WorldWideScience

Sample records for two-dimensional 2d magnetic

  1. Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.

  2. Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang

    2009-01-01

    Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.

  3. Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa

    2016-01-01

    We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  4. BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-02-01

    We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).

  5. Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang

    2015-09-08

    Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.

  6. Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.

  7. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.

    1990-12-01

    The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.

  8. Two-dimensional magnetic ordering in a multilayer structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Mukhopadhyay; M K Sanyal

    2006-07-01

    The effect of confinement from one, two or from all three directions on magnetic ordering has remained an active field of research for almost 100 years. The role of dipolar interactions and anisotropy are important to obtain, the otherwise forbidden, ferromagnetic ordering at finite temperature for ions arranged in two-dimensional (2D) arrays (monolayers). We have demonstrated that conventional low-temperature magnetometry and polarized neutron scattering measurements can be performed to study short-range ferromagnetic ordering of in-plane spins in 2D systems using a multilayer stack of non-interacting monolayers of gadolinium ions formed by Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) technique. The spontaneous magnetization could not be detected in the heterogeneous magnetic phase observed here and the saturation value of the net magnetization was found to depend on the sample temperature and applied magnetic field. The net magnetization rises exponentially with lowering temperature and then reaches saturation following a ln( ) dependence. The ln( ) dependence of magnetization has been predicted from spin-wave theory of 2D in-plane spin system with ferromagnetic interaction. The experimental findings reported here could be explained by extending this theory to a temperature domain of < 1.

  9. Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parlangeli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization

  10. Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.

    2001-01-01

    This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....

  11. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by two-dimensional inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilovic, S.; van Noort, M.; Rempel, M.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown because of rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. Aims: We address the matter by using the two-dimensional (2D) inversion code, which is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Methods: Performance of the code and the impact of various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real data obtained by Spectropolarimeter (SP) on board Hinode. Results: Tests on simulations show that: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters; (2) the code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field; (3) slightly different noise levels or slightly different defocus included in the spatial point spread function (PSF) produces no significant effect on the results; and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to a stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Conclusions: Although the contribution of the weak field is slightly overestimated owing to noise, 2D inversions are able to recover well the overall distribution of the magnetic field strength. Application of the 2D inversion code on the Hinode SP internetwork observations reveals a monotonic field strength distribution. The mean field strength at optical depth unity is ~ 130 G. At higher layers, field strength drops as the field becomes more horizontal. Regarding the distribution of the field inclination, tests show that we cannot directly retrieve it with the observations and tools at hand, however, the obtained distributions are consistent with those expected from simulations with a quasi-isotropic field inclination after accounting for observational effects.

  12. Two-Dimensionally-Modulated, Magnetic Structure of Neodymium Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Bak, P.

    1979-01-01

    The incipient magnetic order of dhcp Nd is described by a two-dimensional, incommensurably modulated structure ("triple-q" structure). The ordering is accompanied by a lattice distortion that forms a similar pattern....

  13. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the

  14. Magnetic order in two-dimensional nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M

    2008-01-01

    This thesis involves a fundamental study of two-dimensional arrays of magnetic nanoparticles using non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy, Magnetic Force Microscopy, and Atomic Force Spectroscopy. The goal is to acquire a better understanding of the interactions between magnetic nanoparticles and the r

  15. Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkelman, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.

  16. A study of two-dimensional magnetic polaron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; ZHANG; Huaihong; FENG; Mang; WANG; Kelin

    2006-01-01

    By using the variational method and anneal simulation, we study in this paper the self-trapped magnetic polaron (STMP) in two-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic material and the bound magnetic polaron (BMP) in ferromagnetic material. Schwinger angular momentum theory is applied to changing the problem into a coupling problem of carriers and two types of Bosons. Our calculation shows that there are single-peak and multi-peak structures in the two-dimensional STMP. For the ferromagnetic material, the properties of the two-dimensional BMP are almost the same as that in one-dimensional case; but for the anti-ferromagnetic material, the two-dimensional STMP structure is much richer than the one-dimensional case.

  17. Two-dimensional magnetostriction under vector magnetic characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, D.; Enokizono, M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents two-dimensional magnetostriction of electrical steel sheet under vector magnetic characteristic. In conventional measurement method using Single Sheet Tester, the magnetic flux density, the magnetic field strength, and the magnetostriction have been measured in one direction. However, an angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the magnetic field strength vector exists because the magnetic property is vector quantity. An angle between the magnetic flux density vector and the direction of maximum magnetostriction also exists. We developed a new measurement method, which enables measurement of these angles. The vector magnetic characteristic and the two-dimensional magnetostriction have been measured using the new measurement method. The BH and Bλ curves considering the angles are shown in this paper. The analyzed results considering the angles are also made clear.

  18. PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.

    1987-03-01

    PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Miniature sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluitman, J.H.J.; Krabbe, H.W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a simple method of production of a sensor for two-dimensional magnetic field distributions. The sensor consists of a strip of Ni-Fe(81-19), of which the magnetoresistance is utilized. Typical dimensions of the strip, placed at the edge of a glass substrate, are: length 100 mu m, width 2 or

  20. Minor magnetization loops in two-dimensional dipolar Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjala, M. [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Seppaelae, E.T., E-mail: eira.seppala@nokia.co [Nokia Research Center, Itaemerenkatu 11-13, FI-00180 Helsinki (Finland); Alava, M.J., E-mail: mikko.alava@tkk.f [Aalto University, Department of Applied Physics, P.O. Box 14100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2011-05-15

    The two-dimensional dipolar Ising model is investigated for the relaxation and dynamics of minor magnetization loops. Monte Carlo simulations show that in a stripe phase an exponential decrease can be found for the magnetization maxima of the loops, M{approx}exp(-{alpha}N{sub l}) where N{sub l} is the number of loops. We discuss the limits of this behavior and its relation to the equilibrium phase diagram of the model.

  1. Magnetization of two-dimensional superconductors with defects

    CERN Document Server

    Kashurnikov, V A; Zyubin, M V

    2002-01-01

    The new method for modeling the layered high-temperature superconductors magnetization with defects, based on the Monte-Carlo algorithm, is developed. Minimization of the free energy functional of the vortex two-dimensional system made it possible to obtain the equilibrium vortex density configurations and calculate the magnetization of the superconductor with the arbitrary defects distribution in the wide range of temperatures. The magnetic induction profiles and magnetic flux distribution inside the superconductor, proving the applicability of the Bean model, are calculated

  2. Magnetic quantum dot in two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Yang, Ning

    2017-03-01

    Magnetic quantum dots in two-dimensional band and topological insulators are studied by solving the modified Dirac model under nonuniform magnetic fields. The Landau levels split into discrete states with certain angular momentum. The states splitting from the zero Landau levels lie in the energy gap for topological insulators but are out of the gap for band insulators. It is found that the ground states oscillate between the spin-up and spin-down states when the magnetic field or the dot size changes. The oscillation manifests itself as changes of sign and strength of charge currents near the dot's edge.

  3. Two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Wen-Fang

    2004-01-01

    Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of a two-dimensional hydrogen negative ion H- in a magnetic field. The results show that the ground and low-excited states of H- in low-dimensional space are more stable than those in three-dimensional space and there may exist more bound states.

  4. Quantum skyrmions in two-dimensional chiral magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Rina; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Balents, Leon

    2016-10-01

    We study the quantum mechanics of magnetic skyrmions in the vicinity of the skyrmion-crystal to ferromagnet phase boundary in two-dimensional magnets. We show that the skyrmion excitation has an energy dispersion that splits into multiple bands due to the combination of magnus force and the underlying lattice. Condensation of the skyrmions can give rise to an intermediate phase between the skyrmion crystal and ferromagnet: a quantum liquid, in which skyrmions are not spatially localized. We show that the critical behavior depends on the spin size S and the topological number of the skyrmion. Experimental signatures of quantum skyrmions in inelastic neutron-scattering measurements are also discussed.

  5. MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.

    2009-06-01

    Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are

  6. A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin

    2013-10-11

    Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  7. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Whan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Stiles, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    We compute the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy within two-dimensional Rashba models. For a ferromagnetic free-electron Rashba model, the magnetic anisotropy is exactly zero regardless of the strength of the Rashba coupling, unless only the lowest band is occupied. For this latter case, the model predicts in-plane anisotropy. For a more realistic Rashba model with finite band width, the magnetic anisotropy evolves from in-plane to perpendicular and back to in-plane as bands are progressively filled. This evolution agrees with first-principles calculations on the interfacial anisotropy, suggesting that the Rashba model captures energetics leading to anisotropy originating from the interface provided that the model takes account of the finite Brillouin zone. The results show that the electron density modulation by doping or an external voltage is more important for voltage-controlled magnetic anisotropy than the modulation of the Rashba parameter.

  8. Magnetic reconnection in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidio, S; Matthaeus, W H; Shay, M A; Cassak, P A; Dmitruk, P

    2009-03-20

    Systematic analysis of numerical simulations of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence reveals the presence of a large number of X-type neutral points where magnetic reconnection occurs. We examine the statistical properties of this ensemble of reconnection events that are spontaneously generated by turbulence. The associated reconnection rates are distributed over a wide range of values and scales with the geometry of the diffusion region. Locally, these events can be described through a variant of the Sweet-Parker model, in which the parameters are externally controlled by turbulence. This new perspective on reconnection is relevant in space and astrophysical contexts, where plasma is generally in a fully turbulent regime.

  9. On two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshkin, Leonid M.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, two theoretical approaches for the calculation of the rate of quasi-stationary, two-dimensional magnetic reconnection with nonuniform anomalous resistivity are considered in the framework of incompressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). In the first, 'global' equations approach, the MHD equations are approximately solved for a whole reconnection layer, including the upstream and downstream regions and the layer center. In the second, 'local' equations approach, the equations are solved across the reconnection layer, including only the upstream region and the layer center. Both approaches give the same approximate answer for the reconnection rate. Our theoretical model is in agreement with the results of recent simulations of reconnection with spatially nonuniform resistivity.

  10. Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.

    2013-09-01

    The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.

  11. MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko

    1997-10-01

    A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)

  12. Experimentally determining the exchange parameters of quasi-two dimensional Heisenbert magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sengupta, P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cox, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Harrison, N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goddard, P A [UNIV OF OXFORD; Lancaster, T [UNIV OF OXFORD; Blundell, S J [UNIV OF OXFORD; Pratt, F L [RUTHERFORD APPLETON LAB; Manson, J L [EASTERN WASHINGTON UNIV; Southerland, H I [EASTERN WASHINGTON UNIV; Schlueter, J A [ANL

    2008-01-01

    Though long-range magnetic order cannot occur at temperatures T > 0 in a perfect two-dimensional (2D) Heisenberg magnet, real quasi-2D materials will invariably possess nonzero inter-plane coupling J{sub {perpendicular}} driving the system to order at elevated temperatures. This process can be studied using quantum Monte Carlo calculations. However, it is difficult to test the results of these calculations experimentally since for highly anisotropic materials in which the in-plane coupling is comparable with attainable magnetic fields J{sub {perpendicular}} is necessarily very small and inaccessible directly. In addition, because of the large anisotropy, the Neel temperatures are low and difficult to determine from thermodynamic measurements. Here, we present an elegant method of assessing the calculations via two independent experimental probes: pulsed-field magnetization in fields of up to 85 T, and muon-spin rotation.

  13. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance of quadrupolar systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuanhu

    1997-09-17

    This dissertation describes two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance theory and experiments which have been developed to study quadruples in the solid state. The technique of multiple-quantum magic-angle spinning (MQMAS) is extensively reviewed and expanded upon in this thesis. Specifically, MQMAS is first compared with another technique, dynamic-angle spinning (DAS). The similarity between the two techniques allows us to extend much of the DAS work to the MQMAS case. Application of MQMAS to a series of aluminum containing materials is then presented. The superior resolution enhancement through MQMAS is exploited to detect the five- and six-coordinated aluminum in many aluminosilicate glasses. Combining the MQMAS method with other experiments, such as HETCOR, greatly expands the possibility of the use of MQMAS to study a large range of problems and is demonstrated in Chapter 5. Finally, the technique switching-angle spinning (SAS) is applied to quadrupolar nuclei to fully characterize a quadrupolar spin system in which all of the 8 NMR parameters are accurately determined. This dissertation is meant to demonstrate that with the combination of two-dimensional NMR concepts and new advanced spinning technologies, a series of multiple-dimensional NMR techniques can be designed to allow a detailed study of quadrupolar nuclei in the solid state.

  14. Synchronous two-dimensional MIR correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) as a novel method for screening smoke tainted wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel

    2013-08-15

    In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.

  15. Optical theorem for two-dimensional (2D) scalar monochromatic acoustical beams in cylindrical coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2015-09-01

    The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.

  16. Exact two-dimensionalization of low-magnetic-Reynolds-number flows subject to a strong magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallet, Basile

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of flows, including turbulent flows, driven by a horizontal body-force and subject to a vertical magnetic field, with the following question in mind: for very strong applied magnetic field, is the flow mostly two-dimensional, with remaining weak three-dimensional fluctuations, or does it become exactly 2D, with no dependence along the vertical? We first focus on the quasi-static approximation, i.e. the asymptotic limit of vanishing magnetic Reynolds number Rm << 1: we prove that the flow becomes exactly 2D asymptotically in time, regardless of the initial condition and provided the interaction parameter N is larger than a threshold value. We call this property "absolute two-dimensionalization": the attractor of the system is necessarily a (possibly turbulent) 2D flow. We then consider the full-magnetohydrodynamic equations and we prove that, for low enough Rm and large enough N, the flow becomes exactly two-dimensional in the long-time limit provided the initial vertically-de...

  17. Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.

  18. Design and realization of a two-dimensional spatial magnetic field mapping apparatus to measure magnetic fields of metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Quan; Zhou, Xiao Yang; Chin, Jessie Yao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-07-01

    The two-dimensional (2D) spatial electric-field mapping apparatus [Opt. Express 14, 8694 (2006)] plays an important role in experiments involving metamaterials, such as the verification of free-space and ground-plane invisibility cloaks. However, such an apparatus is valid only for the transverse-electric (TE) mode and is invalid for the transverse-magnetic (TM) mode, as it requires perfectly magnetic conducting (PMC) planes, which do not exist in nature. In this paper, we propose a 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus based on artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) plates. The AMC structure is designed using periodically perfectly electrical conducting patches with a sub-wavelength size on a dielectric substrate backed with the ground plane, which can simulate a PMC plane. Using two parallel PMC plates to form a TM-wave planar waveguide, we realize the 2D spatial magnetic-field mapping apparatus in order to measure the external and internal magnetic fields of metamaterials. Two types of excitations, a plane-wave source and a magnetic dipole, are used to feed the system. In order to validate the performance of the magnetic-field mapper, two gradient-index metamaterial lenses are measured, and the experimental results are in good agreement with the full-wave simulations.

  19. FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou

    Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.

  20. E and S hysteresis model for two-dimensional magnetic properties

    CERN Document Server

    Soda, N

    2000-01-01

    We define an effective hysteresis model of two-dimensional magnetic properties for the magnetic field analysis. Our hysteresis model is applicable to both alternating and rotating flux conditions. Moreover, we compare the calculated results with the measured ones, and verify the accuracy of this model. We can calculate iron losses in the magnetic materials exactly. As a result, it is shown that the hysteresis model is generally applicable to two-dimensional magnetic properties of some kinds of magnetic materials.

  1. Raman spectroscopy of atomically thin two-dimensional magnetic iron phosphorus trisulfide (FePS3) crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingzhi; Du, Kezhao; Liu, Yu Yang Fredrik; Hu, Peng; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Qing; Owen, Man Hon Samuel; Lu, Xin; Gan, Chee Kwan; Sengupta, Pinaki; Kloc, Christian; Xiong, Qihua

    2016-09-01

    Metal phosphorous trichalcogenide is an important group of layered two-dimensional (2D) materials with potentially diverse applications in low-dimensional magnetic and spintronic devices. Herein we present a comprehensive investigation on the lattice dynamics and spin-phonon interactions of mechanically exfoliated atomically thin 2D magnetic material—iron phosphorus trisulfide (FePS3) by Raman spectroscopy and first principle calculations. Layer-number and temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy suggests a magnetic persistence in FePS3 even down to monolayer regime through the spin-phonon coupling, while the Néel temperature decreases from 117 K in bulk to 104 K in monolayer sample. Our studies advocate the intriguing magnetic properties in 2D crystals and suggest that FePS3 is a promising candidate material for future magnetic applications.

  2. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-03-31

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×10{sup 8} cm{sup −2}. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large r{sub s} value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with r{sub s} > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  3. Experimental study of two-dimensional quantum Wigner solid in zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    At temperatures T → 0, strongly interacting two-dimensional (2D) electron systems manifest characteristic insulating behaviors that are key for understanding the nature of the ground state in light of the interplay between disorder and electron-electron interaction. In contrast to the hopping conductance demonstrated in the insulating side of the metal-to-insulator transition, the ultra-high quality 2D systems exhibit nonactivated T-dependence of the conductivity even for dilute carrier concentrations down to 7×108 cm-2. The apparent metal-to-insulator transition (MIT) occurs for a large rs value around 40 for which a Wigner Crystalllization is expected. The magnetoresistance for a series of carrier densities in the vicinity of the transition exhibits a characteristic sign change in weak perpendicular magnetic field. Within the Wigner Crystallization regime (with rs > 40), we report an experimental observation of a characteristic nonlinear threshold behavior from a high-resolution dc dynamical response as an evidence for aWigner crystallization in high-purity GaAs 2D hole systems in zero magnetic field. The system under an increasing current drive exhibits voltage oscillations with negative differential resistance. They confirm the coexistence of a moving crystal along with striped edge states as observed for electrons on helium surfaces. Moreover, the threshold is well below the typical classical levels due to a different pinning and depinning mechanism that is possibly related to quantum processes.

  4. Tuning the electronic structures and magnetism of two-dimensional porous C2N via transition metal embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu

    2016-08-10

    Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms.

  5. Characteristics of 2D magnetic field sensor based on magnetic sensitivity diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Zhao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional (2D magnetic field sensor is proposed in this paper. It contains two Wheatstone bridges composed of four magnetic sensitivity diodes(MSDswith similar characteristics and four loading resistances. In order to realize the axial symmetric distribution of four MSDs, two MSDs with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the x and −x axes, and two with opposite magnetic sensitive directions were located along the y and −y axes. The experimental results indicate that when VDD = 5.0 V, the magnetic sensitivities of the 2D magnetic sensor can reach SxB  =  544 mV/T and SyB  =  498 mV/T in the x and y directions, respectively. Consequently, it is possible to measure the two-dimensional magnetic field.

  6. WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR: An efficient joint two-dimensional magnetotelluric and direct current resistivity inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai

    2017-05-01

    An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.

  7. Two-dimensional inverted pendulum using repulsive magnetic levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eirich, Max; Ishino, Yuji; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi [Saitama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The active control of two-degree-of-freedom motion of the repulsive levitated object (floator) is studied. In this system of permanent magnets, the vertical motions of the rotor are passively supported by repulsive forces between the permanent magnets. The inclination angle is actively stabilized using the motion control of additional magnets. (orig.)

  8. Two-dimensional chiral asymmetry in unidirectional magnetic anisotropy structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Perna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the symmetry-breaking effects of magnetic nanostructures that present unidirectional (one-fold magnetic anisotropy. Angular and field dependent transport and magnetic properties have been studied in two different exchange-biased systems, i.e. ferromagnetic (FM/ antiferromagnetic (AFM bilayer and spin-valve structures. We experimentally show the direct relationships between the magnetoresistance (MR response and the magnetization reversal pathways for any field value and direction. We demonstrate that even though the MR signals are related to different transport phenomena, namely anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR and giant magnetoresistance (GMR, chiral asymmetries are found around the magnetization hard-axis direction, in both cases originated from the one-fold symmetry of the interfacial exchange coupling. Our results indicate that the chiral asymmetry of transport and magnetic behaviors are intrinsic of systems with an unidirectional contribution.

  9. Thermodynamic magnetization of a strongly interacting two-dimensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Teneh, N.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Klapwijk, T. M.; Reznikov, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report thermodynamic magnetization measurements of a 2-dimensional electron gas for several high mobility Si-MOSFETs. The low-temperature magnetization is shown to be strongly sub-linear function of the magnetic field. The susceptibility determined from the zero-field slope diverges as 1/T^{\\alpha}, with \\alpha=2.2-2.6 even at high electron densities, in apparent contradiction with the Fermi-liquid picture.

  10. Evidence of two-dimensional quantum Wigner Crystal in a zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    2014-03-01

    In disorder-dominated cases, Anderson localization occurs as a result of destructive interference effects caused by (short-ranged) random disorders. On the other hand, in interaction-dominated scenarios, striking manifestations of quantum physics emerge in response to strong inter-particle Coulomb energy (EC). The most prominent interaction-driven effect is the Wigner crystallization (WC) of electrons, an electron solid made up with spatially separated charges settling in a form of a lattice. The classical version of the crystallization, with the Debye temperature ΘD two-dimensional (2D) electrons on helium surfaces (EHS). However, the more desired quantum version with the Fermi energy EF <magnetic field. We present a transport study of ultra-high quality dilute two-dimensional hole (2DH) systems in a genuine interaction-driven regime. A high resolution dc VI measurement reveals a pA level threshold transport accompanied by resistivity oscillations, indicating the coexistence of a pinned quantum WC with discrete edge filaments of unpinned carriers. NSF DMR 1105183

  11. Magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems and Shear viscosity and spin diffusion in a two-dimensional Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Küppersbusch, C.S.

    2015-01-01

    In the first part of the thesis I derive a full quantitative formula which describes the amplitude and frequency of magnetic oscillations in two-dimensional Dirac systems. The investigations are on the basis of graphene, but they generally also hold for other two-dimensional Dirac systems. Starting

  12. Study on two-dimensional equilibrium structure of magnetized complex plasmas based on a Langevin dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei; Yang, Fang; Liu, Songfen; Shi, Feng

    2016-10-01

    A Langevin dynamics simulation method is used to study the two-dimensional (2D) equilibrium structure of complex plasmas while considering an external magnetic field. The traditional Yukawa potential and a modified Yukawa potential according to Shukla et al. [Phys. Lett. A 291, 413 (2001); Shukla and Mendonca, Phys. Scr. T113 82 (2004)] and Salimullah et al. [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3047 (2003)] respectively, are employed to account for the interaction of the charged dust particles. It is found that the collisions between neutral gas and charged dust particles have minor effects on the 2D equilibrium structure of the system. Based on the modified Yukawa potential, studies on the 2D equilibrium structure show that the traditional Yukawa potential is still suitable for describing the magnetized complex plasmas, even if the shielding distance of charged dust particles is affected by the strong external magnetic field.

  13. User's Guide for ECAP2D: an Euler Unsteady Aerodynamic and Aeroelastic Analysis Program for Two Dimensional Oscillating Cascades, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. S. R.

    1995-01-01

    This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.

  14. The two-dimensional magnetic change process of grain-oriented silicon steel under tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiko; Nakata, Kumi; Murashige, Shinichi

    1996-07-01

    The effect of tensile stress on the magnetization properties of silicon steel samples declined from the rolling direction has been investigated. The locus for the two-dimensional magnetization change was measured. The locus of magnetization due to magnetic field without stress was different from that under tension. The locus of magnetization with tension has two knees which correspond to the two knees of the hysteresis curve with tension. These results indicate the essential importance of investigations of the two-dimensional magnetization process.

  15. Two dimensional model of a permanent magnet spur gear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Frank Thorleif; Andersen, Torben Ole; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents calculation and measurement results of a high-performance permanent-magnetic gear. The analyzed permanent-magnetic gear has a gear ratio of 5.5 and is able to deliver 27 N/spl middot/m. The analysis has shown that special attention needs to be paid to the system where the gear...... is to be installed because of a low natural torsion spring constant. The analyzed gear was also constructed in practice in order to validate the analysis and predict the efficiency. The measured torque from the magnetic gear was only 16 N/spl middot/m reduced by the large end-effects. A systematic analysis...... of the loss components in the magnetic gear is also performed in order to figure out why the efficiency for the actual construction was only 81%. A large magnetic loss component originated in the bearings, where an unplanned extra bearing was necessary due to mechanical problems. Without the losses...

  16. Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Himadri R., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com; Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: himadri.soni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar-364001 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.

  17. Excited states of two-dimensional hydrogen atom in tilted magnetic field: Quantum chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koval, Eugene A.; Koval, Oksana A.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current work is the research of the influence of a tilted magnetic field direction on the spectrum and the energy level spacing distribution of a two-dimensional (2D) hydrogen atom and of an exciton in GaAs/Al0.33Ga0.67As quantum well. It was discovered that the quantum chaos (QC) is initiated with an increasing angle α between the magnetic field direction and the normal to the atomic plane. It is characterized by the repulsion of levels leading to the eliminating of the shell structure and by changing the spectrum statistical properties. The statement about the initiation of chaos and its dominance over regular motion with increasing angle α is confirmed by the results of our calculations of the classical dynamics presented in this paper. The evolution of the spatial distribution of the square of the absolute value of the wave function at an increasing angle α was observed. The differences of calculated dependencies of energies for various excited states on the tilt angle at a wide range of the magnetic field strength were described.

  18. Application of two-dimensional J-resolved nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to differentiation of beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatib, Alfi [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wilson, Erica G. [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kim, Hye Kyong [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lefeber, Alfons W.M. [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Erkelens, Cornelis [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Choi, Young Hae [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-02-16

    A number of ingredients in beer that directly or indirectly affect its quality require an unbiased wide-spectrum analytical method that allows for the determination of a wide array of compounds for its efficient control. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a method that clearly meets this description as the broad range of compounds in beer is detectable. However, the resulting congestion of signals added to the low resolution of {sup 1}H NMR spectra makes the identification of individual components very difficult. Among two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques that increase the resolution, J-resolved NMR spectra were successfully applied to the analysis of 2-butanol extracts of beer as overlapping signals in {sup 1}H NMR spectra were fully resolved by the additional axis of the coupling constant. Principal component analysis based on the projected J-resolved NMR spectra showed a clear separation between all of the six brands of pilsner beer evaluated in this study. The compounds responsible for the differentiation were identified by 2D NMR spectra including correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectra together with J-resolved spectra. They were identified as nucleic acid derivatives (adenine, uridine and xanthine), amino acids (tyrosine and proline), organic acid (succinic and lactic acid), alcohol (tyrosol and isopropanol), cholines and carbohydrates.

  19. Noise reduction methods applied to two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) reveal complementary benefits of pre- and post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B

    2011-05-01

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.

  20. Ground State and Collective Modes of Magnetic Dipoles Fixed on Two-Dimensional Lattice Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, John; Kalman, Gabor; Hartmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Marlene

    2006-10-01

    In complex (dusty) plasmas the grains may be endowed with intrinsic dipole moments. We present here our results of theoretical calculations accompanied by and Molecular Dynamics simulation findings on the ground state configuration and on the collective modes mode spectrum of a system of magnetic dipoles, interacting via the magnetic dipole pair-dipole potential, fixed on two-dimensional (2D) lattice sites. In particular, we We study a family of lattices that can be characterized by two parameters: (parallelogram)---the aspect ratio, c/a, and the rhombic angle, phi. The The new collective modes of in the system associated with the dipole-dipole interaction are the angular oscillations (or wobbling) of the direction of the dipoles about their equilibrium configurations. We identify in-plane and out-of-plane modes and display their dispersions. Orders of magnitudes of the parameters of the system relevant to possible future experiments will be discussed. JD Feldmann, G J Kalman and M Rosenberg, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 4549-4553

  1. A discussion of $Bl$ conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shisong; Huang, Songling

    2015-01-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant $h$. In watt balances, the $1/r$ magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor $Bl$ independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal $r$ and vertical $z$) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the $r$ symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the $Bl$ conservation is shown. By using either Gauss's law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the $Bl$ conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized $Bl$ conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  2. 2D Cooling of Magnetized Neutron Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, Deborah N; Miralles, Juan A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Many thermally emitting isolated neutron stars have magnetic fields larger than 10^{13}G. A realistic cooling model should be reconsidered including the presence of high magnetic fields. Aims: We investigate the effects of anisotropic temperature distribution and Joule heating on the cooling of magnetized neutron stars. Methods: The 2D heat transfer equation with anisotropic thermal conductivity tensor and including all relevant neutrino emission processes is solved for realistic models of the neutron star interior and crust. Results: The presence of the magnetic field affects significantly the thermal surface distribution and the cooling history during both, the early neutrino cooling era and the late photon cooling era. Conclusions: There is a huge effect of the Joule heating on the thermal evolution of strongly magnetized neutron stars. Magnetic fields and Joule heating play a key role in maintaining magnetars warm for a long time. Moreover, this effect is also important for intermediate field neu...

  3. Coexistence of Incommensurate Magnetism and Superconductivity in the Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamase, Hiroyuki; Eberlein, Andreas; Metzner, Walter

    2016-03-04

    We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Néel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order.

  4. Short-range magnetic order in two-dimensional cobalt-ferrite nanoparticle assemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgescu, M; Viota, J.L.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.; Zeijlmans Van Emmichoven, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic order in two-dimensional islands of spherical 21 nm cobalt-ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanoparticles is studied by magnetic force microscopy and spectroscopy. Images obtained at a temperature of 105 K clearly reveal the presence of repulsive and attractive areas on top of the islands. Monte Carlo

  5. An efficient simulation method of a cyclotron sector-focusing magnet using 2D Poisson code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gad Elmowla, Khaled Mohamed M; Chai, Jong Seo, E-mail: jschai@skku.edu; Yeon, Yeong H; Kim, Sangbum; Ghergherehchi, Mitra

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we discuss design simulations of a spiral magnet using 2D Poisson code. The Independent Layers Method (ILM) is a new technique that was developed to enable the use of two-dimensional simulation code to calculate a non-symmetric 3-dimensional magnetic field. In ILM, the magnet pole is divided into successive independent layers, and the hill and valley shape around the azimuthal direction is implemented using a reference magnet. The normalization of the magnetic field in the reference magnet produces a profile that can be multiplied by the maximum magnetic field in the hill magnet, which is a dipole magnet made of the hills at the same radius. Both magnets are then calculated using the 2D Poisson SUPERFISH code. Then a fully three-dimensional magnetic field is produced using TOSCA for the original spiral magnet, and the comparison of the 2D and 3D results shows a good agreement between both.

  6. Magnetic properties of two dimensional silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes-based kagome lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaowei [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Zhou Jian [Peking University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Qian, E-mail: qianwang2@pku.edu.cn [Peking University, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering (China); Jena, Puru [Virginia Commonwealth University, Department of Physics (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) magnetic kagome lattices are constructed using silicon carbide triangular nanoflakes (SiC-TNFs). Two types of structures with alternating Si and C atoms are studied: the first one is constructed using the C-edged SiC-TNFs as the building blocks and C atoms as the linkers of kagome sites (TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N}) while the second one is composed of the Si-edged SiC-TNFs with Si atoms as linkers (TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N}). Using density functional theory-based calculations, we show that the fully relaxed TNF{sub N}-C-TNF{sub N} retains the morphology of regular kagome lattice and is ferromagnetism. On the other hand, the TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure is deformed and antiferromagnetic. However, the ground state of TNF{sub N}-Si-TNF{sub N} structure can be transformed from the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state by applying tensile strain. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the SiC-TNFs-based kagome lattices can be ferromagnetic at room temperature.

  7. Giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of an individual atom on two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-08-01

    Exploring magnetism and magnetic anisotropy in otherwise nonmagnetic two-dimensional materials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides, is at the heart of spintronics research. Herein, using first-principles calculations we explore the possibility of reaching an atomic-scale perpendicular magnetic anisotropy by carefully exploring the large spin-orbit coupling, orbital magnetism, and ligand field in a suitable choice of a two-dimensional structure with transition metal adatoms. More specifically, we demonstrate perpendicular magnetic anisotropy energies up to an order of 100 meV per atom in individual ruthenium and osmium adatoms at a monosulfur vacancy in molybdenum disulfide. We further propose a phenomenological model where a spin state transition that involves hybridization between molybdenum a1 and adatomic e' orbitals is a possible mechanism for magnetization reversal from an in-plane to perpendicular orientation.

  8. Magnetic-field-induced suppression of tunnelling into a two-dimensional electron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reker, T.; Chung, Y.C.; Im, H.; Klipstein, P.C.; Nicholas, R.J. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Shtrikman, Hadas [Braun Center for Submicron Research, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2002-06-10

    Tunnelling between a three-dimensional emitter contact and a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) is studied in magnetic fields aligned perpendicular to the barriers of a double-barrier heterostructure. The differential conductance around the Fermi energy exhibits a magnetic-field-dependent pseudogap. This pseudogap is shown to be thermally activated and to depend on the two-dimensional electron density. We attribute this pseudogap to an extra energy that an electron tunnelling from the emitter into the 2DES has to overcome as a result of the correlated state of the 2DES. (author)

  9. Introducing 2D Materials—a new multidisciplinary journal devoted to all aspects of graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fal'ko, Vladimir I.

    2014-06-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.

  10. Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    A novel device is designed for on-chip selective trap and two-dimensional remote manipulation of single and multiple fluid-borne magnetic particles using field controlled magnetic domain walls in circular nanostructures. The combination of different ring-shaped nanostructures and field sequences...... allows for remote manipulation of magnetic particles with high-precision along any arbitrary pathway on a chip surface....

  11. Temperature Dependence of Magnetization at Zero Applied Magnetic Field in Nearly Two Dimensional Ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Chomsin S.; Fujii, Muneaki

    2012-12-01

    NMR measurement have been made at low temperatures on the crystal structure of K2CuF4 and (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 at zero applied magnetic field. 63Cu, 65Cu and 35Cl NMR have been used to measure spontaneous magnetization at the temperature range 2 K down to 30 mK. We have made the NMR experiments using a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator by conventional pulsed NMR method without external magnetic field. The magnetization at zero applied magnetic field in the nearly two-dimensional ferromagnet K2CuF4 of the experimental data is in a good agreement with Yamaji-Kondo theory and θc = 0.3, which is applied the double-time Green's function method incorporated with Tyablikov's decoupling. For temperature 1.1 K down to 0.26 K, the spontaneous magnetization of (C3H7NH3)2CuCl4 is support (t log t')-formalism from the spin wave theory.

  12. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    CERN Document Server

    Bjørk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01

    The Halbach cylinder is a construction of permanent magnets used in applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance apparatus, accelerator magnets and magnetic cooling devices. In this paper the analytical expression for the magnetic vector potential, magnetic flux density and magnetic field for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer $p$. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero except for the case where $p$ for the inner magnet is one minus $p$ for the outer magnet. Also the force is shown never to be balancing. The torque is shown to be zero unless the inner magnet $p$ is equal to minus the outer magnet $p$. Thus there can never be a force and a torque in the same system.

  13. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2013-03-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schrödinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy. Catalogue identifier: AENR_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11310 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 97720 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ and Python. Computer: Tested on x86 and x86-64 architectures. Operating system: Tested under Linux with the g++ compiler. Any POSIX-compliant OS with a C++ compiler and the required external routines should suffice. Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes, with OpenMP. RAM: 1 MB or more, depending on system size. Classification: 7.3. External routines: FFTW3 (http://www.fftw.org), CBLAS (http://netlib.org/blas), LAPACK (http://www.netlib.org/lapack), HDF5 (http://www.hdfgroup.org/HDF5), OpenMP (http://openmp.org), TCLAP (http://tclap.sourceforge.net), Python (http://python.org), Google Test (http://code.google.com/p/googletest/) Nature of problem: Numerical calculation

  14. Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Sheets and Ribbons by Fluorination

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Zhiming

    2016-07-12

    Fluorination has been instrumental for tuning the properties of several two-dimensional (2D) materials, including graphene, h-BN, and MoS2. However, its potential application has not yet been explored in 2D silicon carbide (SiC), a promising material for nanoelectronic devices. We investigate the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of fully and partially fluorinated 2D SiC sheets and nanoribbons by means of density functional theory combined with cluster expansion calculations. We find that fully fluorinated 2D SiC exhibits chair configurations and a nonmagnetic semiconducting behavior. Fluorination is shown to be an efficient approach for tuning the band gap. Four ground states of partially fluorinated SiC, SiCF2x with x = 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, are obtained by cluster expansion calculations. All of them exhibit nanoroad patterns, with the x = 0.5 structure identified as the most stable one. The x = 0.0625 structure is a nonmagnetic metal, while the other three are all ferromagnetic half-metals, whose properties are not affected by the edge states. We propose an effective approach for modulating the electronic and magnetic behavior of 2D SiC, paving the way to applications of SiC nanostructures in integrated multifunctional and spintronic nanodevices. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  15. Analysis of the magnetic field, force, and torque for two-dimensional Halbach cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Rasmus; Smith, Anders; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    for a two dimensional Halbach cylinder are derived. The remanent flux density of a Halbach magnet is characterized by the integer p. For a number of applications the force and torque between two concentric Halbach cylinders are important. These quantities are calculated and the force is shown to be zero...

  16. A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, AJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS, VOL. 62, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2015 A Two-Dimensional Analytic Thermal Model for a High-Speed PMSM Magnet Andries J. Groblera, Stanley Robert Holmb, and George van Schoorc a School of Electrical, Electronic...

  17. Thermodynamics of Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nizhankovskii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Change of the chemical potential of electrons in a GaAs-AlGa1−As heterojunction was measured in magnetic fields up to 6.5 T at several temperatures from 2.17 to 12.3 K. A thermodynamic equation of state of two-dimensional electron gas well describes the experimental results.

  18. Two new integrable cases of two-dimensional quantum mechanics with a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2016-04-01

    Two integrable cases of two-dimensional Schrödinger equation with a magnetic field are proposed. Using the polar coordinates and the symmetrical gauge, we will obtain solutions of these equations through biconfluent and confluent Heun functions. The quantization rules will be derived for both systems under consideration.

  19. Two-dimensional stress—magnetization effects of grain-oriented silicon steel sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akihiko; Murashige, Shinichi; Uehara, Yuji

    1994-05-01

    Changes in the magnetization vector due to tensile stress under a constant magnetic field for grain-oriented silicon-iron sheet strip samples cut at various angles from the rolling direction have been investigated. In a low magnetic field, where the magnetization is less than 1.5 T, the magnetization vector lies in the direction of the sample length and the magnetization decreases with the application of tension. Beyond that magnetic field, the magnetization vector showed a two-dimensional hysteresis loop due to the application of tension. The maximum transverse magnetization change appeared in a 10° sample, where the rotation angle of the magnetization vector was 2.5°.

  20. Dynamics of two-dimensional complex plasmas in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, T; Bonitz, M

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional complex plasma layer containing charged dust particles in a perpendicular magnetic field. Computer simulations of both one-component and binary systems are used to explore the equilibrium particle dynamics in the fluid state. The mobility is found to scale with the inverse of the magnetic field strength (Bohm diffusion) for strong fields. For bidisperse mixtures, the magnetic field dependence of the long-time mobility depends on the particle species providing an external control of their mobility ratio. For large magnetic fields, even a two-dimensional model porous matrix can be realized composed by the almost immobilized high-charge particles which act as obstacles for the mobile low-charge particles.

  1. Prediction of two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors: Doped monolayer MoS2 systems

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Yingchun

    2013-03-05

    Using first-principles calculations, we propose a two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: monolayer MoS2 doped by transition metals. Doping of transition metal atoms from the IIIB to VIB groups results in nonmagnetic states, since the number of valence electrons is smaller or equal to that of Mo. Doping of atoms from the VIIB to IIB groups becomes energetically less and less favorable. Magnetism is observed for Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cd, and Hg doping, while for the other dopants from these groups it is suppressed by Jahn-Teller distortions. Analysis of the binding energies and magnetic properties indicates that (Mo,X)S2 (X=Mn, Fe, Co, and Zn) are promising systems to explore two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductors.

