Fudge, Anthea L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Ristic, Renata; Cozzolino, Daniel
2013-08-15
In this study, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy was evaluated as a novel technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with smoke-affected wine, for the purpose of screening taint arising from grapevine exposure to smoke. Smoke-affected wines obtained from experimental and industry sources were analysed using MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics, and calibration models developed. 2D-COS analysis was used to generate synchronous data maps for red and white cask wines spiked with guaiacol, a marker of smoke taint. Correlations were observed at wavelengths that could be attributable to aromatic C-C stretching, i.e., between 1400 and 1500 cm(-1), indicative of volatile phenols. These results demonstrate the potential of 2D-COS as a rapid, high-throughput technique for the preliminary screening of smoke tainted wine.
Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B
2011-05-01
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.
Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Mizukado, Junji
2016-11-01
Evolutionary change in supermolecular structure of Nylon 6 during its melt-quenched process was studied by Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Time-resolved NIR spectra was measured by taking the advantage of high-speed NIR monitoring based on an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). Fine spectral features associated with the variation of crystalline and amorphous structure occurring in relatively short time scale were readily captured. For example, synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation spectra reveal the initial decrease in the contribution of the NIR band at 1485 nm due to the amorphous structure, predominantly existing in the melt Nylon 6. This is then followed by the emerging contribution of the band intensity at 1535 nm associated with the crystalline structure. Consequently, the results clearly demonstrate a definite advantage of the high-speed NIR monitoring for analyzing fleeting phenomena.
Chae, Boknam; Son, Seok Ho; Kwak, Young Jun; Jung, Young Mee; Lee, Seung Woo
2016-11-01
The pH-induced structural changes to surface immobilized poly (L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) films were examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis. Significant spectral changes were observed in the FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA film between pH 6 and 7. The 2D correlation spectra constructed from the pH-dependent FTIR spectra of the surface immobilized PLGA films revealed the spectral changes induced by the alternations of the protonation state of the carboxylic acid group in the PLGA side chain. When the pH was increased from 6 to 8, weak spectral changes in the secondary structure of the PLGA main chain were induced by deprotonation of the carboxylic acid side group.
Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-Qin; Zheng, Jing
2017-03-05
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p=0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.
Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Gui-Jun; Sun, Su-qin; Zheng, Jing
2017-03-01
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy is employed to establish a simple and quick method for the adulteration screening of ALR. First, the principal chemical constituents of ALR are characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy at room temperature and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy with thermal perturbation. Besides the common cellulose and lignin compounds, a certain amount of resin is the characteristic constituent of ALR. Synchronous and asynchronous 2D-IR spectra indicate that the resin (an unstable secondary metabolite) is more sensitive than cellulose and lignin (stable structural constituents) to the thermal perturbation. Using a certified ALR sample as the reference, the infrared spectral correlation threshold is determined by 30 authentic samples and 6 adulterated samples. The spectral correlation coefficient of an authentic ALR sample to the standard reference should be not less than 0.9886 (p = 0.01). Three commercial adulterated ALR samples are identified by the correlation threshold. Further interpretation of the infrared spectra of the adulterated samples indicates the common adulterating methods - counterfeiting with other kind of wood, adding ingredient such as sand to increase the weight, and adding the cheap resin such as rosin to increase the content of resin compounds. Results of this research prove that FT-IR spectroscopy can be used as a simple and accurate quality control method of ALR.
Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia
2014-01-01
This article presents a novel method for combining auto-peak and cross-peak information for sensitive variable selection in synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). This variable selection method is then applied to the case of near-infrared (NIR) microscopy discrimination of meat and bone meal (MBM). This is of important practical value because MBM is currently banned in ruminate animal compound feed. For the 2D-COS analysis, a set of NIR spectroscopy data of compound feed samples (adulterated with varying concentrations of MBM) was pretreated using standard normal variate and detrending (SNVD) and then mapped to the 2D-COS synchronous matrix. For the auto-peak analysis, 12 main sensitive variables were identified at 6852, 6388, 6320, 5788, 5600, 5244, 4900, 4768, 4572, 4336, 4256, and 4192 cm(-1). All these variables were assigned their specific spectral structure and chemical component. For the cross-peak analysis, these variables were divided into two groups, each group containing the six sensitive variables. This grouping resulted in a correlation between the spectral variables that was in accordance with the chemical-component content of the MBM and compound feed. These sensitive variables were then used to build a NIR microscopy discrimination model, which yielded a 97% correct classification. Moreover, this method detected the presence of MBM when its concentration was less than 1% in an adulterated compound feed sample. The concentration-dependent 2D-COS-based variable selection method developed in this study has the unique advantages of (1) introducing an interpretive aspect into variable selection, (2) substantially reducing the complexity of the computations, (3) enabling the transferability of the results to discriminant analysis, and (4) enabling the efficient compression of spectral data.
Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Murakami, Takurou N.; Nishida, Masakazu; Kanematsu, Wataru; Noda, Isao
2014-07-01
Multiple-perturbation two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy was applied to sets of near-infrared (NIR) imaging data of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite samples undergoing UV degradation. Incorporation of clay nanoparticles substantially lowers the surface free energy barrier for the nucleation of PLA and eventually increases the frequency of the spontaneous nucleation of PLA crystals. Thus, when exposed to external stimuli such as UV light, PLA nanocomposite may show different structure alternation depending on the clay dispersion. Multiple-perturbation 2D correlation analysis of the PLA nanocomposite samples revealed different spatial variation between crystalline and amorphous structure of PLA, and the phenomenon especially becomes acute in the region where the clay particles are coagulated. The incorporation of the clay leads to the cleavage-induced crystallization of PLA when the sample is subjected to the UV light. The additional development of the ordered crystalline structure then works favorably to restrict the initial degradation of the polymer, providing the delay in the weight loss of the PLA.
Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and 2D-DIGE.
Meleady, Paula
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) continues to be one of the most versatile and widely used techniques to study the proteome of a biological system. In particular, a modified version of 2D-PAGE, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), which uses differential labeling of protein samples with up to three fluorescent tags, offers greater sensitivity and reproducibility over conventional 2D-PAGE gels for differential quantitative analysis of protein expression between experimental groups. Both these methods have distinct advantages in the separation and identification of thousands of individual proteins species including protein isoforms and post-translational modifications. This review will discuss the principles of 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE including limitations to the methods. 2D-PAGE and 2D-DIGE continue to be popular methods in bioprocessing-related research (particularly on recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cells), which will also be discussed in the review chapter.
