydrophilic polymer PEG on an incompatible polystyrene (PS) film bound to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, which is directed both by a wrinkled template and by the template-directed in-situ self-wrinkling PS/PDMS substrate. Two strategies have been introduced to achieve synergism to enhance the 2-D ordering, i.e., employing 2-D in-situ self-wrinkling substrates and boundary conditions. As a result, we achieve highly ordered 2-D arrays of PEG microspheres with desired self-organized microstructures, such as the array location (e.g., selectively on the crest/in the valley of the wrinkles), diameter, spacing of the microspheres, and array direction. Additionally, the coordination of PEG with HAuCl4 is utilized to fabricate 2-D ordered arrays of functional PEG-HAuCl4 composite microspheres, which are further converted into different Au nanoparticle arrays. This simple versatile combined strategy could be extended to fabricate highly ordered 2-D arrays of other functional materials and achieve desirable properties and functionalities.

  2. On low-energy effective action in three-dimensional = 2 and = 4 supersymmetric electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, I. L.; Merzlikin, B. S.; Samsonov, I. B.

    2013-11-01

    We discuss general structure of low-energy effective actions in = 2 and = 4 three-dimensional supersymmetric electrodynamics (SQED) in gauge superfield sector. There are specific terms in the effective action having no four-dimensional analogs. Some of these terms are responsible for the moduli space metric in the Coulomb branch of the theory. We find two-loop quantum corrections to the moduli space metric in the = 2 SQED and show that in the = 4 SQED the moduli space does not receive two-loop quantum corrections.

  3. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed

  4. tavgU_2d_flx_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Diurnal 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATUNXFLX) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXFLX or tavgU_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  5. Two-dimensional PCA-based human gait identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyan; Wu, Rongteng

    2012-11-01

    It is very necessary to recognize person through visual surveillance automatically for public security reason. Human gait based identification focus on recognizing human by his walking video automatically using computer vision and image processing approaches. As a potential biometric measure, human gait identification has attracted more and more researchers. Current human gait identification methods can be divided into two categories: model-based methods and motion-based methods. In this paper a two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis and temporal-space analysis based human gait identification method is proposed. Using background estimation and image subtraction we can get a binary images sequence from the surveillance video. By comparing the difference of two adjacent images in the gait images sequence, we can get a difference binary images sequence. Every binary difference image indicates the body moving mode during a person walking. We use the following steps to extract the temporal-space features from the difference binary images sequence: Projecting one difference image to Y axis or X axis we can get two vectors. Project every difference image in the difference binary images sequence to Y axis or X axis difference binary images sequence we can get two matrixes. These two matrixes indicate the styles of one walking. Then Two-Dimensional Principal Component Analysis(2DPCA) is used to transform these two matrixes to two vectors while at the same time keep the maximum separability. Finally the similarity of two human gait images is calculated by the Euclidean distance of the two vectors. The performance of our methods is illustrated using the CASIA Gait Database.

  6. C60-pentacene network formation by 2-D co-crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wei; Dougherty, Daniel B; Cullen, William G; Robey, Steven; Reutt-Robey, Janice E

    2009-09-01

    We report experiments highlighting the mechanistic role of mobile pentacene precursors in the formation of a network C(60)-pentacene co-crystalline structure on Ag(111). This co-crystalline arrangement was first observed by low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) by Zhang et al. (Zhang, H. L.; Chen, W.; Huang, H.; Chen, L.; Wee, A. T. S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 2720-2721). We now show that this structure forms readily at room temperature from a two-dimensional (2-D) mixture. Pentacene, evaporated onto Ag(111) to coverages of 0.4-1.0 ML, produces a two-dimensional (2-D) gas. Subsequently deposited C(60) molecules combine with the pentacene 2-D gas to generate a network structure, consisting of chains of close-packed C(60) molecules, spaced by individual C(60) linkers and 1 nm x 2.5 nm pores containing individual pentacene molecules. Spontaneous formation of this stoichiometric (C(60))(4)-pentacene network from a range of excess pentacene surface coverage (0.4 to 1.0 ML) indicates a self-limiting assembly process. We refine the structure model for this phase and discuss the generality of this co-crystallization mechanism.

  7. Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.

  8. Equivalence of two-dimensional gravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammedi, N.

    1990-01-01

    The authors find the relationship between the Jackiw-Teitelboim model of two-dimensional gravity and the SL(2,R) induced gravity. These are shown to be related to a two-dimensional gauge theory obtained by dimensionally reducing the Chern-Simons action of the 2 + 1 dimensional gravity. The authors present an explicit solution to the equations of motion of the auxiliary field of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in the light-cone gauge. A renormalization of the cosmological constant is also given

  9. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-07

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (μGC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D μGC performance. In the smart μGC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D μGC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D μGC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart μGC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D μGC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this μGC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background.

  10. Two-dimensional simulations of magnetically-driven instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.

    1986-01-01

    A two-dimensional Eulerian MHD code is used to study the evolution of magnetically-driven instabilities in cylindrical geometry. The code incorporates an equation of state, resistivity, and radiative cooling model appropriate for an aluminum plasma. The simulations explore the effects of initial perturbations, electrical resistivity, and radiative cooling on the growth and saturation of the instabilities. Comparisons are made between the 2-D simulations, previous 1-D simulations, and results from the Pioneer experiments of the Los Alamos foil implosion program

  11. Dynamical compactification of D-dimensional gravity coupled to antisymmetric tensors in a 1/D expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1984-12-01

    The effective potential of components of the curl of an antisymmetric tensor coupled to gravity in D dimensions is evaluated in a 1/D expansion. For large D, only highest-rank propagators contribute to leading order, while multiloop diagrams are suppressed by phase-space factors. Divergences are regulated by a cut-off LAMBDA, that we interpret as the mass-breaking scale of a larger theory that is finite. As an application we consider the bosonic sector of D=11, N=1 supergravity. If the full theory is finite, then LAMBDA is msub(SUSY): the scale below which the fermion sector decouples. For m 9 sub(SUSY)>1/akappa 2 , (kappa 2 : the D=11 Newton's coupling, a approx.= O(1)) the 11-dimensional symmetric vacuum is unstable under compactification. For m 9 sub(SUSY) 2 , it is metastable. To leading order in 1/D, all gauge dependence cancels identically, while ghosts as well as the graviton decouple. (author)

  12. The extensions of space-time. Physics in the 8-dimensional homogeneous space D = SU(2,2)/K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.

    1993-07-01

    The Minkowski space-time is only a boundary of a bigger homogeneous space of the conformal group. The conformal group is the symmetry group of our most fundamental massless wave equations. These extended groups and spaces have many remarkable properties and physical implications. (author). 36 refs

  13. Assessment of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) lower limb measurements in adults: Comparison of micro-dose and low-dose biplanar radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosskopf, Andrea B.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M.

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate reliability of 2D and 3D lower limb measurements in adults using micro-dose compared to low-dose biplanar radiographs(BPR). One hundred patients (mean 54.9 years) were examined twice using micro-dose and low-dose BPR. Length and mechanical axis of lower limbs were measured on the antero-posterior(ap) micro-dose and low-dose images by two independent readers. Femoral and tibial torsions of 50 patients were measured by two independent readers using reconstructed 3D-models based on the micro-dose and low-dose BPR. Intermethod and interreader agreements were calculated using descriptive statistics, intraclass-correlation-coefficient(ICC), and Bland-Altman analysis. Mean interreader-differences on micro-dose were 0.3 cm(range 0-1.0)/ 0.7 (0-2.9) for limb length/axis and 0.4 cm (0-1.0)/0.8 (0-3.3) on low-dose BPR. Mean intermethod-difference was 0.04 cm ± 0.2/0.04 ± 0.6 for limb length/axis. Interreader-ICC for limb length/axis was 0.999/0.991 on micro-dose and 0.999/0.987 on low-dose BPR. Interreader-ICC for micro-dose was 0.879/0.826 for femoral/tibial torsion, for low-dose BPR was 0.924/0.909. Mean interreader-differences on micro-dose/low-dose BPR were 3 (0-13 )/2 (0 -12 ) for femoral and 4 (0-18 )/3 (0 -10 ) for tibial torsion. Mean intermethod-difference was -0.1 ± 5.0/-0.4 ± 2.9 for femoral/tibial torsion. Mean dose-area-product was significantly lower (9.9 times;p < 0.001) for micro-dose BPR. 2D-and 3D-measurements of lower limbs based on micro-dose BPR are reliable and provide a 10-times lower radiation dose. (orig.)

  14. Conservation laws for two (2 + 1)-dimensional differential-difference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Guofu; Tam, H.-W.

    2006-01-01

    Two integrable differential-difference equations are considered. One is derived from the discrete BKP equation and the other is a symmetric (2 + 1)-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation. An infinite number of conservation laws for the two differential-difference equations are deduced

  15. A companion matrix for 2-D polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudellioua, M.S.

    1995-08-01

    In this paper, a matrix form analogous to the companion matrix which is often encountered in the theory of one dimensional (1-D) linear systems is suggested for a class of polynomials in two indeterminates and real coefficients, here referred to as two dimensional (2-D) polynomials. These polynomials arise in the context of 2-D linear systems theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions are also presented under which a matrix is equivalent to this companion form. (author). 6 refs

  16. tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Diurnal 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATUNXOCN) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXOCN or tavgU_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  17. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional sonography of the temporomandibular joint in comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, Constantin A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: c.landes@lycos.com; Goral, Wojciech A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: w.goral@gmx.de; Sader, Robert [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: r.sader@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Mack, Martin G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: martinmack@arcor.de

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To compare clinical feasibility of static two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) sonography of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in assessment of disk dislocation and joint degeneration compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Method: Thirty-three patients, 66 TMJ were prospectively sonographed 2D and 3D (8-12.5 MHz step motor scan), in occlusion and maximum opening with a probe position parallel inferior to the zygomatic arch. Axial 2D images were judged independent from the 3D scans; 3D volumes were cut axial, sagittal, frontal and rotated in real-time. Disk position and joint degeneration were assessed and compared to a subsequent MRI examination. Results: The specific appearance of the disk was hypoechogenic overlying a hyperechogenic condyle in axial (2D) or sagittal and frontal (3D) viewing. Specificity of 2D sonography for disk dislocation was 63%, sensitivity 58%, accuracy 64%, positive predictive value 46%, negative predictive value 73%; for joint degeneration synonymously 59/68/61/38/83%. 3D sonography for disk displacement reached synonymously 68/60/69/51/76%, for joint degeneration 75/65/73/48/86%. 2D sonographic diagnoses of disk dislocation in the closed mouth position and of joint degeneration showed significantly different results from the expected values (MRI) in {chi} {sup 2} testing; 3D diagnoses of disk dislocation in closed mouth position, of joint degeneration, 2D and 3D diagnoses in open mouth position were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Acceptable was the overall negative predictive value, as specificity and accuracy for joint degeneration in 3D. 3D appears superior diagnosing disk dislocation in closed mouth position as for overall joint degeneration. Sensitivity, accuracy and positive predictive value will have to ameliorate with future equipment of higher resolution in real-time 2D and 3D, if sonographic screening shall be clinically applied prior to MRI.

  18. Complete active space second order perturbation theory (CASPT2) study of N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2}O reaction paths on D{sub 1} and D{sub 0} potential energy surfaces: Direct and roaming pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isegawa, Miho; Liu, Fengyi [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Maeda, Satoshi [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Morokuma, Keiji, E-mail: morokuma@fukui.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Fukui Institute for Fundamental Chemistry, Kyoto University, 34-4 Takano Nishihiraki-cho, Kyoto 606-8103 (Japan); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-10-21

    We report reaction paths starting from N({sup 2}D) + H{sub 2}O for doublet spin states, D{sub 0} and D{sub 1}. The potential energy surfaces are explored in an automated fashion using the global reaction route mapping strategy. The critical points and reaction paths have been fully optimized at the complete active space second order perturbation theory level taking all valence electrons in the active space. In addition to direct dissociation pathways that would be dominant, three roaming processes, two roaming dissociation, and one roaming isomerization: (1) H{sub 2}ON → H–O(H)N → H–HON → NO({sup 2}Π) + H{sub 2}, (2) cis-HNOH → HNO–H → H–HNO → NO + H{sub 2}, (3) H{sub 2}NO → H–HNO → HNO–H → trans-HNOH, are confirmed on the D{sub 0} surface.

  19. Two-dimensional MoS2-graphene hybrid nanosheets for high gravimetric and volumetric lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yakai; Ding, Lixin; Liu, Qixing; Zhan, Liang; Wang, Yanli; Yang, Shubin

    2018-04-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) MoS2-graphene (MoS2-G) hybrid is fabricated simultaneously and scalablely with an efficient electrochemical exfoliation approach from the combined bulk MoS2-graphite wafer. The as-prepared 2D MoS2-G hybrid is tightly covered with each other with lateral sizes of 600 nm to few micrometers and can be directly assembled to flexible films for lithium storage. When used as anode material for lithium ion battery, the resultant MoS2-G hybrid film exhibits both high gravimetric (750 mA h g-1 at 50 mA g-1) and volumetric capacities (1200 mA h cm-3 at 0.1 mA cm-2). Such excellent electrochemical performance should attributed to the unique 2D structure and good conductive graphene network, which not only facilitates the diffusion of lithium ions, but also improves the fast transfer of electrons, satisfying the kinetics requirements for rapid lithium storage.