  2. Two-dimensional simulations of nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in isotropic and magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Timofeev, I V

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear interaction of a low density electron beam with a uniform plasma is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We focus on formation of coherent phase space structures in the case, when a wide two-dimensional wave spectrum is driven unstable, and we also study how nonlinear evolution of these structures is affected by the external magnetic field. In the case of isotropic plasma, nonlinear buildup of filamentation modes due to the combined effects of two-stream and oblique instabilities is found to exist and growth mechanisms of secondary instabilities destroying the BGK--type nonlinear wave are identified. In the weak magnetic field, the energy of beam-excited plasma waves at the nonlinear stage of beam-plasma interaction goes predominantly to the short-wavelength upper-hybrid waves propagating parallel to the magnetic field, whereas in the strong magnetic field the spectral energy is transferred to the electrostatic whistlers with oblique propagation.

  3. Hydrogenated bilayer wurtzite SiC nanofilms: a two-dimensional bipolar magnetic semiconductor material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2013-01-14

    Recently, a new kind of spintronics material, bipolar magnetic semiconductors (BMS), has been proposed. The spin polarization of BMS can be conveniently controlled by a gate voltage, which makes it very attractive in device engineering. Now, the main challenge is finding more BMS materials. In this article, we propose that hydrogenated wurtzite SiC nanofilm is a two-dimensional BMS material. Its BMS character is very robust under the effect of strain, substrate or even a strong electric field. The proposed two-dimensional BMS material paves the way to use this promising new material in an integrated circuit.

  4. Quasilongitudinal soliton in a two-dimensional strongly coupled complex dusty plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Samiran

    2014-09-01

    The propagation of a nonlinear low-frequency mode in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer hexagonal dusty plasma crystal in presence of external magnetic field and dust-neutral collision is investigated. The standard perturbative approach leads to a 2D Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) soliton for the well-known dust-lattice mode. However, the Coriolis force due to crystal rotation and Lorentz force due to magnetic field on dust particles introduce a linear forcing term, whereas dust-neutral drag introduce the usual damping term in the 2D KdV equation. This new nonlinear equation is solved both analytically and numerically to show the competition between the linear forcing and damping in the formation of quasilongitudinal soliton in a 2D strongly coupled complex (dusty) plasma. Numerical simulation on the basis of the typical experimental plasma parameters and the analytical solution reveal that the neutral drag force is responsible for the usual exponential decay of the soliton, whereas Coriolis and/or Lorentz force is responsible for the algebraic decay as well as the oscillating tail formation of the soliton. The results are discussed in the context of the plasma crystal experiment.

  5. Surface plasmon hurdles leading to a strongly localized giant field enhancement on two-dimensional (2D) metallic diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny

    2015-04-01

    An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.

  6. An algorithm for circular test and improved optical configuration by two-dimensional (2D) laser heterodyne interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao

    2016-09-01

    Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.

  7. Near-infrared (NIR) monitoring of Nylon 6 during quenching studied by projection two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji

    2016-11-01

    Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.

  8. Suppression method of low-frequency noise for two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Takayuki; Sakairi, Yusuke; Mori, Akihiro; Masuzawa, Toru

    2017-04-01

    A new correlated double sampling method for two-dimensional magnetic sensors was proposed. In this method, output from a magnetic sensor is controlled by adjusting the drain bias of a MOSFET used as a Hall element. The two-dimensional integrated magnetic sensor used for the demonstration of correlated double sampling was composed of a 64 × 64 array of Hall sensors and fabricated by a 0.18 µm CMOS standard process. The size of a Hall element was 2.7 × 2.7 µm2. The dimensions of one pixel in which a Hall element was embedded were 7 × 7 µm2. The magnitude of residual noise after correlated double sampling with drain bias control was 0.81 mVp–p. This value is 16% of the original low-frequency noise. From the experimental results, the proposed correlated double sampling method is found to be suitable for low-frequency noise suppression in the two-dimensional magnetic sensors.

  9. Two-dimensional model of intrinsic magnetic flux losses in helical flux compression generators

    CERN Document Server

    Haurylavets, V V

    2012-01-01

    Helical Flux Compression Generators (HFCG) are used for generation of mega-amper current and high magnetic fields. We propose the two dimensional HFCG filament model based on the new description of the stator and armature contact point. The model developed enables one to quantitatively describe the intrinsic magnetic flux losses and predict the results of experiments with various types of HFCGs. We present the effective resistance calculations based on the non-linear magnetic diffusion effect describing HFCG performance under the strong conductor heating by currents.

  10. Boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with inhomogeneous nearest-neighbor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzola, Alessandro

    1994-11-01

    An explicit formula for the boundary magnetization of a two-dimensional Ising model with a strip of inhomogeneous interactions is obtained by means of a transfer matrix mean-field method introduced by Lipowski and Suzuki. There is clear numerical evidence that the formula is exact By taking the limit where the width of the strip approaches infinity and the interactions have well defined bulk limits, I arrive at the boundary magnetization for a model which includes the Hilhorst-van Leeuwen model. The rich critical behavior of the latter magnetization is thereby rederived with little effort.

  11. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489

  12. Two Dimensional Electrostrictive Field Effect Transistor (2D-EFET): A sub-60mV/decade Steep Slope Device with High ON current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi

    2016-10-01

    This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).

  13. Two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation study of the structural characterization of a surface immobilized polypeptide film stimulated by pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-11-01

    The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.

  14. Irreversible Magnetization Deep in the Vortex-Liquid State of a 2D Superconductor at High Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Maniv, T.; Zhuravlev, V.; Wosnitza, J.; Hagel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The remarkable phenomenon of weak magnetization hysteresis loops, observed recently deep in the vortex-liquid state of a nearly two-dimensional (2D) superconductor at low temperatures, is shown to reflect the existence of an unusual vortex-liquid state, consisting of collectively pinned crystallites of easily sliding vortex chains.

  15. Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil

    1994-01-01

    We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed on the surf...... on the surface of the sample. A theoretical explanation in excellent agreement with the experiment is given within the framework of the semiclassical Boltzmann equation. © 1994 The American Physical Society...

  16. Floating zone growth and magnetic properties of Y2C two-dimensional electride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Shigeki; Hirata, Kazuto; Adachi, Yutaka; Ohashi, Naoki

    2016-11-01

    The floating zone method was used to obtain single crystals several mm in size of the low-temperature rhombohedral form of Y2C rather than its typical rocksalt-type cubic form. This was achieved through optimization of the chemical compositions of the starting materials with the aim of producing a two-dimensional electride material. The crystals obtained exhibited a paramagnetic temperature-dependence at 1.8-300 K, with no trace of any obvious magnetic ordering.

  17. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. ...

  18. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokolov, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.

  19. Influence of disorder and magnetic field on conductance of “sandwich” type two dimensional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long LIU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to discuss the transport phenomena and the physical properties of the doping of the disorder system under magnetic field, the electron transport in a two-dimensional system is studied by using Green function and scattering matrix theory. Base on the two-dimensional lattice model, the phenomenon of quantized conductance of the "sandwich" type electronic system is analyzed. The contact between the lead and the scatterer reduce the system's conductance, and whittle down the quantum conductance stair-stepping phenomenon; when an external magnetic field acts on to the system, the conductance presents a periodicity oscillation with the magnetic field. The intensity of this oscillation is related to the energy of the electron;with the increase of the impurity concentration, the conductance decreases.In some special doping concentration, the conductance of the system can reach the ideal step value corresponding to some special electron energy. The result could provide reference for further study of the conductance of the "sandwich" type two dimensional system.

  20. Single-ion-magnet behavior in a two-dimensional coordination polymer constructed from Co(II) nodes and a pyridylhydrazone derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyu; Sun, Lin; Zhou, Huiliang; Cen, Peipei; Jin, Xiaoyong; Xie, Gang; Chen, Sanping; Hu, Qilin

    2015-09-21

    A novel two-dimensional (2D) coordination polymer, [Co(ppad)2]n (1), resulted from the assembly of Co(II) ions based on a versatile ligand termed N(3)-(3-pyridoyl)-3-pyridinecarboxamidrazone. Alternating/direct-current magnetic studies of compound 1 indicate that the spatially separated high-spin Co(II) ions act as single-ion magnets (SIMs). The present work represents the first case of a 2D Co(II)-based SIM composed of a monocomponent organic spacer.

  1. Cut-wire-pair structures as two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David A; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2008-09-15

    We study numerically and experimentally magnetic metamaterials based on cut-wire pairs instead of split-ring resonators. The cut-wire pair planar structure is extended in order to create a truly two-dimensional metamaterial suitable for scaling to optical frequencies. We fabricate the cut-wire metamaterial operating at microwave frequencies with lattice spacing around 10% of the free-space wavelength, and find good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Unlike the structures based on split-ring resonators, the nearest-neighbor coupling in cut-wire pairs can result in a magnetic stop-band with propagation in the transverse direction.

  2. Highly accurate analytical energy of a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Ngoc-Tram D. [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Duy-Anh P. [Department of Natural Science, Thu Dau Mot University, 6, Tran Van On Street, Thu Dau Mot City, Binh Duong Province (Viet Nam); Hoang, Van-Hung [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: levanhoang@tdt.edu.vn [Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics Research Group, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, 19 Nguyen Huu Tho Street, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2016-08-15

    Explicit expressions are given for analytically describing the dependence of the energy of a two-dimensional exciton on magnetic field intensity. These expressions are highly accurate with the precision of up to three decimal places for the whole range of the magnetic field intensity. The results are shown for the ground state and some excited states; moreover, we have all formulae to obtain similar expressions of any excited state. Analysis of numerical results shows that the precision of three decimal places is maintained for the excited states with the principal quantum number of up to n=100.

  3. Thermodynamic magnetization of two-dimensional electron gas measured over wide range of densities

    OpenAIRE

    Reznikov, M.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Teneh, N.; Pudalov, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report measurements of dm/dn in Si MOSFET, where m is the magnetization of the two-dimensional electron gas and n is its density. We extended the density range of measurements from well in the metallic to deep in the insulating region. The paper discusses in detail the conditions under which this extension is justified, as well as the corrections one should make to extract dm/dn properly. At low temperatures, dm/dn was found to be strongly nonlinear already in weak magnetic fields, on a sc...

  4. Generalized two-dimensional (2D) linear system analysis metrics (GMTF, GDQE) for digital radiography systems including the effect of focal spot, magnification, scatter, and detector characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038

  5. Two-dimensional Tissue Image Reconstruction Based on Magnetic Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dedkova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces new possibilities within two-dimensional reconstruction of internal conductivity distribution. In addition to the electric field inside the given object, the injected current causes a magnetic field which can be measured either outside the object by means of a Hall probe or inside the object through magnetic resonance imaging. The Magnetic Resonance method, together with Electrical impedance tomography (MREIT, is well known as a bio-imaging modality providing cross-sectional conductivity images with a good spatial resolution from the measurements of internal magnetic flux density produced by externally injected currents. A new algorithm for the conductivity reconstruction, which utilizes the internal current information with respect to corresponding boundary conditions and the external magnetic field, was developed. A series of computer simulations has been conducted to assess the performance of the proposed algorithm within the process of estimating electrical conductivity changes in the lungs, heart, and brain tissues captured in two-dimensional piecewise homogeneous chest and head models. The reconstructed conductivity distribution using the proposed method is compared with that using a conventional method based on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The acquired experience is discussed and the direction of further research is proposed.

  6. Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Luukko, P J J

    2013-01-01

    We present a code for solving the single-particle, time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation in two dimensions. Our program utilizes the imaginary time propagation (ITP) algorithm, and it includes the most recent developments in the ITP method: the arbitrary order operator factorization and the exact inclusion of a (possibly very strong) magnetic field. Our program is able to solve thousands of eigenstates of a two-dimensional quantum system in reasonable time with commonly available hardware. The main motivation behind our work is to allow the study of highly excited states and energy spectra of two-dimensional quantum dots and billiard systems with a single versatile code, e.g., in quantum chaos research. In our implementation we emphasize a modern and easily extensible design, simple and user-friendly interfaces, and an open-source development philosophy.

  7. Collective behaviour in two-dimensional cobalt nanoparticle assemblies observed by magnetic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntes, Victor F; Gorostiza, Pau; Aruguete, Deborah M; Bastus, Neus G; Alivisatos, A Paul

    2004-04-01

    The use of magnetic nanoparticles in the development of ultra-high-density recording media is the subject of intense research. Much of the attention of this research is devoted to the stability of magnetic moments, often neglecting the influence of dipolar interactions. Here, we explore the magnetic microstructure of different assemblies of monodisperse cobalt single-domain nanoparticles by magnetic force microscopy and magnetometric measurements. We observe that when the density of particles per unit area is higher than a determined threshold, the two-dimensional self-assemblies behave as a continuous ferromagnetic thin film. Correlated areas (similar to domains) of parallel magnetization roughly ten particles in diameter appear. As this magnetic percolation is mediated by dipolar interactions, the magnetic microstructure, its distribution and stability, is strongly dependent on the topological distribution of the dipoles. Thus, the magnetic structures of three-dimensional assemblies are magnetically soft, and an evolution of the magnetic microstructure is observed with consecutive scans of the microscope tip.

  8. Donor-bound electron states in a two-dimensional quantum ring under uniform magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Bo-Yong; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Liu Yu-Min; Han Li-Hong; Yao Wen-Jie; Feng Hao; Ye Han

    2011-01-01

    The electron states in a two-dimensional GaAs/AlGaAs quantum ring are theoretically studied in effective mass approximation. On-centre donor impurity and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the ring plane are taken into account. The energy spectrum with different angular momentum changes dramatically with the geometry of the ring.The donor impurity reduces the energies with an almost fixed value; however, the magnetic field alters energies in a more complex way. For example, energy levels under magnetic field will cross each other when increasing the inner radius and outer radius of the ring, leading to the fact that the arrangement of energy levels is distinct in certain geometry of the ring. Moreover, energy levels with negative angular momentum exhibit the non-monotonous dependence on the increasing magnetic field.

  9. Transport Properties of Two-Dimensional Electron Gases in Antiparallel Magnetic-Electric Barrier Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING Yun-Xia; CHENG Ze

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases through antiparallel magnetic electric barrier structures. Two kinds of magnetic barrier configurations are employed: one is that the strength of the double δ-function in opposite directions is equal and the other is that the strength is unequal. Similarities and differences of electronic transports are presented. It is found that the transmission and the conductance depend strongly on the shape of the magnetic barrier and the height of the electric barrier. The results indicate that this system does not possess any spin filtering and spin polarization and electron gases can realize perfect resonant tunneling and wave-vector filtering properties. Moreover, the strength of the effect of the inhomogeneous magnetic field on the transport properties is discussed.

  10. Relativistic Two-Dimensional Harmonic Oscillator Plus Cornell Potentials in External Magnetic and AB Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Klein-Gordon (KG equation for the two-dimensional scalar-vector harmonic oscillator plus Cornell potentials in the presence of external magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB flux fields is solved using the wave function ansatz method. The exact energy eigenvalues and the wave functions are obtained in terms of potential parameters, magnetic field strength, AB flux field, and magnetic quantum number. The results obtained by using different Larmor frequencies are compared with the results in the absence of both magnetic field (ωL = 0 and AB flux field (ξ=0 cases. Effect of external fields on the nonrelativistic energy eigenvalues and wave function solutions is also precisely presented. Some special cases like harmonic oscillator and Coulombic fields are also studied.

  11. Tuning Slow Magnetic Relaxation in a Two-Dimensional Dysprosium Layer Compound through Guest Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Li, Jian; Meng, Yin-Shan; Sun, Hao-Ling; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Sun, Jun-Liang; Gao, Song

    2016-08-15

    A novel two-dimensional dysprosium(III) complex, [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF·H2O·2CH3OH (1), has been successfully synthesized from a new pyridine-N-oxide (PNO)-containing ligand, namely, N'-(2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)pyridine-N-oxidecarbohydrazide (H2L). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that complex 1 is composed of a dinuclear dysprosium subunit, which is further extended by the PNO part of the ligand to form a two-dimensional layer. Magnetic studies indicate that complex 1 shows well-defined temperature- and frequency-dependent signals under a zero direct-current (dc) field, typical of slow magnetic relaxation with an effective energy barrier Ueff of 33.6 K under a zero dc field. Interestingly, powder X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis reveal that compound 1 undergoes a reversible phase transition that is induced by the desorption and absorption of methanol and water molecules. Moreover, the desolvated sample [Dy(L)(CH3COO)]·0.5DMF (1a) also exhibits slow magnetic relaxation but with a higher anisotropic barrier of 42.0 K, indicating the tuning effect of solvent molecules on slow magnetic relaxation.

  12. Transport properties of magnetic-codoped two-dimensional hole system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Stefan; Wurstbauer, Ursula; Hansen, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The interaction of localized magnetic moments with a two dimensional hole system (2DHS) is studied with low-temperature magneto-transport measurements on molecular beam epitaxially grown InAs or InAlGaAs quantum-well structures that are C-modulation and Mn co-doped. Measurements in magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the 2DHS reveal the typical transport behaviour of a two-dimensional charge carrier system indicated by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and quantum-Hall plateaus. Investigations at milli-Kelvin temperatures show a metal-insulator transition in the low field region. The fully spin-polarized quantum Hall state at filling factor {nu}=1 is very pronounced, i.e. over a field range of more than 4 T the longitudinal resistance vanishes and the Hall resistance is constant. Surprisingly, the {nu}=2 state seems to be fully suppressed whereas the {nu}=3 state is clearly resolved by an indistinct structure in the Hall resistance and a minimum in the longitudinal resistance. Transport measurements in tilted magnetic fields are carried out to resolve the nature of the observed quantum-Hall states.

  13. Origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, P. S.; Kim, Ju H.; Brooks, J. S.

    1997-11-01

    We investigate the origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2. A tight-binding model based on their realistic band structure is constructed and solved numerically to compute the field dependence of the magnetization. The present model provides a natural description for the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown between coexisting closed and open Fermi surfaces and accounts for the experimentally observed frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. We find that the appearance of these anomalous frequencies in the dHvA signal is a quantum-mechanical effect which arises from differences in field dependence of the states in the two partially occupied bands near the Fermi level.

  14. Fermionic response from fractionalization in an insulating two-dimensional magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, J.; Knolle, J.; Kovrizhin, D. L.; Motome, Y.; Moessner, R.

    2016-10-01

    Conventionally ordered magnets possess bosonic elementary excitations, called magnons. By contrast, no magnetic insulators in more than one dimension are known whose excitations are not bosons but fermions. Theoretically, some quantum spin liquids (QSLs)--new topological phases that can occur when quantum fluctuations preclude an ordered state--are known to exhibit Majorana fermions as quasiparticles arising from fractionalization of spins. Alas, despite much searching, their experimental observation remains elusive. Here, we show that fermionic excitations are remarkably directly evident in experimental Raman scattering data across a broad energy and temperature range in the two-dimensional material α-RuCl3. This shows the importance of magnetic materials as hosts of Majorana fermions. In turn, this first systematic evaluation of the dynamics of a QSL at finite temperature emphasizes the role of excited states for detecting such exotic properties associated with otherwise hard-to-identify topological QSLs.

  15. Two-dimensional convection and interchange motions in fluids and magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Naulin, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this contribution some recent investigations of two- dimensional thermal convection relevant to ordinary fluids as well as magnetized plasmas are reviewed. An introductory discussion is given of the physical mechanism for baroclinic vorticity generation and convective motions in stratified...... fluids, emphasizing its relation to interchange motions of non- uniformly magnetized plasmas. This is followed by a review of the theories for the onset of convection and quasi-linear saturation in driven-dissipative systems. Non-linear numerical simulations which result in stationary convective states....... The global bursting is interpreted in terms of a predator-prey regulation from the point of view of energetics. Finally, a discussion is given of the relevance of these phenomena to a variety of magnetized plasma experiments....

  16. Zero-differential resistance state of two-dimensional electron systems in strong magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A A; Zhang, Jing-qiao; Vitkalov, Sergey; Kalagin, A K; Bakarov, A K

    2007-09-14

    We report the observation of a zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) in response to a direct current above a threshold value I>I th applied to a two-dimensional system of electrons at low temperatures in a strong magnetic field. Entry into the ZDRS, which is not observable above several Kelvins, is accompanied by a sharp dip in the differential resistance. Additional analysis reveals an instability of the electrons for I>I th and an inhomogeneous, nonstationary pattern of the electric current. We suggest that the dominant mechanism leading to the new electron state is a redistribution of electrons in energy space induced by the direct current.

  17. Electrically Detected Magnetic Resonance of Neutral Donors Interacting with a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, C. C.; Lang, V.; George, R. E.; Morton, J. J. L.; Tyryshkin, A. M.; Lyon, A.; Bokor, J.; Schenkel, T.

    2011-04-20

    We have measured the electrically detected magnetic resonance of donor-doped silicon field-effect transistors in resonant X- (9.7 GHz) and W-band (94 GHz) microwave cavities. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) resonance signal increases by two orders of magnitude from X- to W-band, while the donor resonance signals are enhanced by over one order of magnitude. Bolometric effects and spin-dependent scattering are inconsistent with the observations. We propose that polarization transfer from the donor to the 2DEG is the main mechanism giving rise to the spin resonance signals.

  18. Stellar fibril magnetic systems. II - Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equations. III - Convective counterflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. N.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of magnetic fibrils in the convective zone of a star is investigated analytically, deriving mean-field equations for the two-dimensional transverse motion of an incompressible fluid containing numerous small widely spaced circular cylinders. The equations of Parker (1982) are extended to account for the inertial effects of local flow around the cylinders. The linear field equation for the stream function at the onset of convection is then rewritten, neglecting large-scale heat transport, and used to construct a model of convective counterflow. The Kelvin impulse and fluid momentum, convective motion initiated by a horizontal impulse, and the effects of a viscous boundary layer are considered in appendices.

  19. Dynamic Effective Medium Theory for Two-Dimensional Non-Magnetic Metamaterial Lattices using Multipole Expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Chremmos, Ioannis; Giamalaki, Melpomeni; Yannopapas, Vassilios; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    We present a formulation for deriving effective medium properties of infinitely periodic two-dimensional metamaterial lattice structures beyond the static and quasi-static limits. We utilize the multipole expansions, where the polarization currents associated with the supported Bloch modes are expressed via the electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole moments per unit length. We then propose a method to calculate the Bloch modes based on the lattice geometry and individual unit element structure. The results revert to well-known formulas in the quasistatic limit and are useful for the homogenization of nanorod-type metamaterials which are frequently used in optical applications.

  20. Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage

    CERN Document Server

    Kolokolov, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time what contradicts to the statements present in literature. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor-Kraichnan-Kazantsev model. These tensors demonstrate highly intermittent statistics of the field fluctuations both in space and time.

  1. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) variable selection for near-infrared microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal in compound feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.

  2. Three-dimensional magnetic interactions in quasi-two-dimensional PdAs2O6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Y.; Wu, Y.; Cao, H. B.; Zhou, H. D.; Yan, J.-Q.

    2017-06-01

    Millimeter-sized PdAs2O6 single crystals are grown using the vapor transport technique. The magnetic order at {{T}\\text{N}}=140 K is studied by measuring magnetic properties, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. The anisotropic magnetic susceptibility and a metamagnetic transition observed in magnetic fields above 20 kOe suggest that the magnetic moment lies in the ab plane, consistent with the magnetic structure determined by neutron single crystal diffraction. Below 140 K, Pd2+ ions order ferromagnetically in the ab plane but antiferromagnetically along the crystallographic c axis. The ordered moment is refined to be 2.09(2) {μ\\text{B}} /Pd2+ using the fitted magnetic form factor of Pd2+ . A weak λ-type anomaly around T N was observed in specific heat and the magnetic entropy change across T N is 1.72 J mol-1 K.This small entropy change and the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility support the presence of short range correlations in a wide temperature range {{T}\\text{N}} 250 K. The comparison with SrRu2O6 suggests that the magnetic interactions in PdAs2O6 are dominated by Pd-(O-\\text{As}\\text{As} -O)-Pd super-superexchange and three dimensional despite the quasi-two-dimensional arrangement of magnetic ions. The comparison with NiAs2O6 suggests that increasing covalency of isostructural compounds is an effective approach to design and to discover new materials with higher magnetic order temperatures in the localized regime.

  3. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-05

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  4. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging analysis of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite by multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao

    2014-07-01

    Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.

  5. Chemical profiling and adulteration screening of Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing

    2017-03-01

    As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.

  6. Effects on the Thermo-Mechanical and Crystallinity Properties of Nylon 6,6 Electrospun Fibres Reinforced with One Dimensional (1D and Two Dimensional (2D Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.

  7. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance relaxation due to the translational diffusion of fluid confined to quasi-two-dimensional pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faux, D. A.; McDonald, P. J.; Howlett, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    Nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) relaxation experimentation is an effective technique for nondestructively probing the dynamics of proton-bearing fluids in porous media. The frequency-dependent relaxation rate T1-1 can yield a wealth of information on the fluid dynamics within the pore provided data can be fit to a suitable spin diffusion model. A spin diffusion model yields the dipolar correlation function G (t ) describing the relative translational motion of pairs of 1H spins which then can be Fourier transformed to yield T1-1. G (t ) for spins confined to a quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) pore of thickness h is determined using theoretical and Monte Carlo techniques. G (t ) shows a transition from three- to two-dimensional motion with the transition time proportional to h2. T1-1 is found to be independent of frequency over the range 0.01-100 MHz provided h ≳5 nm and increases with decreasing frequency and decreasing h for pores of thickness h <3 nm. T1-1 increases linearly with the bulk water diffusion correlation time τb allowing a simple and direct estimate of the bulk water diffusion coefficient from the high-frequency limit of T1-1 dispersion measurements in systems where the influence of paramagnetic impurities is negligible. Monte Carlo simulations of hydrated Q2D pores are executed for a range of surface-to-bulk desorption rates for a thin pore. G (t ) is found to decorrelate when spins move from the surface to the bulk, display three-dimensional properties at intermediate times, and finally show a bulk-mediated surface diffusion (Lévy) mechanism at longer times. The results may be used to interpret NMR relaxation rates in hydrated porous systems in which the paramagnetic impurity density is negligible.

  8. 2D magnetic nanoparticle imaging using magnetization response second harmonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Saburo, E-mail: tanakas@ens.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Murata, Hayaki; Oishi, Tomoya; Suzuki, Toshifumi [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Zhang, Yi [Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich D-52425 (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    A detection method and an imaging technique for magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been investigated. In MNP detection and in magnetic particle imaging (MPI), the most commonly employed method is the detection of the odd harmonics of the magnetization response. We examined the advantage of using the second harmonic response when applying an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field. If the magnetization response is detected by a Cu-wound-coil detection system, the output voltage from the coil is proportional to the change in the flux, dϕ/dt. Thus, the dependence of the derivative of the magnetization, M, on an AC magnetic modulation field and a DC bias field were calculated and investigated. The calculations were in good agreement with the experimental results. We demonstrated that the use of the second harmonic response for the detection of MNPs has an advantage compared with the usage of the third harmonic response, when the Cu-wound-coil detection system is employed and the amplitude of the ratio of the AC modulation field and a knee field H{sub ac}/H{sub k} is less than 2. We also constructed a 2D MPI scanner using a pair of permanent ring magnets with a bore of ϕ80 mm separated by 90 mm. The magnets generated a gradient of G{sub z}=3.17 T/m transverse to the imaging bore and G{sub x}=1.33 T/m along the longitudinal axis. An original concentrated 10 μl Resovist solution in a ϕ2×3 mm{sup 2} vessel was used as a sample, and it was imaged by the scanner. As a result, a 2D contour map image could be successfully generated using the method with a lock-in amplifier.

  9. Axisymmetric Two-Dimensional Computation of Magnetic Field Dragging in Accretion Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ruiz, Mauricio; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we model a geometrically thin accretion disk interacting with an externally imposed, uniform, vertical magnetic field. The accretion flow in the disk drags and distorts field lines, amplifying the magnetic field in the process. Inside the disk the radial component of the field is sheared into a toroidal component. The aim of this work is to establish the character of the resultant magnetic field and its dependence on the disk's parameters. We concentrate on alpha-disks driven by turbulent viscosity. Axisymmetric, two-dimensional solutions are obtained without taking into account the back-reaction of the magnetic field on the structure of the disk. The character of the magnetic field depends strongly on the magnitude of the magnetic Prandtl number, P . We present two illustrative examples of viscous disks: a so-called 'standard' steady state model of a disk around a compact star (e.g., cataclysmic variable), and a steady state model of a proto-planetary disk. In both cases, P = 1, P = 10(sup -1), and P = 10(sup -2) scenarios are calculated. Significant bending and magnification of the magnetic field is possible only for disks characterized by P of the order of 10(sup -2). In such a case, the field lines are bent sufficiently to allow the development of a centrifugally driven wind. Inside the disk the field is dominated by its toroidal component. We also investigate the dragging of the magnetic field by a nonviscous protoplanetary disk described by a phenomenological model. This scenario leads to large distortion and magnification of the magnetic field.

  10. Zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional silicene-like crystals: magnetic, topological and thermoelectric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzbicki, Michał; Barnaś, Józef; Swirkowicz, Renata

    2015-12-01

    The effects of electron-electron and spin-orbit interactions on the ground-state magnetic configuration and on the corresponding thermoelectric and spin thermoelectric properties in zigzag nanoribbons of two-dimensional hexagonal crystals are analysed theoretically. The thermoelectric properties of quasi-stable magnetic states are also considered. Of particular interest is the influence of Coulomb and spin-orbit interactions on the topological edge states and on the transition between the topological insulator and conventional gap insulator states. It is shown that the interplay of both interactions also has a significant impact on the transport and thermoelectric characteristics of the nanoribbons. The spin-orbit interaction also determines the in-plane magnetic easy axis. The thermoelectric properties of nanoribbons with in-plane magnetic moments are compared to those of nanoribbons with edge magnetic moments oriented perpendicularly to their plane. Nanoribbons with ferromagnetic alignment of the edge moments are shown to reveal spin thermoelectricity in addition to the conventional one.

  11. Zero-differential conductance of two-dimensional electrons in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, A. A.; Byrnes, Sean; Dietrich, Scott; Vitkalov, Sergey; Marchishin, I. V.; Dmitriev, D. V.

    2013-02-01

    An electronic state with zero-differential conductance is found in nonlinear response to an electric field E applied to two dimensional Corbino discs of highly mobile carriers placed in quantizing magnetic fields. The state occurs above a critical electric field E>Eth at low temperatures and is accompanied by an abrupt dip in the differential conductance. The proposed model considers a local instability of the electric field E as the origin of the observed phenomenon. Comparison between the observed electronic state and the state with zero differential resistance, occurring in Hall bar geometry, indicates that the nonlinear response of edge states and/or skipping orbits is not essential in the studied samples. The result confirms that quantal heating is the dominant nonlinear mechanism leading to electronic states with both zero differential resistance and conductance.

  12. Two-dimensional mathematical model of a reciprocating room-temperature Active Magnetic Regenerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Pryds, Nini; Smith, Anders;

    2008-01-01

    heat exchanger. The model simulates the different steps of the AMR refrigeration cycle and evaluates the performance in terms of refrigeration capacity and temperature span between the two heat exchangers. The model was used to perform an analysis of an AMR with a regenerator made of gadolinium...... and water as the heat transfer fluid. The results show that the AMR is able to obtain a no-load temperature span of 10.9 K in a 1 T magnetic field with a corresponding work input of 93.0 kJ m−3 of gadolinium per cycle. The model shows significant temperature differences between the regenerator and the heat...... transfer fluid during the AMR cycle. This indicates that it is necessary to use two-dimensional models when a parallel-plate regenerator geometry is used....

  13. Haptic-2D: A new haptic test battery assessing the tactual abilities of sighted and visually impaired children and adolescents with two-dimensional raised materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.

  14. Magnetic field induced phase branches of the superconducting transition in two-dimensional square Π-loop arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Dang-Ting; Tian Ye; Chen Geng-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Based on the results of explicit forms of free energy density for each possible arrangement of magnetization fluxes in large-scale two-dimensional (2D) square Π-loop arrays given by Li et al [2007 Chin.Phys.16 1450],the field-cooled superconducting phase transition is further investigated by analysing the free energy of the arrays with a simplified symmetrical model.Our analytical result is exactly the same as that obtained in Li's paper by means of numerical calculations.It is shown that the phase transition splits into two branches with either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic flux ordering,which depends periodically on the strength of external magnetic flux φe through each loop and monotonically on the screen parameter β of the loops in the arrays.In principle,the diagram of the phase branches is similar to that of its one-dimensional counterpart.The influence of thermal fluctuation on the flux ordering during the transition from normal to superconducting states of the Π-loop arrays is also discussed.

  15. Quasi-two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensation of spin triplets in the dimerized quantum magnet Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Makiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Johmoto, Kohei; Uekusa, Hidehiro; Miyake, Atsushi; Tokunaga, Masashi; Nishimoto, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masaaki; Jaime, Marcelo; Radtke, Guillaume; Saúl, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    We synthesized single crystals of composition Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 and investigated their quantum magnetic properties. The crystal structure is closely related to that of the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) dimerized magnet BaCuSi2O6 also known as Han purple. Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 has a singlet ground state with an excitation gap of Δ /kB=20.8 K. The magnetization curves for two different field directions almost perfectly coincide when normalized by the g factor except for a small jump anomaly for a magnetic field perpendicular to the c axis. The magnetization curve with a nonlinear slope above the critical field is in excellent agreement with exact-diagonalization calculations based on a 2D coupled spin-dimer model. Individual exchange constants are also evaluated using density functional theory (DFT). The DFT results demonstrate a 2D exchange network and weak frustration between interdimer exchange interactions, supported by weak spin-lattice coupling implied from our magnetostriction data. The magnetic-field-induced spin ordering in Ba2CuSi2O6Cl2 is described as the quasi-2D Bose-Einstein condensation of triplets.

  16. Hydrogen Bonding and Multiphonon Structure in One- and Two-Dimensional Polymeric Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musfeldt, J. L.; Brown, S.; Cao, J.; Conner, M. M.; McConnell, A. C.; Southerland, H. I.; Manson, J. L.; Schlueter, J. A.; Phillips, M. D.; Turnbull, M. M.; Landee, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    We report a systematic investigation of the temperature dependent infrared vibrational spectra of a family of chemically related coordination polymeric magnets based upon two different bridging anions, fluoride (F^-) and bifluoride (HF2^-), in copper-pyrazine complexes including Cu(HF2)(pyz)2BF4, Cu(HF2)(pyz)2ClO4, and CuF2(H2O)(pyz)). We compare our results with several one- and two-dimensional prototype materials including Cu(NO3)2(pyz) and Cu(ClO4)(pyz) 2. Unusual low temperature hydrogen bonding, local structural transitions associated with stronger low-temperature hydrogen bonding, and striking multiphonon effects that derive from coupling of an infrared-active fundamental with strong Raman-active modes of the pyrazine building-block molecule are observed. Based on the spectroscopic evidence, these interactions are common to this family of coordination polymers and work to stabilize the low temperature magnetic state. Similar interactions are likely to be present in other molecule-based magnets.

  17. Low-energy properties of two-dimensional magnetic nanostructures: interparticle interactions and disorder effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, P J; Pastor, G M [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, Universite Paul Sabatier, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse (France)

    2003-06-01

    The low-energy properties of two-dimensional ensembles of dipole-coupled magnetic nanoparticles are studied as a function of structural disorder and particle coverage. Already small deviations from a square particle arrangement lift the degeneracies of the microvortex (MV) magnetic configuration and result in a strongly inhomogeneous magnetic order of the particle ensemble. The energy distribution of metastable states is determined. For a low degree of disorder a strongly asymmetric shape with a pronounced peak of the ground-state energy results. In contrast, for a strong disorder a Gaussian-like distribution is obtained. The average dipole energy barE{sub dip} decreases with increasing structural disorder. Above a coverage-dependent degree of disorder barE{sub dip} resembles the average dipole energy of a random particle set-up, for which a simple scaling behaviour is derived. The role of vacancies has been studied for a square particle array by determining the angular distribution of the preferred MV angle as a function of the vacancy concentration. Preferred angles along the axial as well as along the diagonal directions of the square array are obtained. A corresponding investigation for disturbed square arrays yields preferred MV angles only along the axial directions. The effect of dipole-quadrupole corrections resulting from the finite size of the particles is quantified.

  18. Anomalous behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, R; Riera R; Marin, J. L. [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Leon, H. [Instituto Superior Jose Antonio Echeverria, La Habana (Cuba)

    2001-10-01

    An anomalous diamagnetic behavior of a confined two-dimensional electron within an external magnetic field (perpendicular to the confining plane) is discussed in this letter. Although this finding is consistent with the pioneering work of Robnik, it has not been previously reported. When this effect occurs, the ratio between the typical length of spatial and magnetic confinement is an integer number. This property leads also to a quantization of the magnetic flux across the confining circle. The possible consequences of the peculiar behavior of the electron within such a structure are discussed. [Spanish] Se estudia una posible anomalia en las propiedades diamagneticas de un electron bidimensional confinado en presencia de un campo magnetico externo perpendicular al plano de confinamiento. Aunque los resultados obtenidos son consistentes con el trabajo pionero de Robnik, no han sido reportados anteriormente, a pesar de sus posibles aplicaciones, ya que cuando ocurre, el cociente entre la longitud magnetica y el tamano de la region de confinamiento es un numero entero, propiedad que establece una cuantizacion del flujo magnetico que atraviesa el circulo confinante. Se discuten las posibles consecuencias del comportamiento peculiar del electron en este tipo de estructura.

  19. Magnetic focusing of cold atomic beam with a 2D array of current-carrying wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Liu; Min Yun; Jianping Yin

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new scheme to realize a two-dimensional (2D) array of magnetic micro-lenses for a cold atomic beam,formed by an array of square current-carrying wires,is proposed.We calculate the spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from the array of current-carrying wires and the magnetic focusing potential for cold rubidium atoms,and study the dynamic focusing processes of cold atoms passing through the magnetic micro-lens array and its focusing properties by using Monte-Carlo simulations and trajectory tracing method.The result shows that the proposed micro-lens array can be used to focus effectively a cold atomic beam,even to load ultracold atoms or a BEC sample into a 2D optical lattice formed by blue detuned hollow beams.

  20. Two-dimensional magnetic modeling of ferromagnetic materials by using a neural networks based hybrid approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a hybrid neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. That approach aims to be coupled together with numerical treatments of magnetic hysteresis such as FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, allowing a complete computer simulation with acceptable run times. The proposed Hybrid Neural System consists of four inputs representing the magnetic induction and magnetic field components at each time step and it is trained by 2D and scalar measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the Hybrid Neural System returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. Within the Hybrid Neural System, a suitably trained neural network is used for predicting the hysteretic behavior of the material to be modeled. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for symmetric, non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  1. A neural approach for the numerical modeling of two-dimensional magnetic hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, E.; Faba, A.; Laudani, A.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with a neural network approach to model magnetic hysteresis at macro-magnetic scale. Such approach to the problem seems promising in order to couple the numerical treatment of magnetic hysteresis to FEM numerical solvers of the Maxwell's equations in time domain, as in case of the non-linear dynamic analysis of electrical machines, and other similar devices, making possible a full computer simulation in a reasonable time. The neural system proposed consists of four inputs representing the magnetic field and the magnetic inductions components at each time step and it is trained by 2-d measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. The magnetic induction B is assumed as entry point and the output of the neural system returns the predicted value of the field H at the same time step. A suitable partitioning of the neural system, described in the paper, makes the computing process rather fast. Validations with experimental tests and simulations for non-symmetric and minor loops are presented.

  2. Two-dimensional percolation transition at finite temperature: Phase boundary for in-plane magnetism in films with two atomic layers of Fe on W(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, R.; Venus, D.

    2017-02-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) percolation transition in Fe/W(110) ultrathin magnetic films occurs when islands in the second atomic layer percolate and resolve a frustrated magnetic state to produce long-range in-plane ferromagnetic order. Novel measurements of percolation using the magnetic susceptibility χ (θ ) as the films are deposited at a constant temperature, allow the long-range percolation transition to be observed as a sharp peak consistent with a critical phase transition. The measurements are used to trace the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase boundary between the T =0 percolation magnetic transition and the thermal Curie magnetic transition of the undiluted film. A quantitative comparison to critical scaling theory is made by fitting the functional form of the phase boundary. The fitted parameters are then used in theoretical expressions for χ (T ) in the critical region of the paramagnetic state to provide an excellent, independent representation of the experimental measurements.