Two-Dimensional (2D) Polygonal Electromagnetic Cloaks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chao; YAO Kan; LI Fang
2009-01-01
Transformation optics offers remarkable control over electromagnetic fields and opens an exciting gateway to design 'invisible cloak devices' recently.We present an important class of two-dimensional (2D) cloaks with polygon geometries.Explicit expressions of transformed medium parameters are derived with their unique properties investigated.It is found that the elements of diagonalized permittivity tensors are always positive within an irregular polygon cloak besides one element diverges to plus infinity and the other two become zero at the inner boundary.At most positions,the principle axes of permittivity tensors do not align with position vectors.An irregular polygon cloak is designed and its invisibility to external electromagnetic waves is numerically verified.Since polygon cloaks can be tailored to resemble any objects,the transformation is finally generalized to the realization of 2D cloaks with arbitrary geometries.
Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR correlation spectroscopy
Gorcester, Jeff; Freed, Jack H.
1988-04-01
We describe our pulsed two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR experiment and demonstrate its applicabilty for the double resonance of motionally narrowed nitroxides. Multiple pulse irradiation of the entire nitroxide spectrum enables the correlation of two precessional periods, allowing observation of cross correlations between hyperfine lines introduced by magnetization transfer in the case of a three-pulse experiment (2D ELDOR), or coherence transfer in the case of a two-pulse experiment (COSY). Cross correlations are revealed by the presence of cross peaks which connect the autocorrelation lines appearing along the diagonal ω1=ω2. The amplitudes of these cross peaks are determined by the rates of magnetization transfer in the 2D ELDOR experiment. The density operator theory for the experiment is outlined and applied to the determination of Heisenberg exchange (HE) rates in 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone-N-oxyl-d15 (PD-tempone) dissolved in toluene-d8. The quantitative accuracy of this experiment is established by comparison with the HE rate measured from the dependence of the spin echo T2 on nitroxide concentration.
Status for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertagnolio, F.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Johansen, J.
2001-01-01
This report sets up an evaluation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solver EllipSys2D in its present state. This code is used for blade aerodynamics simulations in the Aeroelastic Design group at Risø. Two airfoils are investigated by computing theflow at several angles of attack ranging from...... the linear to the stalled region. The computational data are compared to experimental data and numerical results from other computational codes. Several numerical aspects are studied, as mesh dependency,convective scheme, steady state versus unsteady computations, transition modelling. Some general...... conclusions intended to help in using this code for numerical simulations are given....
Bill2d -- a software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems
Solanpää, Janne; Räsänen, Esa
2016-01-01
We present Bill2d, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. Bill2d can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincar\\'e sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).
BILL2D - A software package for classical two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems
Solanpää, J.; Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.
2016-02-01
We present BILL2D, a modern and efficient C++ package for classical simulations of two-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. BILL2D can be used for various billiard and diffusion problems with one or more charged particles with interactions, different external potentials, an external magnetic field, periodic and open boundaries, etc. The software package can also calculate many key quantities in complex systems such as Poincaré sections, survival probabilities, and diffusion coefficients. While aiming at a large class of applicable systems, the code also strives for ease-of-use, efficiency, and modularity for the implementation of additional features. The package comes along with a user guide, a developer's manual, and a documentation of the application program interface (API).
Hysteretic Spin Crossover in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hofmann-Type Coordination Polymers.
Liu, Wei; Wang, Lu; Su, Yu-Jun; Chen, Yan-Cong; Tucek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek; Ni, Zhao-Ping; Tong, Ming-Liang
2015-09-08
Three new two-dimensional (2D) Hofmann-type coordination polymers with general formula [Fe(3-NH2py)2M(CN)4] (3-NH2py = 3-aminopyridine, M = Ni (1), Pd (2), Pt (3)) have been synthesized. Magnetic susceptibility measurements show that they exhibited cooperative spin crossover (SCO) with remarkable hysteretic behaviors. Their hysteresis widths are 25, 37, and 30 K for 1-3, respectively. The single-crystal structure of 1 suggest that the pseudo-octahedral Fe sites are equatorially bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) to form 2D grids and axially coordinated by 3-NH2py ligands. The intermolecular interactions between layers (the offset face-to-face π···π interactions, hydrogen bonds, and weak N(amino)···Ni(II) contacts) together with the covalent bonds bridged by [M(CN)4](2-) units are responsible to the significant cooperativity.
Removal of interfering substances in samples prepared for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis.
Berkelman, Tom
2008-01-01
Biological samples may contain contaminants that interfere with analysis by two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Lysates or biological fluids are complex mixtures that contain a wide variety of nonprotein substances in addition to the proteins to be analyzed. These substances often interfere with the resolution of the electrophoretic separation or the visualization of the result. Macromolecules (e.g., polysaccharides and DNA) can interfere with electrophoretic separation by clogging gel pores. Small ionic molecules can impair isoelectric focusing (IEF) separation by rendering the sample too conductive. Other substances (e.g., phenolics and lipids) can bind to proteins, influencing their electrophoretic properties or solubility. In many cases, measures to remove interfering substances can result in significantly clearer 2-D patterns with more visible spots and better resolution. It should be borne in mind, however, that analysis of samples by 2-D electrophoresis is usually most successful and informative when performed with minimally processed samples, so it is important that any steps taken to remove interfering substance be appropriate to the sample and only performed when necessary. Procedures for the removal of interfering substances therefore represent a compromise between removing nonprotein contaminants, and minimizing interference with the integrity and relative abundances of the sample proteins. This chapter presents a number of illustrative examples of optimized sample preparation methods in which specific interfering substances are removed by a variety of different strategies.
Easy interpretation of optical two-dimensional correlation spectra
Lazonder, K.; Pshenichnikov, M.S.; Wiersma, D.A.