  20. Atomically thin two-dimensional organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Letian; Wong, Andrew B.; Yu, Yi; Lai, Minliang; Kornienko, Nikolay; Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Bischak, Connor G.; Ma, Jie; Ding, Tina; Ginsberg, Naomi S.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2015-09-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which have proved to be promising semiconductor materials for photovoltaic applications, have been made into atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) sheets. We report the solution-phase growth of single- and few-unit-cell-thick single-crystalline 2D hybrid perovskites of (C4H9NH3)2PbBr4 with well-defined square shape and large size. In contrast to other 2D materials, the hybrid perovskite sheets exhibit an unusual structural relaxation, and this structural change leads to a band gap shift as compared to the bulk crystal. The high-quality 2D crystals exhibit efficient photoluminescence, and color tuning could be achieved by changing sheet thickness as well as composition via the synthesis of related materials.

  1. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXFLX or tavgM_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  2. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXSLV or tavgU_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  3. The three dimensional dual of 4D chirality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Girardello, L.

    2009-01-01

    Chiral gauge theories can be defined in four-dimensional Anti de Sitter space, but AdS boundary conditions explicitly break the chiral symmetry in a specific, well defined manner, which in turns results in an anomalous Ward identity. When the 4D theory admits a dual description in terms of a 3D CFT, the 3D dual of the broken chiral symmetry is a certain double-trace deformation of the CFT, which produces the same anomalous chiral Ward identities that obtains in the 4D bulk theory.

  4. Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.

  5. Dirac equation in 5- and 6-dimensional curved space-time manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirov, Yu.S.; Popov, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of plotting unified multidimensional theory of gravitation, electromagnetism and electrically charged matter with transition from 5-dimensional variants to 6-dimensional theory possessing signature (+----+) is developed. For recording the Dirac equation in 5- and 6-dimensional curved space-time manifolds the tetrad formalism and γ-matrix formulation of the General Relativity Theory are used. It is shown that the 6-dimensional theory case unifies the two private cases of 5-dimensional theory and corresponds to two possibilities of the theory developed by Kadyshevski

  6. Method of composing two-dimensional scanned spectra observed by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yun-Fang; Xu, Zhi; Chen, Yu-Chao; Xu, Jun; Li, Zheng-Gang; Fu, Yu; Ji, Kai-Fan

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we illustrate the technique used by the New Vacuum Solar Telescope (NVST) to increase the spatial resolution of two-dimensional (2D) solar spectroscopy observations involving two dimensions of space and one of wavelength. Without an image stabilizer at the NVST, large scale wobble motion is present during the spatial scanning, whose instantaneous amplitude can reach 1.3″ due to the Earth’s atmosphere and the precision of the telescope guiding system, and seriously decreases the spatial resolution of 2D spatial maps composed with scanned spectra. We make the following effort to resolve this problem: the imaging system (e.g., the TiO-band) is used to record and detect the displacement vectors of solar image motion during the raster scan, in both the slit and scanning directions. The spectral data (e.g., the Hα line) which are originally obtained in time sequence are corrected and re-arranged in space according to those displacement vectors. Raster scans are carried out in several active regions with different seeing conditions (two rasters are illustrated in this paper). Given a certain spatial sampling and temporal resolution, the spatial resolution of the composed 2D map could be close to that of the slit-jaw image. The resulting quality after correction is quantitatively evaluated with two methods. A physical quantity, such as the line-of-sight velocities in multiple layers of the solar atmosphere, is also inferred from the re-arranged spectrum, demonstrating the advantage of this technique.

  7. Buckled two-dimensional Xene sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molle, Alessandro; Goldberger, Joshua; Houssa, Michel; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Akinwande, Deji

    2017-02-01

    Silicene, germanene and stanene are part of a monoelemental class of two-dimensional (2D) crystals termed 2D-Xenes (X = Si, Ge, Sn and so on) which, together with their ligand-functionalized derivatives referred to as Xanes, are comprised of group IVA atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice - similar to graphene but with varying degrees of buckling. Their electronic structure ranges from trivial insulators, to semiconductors with tunable gaps, to semi-metallic, depending on the substrate, chemical functionalization and strain. More than a dozen different topological insulator states are predicted to emerge, including the quantum spin Hall state at room temperature, which, if realized, would enable new classes of nanoelectronic and spintronic devices, such as the topological field-effect transistor. The electronic structure can be tuned, for example, by changing the group IVA element, the degree of spin-orbit coupling, the functionalization chemistry or the substrate, making the 2D-Xene systems promising multifunctional 2D materials for nanotechnology. This Perspective highlights the current state of the art and future opportunities in the manipulation and stability of these materials, their functions and applications, and novel device concepts.

  8. Photonic Structure-Integrated Two-Dimensional Material Optoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development and unique properties of two-dimensional (2D materials, such as graphene, phosphorene and transition metal dichalcogenides enable them to become intriguing candidates for future optoelectronic applications. To maximize the potential of 2D material-based optoelectronics, various photonic structures are integrated to form photonic structure/2D material hybrid systems so that the device performance can be manipulated in controllable ways. Here, we first introduce the photocurrent-generation mechanisms of 2D material-based optoelectronics and their performance. We then offer an overview and evaluation of the state-of-the-art of hybrid systems, where 2D material optoelectronics are integrated with photonic structures, especially plasmonic nanostructures, photonic waveguides and crystals. By combining with those photonic structures, the performance of 2D material optoelectronics can be further enhanced, and on the other side, a high-performance modulator can be achieved by electrostatically tuning 2D materials. Finally, 2D material-based photodetector can also become an efficient probe to learn the light-matter interactions of photonic structures. Those hybrid systems combine the advantages of 2D materials and photonic structures, providing further capacity for high-performance optoelectronics.

  9. Wigner functions from the two-dimensional wavelet group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S T; Krasowska, A E; Murenzi, R

    2000-12-01

    Following a general procedure developed previously [Ann. Henri Poincaré 1, 685 (2000)], here we construct Wigner functions on a phase space related to the similitude group in two dimensions. Since the group space in this case is topologically homeomorphic to the phase space in question, the Wigner functions so constructed may also be considered as being functions on the group space itself. Previously the similitude group was used to construct wavelets for two-dimensional image analysis; we discuss here the connection between the wavelet transform and the Wigner function.

  10. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. Solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one (note CEA-N-2166) treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. A set of approximate solutions for the isotropic two-dimensional neutron transport problem has been developed using the interface current formalism. The method has been applied to regular lattices of rectangular cells containing a fuel pin, cladding, and water, or homogenized structural material. The cells are divided into zones that are homogeneous. A zone-wise flux expansion is used to formulate a direct collision probability problem within a cell. The coupling of the cells is effected by making extra assumptions on the currents entering and leaving the interfaces. Two codes have been written: CALLIOPE uses a cylindrical cell model and one or three terms for the flux expansion, and NAUSICAA uses a two-dimensional flux representation and does a truly two-dimensional calculation inside each cell. In both codes, one or three terms can be used to make a space-independent expansion of the angular fluxes entering and leaving each side of the cell. The accuracies and computing times achieved with the different approximations are illustrated by numerical studies on two benchmark problems and by calculations performed in the APOLLO multigroup code [fr

  11. Tuning spin transport across two-dimensional organometallic junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuanglong; Wang, Yun-Peng; Li, Xiangguo; Fry, James N.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2018-01-01

    We study via first-principles modeling and simulation two-dimensional spintronic junctions made of metal-organic frameworks consisting of two Mn-phthalocyanine ferromagnetic metal leads and semiconducting Ni-phthalocyanine channels of various lengths. These systems exhibit a large tunneling magnetoresistance ratio; the transmission functions of such junctions can be tuned using gate voltage by three orders of magnitude. We find that the origin of this drastic change lies in the orbital alignment and hybridization between the leads and the center electronic states. With physical insight into the observed on-off phenomenon, we predict a gate-controlled spin current switch based on two-dimensional crystallines and offer general guidelines for designing spin junctions using 2D materials.

  12. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  13. Three-dimensional (3-D) video systems: bi-channel or single-channel optics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, P; Kunert, W; Buess, G F

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison between two different three-dimensional (3-D) video systems, one with single-channel optics, the other with bi-channel optics. The latter integrates two lens systems, each transferring one half of the stereoscopic image; the former uses only one lens system, similar to a two-dimensional (2-D) endoscope, which transfers the complete stereoscopic picture. In our training centre for minimally invasive surgery, surgeons were involved in basic and advanced laparoscopic courses using both a 2-D system and the two 3-D video systems. They completed analog scale questionnaires in order to record a subjective impression of the relative convenience of operating in 2-D and 3-D vision, and to identify perceived deficiencies in the 3-D system. As an objective test, different experimental tasks were developed, in order to measure performance times and to count pre-defined errors made while using the two 3-D video systems and the 2-D system. Using the bi-channel optical system, the surgeon has a heightened spatial perception, and can work faster and more safely than with a single-channel system. However, single-channel optics allow the use of an angulated endoscope, and the free rotation of the optics relative to the camera, which is necessary for some operative applications.

  14. Three dimensional Free Vibration and Transient Analysis of Two Directional Functionally Graded Thick Cylindrical Panels Under Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Zafarmand

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper three dimensional free vibration and transient response of a cylindrical panel made of two directional functionally graded materials (2D-FGMs based on three dimensional equations of elasticity and subjected to internal impact loading is considered. Material properties vary through both radial and axial directions continuously. The 3D graded finite element method (GFEM based on Rayleigh-Ritz energy formulation and Newmark direct integration method has been applied to solve the equations in space and time domains. The fundamental normalized natural frequency, time history of displacements and stresses in three directions and velocity of radial stress wave propagation for various values of span angel of cylindrical panel and different power law exponents have been investigated. The present results show that using 2D-FGMs leads to a more flexible design than conventional 1D-FGMs. The GFEM solution have been compared with the results of an FG thick hollow cylinder and an FG curved panel, where a good agreement between them is observed.

  15. tavgM_2d_flx_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXFLX) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXFLX or tavgM_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  16. Optical asymmetric cryptography using a three-dimensional space-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present optical asymmetric cryptography combined with a three-dimensional (3D) space-based model. An optical multiple-random-phase-mask encoding system is developed in the Fresnel domain, and one random phase-only mask and the plaintext are combined as a series of particles. Subsequently, the series of particles is translated along an axial direction, and is distributed in a 3D space. During image decryption, the robustness and security of the proposed method are further analyzed. Numerical simulation results are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed optical image encryption method

  17. Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, A. J.; Zhou, X. -F.; Kiraly, B.; Wood, J. D.; Alducin, D.; Myers, B. D.; Liu, X.; Fisher, B. L.; Santiago, U.; Guest, J. R.; Yacaman, M. J.; Ponce, A.; Oganov, A. R.; Hersam, M. C.; Guisinger, N. P.

    2015-12-17

    At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes. Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal.

  18. Hamiltonian formalism of two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Maxim V

    2014-12-08

    In this paper, the two-dimensional Benney system describing long wave propagation of a finite depth fluid motion and the multi-dimensional Russo-Smereka kinetic equation describing a bubbly flow are considered. The Hamiltonian approach established by J. Gibbons for the one-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is extended to a multi-dimensional case. A local Hamiltonian structure associated with the hydrodynamic lattice of moments derived by D. J. Benney is constructed. A relationship between this hydrodynamic lattice of moments and the two-dimensional Vlasov kinetic equation is found. In the two-dimensional case, a Hamiltonian hydrodynamic lattice for the Russo-Smereka kinetic model is constructed. Simple hydrodynamic reductions are presented.

  19. Fluctuations and symmetries in two-dimensional active gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, N; Basu, A

    2011-04-01

    Motivated by the unique physical properties of biological active matter, e.g., cytoskeletal dynamics in eukaryotic cells, we set up effective two-dimensional (2d) coarse-grained hydrodynamic equations for the dynamics of thin active gels with polar or nematic symmetries. We use the well-known three-dimensional (3d) descriptions (K. Kruse et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 16, 5 (2005); A. Basu et al., Eur. Phys. J. E 27, 149 (2008)) for thin active-gel samples confined between parallel plates with appropriate boundary conditions to derive the effective 2d constitutive relations between appropriate thermodynamic fluxes and generalised forces for small deviations from equilibrium. We consider three distinct cases, characterised by spatial symmetries and boundary conditions, and show how such considerations dictate the structure of the constitutive relations. We use these to study the linear instabilities, calculate the correlation functions and the diffusion constant of a small tagged particle, and elucidate their dependences on the activity or nonequilibrium drive.

  20. Long-lived trimers in a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Emma K.; Kirk, Thomas; Parish, Meera M.; Levinsen, Jesper

    2018-04-01

    We consider the problem of three distinguishable fermions confined to a quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) geometry, where there is a strong harmonic potential in one direction. We go beyond previous theoretical work and investigate the three-body bound states (trimers) for the case where the two-body short-range interactions between fermions are unequal. Using the scattering parameters from experiments on ultracold 6Li atoms, we calculate the trimer spectrum throughout the crossover from two to three dimensions. We find that the deepest Efimov trimer in the 6Li system is unaffected by realistic quasi-2D confinements, while the first excited trimer smoothly evolves from a three-dimensional-like Efimov trimer to an extended 2D-like trimer as the attractive interactions are decreased. We furthermore compute the excited trimer wave function and quantify the stability of the trimer against decay into a dimer and an atom by determining the probability that three fermions approach each other at short distances. Our results indicate that the lifetime of the trimer can be enhanced by at least an order of magnitude in the quasi-2D geometry, thus opening the door to realizing long-lived trimers in three-component Fermi gases.

  1. Complexity and distortion analysis on methods for unrolling 3D to 2D fingerprints

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mlambo, CS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and studies involve the application of three-dimensional (3D) fingerprint systems, where the details of the finger are captured using 3D technologies and the captured 3D fingerprints are converted into two-dimensional (2D) fingerprints. This paper presents a...