  3. 2D-ELDOR detection of magnetization transfer of nitroxides in disordered solid polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maresch, G. G.; Weber, M.; Dubinskii, A. A.; Spiess, H. W.

    1992-05-01

    Two-dimensional electron—electron double resonance (2D-ELDOR) experiments on nitroxide spin labels in solid liquid-crystalline side-group polymers have been performed employing narrow-band microwave excitation pulses followed by a rapid magnetic field step during a mixing time and detection at the new selected point of the EPR spectrum. Information about magnetization transfer throughout the full EPR spectrum is obtained by sweeping both pumping and detecting fields. In the two-dimensional representation of experimental ELDOR data, the different processes causing magnetization transfer through the EPR spectrum, i.e. electron spin diffusion, nuclear relaxation, and slow rotational motions lead to different patterns and can be distinguished by recording 2D-ELDOR spectra as a function of temperature. In the specific system studied, the 2D-ELDOR spectra show the dominance of magnetization transfer between states with close molecular orientations but different nitrogen nuclear spin projections caused by flips of nuclear spins. The results are discussed in terms of dynamic processes in glasses.

  4. Scaling behavior of the dipole-coupling energy in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, P. J.; Pastor, G. M.

    2003-11-01

    Numerical calculations of the average dipole-coupling energy Edip in two-dimensional disordered magnetic nanostructures are performed as a function of the particle coverage C. We observe that Edip scales as Edip∝Cα* with an unusually small exponent α*≃0.8 1.0 for coverages C≲20%. This behavior is shown to be primarily given by the contributions of particle pairs at short distances, which is intrinsically related to the presence of an appreciable degree of disorder. The value of α* is found to be sensitive to the magnetic arrangement within the nanostructure and to the degree of disorder. For large coverages C≳20% we obtain Edip∝Cα with α=3/2, in agreement with the straightforward scaling of the dipole coupling as in a periodic particle setup. Taking into account the effect of single-particle anisotropies, we show that the scaling exponent can be used as a criterion to distinguish between weakly interacting (α*≃1.0) and strongly interacting (α*≃0.8) particle ensembles as a function of coverage.

  5. Self Organized Criticality in a two dimensional Cellular Automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition to Self Organized Criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a Self Organized Critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one dimensional signatures in the magnetic two dimensional system, once the Self Organized Critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of Gamma Ray Bursts is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical paramet...

  6. Electrostatic Structures in Space Plasmas: Stability of Two-dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, C S; Yasin, E

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic structures have been observed in many regions of space plasmas, including the solar wind, the magnetosphere, the auroral acceleration region, and in association with shocks, turbulence, and magnetic reconnection. Due to potentially large amplitude of electric fields within these structures, their effects on particle heating, scattering, or acceleration can be important. One possible theoretical description of some of these structures is the concept of Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes, which are exact nonlinear solutions of the Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in collisionless kinetic theory. BGK modes have been studied extensively for many decades, predominately in one dimension (1D), although there have been observations showing that some of these structures have clear 3D features. While there have been approximate solutions of higher dimensional BGK modes, an exact 3D BGK mode solution in a finite magnetic field has not been found yet. Recently we have constructed exact solutions of 2D B...

  7. Unusual onset of p-element magnetization in a two dimensional structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Samir F.

    2016-10-01

    Based on density functional theory electronic and magnetic structure characterizations an unusual onset of spin polarization of p states is demonstrated leading to a stable ferromagnetic order within a carbon layered honeycomb-like compound. Specifically structural relaxation of formerly studied C2N in 3D network and devised here in 2D layered AlB2-type derived structure shows that the resulting ordered compound maintains the hexagonal crystal symmetry with an exceptionally large c/a ratio leading to strong localization of N states along c and letting magnetization develop within N-pz orbitals with 1.1 μB per formula unit. Anisotropic antibonding interactions between C and N layers allow interpreting the results. The compound is energetically characterized in ferromagnetic ground state versus less stable anti-ferromagnetic order.

  8. Experimental study of two-dimensional turbulence properties in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Votsish, A.D.; Kolesnikov, Yu.B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are given for an experimental study of two-dimensional turbulent flow with shifts in a plane duct in an azimuthal magnetic field. The turbulent flow was shown to become practically equal to zero in a sufficiently strong field whereas the intensity of the pulsation rate has a finite value. This is explained by the fact that the magnetic field transforms the structure of turbulence into a two-dimensional structure whose maintenance merely requires an insignificant portion of medium flow energy. 4 illustrations, 8 references.

  9. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-07-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  10. Two-dimensional Kagome phosphorus and its edge magnetism: a density functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guodong; Jiang, Liwei; Zheng, Yisong

    2015-06-01

    By means of density functional theory calculations, we predict a new two-dimensional phosphorus allotrope with the Kagome-like lattice(Kagome-P). It is an indirect gap semiconductor with a band gap of 1.64 eV. The gap decreases sensitively with the compressive strain. In particular, shrinking the lattice beyond 13% can drive it into metallic state. In addition, both the AA and AB stacked Kagome-P multi-layer structures exhibit a bandgap much smaller than 1.64 eV. Edges in the Kagome-P monolayer probably suffer from the edge reconstruction. An isolated zigzag edge can induce antiferromagnetic (AF) ordering with a magnetic transition temperature of 23 K. More importantly, when applying a stretching strain beyond 4%, such an edge turns to possess a ferromagnetic ground state. A very narrow zigzag-edged Kagome-P ribbon displays the spin moment distribution similar to the zigzag-edged graphene nanoribbon because of the coupling between the opposites edges. But the inter-edge coupling in the Kagome-P ribbon vanishes more rapidly as the ribbon width increases. These properties make it a promising material in spintronics.

  11. Critical properties of a two-dimensional Ising magnet with quasiperiodic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G. A.; Vasconcelos, M. S.; Alves, T. F. A.

    2016-04-01

    We address the study of quasiperiodic interactions on a square lattice by using an Ising model with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions following a quasiperiodic Fibonacci sequence in both directions of a square lattice. We applied the Monte Carlo method, together with the Metropolis algorithm, to calculate the thermodynamic quantities of the system. We obtained the Edwards-Anderson order parameter qEA, the magnetic susceptibility χ , and the specific heat c in order to characterize the universality class of the phase transition. We also use the finite size scaling method to obtain the critical temperature of the system and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν . In the low-temperature limit we obtained a spin-glass phase with critical temperature around Tc≈2.274 , and the critical exponents β ,γ , and ν , indicating that the quasiperiodic order induces a change in the universality class of the system. Also, we discovered a spin-glass ordering in a two-dimensional system which is rare and, as far as we know, the unique example is an under-frustrated Ising model.

  12. Ionothermal Synthesis and Magnetic Studies of Novel Two-Dimensional Metal-Formate Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderone, P.; Feygenson, M.; Forster, P.M.; Borkowski, L.A.; Teat, S.J. Aronson, M.C.; Parise, J.B.

    2011-03-21

    Five novel two-dimensional frameworks containing formate-bridged metal-centered octahedra are synthesized ionothermally from two ionic liquids previously unused as solvents in hybrid synthesis, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) formate, and 1-hydroxy-3-proplyammonium (HPA) formate. Templating effects of the cation from each ionic liquid drive the formation of different structures. [NH{sub 3}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}OH]{sub 2}[M(CHO{sub 2}){sub 4}] (1: M = Co, 2: M = Ni) exhibit the same stoichiometry and connectivity as their manganese analogue (3: M = Mn), but the manganese form exhibits a different topology from 1 and 2. [NH{sub 3}C{sub 3}H6OH][M(CHO{sub 2}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O)] (4: M = Co, 5: M = Mn) were synthesized using the HPA formate ionic liquid with a metal-formate connectivity related to those of 1-3. Canted antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures (1: T{sub N} = 7.0 K, 2: T{sub N} = 4.6 K, 3: T{sub N} = 8.0 K, 4: T{sub N} = 7.0 K, 5: T{sub N} = 9.2 K), similar to the magnetic properties previously reported for other metal-formate hybrid materials.

  13. Ionothermal synthesis and magnetic studies of novel two-dimensional metal-formate frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Paul J; Forster, Paul M; Borkowski, Lauren A; Teat, Simon J; Feygenson, Mikhail; Aronson, Meigan C; Parise, John B

    2011-03-21

    Five novel two-dimensional frameworks containing formate-bridged metal-centered octahedra are synthesized ionothermally from two ionic liquids previously unused as solvents in hybrid synthesis, 2-hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) formate, and 1-hydroxy-3-proplyammonium (HPA) formate. Templating effects of the cation from each ionic liquid drive the formation of different structures. [NH(3)C(2)H(4)OH](2)[M(CHO(2))(4)] (1: M = Co, 2: M = Ni) exhibit the same stoichiometry and connectivity as their manganese analogue (3: M = Mn), but the manganese form exhibits a different topology from 1 and 2. [NH(3)C(3)H(6)OH][M(CHO(2))(3)(H(2)O)] (4: M = Co, 5: M = Mn) were synthesized using the HPA formate ionic liquid with a metal-formate connectivity related to those of 1-3. Canted antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at low temperatures (1: T(N) = 7.0 K, 2: T(N) = 4.6 K, 3: T(N) = 8.0 K, 4: T(N) = 7.0 K, 5: T(N) = 9.2 K), similar to the magnetic properties previously reported for other metal-formate hybrid materials.

  14. Single-ion magnet behaviour in mononuclear and two-dimensional dicyanamide-containing cobalt(ii) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switlicka-Olszewska, Anna; Palion-Gazda, Joanna; Klemens, Tomasz; Machura, Barbara; Vallejo, Julia; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2016-06-21

    Three cobalt(ii) complexes of formulae [Co(dca)2(bim)4] (), [Co(dca)2(bim)2]n () and [Co(dca)2(bmim)2]n () [dca = dicyanamide, bim = 1-benzylimidazole and bmim = 1-benzyl-2-methylimidazole] were prepared and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Compound is a mononuclear species where the cobalt(ii) ion is six-coordinate with four bim molecules in the equatorial positions [Co-Nbim = 2.1546(15) and 2.1489(15) Å] and two trans-positioned dca ligands [Co-Ndca = 2.1575(18) Å] in the axial sites of a somewhat distorted octahedral surrounding. The structures of and consist of two-dimensional grids of cobalt(ii) ions where each metal atom is linked to the other four metal centres by single dca bridges exhibiting the μ1,5-dca coordination mode [Co-Ndca = 2.190(3)-2.220(3) () and 2.127(3)-2.153(3) Å ()]. Two trans-coordinated bim ()/bmim () molecules achieve the six-coordination around each cobalt(ii) ion [Co-Nbim = 2.128(3)-2.134(4) Å () and Co-Nbmim = 2.156(3)-2.163(39) Å ()]. The values of the cobalt-cobalt separation through the single dca bridges are 8.927(2) and 8.968(2) Å in and 8.7110(5) and 8.7158(5) Å in . Magnetic susceptibility measurements for in the temperature range of 2.0-300 K reveal that these compounds behave as magnetically isolated high-spin cobalt(ii) ions with a significant orbital contribution to the magnetic moment. Alternating current (ac) magnetic susceptibility measurements for show a frequency dependence of out-of-phase susceptibility under static applied fields in the range of 500-2500 G, a feature which is characteristic of the single-ion magnet behaviour (SIM) of the Co(ii) ion in them. The values of the energy barrier for the magnetic relaxation (Ea) are 5.45-7.74 (), 4.53-9.24 () and 11.48-15.44 cm(-1) (). They compare well with those previously reported for the analogous dca-bridged 2D compound [Co(dca)2(atz)2]n () (Ea = 5.1 cm(-1) under an applied static field of 1000 G), which was the subject of a

  15. Large Bi-Polar Signature in a Perpendicular Electric Field of Two-Dimensional Electrostatic Solitary Waves Associated with Magnetic Reconnection: Statistics and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-You; Zhang, Shi-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Cai, Hong

    2013-01-01

    More than 300 electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) with a large perpendicular component which is a bi-polar waveform structure are observed in the boundary layer within the magnetic reconnection diffusion region in the near-Earth magnetotail. Such ESWs are called two-dimensional ESWs. A Singe-reconnection-based-statistical study of two-dimensional ESWs shows that: (1) ESWs can be continuously observed in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) associated with the magnetic reconnection diffusion region, and their amplitude ranges are mainly from several tens to hundreds of μV/m (2) both one-dimension-like ESWs (very small magnitude on E⊥) and two-dimension-like ESWs (large magnitude on E⊥, which are even comparable to that in the E‖) are observed within a small time interval; (3) within the observation time spans, more than 61% of ESWs are regarded as two-dimensional ESWs for the I2D > 20%. We discuss the bi-polar structure in E⊥. The observation of ESWs with a large bi-polar structure in the perpendicular electric field gives evidence that the unique waveform differs from previous understanding from observations and simulations which suggests that it should be a uni-polar waveform structure in the E⊥ of ESWs.

  16. 2-D Electromagnetic Model of Fast-Ramping Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Auchmann, B; Kurz, S; Russenschuck, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Fast-ramping superconducting (SC) accelerator magnets are the subject of R&D efforts by magnet designers at various laboratories. They require modifications of magnet design tools such as the ROXIE program at CERN, i.e. models of dynamic effects in superconductors need to be implemented and validated. In this paper we present the efforts towards a dynamic 2-D simulation of fast-ramping SC magnets with the ROXIE tool. Models are introduced and simulation results are compared to measurements of the GSI001 magnet of a GSI test magnet constructed and measured at BNL.

  17. Metastability of the Two-Dimensional Blume-Capel Model with Zero Chemical Potential and Small Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, C.; Lemire, P.

    2016-07-01

    We consider the two-dimensional Blume-Capel model with zero chemical potential and small magnetic field evolving on a large but finite torus. We obtain sharp estimates for the transition time, we characterize the set of critical configurations, and we prove the metastable behavior of the dynamics as the temperature vanishes.

  18. Pattern formation and coarse-graining in two-dimensional colloids driven by multiaxial magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin; Osterman, Natan; Babič, Dušan; Likos, Christos N; Dobnikar, Jure; Nikoubashman, Arash

    2014-05-13

    We study the pattern formation in a two-dimensional system of superparamagnetic colloids interacting via spatially coherent induced interactions driven by an external precessing magnetic field. On the pair level, upon changing the opening angle of the external field, the interactions smoothly vary from purely repulsive (opening angle equal to zero) to purely attractive (time-averaged pair interactions at an opening angle of 90°). In the experiments, we observed ordered hexagonal crystals at the repulsive end and coarsening frothlike structures for purely attractive interactions. In both of these limiting cases, the dense colloidal systems can be sufficiently accurately described by assuming pairwise additivity of the interaction potentials. However, for a range of intermediate angles, pronounced many-body depolarization effects compete with the direct induced interactions, resulting in inherently anisotropic effective interactions. Under such conditions, we observed the decay of hexagonal order with the concomitant formation of short chains and percolated networks of chains coexisting with free colloids. In order to describe and investigate these systems theoretically, we developed a coarse-grained model of a binary mixture of patchy and nonpatchy particles with the ratio of patchy and nonpatchy colloids as the order parameter. Combining genetic algorithms with Monte Carlo simulations, we optimized the model parameters and quantitatively reproduced the experimentally observed sequence of colloidal structures. The results offer new insight into the anisotropy induced by the many-body effects. At the same time, they allow for a very efficient description of the system by means of a pairwise-additive Hamiltonian, whereupon the original, one-component system features a two-component mixture of isotropic and patchy colloids.

  19. Two-dimensional resonant magnetic soft X-ray scattering set-up for extreme sample environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanescu, Stefan; Mocuta, Cristian; Merlet, Frederic; Barbier, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    The newly built MagSAXS (magnetic small-angle X-ray scattering) set-up dedicated to the direct two-dimensional measurement of magnetic scattering using polarized synchrotron radiation in extreme sample environments is presented. Pure optical transport of the image is used to record the magnetic scattering with a two-dimensional CCD visible-light camera. The set-up is able to probe magnetic correlation lengths from the micrometer down to the nanometer scale. A detailed layout is presented along with preliminary results obtained at several beamlines at Synchrotron SOLEIL. The presented examples underline the wide range of possible applications spanning from correlation lengths determination to Fourier transform holography.

  20. Analytic solution of a relativistic two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in a constant magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalba, V.M. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica; Pino, R. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, Caracas (Venezuela). Centro de Fisica]|[Centro de Quimica, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas, IVIC, Apdo 21827, Caracas 1020-A (Venezuela)

    1998-01-26

    We obtain exact solutions of the Klein-Gordon and Pauli-Schroedinger equations for a two-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the presence of a constant magnetic field. Analytic solutions for the energy spectrum are obtained for particular values of the magnetic field strength. The results are compared to those obtained in the non-relativistic and spinless case. We obtain that the relativistic spectrum does not present s states. (orig.). 7 refs.

  1. Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;

    2000-01-01

    The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....

  2. Complete Proton and Carbon Assignment of Triclosan via One- and Two- Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Students from an upper-division undergraduate spectroscopy class analyzed one- and two-dimensional 400 MHz NMR spectroscopic data from triclosan in CDCl3. Guided assignment of all proton and carbon signals was completed via 1D proton and carbon, nuclear Overhauser effect (nOe), distortionless enhanc...

  3. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction: comparison of two dimensional echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and 64-row multi-detector computed tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chee Khoon LIEW; Kui Hian SIM; Rapaee ANNUAR; Tiong Kiam ONG; Sze Piaw CHIN; Tobias Seyfarth; Yean Yip FONG; Wei Ling CHAN; Choon Kiat ANG; Houng Bang LIEW

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To compare left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) determined from 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-row MDCT) with those determined from two dimensional echocardiography (2D echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods Thirty-two patients with coronary artery disease underwent trans-thoracic 2D echo, CMR and contrast-enhanced 64-row MDCT for assessment of LVEF within 48 hours of each other. 64-row MDCT LVEF was derived using the Syngo Circulation software; CMR LVEF was by Area Length Ejection Fraction (ALEF) and Simpson method and 2D echo LVEF by Simpson method.Results The LVEF was 49.13 ± 15.91% by 2D echo, 50.72 ± 16.55% (ALEF method) and 47.65 ± 16.58%(Simpson method) by CMR and 50.00 ± 15.93% by 64-row MDCT. LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured with CMR using either the ALEF method (Pearson correlation r = 0.94, P <0.01) or Simpson method (r = 0.92, P<0.01). It also correlated well with LVEF measured using 2D echo (r = 0.80, P < 0.01). Conclusion LVEF measurements by 64-row MDCT correlated well with LVEF measured by CMR and 2D echo. The correlation between 64-row MDCT and CMR was better than the correlation between 2D echo with CMR. Standard data set from a 64-row MDCT coronary study can be reliably used to calculate the LVEF.

  4. Association of Lumbar Arterial Stenosis with Low Back Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Study Using Two-Dimensional Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkiakoski, A.; Niinimaeki, J.; Karppinen, J.; Korpelainen, R.; Haapea, M.; Natri, A.; Tervonen, O. (Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Dept. of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Univ. of Oulu, Oulu (Finland))

    2009-01-15

    Background: Recent studies indicate that diminished blood flow may cause low back symptoms and intervertebral disc degeneration. Purpose: To explore the association between lumbar arterial stenosis as detected by two-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (2D TOF-MRA) and lumbar pain symptoms in an occupational cohort of middle-aged Finnish males. Material and Methods: 228 male subjects aged 36 to 55 years (mean 47 years) were imaged with 2D TOF-MRA. Additionally, 20 randomly selected subjects were scanned with contrast-enhanced MRA (ceMRA). In each subject, the first (L1) to fourth (L4) segmental lumbar arteries were evaluated for lumbar artery stenosis using a dichotomic scale. One subject was excluded because of poor image quality, reducing the study population to 227 subjects. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between arterial stenosis in 2D TOF-MRA and low back pain and sciatica symptoms (intensity, duration, frequency). Results: Comparing 2D TOF-MRA and ceMRA images, the kappa value (95% confidence interval) was 0.52 (0.31-0.73). The intraobserver reliability kappa value for 2D TOF-MRA was 0.85 (0.77-0.92), and interobserver kappa was 0.57 (0.49-0.65). The sensitivity of 2D TOF-MRA in detecting stenosis was 0.58, the accuracy 0.89, and the specificity 0.94. In 97 (43%) subjects all arteries were normal, whereas 130 (57%) had at least one stenosed artery. The left L4 artery was most often affected. The degree of arterial stenosis was associated with intensity of low back and sciatic pain, and sciatica pain duration during the past 3 months. Conclusion: 2D TOF-MRA is an acceptable imaging method for arterial stenosis compared to ceMRA. Arterial stenosis was associated with subjective pain symptoms, indicating a role of decreased nutrition in spinal disorders

  5. Anisotropic States of Two-Dimensional Electrons in High Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouhami, A. M.; Doiron, C. B.; Klironomos, F. D.; Côté, R.; Dorsey, Alan T.

    2006-05-01

    We study the collective states formed by two-dimensional electrons in Landau levels of index n≥2 near half filling. By numerically solving the self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) equations for a set of oblique two-dimensional lattices, we find that the stripe state is an anisotropic Wigner crystal (AWC), and determine its precise structure for varying values of the filling factor. Calculating the elastic energy, we find that the shear modulus of the AWC is small but finite (nonzero) within the HF approximation. This implies, in particular, that the long-wavelength magnetophonon mode in the stripe state vanishes like q3/2 as in an ordinary Wigner crystal, and not like q5/2 as was found in previous studies where the energy of shear deformations was neglected.

  6. Magnetic properties and the effect of non-magnetic impurities in the quasi-2D quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuntia, P.; Dey, T.; Mahajan, A. V.

    2016-09-01

    We present synthesis, x-ray diffraction, magnetisation and specific heat studies on the quasi-two-dimensional (2D) S = 1/2 antiferromagnet (CuCl)LaNb2O7 and its doping analogues (Cu1-x Zn x Cl)LaNb2O7 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05), (Cu0.95Mg0.05Cl)LaNb2O7, and (CuCl)La1-y Ba y Nb2O7 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.10). The magnetic susceptibility and specific heat of the parent compound and its isovalent or hetereovalent counterparts do not display any signature of magnetic ordering down to 1.8 K. The parent compound and its doping variants exhibit spin-singlet behaviour with a finite gap in the spin excitation spectrum due to dimerisation of the dominant intradimer interactions as evidenced from our magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. The systematic increase of magnetic susceptibility at low temperature with non-magnetic Zn2+ and Mg2+ (S = 0) substitution at the Cu2+ site reflect that impurities induce local moments around the non-magnetic sites. While heterovalent Ba2+ substitution at the La3+ site do not result in mobile holes but rather give rise to a Curie term in the susceptibility due to localisation. The low value of spin S = 1/2, and absence of long range ordering or spin freezing, and the presence of competing exchange interactions hold special significance in hosting novel magnetic properties in this class of quasi-2D quantum material.

  7. Studies of two-dimensional MoGe superconductors in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapitulnik, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Yazdani, A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Urbach, J.S. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); White, W.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics); Beasley, M.R. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1994-03-01

    The H-T phase diagram of two-dimensional amorphous MoGe superconductors is studied near H[sub c2] and near the melting line of the vortex lattice. Good agreement with the lowest Landau level approximation is found for the broadening of the specific heat in a field. We also find that melting of the vortex lattice can be observed only on short enough length scales, shorter than the disorder-mediated lattice correlation length. (orig.)

  8. Ultrahigh-Resolution Magnetic Resonance in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields: Two-Dimensional Long-Lived-Coherence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-07-01

    A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.

  9. Two-dimensional HRCT for monitoring postoperative results of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Zweidimensionale (2-D) CT-Arthrotomographie zur postoperativen Kontrolle einer neuen vorderen Kreuzbandplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)

    1989-11-01

    Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).

  10. On the Nonrelativistic 2D Purely Magnetic Supersymmetric Pauli Operator

    OpenAIRE

    Grinevich, P.; Mironov, A.(Lebedev Physics Institute; ITEP, Moscow, Russia); Novikov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Complete Manifold of Ground State Eigenfunctions for the Purely Magnetic 2D Pauli Operator is considered as a by-product of the new reduction found by the present authors few years ago for the Algebrogeometric Inverse Spectral Data (i.e. Riemann Surfaces and Divisors). This reduction is associated with the (2+1) Soliton Hierarhy containing a 2D analog of the famous "Burgers System". This article contains also exposition of the previous works made since 1980 including the first topological...

  11. Zero modes of the Dirac operator on a noncompact two-dimensional surface in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitenko, Y.A. (Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academy of Sciences, Ukrainian SSR (UA))

    1989-09-01

    We investigate zero modes of the two-dimensional Dirac operator on a noncompact singly connected surface in an external magnetic field. The number of square-integrable zero modes is shown to be determined by global characteristics of the external field and surface: the flux of the magnetic field through the surface and the Gauss curvature integrated over the surface. The equivalence of the square integrability condition for the noncompact surface to the conditions of the index theorem for a closed compact surface is discussed.

  12. Arsenic-bridged magnetic interactions in an emerging two-dimensional FeAs nanostructure on MnAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, Christian; Ferrari, Valeria; Llois, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    The extreme case of an Fe monolayer deposited onto a manganese arsenide (MnAs) substrate is analyzed using density functional theory. We find that an FeAs quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnetic surface nanostructure emerges. This nanostructure, which is magnetically nearly decoupled from the substrate, is due to bonding effects arising from the arsenic atoms bridging the Fe magnetic interactions. These interactions are studied and modeled using a Heisenberg-type Hamiltonian. They display an angular dependence which is characteristic of superexchange-like interactions, which are of the same order of magnitude as those appearing in Fe-based pnictides.

  13. Dynamic effect of overhangs and islands at the depinning transition in two-dimensional magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, N J; Zheng, B

    2010-09-01

    With the Monte Carlo methods, we systematically investigate the short-time dynamics of domain-wall motion in the two-dimensional random-field Ising model with a driving field (DRFIM). We accurately determine the depinning transition field and critical exponents. Through two different definitions of the domain interface, we examine the dynamics of overhangs and islands. At the depinning transition, the dynamic effect of overhangs and islands reaches maximum. We argue that this should be an important mechanism leading the DRFIM model to a different universality class from the Edwards-Wilkinson equation with quenched disorder.

  14. Scaling and universality in the two-dimensional Ising model with a magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangazeev, Vladimir V; Dudalev, Michael Yu; Bazhanov, Vladimir V; Batchelor, Murray T

    2010-06-01

    The scaling function of the two-dimensional Ising model on the square and triangular lattices is obtained numerically via Baxter's variational corner transfer-matrix approach. The use of Aharony-Fisher nonlinear scaling variables allowed us to perform calculations sufficiently away from the critical point and to confirm all predictions of the scaling and universality hypotheses. Our results are in excellent agreement with quantum field theory calculations of Fonseca and Zamolodchikov as well as with many previously known exact and numerical calculations, including susceptibility results by Barouch, McCoy, Tracy, and Wu.

  15. Analysis of branched DNA replication and recombination intermediates from prokaryotic cells by two-dimensional (2D) native-native agarose gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicholas P

    2013-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.

  16. Magnetic ground state of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuCl2)1+y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yoshino, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Nishio, Y.; Kajita, K.; Anyfantis, G. A.; Papavassiliou, G. C.; Murata, K.

    2006-11-01

    To understand the interplay between transport and magnetic properties, quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDTTTF)2(AuCl2)1+y was studied by measurements of electric resistivity ( ρa, ρc), magnetoresistance (MR), susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (C) in the temperature region between 1 K and 300 K. In spite of the fact that the drastic changes were observed in ρa, ρc, MR and χ at TC = 20 K, no anomaly was seen in C. The concentration of spins estimated from M-H curve is about 360 ppm, which is difficult to detect anomaly in C. These data suggest that the number of spins is very small in the ground state like spin-glass system.

  17. Two dimensional electron gas confined over a spherical surface: Magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, A; Crespo, P [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P. O. Box 155, Madrid 28230 (Spain) and Dpto. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense (Spain); Garcia, M A, E-mail: antonio.hernando@adif.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC c/Kelsen, 5 Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2011-04-01

    Magnetism of capped nanoparticles, NPs, of non-magnetic substances as Au and ZnO is briefly reviewed. The source of the magnetization is discussed on the light of recent X-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments. As magnetic dichroism analysis has pointed out impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states. It is proposed that mesoscopic collective orbital magnetic moments induced at the surface states can account for the experimental magnetism characteristic of these nanoparticles. The total magnetic moment of the surface originated at the unfilled Fermi level can reach values as large as 10{sup 2} or 10{sup 3} Bohr magnetons.

  18. 2D joint inversion of CSAMT and magnetic data based on cross-gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun-Peng; Tan, Han-Dong; Wang, Tao

    2017-06-01

    A two-dimensional forward and backward algorithm for the controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method is developed to invert data in the entire region (near, transition, and far) and deal with the effects of artificial sources. First, a regularization factor is introduced in the 2D magnetic inversion, and the magnetic susceptibility is updated in logarithmic form so that the inversion magnetic susceptibility is always positive. Second, the joint inversion of the CSAMT and magnetic methods is completed with the introduction of the cross gradient. By searching for the weight of the cross-gradient term in the objective function, the mutual influence between two different physical properties at different locations are avoided. Model tests show that the joint inversion based on cross-gradient theory offers better results than the single-method inversion. The 2D forward and inverse algorithm for CSAMT with source can effectively deal with artificial sources and ensures the reliability of the final joint inversion algorithm.

  19. Application of highly sensitive fluorescent dyes (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dyes) to laser microdissection and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) for cancer proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-01-01

    Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.

  20. One- and Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with a Diamond Quantum Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, J. M.; Chang, K.; Armijo, J.; Cujia, K.; Rosskopf, T.; Maze, J. R.; Degen, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    We report on Fourier spectroscopy experiments performed with near-surface nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond chip. By detecting the free precession of nuclear spins rather than applying a multipulse quantum sensing protocol, we are able to unambiguously identify the NMR species devoid of harmonics. We further show that, by engineering different Hamiltonians during free precession, the hyperfine coupling parameters as well as the nuclear Larmor frequency can be selectively measured with up to five digits of precision. The protocols can be combined to demonstrate two-dimensional Fourier spectroscopy. Presented techniques will be useful for mapping nuclear coordinates in molecules deposited on diamond sensor chips, en route to imaging their atomic structure.

  1. JAC2D: A two-dimensional finite element computer program for the nonlinear quasi-static response of solids with the conjugate gradient method; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.

    1994-05-01

    JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.

  2. Quantum spin liquid and magnetic order in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice: Considering the distorted kagome lattice of volborthite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Li Ern; Hwang, Kyusung; Mizoguchi, Tomonari; Huh, Yejin; Kim, Yong Baek

    2017-07-01

    The Kagome-lattice-based material, volborthite, Cu3V2O7(OH) 2.2 H2O , has been considered as a promising platform for discovery of unusual quantum ground states due to the frustrated nature of spin interaction. We explore possible quantum spin liquid and magnetically ordered phases in a two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattice, which is described by the plane group p 2 g g , consistent with the spatial anisotropy of the spin model derived from density functional theory (DFT) for volborthite. Using the projective symmetry group (PSG) analysis and Schwinger boson mean field theory, we classify possible spin liquid phases with bosonic spinons and investigate magnetically ordered phases connected to such states. It is shown, in general, that only translationally invariant mean field spin liquid ansatzes are allowed in two-dimensional nonsymmorphic lattices. We study the mean field phase diagram of the DFT-derived spin model and find that possible quantum spin liquid phases are connected to two types of magnetically ordered phases, a coplanar incommensurate (q ,0 ) spiral order as the ground state and a closely competing coplanar commensurate (π ,π ) spin density wave order. In addition, periodicity enhancement of the two-spinon continuum, a consequence of symmetry fractionalization, is found in the spin liquid state connected to the (π ,π ) spin density wave order. We discuss relevance of these results to recent and future experiments on volborthite.

  3. Analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram; Hoang, Van-Hung; Le, Van-Hoang [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-05-15

    The Feranchuk-Komarov operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation in order to construct analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a uniform magnetic field of arbitrary strength. As a result, analytical expressions for the energy of the ground and excited states are obtained with a very high precision of up to four decimal places. Especially, the precision is uniformly stable for the whole range of the magnetic field. This advantage appears due to the consideration of the asymptotic behaviour of the wave-functions in strong magnetic field. The results could be used for various physical analyses and the method used here could also be applied to other atomic systems.

  4. Temperature and magnetic field effects on electron transport through DNA molecules in a two-dimensional four-channel system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D

    2013-06-01

    We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.

  5. The magnetic properties of a quasi-two-dimensional spin 1 easy axis Heisenberg antiferromagnet with competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Griffith Mendonça A., E-mail: griffith_mas@hotmail.com; Pires, A.S.T.

    2014-03-15

    The Neel and collinear ordered phases of the two-dimensional S=1 antiferromagnet with next and next near neighbor exchange interactions and easy axis single ion anisotropy, on the square lattice, are studied at low temperature using a Modified Spin Wave Theory. We calculate the low-temperature quantities as a function of the temperature, frustration and anisotropy. We calculate also the phase diagram at T=0. We found a disordered phase separating the Neel and collinear phases. - Highlights: • The phase diagrams in zero temperature. • The critical temperature was studied as a function of frustration and D. • The sublattice magnetizations and the gap were studied.

  6. Particle in short-range potential in two dimensional structure in magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, S. P.; Pavlova, T. V.

    2006-01-01

    An exact solution is given for the problem of determining the ground state of a charge particle in a zero range force field located in a quantum well and in a magnetic field. The dependence of the electron's ground state on the potential depth and the magnetic field is investigated in a semiconducto

  7. Two-dimensional electric current effects on a magnetized plasma in contact with a surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumack, A. E.; de Blank, H. J.; Westerhout, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant electric fields both parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field have been observed and modeled self-consistently in an ITER divertor relevant plasma–wall experiment. Due to magnetization, electric current is found to penetrate the plasma beam outside of the cascaded arc plasma source

  8. Spin-zero anomaly in the magnetic quantum oscillations of a two-dimensional metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitza, J; Ignatchik, O; Bergk, B [Hochfeld-Magnetlabor Dresden (HLD), Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gvozdikov, V M [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Hagel, J [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Meeson, P J [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Schlueter, J A [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Davis, H; Winter, R W; Gard, G L [Department of Chemistry, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207 (United States)], E-mail: J.Wosnitza@fzd.de

    2008-08-15

    We report on an anomalous behavior of the spin-splitting zeros in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of a quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor. The zeros as well as the angular dependence of the amplitude of the second harmonic deviate remarkably from the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) prediction. In contrast, the angular dependence of the fundamental dHvA amplitude as well as the spin-splitting zeros of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) signal follow the LK theory. We can explain this behavior of the dHvA signal by small chemical-potential (CP) oscillations and find a very good agreement between theory and experiment. A detailed wave-shape analysis of the dHvA oscillations corroborates the existence of an oscillating CP. We discuss the absence of the above spin-zero effect in the SdH signal and argue that in {beta}-prime-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} it can be explained by an incoherent variable range hopping interlayer transport which is insensitive to the small CP oscillations.

  9. Spin-zero anomaly in the magnetic quantum oscillations of a two-dimensional metal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosnitza, J.; Gvozdikov, V. M.; Hagel, J.; Meeson, P. J.; Schlueter, J. A.; Ignatchick, O.; Winter, R. W.; Gard, G. L.; Davis, H.; Bergk, B.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Dresden; Max-Planck Inst. Phys. Complex Systems; Univ. Bristol; Portland State Univ.

    2008-01-01

    We report on an anomalous behavior of the spin-splitting zeros in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) signal of a quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor. The zeros as well as the angular dependence of the amplitude of the second harmonic deviate remarkably from the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich (LK) prediction. In contrast, the angular dependence of the fundamental dHvA amplitude as well as the spin-splitting zeros of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) signal follow the LK theory. We can explain this behavior of the dHvA signal by small chemical-potential (CP) oscillations and find a very good agreement between theory and experiment. A detailed wave-shape analysis of the dHvA oscillations corroborates the existence of an oscillating CP. We discuss the absence of the above spin-zero effect in the SdH signal and argue that in {beta}{double_prime}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}SF{sub 5}CH{sub 2}CF{sub 2}SO{sub 3} it can be explained by an incoherent variable range hopping interlayer transport which is insensitive to the small CP oscillations.

  10. Spin dynamics and magnetic correlation length in two-dimensional quantum heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta; Ciabattoni; Cuccoli; Mognaschi; Rigamonti; Tognetti; Verrucchi

    2000-01-10

    The correlated spin dynamics and temperature dependence of the correlation length xi(T) in two-dimensional quantum (S = 1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DQHAF) on a square lattice are discussed in light of experimental results of proton spin lattice relaxation in copper formiate tetradeuterate. In this compound the exchange constant is much smaller than the one in recently studied 2DQHAF, such as La2CuO4 and Sr2CuO2Cl2. Thus the spin dynamics can be probed in detail over a wider temperature range. The NMR relaxation rates turn out to be in excellent agreement with a theoretical mode-coupling calculation. The deduced temperature behavior of xi(T) is in agreement with high-temperature expansions, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, and the pure quantum self-consistent harmonic approximation. Contrary to the predictions of the theories based on the nonlinear sigma model, no evidence of crossover between different quantum regimes is observed.

  11. Absence of localization in disordered two-dimensional electron gas at weak magnetic field and strong spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.

    2016-09-01

    The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.

  12. Magnetic breakdown phenomenon in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors: A quantum model inspired by a realistic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju H.; Han, S. Y.; Brooks, J. S.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 by constructing a tight-binding model based on a realistic band structure which is derived from the crystallographic data. We solve the model numerically to compute the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and show that the present model accounts naturally for the experimentally observed magnetization oscillation frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. The computed values of the fundamental and magnetic breakdown frequencies with no adjustable parameters are close to the experimentally measured values. For completeness, we carry out the computation for both canonical (fixed number of particles) and grand canonical (fixed chemical potential) ensembles, and show that the forbidden frequencies appear in both cases. Hence, the appearance of anomalous frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen effect has a quantum-mechanical origin and arises from the interplay of electronic states from two partially occupied bands near the Fermi energy as a function of magnetic field. We also compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization and apply ad hoc the Lifshitz-Kosevich analysis to the amplitudes of the Fourier components at moderately high temperatures. This yields effective mass values for α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 in good agreement with experimental values.

  13. The two-dimensional 4-state Potts model in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Berche, Bertrand; Shchur, Lev

    2013-01-01

    We present a solution of the non-linear renormalization group equations leading to the dominant and subdominant singular behaviours of physical quantities (free energy density, correlation length, internal energy, specific heat, magnetization, susceptibility and magnetocaloric coefficient) at the critical temperature in a non- vanishing magnetic field. The solutions i) lead to exact cancellation of logarithmic corrections in universal amplitude ratios and ii) prove recently proposed relations among logarithmic exponents.

  14. Magnetic-field-free thermoelectronic power conversion based on graphene and related two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, R.; Hassink, G. W. J.; Stephanos, C.; Rastegar, I.; Braun, W.; Mannhart, J.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile energy converters require, in addition to high conversion efficiency and low cost, a low mass. We propose to utilize thermoelectronic converters that use 2D-materials such as graphene for their gate electrodes. Deriving the ultimate limit for their specific energy output, we show that the positive energy output is likely close to the fundamental limit for any conversion of heat into electric power. These converters may be valuable as electric power sources of spacecraft, and with the addition of vacuum enclosures, for power generation in electric planes and cars.