2006-01-01
We demonstrate that the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved from a two-dimensional optical correlation spectrum through a simple relationship. The proposed method yields both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. The t
PRONTO 2D: A two-dimensional transient solid dynamics program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taylor, L.M.; Flanagan, D.P.
1987-03-01
PRONTO 2D is a two-dimensional transient solid dynamics code for analyzing large deformations of highly nonlinear materials subjected to extremely high strain rates. This Lagrangian finite element program uses an explicit time integration operator to integrate the equations of motion. Four node uniform strain quadrilateral elements are used in the finite element formulation. A number of new numerical algorithms which have been developed for the code are described in this report. An adaptive time step control algorithm is described which greatly improves stability as well as performance in plasticity problems. A robust hourglass control scheme which eliminates hourglass distortions without disturbing the finite element solution is included. All constitutive models in PRONTO are cast in an unrotated configuration defined using the rotation determined from the polar decomposition of the deformation gradient. An accurate incremental algorithm was developed to determine this rotation and is described in detail. A robust contact algorithm was developed which allows for the impact and interaction of deforming contact surfaces of quite general geometry. A number of numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of these algorithms. 41 refs., 51 figs., 5 tabs.
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in polymer study
Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee
2015-01-01
This review outlines the recent works of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in polymer study. 2DCOS is a powerful technique applicable to the in-depth analysis of various spectral data of polymers obtained under some type of perturbation. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in polymer studies and noteworthy developments of 2DCOS used in this field are also highlighted. PMID:25815286
Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.
Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S
2015-06-23
Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems.
Two-dimensional Fourier transform ESR in the slow-motional and rigid limits: 2D-ELDOR
Patyal, Baldev R.; Crepeau, Richard H.; Gamliel, Dan; Freed, Jack H.
1990-12-01
The two-dimensional Fourier transform ESP techniques of stimulated SECSY and 2D-ELDOR are shown to be powerful methods for the study of slow motions for nitroxides. Stimulated SECSY provides magnetization transfer rates, whereas 2D-ELDOR displays how the rotational motions spread the spins out from their initial spectral positions to new spectral positions, as a function of mixing time. The role of nuclear modulation in studies of structure and dynamics is also considered.
Light transport and localization in two-dimensional correlated disorder
Conley, Gaurasundar M; Pratesi, Filippo; Vynck, Kevin; Wiersma, Diederik S
2013-01-01
Structural correlations in disordered media are known to affect significantly the propagation of waves. In this article, we theoretically investigate the transport and localization of light in two-dimensional photonic structures with short-range correlated disorder. The problem is tackled semi-analytically using the Baus-Colot model for the structure factor of correlated media and a modified independent scattering approximation. We find that short-range correlations make it possible to easily tune the transport mean free path by more than a factor of 2 and the related localization length over several orders of magnitude. This trend is confirmed by numerical finite-difference time-domain calculations. This study therefore shows that disorder engineering can offer fine control over light transport and localization in planar geometries, which may open new opportunities in both fundamental and applied photonics research.
Quadrature two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (Q-2DCOS)
Noda, Isao
2016-11-01
Quadrature 2D correlation spectroscopy (Q-2DCOS) is introduced. The technique incorporates the effect of the perturbation into the traditional 2DCOS analysis by building a multivariate model, merging the information of the perturbation variable and spectral responses. By employing factors which are 90° out of phase with each other, pertinent coincidental and sequential spectral intensity variations are adequately captured for the subsequent 2D correlation analysis. Almost complete replication of the original 2DCOS results based on such a simple rank 2 model of experimental spectra suggests that only the dominant spectral intensity variation patterns in combination with its quadrature counterpart seems to be utilized in 2DCOS analysis. Using the linear perturbation variable itself as the basis for generating the primary score vector is equivalent to the least squares fitting of a quadratic polynomial with spectral intensity variations. Q-2DCOS analysis may be displayed in terms of a graphical plot on a phase plane in the vector space, so that coincidental and sequential matching of the patterns of spectral intensity variations is represented simply by the phase angle difference between two vectors. Q-2DCOS analysis is closely related to other established ideas and practices in the 2D correlation spectroscopy field, such as dynamic 2D IR dichroism, PCA 2D, quadrature orthogonal signal correction (Q-OSC), and perturbation correlation moving window (PCMW) analyses.
MULTI2D - a computer code for two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics
Ramis, R.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Ramírez, J.
2009-06-01
Simulation of radiation hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions is developed, having in mind, in particular, target design for indirectly driven inertial confinement energy (IFE) and the interpretation of related experiments. Intense radiation pulses by laser or particle beams heat high-Z target configurations of different geometries and lead to a regime which is optically thick in some regions and optically thin in others. A diffusion description is inadequate in this situation. A new numerical code has been developed which describes hydrodynamics in two spatial dimensions (cylindrical R-Z geometry) and radiation transport along rays in three dimensions with the 4 π solid angle discretized in direction. Matter moves on a non-structured mesh composed of trilateral and quadrilateral elements. Radiation flux of a given direction enters on two (one) sides of a triangle and leaves on the opposite side(s) in proportion to the viewing angles depending on the geometry. This scheme allows to propagate sharply edged beams without ray tracing, though at the price of some lateral diffusion. The algorithm treats correctly both the optically thin and optically thick regimes. A symmetric semi-implicit (SSI) method is used to guarantee numerical stability. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI2D Catalogue identifier: AECV_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECV_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 151 098 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 889 622 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: PC (32 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 2 Mbytes Word size: 32 bits Classification: 19.7 External routines: X-window standard library (libX11.so) and corresponding heading files (X11/*.h) are
A new model for two-dimensional numerical simulation of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Tingwen; Zhang, Yongmin
2013-10-11
Pseudo-two dimensional (pseudo-2D) fluidized beds, for which the thickness of the system is much smaller than the other two dimensions, is widely used to perform fundamental studies on bubble behavior, solids mixing, or clustering phenomenon in different gas-solids fluidization systems. The abundant data from such experimental systems are very useful for numerical model development and validation. However, it has been reported that two-dimensional (2D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds usually predict poor quantitative agreement with the experimental data, especially for the solids velocity field. In this paper, a new model is proposed to improve the 2D numerical simulations of pseudo-2D gas-solids fluidized beds by properly accounting for the frictional effect of the front and back walls. Two previously reported pseudo-2D experimental systems were simulated with this model. Compared to the traditional 2D simulations, significant improvements in the numerical predictions have been observed and the predicted results are in better agreement with the available experimental data.