  2. Vortex stability in nearly-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates with attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Dumitru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Malomed, Boris A.; Lederer, Falk

    2006-01-01

    We perform accurate investigation of stability of localized vortices in an effectively two-dimensional ('pancake-shaped') trapped Bose-Einstein condensate with negative scattering length. The analysis combines computation of the stability eigenvalues and direct simulations. The states with vorticity S=1 are stable in a third of their existence region, 0 max (S=1) , where N is the number of atoms, and N max (S=1) is the corresponding collapse threshold. Stable vortices easily self-trap from arbitrary initial configurations with embedded vorticity. In an adjacent interval, (1/3)N max (S=1) max (S=1) , the unstable vortex periodically splits in two fragments and recombines. At N>0.43N max (S=1) , the fragments do not recombine, as each one collapses by itself. The results are compared with those in the full three-dimensional (3D) Gross-Pitaevskii equation. In a moderately anisotropic 3D configuration, with the aspect ratio √(10), the stability interval of the S=1 vortices occupies ≅40% of their existence region, hence the two-dimensional (2D) limit provides for a reasonable approximation in this case. For the isotropic 3D configuration, the stability interval expands to 65% of the existence domain. Overall, the vorticity heightens the actual collapse threshold by a factor of up to 2. All vortices with S≥2 are unstable

  3. Reentrant phase transitions of higher-dimensional AdS black holes in dRGT massive gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong; Zhang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    We study the P-V criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in higher-dimensional de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, treating the cosmological constant as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Besides the usual small/large black hole phase transitions, the interesting thermodynamic phenomena of reentrant phase transitions (RPTs) are observed for black holes in all d ≥ 6-dimensional spacetime when the coupling coefficients c_im"2 of massive potential satisfy some certain conditions. (orig.)

  4. Real-space mapping of a disordered two-dimensional electron system in the quantum Hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K; Hirayama, Y; Wiebe, J; Wiesendanger, R; Inaoka, T; Morgenstern, M

    2011-01-01

    By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, we study the influence of potential disorder on an adsorbate-induced two-dimensional electron system in the integer quantum Hall regime. The real-space imaged local density of states exhibits transition from localized drift states encircling the potential minima to another type of localized drift states encircling the potential maxima. While the former states show regular round shapes, the latter have irregular-shaped patterns. This difference is induced by different sources for the potential minima and maxima, i.e., substrate donors and an inhomogeneous distribution of the adsorbates, respectively.

  5. Metallic few-layered VS2 ultrathin nanosheets: high two-dimensional conductivity for in-plane supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jun; Sun, Xu; Wu, Changzheng; Peng, Lele; Lin, Chenwen; Hu, Shuanglin; Yang, Jinlong; Xie, Yi

    2011-11-09

    With the rapid development of portable electronics, such as e-paper and other flexible devices, practical power sources with ultrathin geometries become an important prerequisite, in which supercapacitors with in-plane configurations are recently emerging as a favorable and competitive candidate. As is known, electrode materials with two-dimensional (2D) permeable channels, high-conductivity structural scaffolds, and high specific surface areas are the indispensible requirements for the development of in-plane supercapacitors with superior performance, while it is difficult for the presently available inorganic materials to make the best in all aspects. In this sense, vanadium disulfide (VS(2)) presents an ideal material platform due to its synergic properties of metallic nature and exfoliative characteristic brought by the conducting S-V-S layers stacked up by weak van der Waals interlayer interactions, offering great potential as high-performance in-plane supercapacitor electrodes. Herein, we developed a unique ammonia-assisted strategy to exfoliate bulk VS(2) flakes into ultrathin VS(2) nanosheets stacked with less than five S-V-S single layers, representing a brand new two-dimensional material having metallic behavior aside from graphene. Moreover, highly conductive VS(2) thin films were successfully assembled for constructing the electrodes of in-plane supercapacitors. As is expected, a specific capacitance of 4760 μF/cm(2) was realized here in a 150 nm in-plane configuration, of which no obvious degradation was observed even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles, offering as a new in-plane supercapacitor with high performance based on quasi-two-dimensional materials.

  6. Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional measurements of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, K E; Patronas, N; Aikin, A A; Albert, P S; Balis, F M

    2001-09-19

    End points for assessing drug activity in brain tumors are determined by measuring the change in tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relative to a pretreatment or best-response scan. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) tumor measurements have been used, but one-dimensional (1D) measurements have recently been proposed as an alternative. Because software to estimate three-dimensional (3D) tumor volume from digitized MRI images is available, we compared all three methods of tumor measurement for childhood brain tumors and clinical outcome. Tumor size from 130 MRI scans from 32 patients (32 baseline and 98 follow-up scans, for a total of 130 scans; median, three scans per patient; range, two to 18 scans) was measured by each method. Tumor-response category (partial response, minor response, stable disease, or progressive disease) was determined from the percentage change in tumor size between the baseline or best-response scan and follow-up scans. Time to clinical progression was independently determined by chart review. All statistical tests were two-sided. Concordances between 1D and 2D, 1D and 3D, and 2D and 3D were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67% to 99%), 61% (95% CI = 47% to 75%), and 66% (95% CI = 52% to 80%), respectively, on follow-up scans. Concordances for 1D and 3D and for 2D and 3D were statistically significantly lower than the concordance for 1D and 2D (Ptumors in the minor response and progressive-disease categories. Median times to progression measured by the 1D, 2D, and 3D methods were 154, 105, and 112 days, respectively, compared with 114 days based on neurologic symptoms and signs (P = .09 for overall comparison). Detection of partial responses was not influenced by the measurement method, but estimating time to disease progression may be method dependent for childhood brain tumors.

  7. Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max

    ), a strategy for the fabrication of 2D heterostructures must be developed. Here we demonstrate a novel approach for the bottom-up synthesis of TMDC monolayers, namely Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) combined with a sulfur evaporation beam. PLD relies on the use of a pulsed laser (ns pulse duration) to induce...... material transfer from a solid source (such as a sintered target of MoS2) to a substrate (such as Si or sapphire). The deposition rate in PLD is typically much less than a monolayer per pulse, meaning that the number of MLs can be controlled by a careful selection of the number of laser pulses......Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...

  8. Travelling wave solutions and proper solutions to the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Zhaosheng

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study the two-dimensional Burgers-Korteweg-de Vries (2D-BKdV) equation by analysing an equivalent two-dimensional autonomous system, which indicates that under some particular conditions, the 2D-BKdV equation has a unique bounded travelling wave solution. Then by using a direct method, a travelling solitary wave solution to the 2D-BKdV equation is expressed explicitly, which appears to be more efficient than the existing methods proposed in the literature. At the end of the paper, the asymptotic behaviour of the proper solutions of the 2D-BKdV equation is established by applying the qualitative theory of differential equations

  9. The relation between Euclidean and Lorentzian 2D quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Correia, J.; Kristjansen, C.; Loll, R.

    1999-01-01

    Starting from 2D Euclidean quantum gravity, we show that one recovers 2D Lorentzian quantum gravity by removing all baby universes. Using a peeling procedure to decompose the discrete, triangulated geometries along a one-dimensional path, we explicitly associate with each Euclidean space-time a

  10. tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXOCN) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXOCN or tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  11. A novel two-dimensional dynamic anal ultrasonography technique to assess anismus comparing with three-dimensional echodefecography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad-Regadas, S M; Regadas, F S P; Barreto, R G L; Rodrigues, L V; de Souza, M H L P

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to test two-dimensional dynamic anorectal ultrasonography (2D-DAUS) in the assessment of anismus and compare it with echodefecography (ECD). Fifty consecutive female patients with outlet delay were submitted to 2D and 3D-DAUS, measuring the relaxing or contracting puborectalis muscle angle during straining. The patients were assigned to one of two groups based on ECD findings. Group I consisted of 29 patients without anismus and group II included 21 patients diagnosed with anismus. Subsequently 2D-DAUS images were checked for anismus and compared with ECD findings. Upon straining, the angle produced by the movement of the puborectalis muscle decreased in 26 out of the 29 (89.6%) patients of group I and increased 19 out of the 21 (90.4%) patients of group II. The mean angle during straining differed significantly between group I and group II. The index of agreement between the two scanning modes was 89.6% (26/29) for group I (Kappa: 0.796; CI: 95%; range: 0.51-1.0) and 90.4% (19/21) for group II (Kappa: 0.796; CI: 95%; range: 0.51-1.0). Two-dimensional dynamic anal ultrasonography can be used as an alternative method to assess patients with anismus, although the 3-D modality is more precise to evaluate the PR angle as the sphincters integrity as the whole muscle length is clearly visualized.

  12. Evaluation of the Communication Between Arachnoid Cysts and Neighboring Cerebrospinal Fluid Spaces by T2W 3D-SPACE With Variant Flip-Angle Technique at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algin, Oktay

    2018-05-21

    Phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) is a widely used technique for determination of possible communication of arachnoid cysts (ACs). Three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions (3D-SPACE) technique is a relatively new method for 3D isotropic scanning of the entire cranium within a short time. In this research, the usage of the 3D-SPACE technique in differentiation of communicating or noncommunicating type ACs was evaluated. Thirty-five ACs in 34 patients were retrospectively examined. The 3D-SPACE, PC-MRI, and contrast material-enhanced cisternography (if present) images of the patients were analyzed. Each cyst was described according to cyst size/location, third ventricle diameter, Evans index, and presence of hydrocephalus. Communication was defined as absent (score 0), suspected (score 1), or present (score 2) on each sequence. Results of PC-MRI or cisternography (if available) examinations were used as criterion standard techniques to categorize all cysts as communicating or noncommunicating type. The results of 3D-SPACE were compared with criterion standard techniques. The comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests. For demonstration of communication status of the cysts, criterion standard test results and 3D-SPACE findings were almost in perfect harmony (κ[95% confidence interval: 0.94]; P SPACE findings correlated with other final results at a rate of 97%. There is a positive correlation with third ventricular diameters and Evans index for all patients (r = 0.77, P SPACE technique is an easy, useful, and noninvasive alternative for the evaluation of morphology, topographical relationships, and communication status of ACs.

  13. VAM2D: Variably saturated analysis model in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyakorn, P.S.; Kool, J.B.; Wu, Y.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report documents a two-dimensional finite element model, VAM2D, developed to simulate water flow and solute transport in variably saturated porous media. Both flow and transport simulation can be handled concurrently or sequentially. The formulation of the governing equations and the numerical procedures used in the code are presented. The flow equation is approximated using the Galerkin finite element method. Nonlinear soil moisture characteristics and atmospheric boundary conditions (e.g., infiltration, evaporation and seepage face), are treated using Picard and Newton-Raphson iterations. Hysteresis effects and anisotropy in the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity can be taken into account if needed. The contaminant transport simulation can account for advection, hydrodynamic dispersion, linear equilibrium sorption, and first-order degradation. Transport of a single component or a multi-component decay chain can be handled. The transport equation is approximated using an upstream weighted residual method. Several test problems are presented to verify the code and demonstrate its utility. These problems range from simple one-dimensional to complex two-dimensional and axisymmetric problems. This document has been produced as a user's manual. It contains detailed information on the code structure along with instructions for input data preparation and sample input and printed output for selected test problems. Also included are instructions for job set up and restarting procedures. 44 refs., 54 figs., 24 tabs

  14. Comparative Studies of Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis on Galactosidase Relating to Bombyx Lectin Activity

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 靖夫; カトウ, ヤスオ; Yasuo, Kato

    2005-01-01

    "Comparative two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) analysis on the haemolymph of the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori and Fraction II obtained by gel filtration from the haemolymph of B. mori was performed using the 2-D mini-slab system (Atto Co.) (the first method of 2-D PAGE) and the Mini-PROTEAN mini tube gel 2-D PAGE system (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc.) (the second method). Moreover, two-dimensionnal electrophoresis analysis on standard β-galactosidase, grade III ...

  15. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  16. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  17. Localization and separation of acoustic sources by using a 2.5-dimensional circular microphone array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Lai, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Po-Chen

    2017-07-01

    Circular microphone arrays (CMAs) are sufficient in many immersive audio applications because azimuthal angles of sources are considered more important than the elevation angles in those occasions. However, the fact that CMAs do not resolve the elevation angle well can be a limitation for some applications which involves three-dimensional sound images. This paper proposes a 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) CMA comprised of a CMA and a vertical logarithmic-spacing linear array (LLA) on the top. In the localization stage, two delay-and-sum beamformers are applied to the CMA and the LLA, respectively. The direction of arrival (DOA) is estimated from the product of two array output signals. In the separation stage, Tikhonov regularization and convex optimization are employed to extract the source amplitudes on the basis of the estimated DOA. The extracted signals from two arrays are further processed by the normalized least-mean-square algorithm with the internal iteration to yield the source signal with improved quality. To validate the 2.5-D CMA experimentally, a three-dimensionally printed circular array comprised of a 24-element CMA and an eight-element LLA is constructed. Objective perceptual evaluation of speech quality test and a subjective listening test are also undertaken.

  18. Faster exact algorithms for computing Steiner trees in higher dimensional Euclidean spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Brazil, Marcus; Winter, Pawel

    The Euclidean Steiner tree problem asks for a network of minimum total length interconnecting a finite set of points in d-dimensional space. For d ≥ 3, only one practical algorithmic approach exists for this problem --- proposed by Smith in 1992. A number of refinements of Smith's algorithm have...