  15. 2D magnetic texture analysis of Co-Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayirli, Mehmet; Karaagac, Oznur; Kockar, Hakan [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.; Alper, Mursel [Uludag Univ., Bursa (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2017-08-01

    The magnetic textures for the produced magnetic materials are important concepts in accordance with technical applications. Therefore, the aim of this article is to determine 2D magnetic textures of electrodeposited Co-Cu films by the measurement of hysteresis loops at the incremented angles. For that, Co-Cu films were deposited with different Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. In addition, the easy-axis orientation in the films from the squareness values of the angles, M{sub p}(β) obtained by the hysteresis loops have been numerically studied using the Fourier series analysis. The differences observed in the magnetic easy-axis distributions were attributed to changes of the incorporation of Co in the films with the change of Co{sup 2+} in the electrolyte. The coefficients of Fourier series (A{sub 0} and A{sub 2n}) were also computed for 2D films. It is seen that a systematic and small decrease in A{sub 0} and an obvious decrease in A{sub 2n} (n=1) were observed with increasing incorporated Co in the films. Results imply that interactions cause slightly demagnetization effect accordance with higher incorporation of Co in the films. Furthermore, the crystal structure of the Co-Cu films analysed by X-ray diffraction revealed that the films have dominantly face-centred cubic structure. Film contents analysed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and film morphologies observed by scanning electron microscope also support the magnetic texture analysis results found by numerical computation.

  16. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual

  17. On the origin of magnetic anisotropy in two dimensional CrI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, J. L.; Fernández-Rossier, J.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of ferromagnetic order in a monolayer of CrI3 has been recently reported, with a Curie temperature of 45 K and off-plane easy axis. Here we study the origin of magnetic anisotropy, a necessary ingredient to have magnetic order in two dimensions, combining two levels of modeling, density functional calculations and spin model Hamiltonians. We find two different contributions to the magnetic anisotropy of the material, favoring off-plane magnetization and opening a gap in the spin wave spectrum. First, ferromagnetic super-exchange across the ≃90 degree Cr-I-Cr bonds, are anisotropic, due to the spin-orbit interaction of the ligand I atoms. Second, a much smaller contribution that comes from the single ion anisotropy of the S  =  3/2 Cr atom. Our results permit to establish the XXZ Hamiltonian, with a very small single ion anisotropy, as the adequate spin model for this system. Using spin wave theory we estimate the Curie temperature and we highlight the essential role played by the gap that magnetic anisotropy induces on the magnon spectrum.

  18. Hysteretic magnetoresistance and thermal bistability in a magnetic two-dimensional hole system

    CERN Document Server

    Wurstbauer, Ursula; Weiss, Dieter; Dietl, Tomasz; Wegscheider, Werner; 10.1038/nphys1782

    2011-01-01

    Colossal negative magnetoresistance and the associated field-induced insulator-to-metal transition, the most characteristic features of magnetic semiconductors, are observed in n-type rare earth oxides and chalcogenides, p-type manganites, n-type and p-type diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) as well as in quantum wells of n-type DMS. Here, we report on magnetostransport studies of Mn modulation-doped InAs quantum wells, which reveal a magnetic field driven and bias voltage dependent insulator-to-metal transition with abrupt and hysteretic changes of resistance over several orders of magnitude. These phenomena coexist with the quantised Hall effect in high magnetic fields. We show that the exchange coupling between a hole and the parent Mn acceptor produces a magnetic anisotropy barrier that shifts the spin relaxation time of the bound hole to a 100 s range in compressively strained quantum wells. This bistability of the individual Mn acceptors explains the hysteretic behaviour while opening prospects for i...

  19. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A., E-mail: ahierro@fc.up.pt; Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología—CINN (CSIC—Universidad de Oviedo—Principado de Asturias), Parque Tecnológico de Asturias, 33428 Llanera (Spain); Teixeira, J. M. [IN-IFIMUP, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Vélez, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, C/Calvo Sotelo S/N, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  20. Accelerated two-dimensional cine DENSE cardiovascular magnetic resonance using compressed sensing and parallel imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Yang, Yang; Cai, Xiaoying; Auger, Daniel A; Meyer, Craig H; Salerno, Michael; Epstein, Frederick H

    2016-06-14

    Cine Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) provides accurate quantitative imaging of cardiac mechanics with rapid displacement and strain analysis; however, image acquisition times are relatively long. Compressed sensing (CS) with parallel imaging (PI) can generally provide high-quality images recovered from data sampled below the Nyquist rate. The purposes of the present study were to develop CS-PI-accelerated acquisition and reconstruction methods for cine DENSE, to assess their accuracy for cardiac imaging using retrospective undersampling, and to demonstrate their feasibility for prospectively-accelerated 2D cine DENSE imaging in a single breathhold. An accelerated cine DENSE sequence with variable-density spiral k-space sampling and golden angle rotations through time was implemented. A CS method, Block LOw-rank Sparsity with Motion-guidance (BLOSM), was combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) for the reconstruction of under-sampled multi-coil spiral data. Seven healthy volunteers and 7 patients underwent 2D cine DENSE imaging with fully-sampled acquisitions (14-26 heartbeats in duration) and with prospectively rate-2 and rate-4 accelerated acquisitions (14 and 8 heartbeats in duration). Retrospectively- and prospectively-accelerated data were reconstructed using BLOSM-SENSE and SENSE. Image quality of retrospectively-undersampled data was quantified using the relative root mean square error (rRMSE). Myocardial displacement and circumferential strain were computed for functional assessment, and linear correlation and Bland-Altman analyses were used to compare accelerated acquisitions to fully-sampled reference datasets. For retrospectively-undersampled data, BLOSM-SENSE provided similar or lower rRMSE at rate-2 and lower rRMSE at rate-4 acceleration compared to SENSE (p cine DENSE provided good image quality and expected values of displacement and strain. BLOSM-SENSE-accelerated spiral cine DENSE imaging with 2D displacement encoding can be

  1. Absorption induced modulation of magnetism in two-dimensional metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang

    2013-05-28

    Metal-phthalocyanine porous sheets have uniformly dispersed metal sites in Pc framework, making absorption happen naturally. Here, we explore the effects of absorption of chlorine atoms on magnetism in transition metal embedded phthalocyanine (poly-TMPc) sheets with TM = Cr, Mn, and Fe. We show that when one Cl is absorbed on the TM, the strong square planar crystal field becomes weak in a square pyramidal configuration and the TM is in the +3 oxidized state, resulting in the magnetic moment of 3, 4, and 5 μB for Cr, Mn, and Fe, respectively, with weak antiferromagnetic couplings. When another Cl is introduced to the TM on the other side, it extracts one electron from the Pc framework making the substrate p-doped. The magnetic coupling is antiferromagnetic for poly-CrPc-2Cl and the poly-FePc-2Cl, while it becomes ferromagnetic for poly-MnPc-2Cl, suggesting that absorption can effectively modulate the bonding environment and tune the magnetic properties of the systems, and the controlled absorption can be used to tailor materials.

  2. The effect of magnetic field on mean flow generation by rotating two-dimensional convection

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Laura K

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the significant interaction of convection, rotation and magnetic field in many astrophysical objects, we investigate the interplay between large-scale flows driven by rotating convection and an imposed magnetic field. We utilise a simple model in two dimensions comprised of a plane layer that is rotating about an axis inclined to gravity. It is known that this setup can result in strong mean flows; we numerically examine the effect of an imposed horizontal magnetic field on such flows. We show that increasing the field strength in general suppresses the time-dependent mean flows, but in some cases it organises them leading to stronger time-averaged flows. Further, we discuss the effect of the field on the correlations responsible for driving the flows and the competition between Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. A change in behaviour is observed when the (fluid and magnetic) Prandtl numbers are decreased. In the smaller Prandtl number regime, it is shown that significant mean flows can persist even ...

  3. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias

    2016-07-14

    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the "Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry" technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.

  4. Internetwork magnetic field as revealed by 2D inversions

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; Rempel, M

    2016-01-01

    Properties of magnetic field in the internetwork regions are still fairly unknown due to rather weak spectropolarimetric signals. We address the matter by using the 2D inversion code that is able to retrieve the information on smallest spatial scales, up to the diffraction limit, while being less susceptible to noise than most of the previous methods used. Performance of the code and the impact of the various effects on the retrieved field distribution is tested first on the realistic MHD simulations. The best inversion scenario is then applied to the real Hinode/SP data. Tests on simulations show: (1) the best choice of node position ensures a decent retrieval of all parameters, (2) code performs well for different configurations of magnetic field, (3) slightly different noise level or slightly different defocus included in the spatial PSF produces no significant effect on the results and (4) temporal integration shifts the field distribution to the stronger, more horizontally inclined field. Although the co...

  5. Microemulsion phases in one and two dimensional magnetic models with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erik; Bhatt, R. N.; Huse, David

    2007-03-01

    Spivak and Kivelson have proposed that the first order phase transition between the Wigner crystal and Fermi liquid phases of the interacting electron gas in two dimensions is pre-empted by a series of microemulsion phases characterized by phase separation on the mesoscopic scale, which may be responsible for the anomalous conductivity. We have studied analogous classical magnetic models in one and two dimensions. In particular, we present an exact analytical solution of a one dimensional classical ferromagnetic Ising spin chain frustrated by a long range antiferromagnetic interaction, which clearly exhibits such phase separation in which the mesoscale varies continuously with applied magnetic field. We describe these phases in the 1D model and consider extensions to stripe and bubble phases in two dimensions. B. Spivak and S. A.Kivelson, Physical Review B, 70 155114 (2004) K. Ng and D. Vanderbilt, Physical Review B, 52 2177 (1995)

  6. Two-dimensional nonstationary flow of a conducting fluid, induced by a rotating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapusta, A.B.

    1977-07-01

    An examination is made of a full induction problem on the planar movement of a conducting fluid in a rotating magnetic field. The solution to this problem is sought by the method of degradation into Fourier series by harmonics of the rotating field. The initial system of partial differential equations is reduced to the system 2+1 of normal differential equations that bind the amplitudes of function harmonics and electrical vector potential. A solution to the problem for small anti ..omega.. was found with an accuracy up to the second approximation. The unsteadiness of flow was found to be manifested in a form of induced cross-sectional waves, traveling along the stream tubes of this flow at a speed that is equal to the phase velocity of the magnetic field. The appearance of wave effects is explained by considerations of symmetry. 5 references, 1 figure.

  7. Cerebral blood flow volume measurements of the carotid artery and ipsilateral branches using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Guo; Yonggui Yang; Weiqun Yang

    2011-01-01

    The optimal velocity encoding of phase-contrast magnetic resonance angiography (PC MRA) in measuring cerebral blood flow volume (BFV) ranges from 60 to 80 cm/s. To verify the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) PC MRA, the present study localized the region of interest at blood vessels of the neck using PC MRA based on three-dimensional time-of-flight sequences, and the velocity encodingwas set to 80 cm/s. Results of the measurements showed that the error rate was 7.0 ± 6.0%in the estimation of BFV in the internal carotid artery, the external carotid artery and the ipsilateralcommon carotid artery. There was no significant difference, and a significant correlation in BFV between internal carotid artery + external carotid artery and ipsilateral common carotid artery. Inaddition, the BFV of the common carotid artery was correlated with that of the ipsilateral internal carotid artery. The main error was attributed to the external carotid artery and its branches. Therefore,after selecting the appropriate scanning parameters and protocols, 2D PC MRA is more accuratein the determination of BFV in the carotid arteries.

  8. Second constant of motion for two-dimensional positronium in a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Muñoz, G

    2003-01-01

    Recent numerical work indicates that the classical motion of positronium in a constant magnetic field does not exhibit chaotic behavior if the system is confined to two dimensions. One would therefore expect this system to possess a second constant of the motion in addition to the total energy. In this paper we construct a generalization of the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector and show that a component of this vector is a constant of the motion.

  9. Tunability of band structures in a two-dimensional magnetostrictive phononic crystal plate with stress and magnetic loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Shi, Yang [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Yuanwen, E-mail: ywgao@lzu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Department of Mechanics and Engineering Sciences, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)

    2017-03-26

    Considering the magneto-mechanical coupling of magnetostrictive material, the tunability of in-plane wave propagation in two-dimensional Terfenol-D/epoxy phononic crystal (PC) plate is investigated theoretically by the plane wave expansion method. Two Schemes, i.e. magnetic field is rotated in x–y plane and x–z plane, are studied, respectively. The effects of amplitude and direction of magnetic field, pre-stress and geometric parameters are discussed. For Scheme-I, band gap reaches the maximum at an optimal angle 45° of magnetic field. However, the optimal angle is 0° for Scheme-II, because band gap decreases monotonically until disappears with the increasing angle. For both cases, higher-order band gaps generate and become stronger as magnetic field amplitude increases, while increasing compressive pre-stress has the opposite effect. Meanwhile, filling fraction plays a key role in controlling band gaps. These results provide possibility for intelligent regulation and optimal design of PC plates. - Highlights: • The in-plane wave propagation in phononic crystal thin plate is tuned theoretically. • Magnetostrictive material is introduced in the study. • The effects of magnetic field and pre-stress are considered. • The variations of band gaps with external stimuli are discussed.

  10. Effective mass theory of a two-dimensional quantum dot in the presence of magnetic field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Himanshu Asnani; Raghu Mahajan; Praveen Pathak; Vijay A Singh

    2009-09-01

    The effective mass of electrons in low-dimensional semiconductors is position-dependent. The standard kinetic energy operator of quantum mechanics for this position-dependent mass is non-Hermitian and needs to be modified. This is achieved by imposing the BenDaniel–Duke (BDD) boundary condition. We have investigated the role of this boundary condition for semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in one, two and three dimensions. In these systems the effective mass m i inside the dot of size R is different from the mass m o outside. Hence a crucial factor in determining the electronic spectrum is the mass discontinuity factor = /} . We have proposed a novel quantum scale, , which is a dimensionless parameter proportional to 220, where 0 represents the barrier height. We show both by numerical calculations and asymptotic analysis that the ground state energy and the surface charge density, (ρ()), can be large and dependent on . We also show that the dependence of the ground state energy on the size of the dot is infraquadratic. We also study the system in the presence of magnetic field . The BDD condition introduces a magnetic length-dependent term $(\\sqrt{\\hbar /eB})$ into and hence the ground state energy. We demonstrate that the significance of BDD condition is pronounced at large and large magnetic fields. In many cases the results using the BDD condition is significantly different from the non-Hermitian treatment of the problem.

  11. Simulations of super-structure domain walls in two dimensional assemblies of magnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordanovic, Jelena; Beleggia, Marco; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    taking the role of the atomic spins. The coupling is, however, different. The superspins interact only by dipolar interactions as exchange coupling between individual nanoparticles may be neglected due to interparticle spacing. We observe that it is energetically favorable to introduce domain walls...... oriented along the long dimension of nanoparticle assemblies rather than along the short dimension. This is unlike what is typically observed in continuous magnetic materials, where the exchange interaction introduces an energetic cost proportional to the area of the domain walls. Structural disorder...

  12. Zero temperature magnetic phase diagram of Wigner crystal in anisotropic two-dimensional electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Chenggang [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: zcf@ornl.gov; Bhatt, Ravin N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, and Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2008-04-01

    We study the effect of mass anisotropy on the magnetic ordering of the Wigner crystal phase of low density electron systems in two dimensions at T=0. We apply the instanton approximation to various ring exchange processes, which includes the lowest order Gaussian fluctuations beyond the WKB approximation. The multi-particle exchange frequencies are calculated with effective mass anisotropy, both with and without ensuing lattice distortions. We find that when sufficient mass anisotropy is present, the two-spin exchange process between the nearest neighbors becomes more frequent than the three particle processes. Therefore, its corresponding antiferromagnetic exchange exceeds the ferromagnetic exchange from the three-spin process and becomes dominant. Numerical diagonalization of small clusters with two, three, and four-spin exchange terms shows a transition from a ferromagnetic to an antiferromagnetic ground state with increasing mass anisotropy.

  13. Two-dimensional 1H-13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based comprehensive analysis of roasted coffee bean extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feifei; Furihata, Kazuo; Hu, Fangyu; Miyakawa, Takuya; Tanokura, Masaru

    2011-09-14

    Coffee was characterized by proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. To identify the coffee components, a detailed and approximately 90% signal assignment was carried out using various two-dimensional NMR spectra and a spiking method, in which authentic compounds were added to the roasted coffee bean extract (RCBE) sample. A total of 24 coffee components, including 5 polysaccharide units, 3 stereoisomers of chlorogenic acids, and 2 stereoisomers of quinic acids, were identified with the NMR spectra of RCBE. On the basis of the signal assignment, state analyses were further launched for the metal ion-citrate complexes and caffeine-chlorogenate complexes. On the basis of the signal integration, the coffee components were successfully quantified. This NMR methodology yielded detailed information on RCBE using only a single observation and provides a systemic approach for the analysis of other complex mixtures.

  14. Magnetic phases of the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 on a triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    We have carried out Cu,6563 NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 45 T on a single crystal of a multiferroic triangular antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The measurements were performed for magnetic fields aligned along the crystal c axis. Field and temperature evolution of the spectral shape demonstrates a number of phase transitions. It was found that the 3D magnetic ordering takes place in the low field range (H ≲15 T). At higher fields magnetic structures form within individual triangular planes whereas the spin directions of the magnetic ions from neighboring planes are not correlated. It is established that the 2D-3D transition is hysteretic in field and temperature. Line-shape analysis reveals several possible magnetic structures existing within individual planes for different phases of CuCrO2. Within certain regions on the magnetic H -T phase diagram of CuCrO2 a 3D magnetic ordering with tensor order parameter is expected.

  15. Magnetic and Structural Studies on Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Co, Cr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishi, Masakazu; Matsuo, Akira; Kindo, Koichi; Ueda, Yutaka; Ajiro, Yoshitami; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    We report magnetic and structural studies on the two-dimensional antiferromagnets (MCl)LaNb2O7 (M = Mn, Cr, Co), prepared by topochemical reactions of a layered perovskite RbLaNb2O7. Electron diffraction of these oxyhalides revealed a superstructure with a √{2}a × √{2}a cell for M = Mn and Co, and a 2a × 2a cell for M = Cr, indicating that the MCl networks are distorted from an ideal square lattice. Neutron diffraction experiments showed that M = Mn and Co exhibit a (π 0 π ) antiferromagnetic order as observed for the S = 1/2 counterparts. (CoCl)LaNb2O7 with a strong spin anisotropy shows an antiferro to weak-ferromagnetic transition at low field, followed by novel two-step metamagnetic transitions likely associated with a 1/2 plateau for 27-54 T. Possible spin structures under magnetic field are discussed in terms of an Ising-type model. By contrast, (CrCl)LaNb2O7 exhibits a (π π π ) order, which is the first observation among related oxyhalides, and a spin-flop transition at 12 T due to a weak spin anisotropy. These results suggest that a slight difference in the MCl structure and spin anisotropy provides a crucial influence on the magnetic properties.

  16. Two-dimensional model of the Penning discharge in a cylindrical chamber with the axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhikov, S. T.

    2017-08-01

    The drift-diffusion model of a Penning discharge in molecular hydrogen under pressures of about 1 Torr with regard to the external electric circuit has been proposed. A two-dimensional axially symmetric discharge geometry with a cylindrical anode and flat cathodes perpendicular to the symmetry axis has been investigated. An external magnetic field of about 0.1 T is applied in the axial direction. Using the developed drift-diffusion model, the electrodynamic structure of a Penning discharge in the pressure range of 0.5-5 Torr at a current source voltage of 200-500 V is numerically simulated. The evolution of the discharge electrodynamic structure upon pressure variations in zero magnetic field (the classical glow discharge mode) and in the axial magnetic field (Penning discharge) has been studied using numerical experiments. The theoretical predictions of the existence of an averaged electron and ion motion in a Penning discharge both in the axial and radial directions and in the azimuthal direction have been confirmed by the calculations.

  17. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt3 films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J O; Newville, M; Maranville, B B; Bordel, C; Hellman, F; Harris, V G

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt(3) alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt(3) films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt(3) alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 Å for the Co clusters.

  18. Evidence for nanoscale two-dimensional Co clusters in CoPt{sub 3} films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J O [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Newville, M [Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Maranville, B B; Hellman, F [Department of Physics, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Bordel, C [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Harris, V G, E-mail: cbordel@berkeley.ed [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2010-04-14

    The length scale of the local chemical anisotropy responsible for the growth-temperature-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of face-centered cubic CoPt{sub 3} alloy films was investigated using polarized extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS). These x-ray measurements were performed on a series of four (111) CoPt{sub 3} films epitaxially grown on (0001) sapphire substrates. The EXAFS data show a preference for Co-Co pairs parallel to the film plane when the film exhibits magnetic anisotropy, and random chemical order otherwise. Furthermore, atomic pair correlation anisotropy was evidenced only in the EXAFS signal from the next neighbors to the absorbing Co atoms and from multiple scattering paths focused through the next neighbors. This suggests that the Co clusters are no more than a few atoms in extent in the plane and one monolayer in extent out of the plane. Our EXAFS results confirm the correlation between perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and two-dimensional Co segregation in CoPt{sub 3} alloy films, and establish a length scale on the order of 10 A for the Co clusters.

  19. Partition function for the two-dimensional square lattice Ising model in a non-zero magnetic field-A heuristic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The exact partition function of the two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising model pertaining to square lattices is derived for N sites in the case of a non-vanishing magnetic field.When the magnetic field is zero,the partition functions estimated from the present analysis are identical with those arising from Onsager's exact solution.

  20. Effects of anisotropy and magnetic fields on the specific heat of a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Zhi-Yuan; Li Yu-Qi; Pan Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects due to anisotropy and magnetic field interaction for a quasi-two-dimensional Boltzmann gas in an elliptical parabolic quantum dot.The specific heat is studied with varying temperature,anisotropy,and magnetic field strength.The cases without and with the inclusion of the spin Zeeman interaction are considered.

  1. Two-dimensional inflow-wind solution of black hole accretion with an evenly symmetric magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Mosallanezhad, Amin; Yuan, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We solve the two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations of black hole accretion with the presence of magnetic field. The field includes a turbulent component, whose role is represented by the viscosity, and a large-scale ordered component. The latter is further assumed to be evenly symmetric with the equatorial plane. The equations are solved in the $r-\\theta$ plane of a spherical coordinate by assuming time-steady and radially self-similar. An inflow-wind solution is found. Around the equatorial plane, the gas is inflowing; while above and below the equatorial plane at a certain critical $\\theta$ angle, $\\theta\\sim 47^{\\circ}$, the inflow changes its direction of radial motion and becomes wind. The driving forces are analyzed and found to be the centrifugal force and the gradient of gas and magnetic pressure. The properties of wind are also calculated. The specific angular momentum of wind is found to be significantly larger than that of inflow, thus wind can transfer angular momentum outward. These...

  2. Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.

    2013-01-01

    We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f

  3. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Property of a Two-dimensional Manganese Compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; WANG Wen-Guo; MA Cheng-Bing; CHEN Chang-Neng; LIU Qiu-Tian; LIAO Dai-Zheng; LI Li-Cun

    2007-01-01

    A new two-dimensional polymeric manganese compound [Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine)]n 1 has been prepared and structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction. The complex crystallizes in space group Pbcn with a = 18.7158(2), b = 11.6919(3), c = 9.4799(2)(A), V = 2074.42(7)(A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 453.34, Dc = 1.452 g/cm3, μ = 0.670 mm-1 and F(000) = 932. The final refinement gave R = 0.0458 and wR = 0.1439 for 1358 observed reflections with Ⅰ> 2σ(Ⅰ). The complex consists of repeating units of Mn(PhCOO)2(4,4'-bipyridine). Each Mn center is sixcoordinated by four carboxylate O atoms of four benzoate anions and two pyridyl N atoms from bipy ligands to furnish a slightly distorted octahedral geometry. The two adjacent Mn atoms are connected by a pair of μ1,3-carboxylate groups to form infinite chains, which are further interlinked by bipy to complete a 2D grid network. The magnetic property of the polymeric complex has also been investigated.

  4. Diverse effects of two-dimensional and step flow growth mode induced microstructures on the magnetic anisotropies of SrRuO[subscript3] thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y.Z.; Chmaissem, O.; Kolesnik, S.; Ullah, A.; Lurio, L.B.; Brown, D.E.; Brady, J.; Dabrowski, B.; Kimball, C.W.; Haji-Sheikh, M.; Genis, A.P. (NIU)

    2010-12-03

    Geometrical anisotropy axes of diverse SrRuO{sub 3} (SRO) films grown by random and directional two-dimensional and step flow modes are determined and their characteristic angular magnetizations are understood in terms of growth mode induced structural effects. Two-dimensional SRO films possess single-crystal-like structural qualities. Angular magnetization measurements show sharp minima and indicate the films easy axis to be in the [310] direction. In contrast, examination of step flow SRO films shows the presence of degenerate multiple in-plane domains and the anisotropy axis in a direction close to [110] even though directional surface steps are clearly visible.

  5. Computer simulation of growth and magnetic properties of quasi 2D magnetic cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Balakirev, V.A. Zhikharev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The computer simulation of the formation of 2D magnetic cluster is performed. It is shown that the magnetic interaction between growing cluster and randomly walking atoms results in the cluster elongation in the cluster magnetization direction. The features of microwave field absorption (FMR or SPR signals in thin granular film consisting of elongated clusters are discussed. Magnetic resonance measurements can provide the detailed information on shape anisotropy of the particles and give an evidence for considered model of magnetic cluster growth.

  6. Nanosheets of Two-Dimensional Magnetic and Conducting Fe(II)/Fe(III) Mixed-Valence Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, Samia; Abhervé, Alexandre; Gómez-Claramunt, Patricia; Vallés-García, Cristina; Gómez-García, Carlos J

    2017-08-09

    We report the synthesis, magnetic properties, electrical conductivity, and delamination into thin nanosheets of two anilato-based Fe(II)/Fe(III) mixed-valence two-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Compounds [(H3O)(H2O)(phenazine)3][Fe(II)Fe(III)(C6O4X2)3]·12H2O [X = Cl (1) and Br (2)] present a honeycomb layered structure with an eclipsed packing that generates hexagonal channels containing the water molecules. Both compounds show ferrimagnetic ordering at ca. 2 K coexisting with electrical conductivity (with room temperature conductivities of 0.03 and 0.003 S/cm). Changing the X group from Cl to Br leads to a decrease in the ordering temperature and room temperature conductivity that is correlated with the decrease of the electronegativity of X. Despite the ionic charge of the anilato-based layers, these MOFs can be easily delaminated in thin nanosheets with the thickness of a few monolayers.

  7. Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang-Do, Ngoc-Tram [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Pham, Dang-Lan [Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software Town, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Le, Van-Hoang, E-mail: hoanglv@hcmup.edu.vn [Department of Physics, Ho Chi Minh City University of Pedagogy 280, An Duong Vuong Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2013-08-15

    Exact numerical solutions of the Schrödinger equation for a two-dimensional exciton in a constant magnetic field of arbitrary strength are obtained for not only the ground state but also high excited states. Toward this goal, the operator method is developed by combining with the Levi-Civita transformation which transforms the problem under investigation into that of a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator. This development of the non-perturbation method is significant because it can be applied to other problems of two-dimensional atomic systems. The obtained energies and wave functions set a new record for their precision of up to 20 decimal places. Analyzing the obtained data we also find an interesting result that exact analytical solutions exist at some values of magnetic field intensity.

  8. Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai

    2008-01-01

    By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.

  9. Slow relaxation of the magnetization observed in an antiferromagnetically ordered phase for SCM-based two-dimensional layered compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi

    2017-03-07

    Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)}4C6](BF4)2·2(CH3OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)}4C6](PF6)2·2(CH3OH) (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6(2-) = C6H12(COO)2(2-)), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H2O)]X (X(-) = BF4(-) and PF6(-)) and C6H12(CO2(-))2 (C6(2-)) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ(4)-type C6(2-) ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C6H12 linkers of C6(2-) moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF4(-) and PF6(-), respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF4(-) is smaller than that of PF6(-), intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn(III) out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion, the [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of TN = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.

  10. Tricritical wetting in the two-dimensional Ising magnet due to the presence of localized non-magnetic impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2016-03-31

    Fixed vacancies (non-magnetic impurities) are placed along the centre of Ising strips in order to study the wetting behaviour in this confined system, by means of numerical simulations analysed with the aid of finite size scaling and thermodynamic integration methods. By considering strips of size L × M (L interface between magnetic domains of different orientation (driven by the corresponding surface fields), which are the precursors of the wetting transitions that occur in the thermodynamic limit. By placing vacancies or equivalently non-magnetic impurities along the centre of the sample, we found that for low vacancy densities the wetting transitions are of second order, while by increasing the concentration of vacancies the transitions become of first order. Second- and first-order lines meet in tricritical wetting points (H(tric)(SW), T(tric)(W)), where H(tric)(SW) and T(Tric)(W) are the magnitude of the surface field and the temperature, respectively. In the phase diagram, tricritical points shift from the high temperature and weak surface field regime at large vacancy densities to the T --> 0, H(tric)(SW) --> 1 limit for low vacancy densities. By comparing the locations of the tricritical points with those corresponding to the case of mobile impurities, we conclude that in order to observe similar effects, in the latter the required density of impurities is much smaller (e.g. by a factor 3-5). Furthermore, a proper density of non magnetic impurities placed along the centre of a strip can effectively pin rather flat magnetic interfaces for suitable values of the competing surface fields and temperature.

  11. Negative differential conductivity induced current instability in two-dimensional electron gas system in high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2015-03-01

    High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of I. As the current exceed Ith, Vxx suddenly drops a ΔVxx and becomes irregular associated with the appearance of hysteresis with sweeping I. We find that Ith increases with the increase of B and of T; meanwhile, ΔVxx is larger at higher B but lower T. Data analysis suggest that the onset of voltage fluctuation can be described by a NDC model proposed by Kurosawa et al. in 1976. The general behaviors of T and B dependence of current instability are analog to those recently reported at lower both T and B. This consistence suggests the same genuine mechanism of NDC phenomena observed in 2DEG system.

  12. 4-D flow magnetic resonance imaging: blood flow quantification compared to 2-D phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and Doppler echocardiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabbour, Maya [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jarvis, Kelly [Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Evanston, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging 9, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Doppler echocardiography (echo) is the reference standard for blood flow velocity analysis, and two-dimensional (2-D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered the reference standard for quantitative blood flow assessment. However, both clinical standard-of-care techniques are limited by 2-D acquisitions and single-direction velocity encoding and may make them inadequate to assess the complex three-dimensional hemodynamics seen in congenital heart disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI (4-D flow) enables qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex blood flow in the heart and great arteries. The objectives of this study are to compare 4-D flow with 2-D phase-contrast MRI for quantification of aortic and pulmonary flow and to evaluate the advantage of 4-D flow-based volumetric flow analysis compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo for peak velocity assessment in children and young adults. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI of the aortic root, main pulmonary artery (MPA), and right and left pulmonary arteries (RPA, LPA) and 4-D flow with volumetric coverage of the aorta and pulmonary arteries were performed in 50 patients (mean age: 13.1 ± 6.4 years). Four-dimensional flow analyses included calculation of net flow and regurgitant fraction with 4-D flow analysis planes similarly positioned to 2-D planes. In addition, 4-D flow volumetric assessment of aortic root/ascending aorta and MPA peak velocities was performed and compared to 2-D phase-contrast MRI and echo. Excellent correlation and agreement were found between 2-D phase-contrast MRI and 4-D flow for net flow (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) and excellent correlation with good agreement was found for regurgitant fraction (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) in all vessels. Two-dimensional phase-contrast MRI significantly underestimated aortic (P = 0.032) and MPA (P < 0.001) peak velocities compared to echo, while volumetric 4-D flow analysis resulted in higher (aortic: P = 0.001) or similar (MPA: P = 0.98) peak

  13. 2D aquifer characterization and improved prediction of hydraulic conductivity using surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugosch, Raphael; Günther, Thomas; Müller-Petke, Mike; Yaramanci, Ugur

    2014-05-01

    We present recent studies on the characterization of shallow aquifers using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). NMR can help to gather detailed information about the water content and pore size related NMR relaxation time, of porous and water saturated material. The field application of surface NMR uses large wire loops placed at the surface of the Earth allows imaging the subsurface down to around hundred meters. First, a sophisticated inversion scheme is presented to simultaneously determine the two-dimensional (2D) distribution of the water content and the NMR relaxation time (T2*) in the subsurface from a surface NMR survey. The outstanding features of the new inversion scheme are its robustness to noisy data and the potential to distinguish aquifers of different lithology due to their specific NMR relaxation time. The successful application of the inversion scheme is demonstrated on two field cases both characterized by channel structures in the glacial sediments of Northern Germany. Second, we revise the prediction of hydraulic conductivity from NMR measurements for coarse-grained and unconsolidated sediments, commonly found in shallow aquifers. The presented Kozeny-Godefroy model replaces the empirical factors in known relations with physical, structural, and intrinsic NMR parameters. It additionally accounts for bulk water relaxation and is not limited to fast diffusion conditions. This improves the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity for clay-free sediments with grain sizes larger than medium sand. The model is validated by laboratory measurements on glass beads and sand samples. Combining the new inversion scheme and petrophysical model allows 2D imaging of the hydraulic conductivity in the subsurface from a surface NMR survey.

  14. Partition Function for Two-Dimensional Nearest Neighbour Ising Model in a Non-Zero Magnetic Field for a Square Lattice of 16 Sites

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    An explicit expression for the partition function of two-dimensional nearest neighbour Ising models in the presence of a magnetic field is derived by a systematic enumeration of all the spin configurations pertaining to a square lattice of sixteen sites. The critical temperature is shown to be in excellent agreement with the reported values while the corresponding dimensionless magnetic field is obtained as 0.004.

  15. Optical Signatures from Magnetic 2-D Electron Gases in High Magnetic Fields to 60 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crooker, S.A.; Kikkawa, J.M.; Awschalom, D.D.; Smorchikova, I.P.; Samarth, N.

    1998-11-08

    We present experiments in the 60 Tesla Long-Pulse magnet at the Los Alamos National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) focusing on the high-field, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) from modulation-doped ZnSe/Zn(Cd,Mn)Se single quantum wells. High-speed charge-coupled array detectors and the long (2 second) duration of the magnet pulse permit continuous acquisition of optical spectra throughout a single magnet shot. High-field PL studies of the magnetic 2D electron gases at temperatures down to 350mK reveal clear intensity oscillations corresponding to integer quantum Hall filling factors, from which we determine the density of the electron gas. At very high magnetic fields, steps in the PL energy are observed which correspond to the partial unlocking of antiferromagnetically bound pairs of Mn2+ spins.

  16. Direct Analysis of Free and Sulfite-Bound Carbonyl Compounds in Wine by Two-Dimensional Quantitative Proton and Carbon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolantonaki, Maria; Magiatis, Prokopios; Waterhouse, Andrew L

    2015-11-03

    Recent developments that have accelerated 2D NMR methods and improved quantitation have made these methods accessible analytical procedures, and the large signal dispersion allows for the analysis of complex samples. Few natural samples are as complex as wine, so the application to challenges in wine analysis look promising. The analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, key oxidation products, is complicated by a multitude of kinetically reversible adducts, such as acetals and sulfonates, so that sample preparation steps can generate complex interferences. These challenges could be overcome if the compounds could be quantified in situ. Here, two-dimensional ((1)H-(1)H) homonuclear and heteronuclear ((13)C-(1)H) single quantum correlations (correlation spectroscopy, COSY, and heteronuclear single quantum coherence, HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of undiluted wine samples were observed at natural abundance. These techniques achieve simultaneous direct identification and quantitation of acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, acetoin, methylglyoxal, and α-ketoglutaric acid in wine with only a small addition of D2O. It was also possible to observe and sometimes quantify the sulfite, hydrate, and acetal forms of the carbonyl compounds. The accuracy of the method was tested in wine samples by spiking with a mixture of all analytes at different concentrations. The method was applied to 15 wine samples of various vintages and grape varieties. The application of this method could provide a powerful tool to better understand the development, evolution, and perception of wine oxidation and insight into the impact of these sulfite bound carbonyls on antimicrobial and antioxidant action by SO2.

  17. MHD Mode Conversion around a 2D Magnetic Null Point

    CERN Document Server

    McDougall, A M D; 10.1063/1.3099224

    2009-01-01

    Mode conversion occurs when a wave passes through a region where the sound and Alfven speeds are equal. At this point there is a resonance, which allows some of the incident wave to be converted into a different mode. We study this phenomenon in the vicinity of a two-dimensional, coronal null point. As a wave approaches the null it passes from low- to high-beta plasma, allowing conversion to take place. We simulate this numerically by sending in a slow magnetoacoustic wave from the upper boundary; as this passes through the conversion layer a fast wave can clearly be seen propagating ahead. Numerical simulations combined with an analytical WKB investigation allow us to determine and track both the incident and converted waves throughout the domain.

  18. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  19. Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…

  20. Left ventricular mechanics assessed by two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: comparison of high-resolution speckle tracking and feature tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurich, Matthias; Keller, Marius; Greiner, Sebastian; Steen, Henning; Aus dem Siepen, Fabian; Riffel, Johannes; Katus, Hugo A; Buss, Sebastian J; Mereles, Derliz

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic function plays a central role in cardiac imaging. Calculation of ejection fraction (EF) is the current method of choice; however, its limited intermodal comparability represents a major drawback. The assessment of myocardial mechanics by strain imaging may better reflect the complex myocardial contractility. We aimed to evaluate different methods for quantification of LV strain on global and regional levels with a focus on the new non-proprietary feature tracking (FT) algorithm. Measurements of LV deformation were performed by means of high-resolution two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and compared with values obtained by 2D feature tracking echocardiography (FT-E) and feature tracking cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR). Assessments with echocardiography started within 30 min after CMR examination to minimize time-dependent variations in myocardial function. Forty-seven patients were included. Assessments by STE were -15.7 ± 5.0% for global longitudinal strain (GLS), -14.6 ± 4.5% for global circumferential strain (GCS), and 21.6 ± 13.3% for global radial strain (GRS), while values obtained with FT-E were -13.1 ± 4.0, -13.6 ± 4.0, 20.3 ± 9.5, and with FT-CMR -15.0 ± 4.0, -16.9 ± 5.4, and 35.0 ± 10.8, respectively. Linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis showed the best intramodal association for STE GLS and FT-E GLS (r = 0.88, bias = -2.7%, LOA = ±4.7%). The correlation for GCS and GRS was weaker, and for regional strain was poor. In contrast to EF, GLS showed a better intermodal correlation between echocardiography and CMR (r = 0.81 by speckle tracking, r = 0.8 by FT, and r = 0.78 by EF). In our study, measurement of global longitudinal LV strain using the new FT algorithm with CMR and echocardiography was comparable with measurements obtained by high-resolution STE. Compared with echocardiographic EF determination, FT-E GLS shows a better reproducibility and a better

  1. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  2. Comparative analysis between two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI acquisitions - clinical applications for the evaluation of the knees in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA); Analise comparativa entre aquisicao tri (3D) e bidimensional (2D) em ressonancia magnetica - aplicabilidade clinica em joelhos em artrite reumatoide juvenil (ARJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doria, Andre S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Rebelo, Marina de Sa [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Informatica; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica] [and others

    2000-06-01

    In this cross-sectional study in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis the authors compare two-dimensional evaluation of the maximum synovial diameter on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SE (spin-echo) sequences with volumetric (three-dimensional assessment) on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SPIR (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery) SE sequences. With the aim of determining their cost-effectiveness these two methods of assessment were compared to clinical and laboratorial parameters, as well as the presence of synovial enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  3. Stream function-velocity-magnetic induction compact difference method for the 2D steady incompressible full magnetohydrodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, P. X.; Tian, Z. F.; Ying, A. Y.; Abdou, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, an effective and accurate numerical model that involves a suggested mathematical formulation, viz., the stream functions (ψ and A)-velocity-magnetic induction formulation and a fourth-order compact difference algorithm is proposed for solving the two-dimensional (2D) steady incompressible full magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow equations. The stream functions-velocity-magnetic induction formulation of the 2D incompressible full MHD equations is able to circumvent the difficulty of handling the pressure variable in the primitive variable formulation or determining the vorticity values on the boundary in the stream function-vorticity formulation, and also ensure the divergence-free constraint condition of the magnetic field inherently. A test problem with the analytical solution, the well-studied lid-driven cavity problem in viscous fluid flow and the lid-driven MHD flow in a square cavity are performed to assess and verify the accuracy and the behavior of the method proposed currently. Numerical results for the present method are compared with the analytical solution and the other high-order accurate results. It is shown that the proposed stream function-velocity-magnetic induction compact difference method not only has the excellent performances in computational accuracy and efficiency, but also matches well with the divergence-free constraint of the magnetic field. Moreover, the benchmark solutions for the lid-driven cavity MHD flow in the presence of the aligned and transverse magnetic field for Reynolds number (Re) up to 5000 are provided for the wide range of magnetic Reynolds number (Rem) from 0.01 to 100 and Hartmann number (Ha) up to 4000.