[Progress in Application of Two-Dimensional Correlation Spectroscopy for Detection of Food Quality].
Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Liu, Hai-xue; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu
2015-08-01
In recent years, the food safety and quality has always been a serious issue. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a rapid and widely available method to determine the quality of food. Due to high spectral resolution, good spectral selectivity and good ability of spectrogram analysis, the technology of two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is an effective method for solving three major problems encountered by the conventional one-dimensional (1D) spectrum: low selectivity of the spectra, difficulty in extracting the information of the spectral feature and difficulty in spectrogram analysis. Therefore, 2D correlation spectroscopy, which is suited to distinguish similar samples hardly distinguished by the conventional 1D spectroscopy, has been successfully applied in many complex biological systems. The developmental process, the experimental way to obtain spectrum, the fundamental mathematical principle and the properties of 2D correlation spectroscopy were introduced in this paper. At the same time, it is pointed out that the origin of weak characteristic bands of substance can be verified in terms of the positive or negative corss peaks in synchronous 2D correlation spectrum combined with the existence or inexistence of corss peaks in asynchronous 2D correlation spectrum. The application of 2D near-infrared, mid-infrared, fluorescence, and raman correlation spectroscopy in the detection of food quality and adulteration, concentrated specifically on diary product, wine, oil, meat, honey, and rice were reviewed. Finally, the limitations and future development prospects were pointed out.
Optical properties of two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanostructures
Cherevkov, S. A.; Baranov, A. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Litvin, A. P.; Artemyev, M. V.; Prudnikau, A. V.
2013-09-01
The resonant and off-resonant Raman spectra of optical phonons in two-dimensional CdSe nanocrystals of 5, 6, and 7 monolayers are analysed. The spectra are dominated by SO and LO phonon bands of CdSe, whose frequencies are thickness-independent in the off-resonant Raman scattering but demonstrate an evident thickness dependence in the case of the resonant Raman scattering.
Phase correlations and quasicondensate in a two-dimensional ultracold Fermi gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tempere, J., E-mail: jacques.tempere@uantwerpen.be [Theory of Quantum and Complex Systems, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium); Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Klimin, S.N. [Theory of Quantum and Complex Systems, Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerpen (Belgium)
2015-02-15
The interplay between dimensionality, coherence and interaction in superfluid Fermi gases is analyzed by the phase correlation function of the field of fermionic pairs. We calculate this phase correlation function for a two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gas with s-wave interactions within the Gaussian pair fluctuation formalism. The spatial behavior of the correlation function is shown to exhibit a rapid (exponential) decay at short distances and a characteristic algebraic decay at large distances, with an exponent matching that expected from the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless theory of 2D Bose superfluids. We conclude that the Gaussian pair fluctuation approximation is able to capture the physics of quasi-long-range order in two-dimensional Fermi gases. - Highlights: • The phase correlation functions for an ultracold Fermi gas in 2D are calculated. • The decay of the correlation functions is algebraic at long distances. • The Gaussian pair fluctuation approach is shown to capture the quasicondensate physics in 2D Fermi gases.
MARG2D code. 1. Eigenvalue problem for two dimensional Newcomb equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tokuda, Shinji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Watanabe, Tomoko
1997-10-01
A new method and a code MARG2D have been developed to solve the 2-dimensional Newcomb equation which plays an important role in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma such as a tokamak. In the present formulation, an eigenvalue problem is posed for the 2-D Newcomb equation, where the weight function (the kinetic energy integral) and the boundary conditions at rational surfaces are chosen so that an eigenfunction correctly behaves as the linear combination of the small solution and the analytical solutions around each of the rational surfaces. Thus, the difficulty on solving the 2-D Newcomb equation has been resolved. By using the MARG2D code, the ideal MHD marginally stable state can be identified for a 2-D toroidal plasma. The code is indispensable on computing the outer-region matching data necessary for the resistive MHD stability analysis. Benchmark with ERATOJ, an ideal MHD stability code, has been carried out and the MARG2D code demonstrates that it indeed identifies both stable and marginally stable states against ideal MHD motion. (author)
Novel developments and applications of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy
Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee
2016-11-01
A comprehensive survey review of new and noteworthy developments of 2D correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and its applications for the last two years is compiled. This review covers not only journal articles and book chapters but also books, proceedings, and review articles published on 2DCOS, numerous significant new concepts of 2DCOS, patents and publication trends. Noteworthy experimental practices in the field of 2DCOS, including types of analytical probes employed, various perturbation methods used in experiments, and pertinent examples of fundamental and practical applications, are also reviewed.
Two-Dimensional Correlation Method for Polymer Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herman, Matthew Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-06-08
Since its introduction by Noda in 1986 two-dimension correlation spectroscopy has been offering polymer scientists an opportunity to look more deeply into collected spectroscopic data. When the spectra are recorded in response to an external perturbation, it is possible to correlate the spectra and expand the information over a separate spectra axis allow for enhancement of spectral resolution, the ability to determine synchronous change, and a unique way to organize observed changes in the spectra into sequential order following a set of three simple rules. By organizing the 2D spectra into synchronous change plots and asynchronous change plots it is possible to correlate change between spectral regions and develop their temporal relationships to one another. With the introduction of moving-window correlation-spectroscopy by Thomas and Richardson in 2000, a method of binning and processing data, it became possible to directly correlate relationships generated in the spectra from the change in the perturbation variable. This method takes advantage of the added resolution of two-dimension spectroscopy and has been applied to study very week transitions found in polymer materials. Appling both of these techniques we are beginning to develop an understanding of how polymers decay under radiolytic aging, to develop a stronger understanding of changes in mechanical properties and the service capabilities of materials.
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein science, a summary for past 20years.
Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping; Jung, Young Mee; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2018-01-15
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) has been widely used to Infrared, Raman, Near IR, Optical Activity (ROA), Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) and Fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, several new developments, such as 2D hetero-correlation analysis, moving-window two-dimensional (MW2D) correlation, model based correlation (βν and kν correlation analyses) have also well incorporated into protein research. They have been used to investigate secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein, and have contributed greatly to the field of protein science. This review provides an overview of the applications of 2DCOS in the field of protein science for the past 20 year, especially to memory our old friend, Dr. Boguslawa Czarnik-Matusewicz, for her great contribution in this research field. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies is summarized. The noteworthy developments and perspective of 2DCOS in this field are highlighted finally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mitri, F G
2015-09-01
The optical theorem for plane waves is recognized as one of the fundamental theorems in optical, acoustical and quantum wave scattering theory as it relates the extinction cross-section to the forward scattering complex amplitude function. Here, the optical theorem is extended and generalized in a cylindrical coordinates system for the case of 2D beams of arbitrary character as opposed to plane waves of infinite extent. The case of scalar monochromatic acoustical wavefronts is considered, and generalized analytical expressions for the extinction, absorption and scattering cross-sections are derived and extended in the framework of the scalar resonance scattering theory. The analysis reveals the presence of an interference scattering cross-section term describing the interaction between the diffracted Franz waves with the resonance elastic waves. The extended optical theorem in cylindrical coordinates is applicable to any object of arbitrary geometry in 2D located arbitrarily in the beam's path. Related investigations in optics, acoustics and quantum mechanics will benefit from this analysis in the context of wave scattering theory and other phenomena closely connected to it, such as the multiple scattering by a cloud of particles, as well as the resulting radiation force and torque.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoo Sze-Wei
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Among the full-field optical measurement methods, the Digital Image Correlation (DIC is one of the techniques which has been given particular attention. Technically, the DIC technique refers to a non-contact strain measurement method that mathematically compares the grey intensity changes of the images captured at two different states: before and after deformation. The measurement can be performed by numerically calculating the displacement of speckles which are deposited on the top of object’s surface. In this paper, the Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation (2D-DIC is presented and its fundamental concepts are discussed. Next, the development of the 2D-DIC algorithms in the past 33 years is reviewed systematically. The improvement of 2DDIC algorithms is presented with respect to two distinct aspects: their computation efficiency and measurement accuracy. Furthermore, analysis of the 2D-DIC accuracy is included, followed by a review of the DIC applications for two-dimensional measurements.
Lim, James; Ing, David J; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2017-01-14
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Lim, James; Ing, David J.; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H.; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2017-01-01
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Noda, Isao
2016-11-01
Certain techniques useful in enhancing the features of two-dimensional correlation and codistribution spectra (2DCOS and 2DCDS) are reviewed. 2DCOS sorts out the coordinated or sequential variations of spectral intensities induced by an external perturbation applied to a sample system. 2DCDS is designed to determine the order of the presence of individual species. Pareto scaling of data helps to regulate overwhelmingly strong signal contributions, which may obscure the fine features of 2DCOS and 2DCDS spectra. Pearson unit-variance scaling has some limitations by itself but is useful in some applications. Modified forms of asynchronous 2D spectrum combine the features of both synchronous and asynchronous spectra and can be used as a stand-alone 2D map for the streamlined determination of the sequential order of spectral intensity variations. Null-space projection simplifies congested 2D spectra by eliminating select features, such as contribution from a specific component. Node attenuation is a band narrowing technique suitable for 2D analysis, because it does not produce opposite-sign side lobes. Performance of each technique in enhancing the features of 2D spectra is demonstrated with a model set of experimental spectra.
Two-dimensional crystal melting and D4-D2-D0 on toric Calabi-Yau singularities
Nishinaka, Takahiro; Yoshida, Yutaka
2013-01-01
We construct a two-dimensional crystal melting model which reproduces the BPS index of D2-D0 states bound to a non-compact D4-brane on an arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau singularity. The crystalline structure depends on the toric divisor wrapped by the D4-brane. The molten crystals are in one-to-one correspondence with the torus fixed points of the moduli space of the quiver gauge theory on D-branes. The F- and D-term constraints of the gauge theory are regarded as a generalization of the ADHM constraints on instantons. We also show in several examples that our model is consistent with the wall-crossing formula for the BPS index.
FireStem2D--a two-dimensional heat transfer model for simulating tree stem injury in fires.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efthalia K Chatziefstratiou
Full Text Available FireStem2D, a software tool for predicting tree stem heating and injury in forest fires, is a physically-based, two-dimensional model of stem thermodynamics that results from heating at the bark surface. It builds on an earlier one-dimensional model (FireStem and provides improved capabilities for predicting fire-induced mortality and injury before a fire occurs by resolving stem moisture loss, temperatures through the stem, degree of bark charring, and necrotic depth around the stem. We present the results of numerical parameterization and model evaluation experiments for FireStem2D that simulate laboratory stem-heating experiments of 52 tree sections from 25 trees. We also conducted a set of virtual sensitivity analysis experiments to test the effects of unevenness of heating around the stem and with aboveground height using data from two studies: a low-intensity surface fire and a more intense crown fire. The model allows for improved understanding and prediction of the effects of wildland fire on injury and mortality of trees of different species and sizes.
Xiao, Qian; Gu, Xiaohong; Tan, Suo
2014-12-01
Drying process of aqueous sodium alginate solutions at 50°C was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. Two-dimensional asynchronous spectrum at 1,800-1,350 cm(-1) wavenumber could be resolved into five separate bands, which were assigned to O-H bending vibrations in water (around 1,645 cm(-1)), antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of free and hydrogen-bonded COO(-) groups of alginate (around 1,595, 1,412, 1,572 and 1,390 cm(-1), respectively). As the drying process progressed, absorbance bands at around 1,127 and 1,035 cm(-1) significantly shifted to lower wavenumbers (1120 and 1027cm(-1), respectively). Suggesting that oxygen atoms at the 2th and 3th position in the pyranose ring might have hydrogen bonded with water or alginate chains. Further analysis using 2D asynchronous correlation spectroscopy between 1800-1500 and 1200-960 cm(-1) wavenumber regions revealed the sequence of spectral changes during the drying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liu, Hao; Gao, Hongbin; Qu, Lingbo; Huang, Yanping; Xiang, Bingren
2008-12-01
Four aromatic medicines (acetaminophen; niacinamide; p-aminophenol; nicotinic acid) containing nitrogen were investigated by FT-NIR (Fourier transform near-infrared) spectroscopy and generalized two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy. The FT-NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-130 °C. By combining near-infrared spectroscopy, generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy and references, the molecular structures (especially the hydrogen bond related with nitrogen) were analyzed and the NIR band assignments were performed. The results will be helpful to the understanding of aromatic medicines containing nitrogen and the utility of these substances.