  19. Comparison of two single-breath-held 3-D acquisitions with multi-breath-held 2-D cine steady-state free precession MRI acquisition in children with single ventricles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atweh, Lamya A.; Dodd, Nicholas A.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Chu, Zili D. [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Pednekar, Amol [Philips Healthcare, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, EB Singleton Department of Pediatric Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Breath-held two-dimensional balanced steady-state free precession cine acquisition (2-D breath-held SSFP), accelerated with parallel imaging, is the method of choice for evaluating ventricular function due to its superior blood-to-myocardial contrast, edge definition and high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio throughout the cardiac cycle. The purpose of this study is to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the two different single-breath-hold 3-D cine SSFP acquisitions using 1) multidirectional sensitivity encoding (SENSE) acceleration factors (3-D multiple SENSE SSFP), and 2) k-t broad-use linear acceleration speed-up technique (3-D k-t SSFP) with the conventional 2-D breath-held SSFP in non-sedated asymptomatic volunteers and children with single ventricle congenital heart disease. Our prospective study was performed on 30 non-sedated subjects (9 healthy volunteers and 21 functional single ventricle patients), ages 12.5 +/- 2.8 years. Two-dimensional breath-held SSFP with SENSE acceleration factor of 2, eight-fold accelerated 3-D k-t SSFP, and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP with total parallel imaging factor of 4 were performed to evaluate ventricular volumes and mass in the short-axis orientation. Image quality scores (blood myocardial contrast, edge definition and interslice alignment) and volumetric analysis (end systolic volume, end diastolic volume and ejection fraction) were performed on the data sets by experienced users. Paired t-test was performed to compare each of the 3-D k-t SSFP and 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP clinical scores against 2-D breath-held SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis was performed on left ventricle (LV) and single ventricle volumetry. Interobserver and intraobserver variability in volumetric measurements were determined using intraclass coefficients. The clinical scores were highest for the 2-D breath-held SSFP images. Between the two 3-D sequences, 3-D multiple SENSE SSFP performed better than 3-D k-t SSFP. Bland-Altman analysis for volumes

  20. An exact algorithm for the N-sheet two dimensional single stock-size ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For each set found, an integer program is solved to produce a feasible or sometimes optimal ... In this paper a two-dimensional cutting stock problem ... The concept of the 2D-SLOPP is extended to a 2D-SLOPP over N same size sheets, called.

  1. Teleportation schemes in infinite dimensional Hilbert spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtner, Karl-Heinz; Freudenberg, Wolfgang; Ohya, Masanori

    2005-01-01

    The success of quantum mechanics is due to the discovery that nature is described in infinite dimension Hilbert spaces, so that it is desirable to demonstrate the quantum teleportation process in a certain infinite dimensional Hilbert space. We describe the teleportation process in an infinite dimensional Hilbert space by giving simple examples

  2. Topological Vortex and Knotted Dissipative Optical 3D Solitons Generated by 2D Vortex Solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veretenov, N A; Fedorov, S V; Rosanov, N N

    2017-12-29

    We predict a new class of three-dimensional (3D) topological dissipative optical one-component solitons in homogeneous laser media with fast saturable absorption. Their skeletons formed by vortex lines where the field vanishes are tangles, i.e., N_{c} knotted or unknotted, linked or unlinked closed lines and M unclosed lines that thread all the closed lines and end at the infinitely far soliton periphery. They are generated by embedding two-dimensional laser solitons or their complexes in 3D space after their rotation around an unclosed, infinite vortex line with topological charge M_{0} (N_{c}, M, and M_{0} are integers). With such structure propagation, the "hula-hoop" solitons form; their stability is confirmed numerically. For the solitons found, all vortex lines have unit topological charge: the number of closed lines N_{c}=1 and 2 (unknots, trefoils, and Solomon knots links); unclosed vortex lines are unknotted and unlinked, their number M=1, 2, and 3.

  3. On stochastic differential equations with arbitrarily slow convergence rates for strong approximation in two space dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerencsér, Máté; Jentzen, Arnulf; Salimova, Diyora

    2017-11-01

    In a recent article (Jentzen et al. 2016 Commun. Math. Sci. 14 , 1477-1500 (doi:10.4310/CMS.2016.v14.n6.a1)), it has been established that, for every arbitrarily slow convergence speed and every natural number d ∈{4,5,…}, there exist d -dimensional stochastic differential equations with infinitely often differentiable and globally bounded coefficients such that no approximation method based on finitely many observations of the driving Brownian motion can converge in absolute mean to the solution faster than the given speed of convergence. In this paper, we strengthen the above result by proving that this slow convergence phenomenon also arises in two ( d =2) and three ( d =3) space dimensions.

  4. tavgM_2d_slv_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXSLV) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXSLV or tavgM_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  5. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXOCN or tavgU_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  6. A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that...

  7. Sums of two-dimensional spectral triples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    construct a sum of two dimensional modules which reflects some aspects of the topological dimensions of the compact metric space, but this will only give the metric back approximately. At the end we make an explicit computation of the last module for the unit interval in. The metric is recovered exactly...

  8. Discrete symmetries and coset space dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1989-01-01

    We consider the discrete symmetries of all the six-dimensional coset spaces and we apply them in gauge theories defined in ten dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over these homogeneous spaces. Particular emphasis is given in the consequences of the discrete symmetries on the particle content as well as on the symmetry breaking a la Hosotani of the resulting four-dimensional theory. (orig.)

  9. Classical symmetries of some two-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    It is well-known that principal chiral models and symmetric space models in two-dimensional Minkowski space have an infinite-dimensional algebra of hidden symmetries. Because of the relevance of symmetric space models to duality symmetries in string theory, the hidden symmetries of these models are explored in some detail. The string theory application requires including coupling to gravity, supersymmetrization, and quantum effects. However, as a first step, this paper only considers classical bosonic theories in flat space-time. Even though the algebra of hidden symmetries of principal chiral models is confirmed to include a Kac-Moody algebra (or a current algebra on a circle), it is argued that a better interpretation is provided by a doubled current algebra on a semi-circle (or line segment). Neither the circle nor the semi-circle bears any apparent relationship to the physical space. For symmetric space models the line segment viewpoint is shown to be essential, and special boundary conditions need to be imposed at the ends. The algebra of hidden symmetries also includes Virasoro-like generators. For both principal chiral models and symmetric space models, the hidden symmetry stress tensor is singular at the ends of the line segment. (orig.)

  10. Integration of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation for three-dimensional displacements measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Siegmann, Philip; Díaz, Francisco A.

    2016-12-01

    A low-cost approach for three-dimensional (3-D) full-field displacement measurement is applied for the analysis of large displacements involved in two different mechanical events. The method is based on a combination of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. The two techniques have been employed simultaneously using an RGB camera and a color encoding method; therefore, it is possible to measure in-plane and out-of-plane displacements at the same time with only one camera even at high speed rates. The potential of the proposed methodology has been employed for the analysis of large displacements during contact experiments in a soft material block. Displacement results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a 3D-DIC commercial system. Moreover, the analysis of displacements during an impact test on a metal plate was performed to emphasize the application of the methodology for dynamics events. Results show a good level of agreement, highlighting the potential of FP + 2D DIC as low-cost alternative for the analysis of large deformations problems.

  11. Personalized 2D color maps

    KAUST Repository

    Waldin, Nicholas

    2016-06-24

    2D color maps are often used to visually encode complex data characteristics such as heat or height. The comprehension of color maps in visualization is affected by the display (e.g., a monitor) and the perceptual abilities of the viewer. In this paper we present a novel method to measure a user\\'s ability to distinguish colors of a two-dimensional color map on a given monitor. We show how to adapt the color map to the user and display to optimally compensate for the measured deficiencies. Furthermore, we improve user acceptance of the calibration procedure by transforming the calibration into a game. The user has to sort colors along a line in a 3D color space in a competitive fashion. The errors the user makes in sorting these lines are used to adapt the color map to his perceptual capabilities.

  12. Optical image encryption based on phase retrieval combined with three-dimensional particle-like distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new phase retrieval algorithm for optical image encryption in three-dimensional (3D) space. The two-dimensional (2D) plaintext is considered as a series of particles distributed in 3D space, and an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is developed to encrypt the series of particles into phase-only masks. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by a numerical experiment, and the advantages and security of the proposed optical cryptosystems are also analyzed and discussed. (paper)

  13. Human Body 3D Posture Estimation Using Significant Points and Two Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Chia-Feng; Chen, Teng-Chang; Du, Wei-Chin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a three-dimensional (3D) human posture estimation system that locates 3D significant body points based on 2D body contours extracted from two cameras without using any depth sensors. The 3D significant body points that are located by this system include the head, the center of the body, the tips of the feet, the tips of the hands, the elbows, and the knees. First, a linear support vector machine- (SVM-) based segmentation method is proposed to distinguish the human body from the background in red, green, and blue (RGB) color space. The SVM-based segmentation method uses not only normalized color differences but also included angle between pixels in the current frame and the background in order to reduce shadow influence. After segmentation, 2D significant points in each of the two extracted images are located. A significant point volume matching (SPVM) method is then proposed to reconstruct the 3D significant body point locations by using 2D posture estimation results. Experimental results show that the proposed SVM-based segmentation method shows better performance than other gray level- and RGB-based segmentation approaches. This paper also shows the effectiveness of the 3D posture estimation results in different postures. PMID:24883422

  14. Two-particle correlations in the one-dimensional Hubbard model: a ground-state analytical solution

    CERN Document Server

    Vallejo, E; Espinosa, J E

    2003-01-01

    A solution to the extended Hubbard Hamiltonian for the case of two-particles in an infinite one-dimensional lattice is presented, using a real-space mapping method and the Green function technique. This Hamiltonian considers the on-site (U) and the nearest-neighbor (V) interactions. The method is based on mapping the correlated many-body problem onto an equivalent site-impurity tight-binding one in a higher dimensional space. In this new space we obtained the analytical solution for the ground state binding energy. Results are in agreement with the numerical solution obtained previously [1], and with those obtained in the reciprocal space [2]. (Author)

  15. Two-dimensional atom localization via Raman-driven coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmatullah,; Qamar, Sajid, E-mail: sajid_qamar@comsats.edu.pk

    2014-02-07

    A scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via Raman-driven coherence in a four-level diamond-configuration system is suggested. The atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields where each standing-wave field is constructed from the superposition of the two-standing wave fields along the corresponding directions. Due to the position-dependent atom–field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the position information about the atom. We investigate the effect of the detunings and phase shifts associated with standing-wave fields. Unique position information of the single atom is obtained by properly adjusting the system parameters. This is an extension of our previous proposal for one-dimensional atom localization via Raman-driven coherence.

  16. Mixed-symmetry superconductivity in two-dimensional Fermi liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musaelian, K.A.; Betouras, J.; Chubukov, A.V.; Joynt, R.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic Fermi liquid with attraction in both s and d channels and examine the possibility of a superconducting state with mixed s and d symmetry of the gap function. We show that both in the weak-coupling limit and at strong coupling, a mixed s+id symmetry state is realized in a certain range of interaction. Phase transitions between the mixed and the pure symmetry states are second order. We also show that there is no stable mixed s+d symmetry state at any coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Photo-switchable two-dimensional nanofluidic ionic diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Yaping; Zhou, Yi; Jia, Meijuan; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The bottom-up assembly of ion-channel-mimetic nanofluidic devices and materials with two-dimensional (2D) nano-building blocks paves a straightforward way towards the real-world applications of the novel transport phenomena on a nano- or sub-nanoscale. One immediate challenge is to provide the 2D nanofluidic systems with adaptive responsibilities and asymmetric ion transport characteristics. Herein, we introduce a facile and general strategy to provide a graphene-oxide-based 2D nanofluidic system with photo-switchable ionic current rectification (ICR). The degree of ICR can be prominently enhanced upon UV irradiation and it can be perfectly retrieved under irradiation with visible light. A maximum ICR ratio of about 48 was achieved. The smart and functional nanofluidic devices have applications in energy conversion, chemical sensing, water treatment, etc .

  18. High-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional modeling of wire grid polarizers and micropolarizer arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorobiev, Dmitry; Ninkov, Zoran

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in photolithography allowed the fabrication of high-quality wire grid polarizers for the visible and near-infrared regimes. In turn, micropolarizer arrays (MPAs) based on wire grid polarizers have been developed and used to construct compact, versatile imaging polarimeters. However, the contrast and throughput of these polarimeters are significantly worse than one might expect based on the performance of large area wire grid polarizers or MPAs, alone. We investigate the parameters that affect the performance of wire grid polarizers and MPAs, using high-resolution two-dimensional and three-dimensional (3-D) finite-difference time-domain simulations. We pay special attention to numerical errors and other challenges that arise in models of these and other subwavelength optical devices. Our tests show that simulations of these structures in the visible and near-IR begin to converge numerically when the mesh size is smaller than ˜4 nm. The performance of wire grid polarizers is very sensitive to the shape, spacing, and conductivity of the metal wires. Using 3-D simulations of micropolarizer "superpixels," we directly study the cross talk due to diffraction at the edges of each micropolarizer, which decreases the contrast of MPAs to ˜200∶1.

  19. Neutron scattering study on the spin dynamics of the two dimensional square lattice antiferromagnet, La2NiO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Hosoya, Syoichi; Endoh, Yasuo; Omata, Tomoya; Arai, Masatoshi; Taylor, A.