  4. Energy spectrum and specific heat of two-dimensional electron systems with spin-orbit interaction in a magnetic field parallel to the conducting layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.

  5. Perspective: Probing 2-D magnetic structures in a 3-D world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Grutter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic interfaces have been identified as promising systems upon which to base next-generation spintronic devices. In these nearly two-dimensional systems, deviations from bulk electronic structure and competition between nearly degenerate magnetic ground states allow the stabilization of widely tunable emergent properties. However, ever smaller length scales pose new challenges which must be overcome in order to understand and control magnetic properties at the atomic level. Using recent examples in oxide heterostructures and topological insulators, we discuss how combining techniques such as neutron scattering, X-ray scattering, X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy enables the probing of magnetism on the Angstrom scale.

  6. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H1,δH1,H1,δH1,..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H1tr/J=3, δtr=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×Tcb. Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H1w) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.44.1165 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ≪M, e.g., [H1(x,λ)>0], one can obtain the effective field Heff at a λ coarse-grained level given by Heff=(1)/(λ)∑x=1

  7. Influence of nonuniform surface magnetic fields in wetting transitions in a confined two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobo, Marta L; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2013-11-01

    Wetting transitions are studied in the two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet confined between walls where competitive surface fields act. In our finite samples of size L×M, the walls are separated by a distance L, M being the length of the sample. The surface fields are taken to be short-range and nonuniform, i.e., of the form H(1),δH(1),H(1),δH(1),..., where the parameter -1≤δ≤1 allows us to control the nonuniformity of the fields. By performing Monte Carlo simulations we found that those competitive surface fields lead to the occurrence of an interface between magnetic domains of different orientation that runs parallel to the walls. In finite samples, such an interface undergoes a localization-delocalization transition, which is the precursor of a true wetting transition that takes place in the thermodynamic limit. By exactly working out the ground state (T=0), we found that besides the standard nonwet and wet phases, a surface antiferromagnetic-like state emerges for δ3), H(1)(tr)/J=3, δ(tr)=-1/3,T=0, being a triple point where three phases coexist. By means of Monte Carlo simulations it is shown that these features of the phase diagram remain at higher temperatures; e.g., we examined in detail the case T=0.7×T(cb). Furthermore, we also recorded phase diagrams for fixed values of δ, i.e., plots of the critical field at the wetting transition (H(1w)) versus T showing, on the one hand, that the exact results of Abraham [Abraham, Phys. Rev. Lett. 44, 1165 (1980)] for δ=1 are recovered, and on the other hand, that extrapolations to T→0 are consistent with our exact results. Based on our numerical results we conjectured that the exact result for the phase diagram worked out by Abraham can be extended for the case of nonuniform fields. In fact, by considering a nonuniform surface field of some period λ, with λ0], one can obtain the effective field H(eff) at a λ coarse-grained level given by H(eff)=1/λ∑(x=1)(λ)H(1)(x,λ). Then we conjectured that the

  8. Discovery of hard-magnetic domains in two-dimensional arrays of soft-magnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ji; Sun, Shuangshuang; Wang, Tiantian; Chen, Kezheng, E-mail: kchen@qust.edu.cn [Lab of Functional and Biomedical Nanomaterials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China)

    2015-08-21

    In this study, abnormal hard-magnetic domains were discovered in Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C composite material, in which well-ordered 16-nm-sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} cubes were tightly embedded into carbon sheets of tens of nanometers thick. It was found that ca. 40 columns of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocubes magnetically self-assembled into a single strip-type domain with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. More strikingly, remarkable domain misalignments, which were very similar to common edge dislocations among atomic planes in crystal lattices, were clearly observed and termed as “domain dislocation” in this work. The hard-magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@C material, including large coercivity of 2150 Oe, high M{sub R}/M{sub S} value of 0.9, and strong anisotropy energy of 3.772 × 10{sup 5} erg/cm{sup 3}, were further ascertained by carefully designed electromagnetic absorption contrast experiments. It is anticipated that the discovery of hard-magnetic domains and domain dislocations within 2-D arrays of soft-magnetic nanomaterials will shed new light on the development of high-density perpendicular magnetic recording industry.

  9. Accurate iterative solution of the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field of arbitrary strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey) and Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Nigde University, Nigde (Turkey)]. E-mail: asimsoylu@gmail.com; Boztosun, I. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    In this paper, we present the energy eigenvalues of a two-dimensional hydrogenic donor in a magnetic field by using the asymptotic iteration method. The binding energy eigenvalues in the presence of weak and strong magnetic fields ({gamma}<>0) are obtained within the framework of this iterative approach for 1S, 2P{sup -} and 3D{sup -} levels. The energy eigenvalues for the non-magnetic field case ({gamma}=0) are also determined and the results are compared with the values in weak and strong magnetic fields. The effect of the magnetic field strength on the energy eigenvalues are determined explicitly and excellent agreement with the findings of other methods is obtained.

  10. Indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the two-dimensional topological insulator based on CdTe/HgTe/CdTe quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovich, P. D.; Kurilovich, V. D.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2016-10-01

    We study indirect exchange interaction between magnetic impurities in the (001) CdTe/HgTe/CdTe symmetric quantum well. We consider low temperatures and the case of the chemical potential placed in the energy gap of the two-dimensional quasiparticle spectrum. We find that the indirect exchange interaction is suppressed exponentially with the distance between magnetic impurities. The presence of inversion asymmetry results in oscillations of the indirect exchange interaction with the distance and generates additional terms which are noninvariant under rotations in the (001) plane. The indirect exchange interaction matrix has complicated structure with some terms proportional to the sign of the energy gap.

  11. Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.

    2014-06-01

    A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.

  12. Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.

  13. Emergence of a two-dimensional macrospin liquid in a highly frustrated three-dimensional quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkenk, Tycho S.; Coester, Kris; Buhrandt, Stefan; Fritz, Lars; Schmidt, Kai P.

    2017-02-01

    The classical Ising model on the frustrated three-dimensional (3D) swedenborgite lattice has disordered spin liquid ground states for all ratios of inter- and intraplanar couplings. Quantum fluctuations due to a transverse field give rise to several exotic phenomena. In the limit of weakly coupled kagome layers we find a 3D version of disorder by disorder degeneracy lifting. For large out-of-plane couplings one-dimensional macrospins are formed, which realize a disordered macrospin liquid phase on an emerging two-dimensional triangular lattice. We speculate about a possibly exotic version of quantum criticality that connects the polarized phase to the macrospin liquid.

  14. Follow-up after embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: A prospective comparison of two-dimensional digital subtraction angiography, three-dimensional digital subtraction angiography, and time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Zbigniew; Strzesniewski, Piotr; Lasek, Wladyslaw [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, Bydgoszcz (Poland); Beuth, Wojciech [Nicolaus Copernicus University, Collegium Medicum, Department of Neurosurgery and Neurotraumatology, Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2012-11-15

    To prospectively compare of the diagnostic value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) in the follow-up of intracranial aneurysms after endovascular treatment. Seventy-two consecutive patients were examined 3 months after the embolization. The index tests included: two-dimensional DSA (2D-DSA), three-dimensional DSA (3D-DSA), and TOF-MRA. The reference test was a retrospective consensus between 2D-DSA images, 3D-DSA images, and source rotational DSA images. The evaluation included: detection of the residual flow, quantification of the flow, and validity of the decision regarding retreatment. Intraobserver agreement and interobserver agreement were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of residual flow detection ranged from 84.6 % (2D-DSA and TOF-MRA) to 92.3 % (3D-DSA) and from 91.3 % (TOF-MRA) to 97.8 % (3D-DSA), respectively. The accuracy of occlusion degree evaluation ranged from 0.78 (2D-DSA) to 0.92 (3D-DSA, Cohen's kappa). The 2D-DSA method presented lower performance in the decision on retreatment than 3D-DSA (P < 0.05, ROC analysis). The intraobserver agreement was very good for all techniques ({kappa} = 0.80-0.97). The interobserver agreement was moderate for TOF-MRA and very good for 2D-DSA and 3D-DSA ({kappa} = 0.72-0.94). Considering the invasiveness of DSA and the minor difference in the diagnostic performance between 3D-DSA and TOF-MRA, the latter method should be the first-line modality for follow-up after aneurysm embolization. (orig.)

  15. Terahertz Induced Photoconductivity of 2D Electron System in HEMT at Low Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Chebotarev, Andrey; Chebotareva, Galina

    2004-01-01

    A few results of our study of two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in low magnetic fields in GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructures by cyclotron resonance (CR) and photoconductivity techniques are presented. We have first discovered "CR-vanishing effect"in 2DES as well-defined crevasse on CR line in low magnetic fields, when Hall resistance is not quantized. "CR-vanishing effect" indicates vanishing longitudinal resistance & conductivity in these magnetic fields. Observed "CR-vanishing effect" demons...

  16. Magnetic Imaging of Applied and Propagating Action Currents in Cardiac Tissue Slices: Determination of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivities in a Two-Dimensional Bidomain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Daniel Joseph

    We describe the first, high-resolution magnetic images of applied currents and propagating action currents in slices of canine cardiac tissue. This tissue was maintained in vitro at 37^circC. Our main conclusions are summarized as follows: the action currents produce magnetic fields which are measurable; during the initial stages of the propagating action potential, small, expanding, quatrefoil loops of current develop; the magnetic fields produced by repolarization currents are larger than previously anticipated. Most of the current associated with the propagating action potential is confined within the wavefront and should be magnetically silent; however, differences in the intracellular and extracellular electrical conductivities, in both the longitudinal and transverse fiber directions, are great enough that expanding quatrefoil current densities are associated with the wavefront and produce measurable magnetic fields. Since action currents are affected by the electrical conductivities, it is of interest to determine their values, which depend not only upon the tissue characteristics, but also on the mathematical model used to interpret the measured data. In our analysis of current injection, we use the anisotropic bidomain model which incorporates a passive, linear membrane. We introduce theoretical techniques to calculate the anisotropic conductivities of a two-dimensional bidomain. To apply these techniques to magnetic fields resulting from current injection into cardiac tissue slices, we need to improve the higher spatial frequency content of our present measurements. This may be done by measuring the magnetic field closer to the cardiac slice (presently 2.5 mm), decreasing the sampling interval of the measurement, and increasing the sampling area of the field. Magnetic fields are produced by propagating action currents, which are in turn the result of the propagating action potential. From the magnetic field, we directly image isochronal transmembrane

  17. A type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet for magnetic system in AEMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of permanent magnet (PM is very important in the process of electromagnetic system calculation of aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR. In traditional analytical calculation, PM is often equivalent to a lumped parameter model of one magnetic resistance and one magnetic potential, but great error is often caused for the inner differences of PM; based on the conception of flux tube, a type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet model (2D MECF is established; the element is defined, the relationship between elements is deduced, and solution procedure as well as verification condition of this model is given; by a case study of the electromagnetic system of a certain type of AEMR, the electromagnetic system calculation model is established based on 2D MECF and the attractive force at different rotation angles is calculated; the proposed method is compared with the traditional lumped parameter model and finite element method (FEM; for some types of electromagnetic systems with symmetrical structure, 2D MECF proves to be of acceptable accuracy and high calculation speed which fit the requirement of robust design for AEMR.

  18. A type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet for magnetic system in AEMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Huimin; You Jiaxin; Cai Zhaowen; Zhai Guofu

    2015-01-01

    Modeling of permanent magnet (PM) is very important in the process of electromagnetic system calculation of aerospace electromagnetic relay (AEMR). In traditional analytical calcula-tion, PM is often equivalent to a lumped parameter model of one magnetic resistance and one mag-netic potential, but great error is often caused for the inner differences of PM; based on the conception of flux tube, a type of 2D magnetic equivalent circuit framework of permanent magnet model (2D MECF) is established; the element is defined, the relationship between elements is deduced, and solution procedure as well as verification condition of this model is given;by a case study of the electromagnetic system of a certain type of AEMR, the electromagnetic system calcu-lation model is established based on 2D MECF and the attractive force at different rotation angles is calculated;the proposed method is compared with the traditional lumped parameter model and finite element method (FEM); for some types of electromagnetic systems with symmetrical struc-ture, 2D MECF proves to be of acceptable accuracy and high calculation speed which fit the requirement of robust design for AEMR.

  19. Detection of mullerian duct anomalies: diagnostic utility of two dimensional ultrasonography as compared to magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Pratap Singh Senger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs are a fascinating group of disorders that have varied clinical presentation from being asymptomatic to primary amenorrhea to inability to reproduce. Correct diagnosis of the condition plays a crucial role in management. Imaging plays a pivotal role in making correct diagnosis. This study aims to find the prevalence of MDAs amongst study population and their relation with infertility and also compares diagnostic utility of pelvic ultrasound with MRI. Methods: A randomized diagnostic test evaluation study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging of a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 2 years. The patient first underwent pelvic 2D USG in multiple planes using curvilinear probe of 3MHz to 5 MHz. frequency and then MRI. Results: Most common MDA in total study sample and in primary infertility group is arcuate uterus while in recurrent abortions group it is unicornuate uterus. Out of total study sample of 75 patients 2D USG detected 18 cases of MDA while MRI detected 22 cases of MDA. So, 2D USG failed to detect 04 cases of MDA in total study population bringing overall sensitivity of 2D USG as 81.8%, specificity of 100%, PPV of 100%, NPV of 93.4% and accuracy of 94.6%. Conclusions: 2D USG has a few limitations but in view of relatively simple imaging procedure, ease of availability and cost effectiveness it should be utilized as an initial imaging modality in patients with suspicion of MDAs.

  20. Spin-dynamics simulations of vortex precession in 2-D magnetic dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depondt, Ph., E-mail: depondt@insp.jussieu.fr [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7588 CNRS, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Levy, J.-C.S., E-mail: jean-claude.levy@univ-paris-diderot.fr [Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR 7162 CNRS, 75013 Paris (France)

    2011-10-31

    Highlights: → Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots of finite size. → A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly erratic ones. → Pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided. -- Abstract: Vortex precession was simulated in two-dimensional magnetic dots. The Landau-Lifshitz equation with exchange and dipolar interactions was integrated at a low temperature with initial conditions consisting in a single vortex situated aside from the central position. This vortex precesses around the center of the sample and either can be expelled or converges towards the center. These relaxation processes are systematically studied. A simple qualitative explanation of the observed behaviors is proposed, including seemingly somewhat erratic ones. Intrinsic pinning of the vortex motion, unconnected with defects, is also observed and an explanation thereof provided.

  1. A Neural-FEM tool for the 2-D magnetic hysteresis modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardelli, E. [University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Faba, A., E-mail: antonio.faba@unipg.it [University of Perugia, Department of Engineering, Via G. Duranti 93, 06125 Perugia (Italy); Laudani, A.; Lozito, G.M.; Riganti Fulginei, F.; Salvini, A. [Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via V. Volterra 62, 00146 Rome (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work is to present a new tool for the analysis of magnetic field problems considering 2-D magnetic hysteresis. In particular, this tool makes use of the Finite Element Method to solve the magnetic field problem in real device, and fruitfully exploits a neural network (NN) for the modeling of 2-D magnetic hysteresis of materials. The NS has as input the magnetic inductions components B at the k-th simulation step and returns as output the corresponding values of the magnetic field H corresponding to the input pattern. It is trained by vector measurements performed on the magnetic material to be modeled. This input/output scheme is directly implemented in a FEM code employing the magnetic potential vector A formulation. Validations through measurements on a real device have been performed.

  2. Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V

    2016-12-27

    Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.

  3. Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States

    2017-07-17

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.

  4. Spin-current resonances in a magnetically inhomogeneous 2D conducting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkina, O. V.; Kalinenko, A. N.; Kopeliovich, A. I.; Pyshkin, P. V.; Yanovsky, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The high-frequency transport in a two-dimensional conducting ring having an inhomogeneous collinear magnetic structure has been considered in the hydrodynamic approximation. It is shown that the frequency dependence on the radial electric conductivity of the ring exhibits resonances corresponding to new hybrid oscillations in such systems. The oscillation frequencies are essentially dependent on the applied electromagnetic field and the spin state of the system.

  5. Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷2D C/SiC复合材料的抗氧化性能%Oxidation resistance of two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左新章; 张立同; 刘永胜; 成来飞; 龚慧灵

    2013-01-01

    Two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Properties and structure evolution and self-healing mechanisms of the C/SiC composite were studied after oxidation for 10 h during 700-1200 ℃.At the same time,the evolution of morphologies,composition and phase for Si-B-C ceramic were also investigated.The experimental results show that the oxidation of Si-B-C ceramic accelerates with the temperature increasing,however,the oxidation scale is shallow and no more than 7 μm.With the temperature increasing,viscosity of borosilicate glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic reduces but volatilization accelerates.When the temperature increases to 1200 ℃,SiO2 crystallizes from borosilicate glass.C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic shows an excellent oxidation resistance.Mass loss increases with temperature increasing,which is only 0.47% after oxidation for 10 h at 1200 ℃.Furthermore,the strength retention ratio is 91.6% at 1000 ℃,higher than that at other temperatures.The main mechanisms for excellent oxidation resistance of C/SiC composite is that borosilicatc glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic can seal cracks in composite effectively.%利用化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备了Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的2D C/SiC复合材料,研究了其在700~1200℃氧化10 h性能和结构的演变规律以及自愈合机制,同时获得了Si-B-C涂层在不同温度氧化后的形貌、组分和物相转变规律.结果表明:涂敷在复合材料表面的Si-B-C陶瓷随温度的升高氧化加快,但氧化程度较低,不深于7μm;随温度的升高,氧化形成的硅硼玻璃黏度降低,挥发增强;当温度达到1200℃时,硅硼玻璃析出SiO2晶体;Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的C/SiC具有优良的抗氧化性能,随氧化温度的升高,复合材料失重率增加,但在1200℃氧化10h后失重率仅为0.47%;此外材料在1000℃氧化后的强度保持率最高,达到91.6%,Si-B-C陶瓷氧化形

  6. A Basic Experiment on Two-Dimensional Force of HTSC-Bulk in DC Magnetic-Field

    OpenAIRE

    吉田, 欣二郎; 松田, 茂雄; 松本, 洋和

    2000-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTSC) bulk can levitate stably on a track which consists of permanent magnets of the same polarity. This is because HTSC-bulk has a pinning force which keeps from vertical displacement due to the weight. We have proposed a new LSM theory which is based on an idea of considering the pinning force as synchronizing force in using armature travelling-magnetic-field instead of permanent magnets. However, the lift force enough to levitate the vehicle on the ground ...

  7. Myocardial Damage Detected by Two-Dimensional Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography in Patients with Extracardiac Sarcoidosis: Comparison with Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orii, Makoto; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanimoto, Takashi; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Takashi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by delayed enhancement (DE) magnetic resonance imaging via the differences in myocardial deformation in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis who showed no structural and functional abnormalities in the heart. Forty-five patients with biopsy-proven extracardiac sarcoidosis were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with abnormal electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings, including ventricular arrhythmias, heart block, regional wall motion abnormalities, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy, were excluded. Ten age-matched healthy control subjects were recruited as a control group. Comprehensive echocardiography and DE magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and circumferential, longitudinal, and radial strain were consecutively assessed using two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic software in a 16-segment model of the left ventricle in accordance to the presence (DE+) or absence (DE-) of DE. Among the 45 patients, 36 segments in 13 patients showed DE. DE+ segments had lower peak circumferential strain than DE- and control segments (-14 ± 5% vs -28 ± 7% vs -30 ± 7%, P speckle-tracking echocardiography can identify the myocardial damage detected by DE magnetic resonance imaging in patients with extracardiac sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Linear stability of horizontal, laminar fully developed, quasi-two-dimensional liquid metal duct flow under a transverse magnetic field and heated from below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Tony; Pothérat, Alban; Sheard, Gregory J.

    2017-03-01

    This study considers the linear stability of Poiseuille-Rayleigh-Bénard flows subjected to a transverse magnetic field, to understand the instabilities that arise from the complex interaction between the effects of shear, thermal stratification, and magnetic damping. This fundamental study is motivated in part by the desire to enhance heat transfer in the blanket ducts of nuclear fusion reactors. In pure magnetohydrodynamic flows, the imposed transverse magnetic field causes the flow to become quasi-two-dimensional and exhibit disturbances that are localized to the horizontal walls. However, the vertical temperature stratification in Rayleigh-Bénard flows feature convection cells that occupy the interior region, and therefore the addition of this aspect provides an interesting point for investigation. The linearized governing equations are described by the quasi-two-dimensional model proposed by Sommeria and Moreau [J. Fluid Mech. 118, 507 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082001177], which incorporates a Hartmann friction term, and the base flows are considered fully developed and one-dimensional. The neutral stability curves for critical Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers, Rec and Rac, respectively, as functions of Hartmann friction parameter H have been obtained over 10-2≤H ≤104 . Asymptotic trends are observed as H →∞ following Rec∝H1 /2 and Rac∝H . The linear stability analysis reveals multiple instabilities which alter the flow both within the Shercliff boundary layers and the interior flow, with structures consistent with features from plane Poiseuille and Rayleigh-Bénard flows.

  9. Evolution and structure of the plasma of current sheets forming in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line at low initial gas ionization and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.

    2012-04-01

    An analysis of the experimental data obtained by holographic interferometry in our work [1] makes it possible to explain most of the observed specific features of the structure and evolution of the plasma sheets developing in a two-dimensional magnetic field with a null line in a plasma with a low initial degree of ionization (≈10-4). The following two processes are shown to play a key role here: additional gas ionization in an electric field and the peculiarities of plasma dynamics in a current sheet expanding in time.

  10. Tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystals by means of external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani Vala, A., E-mail: asoltani@tabrizu.ac.i [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, B. [Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalafi, M. [Physics Department, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Applied Physics and Astronomy, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the tunable defect modes in 2D photonic crystal of silicon rods in air background in which one of the rods is replaced by ferrite material and an external static magnetic field is applied in the ferrite rod direction. Using the supercell method, the dependence of E-polarized defect modes on the magnetic field has been reported.

  11. Photonic Crystals: Two-Dimensional Programmable Manipulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles on-Chip (Adv. Mater. 15/2014)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarella, Anandakumar; Torti, Andrea; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    P. Vavassori and co-workers demonstrate on page 2384 that field-controlled displacement of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic nano-ring structures allows for capture and 2-dimensional remote manipulation of fluidborne magnetic nanoparticles over a chip surface....

  12. Two-dimensional cubic convolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.

  13. Magnetic Torque Studies in Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the magnetic torque τ of the organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties. In the magnetic field dependence of τ, a very sharp structure is observed at ˜1.2 T, resulting from the spin-flop transition. A step-like behavior associated with small hysteresis appears at ˜10 T, which is caused by the antiferromagnetic insulator-paramagnetic metal (AFI-PM) transition. In the angular dependence of τ for magnetic fields in the b*-c plane, it is found that the zero-crossing angles significantly change with field and temperature. The changes provide reasonable evidence of the antiferromagnetic order of the π spins (not the Fe 3d spins) in the AFI phase. The AFI-PM transition field has a minimum when the magnetization of the 3d spins has a maximum as a function of field angle.

  14. Fabrication and magnetic behaviour of 2D ordered Fe/SiO2 nanodots array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Zhong, W.; Qiu, L. J.; Lü, L. Y.; Du, Y. W.

    2006-06-01

    We have demonstrated a simple and universal morphology-controlled growth of 2D ordered Fe/SiO2 magnetic nanodots array, which was based on 2D colloidal monolayer template composed of polystyrene (PS) spheres and one-step sol-gel spin-coating technique. The Fe/SiO2 nanodots have a well-ordered structure arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The dots have the shape of quasi-pyramidal tetrahedron, which reside in the interstitial region between three PS spheres and the substrate. Magnetic measurements reveal that the nanodots array exhibits the in-plane easy magnetization direction. Compared with the unpatterned Fe/SiO2 thin film, the dots array has lower saturated field, higher remanence and coercivity. The present method is applicable to 2D ordered nanodots array of other magnetic materials.

  15. Zero-energy states bound to a magnetic {pi}-flux vortex in a two-dimensional topological insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesaros, Andrej, E-mail: andrej.mesaros@bc.edu [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (United States); Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Slager, Robert-Jan; Zaanen, Jan; Juricic, Vladimir [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, P.O. Box 9506, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2013-02-21

    We show that the existence of a pair of zero-energy modes bound to a vortex carrying a {pi}-flux is a generic feature of the topologically non-trivial phase of the M-B model, which was introduced to describe the topological band insulator in HgTe quantum wells. We explicitly find the form of the zero-energy states of the corresponding Dirac equation, which contains a novel momentum-dependent mass term and describes a generic topological transition in a band insulator. The obtained modes are exponentially localized in the vortex-core, with the dependence of characteristic length on the parameters of the model matching the dependence extracted from a lattice version of the model. We consider in full generality the short-distance regularization of the vector potential of the vortex, and show that a particular choice yields the modes localized and simultaneously regular at the origin. Finally, we also discuss a realization of two-dimensional spin-charge separation through the vortex zero-modes.

  16. A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-05-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.

  17. Density of Zeros on the Lee-Yang circle obtained from magnetization data of a two-dimensional Ising ferromagnet

    OpenAIRE

    Binek, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    In order to provide an experimental access to the statistical theory of Lee and Yang (1952) the density function g(theta) of zeros on the Lee-Yang circle has been determined for the first time by analyzing isothermal magnetization data, m(H), of the Ising ferromagnet FeCl2 in axial magnetic fields, H, at temperatures 34 < T < 99K. The validity of our approach is demonstrated by the perfect agreement of magnetic specific heat data as calculated from g(theta) and m(H) via Maxwells relation, res...

  18. Study on the flow behavior of ferrofluids in a two-dimensional channel (1st report). Magnetic field of various derections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Yukio; Ishibashi, Yukio; Saito, Eiji; Saito, Toshio

    1988-02-25

    For elucidation of the flow behavior of a magnetic fluid as a one-phase fluid, water base ferrofluids were introduced in a two-dimensional channel and the action of a uniform vertical magnetic field axial magnetic field, and both fields inclined at various angles to examine the laminar flow region. The ferrofluids used in the experiment were prepared by dispersing 17.5 weight % of Fe/sub 3/ O/sub 4/ fine particles of about 100A in diameter into ion-exchange water, and adding an anionic sodium oleate to stabilize the dispersion. Under no action of the magnetic fields, ferrofluids having a higher concentration than the above value exhibited plastic fluid. As the direction of the magnetic field acting on the fluid approached the vertical, so the pressure loss was increased. The pipe friction coefficient could be expressed by the empirical formula of which the variables are the ratios of inertia force/viscous force and magnetic force/viscous force, and the inclination of the magnetic poles. (15 figs, 14 refs)

  19. From Complex Magnetism Ordering to Simple Ferromagnetism in Two-Dimensional LaCrSb{sub 3} by Hole Doping.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Haijie; Narayan, Awadhesh; Fang, Lei; Calta, Nicholas P.; Shi, Fengyuan; Chung, Duck Young; Wagner, Lucas; Kwok, Wai-Kwong; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2016-10-11

    Competing orders widely exist in many material systems, such as superconductivity, magnetism, and ferroelectricity; LaCrSb3 is a highly anisotropic magnetic material in which the spins are aligned ferromagnetically in one direction and canted antiferromagnetically in another in the Cr-Sb chains. Hole doping with Sr2+ and Ca2+ in the La site suppresses the antiferromagnetic correlations and transforms the anisotropic magnetic order into a ferromagnetic lattice in all directions. First-principles density functional theory calculations show that the canted magnetic order becomes energetically less favorable compared to the FM order upon hole doping. Doping in the La site is an effective approach to modulate the competing orders in LaCrSb3.

  20. Quantum Hall effect in a bulk antiferromagnet EuMnBi2 with magnetically confined two-dimensional Dirac fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hidetoshi; Sakai, Hideaki; Tokunaga, Masashi; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Miyake, Atsushi; Shiogai, Junichi; Nakamura, Shintaro; Awaji, Satoshi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Arima, Taka-hisa; Tokura, Yoshinori; Ishiwata, Shintaro

    2016-01-01

    For the innovation of spintronic technologies, Dirac materials, in which low-energy excitation is described as relativistic Dirac fermions, are one of the most promising systems because of the fascinating magnetotransport associated with extremely high mobility. To incorporate Dirac fermions into spintronic applications, their quantum transport phenomena are desired to be manipulated to a large extent by magnetic order in a solid. We report a bulk half-integer quantum Hall effect in a layered antiferromagnet EuMnBi2, in which field-controllable Eu magnetic order significantly suppresses the interlayer coupling between the Bi layers with Dirac fermions. In addition to the high mobility of more than 10,000 cm(2)/V s, Landau level splittings presumably due to the lifting of spin and valley degeneracy are noticeable even in a bulk magnet. These results will pave a route to the engineering of magnetically functionalized Dirac materials.

  1. Numerical Examination of the Stability of an Exact Two-dimensional Solution for Flux Pile-up Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Hirose, S; Tanuma, S; Shibata, K; Takahashi, M; Tanigawa, T; Sasaqui, T; Noro, A; Uehara, K; Takahashi, K; Taniguchi, T

    2003-01-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and tearing instabilities are likely to be important for the process of fast magnetic reconnection that is believed to explain the observed explosive energy release in solar flares. Theoretical studies of the instabilities, however, typically invoke simplified initial magnetic and velocity fields that are not solutions of the governing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. In the present study, the stability of a reconnecting current sheet is examined using a class of exact global MHD solutions for steady state incompressible magnetic reconnection (Craig & Henton 1995). Numerical simulation indicates that the outflow solutions where the current sheet is formed by strong shearing flows are subject to the KH instability. The inflow solutions where a fast and weakly sheared inflow leads to a strong magnetic field pile-up at the entrance to the sheet are shown to be tearing unstable. Although the observed instability of the solutions can be interpreted qualitatively by applying standa...

  2. Exact solution to two-dimensional isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field in non-commutative phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Gao-Feng; LONG Chao-Yun; LONG Zheng-Wen; QIN Shui-Jie

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field is researched in the non-commutative phase space;the corresponding exact energy is obtained,and the analytic eigenfunction is presented in terms of the confluent hypergeometric function.It is shown that in the non-commutative space,the isotropic charged harmonic oscillator in uniform magnetic field has the similar behaviors to the Landau problem.

  3. Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C

    2010-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai

  4. Two Dimensional Spatial Independent Component Analysis and Its Application in fMRI Data Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hua-fu; YAO De-zhong

    2005-01-01

    One important application of independent component analysis (ICA) is in image processing. A two dimensional (2-D) composite ICA algorithm framework for 2-D image independent component analysis (2-D ICA) is proposed. The 2-D nature of the algorithm provides it an advantage of circumventing the roundabout transforming procedures between two dimensional (2-D) image data and one-dimensional (1-D) signal. Moreover the combination of the Newton (fixed-point algorithm) and natural gradient algorithms in this composite algorithm increases its efficiency and robustness. The convincing results of a successful example in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show the potential application of composite 2-D ICA in the brain activity detection.

  5. Wake effect and stopping power for a charged ion moving in magnetized two-component plasmas: two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhang-Hu; Song, Yuan-Hong; Wang, You-Nian

    2010-08-01

    A two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) model is proposed to study the wake field and stopping power induced by a nonrelativistic charged particle moving perpendicular to the external magnetic field in two-component plasmas. The effects of the magnetic field on the wake potential and the stopping due to the polarization of both the plasma ions and electrons are discussed. The velocity fields of plasma ions and electrons are investigated, respectively, in the weak and strong magnetic field cases. Our simulation results show that in the case of weak magnetic field and high ion velocity, the wakes exhibit typical V-shaped cone structures and the opening cone angles decrease with the increasing ion velocity. As the magnetic field becomes strong, the wakes lose their typical V-shaped structures and become highly asymmetrical. Similar results can be obtained in the case of low ion velocity and strong magnetic field. In addition, stopping power is calculated and compared with previous one-dimensional and full three-dimensional PIC results.

  6. Study of Landau spectrum for a two-dimensional random magnetic field; Etude du spectre de Landau pour un champ magnetique aleatoire en dimension deux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtlehner, C. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)

    1997-09-24

    This thesis deals with the two-dimensional problem of a charged particle coupled to a random magnetic field. Various situations are considered, according to the relative importance of the mean value of field and random component. The last one is conceived as a distribution of magnetic impurities (punctual vortex), having various statistical properties (local or non-local correlations, Poisson distribution, etc). The study of this system has led to two distinct situations: - the case of the charged particle feeling the influence of mean field that manifests its presence in the spectrum of broadened Landau levels; - the disordered situation in which the spectrum can be distinguished from the free one only by a low energy Lifshits behaviour. Additional properties are occurring in the limit of `strong` mean field, namely a non-conventional low energy behaviour (in contrast to Lifshits behaviour) which was interpreted in terms of localized states. (author) 78 refs.

  7. Two-Dimensional MHD Numerical Simulations of Magnetic Reconnection Triggered by A Supernova Shock in Interstellar Medium, Generation of X-Ray Gas in Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Tanuma, S; Kudoh, T; Shibata, K; Tanuma, Syuniti; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Kudoh, Takahiro; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-01-01

    We examine the magnetic reconnection triggered by a supernova (or a point explosion) in interstellar medium, by performing two-dimensional resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations with high spatial resolution. We found that the magnetic reconnection starts long after a supernova shock (fast-mode MHD shock) passes a current sheet. The current sheet evolves as follows: (i) Tearing-mode instability is excited by the supernova shock, and the current sheet becomes thin in its nonlinear stage. (ii) The current-sheet thinning is saturated when the current-sheet thickness becomes comparable to that of Sweet-Parker current sheet. After that, Sweet-Parker type reconnection starts, and the current-sheet length increases. (iii) ``Secondary tearing-mode instability'' occurs in the thin Sweet-Parker current sheet. (iv) As a result, further current-sheet thinning occurs and anomalous resistivity sets in, because gas density decreases in the current sheet. Petschek type reconnection starts and heats interste...

  8. Design of a new two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: Mn-doped GaN monolayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Xiong, Zhihua; Luo, Lan; Sun, Zhenhui; Qin, Zhenzhen; Chen, Lanli; Wu, Ning

    2017-02-01

    To meet the need of low-dimensional spintronic devices, we investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped GaN monolayer using first-principles method. We find the nonmagnetic GaN monolayer exhibits half-metallic ferromagnetism by Mn doping due to double-exchange mechanism. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic coupling in Mn-doped GaN monolayer is enhanced with tensile strain and weakened with compressive strain. What is more, the ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic transformation occurs under compressive strain of -9.5%. These results provide a feasible approach for fabrication of a new GaN monolayer based diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  9. Dilution Effects on Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Antiferromagnets with Non-Magnetic Spin-Gapped Ground State

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Chitoshi; Todo, Synge; Matsumoto, Munehisa; Takayama, Hajime

    2002-01-01

    Dilution effects on spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with a non-magnetic spin-gapped ground state are studied by means of the qunatum Monte Carlo simulation. In the site-diluted system, an antiferromagnetic long-range order (AF-LRO) is induced at an infinitesimal concentration of dilution due to an effective coupling $\\tilde{J}_{mn}$ between induced magnetic moments. In the bond-diluted case, on the other hand, the AF-LRO is not induced up to a certain concentration of dilution du...

  10. Exponential suppression of interlayer conductivity in very anisotropic quasi-two-dimensional compounds in high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, P.D., E-mail: grigorev@itp.ac.ru [L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    It is shown that in rather strong magnetic field the interlayer electron conductivity is exponentially damped by the Coulomb barrier arising from the formation of polaron around each localized electron state. The theoretical model is developed to describe this effect, and the calculation of the temperature and field dependence of interlayer magnetoresistance is performed. The results obtained agree well with the experimental data in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and in strongly anisotropic organic metals. The proposed theory allows to use the experiments on interlayer magnetoresistance to investigate the electron states, localized by magnetic field and disorder.

  11. Local doping of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.

    2016-09-20

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.

  12. Structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of transition-metal atom adsorbed two-dimensional GaAs nanosheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jia; Xiang, Gang; Yu, Tian; Lan, Mu; Zhang, Xi

    2016-09-01

    By using first-principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory, the electronic and magnetic properties of 3d transitional metal (TM) atoms (from Sc to Zn) adsorbed monolayer GaAs nanosheets (GaAsNSs) are systematically investigated. Upon TM atom adsorption, GaAsNS, which is a nonmagnetic semiconductor, can be tuned into a magnetic semiconductor (Sc, V, and Fe adsorption), a half-metal (Mn adsorption), or a metal (Co and Cu adsorption). Our calculations show that the strong p-d hybridization between the 3d orbit of TM atoms and the 4p orbit of neighboring As atoms is responsible for the formation of chemical bonds and the origin of magnetism in the GaAsNSs with Sc, V, and Fe adsorption. However, the Mn 3d orbit with more unpaired electrons hybridizes not only with the As 4p orbit but also with the Ga 4p orbit, resulting in a stronger exchange interaction. Our results may be useful for electronic and magnetic applications of GaAsNS-based materials. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11174212).

  13. Visualization and quantification of four steps in magnetic field induced two-dimensional ordering of superparamagnetic submicron particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajula, Gnana Prakash; Neves Petersen, Teresa; Petersen, Steffen B.

    2010-01-01

    We hereby report a methodology that permits a quantitative investigation of the temporal self-organization of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in the presence of an external magnetic field. The kinetics of field-induced self-organization into linear chains, time-dependent chain-size distribution...

  14. Anisotropic electronic and magnetic properties of the quasi-two-dimensional heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, A. L.; Arko, A. J.; Sarrao, J. L.; Hundley, M. F.; Fisk, Z.

    2000-12-01

    We have used high pulsed magnetic fields to 50 T to observe de Haas--van Alphen oscillations in the tetragonal antiferromagnet CeRhIn{sub 5}, which has an enhanced value of the electronic specific heat coefficient {gamma}{approx}>420 mJ/molK{sup 2}. For Tmagnetic field are consistent with the existence of an anisotropic spin-density wave opening a gap in the Fermi surface. The low-temperature magnetization reveals a magnetic phase transition that appears to be first order in nature. Quantum oscillations, which are observed for Tmagnetic properties are anisotropic due to the quasi-two-dimensional crystal structure.

  15. A comprehensive parameter study of an active magnetic regenerator using a 2D numerical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Smith, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional numerical heat transfer model is used to investigate an active magnetic regenerator (AMR) based on parallel plates of magnetocaloric material. A large range of parameter variations are performed to study the optimal AMR. The parameters varied are the plate and channel thicknesses......, cycle frequency and fluid movement. These are cast into the non-dimensional units utilization, porosity and number of transfer units (NTU). The cooling capacity vs. temperature span is mapped as a function of these parameters and each configuration is evaluated through the maximum temperature span...