Correlating nuclear frequencies by two-dimensional ELDOR-detected NMR spectroscopy.
Kaminker, Ilia; Wilson, Tiffany D; Savelieff, Masha G; Hovav, Yonatan; Zimmermann, Herbert; Lu, Yi; Goldfarb, Daniella
2014-03-01
ELDOR (Electron Double Resonance)-detected NMR (EDNMR) is a pulse EPR experiment that is used to measure the transition frequencies of nuclear spins coupled to electron spins. These frequencies are further used to determine hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings, which are signatures of the electronic and spatial structures of paramagnetic centers. In recent years, EDNMR has been shown to be particularly useful at high fields/high frequencies, such as W-band (∼95 GHz, ∼3.5 T), for low γ quadrupolar nuclei. Although at high fields the nuclear Larmor frequencies are usually well resolved, the limited resolution of EDNMR still remains a major concern. In this work we introduce a two dimensional, triple resonance, correlation experiment based on the EDNMR pulse sequence, which we term 2D-EDNMR. This experiment allows circumventing the resolution limitation by spreading the signals in two dimensions and the observed correlations help in the assignment of the signals. First we demonstrate the utility of the 2D-EDNMR experiment on a nitroxide spin label, where we observe correlations between (14)N nuclear frequencies. Negative cross-peaks appear between lines belonging to different MS electron spin manifolds. We resolved two independent correlation patterns for nuclear frequencies arising from the EPR transitions corresponding to the (14)N mI=0 and mI=-1 nuclear spin states, which severely overlap in the one dimensional EDNMR spectrum. The observed correlations could be accounted for by considering changes in the populations of energy levels that S=1/2, I=1 spin systems undergo during the pulse sequence. In addition to these negative cross-peaks, positive cross-peaks appear as well. We present a theoretical model based on the Liouville equation and use it to calculate the time evolution of populations of the various energy levels during the 2D-EDNMR experiment and generated simulated 2D-EDMR spectra. These calculations show that the positive cross-peaks appear due to
Correlating nuclear frequencies by two-dimensional ELDOR-detected NMR spectroscopy
Kaminker, Ilia; Wilson, Tiffany D.; Savelieff, Masha G.; Hovav, Yonatan; Zimmermann, Herbert; Lu, Yi; Goldfarb, Daniella
2014-03-01
ELDOR (Electron Double Resonance)-detected NMR (EDNMR) is a pulse EPR experiment that is used to measure the transition frequencies of nuclear spins coupled to electron spins. These frequencies are further used to determine hyperfine and quadrupolar couplings, which are signatures of the electronic and spatial structures of paramagnetic centers. In recent years, EDNMR has been shown to be particularly useful at high fields/high frequencies, such as W-band (∼95 GHz, ∼3.5 T), for low γ quadrupolar nuclei. Although at high fields the nuclear Larmor frequencies are usually well resolved, the limited resolution of EDNMR still remains a major concern. In this work we introduce a two dimensional, triple resonance, correlation experiment based on the EDNMR pulse sequence, which we term 2D-EDNMR. This experiment allows circumventing the resolution limitation by spreading the signals in two dimensions and the observed correlations help in the assignment of the signals. First we demonstrate the utility of the 2D-EDNMR experiment on a nitroxide spin label, where we observe correlations between 14N nuclear frequencies. Negative cross-peaks appear between lines belonging to different MS electron spin manifolds. We resolved two independent correlation patterns for nuclear frequencies arising from the EPR transitions corresponding to the 14N mI = 0 and mI = -1 nuclear spin states, which severely overlap in the one dimensional EDNMR spectrum. The observed correlations could be accounted for by considering changes in the populations of energy levels that S = 1/2, I = 1 spin systems undergo during the pulse sequence. In addition to these negative cross-peaks, positive cross-peaks appear as well. We present a theoretical model based on the Liouville equation and use it to calculate the time evolution of populations of the various energy levels during the 2D-EDNMR experiment and generated simulated 2D-EDMR spectra. These calculations show that the positive cross-peaks appear due
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Liquid state methanol and ethanol under different temperatures have been investigated by FT-NIR(Fourier transform nearinfrared) spectroscopy,generalized two-dimensional(2D) correlation spectroscopy,and PCA(principal component analysis) . First,the FT-NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 30-64(or 30-71) °C,and then the 2D correlation spectra were computed.Combining near-infrared spectroscopy,generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy,and references,we analyzed the molecular structures(especially the hydrogen bond) of methanol and ethanol,and performed the NIR band assignments. The PCA method was employed to verify the results of the 2D analysis.This study will be helpful to the understanding of these reagents.
Amatyakul, Puwis; Vachiratienchai, Chatchai; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai
2017-05-01
An efficient joint two-dimensional direct current resistivity (DCR) and magnetotelluric (MT) inversion, referred to as WSJointInv2D-MT-DCR, was developed with FORTRAN 95 based on the data space Occam's inversion algorithm. Our joint inversion software can be used to invert just the MT data or the DCR data, or invert both data sets simultaneously to get the electrical resistivity structures. Since both MT and DCR surveys yield the same resistivity structures, the two data types enhance each other leading to a better interpretation. Two synthetic and a real field survey are used here to demonstrate that the joint DCR and MT surveys can help constrain each other to reduce the ambiguities occurring when inverting the DCR or MT alone. The DCR data increases the lateral resolution of the near surface structures while the MT data reveals the deeper structures. When the MT apparent resistivity suffers from the static shift, the DCR apparent resistivity can serve as a replacement for the estimation of the static shift factor using the joint inversion. In addition, we also used these examples to show the efficiency of our joint inversion code. With the availability of our new joint inversion software, we expect the number of joint DCR and MT surveys to increase in the future.