    1993-01-01

    The spin dynamics of an S = 1, two dimensional (2D) square lattice antiferromagnet, La 2 NiO 4 was studied by neutron scattering experiments in wide energy (E N ), the spin wave excitations of La 2 NiO 4 are well described by a classical spin wave theory. The nearest-neighbor-exchange coupling constant, the in-plane and the out-of-plane anisotropy constants at 10 K were determined to be 28.7±0.7 meV, 0.10±0.02 meV and 1.26±0.12 meV, respectively. Above T N , the 2D spin fluctuation was observed over 600 K. The critical slowing down behavior of the fluctuation was observed in the enhancement of the low energy component toward T N . On the other hand, the high energy component is hardly affected by the three dimensional magnetic transition and still exists even at T N as observed in La 2 CuO 4 . The spin correlation length and the static structure factor at the 2D zone center were measured and compared with theoretical calculations for 2D Heisenberg antiferromagnets. (author)

  20. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun

    2016-04-15

    Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A.; Espina, Aránzazu; Amghouz, Zakariae; Khainakov, Sergei A.; Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A.; García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C 4 N 2 H 12 ) 1.5 (Co 0.6 Zn 0.4 ) 2 (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 )·H 2 O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2 1 /c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C 4 N 2 H 12 )Co 0.3 Zn 0.7 (HPO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2 1 /c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C 4 N 2 H 12 ) 1.5 (Co 0.6 Zn 0.4 ) 2 (HPO 4 ) 2 (PO 4 )·H 2 O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C 4 N 2 H 12 )Co 0.3 Zn 0.7 (HPO 4 ) 2 ·H 2 O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal structure of 1D metastable phase was also determined. • Thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate. • Magnetic

  2. Plasma kinetics of Ar/O2 magnetron discharge by two-dimensional multifluid modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, C.; Minea, T. M.; Popa, G.; Gousset, G.

    2010-01-01

    Multifluid two-dimensional model was developed to describe the plasma kinetics of the direct current Ar/O 2 magnetron, coupling two modules: charged particles and neutrals. The first module deals with three positive ions - Ar + , O 2 + , and O + - and two negative species - e - and O - - treated by the moments of Boltzmann's equation. The second one follows seven neutral species (Ar, O 2 , O, O 3 , and related metastables) by the multicomponent diffusion technique. The two modules are self-consistently coupled by the mass conservation and kinetic coefficients taking into account more than 100 volume reactions. The steady state is obtained when the overall convergence is achieved. Calculations for 10%O 2 in Ar/O 2 mixture at 2.67 and 4 Pa show that the oxygen excited species are mainly created by electron collisions in the negative glow of the discharge. Decreasing the pressure down to 0.67 Pa, the model reveals the nonlocal behavior of the reactive species. The density gradient of O 2 ground state is reversed with respect to all gradients of the other reactive species, since the latter ones originate from the molecular ground state of oxygen. It is also found that the wall reactions drastically modify the space gradient of neutral reactive species, at least as much as the pressure, even if the discharge operates in compound mode.

  3. D-dimensional moments of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the moments of inertia of D-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where D is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their D-dimensional analogs. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers

  4. Fractional Killing-Yano Tensors and Killing Vectors Using the Caputo Derivative in Some One- and Two-Dimensional Curved Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Malkawi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical free Lagrangian admitting a constant of motion, in one- and two-dimensional space, is generalized using the Caputo derivative of fractional calculus. The corresponding metric is obtained and the fractional Christoffel symbols, Killing vectors, and Killing-Yano tensors are derived. Some exact solutions of these quantities are reported.

  5. Six-dimensional real and reciprocal space small-angle X-ray scattering tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, Florian; Bech, Martin; Zaslansky, Paul; Jud, Christoph; Liebi, Marianne; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-11-19

    When used in combination with raster scanning, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) has proven to be a valuable imaging technique of the nanoscale, for example of bone, teeth and brain matter. Although two-dimensional projection imaging has been used to characterize various materials successfully, its three-dimensional extension, SAXS computed tomography, poses substantial challenges, which have yet to be overcome. Previous work using SAXS computed tomography was unable to preserve oriented SAXS signals during reconstruction. Here we present a solution to this problem and obtain a complete SAXS computed tomography, which preserves oriented scattering information. By introducing virtual tomography axes, we take advantage of the two-dimensional SAXS information recorded on an area detector and use it to reconstruct the full three-dimensional scattering distribution in reciprocal space for each voxel of the three-dimensional object in real space. The presented method could be of interest for a combined six-dimensional real and reciprocal space characterization of mesoscopic materials with hierarchically structured features with length scales ranging from a few nanometres to a few millimetres--for example, biomaterials such as bone or teeth, or functional materials such as fuel-cell or battery components.

  6. Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás

    2014-06-11

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics.

  7. Two-dimensional macroscopic quantum tunneling in multi-gap superconductor Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature characters of superconducting devices yield definite probes for different superconducting phenomena. We study the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a Josephson junction, composed of a single-gap superconductor and a two-gap superconductor. Since this junction has two kinds to the superconducting phase differences, calculating the MQT escape rate requires the analysis of quantum tunneling in a multi-dimensional configuration space. Our approach is the semi-classical approximation along a 1D curve in a 2D potential- energy landscape, connecting two adjacent potential (local) minimums through a saddle point. We find that this system has two plausible tunneling paths; an in-phase path and an out-of-phase path. The former is characterized by the Josephson-plasma frequency, whereas the latter is by the frequency of the characteristic collective mode in a two-band superconductor, Josephson- Leggett mode. Depending on external bias current and inter-band Josephson-coupling energy, one of them mainly contributes to the MQT. Our numerical calculations show that the difference between the in-phase path and the out-of-phase path is manifest, with respect to the bias- current-dependence of the MQT escape rate. This result suggests that our MQT setting be an indicator of the Josephson-Leggett mode

  8. Memory and visual search in naturalistic 2D and 3D environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chia-Ling; Aivar, M Pilar; Kit, Dmitry M; Tong, Matthew H; Hayhoe, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    The role of memory in guiding attention allocation in daily behaviors is not well understood. In experiments with two-dimensional (2D) images, there is mixed evidence about the importance of memory. Because the stimulus context in laboratory experiments and daily behaviors differs extensively, we investigated the role of memory in visual search, in both two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environments. A 3D immersive virtual apartment composed of two rooms was created, and a parallel 2D visual search experiment composed of snapshots from the 3D environment was developed. Eye movements were tracked in both experiments. Repeated searches for geometric objects were performed to assess the role of spatial memory. Subsequently, subjects searched for realistic context objects to test for incidental learning. Our results show that subjects learned the room-target associations in 3D but less so in 2D. Gaze was increasingly restricted to relevant regions of the room with experience in both settings. Search for local contextual objects, however, was not facilitated by early experience. Incidental fixations to context objects do not necessarily benefit search performance. Together, these results demonstrate that memory for global aspects of the environment guides search by restricting allocation of attention to likely regions, whereas task relevance determines what is learned from the active search experience. Behaviors in 2D and 3D environments are comparable, although there is greater use of memory in 3D.

  9. Electronic structure in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 studied by two dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, H.; Kubota, T.; Nakashima, N.; Tanigawa, S.; Minami, F.; Takekawa, S.

    1992-01-01

    Electronic structure in one of high-Tc-sperconducting materials, Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 , was studied by two dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiations (2D-ACAR). The measurements were performed for Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 at room temperature and 24K; in the normal and superconducting states. The three dimensional electron momentum density ρ(p) has been reconstructed by using the image reconstruction technique based on a direct Fourier transportation. The reconstructed electron momentum density ρ(p) has been reduced into the reduced electron momentum density n(k) by using the LCW folding procedure. They are compared with that for Cu and Si. The difference in the density distributions between both states was observed. This may be attributed to the smearing by the reduced thermal momenta of positrons. But there is a possibility that the difference is due to the phase transition

  10. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-03-06

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H{sub 2}O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the

  11. Probing the liquid and solid phases in closely spaced two-dimensional systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Gas, liquid and solid phases are the most common states of matter in our daily encountered 3-dimensional space. The school example is the H 2 O molecule with its phases vapor, water and ice. Interestingly, electrons - with their point-like nature and negative charges - can also organize themselves under certain conditions to bear properties of these three common phases. At relatively high temperature, where Boltzmann statistics prevails, the ensemble of electrons without interactions can be treated as a gas of free particles. Cooling down the system, this electron gas condenses into a Fermi liquid. Finally, as a result of the repulsive Coulomb forces, electrons try to avoid each other by maximizing their distances. When the Coulomb interaction becomes sufficiently strong, a regular lattice emerges - an electron solid. The story however does not end here. Nature has much more in store for us. Electronic systems in fact exhibit a large variety of phases induced by spatial confinement, an external magnetic field, Coulomb interactions, or interactions involving degrees of freedom other than charge such as spin and valley. Here in this thesis, we restrict ourselves to the study of electrons in a 2-dimenisonal (2D) plane. Already in such a 2D electron system (2DES), several distinct states of matter appear: integer and fractional quantum Hall liquids, the 2D Wigner solid, stripe and bubble phases etc. In 2DES it is sufficient to sweep the perpendicular magnetic field to pass from one of these phases into another. Experimentally, many of these phases can be revealed by simply measuring the resistance. For a quantum Hall state, the longitudinal resistance vanishes, while the Hall resistance exhibits a plateau. The quantum Hall plateau is a manifestation of localization induced by the inevitable sample disorder. Coulomb interaction can also play an important role to localize charges. Even in the disorder-free case, electrons - more precisely quasi-particles in the partially

  12. Measuring protein dynamics with ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamczyk, Katrin; Candelaresi, Marco; Hunt, Neil T; Robb, Kirsty; Hoskisson, Paul A; Tucker, Nicholas P; Gumiero, Andrea; Walsh, Martin A; Parker, Anthony W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in the methodology and application of ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy to biomolecular systems are reviewed. A description of the 2D-IR technique and the molecular contributions to the observed spectra are presented followed by a discussion of recent literature relating to the use of 2D-IR and associated approaches for measuring protein dynamics. In particular, these include the use of diatomic ligand groups for measuring haem protein dynamics, isotopic labelling strategies and the use of vibrational probe groups. The final section reports on the current state of the art regarding the use of 2D-IR methods to provide insights into biological reaction mechanisms. (topical review)

  13. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Radiation Surface and TOA, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXRAD or tavgU_2d_rad_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface and TOA radiation flux that is time averaged single-level...

  14. Coset space dimensional reduction of gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Zoupanos, G. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1992-10-01

    We review the attempts to construct unified theories defined in higher dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over coset spaces. We employ the coset space dimensional reduction scheme, which permits the detailed study of the resulting four-dimensional gauge theories. In the context of this scheme we present the difficulties and the suggested ways out in the attempts to describe the observed interactions in a realistic way. (orig.).

  15. Coset space dimensional reduction of gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1992-01-01

    We review the attempts to construct unified theories defined in higher dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over coset spaces. We employ the coset space dimensional reduction scheme, which permits the detailed study of the resulting four-dimensional gauge theories. In the context of this scheme we present the difficulties and the suggested ways out in the attempts to describe the observed interactions in a realistic way. (orig.)

  16. Design of efficient circularly symmetric two-dimensional variable digital FIR filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindima, Thayyil; Elias, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Circularly symmetric two-dimensional (2D) finite impulse response (FIR) filters find extensive use in image and medical applications, especially for isotropic filtering. Moreover, the design and implementation of 2D digital filters with variable fractional delay and variable magnitude responses without redesigning the filter has become a crucial topic of interest due to its significance in low-cost applications. Recently the design using fixed word length coefficients has gained importance due to the replacement of multipliers by shifters and adders, which reduces the hardware complexity. Among the various approaches to 2D design, transforming a one-dimensional (1D) filter to 2D by transformation, is reported to be an efficient technique. In this paper, 1D variable digital filters (VDFs) with tunable cut-off frequencies are designed using Farrow structure based interpolation approach, and the sub-filter coefficients in the Farrow structure are made multiplier-less using canonic signed digit (CSD) representation. The resulting performance degradation in the filters is overcome by using artificial bee colony (ABC) optimization. Finally, the optimized 1D VDFs are mapped to 2D using generalized McClellan transformation resulting in low complexity, circularly symmetric 2D VDFs with real-time tunability.

  17. dS/CFT correspondence from a holographic description of massless scalar fields in Minkowski space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loran, Farhang

    2004-01-01

    We solve Klein-Gordon equation for massless scalars on (d+1)-dimensional Minkowski (Euclidean) space in terms of the Cauchy data on the hypersurface t=0. By inserting the solution into the action of massless scalars in Minkowski (Euclidean) space we obtain the action of dual theory on the boundary t=0 which is exactly the holographic dual of conformally coupled scalars on (d+1)-dimensional (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space obtained in (A)dS/CFT correspondence. The observed equivalence of dual theories is explained using the one-to-one map between conformally coupled scalar fields on Minkowski (Euclidean) space and (Euclidean anti) de Sitter space which is an isomorphism between the hypersurface t=0 of Minkowski (Euclidean) space and the boundary of (A)dS space

  18. MERRA 2D IAU Ocean Surface Diagnostic, Single Level, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXOCN or tavgM_2d_ocn_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional ocean surface single-level diagnostics that is monthly mean...

  19. A binary motor imagery tasks based brain-computer interface for two-dimensional movement control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bin; Cao, Lei; Maysam, Oladazimi; Li, Jie; Xie, Hong; Su, Caixia; Birbaumer, Niels

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Two-dimensional movement control is a popular issue in brain-computer interface (BCI) research and has many applications in the real world. In this paper, we introduce a combined control strategy to a binary class-based BCI system that allows the user to move a cursor in a two-dimensional (2D) plane. Users focus on a single moving vector to control 2D movement instead of controlling vertical and horizontal movement separately. Approach. Five participants took part in a fixed-target experiment and random-target experiment to verify the effectiveness of the combination control strategy under the fixed and random routine conditions. Both experiments were performed in a virtual 2D dimensional environment and visual feedback was provided on the screen. Main results. The five participants achieved an average hit rate of 98.9% and 99.4% for the fixed-target experiment and the random-target experiment, respectively. Significance. The results demonstrate that participants could move the cursor in the 2D plane effectively. The proposed control strategy is based only on a basic two-motor imagery BCI, which enables more people to use it in real-life applications.