  16. 2D and 3D modelling of magnetic and resistivity data from Aespoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Haakan (GeoVista AB, Luleaa (Sweden))

    2011-05-15

    This report presents results from modelling of geophysical data. Ground magnetic and geo electric data were collected in 1988 as part of the pre-investigations carried out before the construction of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The work presented in this report is an evaluation of the magnetic and geo electric data with the focus on estimating variations in geometry and dip of some of the possible deformation zones indicated in lineament interpretations presented earlier. This was done by 2D forward magnetic modelling, 2D forward resistivity modelling and 3D inversion of the magnetic data. The specific aims of this work are: 1. Produce magnetic 2D forward models across 12 selected linked lineaments. 2. Produce a 3D susceptibility model of the entire data set of Aespoe. 3. Use 2D forward resistivity modelling to produce electric anomaly response diagrams for a dipole-dipole survey across low resistivity zones with various dips. The results of the modelling work will mainly be used as supportive information for deterministic geological modelling of deformation zones and rock units in the vicinity of the Aespoe HRL. The results of the 2D forward modelling of magnetic data show geologically reasonable solutions, and in most cases it is possible to make reliable estimates of the width and orientation of the cause of the targeted lineament. The possible deformation zones generally dip steeply (80 deg-90 deg) and have a width of c. 30-50 m. In some cases the modelled lineament has a diffuse character with low amplitude, which makes the model solution uncertain. Two 3D susceptibility models were created by use of inversion of the ground magnetic data; one coarse model of the entire Island of Aespoe and one more detailed model of the south-eastern peninsula of the Island, covering the volume of the Aespoe HRL. The two models fit nicely to the measured data and they are geologically realistic. It is possible to identify well-defined bodies (rock volumes) of

  17. Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;

    1996-01-01

    Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....

  18. Destruction of Magnetic Long-Range Order by Hole-Induced Skyrmions in Two-Dimensional Heisenberg Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Tomoharu; Morinari, Takao

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the rapid destruction of antiferromagnetic long-range order in hole-doped cuprate high-temperature superconductors, we study the effect of skyrmions on the magnetic long-range order (MLRO). Here we assume that either a skyrmion or antiskyrmion is introduced by a doped hole. Our numerical simulation indicates that in the case of isolated skyrmions, there is an abrupt disappearance of MLRO for doping concentration x < 1.0 × 10-4. In the case of skyrmion-antiskyrmion pairs, the critical doping concentration xc for the suppression of MLRO is given as a function of the separation of the pairs. For a moderate separation of 3-4 lattice constants, we find that the critical doping is consistent with the experimental value.

  19. Self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a two-dimensional strongly type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravlev, Vladimir; Duan, Wenye; Maniv, Tsofar

    2017-01-01

    A self-consistent Bogoliubov-de Gennes theory of the vortex lattice state in a 2D strong type-II superconductor at high magnetic fields reveals a novel quantum mixed state around the semiclassical Hc 2, characterized by a well-defined Landau-Bloch band structure in the quasiparticle spectrum and suppressed order-parameter amplitude, which sharply crossover into the well-known semiclassical (Helfand-Werthamer) results upon decreasing magnetic field. Application to the 2D superconducting state observed recently on the surface of the topological insulator Sb2Te3 accounts well for the experimental data, revealing a strong type-II superconductor, with unusually low carrier density and very small cyclotron mass, which can be realized only in the strong coupling superconductor limit.

  20. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  1. Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-31

    The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.

  2. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional XY model at zero temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G; Niedermayer, F; Rácz, Z; Riveros, A; Zambrano, D

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical XY model on an L×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution Φ_{L}(y) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of Φ_{L}(y), and the limit distribution Φ_{L→∞}(y)=Φ_{0}(y) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections Φ_{L}(y)-Φ_{0}(y)≈a_{1}(L)Φ_{1}(y)+a_{2}(L)Φ_{2}(y) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a_{1}(L) scales as ln(L/L_{0})/L^{2} and the shape correction function Φ_{1}(y) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ_{1}(y)=[yΦ_{0}(y)+Φ_{0}^{'}(y)]^{'}. Thus, Φ_{1}(y) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a_{2}(L)∝1/L^{2} and one finds that a_{2}Φ_{2}(y)≪a_{1}Φ_{1}(y) already for small system size (L>10). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the XY model at low temperatures, including T=0.

  3. 2D stationary resistive MHD flows: borderline to magnetic reconnection solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Nickeler, D H; Nickeler, Dieter H.; Fahr, Hans-Joerg

    2005-01-01

    We present the basic equations for stationary, incompressible resistive MHD flows in two dimensions. This leads to a system of differential equations for two flux functions, one elliptic partial differential equation (Grad-Shafranov-like) for the magnetic flux function and one for the stream function of the flow. In these equations two potentials appear: one potential is a generalized pressure. The second potential couples the magnetic and the flow shear components of the system. With the restriction to flux or at least line conserving flows one has to solve a modified Ohm's law. For the two dimensional case these are two coupled differential equations, which represent the borderline between the resistive but flux conserving (or line conserving) case, and that of reconnective solutions. We discuss some simplified solutions of these equations.

  4. New 2D Thermal Model Applied to an LHC Inner Triplet Quadrupole Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Bielert, ER; Ten Kate, HHJ; Verweij, AP

    2011-01-01

    A newly developed numerical model is presented that enables to compute two-dimensional heat transfer and temperature distributions over the cross-section of superconducting accelerator magnets. The entire thermal path from strand-in-cable to heat sink, including helium channels is considered. Superfluid helium properties are combined with temperature- and field-dependent non-linear solid material properties. Interfacial interactions are also taken into account. The model is applied to the cross-section of an inner triplet quadrupole magnet featuring a new concept for the ground insulation. Beam loss profiles are implemented as main heat source. It is concluded that operational margins can be considerably increased by opening additional thermal paths, improving the cooling conditions.

  5. Analytical computation of the magnetization probability density function for the harmonic 2D XY model

    CERN Document Server

    Palma, G

    2009-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of some global average quantity plays a fundamental role in critical and highly correlated systems. We explicitly compute this quantity as a function of the magnetization for the two dimensional XY model in its harmonic approximation. Numerical simulations and perturbative results have shown a Gumbel-like shape of the PDF, in spite of the fact that the average magnetization is not an extreme variable. Our analytical result allows to test both perturbative analytical expansions and also numerical computations performed previously. Perfect agreement is found for the first moments of the PDF. Also for large volume and in the high temperature limit the distribution becomes Gaussian, as it should be. In the low temperature regime its numerical evaluation is compatible with a Gumbel distribution.

  6. Polyfunctional two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional oxalate bridged bimetallic magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, R; Gruselle, M; Train, C

    2003-01-01

    We report major results concerning polyfunctional two- (2D) and three- (3D) dimensional oxalate bridged bimetallic magnets. As a consequence of their specific organization they are composed of an anionic sub-lattice and a cationic counter-part. These bimetallic polymers can accommodate various counter-cations possessing specific physical properties in addition to the magnetic ones resulting from the interactions between the metallic ions in the anionic sub-lattice. Thus, molecular magnets possessing paramagnetic, conductive and optical properties are presented in this review. Refs. 60 (author)

  7. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico); Carbonio, R.E. [INFIQC-CONICET, Departamento de Físico Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Reguera, E., E-mail: edilso.reguera@gmail.com [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.

  8. Magnetic Properties of Restacked 2D Spin 1/2 honeycomb RuCl3 Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schoop, Leslie M; Duppel, Viola; Lippmann, Judith M; Nuss, Jürgen; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-06-01

    Spin 1/2 honeycomb materials have gained substantial interest due to their exotic magnetism and possible application in quantum computing. However, in all current materials out-of-plane interactions are interfering with the in-plane order, hence a true 2D magnetic honeycomb system is still in demand. Here, we report the exfoliation of the magnetic semiconductor α-RuCl3 into the first halide monolayers and the magnetic characterization of the spin 1/2 honeycomb arrangement of turbostratically stacked RuCl3 monolayers. The exfoliation is based on a reductive lithiation/hydration approach, which gives rise to a loss of cooperative magnetism due to the disruption of the spin 1/2 state by electron injection into the layers. The restacked, macroscopic pellets of RuCl3 layers lack symmetry along the stacking direction. After an oxidative treatment, cooperative magnetism similar to the bulk is restored. The oxidized pellets of restacked single layers feature a magnetic transition at TN = 7 K if the field is aligned parallel to the ab-plane, while the magnetic properties differ from bulk α-RuCl3 if the field is aligned perpendicular to the ab-plane. The deliberate introduction of turbostratic disorder to manipulate the magnetic properties of RuCl3 is of interest for research in frustrated magnetism and complex magnetic order as predicted by the Kitaev-Heisenberg model.

  9. A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.

    1993-01-01

    The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.

  10. Two-dimensional orbital-like magnetic order in the high-temperature La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balédent, V; Fauqué, B; Sidis, Y; Christensen, N B; Pailhès, S; Conder, K; Pomjakushina, E; Mesot, J; Bourges, P

    2010-07-09

    In high-temperature copper oxide superconductors, a novel magnetic order associated with the pseudogap phase has been identified in two different cuprate families over a wide region of temperature and doping. We report here the observation below 120 K of a similar magnetic ordering in the archetypal cuprate La(2-x)Sr(x)CuO4 (LSCO) system for x=0.085. In contrast with the previous reports, the magnetic ordering in LSCO is only short range with an in-plane correlation length of ∼10  A and is bidimensional (2D). Such a less pronounced order suggests an interaction with other electronic instabilities. In particular, LSCO also exhibits a strong tendency towards stripes ordering at the expense of the superconducting state.

  11. Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A

    2012-08-07

    We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.

  12. Nonlinear Alfv\\'en wave dynamics at a 2D magnetic null point: ponderomotive force

    CERN Document Server

    Thurgood, J O

    2013-01-01

    Context : In the linear, {\\beta}=0 MHD regime, the transient properties of MHD waves in the vicinity of 2D null points are well known. The waves are decoupled and accumulate at predictable parts of the magnetic topology: fast waves accumulate at the null point; whereas Alfv\\'en waves cannot cross the separatricies. However, in nonlinear MHD mode conversion can occur at regions of inhomogeneous Alfv\\'en speed, suggesting that the decoupled nature of waves may not extend to the nonlinear regime. Aims: We investigate the behaviour of low-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves about a 2D magnetic null point in nonlinear, {\\beta}= 0 MHD. Methods: We numerically simulate the introduction of low-amplitude Alfv\\'en waves into the vicinity of a magnetic null point using the nonlinear LARE2D code. Results: Unlike in the linear regime, we find that the Alfv\\'en wave sustains cospatial daughter disturbances, manifest in the transverse and longitudinal fluid velocity, owing to the action of nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients (viz. t...

  13. Nonlinear Alfvén wave dynamics at a 2D magnetic null point: ponderomotive force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, J. O.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2013-07-01

    Context. In the linear, β = 0 MHD regime, the transient properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves in the vicinity of 2D null points are well known. The waves are decoupled and accumulate at predictable parts of the magnetic topology: fast waves accumulate at the null point; whereas Alfvén waves cannot cross the separatricies. However, in nonlinear MHD mode conversion can occur at regions of inhomogeneous Alfvén speed, suggesting that the decoupled nature of waves may not extend to the nonlinear regime. Aims: We investigate the behaviour of low-amplitude Alfvén waves about a 2D magnetic null point in nonlinear, β = 0 MHD. Methods: We numerically simulate the introduction of low-amplitude Alfvén waves into the vicinity of a magnetic null point using the nonlinear LARE2D code. Results: Unlike in the linear regime, we find that the Alfvén wave sustains cospatial daughter disturbances, manifest in the transverse and longitudinal fluid velocity, owing to the action of nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients (viz. the ponderomotive force). These disturbances are dependent on the Alfvén wave and do not interact with the medium to excite magnetoacoustic waves, although the transverse daughter becomes focused at the null point. Additionally, an independently propagating fast magnetoacoustic wave is generated during the early stages, which transports some of the initial Alfvén wave energy towards the null point. Subsequently, despite undergoing dispersion and phase-mixing due to gradients in the Alfvén-speed profile (∇cA ≠ 0) there is no further nonlinear generation of fast waves. Conclusions: We find that Alfvén waves at 2D cold null points behave largely as in the linear regime, however they sustain transverse and longitudinal disturbances - effects absent in the linear regime - due to nonlinear magnetic pressure gradients.

  14. 高周疲劳损伤的磁记忆二维检测研究%Research of High-cycle Fatigue Damage by Two-dimensional Magnetic Memory Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任吉林; 陈曦; 罗声彩; 周培; 刘昌奎

    2012-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue tests of notched 40Cr steel specimens are carried out under three different fatigue stresses and two-dimensional metal magnetic memory testing (2-D MMMT). Two-dimensional signals are detected and analyzed by the method of Lissajous figure. The effects of stress concentration, fatigue damage and fatigue stress on two-dimensional magnetic signals are investigated, The relationship of the area of Lissajous figure and the degree of fatigue damage is analyzed. The results show that zero-crossing of the magnetic memory normal component and peak values of the magnetic memory tangential component appear in areas of stress concentration, and that the position of these phenomena drifts gradually closer to the notch root with the increase of fatigue damage. Location of the specimen damage can be characterized by the mutation peak characteristic of K curve of the normal component gradient and the tangential component gradient of magnetic memory signals. The maximum values of the normal component gradient and tangential component gradient of the magnetic memory signals increase gradually with the augmentation of the degree of fatigue damage in the whole trend. Therefore the maximum value is regarded as a characteristic quantity that reflects the degree of specimen damage, and the area of Lissajous figure has a good correlation with the degree of fatigue damage.%对40Cr钢缺口试件在三级应力水平下进行了高周疲劳试验和磁记忆二维检测(2- DMMMT),并引入李萨如图分析方法,研究应力集中、疲劳损伤及疲劳应力对二维磁信号的影响规律,分析李萨如图特征值与疲劳损伤程度之间的关系.结果表明:在应力集中部位会出现磁记忆法向分量过零点及切向分量峰值的现象,并且该现象的位置随着疲劳损伤程度的增加产生漂移,逐渐向缺口根部靠拢;可利用磁记忆信号切向分量梯度K曲线异变峰特征来表征构件损伤位置

  15. Numerical study of the effect of disorder and magnetic field on the quantum transport of two-dimensional nanostructures modeled by tight-binding approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Taghizdehsiskht

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  In recent years, semiconductor nanostructures have become the model systems of choice for investigation of electrical conduction on short length scales. Quantum transport is studied in a two dimensional electron gas because of the combination of a large Fermi wavelength and large mean free path. In the present work, a numerical method is implemented in order to contribute to the understanding of quantum transport in narrow channels in different conditions of disorder and magnetic fields. We have used an approach that has proved to be very useful in describing mesoscopic transport. We have assumed zero temperature and phase coherent transport. By using the trick that a conductor connected to infinite leads can be replaced by a finite conductor with the effect of the leads incorporated through a 'self-energy' function, a convenient method was provided for evaluating the Green's function of the whole device numerically. Then, Fisher-Lee relations was used for calculating the transmission coefficients through coherent mesoscopic conductors. Our calculations were done in a model system with Hard-wall boundary conditions in the transverse direction, and the Anderson model of disorder was used in disordered samples. We have presented the results of quantum transport for different strengths of disorder and introduced magnetic fields. Our results confirmed the Landauer formalism for calculation of electronic transport. We observed that weak localization effect can be removed by application of a weak perpendicular magnetic field. Finally, we numerically showed the transition to the integral quantum Hall effect regime through the suppression of backscattering on a disordered model system by calculating the two­ terminal conductance of a quasi-one-dimensional quantum conductor as a strong magnetic field is applied. Our results showed that this regime is entered when there is a negligible overlap between electron edge states localized at opposite sides of

  16. Modeling Overlapping Laminations in Magnetic Core Materials Using 2-D Finite-Element Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Guest, Emerson David; Mecrow, Barrie C.

    2015-01-01

    and a composite material is created, which has the same magnetization characteristic. The benefit of this technique is that it allows a designer to perform design and optimization of magnetic cores with overlapped laminations using a 2-D FE model rather than a 3-D FE model, which saves modeling and simulation...... time. The modeling technique is verified experimentally by creating a composite material of a lap joint with a 3-mm overlapping region and using it in a 2-D FE model of a ring sample made up of a stack of 20 laminations. The B-H curve of the simulated ring sample is compared with the B-H curve obtained...

  17. Vortex polarity in 2-D magnetic dots by Langevin dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depondt, Ph., E-mail: depondt@insp.jussieu.f [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR 7588 CNRS, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Levy, J.-C.S., E-mail: jean-claude.levy@univ-paris-diderot.f [Materiaux et Phenomenes Quantiques, Universite Denis Diderot, UMR 7162 CNRS, 75013 Paris (France); Mertens, F.G., E-mail: franz.mertens@uni-bayreuth.d [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2011-01-17

    Two-dimensional magnetic plots of finite size were simulated by integrating the Landau-Lifshitz equation for the isotropic Heisenberg model with a systematic exploration of the effect of dipole-dipole interactions of various strengths d, at a low temperature. Structures with or without vortices are observed, and in the cases in which vortices are present, out-of-plane contributions show only for relatively weak dipolar strengths: the integrated intensity of the out-of-plane component decreases roughly as 1/d with increasing dipolar strength while the vortex core width decreases as d{sup -1/2}. The coexistence of several vortices with an out-of-plane component seems limited to a narrow d-range, at least for the sample sizes studied. The size limit below which the vortices disappear decreases roughly as 1/d.

  18. Wave spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, L J; Piel, A; Miskovic, Z L

    2009-01-01

    Thermally excited phonon spectra of 2D Yukawa solids and liquids in the presence of an external magnetic field are studied using computer simulations. Special attention is paid to the variation of wave spectra in terms of several key parameters, such as the strength of coupling, the screening parameter, and the intensity of the magnetic field. In addition, comparisons are made with several analytical theories, including random-phase approximation, quasi-localized charge approximation, and harmonic approximation, and the validity of those theories is discussed in the present context.

  19. Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Tao

    2015-02-25

    Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  20. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...

  1. Two-dimensional calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Osserman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o

  2. Two dimensional vernier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.

  3. Structure and magnetic properties of the two-dimensional ferrimagnet (NEt4)[[Mn(salen)]2Fe(CN)6]: investigation of magnetic anisotropy on a single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Ieda, Hidenori; Matsumoto, Naohide; Sugiura, Ken-ichi; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2003-06-02

    The title compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(salen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (1), was synthesized via a 1:1 reaction of [Mn(salen)(H(2)O)]ClO(4) with (NEt(4))(3)[Fe(CN)(6)] in a methanol/ethanol medium (NEt(4)(+) = tetraethylammonium cation, salen(2)(-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylidene)iminate). The two-dimensional layered structure of 1 was revealed by X-ray crystallographic analysis: 1 crystallizes in monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with cell dimensions of a = 12.3660(8) A, b = 15.311(1) A, c = 12.918(1) A, beta = 110.971(4) degrees, Z = 2 and is isostructural to the previously synthesized compound, (NEt(4))[[Mn(5-Clsalen)](2)Fe(CN)(6)] (5-Clsalen(2-) = N,N'-ethylenebis(5-chlorosalicylidene)iminate; Miyasaka, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Re, N.; Gallo, E.; Floriani, C. Inorg. Chem. 1997, 36, 670). The Mn ion is surrounded by an equatorial salen quadridentate ligand and two axial nitrogen atoms from the [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) unit, the four Fe[bond]CN groups of which coordinate to the Mn ions of [Mn(salen)](+) units, forming a two-dimensional network having [[bond]Mn[bond]NC[bond]Fe[bond]CN[bond

  4. Probing Magnetism in 2D Molecular Networks after in Situ Metalation by Transition Metal Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteden, K; Ivanova, Ts; Li, Z; Iancu, V; Janssens, E; Van Haesendonck, C

    2015-03-19

    Metalated molecules are the ideal building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of, e.g., two-dimensional arrays of magnetic particles for spintronics applications. Compared to chemical synthesis, metalation after network formation by an atom beam can yield a higher degree of control and flexibility and allows for mixing of different types of magnetic atoms. We report on successful metalation of tetrapyridyl-porphyrins (TPyP) by Co and Cr atoms, as demonstrated by scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. For the metalation, large periodic networks formed by the TPyP molecules on a Ag(111) substrate are exposed in situ to an atom beam. Voltage-induced dehydrogenation experiments support the conclusion that the porphyrin macrocycle of the TPyP molecule incorporates one transition metal atom. The newly synthesized Co-TPyP and Cr-TPyP complexes exhibit striking differences in their electronic behavior, leading to a magnetic character for Cr-TPyP only as evidenced by Kondo resonance measurements.

  5. Zero-Field Magnetism of a Two-Dimensional Antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, Determined by Muon Spin Rotation and Magnetization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miho; Uehara, Tomotaka; Taniguchi, Hiromi; Satoh, Kazuhiko; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Isao

    2015-05-01

    The zero-field magnetism of a two-dimensional noncollinear antiferromagnet, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Cl, has been investigated by magnetization and zero-field muon spin rotation (μSR) measurements. Low-field magnetization measurements enabled us to determine the magnetic transition temperature TN as 22.80 ± 0.02 K. Distinct muon spin precession signals appeared below 21.4 K. μSR spectra below 21.4 K were well described by two types of precession components and a relaxation one. The temperature dependence of internal field converted by μSR data was in good agreement with that of macroscopic residual magnetism. These results suggest that the tiny interlayer interaction, which has been suggested to be almost 106 times less than the intralayer exchange interaction, spontaneously causes the three-dimensional long-range order.

  6. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  7. Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien

    2011-02-01

    The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.

  8. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.

    2014-11-01

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.

  9. 2D and 3D ordered arrays of Co magnetic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Prida, V.M., E-mail: vmpp@uniovi.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Vega, V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Rosa, W.O. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150 Urca., 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caballero-Flores, R.; Iglesias, L.; Hernando, B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt nanowire arrays spatially distributed in 2D and 3D arrangements have been performed by pulsed electrodeposition into the pores of planar and cylindrical nanoporous anodic alumina membranes, respectively. Morphological characterization points out the good filling factor reached by electroplated Co nanowires in both kinds of alumina membranes exhibiting hexagonally self-ordered porous structures. Co nanowires grown in both kinds of alumina templates exhibit the same crystalline phases. DC magnetometry and First Order Reversal Curve (FORC) analysis were carried out in order to determine the overall magnetic behavior for both nanowire array geometries. It is found that when the Co nanowires of two kinds of arrays are perpendicularly magnetized, both hysteresis loops are identical, suggesting that neither the intrinsic magnetic behavior of the nanowires nor the collective one depend on the arrays geometry. FORC analysis performed along the radial direction of the Co nanowire arrays embedded in the cylindrical alumina template reveals that the contribution of each nanowire to the magnetization reversal process involves its specific orientation with respect to the applied field direction. Furthermore, the comparison between the magnetic properties for both kinds of Co nanowire arrays allows discussing about the effect of the cylindrical geometry of the template on the magnetostatic interaction among nanowires. - Graphical abstract: Scanning electronic microscope images of cylindrical anodic aluminum membranes (CAAM) electrodeposited with Co nanowires. From top, SEM micrographs of the nanoporous CAAM template at different magnifications, to bottom at the left, a cross-section image showing Co nanowires embedded in the nanopores of the alumina template. On the right at the bottom are shown the radial and axial hysteresis loops together FORC diagram obtained for the Co nanowires array along the radial direction of the CAAM template. - Highlights: • Co nanowire

  10. Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, Bob B

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea

  11. Simulated annealing applied to two-dimensional low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikasue, Y., E-mail: chikasue@ppl.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Furukawa, M., E-mail: furukawa@damp.tottori-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho, Tottori-shi, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    The simulated annealing (SA) method is applied to two-dimensional (2D) low-beta reduced magnetohydrodynamics (R-MHD). We have successfully obtained stationary states of the system numerically by the SA method with Casimir invariants preserved. Since the 2D low-beta R-MHD has two fields, the relaxation process becomes complex compared to a single field system such as 2D Euler flow. The obtained stationary state can have fine structure. We have found that the fine structure appears because the relaxation processes are different between kinetic energy and magnetic energy.

  12. Temperature derivative of the chemical potential and its magnetooscillations in two-dimensional system

    OpenAIRE

    Tupikov, Y.; Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Pudalov, V. M.; Burmistrov, I. S.

    2015-01-01

    We report first thermodynamic measurements of the temperature derivative of chemical potential (d{\\mu}/dT) in two-dimensional (2D) electron systems. In order to test the technique we have chosen Schottky gated GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunctions and detected experimentally in this 2D system quantum magnetooscillations of d{\\mu}/dT. We also present a Lifshits-Kosevitch type theory for the d{\\mu}/dT magnetooscillations in 2D systems and compare the theory with experimental data. The magnetic field depe...

  13. Hopping energy and percolation-type transport in p-GaAs low densities near the 2D metal-insulator transition at zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlimi, S.; El kaaouachi, A.; Narjis, A.; Limouny, L.; Sybous, A.; Errai, M.

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the temperature dependence of resistivity of a high mobility two-dimensional holes system grown on the (311) GaAs surface in the absence of the magnetic field near the metal-insulator transition. The Coulomb hopping was found in a wide range of temperature and carrier density. Quantitative analysis of our results suggests that a crossover from Efros-Shklovskii to Mott variable range hopping due to screening phenomenon when the hopping distance increases. We found that using the 2D single particle hopping amplitude CES gives unreasonably high localization lengths. Therefore, we believe that electrical transport is dominated by correlated hopping and the hopping amplitude must be renormalized by a reduction factor A≈1.6. The localization length appears to diverge in a power-law fashion near the transition point. The analysis of the hopping gives results consistent with the prediction of the critical point from a recent study of percolation and other experiences.

  14. Magnetic properties of a novel quasi-2D Cu(II)-trimer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Removic-Langer, Katarina; Wolf, Bernd; Lang, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Frankfurt, SFB/TRR-49, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Haussuehl, Eiken; Wiehl, Leonore [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Sauli, Francesca; Kopietz, Peter [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, SFB/TTR-49, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hasselmann, Nils [International Center of Condensed Matter Physics, Universidade de BrasIlia, 70910-900 BrasIlia (Brazil)

    2009-05-06

    We present structural and magnetic data of a new Cu{sup 2+}(S = 1/2)-containing magnetic trimer system 2b{center_dot}3CuCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O (b = betaine, C{sub 5}H{sub 11}NO{sub 2}). The trimers form a quasi-2D quantum spin system with an unusual intra-layer exchange coupling topology, which, in principle, supports diagonal four-spin exchange. To describe the magnetic properties, a 2D effective interacting-trimer model has been developed including an intra-trimer coupling J and two inter-trimer couplings J{sub a} and J{sub b}. The low-energy description and effective parameters are obtained from numerical calculations based on four coupled trimers (with periodic boundary conditions). Fits to the experimental data using this model yield the magnetic coupling constants J/k{sub B} = -15 K and J{sub a}/k{sub B} = J{sub b}/k{sub B} = -4 K. These parameters describe the susceptibility and magnetization data very well over the whole temperature and field range investigated. Moreover, the model calculations indicate that, for certain ranges of the ratio J{sub b}/J{sub a}, which might be accessible by either chemical substitution and/or hydrostatic pressure, the low-energy properties of 2b{center_dot}3CuCl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O will be dominated by non-trivial four-spin exchange processes.

  15. Assessing portal hypertension in post-operative biliary atresia patients using 2D magnetic resonance angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiki, Saori; Horikoshi, Kentarou; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamataka, Atsuyuki; Miyano, Takeshi; Kuwatsuru, Ryouhei; Katayama, Hitoshi [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    2D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in 38 post-operative biliary atresia (BA) patients. Collateral circulation other than esophageal varices that could not be observed with endoscopy was detected. By using contrast, the portal vasculature could be clearly delineated. MRA can be performed without using general anesthesia obviating the nead for hospitalization. At present, MRA alone is not sufficient for the complete assessment of varices in post-operative BA patients, and mucosal changes cannot be detected without endoscopy. However, combined with endoscopy, it provides valuable additional follow-up information without the need for general anesthesia or hospitalization. (author)

  16. Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2009-01-01

    Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.

  17. Two-dimensional imaging of edge-localized modes in KSTAR plasmas unperturbed and perturbed by n=1 external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, G. S.; Lee, W.; Choi, M. J.; Lee, J.; Park, H. K. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C. Jr. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. [Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Donne, A. J. H. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Einhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Einhoven (Netherlands); Lee, J. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Yoon, S. W. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: KSTAR Team

    2012-05-15

    The temporal evolution of edge-localized modes (ELMs) has been studied using a 2-D electron cyclotron emission imaging system in the KSTAR tokamak. The ELMs are observed to evolve in three distinctive stages: the initial linear growth of multiple filamentary structures having a net poloidal rotation, the interim state of regularly spaced saturated filaments, and the final crash through a short transient phase characterized by abrupt changes in the relative amplitudes and distance among filaments. The crash phase, typically consisted of multiple bursts of a single filament, involves a complex dynamics, poloidal elongation of the bursting filament, development of a fingerlike bulge, and fast localized burst through the finger. Substantial alterations of the ELM dynamics, such as mode number, poloidal rotation, and crash time scale, have been observed under external magnetic perturbations with the toroidal mode number n= 1.

  18. Two-Dimensional Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme

  19. Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming

    2013-04-04

    Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.

  20. Intrinsic magnetization in the novel quasi-two-dimensional superconducting and magnetic Fe1+δTe1-xSex system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuyoshi; Michioka, Chishiro; Matsui, Mami; Ohta, Hiroto; Yang, Jinhu; Fang, Minghu

    2011-06-01

    Intrinsic spin susceptibility of the novel layered superconducting and magnetic system Fe1+δTe1-xSex was investigated by means of the magnetization measurements in comparing with the 125Te NMR Knight shift 125K. The macroscopic uniform susceptibility in Fe1+δTe1-xSex consists of the itinerant magnetization originated in the Fe(1) site, localized one in the Fe(2) site and the ferromagnetic-like impurity which is frequently sandwiched by the thin film-like single crystals. Unlike the macroscopic magnetization, Knight shift 125K is mainly attributed to the itinerant magnetism of the Fe(1) site, which is important for the superconductivity and the magnetism in the Fe1+δTe1-xSex system. The magnetic susceptibility estimated in the high-field region agrees well with 125K. The uniform susceptibility of the superconducting Fe1+δTe1-xSex gradually decreases with decreasing temperature in the normal state accompanied by the growth of antiferromagnetic spin afluctuations.

  1. Three-dimensional magnetic and abundance mapping of the cool Ap star HD 24712 II. Two-dimensional Magnetic Doppler Imaging in all four Stokes parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Rusomarov, N; Ryabchikova, T; Piskunov, N

    2014-01-01

    Aims: We present a magnetic Doppler imaging study from all Stokes parameters of the cool, chemically peculiar star HD 24712. This is the very first such analysis performed at a resolving power exceeding 10^5. Methods: The analysis is performed on the basis of phase-resolved observations of line profiles in all four Stokes parameters obtained with the HARPSpol instrument attached at the 3.6-m ESO telescope. We use the magnetic Doppler imaging code, INVERS10, which allows us to derive the magnetic field geometry and surface chemical abundance distributions simultaneously. Results: We report magnetic maps of HD 24712 recovered from a selection of FeI, FeII, NdIII, and NaI lines with strong polarization signals in all Stokes parameters. Our magnetic maps successfully reproduce most of the details available from our observation data. We used these magnetic field maps to produce abundance distribution map of Ca. This new analysis shows that the surface magnetic field of HD 24712 has a dominant dipolar component wit...

  2. Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders

    The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.

  3. Portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis: indirect assessment of hepatic venous pressure gradient by measuring azygos flow with 2D-cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouya, Hervé; Grabar, Sophie; Vignaux, Olivier; Saade, Anastasia; Pol, Stanislas; Legmann, Paul; Sogni, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    To measure azygos, portal and aortic flow by two-dimensional cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D-cine PC MRI), and to compare the MRI values to hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements, in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-nine patients with cirrhosis were prospectively included. All patients underwent HVPG measurements, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and 2D-cine PC MRI measurements of azygos, portal and aortic blood flow. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between the blood flow and HVPG. The performance of 2D-cine PC MRI to diagnose severe portal hypertension (HVPG ≥ 16 mmHg) was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, and area under the curves (AUC) were compared. Azygos and aortic flow values were associated with HVPG in univariate linear regression model. Azygos flow (p cine PC MRI is a promising technique to evaluate significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. • Noninvasive HVPG assessment can be performed with MRI azygos flow. • Azygos MRI flow is an easy-to-measure marker to detect significant portal hypertension. • MRI flow is more specific that varice grade to detect portal hypertension.

  4. Fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectroscopy in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liangjie; Wei, Zhiliang; Zeng, Qing; Yang, Jian; Lin, Yanqin; Chen, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    High-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy plays an important role in chemical and biological analyses. In this study, we combine the J-coupling coherence transfer module with the echo-train acquisition technique for fast acquisition of high-resolution 2D NMR spectra in magnetic fields with unknown spatial variations. The proposed method shows satisfactory performance on a 5 mM ethyl 3-bromopropionate sample, under a 5-kHz (10 ppm at 11.7 T) B0 inhomogeneous field, as well as under varying degrees of pulse-flip-angle deviations. Moreover, a simulative ex situ NMR measurement is also conducted to show the effectiveness of the proposed pulse sequence.

  5. Analysis of directional dependence of the two-dimensional array of detectors 2D array seven 29 implications in the planning system; Analisis de la dependencia direcccional de la matriz bidimensional de detectores 2D array seven29. Implicaciones en el sistema de planificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)

  6. Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures

  7. Effects of 2D and 3D Error Fields on the SAS Divertor Magnetic Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, G. L.; Lao, L. L.; Strait, E. J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wu, W.; Evans, T. E.

    2016-10-01

    The successful design of plasma-facing components in fusion experiments is of paramount importance in both the operation of future reactors and in the modification of operating machines. Indeed, the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor concept, proposed for application on the DIII-D experiment, combines a small incident angle at the plasma strike point with a progressively opening slot, so as to better control heat flux and erosion in high-performance tokamak plasmas. Uncertainty quantification of the error fields expected around the striking point provides additional useful information in both the design and the modeling phases of the new divertor, in part due to the particular geometric requirement of the striking flux surfaces. The presented work involves both 2D and 3D magnetic error field analysis on the SAS strike point carried out using the EFIT code for 2D equilibrium reconstruction, V3POST for vacuum 3D computations and the OMFIT integrated modeling framework for data analysis. An uncertainty in the magnetic probes' signals is found to propagate non-linearly as an uncertainty in the striking point and angle, which can be quantified through statistical analysis to yield robust estimates. Work supported by contracts DE-FG02-95ER54309 and DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  8. Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.

  9. Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim

    1997-01-01

    An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...

  10. Natural and magnetic optical activity of 2-D chiral cyanido-bridged Mn(II)-Nb(IV) molecular ferrimagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorazy, Szymon; Podgajny, Robert; Nitek, Wojciech; Fic, Tomasz; Görlich, Edward; Rams, Michał; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2013-08-04

    Unique two dimensional enantiopure cyanido-bridged {[Mn(II)(R-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O and {[Mn(II)(S-mpm)2]2[Nb(IV)(CN)8]}·4H2O (-S) (mpm = α-methyl-2-pyridine-methanol) ferrimagnets with TC = 23.5 K were synthesized and characterized. They reveal natural optical activity (NOA) due to the chiral crystal structure, and magnetic optical activity (MOA) in the presence of an external magnetic field, with the strong enhancement in the magnetically ordered phase below TC.

  11. Comparison of 2-D Magnetic Designs of Selected Coil Configurations for the Next European Dipole (NED)

    CERN Document Server

    Toral, F; Felice, H; Fessia, Paolo; Loveridge, P W; Regis, Federico; Rochford, J; Sanz, S; Schwerg, Nikolai; Védrine, P; Völlinger, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The Next European Dipole (NED) activity is developing a high-performance Nb3Sn wire (aiming at a non-copper critical current density of 1500 A/mm2 at 4.2 K and 15 T), within the framework of the Coordinated Accelerator Research in Europe (CARE) project. This activity is expected to lead to the fabrication of a large aperture, high field dipole magnet. In preparation for this phase, a Working Group on Magnet Design and Optimization (MDO) has been established to propose an optimal design. Other parallel Work Packages are concentrating on relevant topics, such as quench propagation simulation, innovative insulation techniques, and heat transfer measurements. In a first stage, the MDO Working Group has selected a number of coil configurations to be studied, together with salient parameters and features to be considered during the evaluation: the field quality, the superconductor efficiency, the conductor peak field, the stored magnetic energy, the Lorentz Forces and the fabrication difficulties. 2-D magnetic calc...

  12. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-01

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  13. A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads

    2017-06-09

    The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.

  14. Two-dimensional superconductivity of SmFeAsO0.85 single crystals: A fluctuation-conductivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Yeap; Kim, Ju-Young; Sung, Nak-Heon; Cho, B. K.; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2010-12-01

    Temperature dependence of the in-plane conductance of a SmFeAsO0.85 single crystal is measured in c-axis and planar magnetic fields up to 7 T. The conductivity near the superconducting transition is well described by two-dimensional (2D) thermal-fluctuation theory. The 2D superconductivity arises as the c-axis coherence length is much shorter than the spacing between neighboring FeAs layers.

  15. Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .

  16. Quantum creep in a highly crystalline two-dimensional superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yu; Kasahara, Yuichi; Ye, Jianting; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Nojima, Tsutomu

    Conventional studies on quantum phase transitions, especially on superconductor-insulator or superconductor-metal-insulator transitions have been performed in deposited metallic thin films such as Bismuth or MoGe. Although the techniques of thin films deposition have been considerably improved, unintentional disorder such as impurities and deficiencies, generating the pinning centers, seems to still exist in such systems. The mechanical exfoliated highly crystalline two-dimensional material can be a good candidate to realize a less-disordered 2D superconductor with extremely weak pinning, combined with transfer method or ionic-liquid gating. We report on the quantum metal, namely, magnetic-field-induced metallic state observed in an ion-gated two-dimensional superconductor based on an ultra-highly crystalline layered band insulator, ZrNCl. We found that the superconducting state is extremely fragile against external magnetic fields; that is, zero resistance state immediately disappears, once an external magnetic field switches on. This is because the present system is relatively clean and the pinning potential is extremely weak, which cause quantum tunneling and flux flow of vortices, resulting in metallic ground state.

  17. Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong

    2016-01-01

    The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.

  18. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.

  19. High-resolution structural studies of ultra-thin magnetic, transition metal overlayers and two-dimensional transition metal oxides using synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellar, S.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Advanced Light Source Div.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis report the surface-structure determination of three, ultra-thin magnetic transition-metal films, Fe/Au(100), Mn/Ni(100), and Mn/Cu(100) using Angle-Resolved Photoemission Extended Fine Structure (ARPEFS) and photoelectron holography. These structural studies are the first to use non-s initial states in the ARPEFS procedure. This thesis also reports an ARPEFS surface-structure determination of a two-dimensional transition-metal oxide, [(1 x 1)O/W(110)] x 12. The authors have analyzed the ARPFES signal from the Au 4f{sub 7/5} core level of the Au(1 ML)/Fe(15 ML)/Au(100) system. The analysis shows that the Fe grows layer by layer with one monolayer of gold, acting as a surfactant, remaining on top of the growing Fe layers. These surface gold atoms sit in the four-fold hollow site, 1.67 {+-} 0.02 A above the iron surface. The grown Fe layer is very much like the bulk, bcc iron, with an interlayer spacing of 1.43 {+-} 0.03 A. Analysis of the Mn 3p ARPEFS signals from c(2 x 2)Mn/Ni(100) and c(2 x 2)Mn/Cu(100) shows that the Mn forms highly corrugated surface alloys. The corrugation of the Mn/Ni(100) and Mn/Cu(100) systems are 0.24 {+-} 0.02 A and 0.30 {+-} 0.04 A respectively. In both cases the Mn is sticking above the plane of the surface substrate atoms. For the Mn/Ni(100) system the first layer Ni is contracted 4% from the bulk value. The Mn/Cu(100) system shows bulk spacing for the substrate Cu. Photoelectron holography shows that the Mn/Ni interface is very abrupt with very little Mn leaking into the second layer, while the Mn/Cu(100) case has a significant amount of Mn leaking into the second layer. A new, five-element electrostatic electron lens was developed for hemispherical electron-energy analyzers. This lens system can be operated at constant transverse or constants angular magnification, and has been optimized for use with the very small photon-spot sizes. Improvements to the hemispherical electron-energy analyzer are also discussed.