He, Bin; Liu, Rong; Yang, Renjie; Xu, Kexin
2010-02-01
Adulteration of milk and dairy products has brought serious threats to human health as well as enormous economic losses to the food industry. Considering the diversity of adulterants possibly mixed in milk, such as melamine, urea, tetracycline, sugar/salt and so forth, a rapid, widely available, high-throughput, cost-effective method is needed for detecting each of the components in milk at once. In this paper, a method using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is established for the discriminative analysis of adulteration in milk. Firstly, the characteristic peaks of the raw milk are found in the 4000-400 cm-1 region by its original spectra. Secondly, the adulterant samples are respectively detected with the same method to establish a spectral database for subsequent comparison. Then, 2D correlation spectra of the samples are obtained which have high time resolution and can provide information about concentration-dependent intensity changes not readily accessible from one-dimensional spectra. And the characteristic peaks in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of the suspected samples are compared with those of raw milk. The differences among their synchronous spectra imply that the suspected milk sample must contain some kinds of adulterants. Melamine, urea, tetracycline and glucose adulterants in milk are identified respectively. This nondestructive method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk and dairy products are adulterated with deleterious substances and it provides a new simple and cost-effective alternative to test the components of milk.
Li, Zhenyu; Abramavicius, Darius; Zhuang, Wei; Mukamel, Shaul
2007-11-15
The two dimensional (2D) photon echo spectrum of the amide ultraviolet (UV) bands of proteins are simulated. Two effective exciton Hamiltonian parameter sets developed by Woody and Hirst, which predict similar CD spectra, may be distinguished by their very different 2DUV spectra. These differences are enhanced in specific configurations of pulse polarizations which provide chirality-induced signals.
Systematic errors in two-dimensional digital image correlation due to lens distortion
Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang; Tang, Liqun
2013-02-01
Lens distortion practically presents in a real optical imaging system causing non-uniform geometric distortion in the recorded images, and gives rise to additional errors in the displacement and strain results measured by two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC). In this work, the systematic errors in the displacement and strain results measured by 2D-DIC due to lens distortion are investigated theoretically using the radial lens distortion model and experimentally through easy-to-implement rigid body, in-plane translation tests. Theoretical analysis shows that the displacement and strain errors at an interrogated image point are not only in linear proportion to the distortion coefficient of the camera lens used, but also depend on its distance relative to distortion center and its magnitude of displacement. To eliminate the systematic errors caused by lens distortion, a simple linear least-squares algorithm is proposed to estimate the distortion coefficient from the distorted displacement results of rigid body, in-plane translation tests, which can be used to correct the distorted displacement fields to obtain unbiased displacement and strain fields. Experimental results verify the correctness of the theoretical derivation and the effectiveness of the proposed lens distortion correction method.
Yan, Wei; Zhang, Jianfeng; Jing, Chuanyong
2013-01-15
Adsorption of Enrofloxacin (ENR) on minerals dominates the fate and transport of ENR in the environment. In this study, the sorption process of ENR on montmorillonite and the impact of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on ENR-montmorillonite interactions were investigated using in situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-COS). Negative peaks were observed in the 3400-2900 cm(-1) region due to the loss of hydrated protons at montmorillonite surfaces. The primary characteristic peaks of adsorbed ENR molecules were resolved in the 1800-1100 cm(-1) range. The results of 2D-COS suggested the sorption process was initiated by the interaction of hydrated protons on montmorillonite surfaces with diverse moieties of ENR molecules depending on pH. The sorption mechanism of ENR was mainly cation exchange at acidic condition, charge neutralization at neutral condition, and proton transfer at alkaline condition. DOM could interact with piperazinyl amine groups of dissolved ENR, which changed the interaction sequence of ENR molecule with montmorillonite surfaces. Electrostatic interaction was the predominant driving force for the interaction between DOM and dissolved ENR. H-donor-acceptor interaction and π-π interaction may also be responsible to this interaction. Insights gained from this study improve our understandings on sorption mechanism of ENR and similar ionic organic pollutants in soil systems.
Reddy, T. S. R.
1995-01-01
This guide describes the input data required for using ECAP2D (Euler Cascade Aeroelastic Program-Two Dimensional). ECAP2D can be used for steady or unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis of two dimensional cascades. Euler equations are used to obtain aerodynamic forces. The structural dynamic equations are written for a rigid typical section undergoing pitching (torsion) and plunging (bending) motion. The solution methods include harmonic oscillation method, influence coefficient method, pulse response method, and time integration method. For harmonic oscillation method, example inputs and outputs are provided for pitching motion and plunging motion. For the rest of the methods, input and output for pitching motion only are given.
Edén, Mattias
2010-05-01
Three two-dimensional (2D) NMR homonuclear correlation techniques invoking double-quantum (2Q) filtration of the central transitions of half-integer spins are evaluated numerically and experimentally. They correlate directly detected single-quantum (1Q) coherences in the t(2) domain with either of 1Q, two-spin 2Q or single-spin multiple-quantum coherence-evolutions in the indirect (t(1)) dimension. We employ experimental (23)Na and (27)Al NMR on sodium sulfite and the natural mineral sillimanite (SiAl(2)O(5)), in conjunction with simulated 2D spectra from pairs of dipolar-recoupled spins-3/2 and 5/2 at different external magnetic fields, to compare the correlation strategies from the viewpoints of 2D spectral resolution, signal sensitivity, implementational aspects and their relative merits for establishing internuclear proximities and quadrupolar tensor orientations.
Yu, Ge; Yang, Ren-jie; Lü, Ai-jun; Tan, En-zhong
2015-08-01
New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero-spectral two-dimensional (2D) near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). Firstly, 36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L(-1)) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk. Then, one-dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room temperature. And the synchronous 2D NIR-IR (4200~4800 vs. 900~1700 cm(-1)) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated. Due to the trace of adulterants, the synchronous 2D IR-NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle. Consequently, it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adulterated milk. Finally, 2D IR-NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra, respectively. The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8%. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR-IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR, and 2D IR correlation spectra. The proposed method can not only effectively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk, but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adulterated food.
Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu
2016-03-15
A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L(-1) were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.