  20. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional models used for teaching Human Evolution in Secondary Schools. Learning proficiency assessment. A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Dardon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the human species is a topic of extreme importance reported in the “Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais do Ensino Médio – PCNEM” (National Curriculum Standards of Secondary Education, although it is not often taught as part of basic education. This work presents the results of an experimental work performed with 31 students of a religious high school of State of Rio de Janeiro. Learning proficiency was assessed by using two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D illustration techniques of hominids skulls and a Pongidae for teaching Human Evolution. The teaching-learning process using these methodologies was more effective with the application of three-dimensional (3D illustration techniques. The group of students that used 3D illustrations were able to observe similarities and differences between the presented taxonomic models, and formulate hypotheses about their palaeobiology more consistently than the students that used 2D models. Results of this work indicate that the use of three-dimensional techniques (3D provides an excellent support to teaching-learning process in basic education, captivating and stimulating new interests of students during the educational process.

  1. GAMMA-RAY BURST LUMINOSITY RELATIONS: TWO-DIMENSIONAL VERSUS THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Bo; Qi Shi; Lu Tan

    2009-01-01

    The large scatters of luminosity relations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been one of the most important reasons that prevent the extensive applications of GRBs in cosmology. In this paper, we extend the two-dimensional (2D) luminosity relations with τ lag , V, E peak , and τ RT as the luminosity indicators to three dimensions (3D) using the same set of luminosity indicators to explore the possibility of decreasing the intrinsic scatters. We find that, for the 3D luminosity relations between the luminosity and an energy scale (E peak ) and a timescale (τ lag or τ RT ), their intrinsic scatters are considerably smaller than those of corresponding 2D luminosity relations. Enlightened by the result and the definition of the luminosity (energy released in units of time), we discussed possible reasons behind this result, which may give us helpful suggestions on seeking more precise luminosity relations for GRBs in the future.

  2. Reentrant phase transitions of higher-dimensional AdS black holes in dRGT massive gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, De-Cheng; Yue, Ruihong [Yangzhou University, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou (China); Zhang, Ming [Xi' an Aeronautical University, Faculty of Science, Xi' an (China)

    2017-04-15

    We study the P-V criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes in higher-dimensional de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, treating the cosmological constant as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Besides the usual small/large black hole phase transitions, the interesting thermodynamic phenomena of reentrant phase transitions (RPTs) are observed for black holes in all d ≥ 6-dimensional spacetime when the coupling coefficients c{sub i}m{sup 2} of massive potential satisfy some certain conditions. (orig.)

  3. The Infinitesimal Moduli Space of Heterotic G 2 Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Ossa, Xenia; Larfors, Magdalena; Svanes, Eirik E.

    2018-06-01

    Heterotic string compactifications on integrable G 2 structure manifolds Y with instanton bundles {(V,A), (TY,\\tilde{θ})} yield supersymmetric three-dimensional vacua that are of interest in physics. In this paper, we define a covariant exterior derivative D and show that it is equivalent to a heterotic G 2 system encoding the geometry of the heterotic string compactifications. This operator D acts on a bundle Q}=T^*Y \\oplus End(V) \\oplus End(TY)} and satisfies a nilpotency condition \\check{{D^2=0} , for an appropriate projection of D. Furthermore, we determine the infinitesimal moduli space of these systems and show that it corresponds to the finite-dimensional cohomology group H^1_{D}(Q). We comment on the similarities and differences of our result with Atiyah's well-known analysis of deformations of holomorphic vector bundles over complex manifolds. Our analysis leads to results that are of relevance to all orders in the {α'} expansion.

  4. Crystallization of SHARPIN using an automated two-dimensional grid screen for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieglitz, Benjamin; Rittinger, Katrin; Haire, Lesley F.

    2012-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of an N-terminal fragment of SHARPIN are reported. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained using a two-dimensional grid-screen seeding technique. An N-terminal fragment of human SHARPIN was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction were obtained by a one-step optimization of seed dilution and protein concentration using a two-dimensional grid screen. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 61.55, c = 222.81 Å. Complete data sets were collected from native and selenomethionine-substituted protein crystals at 100 K to 2.6 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively

  5. Creation of three-dimensional craniofacial standards from CBCT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyan, Krishna; Palomo, Martin; Hans, Mark

    2006-03-01

    Low-dose three-dimensional Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is becoming increasingly popular in the clinical practice of dental medicine. Two-dimensional Bolton Standards of dentofacial development are routinely used to identify deviations from normal craniofacial anatomy. With the advent of CBCT three dimensional imaging, we propose a set of methods to extend these 2D Bolton Standards to anatomically correct surface based 3D standards to allow analysis of morphometric changes seen in craniofacial complex. To create 3D surface standards, we have implemented series of steps. 1) Converting bi-plane 2D tracings into set of splines 2) Converting the 2D splines curves from bi-plane projection into 3D space curves 3) Creating labeled template of facial and skeletal shapes and 4) Creating 3D average surface Bolton standards. We have used datasets from patients scanned with Hitachi MercuRay CBCT scanner providing high resolution and isotropic CT volume images, digitized Bolton Standards from age 3 to 18 years of lateral and frontal male, female and average tracings and converted them into facial and skeletal 3D space curves. This new 3D standard will help in assessing shape variations due to aging in young population and provide reference to correct facial anomalies in dental medicine.

  6. NASA-VOF3D: A three-dimensional computer program for incompressible flows with free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, M. D.; Mjolsness, R. C.; Stein, L. R.

    1987-07-01

    Presented is the NASA-VOF3D three-dimensional, transient, free-surface hydrodynamics program. This three-dimensional extension of NASA-VOF2D will, in principle, permit treatment in full three-dimensional generality of the wide variety of applications that could be treated by NASA-VOF2D only within the two-dimensional idealization. In particular, it, like NASA-VOF2D, is specifically designed to calculate confined flows in a low g environment. The code is presently restricted to cylindrical geometry. The code is based on the fractional volume-of-fluid method and allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion. It also has a partial cell treatment that allows curved boundaries and internal obstacles. This report provides a brief discussion of the numerical method, a code listing, and some sample problems.

  7. Highly Enhanced Many-Body Interactions in Anisotropic 2D Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ankur; Yan, Han; Zhang, Linglong; Sun, Xueqian; Liu, Boqing; Lu, Yuerui

    2018-05-15

    Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors have presented a plethora of opportunities for future optoelectronic devices and photonics applications, made possible by the strong light matter interactions at the 2D quantum limit. Many body interactions between fundamental particles in 2D semiconductors are strongly enhanced compared with those in bulk semiconductors because of the reduced dimensionality and, thus, reduced dielectric screening. These enhanced many body interactions lead to the formation of robust quasi-particles, such as excitons, trions, and biexcitons, which are extremely important for the optoelectronics device applications of 2D semiconductors, such as light emitting diodes, lasers, and optical modulators, etc. Recently, the emerging anisotropic 2D semiconductors, such as black phosphorus (termed as phosphorene) and phosphorene-like 2D materials, such as ReSe 2 , 2D-perovskites, SnS, etc., show strong anisotropic optical and electrical properties, which are different from conventional isotropic 2D semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers. This anisotropy leads to the formation of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) excitons and trions in a 2D system, which results in even stronger many body interactions in anisotropic 2D materials, arising from the further reduced dimensionality of the quasi-particles and thus reduced dielectric screening. Many body interactions have been heavily investigated in TMD monolayers in past years, but not in anisotropic 2D materials yet. The quasi-particles in anisotropic 2D materials have fractional dimensionality which makes them perfect candidates to serve as a platform to study fundamental particle interactions in fractional dimensional space. In this Account, we present our recent progress related to 2D phosphorene, a 2D system with quasi-1D excitons and trions. Phosphorene, because of its unique anisotropic properties, provides a unique 2D platform for investigating the

  8. Zero-dimensional limit of the two-dimensional Lugiato-Lefever equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Wesley B.; Salasnich, Luca; Malomed, Boris A.

    2017-05-01

    We study effects of tight harmonic-oscillator confinement on the electromagnetic field in a laser cavity by solving the two-dimensional Lugiato-Lefever (2D LL) equation, taking into account self-focusing or defocusing nonlinearity, losses, pump, and the trapping potential. Tightly confined (quasi-zero-dimensional) optical modes (pixels), produced by this model, are analyzed by means of the variational approximation, which provides a qualitative picture of the ensuing phenomena. This is followed by systematic simulations of the time-dependent 2D LL equation, which reveal the shape, stability, and dynamical behavior of the resulting localized patterns. In this way, we produce stability diagrams for the expected pixels. Then, we consider the LL model with the vortical pump, showing that it can produce stable pixels with embedded vorticity (vortex solitons) in remarkably broad stability areas. Alongside confined vortices with the simple single-ring structure, in the latter case the LL model gives rise to stable multi-ring states, with a spiral phase field. In addition to the numerical results, a qualitatively correct description of the vortex solitons is provided by the Thomas-Fermi approximation. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Theory and Applications of the Lugiato-Lefever Equation", edited by Yanne K. Chembo, Damia Gomila, Mustapha Tlidi, Curtis R. Menyuk.

  9. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run-l...

  10. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Surface Fluxes, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXFLX or tavg1_2d_flx_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface turbulence flux diagnostic that is time averaged...

  11. Quantum transport of atomic matter waves in anisotropic two-dimensional and three-dimensional disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piraud, M; Pezzé, L; Sanchez-Palencia, L

    2013-01-01

    The macroscopic transport properties in a disordered potential, namely diffusion and weak/strong localization, closely depend on the microscopic and statistical properties of the disorder itself. This dependence is rich in counter-intuitive consequences. It can be particularly exploited in matter wave experiments, where the disordered potential can be tailored and controlled, and anisotropies are naturally present. In this work, we apply a perturbative microscopic transport theory and the self-consistent theory of Anderson localization to study the transport properties of ultracold atoms in anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) speckle potentials. In particular, we discuss the anisotropy of single-scattering, diffusion and localization. We also calculate disorder-induced shift of the energy states and propose a method to include it, which amounts to renormalizing energies in the standard on-shell approximation. We show that the renormalization of energies strongly affects the prediction for the 3D localization threshold (mobility edge). We illustrate the theoretical findings with examples which are relevant for current matter wave experiments, where the disorder is created with laser speckle. This paper provides a guideline for future experiments aiming at the precise location of the 3D mobility edge and study of anisotropic diffusion and localization effects in 2D and 3D. (paper)

  12. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-09-01

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

  13. Sensitivity analysis explains quasi-one-dimensional current transport in two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Hansen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) current transport, experimentally observed in graphene as measured by a collinear four-point probe in two electrode configurations A and B, can be interpreted using the sensitivity functions of the two electrode configurations (configurations...... A and B represents different pairs of electrodes chosen for current sources and potential measurements). The measured sheet resistance in a four-point probe measurement is averaged over an area determined by the sensitivity function. For a two-dimensional conductor, the sensitivity functions for electrode...... configurations A and B are different. But when the current is forced to flow through a percolation network, e.g., graphene with high density of extended defects, the two sensitivity functions become identical. This is equivalent to a four-point measurement on a line resistor, hence quasi-1D transport...

  14. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-08-15

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system.

  15. Emulation of two-dimensional photonic crystal defect modes in a photonic crystal with a three-dimensional photonic band gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinelli, M. L.; Johnson, Steven G.; Fan, Shanhui; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate the construction of two-dimensional- (2D-) like defect modes in a recently proposed 3D photonic crystal structure. These modes, which are confined in all three dimensions by a complete photonic band gap, bear a striking similarity to those in 2D photonic crystals in terms of polarization, field profile, and projected band structures. It is expected that these results will greatly facilitate the observation of widely studied 2D photonic-crystal phenomena in a realistic, 3D physical system

  16. Broken ergodicity in two-dimensional homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous MHD turbulence. These features include several ideal (i.e., nondissipative) invariants along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity (defined as nonergodic behavior over a very long time). Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo. Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was found. Here, we study the origin of broken ergodicity in 2D MHD turbulence. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions. The origins of broken ergodicity in an ideal 2D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigenanalysis of the covariance matrices of the probability density function and by an examination of the associated entropy functional. When the values of ideal invariants are kept fixed and grid size increases, it will be shown that the energy in a few large modes remains constant, while the energy in any other mode is inversely proportional to grid size. Also, as grid size increases, we find that broken ergodicity becomes manifest at more and more wavenumbers.

  17. Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography Analysis of Polystyrene/Polybutadiene Block Copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghoon; Choi, Heejae; Chang, Taihyun; Staal, Bastiaan

    2018-05-15

    A detailed characterization of a commercial polystyrene/polybutadiene block copolymer material (Styrolux) was carried out using two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC). The Styrolux is prepared by statistical linking reaction of two different polystyrene- block-polybutadienyl anion precursors with a multivalent linking agent. Therefore, it is a mixture of a number of branched block copolymers different in molecular weight, composition, and chain architecture. While individual LC analysis, including size exclusion chromatography, interaction chromatography, or liquid chromatography at critical condition, is not good enough to resolve all the polymer species, 2D-LC separations coupling two chromatography methods were able to resolve all polymer species present in the sample; at least 13 block copolymer species and a homopolystyrene blended. Four different 2D-LC analyses combining a different pair of two LC methods provide their characteristic separation results. The separation characteristics of the 2D-LC separations are compared to elucidate the elution characteristics of the block copolymer species.