  20. Simulation of bootstrap current in 2D and 3D ideal magnetic fields in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunathan, M.; Graves, J. P.; Cooper, W. A.; Pedro, M.; Sauter, O.

    2016-09-01

    We aim to simulate the bootstrap current for a MAST-like spherical tokamak using two approaches for magnetic equilibria including externally caused 3D effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), the effect of toroidal ripple, and intrinsic 3D effects such as non-resonant internal kink modes. The first approach relies on known neoclassical coefficients in ideal MHD equilibria, using the Sauter (Sauter et al 1999 Phys. Plasmas 6 2834) expression valid for all collisionalities in axisymmetry, and the second approach being the quasi-analytic Shaing-Callen (Shaing and Callen 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3315) model in the collisionless regime for 3D. Using the ideal free-boundary magnetohydrodynamic code VMEC, we compute the flux-surface averaged bootstrap current density, with the Sauter and Shaing-Callen expressions for 2D and 3D ideal MHD equilibria including an edge pressure barrier with the application of resonant magnetic perturbations, and equilibria possessing a saturated non-resonant 1/1 internal kink mode with a weak internal pressure barrier. We compare the applicability of the self-consistent iterative model on the 3D applications and discuss the limitations and advantages of each bootstrap current model for each type of equilibrium.

  1. Hyperspherical approach to the three-bosons problem in 2D with a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Rittenhouse, Seth T; Johnson, B L

    2016-01-01

    We examine a system of three-bosons confined to two dimensions in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field within the framework of the adiabatic hyperspherical method. For the case of zero-range, regularized pseudo-potential interactions, we find that the system is nearly separable in hyperspherical coordinates and that, away from a set of narrow avoided crossings, the full energy eigenspectrum as a function of the 2D s-wave scattering length is well described by ignoring coupling between adiabatic hyperradial potentials. In the case of weak attractive or repulsive interactions, we find the lowest three-body energy states exhibit even/odd parity oscillations as a function of total internal 2D angular momentum and that for weak repulsive interactions, the universal lowest energy interacting state has an internal angular momentum of $M=3$. With the inclusion of repulsive higher angular momentum we surmise that the origin of a set of ``magic number'' states (states with anomalously low energy) might emerge...

  2. Characteristics of a Lorentzian to Gaussian transformation function as a weighting function in processing the two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of a drug-phosphatidylcholine vesicles solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    黒田, 義弘; 藤原, 靖弘; 斉藤, 雅子; 新宮, 徹朗

    1988-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of a Lorentzian to Gaussian trans formation function, which has been commonly employed in enhancing the resolution of two-timensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR...

  3. 2D to 3D crossover of the magnetic properties in ordered arrays of iron oxide nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Bertrand; Wetterskog, Erik; Gunnarsson, Klas

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic 2D to 3D crossover behavior of well-ordered arrays of monodomain γ-Fe2O3 spherical nanoparticles with different thicknesses has been investigated by magnetometry and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Using the structural information of the arrays obtained from grazing incidence small...... interactions induce a ferromagnetic coupling that increases in strength with decreasing thickness of the array. The 2D to 3D transition in the magnetic properties is mainly driven by a change in the orientation of the magnetic vortex states with increasing thickness, becoming more isotropic as the thickness...

  4. Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E

    1998-01-01

    The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.

  5. Effects of external fields on two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudoharmonic oscillator interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ikhdair, Sameer M

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov-Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjects to equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO). We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter, magnetic field strength, AB flux field and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method. The non-relativistic limit, PHO and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  6. Commensurate and incommensurate states of a spin density wave in a quasi-two-dimensional system with an anisotropic energy spectrum in an external magnetic field of arbitrary direction relative to magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palistrant, M. E., E-mail: mepalistrant@yandex.com; Ursu, V. A. [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    A theory of thermodynamic properties of a spin density wave (SDW) in a quasi-two-dimensional system (with a preset impurity concentration x) is constructed. We choose an anisotropic dispersion relation for the electron energy and assume that external magnetic field H has an arbitrary direction relative to magnetic moment M{sub Q}. The system of equations defining order parameters M{sub Q}{sup z}, M{sub Q}{sup {sigma}}, M{sub z}, and M{sup {sigma}} is constructed and transformed with allowance for the Umklapp processes. Special cases when H Double-Vertical-Line M{sub Q} and H Up-Tack M{sub Q} (H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0) are considered in detail as well as cases of weak fields H of arbitrary direction. The condition for the transition of the system to the commensurate and incommensurate states of the SDW is analyzed. The concentration dependence of magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is calculated, and the components of the order parameter for the incommensurate phase are determined. The phase diagram (T,{approx}x) is constructed. The effect of the magnetic field on magnetic transition temperature T{sub M} is analyzed for H{sub Z}H{sup {sigma}} = 0, and longitudinal magnetic susceptibility {chi} Double-Vertical-Line is calculated; this quantity demonstrates the temperature dependence corresponding to a system with a gap for x < x{sub c} and to a gapless state for x > x{sub c}. In the immediate vicinity of the critical impurity concentration (x {approx} x{sub c}), the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility acquires a local maximum. The effect of anisotropy of the electron energy spectrum on the investigated physical quantities is also analyzed.

  7. Fingerprints of field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in quasi-two-dimensional S=1/2 Heisenberg magnets Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 and Cu(tn)Cl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranová, Lucia; Orendáčová, Alžbeta; Čižmár, Erik; Tarasenko, Róbert; Tkáč, Vladimír; Orendáč, Martin; Feher, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Organo-metallic compounds Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 (en=C2H8N2) and Cu(tn)Cl2 (tn=C3H10N2) representing S=1/2 quasi-two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnets with an effective intra-layer exchange coupling J/kB≈3 K, have been examined by specific heat measurements at temperatures down to nominally 50 mK and magnetic fields up to 14 T. A comparative analysis of magnetic specific heat in zero magnetic field revealed nearly identical contribution of short-range magnetic correlations and significant differences were observed at lowest temperatures. A phase transition to long-range order was observed in Cu(en)(H2O)2SO4 at TC=0.9 K while hidden in Cu(tn)Cl2. A response of both compounds to the application of magnetic field has rather universal features characteristic for a field-induced Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition theoretically predicted for ideal two-dimensional magnets.

  8. Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.

  9. Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Lianzhou

    2015-05-07

    The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress of this dynamically developed material family with a particular focus on biomedical applications. After the introduction, the second section of the article summarizes a range of synthetic methods for new types of 2D-GAs as well as their surface functionalization. The subsequent section provides a snapshot on the use of these biocompatible 2D-GAs for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications, including therapeutic (photothermal/photodynamic therapy, chemotherapy and synergistic therapy), diagnostic (fluorescent/magnetic resonance/computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging) and theranostic (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) applications, especially on oncology. In addition, we briefly present the biosensing applications of these 2D-GAs for the detection of biomacromolecules and their in vitro/in vivo biosafety evaluations. The last section summarizes some critical unresolved issues, possible challenges/obstacles and also proposes future perspectives related to the rational design and construction of 2D-GAs for biomedical engineering, which are believed to promote their clinical translations for benefiting the personalized medicine and human health.

  10. A Two-Dimensional MagnetoHydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Livne, E; Burrows, A; Meakin, C A; Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.

    2007-01-01

    We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation-hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALE). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of $div(\\bB)$ by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for...

  11. Expression of transcription factors after short-term exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana cell cultures to hypergravity and simulated microgravity (2-D/3-D clinorotation, magnetic levitation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbick, M.; Dijkstra, C.; Larkin, O. J.; Anthony, P.; Davey, M. R.; Power, J. B.; Lowe, K. C.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Hampp, R.

    Gravity is an important environmental factor that controls plant growth and development. Studies have shown that the perception of gravity is not only a property of specialized cells, but can also be performed by undifferentiated cultured cells. In this investigation, callus of Arabidopsis thaliana cv. Columbia was used to investigate the initial steps of gravity-related signalling cascades, through altered expression of transcription factors (TFs). TFs are families of small proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific promoter sequences. Based on microarray studies, members of the gene families WRKY, MADS-box, MYB, and AP2/EREBP were selected for investigation, as well as members of signalling chains, namely IAA 19 and phosphoinositol-4-kinase. Using qRT-PCR, transcripts were quantified within a period of 30 min in response to hypergravity (8 g), clinorotation [2-D clinostat and 3-D random positioning machine (RPM)] and magnetic levitation (ML). The data indicated that (1) changes in gravity induced stress-related signalling, and (2) exposure in the RPM induced changes in gene expression which resemble those of magnetic levitation. Two dimensional clinorotation resulted in responses similar to those caused by hypergravity. It is suggested that RPM and ML are preferable to simulate microgravity than clinorotation.

  12. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem

  13. Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of

  14. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  15. Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o

  16. 2D Magnetic resonance electrical property tomography based on B1(-) field mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuqing Wan; Negishi, Michiro; Constable, R Todd

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Property Tomography (MREPT) is a method to visualize electrical conductivity and permittivity distributions in the object. Traditional MREPT relies on either the radio frequency (RF) transmit field (B(+)1) mapping, or using a transmit/receive RF coil, to compute tissue's electrical conductivity and permittivity. This paper introduces an alternative approach based on the reconstructed receive field (B(-)1) By solving a system of homogeneous equations consisting of the signal ratios from multi-channel receive coils, the receive field distribution with both magnitude and phase can be computed. Similar to (B(+)1) based MREPT method, the conductivity and permittivity in the imaging object can be calculated from the (B(-)1) field. We demonstrated the feasibility to image electrical property contrasts through computer simulated studies and phantom experiments. Although this study focuses on the 2D reconstruction, the presented method can be extended to full 3D. This method can be applied to regular MR imaging collected with multi-channel receive coils, and therefore, tissue anomaly based on electrical properties can potentially be revealed with a higher imaging quality, providing useful information for clinical diagnosis.

  17. TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suryadeep Ray

    2004-09-01

    We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.

  18. Two-dimensional behavior of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow with a strong guiding field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-11-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in the presence of a guiding magnetic field are investigated by means of direct numerical simulations. The basis of the investigation consists of nine runs forced at the small scales. The results demonstrate that for a large enough uniform magnetic field the large scale flow behaves as a two-dimensional (2D) (non-MHD) fluid exhibiting an inverse cascade of energy in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the small scales behave like a three-dimensional (3D) MHD fluid cascading the energy forwards. The amplitude of the inverse cascade is sensitive to the magnetic field amplitude, the domain size, the forcing mechanism, and the forcing scale. All these dependences are demonstrated by the varying parameters of the simulations. Furthermore, in the case that the system is forced anisotropically in the small parallel scales an inverse cascade in the parallel direction is observed that is feeding the 2D modes k(//)=0.

  19. Theory of two-dimensional transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.

    1998-01-01

    The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...

  20. Tunable Electrical Conductivity and Magnetic Property of the Two Dimensional Metal Organic Framework [Cu(TPyP)Cu2(O2CCH3)4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ananya; Datta, Subhadeep; Su, Chenliang; Herng, Tun Seng; Ding, Jun; Vittal, Jagadese J; Loh, Kian Ping

    2016-06-29

    The coordination chemistry between copper acetate [Cu2(OAc)4] and 5,10,15,20-tetra-4-pyridyl-21H,23H-porphine (porphyrin, H2TPyP) is found to give rise to either a 2D metal-organic framework (MOF) [Cu(TPyP)Cu2(O2CCH3)4] or a 3D MOF [Cu(TPyP)CuCl2]·2.5TCE·7H2O], depending on the choice of solvent. The 2D MOF can be made into a film, which was doped with 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), and the electrical conductivity of the thin film was increased by 3 orders of magnitude with respect to that of the undoped Cu-MOF. The formation of a charge-transfer complex between TCNQ and the 2D Cu-MOF also imparts stronger paramagnetic properties than for the undoped MOF.

  1. Slow magnetic relaxation in a hydrogen-bonded 2D array of mononuclear dysprosium(III) oxamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortea-Pérez, Francisco R; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; De Munno, Giovanni; Armentano, Donatella; Pardo, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    The reaction of N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)oxamic acid with dysprosium(III) ions in a controlled basic media afforded the first example of a mononuclear lanthanide oxamate complex exhibiting a field-induced slow magnetic relaxation behavior typical of single-ion magnets (SIMs). The hydrogen-bond-mediated self-assembly of this new bifunctional dysprosium(III) SIM in the solid state provides a unique example of 2D hydrogen-bonded polymer with a herringbone net topology.

  2. Steady-state properties of driven magnetic reconnection in 2D electron magnetohydrodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, L; Simakov, Andrei N; Zocco, A

    2007-12-07

    We formulate a rigorous nonlinear analytical model that describes the dynamics of the diffusion (reconnection) region in driven systems in the context of electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD). A steady-state analysis yields allowed geometric configurations and associated reconnection rates. In addition to the well-known open X-point geometry, elongated configurations are found possible. The model predictions have been validated numerically with two-dimensional EMHD nonlinear simulations, and are in excellent agreement with previously published work.

  3. Magnetic correlations in the 2D S=5/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet MnPS3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønnow, H.M.; Wildes, A.R.; Bramwell, S.T.

    2000-01-01

    MnPS3 is a quasi-2D S = 5/2 antiferromagnet on a honeycomb lattice. Using an energy integrating neutron scattering technique, we have measured the structure factor S(k) of the instantaneous magnetic fluctuations. The temperature dependence of the correlation length xi follows the Kosterlitz...

  4. Magnetic Bloch oscillations in the near-Ising antiferromagnet CoCl2#center dot#2D2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, N.B.; Lefmann, K.; Johannsen, I.;

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated the possible occurrence of magnetic Bloch oscillations in CoCl2 . 2D(2)O. We were unable to observe these oscillations at 20.0 K, just above T-N. In an attempt to explain this result, we studied spin waves in the a*-c* plane in order to estimate the effect of the interchain...

  5. Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.

    1988-04-01

    We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.

  6. Magnetic field decoupling and 3D-2D crossover in Nb/Cu multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnov, V.M.; Kovalev, A.E.; Oboznov, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    , sharpening of the resistive transition with current along layers occurs due to the appearance of a strong intrinsic pinning in the 2D state. Evidence for the intrinsic Josephson effect in the 2D state is provided both by the pei-iodic modulation of the dynamic resistance across layers versus the parallel...

  7. New structural information on a humic acid from two-dimensional 1H-13C correlation solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J D; Xing, B; Schmidt-Rohr, K

    2001-05-15

    New information on the chemical structure of a peat humic acid has been obtained using a series of two-dimensional 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR (HETCOR) experiments with different contact times and with spectral editing by dipolar dephasing and 13C transverse relaxation filtering. Carbon-bonded methyl groups (C-CH3) are found to be near both aliphatic and O-alkyl but not aromatic groups. The spectra prove that most OCH3 groups are connected directly with the aromatic rings, as is typical in lignin. As a result, about one-third of the aromatic C-O groups is not phenolic C-OH but C-OCH3. Both protonated and unprotonated anomeric O-C-O carbons are identified in the one- and two-dimensional spectra. COO groups are found predominantly in OCHn-COO environments, but some are also bonded to aromatic rings and aliphatic groups. All models of humic acids in the literature lack at least some of the features observed here. Compositional heterogeneity was studied by introducing 1H spin diffusion into the HETCOR experiment. Comparison with data for a synthetic polymer, polycarbonate, indicates that the separation between O-alkyl and aromatic groups in the humic acid is less than 1.5 nm. However, transverse 13C relaxation filtering under 1H decoupling reveals heterogeneity on a nanometer scale, with the slow-relaxing component being rich in lignin-like aromatic-C-O-CH3 moieties and poor in COO groups.

  8. Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I

    2015-10-27

    Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.

  9. FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan

    2008-01-01

    Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.

  10. The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...

  11. The effect of a magnetic field on a 2D problem of fibre-reinforced thermoelasticity rotation under three theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kh. Lotfy

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper,we introduce the coupled theory (CD),Lord Schulman (LS) theory,and Green-Lindsay (GL) theory to study the influences of a magnetic field and rotation on a two-dimensional problem of fibre-reinforced thermoelasticity.The material is a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space.The method applied here is to use normal mode analysis to solve a thermal shock problem.Some particular cases are also discussed in the context of the problem.Deformation of a body depends on the nature of the force applied as well as the type of boundary conditions.Numerical results for the temperature,displacement,and thermal stress components are given and illustrated graphically in the absence and the presence of the magnetic field and rotation.

  12. Two-Dimensional NMR Evidence for Cleavage of Lignin and Xylan Substituents in Wheat Straw Through Hydrothermal Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby

    2012-01-01

    Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...

  13. Two-dimensional signal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Garello, René

    2010-01-01

    This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.

  14. Effects of in-plane magnetic field on the transport of 2D electron vortices in non-uniform plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Justin; Richardson, Andrew; Schumer, Joseph; Pulsed Power Team

    2015-11-01

    The formation of electron vortices in current-carrying plasmas is observed in 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of the plasma-opening switch. In the presence of a background density gradient in Cartesian systems, vortices drift in the direction found by crossing the magnetic field with the background density gradient as a result of the Hall effect. However, most of the 2D simulations where electron vortices are seen and studied only allow for in-plane currents and thus only an out-of-plane magnetic field. Here we present results of numerical simulations of 2D, seeded electron vortices in an inhomogeneous background using the generalized 2D electron-magneto-hydrodynamic model that additionally allows for in-plane components of the magnetic field. By seeding vortices with a varying axial component of the velocity field, so that the vortex becomes a corkscrew, it is found that a pitch angle of around 20 degrees is sufficient to completely prevent the vortex from propagating due to the Hall effect for typical plasma parameters. This work is supported by the NRL Base Program.

  15. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...

  16. Magnetohydrodynamics of atmospheric transients. IV - Nonplane two-dimensional analyses of energy conversion and magnetic field evolution. [during corona following solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.; Nakagawa, Y.; Han, S. M.; Dryer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field and the manner of conversion of thermal energy into different forms in the corona following a solar flare are investigated by means of a nonplane magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) analysis. All three components of magnetic field and velocity are treated in a physically self-consistent manner, with all physical variables as functions of time (t) and two spatial coordinates (r, theta). The difference arising from the initial magnetic field, either twisted (force-free) or non-twisted (potential), is demonstrated. Consideration is given to two initial field topologies (open vs. closed). The results demonstrate that the conversion of magnetic energy is faster for the case of the initially twisted (force-free) field than for the initially untwisted (potential) field. In addition, the twisted field is found to produce a complex structure of the density enhancements.

  17. Decoherence in a Landau Quantized Two Dimensional Electron Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGill Stephen A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the dynamics of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas as a function of temperature. The presence of satellite reflections in the sample and magnet can be modeled in the time-domain.

  18. Note: Unshielded bilateral magnetoencephalography system using two-dimensional gradiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yusuke; Kandori, Akihiko; Ogata, Kuniomi; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Kumagai, Yukio; Ohnuma, Mitsuru; Konaka, Kuni; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2010-09-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) noninvasively measures neuronal activity with high temporal resolution. The aim of this study was to develop a new type of MEG system that can measure bilateral MEG waveforms without a magnetically shielded room, which is an obstacle to reducing both the cost and size of an MEG system. An unshielded bilateral MEG system was developed using four two-dimensional (2D) gradiometers and two symmetric cryostats. The 2D gradiometer, which is based on a low-Tc superconducting quantum interference device and wire-wound pickup coil detects a magnetic-field gradient in two orthogonal directions, or ∂/∂x(∂2Bz/∂z2), and reduces environmental magnetic-field noise by more than 50 dB. The cryostats can be symmetrically positioned in three directions: vertical, horizontal, and rotational. This makes it possible to detect bilateral neuronal activity in the cerebral cortex simultaneously. Bilateral auditory-evoked fields (AEF) of 18 elderly subjects were measured in an unshielded hospital environment using the MEG system. As a result, both the ipsilateral and the contralateral AEF component N100m, which is the magnetic counterpart of electric N100 in electroencephalography and appears about 100 ms after the onset of an auditory stimulus, were successfully detected for all the subjects. Moreover, the ipsilateral P50m and the contralateral P50m were also detected for 12 (67%) and 16 (89%) subjects, respectively. Experimental results demonstrate that the unshielded bilateral MEG system can detect MEG waveforms, which are associated with brain dysfunction such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and Down syndrome.

  19. Two-dimensional superconductivity of SmFeAsO{sub 0.85} single crystals: A fluctuation-conductivity study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Yeap [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young; Sung, Nak-Heon; Cho, B.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, GIST, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hu-Jong, E-mail: hjlee@postech.ac.k [Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Temperature dependence of the in-plane conductance of a SmFeAsO{sub 0.85} single crystal is measured in c-axis and planar magnetic fields up to 7 T. The conductivity near the superconducting transition is well described by two-dimensional (2D) thermal-fluctuation theory. The 2D superconductivity arises as the c-axis coherence length is much shorter than the spacing between neighboring FeAs layers.

  20. Effects of rapid thermal annealing on two-dimensional delocalized electronic states of the epitaxial N δ-doped layer in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Harada, Yukihiro; Baba, Takeshi; Kaizu, Toshiyuki; Kita, Takashi [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-03-14

    We have conducted rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for improving the two-dimensional (2D) arrangement of electronic states in the epitaxial nitrogen (N) δ-doped layer in GaAs. RTA rearranged the N-pair configurations in the GaAs (001) plane and reduced the number of non-radiative recombination centers. Furthermore, a Landau shift, representing the 2D delocalized electronic states in the (001) plane, was observed at around zero magnetic field intensity in the Faraday configuration.

  1. Heat capacity and magnetic phase transition of two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, Yuji [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyazaki@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Wang, Qi [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Qing-sen [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Matsumoto, Tetsuya [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Miyasaka, Hitoshi [Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Minami-ohsawa 1-1, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naohide [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Sorai, Michio [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2005-06-15

    Heat capacities of the two-dimensional metal-assembled complex, K[{l_brace}Mn{sup III}(3-MeOsalen){r_brace}{sub 2}Fe{sup III}(China){sub 6}] [3-MeOsalen N,N'-ethylenebis(3-methoxysalicylideneaminato) dianion], were measured at the temperatures from 0.5 to 300 K by adiabatic calorimetry. An antiferromagnetic phase transition was observed at T {sub N} = 8.29 K. Above T {sub N}, a heat capacity tail arising from the short-range-order effect of the spins was found, which is characteristic of two-dimensional magnets. The magnetic enthalpy and entropy were evaluated to be {delta}H = 373 J mol{sup -1} and {delta}S = 31.3 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}, respectively. The experimental magnetic entropy is in good agreement with {delta}S = R ln (5 x 5 x 2) (=32.5 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}; R being the gas constant), which is expected for the metal complex with two Mn(III) ions in high spin state (spin quantum number S = 2) and one Fe(III) ion in low spin state (S = 1/2). The spin wave analysis suggests that the complex shows three-dimensional antiferromagnetic order below T {sub N}. The heat capacity tail above T {sub N} was decreased by grinding and pressurizing the crystal. This mechanochemical effect would originate in the increase of lattice defects and imperfections in the crystal lattice, leading to decrease of the magnetic heat capacity and hence the magnetic enthalpy and entropy.

  2. Development of a Semi-Automatic Technique for Flow Estimation using Optical Flow Registration and k-means Clustering on Two Dimensional Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Flow Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Lau; Christoffersen, Christian P. V.; Kristiansen, Martin Søndergaard

    of the aorta. Methods: 2D phase contrast flow images of the aorta were acquired from a patient with an enlarged pulmonary artery on a Philips Achieva 1.5T CMR system. The cardiac motion was removed from the data set using the Cornelius/Kanade registration algorithm. The time resolved flow data...... promising because it saves time for post-processing. However, the k-means cluster approach is not comprehensive for quantitative flow estimations as it is but seems feasible for a subsequent segmentation algorithm like deformable contours (i.e. snakes). Future work may overcome this manual part and make...

  3. Elucidating the 2D magnetic topology of the 'metal-radical' TTTA⋅Cu(hfac)2 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Sergi; Sopena, Arturo; Ribas-Arino, Jordi; Novoa, Juan J; Deumal, Mercè

    2014-06-02

    The TTTA⋅Cu(hfac)2 polymer (1; in which TTTA = 1,3,5-trithia-2,4,6-triazapentalenyl, and hfac = (1,1,1,5,5,5)-hexafluoroacetylacetonate) is one of the most prominent examples of the rational use of the 'metal-radical' synthetic approach to achieve ferromagnetic interactions. Experimentally, the magnetic topology of 1 could not be fully deciphered. Herein, the first-principles bottom-up procedure was applied to elucidate the nature and strength of the magnetic JAB exchange interactions present in 1. The computed JAB values give rise to a 2D magnetic topology of ferromagnetic dimers (+11.9 cm(-1)) coupled through weaker antiferromagnetic interactions (-3.0 and -3.2 cm(-1)) in two different spatial directions. The hitherto unknown origin of the antiferromagnetic interdimer interactions is thus unveiled. By using the 2D magnetic topology, the agreement between calculated and experimental χT(T) data is extraordinary. In the metal-radical TTTA⋅Cu(hfac)2 compound, the computational model transcends the local dimer cluster model owing to strong interactions between metal centers and organic radicals, thereby creating a de facto biradical. In addition, it is shown that the magnetic topology cannot be inferred from the polymeric [TTTA⋅⋅⋅Cu(hfac)2]n crystal motif, that is, from its chemical coordination pattern. Instead, one should think in terms of magnetic building blocks, namely, the de facto biradicals.

  4. Understanding the focusing of charged particle for 2D sheet beam in a cusped magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Tusharika S; Reddy, K T V

    2016-01-01

    The requirement of axial magnetic field for focusing and transportation of sheet beam using cusped magnets is less as compared to solenoid magnetic fields which is uniform. There is often some confusion about how a cusped magnetic field focuses high current density sheet beam because it is generally understood that non-uniform magnetic field cannot guide the particle beam along its axis of propagation .In this paper, we perform simple analysis of the dynamics of sheet beam in a cusped magnetic field with single electron model and emphasize an intuitive understanding of interesting features (as beam geometry, positioning of permanent magnets, particle radius,particle velocity,radius of curvature of particle inside cusped magnetic field)

  5. Time-reversal breaking and spin transport induced by magnetic impurities in a 2D topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhshan, V.; Ketabi, S. A.; Moghaddam, A. G.

    2016-09-01

    We employed the formalism of bond currents, expressed in terms of non-equilibrium Green’s function to obtain the local currents and transport features of zigzag silicene ribbon in the presence of magnetic impurity. When only intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions are present, silicene behaves as a two-dimensional topological insulator with gapless edge states. But in the presence of finite intrinsic spin-orbit interaction, the edge states start to penetrate into the bulk of the sample by increasing Rashba interaction strength. The exchange interaction induced by local impurities breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the gapless edge states and influences the topological properties strongly. Subsequently, the singularity of partial Berry curvature disappears and the silicene nanoribbon becomes a trivial insulator. On the other hand, when the concentration of the magnetic impurities is low, the edge currents are not affected significantly. In this case, when the exchange field lies in the x-y plane, the spin mixing around magnetic impurity is more profound rather than the case in which the exchange field is directed along the z-axis. Nevertheless, when the exchange field of magnetic impurities is placed in the x-y plane, a spin-polarized conductance is observed. The resulting conductance polarization can be tuned by the concentration of the impurities and even completely polarized spin transport is achievable.

  6. The Study on the Shape of 2-D Stator with Electromagnets and Permanent Magnets for 3-D Superconducting Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, S.; Kim, S. B.; Nakano, H.; Sawae, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    The electric device applications of a high temperature superconducting (HTS) bulk magnet having stable levitation and suspension properties due to their strong flux pinning force have been proposed and developed. We have been investigating the three-dimensional (3-D) superconducting actuator using HTS bulk to develop a non-contact transportation device. Probably, the cost of the manufactory will be increased to install the 2-D arranged electromagnets (EM) in a large area because many EMs are needed to cover the area. Therefore, we have been trying to find the method for reducing the number of EMs. In this study, all the EMs except for rotation were replaced in the 2-D arranged permanent magnets (PM), and gap length between PMs were experimentally investigated to improve the dynamic behavior of the mover and to reduce the cost of the manufacturing. As a result, we have succeeded in conveyance of the bulk and reduce the convergence time and maximum overshoot.

  7. Exact Propagator for the Anisotropic Two-Dimensional Charged Harmonic Oscillator in a Constant Magnetic Field and an Arbitrary Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Zhi-Yuan; YANG Tao; PAN Xiao-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated. Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.%The propagator for an anisotropic two-dimension charged harmonic oscillator in the presence of a constant external magnetic field and a time-dependent electric field is exactly evaluated.Various special cases appearing in the literature can be obtained by properly setting the values of the parameters in our results.

  8. A self-consistent two-dimensional resistive fluid theory of field-aligned potential structures including charge separation and magnetic and velocity shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Michael; Birn, Joachim; Schindler, Karl

    1990-01-01

    A self-consistent two-fluid theory that includes the magnetic field and shear patterns is developed to model stationary electrostatic structures with field-aligned potential drops. Shear flow is also included in the theory since this seems to be a prominent feature of the structures of interest. In addition, Ohmic dissipation, a Hall term, and pressure gradients in a generalized Ohm's law, modified for cases without quasi-neutrality, are included. In the analytic theory, the electrostatic force is balanced by field-aligned pressure gradients (i.e., thermal effects in the direction of the magnetic field) and by pressure gradients and magnetic stresses in the perpendicular direction. Within this theory, simple examples of applications are presented to demonstrate the kind of solutions resulting from the model. The results show how the effects of charge separation and shear in the magnetic field and the velocity can be combined to form self-consistent structures such as are found to exist above the aurora, suggested also in association with solar flares.

  9. 2D profile of poloidal magnetic field diagnosed by a laser-driven ion-beam trace probe (LITP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Chijie, E-mail: cjxiao@pku.edu.cn; Chen, Yihang; Xu, Tianchao; Lin, Chen [State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Long [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 603, Beijing 100190 (China); Xu, Min [Center for Fusion Science of Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Yu, Yi [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Based on large energy spread of laser-driven ion beam (LIB), a new method, the Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), was suggested recently to diagnose the poloidal magnetic field (B{sub p}) and radial electric field (E{sub r}) in toroidal devices. Based on another property of LIB, a wide angular distribution, here we suggested that LITP could be extended to get 2D B{sub p} profile or 1D profile of both poloidal and radial magnetic fields at the same time. In this paper, we show the basic principle, some preliminary simulation results, and experimental preparation to test the basic principle of LITP.

  10. 2D profile of poloidal magnetic field diagnosed by a laser-driven ion-beam trace probe (LITP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Xiao, Chijie; Chen, Yihang; Xu, Tianchao; Lin, Chen; Wang, Long; Xu, Min; Yu, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Based on large energy spread of laser-driven ion beam (LIB), a new method, the Laser-driven Ion-beam Trace Probe (LITP), was suggested recently to diagnose the poloidal magnetic field (Bp) and radial electric field (Er) in toroidal devices. Based on another property of LIB, a wide angular distribution, here we suggested that LITP could be extended to get 2D Bp profile or 1D profile of both poloidal and radial magnetic fields at the same time. In this paper, we show the basic principle, some preliminary simulation results, and experimental preparation to test the basic principle of LITP.

  11. Nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic wave interaction with 2D magnetic X-points in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Threlfall, J W; De Moortel, I; McClements, K G; Arber, T D

    2012-01-01

    Context. This paper investigates the role of the Hall term in the propagation and dissipation of waves which interact with 2D magnetic X-points and considers the effect of the Hall term on the nature of the resulting reconnection. Aims. The goal is to determine how the evolution of a nonlinear fast magnetoacoustic wave pulse, and the behaviour of the oscillatory reconnection which results from the interaction of the pulse with a line-tied 2D magnetic X-point, is affected by the Hall term in the generalised Ohm's law. Methods. A Lagrangian remap shock-capturing code (Lare2d) is used to study the evolution of an initial fast magnetoacoustic wave annulus for a range of values of the ion skin depth (di) in resistive Hall MHD. A magnetic null-point finding algorithm is also used to locate and track the evolution of the multiple null-points that are formed in the system. Results. In general, the fast wave is coupled to a shear wave and, for finite di, to whistler and ion cyclotron waves. Dispersive whistler effects...

  12. Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bablich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.

  13. Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)

    2006-12-01

    This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.

  14. Two-Dimensional Vernier Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juday, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.

  15. Flexible Quasi-Two-Dimensional CoFe2O4 Epitaxial Thin Films for Continuous Strain Tuning of Magnetic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Shen, Lvkang; Liu, Ming; Li, Xin; Lu, Xiaoli; Lu, Lu; Ma, Chunrui; You, Caiyin; Chen, Aiping; Huang, Chuanwei; Chen, Lang; Alexe, Marin; Jia, Chun-Lin

    2017-08-22

    Epitaxial thin films of CoFe2O4 (CFO) have successfully been transferred from a SrTiO3 substrate onto a flexible polyimide substrate. By bending the flexible polyimide, different levels of uniaxial strain are continuously introduced into the CFO epitaxial thin films. Unlike traditional epitaxial strain induced by substrates, the strain from bending will not suffer from critical thickness limitation, crystalline quality variation, and substrate clamping, and more importantly, it provides a more intrinsic and reliable way to study strain-controlled behaviors in functional oxide systems. It is found that both the saturation magnetization and coercivity of the transferred films can be changed over the bending status and show a high accord with the movement of the curvature bending radius of the polyimide substrate. This reveals that the mechanical strain plays a critical role in tuning the magnetic properties of CFO thin films parallel and perpendicular to the film plane direction.

  16. Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen

    2016-09-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy of a two-dimensional hole gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaraju, N., E-mail: nkamaraju@lanl.gov; Taylor, A. J.; Prasankumar, R. P., E-mail: rpprasan@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Pan, W.; Reno, J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Ekenberg, U. [Semiconsultants, Brunnsgrnd 12, SE-18773 Täby (Sweden); Gvozdić, D. M. [School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade 11120 (Serbia); Boubanga-Tombet, S. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-Ku, Sendai (Japan); Upadhya, P. C. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Laboratory for Electro-Optics Systems, Indian Space Research Organization, Bangalore 560058 (India)

    2015-01-19

    Two-dimensional hole gases (2DHGs) have attracted recent attention for their unique quantum physics and potential applications in areas including spintronics and quantum computing. However, their properties remain relatively unexplored, motivating the use of different techniques to study them. We used terahertz magneto-optical spectroscopy to investigate the cyclotron resonance frequency in a high mobility 2DHG, revealing a nonlinear dependence on the applied magnetic field. This is shown to be due to the complex non-parabolic valence band structure of the 2DHG, as verified by multiband Landau level calculations. We also find that impurity scattering dominates cyclotron resonance decay in the 2DHG, in contrast with the dominance of superradiant damping in two-dimensional electron gases. Our results shed light on the properties of 2DHGs, motivating further studies of these unique 2D nanosystems.

  18. Solution of two-dimensional scattering problem in piezoelectric/piezomagnetic media using a polarization method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using a polarization method, the scattering problem for a two-dimensional inclusion embedded in infinite piezoelectric/piezomagnetic matrices is investigated. To achieve the purpose, the polarization method for a two-dimensional piezoelectric/piezo-magnetic "comparison body" is formulated. For simple harmonic motion, kernel of the polarization method reduces to a 2-D time-harmonic Green's function, which is ob-tained using the Radon transform. The expression is further simplified under condi-tions of low frequency of the incident wave and small diameter of the inclusion. Some analytical expressions are obtained. The analytical solutions for generalized piezoelec-tric/piezomagnetic anisotropic composites are given followed by simplified results for piezoelectric composites. Based on the latter results, two numerical results are provided for an elliptical cylindrical inclusion in a PZT-5H-matrix, showing the effect of different factors including size, shape, material properties, and piezoelectricity on the scattering cross-section.

  19. Drude Weight,Optical Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Hubbard Model at Half Filling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lei; ZHANG Jun

    2008-01-01

    We study the Drude weight D and optical conductivity of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model at half filling with staggered magnetic flux (SMF).When SMF being introduced,the hopping integrals are modulated by the magnetic flux.The optical sum rule,which is related to the mean kinetic energy of band electrons,is evaluated for this 2D Hubbard Hamiltonian.Our present result gives the dependence of the kinetic energy,D and the optical conductivity on SMF and U.At half filling D vanishes exponentially with system size.We also find in the frequency dependence of the optical conductivity,there is &function peak at ω≈2|m|U and the incoherent excitations begin to present themselves extended to a higher energy region.

  20. Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging

  1. Effects of external fields on a two-dimensional Klein-Gordon particle under pseudo-harmonic oscillator interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sameer M.Ikhdair; Majid Hamzavi

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the perpendicular magnetic and Aharonov Bohm (AB) flux fields on the energy levels of a two-dimensional (2D) Klein-Gordon (KG) particle subjected to an equal scalar and vector pseudo-harmonic oscillator (PHO).We calculate the exact energy eigenvalues and normalized wave functions in terms of chemical potential parameter,magnetic field strength,AB flux field,and magnetic quantum number by means of the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method.The non-relativistic limit,PHO,and harmonic oscillator solutions in the existence and absence of external fields are also obtained.

  2. Model analysis of magnetic susceptibility of Sr2IrO4 : A two-dimensional Jeff=1/2 Heisenberg system with competing interlayer couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Jackeli, George; Takagi, Hidenori

    2016-12-01

    We report the analysis of magnetic susceptibility χ (T ) of Sr2IrO4 single crystal in the paramagnetic phase. We formulate the theoretical susceptibility based on isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetism incorporating the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction exactly, and include the interlayer couplings in a mean-field approximation. χ (T ) above TN was found to be well described by the model, indicating the predominant Heisenberg exchange consistent with the microscopic theory. The analysis points to a competition of nearest and next-nearest-neighbor interlayer couplings, which results in the up-up-down-down configuration of the in-plane canting moments identified by the diffraction experiments.

  3. Two-dimensional coordination polymers constructed using, simultaneously, linear and angular spacers and cobalt(II) nodes. New examples of networks of single-ion magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Adrian E; Nica, Simona; Madalan, Augustin M; Shova, Sergiu; Vallejo, Julia; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Andruh, Marius

    2015-01-01

    Two novel bidimensional coordination polymers, [Co(azbbpy)(4,4'-bipy)0.5(DMF)(NCS)2]·MeOH (1) and [Co(azbbpy)(bpe)0.5(DMF)(NCS)2]·0.25H2O (2), resulted from the assembling of cobalt(II) ions by 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)azulene, using either 4,4'-bipyridyl or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene as neutral spacers. The cobalt(II) nodes in 1 and 2 act as single-ion magnets (SIMs).

  4. Uniformly accurate Particle-in-Cell method for the long time solution of the two-dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equation with uniform strong magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouseilles, Nicolas; Lemou, Mohammed; Méhats, Florian; Zhao, Xiaofei

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we focus on the numerical resolution of the four dimensional phase space Vlasov-Poisson system subject to a uniform strong external magnetic field. To do so, we consider a Particle-in-Cell based method, for which the characteristics are reformulated by means of the two-scale formalism, which is well-adapted to handle highly-oscillatory equations. Then, a numerical scheme is derived for the two-scale equations. The so-obtained scheme enjoys a uniform accuracy property, meaning that its accuracy does not depend on the small parameter. Several numerical results illustrate the capabilities of the method.

  5. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2016-10-25

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  6. Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2013-09-03

    The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.