  18. Mapping the fundamental niches of two freshwater microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) and Peridinium cinctum (Dinophyceae), in 5-dimensional ion space

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five dimensional experimental design, i.e. a five component ion mixture design for nitrate, phosphate, potassium, sodium and chloride projected across a total ion concentration gradient of 1-30 mM was utilized to map the ion-based, scenopoetic, or ‘Grinnellian’, niche space for two freshwater alga...

  19. Simple shape space for 3D face registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košir, Andrej; Perkon, Igor; Bracun, Drago; Tasic, Jurij; Mozina, Janez

    2009-09-01

    Three dimensional (3D) face recognition is a topic getting increasing interest in biometric applications. In our research framework we developed a laser scanner that provides 3D cloud information and texture data. In a user scenario with cooperative subjects with indoor light conditions, we address three problems of 3D face biometrics: the face registration, the formulation of a shape space together with a special designed gradient algorithm and the impact of initial approximation to the convergence of a registration algorithm. By defining the face registration as a problem of aligning a 3D data cloud with a predefined reference template, we solve the registration problem with a second order gradient algorithm working on a shape space designed for reducing the computational complexity of the method.

  20. Two routes to the one-dimensional discrete nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gligoric, G.; Hadzievski, Lj.; Maluckov, A.; Salasnich, L.; Malomed, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), confined in a combination of the cigar-shaped trap and axial optical lattice, is studied in the framework of two models described by two versions of the one-dimensional (1D) discrete nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation (NPSE). Both models are derived from the three-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation (3D GPE). To produce 'model 1' (which was derived in recent works), the 3D GPE is first reduced to the 1D continual NPSE, which is subsequently discretized. 'Model 2,' which was not considered before, is derived by first discretizing the 3D GPE, which is followed by the reduction in the dimension. The two models seem very different; in particular, model 1 is represented by a single discrete equation for the 1D wave function, while model 2 includes an additional equation for the transverse width. Nevertheless, numerical analyses show similar behaviors of fundamental unstaggered solitons in both systems, as concerns their existence region and stability limits. Both models admit the collapse of the localized modes, reproducing the fundamental property of the self-attractive BEC confined in tight traps. Thus, we conclude that the fundamental properties of discrete solitons predicted for the strongly trapped self-attracting BEC are reliable, as the two distinct models produce them in a nearly identical form. However, a difference between the models is found too, as strongly pinned (very narrow) discrete solitons, which were previously found in model 1, are not generated by model 2--in fact, in agreement with the continual 1D NPSE, which does not have such solutions either. In that respect, the newly derived model provides for a more accurate approximation for the trapped BEC.

  1. Optical Conductivity in a Two-Dimensional Extended Hubbard Model for an Organic Dirac Electron System α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daigo Ohki

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The optical conductivity in the charge order phase is calculated in the two-dimensional extended Hubbard model describing an organic Dirac electron system α -(BEDT-TTF 2 I 3 using the mean field theory and the Nakano-Kubo formula. Because the interband excitation is characteristic in a two-dimensional Dirac electron system, a peak structure is found above the charge order gap. It is shown that the peak structure originates from the Van Hove singularities of the conduction and valence bands, where those singularities are located at a saddle point between two Dirac cones in momentum space. The frequency of the peak structure exhibits drastic change in the vicinity of the charge order transition.

  2. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  3. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weigang; Zhang, Gangsheng

    2015-01-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures

  4. A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Weigang, E-mail: abczwg15@163.com [College of Materials and Chemical Engineering, Chuzhou University, Chuzhou 239000 (China); Zhang, Gangsheng [College of Material Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China)

    2015-07-01

    A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure (2D TAPS) in the outer layer of bivalve ligament from Sunset Siliqua (OLLS) was reported in this paper. The structural color and microstructure of OLLS were investigated by reflection spectra and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results indicate that the reflection peak wavelength of the wet OLLS blue-shifts from 454 nm to 392 nm with the increasing of air drying time from 0 to 40 min, while the reflectivity decreases gradually and vanishes at last, relevant color changes from blue to black background color. The structural color in the OLLS is produced by a two-dimensional amorphous photonic structure consisting of aligned protein fibers, in which the diameter of protein fiber and the inter-fiber spacing are 101 ± 12 nm. Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure, and the regulation achieved through dynamically tuning the interaction between inter-fiber spacing and average refractive index. - Highlights: • A humidity sensitive two-dimensional tunable amorphous photonic structure • Water can reversibly tune the reflection peak wavelength and reflectivity of this photonic structure. • This photonic structure may yield very useful template for artificial structures.

  5. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUNXINT or tavgU_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  6. MERRA IAU 2D Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Instantaneous Diurnal (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAIUNXINT or instU_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  7. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Radiation Surface and TOA, Monthly Mean (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXRAD or tavgM_2d_rad_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface and TOA radiation flux that is time averaged single-level...

  8. MERRA IAU 2D Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Instantaneous Monthly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAIMNXINT or instM_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  9. Semantic Representations in 3D Perceptual Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Barsalou's (1999 perceptual theory of knowledge echoes the pre-20th century tradition of conceptualizing all knowledge as inherently perceptual. Hence conceptual space has an infinite number of dimensions and heavily relies on perceptual experience. Osgood's (1952 semantic differential technique was developed as a bridge between perception and semantics. We updated Osgood's methodology in order to investigate current issues in visual cognition by: (1 using a 2D rather than a 1D space to place the concepts, (2 having dimensions that were perceptual while the targets were conceptual, (3 coupling visual experience with another two perceptual domains (audition and touch, (4 analyzing the data using MDS (not factor analysis. In three experiments, subjects (N = 57 judged five concrete and five abstract words on seven bipolar scales in three perceptual modalities. The 2D space led to different patterns of response compared to the classic 1D space. MDS revealed that perceptual modalities are not equally informative for mapping word-meaning distances (Mantel min = −.23; Mantel max = .88. There was no reliable differences due to test administration modality (paper vs. computer, nor scale orientation. The present findings are consistent with multidimensionality of conceptual space, a perceptual basis for knowledge, and dynamic characteristics of concepts discussed in contemporary theories.

  10. tavgM_2d_rad_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Radiation Surface and TOA, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXRAD) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXRAD or tavgM_2d_rad_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional surface and TOA radiation flux that is time averaged single-level...

  11. A 2.5-dimensional method for the prediction of structure-borne low-frequency noise from concrete rail transit bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Song, Xiaodong; Wu, Dingjun

    2014-05-01

    Predicting structure-borne noise from bridges subjected to moving trains using the three-dimensional (3D) boundary element method (BEM) is a time consuming process. This paper presents a two-and-a-half dimensional (2.5D) BEM-based procedure for simulating bridge-borne low-frequency noise with higher efficiency, yet no loss of accuracy. The two-dimensional (2D) BEM of a bridge with a constant cross section along the track direction is adopted to calculate the spatial modal acoustic transfer vectors (MATVs) of the bridge using the space-wave number transforms of its 3D modal shapes. The MATVs calculated using the 2.5D method are then validated by those computed using the 3D BEM. The bridge-borne noise is finally obtained through the MATVs and modal coordinate responses of the bridge, considering time-varying vehicle-track-bridge dynamic interaction. The presented procedure is applied to predict the sound pressure radiating from a U-shaped concrete bridge, and the computed results are compared with those obtained from field tests on Shanghai rail transit line 8. The numerical results match well with the measured results in both time and frequency domains at near-field points. Nevertheless, the computed results are smaller than the measured ones for far-field points, mainly due to the sound radiation from adjacent spans neglected in the current model.

  12. 2D NMR studies of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamerichs, R.M.J.N.

    1989-01-01

    The work described in this thesis comprises two related subjects. The first part describes methods to derive high-resolution structures of proteins in solution using two-dimensional (2-D) NMR. The second part describes 2-D NMR studies on the interaction between proteins and DNA. (author). 261 refs.; 52 figs.; 23 tabs

  13. System performances of optical space code-division multiple-access-based fiber-optic two-dimensional parallel data link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K

    1998-05-10

    Optical space code-division multiple access is a scheme to multiplex and link data between two-dimensional processors such as smart pixels and spatial light modulators or arrays of optical sources like vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. We examine the multiplexing characteristics of optical space code-division multiple access by using optical orthogonal signature patterns. The probability density function of interference noise in interfering optical orthogonal signature patterns is calculated. The bit-error rate is derived from the result and plotted as a function of receiver threshold, code length, code weight, and number of users. Furthermore, we propose a prethresholding method to suppress the interference noise, and we experimentally verify that the method works effectively in improving system performance.

  14. Observation of exchange of micropore water in cement pastes by two-dimensional T(2)-T(2) nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteilhet, L; Korb, J-P; Mitchell, J; McDonald, P J

    2006-12-01

    The first detailed analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) NMR T(2)-T(2) exchange experiment with a period of magnetization storage between the two T(2) relaxation encoding periods (T(2)-store-T(2)) is presented. It is shown that this experiment has certain advantages over the T(1)-T(2) variant for the quantization of chemical exchange. New T(2)-store-T(2) 2D 1H NMR spectra of the pore water within white cement paste are presented. Based on these spectra, the exchange rate of water between the two smallest porosity reservoirs is estimated for the first time. It is found to be of the order of 5 ms{-1}. Further, a careful estimate of the pore sizes of these reservoirs is made. They are found to be of the order of 1.4 nm and 10-30 nm , respectively. A discussion of the results is developed in terms of possible calcium silicate hydrate products. A water diffusion coefficient inferred from the exchange rate and the cement particle size is found to compare favorably with the results of molecular-dynamics simulations to be found in the literature.

  15. Geometry of lengths, areas, and volumes two-dimensional spaces, volume 1

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, James W

    2017-01-01

    This is the first of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. The first volume begins with length measurement as dominated by the Pythagorean Theorem (three proofs) with application to number theory; areas measured by slicing and scaling, where Archimedes uses the physical weights and balances to calculate spherical volume and is led to the invention of calculus; areas by cut and paste, leading to the Bolyai-Gerwien theorem on squaring polygons; areas by counting, leading to the theory of continued fractions, the efficient rational approximation of real numbers, and Minkowski's theorem on convex bodies; straight-edge and compass constructions, giving c...

  16. Supersymmetric dimensional regularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.; Townsend, P.K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.

    1980-01-01

    There is a simple modification of dimension regularization which preserves supersymmetry: dimensional reduction to real D < 4, followed by analytic continuation to complex D. In terms of component fields, this means fixing the ranges of all indices on the fields (and therefore the numbers of Fermi and Bose components). For superfields, it means continuing in the dimensionality of x-space while fixing the dimensionality of theta-space. This regularization procedure allows the simple manipulation of spinor derivatives in supergraph calculations. The resulting rules are: (1) First do all algebra exactly as in D = 4; (2) Then do the momentum integrals as in ordinary dimensional regularization. This regularization procedure needs extra rules before one can say that it is consistent. Such extra rules needed for superconformal anomalies are discussed. Problems associated with renormalizability and higher order loops are also discussed

  17. Hidden U$_{q}$(sl(2)) x U$_{q}$(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry in two dimensional gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Cremmer, E; Schnittger, J

    1997-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed a construction of U_q(sl(2)) quantum group symmetry generators for 2d gravity, where we took the chiral vertex operators of the theory to be the quantum group covariant ones established in earlier works. The basic idea was that the covariant fields in the spin 1/2 representation themselves can be viewed as generators, as they act, by braiding, on the other fields exactly in the required way. Here we transform this construction to the more conventional description of 2d gravity in terms of Bloch wave/Coulomb gas vertex operators, thereby establishing for the first time its quantum group symmetry properties. A U_q(sl(2))\\otimes U_q(sl(2)) symmetry of a novel type emerges: The two Cartan-generator eigenvalues are specified by the choice of matrix element (bra/ket Verma-modules); the two Casimir eigenvalues are equal and specified by the Virasoro weight of the vertex operator considered; the co-product is defined with a matching condition dictated by the Hilbert space structure of...

  18. COMPARISON OF 2D AND 3D VIDEO DISPLAYS FOR TEACHING VITREORETINAL SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhaya, Nisarg; Helmy, Omar; Piri, Niloofar; Palacio, Agustina; Schaal, Shlomit

    2017-07-11

    To compare medical students' learning uptake and understanding of vitreoretinal surgeries by watching either 2D or 3D video recordings. Three vitreoretinal procedures (tractional retinal detachment, exposed scleral buckle removal, and four-point scleral fixation of an intraocular lens [TSS]) were recorded simultaneously with a conventional recorder for two-dimensional viewing and a VERION 3D HD system using Sony HVO-1000MD for three-dimensional viewing. Two videos of each surgery, one 2D and the other 3D, were edited to have the same content side by side. One hundred UMass medical students randomly assigned to a 2D group or 3D, then watched corresponding videos on a MacBook. All groups wore BiAL Red-blue 3D glasses and were appropriately randomized. Students filled out questionnaires about surgical steps or anatomical relationships of the pathologies or tissues, and their answers were compared. There was no significant difference in comprehension between the two groups for the extraocular scleral buckle procedure. However, for the intraocular TSS and tractional retinal detachment videos, the 3D group performed better than 2D (P < 0.05) on anatomy comprehension questions. Three-dimensional videos may have value in teaching intraocular ophthalmic surgeries. Surgical procedure steps and basic ocular anatomy may have to be reviewed to ensure maximal teaching efficacy.

  19. Limitations to the use of two-dimensional thermal modeling of a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, B.W.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal modeling of a nuclear waste repository is basic to most waste management predictive models. It is important that the modeling techniques accurately determine the time-dependent temperature distribution of the waste emplacement media. Recent modeling studies show that the time-dependent temperature distribution can be accurately modeled in the far-field using a 2-dimensional (2-D) planar numerical model; however, the near-field cannot be modeled accurately enough by either 2-D axisymmetric or 2-D planar numerical models for repositories in salt. The accuracy limits of 2-D modeling were defined by comparing results from 3-dimensional (3-D) TRUMP modeling with results from both 2-D axisymmetric and 2-D planar. Both TRUMP and ADINAT were employed as modeling tools. Two-dimensional results from the finite element code, ADINAT were compared with 2-D results from the finite difference code, TRUMP; they showed almost perfect correspondence in the far-field. This result adds substantially to confidence in future use of ADINAT and its companion stress code ADINA for thermal stress analysis. ADINAT was found to be somewhat sensitive to time step and mesh aspect ratio. 13 figures, 4 tables

  20. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both

  1. Two-dimensional Potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Huang, Y.; Chen, K.; Deng, Y.; Jacobsen, J. L.; Kotecký, R.; Salas, J.; Sokal, Alan D.; Swart, Jan M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, Č. 1 (2013), 12136-1-12136-5 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monte Carlo simulation * two-dimensional lattices * q-state Potts Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/SI/swart-two-dimensional potts antiferromagnets with a phase transition at arbitrarily large q.pdf

  2. 2 D χ2 analysis of pion interferometry data from the AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.; Padula, S.S.

    1993-04-01

    Recent E8 02 pion correlation data on central Si+Au reactions at 14.6 A GeV/c are analyzed. It is shown that the project one dimensional pion correlation functions are consistent with widely different decoupling space-time geometries due to uncertainties in the long lived resonance production. To test the enhancement sensitivity of two dimensional correlation functions to the underlying dynamics, we perform a 2 D χ 2 analysis of C (q transv, q L ). It is found unexpected ridge of high χ 2 along q transv = q L due to systematic tilting of the experimental correlation function upward in the (q transv, q L ) plane. Even after including that extra degree of freedom, however, the minimum χ 2 geometries are found to provide only a poor fit. The future work required to improve this situation is discussed. Finally, we review the advantages of Kaon interferometry. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  3. The front form of relativistic Lagrangian dynamics in the two-dimensional space-time and its connection with the Hamiltonian description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolov, S.N.; Tret'yak, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    The Lagrangian relativistic theory in the two-dimensional space-time in the front form of dynamics is formulated and its connections with the predictive mechanics, with the Hamiltonian description, and with the Fokker-type action theory are established. The relations are found in a closed form without using formal expansions. The existence of mathematical limitations on a magnitude of Lagrangians of two-particle interactions is shown

  4. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  5. A two-dimensional bilayered Cd(II) coordination polymer with a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture incorporating 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene and 2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei-Lei; Zhou, Yan; Li, Ping; Tian, Jiang-Ya

    2014-02-01

    In poly[[μ2-1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene-κ(2)N:N'][μ2-2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoato-κ(3)O,O':O'']cadmium(II)], [Cd(C14H8N2O4)(C12H10N2)]n, the asymmetric unit contains one Cd(II) cation, one 2,2'-(diazenediyl)dibenzoate anion (denoted L(2-)) and one 1,2-bis(pyridin-4-yl)ethene ligand (denoted bpe). Each Cd(II) centre is six-coordinated by four O atoms of bridging/chelating carboxylate groups from three L(2-) ligands and by two N atoms from two bpe ligands, forming a distorted octahedron. The Cd(II) cations are bridged by L(2-) and bpe ligands to give a two-dimensional (4,4) layer. The layers are interlinked through bridging carboxylate O atoms from L(2-) ligands, generating a two-dimensional bilayered structure with a 3(6)4(13)6(2) topology. The bilayered structures are further extended to form a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture via a combination of hydrogen-bonding and aromatic stacking interactions.

  6. Two-dimensional Topology of the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael S.; Gott, J. Richard, III

    2002-05-01

    We study the topology of the publicly available data released by the Two Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey team (2dF GRS). The 2dF GRS data contain over 100,000 galaxy redshifts with a magnitude limit of bJ=19.45 and is the largest such survey to date. The data lie over a wide range of right ascension (75° strips) but only within a narrow range of declination (10° and 15° strips). This allows measurements of the two-dimensional genus to be made. We find that the genus curves of the north Galactic pole (NGP) and south Galactic pole (SGP) are slightly different. The NGP displays a slight meatball shift topology, whereas the SGP displays a bubble-like topology. The current SGP data also have a slightly higher genus amplitude. In both cases, a slight excess of overdense regions is found over underdense regions. We assess the significance of these features using mock catalogs drawn from the Virgo Consortium's Hubble volume ΛCDM z=0 simulation. We find that differences between the NGP and SGP genus curves are only significant at the 1 σ level. The average genus curve of the 2dF GRS agrees well with that extracted from the ΛCDM mock catalogs. We also use the simulations to assess how the current incompleteness of the survey (the strips are not completely filled in) affects the measurement of the genus and find that we are not sensitive to the geometry; there are enough data in the current sample to trace the isolated high- and low-density regions. We compare the amplitude of the 2dF GRS genus curve to the amplitude of the genus curve of a Gaussian random field that we construct to have the same power spectrum as the 2dF GRS. In previous three-dimensional analyses, it was found that the genus curve of observed samples was lower than the Gaussian random field curve, presumably because of high-order correlations present in the data. However, we find that the 2dF GRS genus curve has an amplitude that is slightly higher than that of the power-spectrum-matched Gaussian

  7. A facile route for 3D aerogels from nanostructured 1D and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung Mi; Jung, Hyun Young; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.; Jung, Yung Joon; Kong, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Aerogels have numerous applications due to their high surface area and low densities. However, creating aerogels from a large variety of materials has remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report a new methodology to enable aerogel production with a wide range of materials. The method is based on the assembly of anisotropic nano-objects (one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes, nanowires, or two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets) into a cross-linking network from their colloidal suspensions at the transition from the semi-dilute to the isotropic concentrated regime. The resultant aerogels have highly porous and ultrafine three-dimensional (3D) networks consisting of 1D (Ag, Si, MnO2, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) and 2D materials (MoS2, graphene, h-BN) with high surface areas, low densities, and high electrical conductivities. This method opens up a facile route for aerogel production with a wide variety of materials and tremendous opportunities for bio-scaffold, energy storage, thermoelectric, catalysis, and hydrogen storage applications. PMID:23152940

  8. Statistics of 2D solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, L.; Imbo, T.D.

    1992-01-01

    The authors study the inequivalent quantizations of (1 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear sigma models with space manifold S 1 and target manifold X. If x is multiply connected, these models possess topological solitons. After providing a definition of spin and statistics for these solitons and demonstrating a spin-statistics correlation, we give various examples where the solitons can have exotic statistics. In some of these models, the solitons may obey a generalized version of fractional statistics called ambistatistics. In this paper the relevance of these 2d models to the statistics of vortices in (2 + 1)-dimensional spontaneously broken gauge theories is discussed. The authors close with a discussion concerning the extension of our results to higher dimensions

  9. tavgU_2d_chm_Fx: MERRA Chem 2D IAU Diagnostics, Fluxes and Meteorology, Diurnal 1.25 x 1 degree V5.2.0 (MATUFXCHM) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATUFXCHM or tavgU_3d_chm_Fx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System Chemistry 2-Dimensional chemistry that is time averaged, single-level, at reduced...

  10. Intrinsic two-dimensional states on the pristine surface of tellurium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengke; Appelbaum, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Atomic chains configured in a helical geometry have fascinating properties, including phases hosting localized bound states in their electronic structure. We show how the zero-dimensional state—bound to the edge of a single one-dimensional helical chain of tellurium atoms—evolves into two-dimensional bands on the c -axis surface of the three-dimensional trigonal bulk. We give an effective Hamiltonian description of its dispersion in k space by exploiting confinement to a virtual bilayer, and elaborate on the diminished role of spin-orbit coupling. These intrinsic gap-penetrating surface bands were neglected in the interpretation of seminal experiments, where two-dimensional transport was otherwise attributed to extrinsic accumulation layers.

  11. MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Single Level Meteorology, Time Average 1-hourly (2/3x1/2L1) V5.2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MAT1NXSLV or tavg1_2d_slv_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional atmospheric single-level diagnostics that is time averaged...

  12. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.

  13. Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira, E-mail: mkhalil@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a

  14. Symmetries, holography, and quantum phase transition in two-dimensional dilaton AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Ciulu, Matteo; Tuveri, Matteo

    2018-05-01

    We revisit the Almheiri-Polchinski dilaton gravity model from a two-dimensional (2D) bulk perspective. We describe a peculiar feature of the model, namely the pattern of conformal symmetry breaking using bulk Killing vectors, a covariant definition of mass and the flow between different vacua of the theory. We show that the effect of the symmetry breaking is both the generation of an infrared scale (a mass gap) and to make local the Goldstone modes associated with the asymptotic symmetries of the 2D spacetime. In this way a nonvanishing central charge is generated in the dual conformal theory, which accounts for the microscopic entropy of the 2D black hole. The use of covariant mass allows to compare energetically the two different vacua of the theory and to show that at zero temperature the vacuum with a constant dilaton is energetically preferred. We also translate in the bulk language several features of the dual CFT discussed by Maldacena et al. The uplifting of the 2D model to (d +2 )-dimensional theories exhibiting hyperscaling violation is briefly discussed.

  15. Chirality Made Simple: A 1 - and 2-Dimensional Introduction to Stereochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawley, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of chirality in one and two dimensions, along with the concepts of internal and external reflection, can be combined with concepts familiar to all students. Once familiar with 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional chirality, the same concepts can be extended to 3-Dimensional and by projecting 3-D back to two, it is possible to interpret…

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate via a metastable one-dimensional phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Fernández, Laura; Khainakova, Olena A. [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Espina, Aránzazu [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Amghouz, Zakariae, E-mail: amghouz.uo@uniovi.es [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Khainakov, Sergei A. [Servicios Científico Técnicos, Universidad de Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Alfonso, Belén F.; Blanco, Jesús A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); García, José R.; García-Granda, Santiago [Departamentos de Química Física y Analítica y Química Orgánica e Inorgánica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    A two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, formulated as (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The crystal structure was determined using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.1165(3) Å, b=26.2301(10) Å, c=8.3595(4) Å, and β=110.930(5)°) and the hydrogen atom positions were optimized by DFT calculations. A single-crystal corresponding to one-dimensional metastable phase, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D), was also isolated and the crystal structure was determined (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a=8.9120(6) Å, b=14.0290(1) Å, c=12.2494(5) Å, and β=130.884(6)°). The bulk was characterized by chemical (C–H–N) analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), powder X-ray thermodiffractometry (HT-XRD), transmission electron microscopy (STEM(DF)-EDX and EFTEM), and thermal analysis (TG/SDTA-MS), including activation energy data of its thermal decomposition. The magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Graphical abstract: Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of a two-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12}){sub 1.5}(Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}){sub 2}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}(PO{sub 4})·H{sub 2}O (2D), have been reported. The crystal structure of a one-dimensional piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate, (C{sub 4}N{sub 2}H{sub 12})Co{sub 0.3}Zn{sub 0.7}(HPO{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O (1D) a metastable phase during the hydrothermal synthesis, was also determined. The thermal behavior of 2D compound is strongly dependent on the selected heating rate and the magnetic susceptibility and magnetization measurements show no magnetic ordering down to 4 K. - Highlights: • A 2D piperazinium cobalt–zinc phosphate has been synthesized and characterized. • Crystal

  17. Filtering techniques for efficient inversion of two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, V.; Brizi, L.; Fantazzini, P.; Landi, G.; Zama, F.

    2017-10-01

    The inversion of two-dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) data requires the solution of a first kind Fredholm integral equation with a two-dimensional tensor product kernel and lower bound constraints. For the solution of this ill-posed inverse problem, the recently presented 2DUPEN algorithm [V. Bortolotti et al., Inverse Problems, 33(1), 2016] uses multiparameter Tikhonov regularization with automatic choice of the regularization parameters. In this work, I2DUPEN, an improved version of 2DUPEN that implements Mean Windowing and Singular Value Decomposition filters, is deeply tested. The reconstruction problem with filtered data is formulated as a compressed weighted least squares problem with multi-parameter Tikhonov regularization. Results on synthetic and real 2D NMR data are presented with the main purpose to deeper analyze the separate and combined effects of these filtering techniques on the reconstructed 2D distribution.

  18. Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Solar Internal Rotation and Dynamo Waves: A Two Dimensional. Asymptotic Solution in the Convection Zone ... We calculate here a spatial 2 D structure of the mean magnetic field, adopting real profiles of the solar internal ... of the asymptotic solution in low (middle) and high (right panel) latitudes. field is shifted towards the ...

  19. tavgM_2d_int_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Vertical Integrals and Budget Terms, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXINT) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXINT or tavgM_2d_int_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional vertical integral that is time averaged single-level at the native...

  20. tavgM_2d_lnd_Nx: MERRA 2D IAU Diagnostic, Land Only States and Diagnostics, Monthly Mean 0.667 x 0.5 degree V5.2.0 (MATMNXLND) at GES DISC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MATMNXLND or tavgM_2d_lnd_Nx data product is the MERRA Data Assimilation System 2-Dimensional land surface diagnostic that is time averaged single-level at the...