  7. Early detection of cardiac involvement in Miyoshi myopathy: 2D strain echocardiography and late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Byoung

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Miyoshi myopathy (MM is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy characterized by early adult onset. Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical manifestation in other muscular dystrophies and an important prognostic factor. Although dysferlin is highly expressed in cardiac muscle, the effect of dysferlin deficiency in cardiac muscle has not been studied. We hypothesized that early myocardial dysfunction could be detected by 2D strain echocardiography and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Method Five consecutive MM patients (3 male in whom we detected the DYSF gene mutation and age-matched healthy control subjects were included. None of the patients had history of cardiac disease or signs and symptoms of overt heart failure. Patients were studied using 2D strain echocardiography and CMR, with 2D strain being obtained using the Automated Function Imaging technique. Results All patients had preserved left ventricular systolic function. However, segmental Peak Systolic Longitudinal Strain (PSLS was decreased in 3 patients. Global PSLS was significantly lower in patients with MM than in control subjects (p = 0.005. Basal anterior septum, basal inferior septum, mid anterior, and mid inferior septum PSLS were significantly lower in patients with MM than in control subjects (P Conclusions Patients with MM showed subclinical involvement of the heart. 2D strain and LGE are sensitive methods for detecting myocardial dysfunction prior to the development of cardiovascular symptoms. The prognostic significance of these findings warrants further longitudinal follow-up.

  8. A two-dimensional spin liquid in quantum kagome ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquilla, Juan; Hao, Zhihao; Melko, Roger G

    2015-06-22

    Actively sought since the turn of the century, two-dimensional quantum spin liquids (QSLs) are exotic phases of matter where magnetic moments remain disordered even at zero temperature. Despite ongoing searches, QSLs remain elusive, due to a lack of concrete knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms that inhibit magnetic order in materials. Here we study a model for a broad class of frustrated magnetic rare-earth pyrochlore materials called quantum spin ices. When subject to an external magnetic field along the [111] crystallographic direction, the resulting interactions contain a mix of geometric frustration and quantum fluctuations in decoupled two-dimensional kagome planes. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we identify a set of interactions sufficient to promote a groundstate with no magnetic long-range order, and a gap to excitations, consistent with a Z2 spin liquid phase. This suggests an experimental procedure to search for two-dimensional QSLs within a class of pyrochlore quantum spin ice materials.

  9. Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...

  10. On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp

  11. Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn

    2000-01-01

    Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...

  12. Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J

    1993-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro

  13. In-vivo quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms from 2D cine phase contrast magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmonik, C. [The Methodist Hospital Research Inst., Houston (United States); Diaz, O.; Klucznik, R. [The Methodist Hospital, Houston (United States); Grossman, R. [The Methodist Hospital, Houston (United States). Neurosurgery

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: The quantification of wall motion in cerebral aneurysms is of interest for the assessment of aneurysmal rupture risk, for providing boundary conditions for computational simulations and as a validation tool for theoretical models. Materials and Methods: 2D cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D pcMRI) in combination with quantitative magnetic resonance angiography (QMRA) was evaluated for measuring wall motion in 7 intracranial aneurysms. In each aneurysm, 2 (in one case 3) cross sections, oriented approximately perpendicular to each other, were measured. Results: The maximum aneurysmal wall distention ranged from 0.16 mm to 1.6 mm (mean 0.67 mm), the maximum aneurysmal wall contraction was -1.91 mm to -0.34 mm (mean 0.94 mm), and the average wall displacement ranged from 0.04 mm to 0.31 mm (mean 0.15 mm). Statistically significant correlations between average wall displacement and the shape of inflow curves (p-value < 0.05) were found in 7 of 15 cross sections; statistically significant correlations between the displacement of the luminal boundary center point and the shape of inflow curves (p-value < 0.05) were found in 6 of 15 cross sections. Conclusion: 2D pcMRI in combination with QMRA is capable of visualizing and quantifying wall motion in cerebral aneurysms. However, application of this technique is currently restricted by its limited spatial resolution. (orig.)

  14. Implementation and application of a novel 2D magnetic twisting cytometry based on multi-pole electromagnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, La; Maybeck, Vanessa; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    We implemented a novel 2D magnetic twisting cytometry (MTC) based on a previously reported multi-pole high permeability electromagnet, in which both the strength and direction of the twisting field can be controlled. Thanks to the high performance twisting electromagnet and the heterodyning technology, the measurement frequency has been extended to the 1 kHz range. In order to obtain high remanence of the ferromagnetic beads, a separate electromagnet with feedback control was adopted for the high magnetic field polarization. Our setup constitutes the first instrument which can be operated both in MTC mode and in magnetic tweezers (MT) mode. In this work, the mechanical properties of HL-1 cardiomyocytes were characterized in MTC mode. Both anisotropy and log-normal distribution of cell stiffness were observed, which agree with our previous results measured in MT mode. The response from these living cells at different frequencies can be fitted very well by the soft glassy rheology model.

  15. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, L., E-mail: lianglin@ucla.edu; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  16. 2D image of local density and magnetic fluctuations from line-integrated interferometry-polarimetry measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Ding, W X; Brower, D L

    2014-11-01

    Combined polarimetry-interferometry capability permits simultaneous measurement of line-integrated density and Faraday effect with fast time response (∼1 μs) and high sensitivity. Faraday effect fluctuations with phase shift of order 0.05° associated with global tearing modes are resolved with an uncertainty ∼0.01°. For physics investigations, local density fluctuations are obtained by inverting the line-integrated interferometry data. The local magnetic and current density fluctuations are then reconstructed using a parameterized fit of the polarimetry data. Reconstructed 2D images of density and magnetic field fluctuations in a poloidal cross section exhibit significantly different spatial structure. Combined with their relative phase, the magnetic-fluctuation-induced particle transport flux and its spatial distribution are resolved.

  17. Heteronuclear 2D-correlations in a uniformly [13C, 15N] labeled membrane-protein complex at ultra-high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Hollander, J. [Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands); Fraser, N. [University of Glasgow, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United Kingdom); Gast, P.; Hoff, A.J. [Leiden University, Huygens Laboratories (Netherlands); Cogdell, R. [University of Glasgow, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United Kingdom); Groot, H.J.M. de; Baldus, M. [Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands)

    2001-03-15

    One- and two-dimensional solid-state NMR experiments on a uniformly labeled intrinsic membrane-protein complex at ultra-high magnetic fields are presented. Two-dimensional backbone and side-chain correlations for a [U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N] labeled version of the LH2 light-harvesting complex indicate significant resolution at low temperatures and under Magic Angle Spinning. Tentative assignments of some of the observed correlations are presented and attributed to the {alpha}-helical segments of the protein, mostly found in the membrane interior.

  18. Ab initio study of electronic and magnetic properties in TM-doped 2D silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, M.; Shen, Y. H.; Yin, T. L.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties of SiC monolayer with different TM atoms and substitutional sites are investigated using first-principles method. Magnetism is observed for all the TM dopants. The magnetic moments and binding energies are quite different between Si (TMSi) and C (TMC) sites. Dependent to the larger magnetic moments and binding energy, we also investigate the interaction between two Mn atoms in the TMSi system. The results show that the ferromagnetic states are originated by the p-d hybridization mechanism between Mn and its neighboring C atoms. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic coupling is observed with increasing Mn-Mn distance, which can be explained by two-impurity Haldane-Anderson model using quantum Monte Carlo method.

  19. 2D Analysis of Thermomechanical Response to Unbalanced Currents in Quenching Superconducting Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2140986

    The thesis aims at studying coupling between electromagneticthermal and mechanical phenomena occurring after a quench in the superconducting magnets. For this reason, two models representing both domains are coupled by means of area-based coupling.

  20. 2-D Finite element analysis of magnetic pull force for a real AC electromagnetic contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabern, X.; Mujal, R. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Department of Electrical Engineering, Barcelona (Spain); Figa-Tena, G. [General Electric Power Controls, Senior Engineer Laboratory Dept., Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    In order to analyze the dynamic behavior of an alternating current eletromagnetic contactor, it is necessary to find the static attractive force characteristics by using a bidimensional model, Finite Element Method Magnetic (FEMM). (orig.)

  1. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Rune

    Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...

  2. Observed and Simulated Power Spectra of Kinetic and Magnetic Energy retrieved with 2D inversions

    CERN Document Server

    Danilovic, S; van Noort, M; Cameron, R

    2016-01-01

    We try to retrieve the power spectra with certainty to the highest spatial frequencies allowed by current instrumentation. For this, we use 2D inversion code that were able to recover information up to the instrumental diffraction limit. The retrieved power spectra have shallow slopes extending further down to much smaller scales than found before. They seem not to show any power law. The observed slopes at subgranular scales agree with those obtained from recent local dynamo simulations. Small differences are found for vertical component of kinetic energy that suggest that observations suffer from an instrumental effect that is not taken into account.

  3. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  4. Computational study of a magnetic design to improve the diagnosis of malaria: 2D model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Siddharth; Genis, Vladimir; Friedman, Gary

    2017-02-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of a cost effective high gradient magnetic separation based device for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a blood sample. The design utilizes magnetic properties of hemozoin present in malaria-infected red blood cells (mRBCs) in order to separate and concentrate them inside a microfluidic channel slide for easier examination under the microscope. The design consists of a rectangular microfluidic channel with multiple magnetic wires positioned on top of and underneath it along the length of the channel at a small angle with respect to the channel axis. Strong magnetic field gradients, produced by the wires, exert sufficient magnetic forces on the mRBCs in order to separate and concentrate them in a specific region small enough to fit within the microscope field of view at magnifications typically required to identify the malaria parasite type. The feasibility of the device is studied using a model where the trajectories of the mRBCs inside the channel are determined using first-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) solved numerically using a multistep ODE solver available within MATLAB. The mRBCs trajectories reveal that it is possible to separate and concentrate the mRBCs in less than 5 min, even in cases of very low parasitemia (1-10 parasites/μL of blood) using blood sample volumes of around 3 μL employed today.

  5. 2D continuous spectrum of shear Alfven waves in the presence of a magnetic island

    CERN Document Server

    Biancalani, Alessandro; Pegoraro, Francesco; Zonca, Fulvio

    2010-01-01

    The radial structure of the continuous spectrum of shear Alfven modes is calculated in the presence of a magnetic island in tokamak plasmas. Modes with the same helicity of the magnetic island are considered in a slab model approximation. In this framework, with an appropriate rotation of the coordinates the problem reduces to 2 dimensions. Geometrical effects due to the shape of the flux surface’s cross section are retained to all orders. On the other hand, we keep only curvature effects responsible of the beta induced gap in the low-frequency part of the continuous spectrum. New continuum accumulation points are found at the O-point of the magnetic island. The beta-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (BAE) continuum accumulation point is found to be positioned at the separatrix flux surface. The most remarkable result is the nonlinear modification of the BAE continuum accumulation point frequency.

  6. Finite-size corrections to scaling of the magnetization distribution in the two-dimensional X Y model at zero temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, G.; Niedermayer, F.; Rácz, Z.; Riveros, A.; Zambrano, D.

    2016-08-01

    The zero-temperature, classical X Y model on an L ×L square lattice is studied by exploring the distribution ΦL(y ) of its centered and normalized magnetization y in the large-L limit. An integral representation of the cumulant generating function, known from earlier works, is used for the numerical evaluation of ΦL(y ) , and the limit distribution ΦL →∞(y ) =Φ0(y ) is obtained with high precision. The two leading finite-size corrections ΦL(y ) -Φ0(y ) ≈a1(L ) Φ1(y ) +a2(L ) Φ2(y ) are also extracted both from numerics and from analytic calculations. We find that the amplitude a1(L ) scales as ln(L /L0) /L2 and the shape correction function Φ1(y ) can be expressed through the low-order derivatives of the limit distribution, Φ1(y ) =[yΦ0(y ) +Φ0'(y ) ] ' . Thus, Φ1(y ) carries the same universal features as the limit distribution and can be used for consistency checks of universality claims based on finite-size systems. The second finite-size correction has an amplitude a2(L ) ∝1 /L2 and one finds that a2Φ2(y ) ≪a1Φ1(y ) already for small system size (L >10 ). We illustrate the feasibility of observing the calculated finite-size corrections by performing simulations of the X Y model at low temperatures, including T =0 .

  7. 2D and 3D fault basis for fuel cell diagnosis by external magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifrek, Lyes; Cauffet, Gilles; Chadebec, Olivier; Bultel, Yann; Rosini, Sébastien; Rouveyre, Luc

    2017-07-01

    An original approach used for the identification of faults in fuel cell stacks is presented. It is based on the 3D reconstruction of the current density from external magnetic field measurements which is an ill-posed magnetostatic linear inverse problem. A suitable and original current density and magnetic field basis are proposed in order to define both local and global faults on a fuel cell stack. The inverse problem is regularized by truncated singular value decomposition (SVD) to ensure the uniqueness of the solution. Contribution to the topical issue "Electrical Engineering Symposium (SGE 2016)", edited by Adel Razek

  8. Cascades and spectra of a turbulent spinodal decomposition in two-dimensional symmetric binary liquid mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang; Diamond, P. H.; Chacón, L.; Li, Hui

    2016-09-01

    We study the fundamental physics of cascades and spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes (CHNS) turbulence, and compare and contrast this system with 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The important similarities include basic equations, ideal quadratic invariants, cascades, and the role of linear elastic waves. Surface tension induces elasticity, and the balance between surface tension energy and turbulent kinetic energy determines a length scale (Hinze scale) of the system. The Hinze scale may be thought of as the scale of emergent critical balance between fluid straining and elastic restoring forces. The scales between the Hinze scale and dissipation scale constitute the elastic range of the 2D CHNS system. By direct numerical simulation, we find that in the elastic range, the mean square concentration spectrum Hkψ of the 2D CHNS system exhibits the same power law (-7 /3 ) as the mean square magnetic potential spectrum HkA in the inverse cascade regime of 2D MHD. This power law is consistent with an inverse cascade of Hψ, which is observed. The kinetic energy spectrum of the 2D CHNS system is EkK˜k-3 if forced at large scale, suggestive of the direct enstrophy cascade power law of 2D Navier-Stokes turbulence. The difference from the energy spectra of 2D MHD turbulence implies that the back reaction of the concentration field to fluid motion is limited. We suggest this is because the surface tension back reaction is significant only in the interfacial regions. The interfacial regions fill only a small portion of the 2D CHNS system, and their interface packing fraction is much smaller than that for 2D MHD.

  9. Phase Mixing of Alfv\\'en Waves Near a 2D Magnetic Null Point

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, J A

    2014-01-01

    The propagation of linear Alfv\\'en wave pulses in an inhomogeneous plasma near a 2D coronal null point is investigated. When a uniform plasma density is considered, it is seen that an initially planar Alfv\\'en wavefront remains planar, despite the varying equilibrium Alfv\\'en speed, and that all the wave collects at the separatrices. Thus, in the non-ideal case, these Alfv\\'enic disturbances preferentially dissipate their energy at these locations. For a non-uniform equilibrium density, it is found that the Alfv\\'en wavefront is significantly distorted away from the initially planar geometry, inviting the possibility of dissipation due to phase mixing. Despite this however, we conclude that for the Alfv\\'en wave, current density accumulation and preferential heating still primarily occur at the separatrices, even when an extremely non-uniform density profile is considered.

  10. Frustrating a correlated superconductor: the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model in an external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.

    2000-03-01

    At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.

  11. Phase Mixing of Alfvén Waves Near a 2D Magnetic Null Point

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. A. McLaughlin

    2013-09-01

    The propagation of linear Alfvén wave pulses in an inhomogeneous plasma near a 2D coronal null point is investigated. When a uniform plasma density is considered, it is seen that an initially planar Alfvén wavefront remains planar, despite the varying equilibrium Alfvén speed, and that all the wave collects at the separatrices. Thus, in the non-ideal case, these Alfvénic disturbances preferentially dissipate their energy at these locations. For a non-uniform equilibrium density, it is found that the Alfvén wavefront is significantly distorted away from the initially planar geometry, inviting the possibility of dissipation due to phase mixing. Despite this however, we conclude that for the Alfvén wave, current density accumulation and preferential heating still primarily occur at the separatrices, even when an extremely non-uniform density profile is considered.

  12. High-field magnetization of a two-dimensional spin frustration system, Ni{sub 5}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4}X{sub 2} (X = Br, Cl)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, J L; Matsuda, Y H; Suga, K; Kindo, K; Takeyama, S [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo (Japan); Berger, H [Institutes of Physics of Complex Matter, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Yang, H D [Department of Physics, Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2009-10-28

    The high-field magnetization, M(H), of Ni{sub 5}(TeO{sub 3}){sub 4}X{sub 2} (X = Br, Cl) was measured by using a pulse magnet. These compounds have a two-dimensional crystal structure and a distorted Kagome spin frustrated system which is built from the Ni{sup 2+} ions (S = 1). The Neel transition temperatures are T{sub N}approx28 and 23 K for X = Br and Cl, respectively. When TT{sub N}, the field-dependent magnetization curves behave like a monotonically increasing straight line up to 55 T. The H{sub c} value is close to those obtained in previous spin resonance studies in which a model of a spin-flop scenario was proposed to explain the field-dependent resonance spectra. With the earlier model a further transition at around 23 T was predicted; however, our observations did not show any plateau behaviors, saturation or other anomalies up to 55 T, suggesting that the further transition possibly exists in a much higher field region.

  13. Comparison between a 1D and a 2D numerical model of an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Frank; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2008-01-01

    a reciprocating AMR and can determine the cyclical steady-state temperature profile of the system as well as performance parameters such as the refrigeration capacity, the work input and the coefficient of performance (COP). The models are used to analyse an AMR with a regenerator made of flat parallel plates......The active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration system represents an environmentally attractive alternative to vapour-compression refrigeration. This paper compares the results of two numerical AMR models: (1) a 1D finite difference model and (2) a 2D finite element model. Both models simulate...

  14. Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayer, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific

  15. Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2016-11-01

    Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.

  16. Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.

  17. Two-dimensional quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.

    2016-11-01

    The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.

  18. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.

  19. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  20. Torque magnetometry studies of two-dimensional electron systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, Maaike Ruth

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of the magnetization two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). To detect the typically small magnetization, a sensitive magnetometer with optical angular detection was developed. The magnetometer uses a quadrant detector to measure the rotation of the sample. By mounting

  1. Development of 2D/3D equilibrium codes for magnetically confined fusion experiments

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The present work is the result of a three-year Ph.D. research project carried out at Consorzio RFX on magnetically confined plasmas. Research on controlled thermonuclear fusion is currently being pursued by many countries throughout the world, thanks to its promise of a relatively clean and abundant energy source. The next steps for the international community are the construction and operation of a large device, ITER, considered as the last fusion physics experiment with respect to the tokam...

  2. Deuterium fractionation and H2D+ evolution in turbulent and magnetized cloud cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körtgen, Bastian; Bovino, Stefano; Schleicher, Dominik R. G.; Giannetti, Andrea; Banerjee, Robi

    2017-08-01

    High-mass stars are expected to form from dense prestellar cores. Their precise formation conditions are widely discussed, including their virial condition, which results in slow collapse for supervirial cores with strong support by turbulence or magnetic fields, or fast collapse for subvirial sources. To disentangle their formation processes, measurements of the deuterium fractions are frequently employed to approximately estimate the ages of these cores and to obtain constraints on their dynamical evolution. We here present 3D magnetohydrodynamical simulations including for the first time an accurate non-equilibrium chemical network with 21 gas-phase species plus dust grains and 213 reactions. With this network we model the deuteration process in fully depleted prestellar cores in great detail and determine its response to variations in the initial conditions. We explore the dependence on the initial gas column density, the turbulent Mach number, the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio and the distribution of the magnetic field, as well as the initial ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2. We find qualitatively good agreement with recent observations of deuterium fractions in quiescent sources. Our results show that deuteration is rather efficient, even when assuming a conservative OPR of 3 and highly subvirial initial conditions, leading to large deuterium fractions already within roughly a free-fall time. We discuss the implications of our results and give an outlook to relevant future investigations.

  3. Chiral fermion dynamics in 2d magnetic vortices: Manifestation of momentum-spin-locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pötz, W.; Hammer, René

    2016-11-01

    The electronic surface-states of a topological insulator in the presence of an in-plane magnetization vortex M (ϕ)=M (cos(Φ+νϕ), sin(Φ+νϕ)) are investigated theoretically. For a general angle of magnetization Φ∈[0 ,2 π) and topological charge ν = 1, the modifications to the zero-mass single Dirac cone dispersion are treated exactly and the spectrum of bound eigenstates which forms in the energy window ±M cos(Φ) is derived. The space-time resolved dynamics of Dirac fermions in the presence of such vortices is studied numerically using a single-cone (2 + 1)D finite-difference scheme. In the continuous spectral region, Φ-dependent scattering of Dirac fermions at the vortex is observed. Depending on the type of vortex ( Φ, ν) and the impact parameter, the propagation direction of the Dirac fermion is changed: the magnetization of the vortex exerts a torque onto the fermion spin which, by momentum-spin locking associated with the helical Dirac states, results in an in-plane rotation of the propagation direction of the scattered Dirac fermion. In head-on collisions of a Gaussian wave-packet with ν = 1 vortices a Φ-dependent lensing effect is seen in our simulations. Depending on the direction of incidence, the vortex Φ=-π/2 , ν = 2 is identified as a coherent particle-beam splitter or "condenser" in head-on collisions.

  4. Comparison between 2D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nakano, Mayra Lemos; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Haratz, Karina Krajden; Oliveira, Patrícia Soares; Martins, Wellington P; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    To compare two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 fetuses with spina bifida (one with encephalocele, four with rachischisis and 10 with myelomeningocele). The size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle, percentage shortening of the cerebellum, degree of compromising of the first vertebra and total number of vertebras affected by herniation were assessed. The MRI examination was performed not more than 7 days after the 2DUS. To compare and correlate the parameters from the two techniques, the paired Student's t test and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. To assess the correlations of atrium measurements from 2DUS and MRI with other parameters, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used. No significant difference was observed in any of the means of the parameters assessed using the two techniques (p > 0.05). Both 2DUS and MRI seemed to present satisfactory reliability in measurements on the size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle and the first vertebra affected (ICC = 0.88 and 0.75, respectively). Measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters than did measurements from MRI. In fetuses with spina bifida, 2DUS and MRI present similar results, but measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters.

  5. Two-dimensional Nutation Echo Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Gerard S.; Slokenbergs, Andris

    1990-04-01

    We discuss two new two-dimensional nuclear quadrupole resonance experiments, both based on the principle of nutation spectroscopy, which can be used to determine the asymmetry parameter, and thus the full quadrupolar tensor, of spin-3/2 nuclei at zero applied magnetic field. The first experiment is a simple nutation pulse sequence in which the first time period (t1) is the duration of the radiofrequency exciting pulse; and the second (t2) is the normal free-precession of a quadrupolar nucleus at zero-field. After double Fourier-transformation, the result is a 2 D spectrum in which the first frequency dimension is the nutation spectrum for the quadrupolar nucleus at zero-field. For polycrystalline samples this sequence generates powder lineshapes; the position of the singularities, in these lineshapes can be used to determine the asymmetry parameters η in a very straightforward manner, η has previously only been obtainable using Zeeman perturbed NQR methods. The second sequence is the same nutation experiment with a spin-echo pulse added. The virtue of this refocussing pulse is that it allows acquisition of nutation spectra from samples with arbitrary inhomogeneous linewidth; thus, asymmetry parameters can be determined even where the quadrupolar resonance is wider than the bandwidth of the spectrometer. Experimental examples of 35Cl, 81Br and 63Cu nutation and nutation-echo spectra are presented.

  6. A 3D Polymer Based Printed Two-Dimensional Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyman, H. A.; Gokdel, Y. D.; Ferhanoglu, O.; Yalcinkaya, A. D.

    2016-10-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) polymer based scanning mirror with magnetic actuation is developed for imaging applications. Proposed device consists of a circular suspension holding a rectangular mirror and can generate a 2D scan pattern. Three dimensional (3D) printing technology which is used for implementation of the device, offers added flexibility in controlling the cross-sectional profile as well as the stress distribution compared to the traditional planar process technologies. The mirror device is developed to meet a portable, miniaturized confocal microscope application in mind, delivering 4.5 and 4.8 degrees of optical scan angles at 111 and 267 Hz, respectively. As a result of this mechanical performance, the resulting microscope incorporating the mirror is estimated to accomplish a field of view (FOV) of 350 µm × 350 µm.

  7. Tuning magnetic properties in quasi-two-dimensional ferromagnetic Fe3‑y Ge1‑x As x Te2 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.85)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Duanduan; Jin, Shifeng; Liu, Ning; Shen, Shijie; Lin, Zhiping; Li, Kunkun; Chen, Xiaolong

    2017-03-01

    We report that Fe3GeTe2 can form a wide solid solution by substitution of As for Ge, providing an opportunity to tune the magnetic and electronic properties in this 2D material. The crystal structure, physical properties and electronic structure of iron-deficient solid solution Fe3‑y Ge1‑x As x Te2 (0  ⩽  x  ⩽  0.85) are studied. We found that the Curie temperature can substantially change from 177 K to 33 K and resistivity decreases by about 30% with the arsenic doping x from 0 to 0.85. First principles calculations demonstrate that the elongation of Fe(1)–Fe(1) dumb-bells along c axis is essentially responsible for decreasing the integrated spin density of states below Fermi level and weakening spin polarization, resulting in a decrease of Curie temperature. Our study reveals the magnetism manipulation can be realized via modification of bondlengths in 2D magnetic materials.

  8. Engineering the electronic and magnetic properties of d(0) 2D dichalcogenide materials through vacancy doping and lattice strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, L; Pham, A; Xiao, H Y; Zu, X T; Li, S

    2016-03-14

    We have systematically investigated the effects of different vacancy defects in 2D d(0) materials SnS2 and ZrS2 using first principles calculations. The theoretical results show that the single cation vacancy and the vacancy complex like V-SnS6 can induce large magnetic moments (3-4 μB) in these single layer materials. Other defects, such as V-SnS3, V-S, V-ZrS3 and V-ZrS6, can result in n-type conductivity. In addition, the ab initio studies also reveal that the magnetic and conductive properties from the cation vacancy and the defect complex V-SnS6 can be modified using the compressive/tensile strain of the in-plane lattices. Specifically, the V-Zr doped ZrS2 monolayer can be tuned from a ferromagnetic semiconductor to a metallic/half-metallic material with decreasing/increasing magnetic moments depending on the external compressive/tensile strains. On the other hand, the semiconducting and magnetic properties of V-Sn doped SnS2 is preserved under different lattice compression and tension. For the defect complex like V-SnS6, only the lattice compression can tune the magnetic moments in SnS2. As a result, by manipulating the fabrication parameters, the magnetic and conductive properties of SnS2 and ZrS2 can be tuned without the need for chemical doping.

  9. Vlasov fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Vlasov fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov fluid dispersion functional by using set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null.

  10. 2D crack problems in functionally graded magnet-electro-elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynov, Yonko

    2016-12-01

    Magneto-electro-elastic composite materials have extensive application in modern smart structures, because they possess good coupling between mechanical, electrical and magnetic fields. This new effect was reported for the first time by Van Suchtelen [1] in 1972. Due to their ceramic structure cracks inevitably exists in these materials. In this study we consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials subjected to anti-plane time harmonic load. We use Boundary integral equation method (BIEM) to evaluate the dependence of stress concentration near the crack tip on the frequency of the applied external load. For complex crack configurations numerical calculations are tedious and need too much time. Here we present a new analytical approach that will significantly improve the numerical procedure for calculation of stress intensity factors (SIF).

  11. Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-D plasma with a linear magnetic field null

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Vlasov Fluid stability of a 2-dimensional plasma near an O type magnetic null is investigated. Specifically, an elongated Z-pinch is considered, and applied to Field Reversed Configurations at Los Alamos National Laboratory by making a cylindrical approximation of the compact torus. The orbits near an elliptical O type null are found to be very complicated; the orbits are large and some are stochastic. The kinetic corrections to magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated by evaluating the expectation values of the growth rates of a Vlasov Fluid dispersion functional by using a set of trial functions based on ideal MHD. The dispersion functional involves fluid parts and orbit dependent parts. The latter involves phase integral of two time correlations. The phase integral is replaced by the time integral both for the regular and for the stochastic orbits. Two trial functions are used; one has a large displacement near the null and the other away from the null.

  12. 2D data-space cross-gradient joint inversion of MT, gravity and magnetic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Yong-Chol; Li, Tonglin; Kim, Gang-Sop

    2017-08-01

    We have developed a data-space multiple cross-gradient joint inversion algorithm, and validated it through synthetic tests and applied it to magnetotelluric (MT), gravity and magnetic datasets acquired along a 95 km profile in Benxi-Ji'an area of northeastern China. To begin, we discuss a generalized cross-gradient joint inversion for multiple datasets and model parameters sets, and formulate it in data space. The Lagrange multiplier required for the structural coupling in the data-space method is determined using an iterative solver to avoid calculation of the inverse matrix in solving the large system of equations. Next, using model-space and data-space methods, we inverted the synthetic data and field data. Based on our result, the joint inversion in data-space not only delineates geological bodies more clearly than the separate inversion, but also yields nearly equal results with the one in model-space while consuming much less memory.

  13. Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanbo; Rubio, Angel; Le Lay, Guy

    2017-02-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.

  14. Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Issa, A Nourou

    2010-01-01

    Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Inside a 2D Enclosure with Three Hot Obstacles on the Ramp under the Influence of a Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Keshtkar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on solving the fluid flow and heat transfer equations inside a two-dimensional square enclosure containing three hot obstacles affected by gravity and magnetic force placed on a ramp using Boltzmann method (LBM applying multiple relaxation times (MRT. Although, the Lattice Boltzmann with MRT is a complex technique, it is a relatively new, stable, fast and high-accurate one. The main objective of this research was to numerically model the fluid flow and ultimately obtaining the velocity field, flow and temperature contour lines inside a two-dimensional enclosure. The results and their comparisons for different types of heat transfer revealed that free or forced heat transfer has a considerable impact on the heat transfer and stream lines. This can be controlled by modifying the Richardson number. It is revealed that changing the intensity of the magnetic field (Hartman number has an appreciable effect on the heat transfer.

  16. Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J

    2012-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...

  17. Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.

  18. Two-dimensional function photonic crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of quasi-1 and 2D pyrazine-containing spin-1/2 antiferromagnets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manson, J. L.; Connor, M. M.; Schlueter, J. A.; Hyzer, K. A.; Kykeem, A.; Materials Science Division; Eastern Washington Univ.

    2007-06-01

    Aqueous reaction of Cu(BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2}, and pyrazine leads to formation of a novel 3D framework, [Cu(HF{sub 2})(pyz){sub 2}]BF{sub 4} (1), where 2D [Cu(pyz){sub 2}]{sup 2+} square layers are connected via HF{sub 2}{sup -}. A second compound, Cu(ReO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(pyz) (2), was the result of our attempt to create the perrhenate analog of 1; a linear chain compound consisting of CuO{sub 4}N{sub 2} octahedra linked through pyrazine ligands formed instead. Both compounds exhibit extensive hydrogen bonding interactions where bifluoride, F...H...F{sup -}, and O-H...O link layers and chains together in 1 and 2, respectively. Broad maxima indicative of short-range magnetic ordering (SRO) were observed in the magnetic susceptibility at 5.5 (1) and 7.7 K (2) while no evidence for the transition to long-range magnetic ordering (LRO) was detected above 2 K.

  20. Images of Gravitational and Magnetic Phenomena Derived from 2D Back-Projection Doppler Tomography of Interacting Binary Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Mercedes T; Fisher, John G; Conover, Marshall J

    2014-01-01

    We have used 2D back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries which undergo mass transfer from a magnetically-active star onto a non-magnetic main sequence star. This multi-tiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The H$\\alpha$ tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several me...

  1. Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin

    2015-12-08

    A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.

  2. Structural and magnetic properties of DyMn{sub 2}D{sub 6} synthesized under high deuterium pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Boncour, V [Laboratoire de Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, CNRS, 2-8 rue H Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Filipek, S M; Wierzbicki, R [Institute of Physical Chemistry, PAS, Ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01224 Warsaw (Poland); Andre, G; Bouree, F [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, CEA-CNRS, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Guillot, M [LCMI, CNRS-MPI, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)], E-mail: paulbon@glvt-cnrs.fr

    2009-01-07

    DyMn{sub 2}D{sub 6} has been prepared by applying high gaseous deuterium pressure on DyMn{sub 2}. This phase is isostructural with other RMn{sub 2}D{sub 6} (R = Y, Er) compounds and crystallizes with a K{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6} type structure having an ordered anion and a partially disordered cation arrangement because Dy and half the Mn atoms are randomly substituted in the same 8c site. The reverse susceptibility follows a Curie-Weiss law with an effective moment of 10 {mu}{sub B} similar to that of DyMn{sub 2}. Short range magnetic order, corresponding to ferromagnetic correlations, is observed in the neutron patterns up to 10 K and can be attributed to Dy-Dy interactions. The decomposition of the deuteride into Mn and DyD{sub 2}, studied by thermal gravimetric analysis, occurs between 470 and 650 K. A further deuterium desorption takes place above 920 K.

  3. Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional sonography of the temporomandibular joint in comparison to MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landes, Constantin A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: c.landes@lycos.com; Goral, Wojciech A. [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: w.goral@gmx.de; Sader, Robert [Oral, Maxillofacial and Plastic Facial Surgery, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: r.sader@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Mack, Martin G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt University Medical Centre, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)]. E-mail: martinmack@arcor.de

    2007-02-15

    Aim: To compare clinical feasibility of static two-dimensional (2D) to three-dimensional (3D) sonography of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in assessment of disk dislocation and joint degeneration compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Method: Thirty-three patients, 66 TMJ were prospectively sonographed 2D and 3D (8-12.5 MHz step motor scan), in occlusion and maximum opening with a probe position parallel inferior to the zygomatic arch. Axial 2D images were judged independent from the 3D scans; 3D volumes were cut axial, sagittal, frontal and rotated in real-time. Disk position and joint degeneration were assessed and compared to a subsequent MRI examination. Results: The specific appearance of the disk was hypoechogenic overlying a hyperechogenic condyle in axial (2D) or sagittal and frontal (3D) viewing. Specificity of 2D sonography for disk dislocation was 63%, sensitivity 58%, accuracy 64%, positive predictive value 46%, negative predictive value 73%; for joint degeneration synonymously 59/68/61/38/83%. 3D sonography for disk displacement reached synonymously 68/60/69/51/76%, for joint degeneration 75/65/73/48/86%. 2D sonographic diagnoses of disk dislocation in the closed mouth position and of joint degeneration showed significantly different results from the expected values (MRI) in {chi} {sup 2} testing; 3D diagnoses of disk dislocation in closed mouth position, of joint degeneration, 2D and 3D diagnoses in open mouth position were nonsignificant. Conclusions: Acceptable was the overall negative predictive value, as specificity and accuracy for joint degeneration in 3D. 3D appears superior diagnosing disk dislocation in closed mouth position as for overall joint degeneration. Sensitivity, accuracy and positive predictive value will have to ameliorate with future equipment of higher resolution in real-time 2D and 3D, if sonographic screening shall be clinically applied prior to MRI.

  4. Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.

  5. Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.

  6. А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem

    OpenAIRE

    Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.

  7. Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama

    2005-06-01

    We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.

  8. A comparative study of two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average algorithm to estimate the multifractal spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang

    2016-07-01

    Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.

  9. Two-dimensional numerical assessment of the hydrodynamics of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, G; Fohrer, N

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic assessment of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan has been carried out using DHI MIKE 21 software based on a ground referenced and corrected Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...

  10. Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen

    2012-10-01

    Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.

  11. Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)

    2003-01-01

    The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.

  12. Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu

    2013-01-01

    After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a

  13. Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhang, S B

    2016-01-01

    Band alignment in two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures is fundamentally different from three-dimensional (3D), as Schottky barrier height is at the Schottky-Mott limit and band offset is at the Anderson limit, regardless interfacial conditions. This robustness arises because, in the asymptotic limit, effect of interfacial dipole vanishes. First-principles calculations of graphene/h-BN and MoS2/WS2 show that 2D junction width W is typically an order of magnitude longer than 3D. Therefore, heterostructures with dimension less than W can also be made, leading to tunable band alignment.

  14. A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    YD, Sumith

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.

  15. Rapid parametric mapping of the longitudinal relaxation time T1 using two-dimensional variable flip angle magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieringer, Matthias A; Deimling, Michael; Santoro, Davide; Wuerfel, Jens; Madai, Vince I; Sobesky, Jan; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-01-01

    Visual but subjective reading of longitudinal relaxation time (T1) weighted magnetic resonance images is commonly used for the detection of brain pathologies. For this non-quantitative measure, diagnostic quality depends on hardware configuration, imaging parameters, radio frequency transmission field (B1+) uniformity, as well as observer experience. Parametric quantification of the tissue T1 relaxation parameter offsets the propensity for these effects, but is typically time consuming. For this reason, this study examines the feasibility of rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angles (VFA) approach at magnetic field strengths of 1.5 Tesla, 3 Tesla, and 7 Tesla. These efforts include validation in phantom experiments and application for brain T1 mapping. T1 quantification included simulations of the Bloch equations to correct for slice profile imperfections, and a correction for B1+. Fast gradient echo acquisitions were conducted using three adjusted flip angles for the proposed T1 quantification approach that was benchmarked against slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and an inversion-recovery spin-echo based reference method. Brain T1 mapping was performed in six healthy subjects, one multiple sclerosis patient, and one stroke patient. Phantom experiments showed a mean T1 estimation error of (-63±1.5)% for slice profile uncorrected 2D VFA and (0.2±1.4)% for the proposed approach compared to the reference method. Scan time for single slice T1 mapping including B1+ mapping could be reduced to 5 seconds using an in-plane resolution of (2×2) mm2, which equals a scan time reduction of more than 99% compared to the reference method. Our results demonstrate that rapid 2D T1 quantification using a variable flip angle approach is feasible at 1.5T/3T/7T. It represents a valuable alternative for rapid T1 mapping due to the gain in speed versus conventional approaches. This progress may serve to enhance the capabilities of parametric MR based lesion detection and

  16. Preliminary measurements of the edge magnetic field pitch from 2-D Doppler backscattering in MAST and NSTX-U (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, R. G. L.; Brunner, K. J.; Ellis, R.; Taylor, G.; Thomas, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a novel diagnostic consisting of an array of 8 independently phased antennas. At any one time, SAMI operates at one of the 16 frequencies in the range 10-34.5 GHz. The imaging beam is steered in software post-shot to create a picture of the entire emission surface. In SAMI's active probing mode of operation, the plasma edge is illuminated with a monochromatic source and SAMI reconstructs an image of the Doppler back-scattered (DBS) signal. By assuming that density fluctuations are extended along magnetic field lines, and knowing that the strongest back-scattered signals are directed perpendicular to the density fluctuations, SAMI's 2-D DBS imaging capability can be used to measure the pitch of the edge magnetic field. In this paper, we present preliminary pitch angle measurements obtained by SAMI on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy and on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results demonstrate encouraging agreement between SAMI and other independent measurements.

  17. Spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qaiumzadeh, A.; Duine, R. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830127; Titov, M.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetization dynamics in single-domain ferromagnets can be triggered by a charge current if the spin-orbit coupling is sufficiently strong. We apply functional Keldysh theory to investigate spin-orbit torques in metallic two-dimensional Rashba ferromagnets in the presence of spin-dependent

  18. Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Jinyang, E-mail: huangjy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Xiaoming, E-mail: sunxm@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size

  19. Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2001-01-01

    We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.

  20. Two-dimensional MAS NMR correlation protocols involving double-quantum filtering of quadrupolar spin-pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edén, Mattias

    2010-05-01

    Three two-dimensional (2D) NMR homonuclear correlation techniques invoking double-quantum (2Q) filtration of the central transitions of half-integer spins are evaluated numerically and experimentally. They correlate directly detected single-quantum (1Q) coherences in the t(2) domain with either of 1Q, two-spin 2Q or single-spin multiple-quantum coherence-evolutions in the indirect (t(1)) dimension. We employ experimental (23)Na and (27)Al NMR on sodium sulfite and the natural mineral sillimanite (SiAl(2)O(5)), in conjunction with simulated 2D spectra from pairs of dipolar-recoupled spins-3/2 and 5/2 at different external magnetic fields, to compare the correlation strategies from the viewpoints of 2D spectral resolution, signal sensitivity, implementational aspects and their relative merits for establishing internuclear proximities and quadrupolar tensor orientations.