Yang, Renjie; Liu, Rong; Dong, Guimei; Xu, Kexin; Yang, Yanrong; Zhang, Weiyu
2016-03-01
A new approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on two-dimensional (2D) hetero-spectral near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi-way partial least squares discriminant analysis (NPLS-DA). NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with level of melamine varying from 0.03 to 3 g·L- 1 were collected at room temperature. The synchronous 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra of all samples were calculated to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk. Also, the NPLS-DA models were built based on synchronous 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and IR/IR correlation spectra, respectively. Comparison results showed that the NPLS-DA model could provide better results using 2D hetero-spectral IR/NIR correlation spectra than using 2D homo-spectral NIR/NIR and 2D IR/IR correlation spectra.
Li, Weizhen; Wu, Peiyi
2009-08-01
The crystal structure transition of syndiotactic polystyrene film from the helical conformation to the more stable planar zigzag conformation during a heating process was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis and perturbation-correlation moving-window 2D analysis. The sequence of different conformations during the transition was investigated by analyzing two-dimensional FT-IR correlation spectra in the spectral ranges of 800-700 cm(-1) and 600-500 cm(-1). It was observed that the conformation of delta helical changes prior to gamma helical, and the gamma helical phase is faster than the alpha' planar zigzag phase. By utilizing the 2D asynchronous correlation spectra, the 744 cm(-1) band, which is usually incorporated in the broad 750 cm(-1) band, can now be uniquely attributed as the alpha' zigzag configuration for the first time. Furthermore, by employing thermal perturbation, the shorter helical segments consisting of m = 7-12 and m = 12-20 monomeric units were disturbed in a shorter time than the longer helical segments m = 20-30 during the heating process.
Material line fluctuations slaved to bulk correlations in two-dimensional turbulence
Odijk, Theo
2017-02-01
An analogy is pointed out between a polymer chain fluctuating in a two-dimensional nematic background and a freely floating material line buffeted by a two-dimensional turbulent fluid in the inertial (Kraichnan) regime. Under certain conditions, the back-reaction of the line on the turbulent flow may be neglected. The fractal exponent related to the size-contour relation of the material line is connected to a "nematic" correlation function in the bulk.
Kishimoto, Jessica; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Salehi, Fateme; Romano, Walter; Lee, David S C; Fenster, Aaron
2016-10-01
The aim of this study is to compare longitudinal two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (US) estimates of ventricle size in preterm neonates with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) using quantitative measurements of the lateral ventricles. Cranial 2-D US and 3-D US images were acquired from neonatal patients with diagnosed PHVD within 10 min of each other one to two times per week and analyzed offline. Ventricle index, anterior horn width, third ventricle width, and thalamo-occipital distance were measured on the 2-D images and ventricle volume (VV) was measured from 3-D US images. Changes in the measurements between successive image sets were also recorded. No strong correlations were found between VV and 2-D US measurements ([Formula: see text] between 0.69 and 0.36). Additionally, weak correlations were found between changes in 2-D US measurements and 3-D US VV ([Formula: see text] between 0.13 and 0.02). A trend was found between increasing 2-D US measurements and 3-D US-based VV, but this was not the case when comparing changes between 3-D US VV and 2-D US measurements. If 3-D US-based VV provides a more accurate estimate of ventricle size than 2-D US measurements, moderate-weak correlations with 3-D US suggest that monitoring preterm patients with PHVD using 2-D US measurements alone might not accurately represent whether the ventricles are progressively dilating. A volumetric measure (3-D US or MRI) could be used instead to more accurately represent changes.
Mazella, Anaïs; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Picard, Delphine
2016-01-01
To fill an important gap in the psychometric assessment of children and adolescents with impaired vision, we designed a new battery of haptic tests, called Haptic-2D, for visually impaired and sighted individuals aged five to 18 years. Unlike existing batteries, ours uses only two-dimensional raised materials that participants explore using active touch. It is composed of 11 haptic tests, measuring scanning skills, tactile discrimination skills, spatial comprehension skills, short-term tactile memory, and comprehension of tactile pictures. We administered this battery to 138 participants, half of whom were sighted (n=69), and half visually impaired (blind, n=16; low vision, n=53). Results indicated a significant main effect of age on haptic scores, but no main effect of vision or Age × Vision interaction effect. Reliability of test items was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha, α=0.51-0.84). Convergent validity was good, as shown by a significant correlation (age partialled out) between total haptic scores and scores on the B101 test (rp=0.51, n=47). Discriminant validity was also satisfactory, as attested by a lower but still significant partial correlation between total haptic scores and the raw score on the verbal WISC (rp=0.43, n=62). Finally, test-retest reliability was good (rs=0.93, n=12; interval of one to two months). This new psychometric tool should prove useful to practitioners working with young people with impaired vision.
Verma, Gaurav; Chawla, Sanjeev; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Iqbal, Zohaib; Albert Thomas, M.; Poptani, Harish
2017-04-01
Two-dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) offers greater spectral dispersion than conventional one-dimensional (1D) MRS techniques, yet long acquisition times and limited post-processing support have slowed its clinical adoption. Improving acquisition efficiency and developing versatile post-processing techniques can bolster the clinical viability of 2D MRS. The purpose of this study was to implement a non-uniformly weighted sampling (NUWS) scheme for faster acquisition of 2D-MRS. A NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence was developed for 7T whole-body MRI. A phantom containing metabolites commonly observed in the brain at physiological concentrations was scanned ten times with both the NUWS scheme of 12:48 duration and a 17:04 constant eight-average sequence using a 32-channel head coil. 2D L-COSY spectra were also acquired from the occipital lobe of four healthy volunteers using both the proposed NUWS and the conventional uniformly-averaged L-COSY sequence. The NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence facilitated 25% shorter acquisition time while maintaining comparable SNR in humans (+0.3%) and phantom studies (+6.0%) compared to uniform averaging. NUWS schemes successfully demonstrated improved efficiency of L-COSY, by facilitating a reduction in scan time without affecting signal quality.
Fal'ko, Vladimir I.
2014-06-01
On behalf of the Editorial Board and IOP Publishing, I am pleased to announce the opening of 2D Materials. Research on two-dimensional materials, such as graphene, now involves thousands of researchers worldwide cutting across physics, chemistry, engineering and biology, and extending from fundamental science to novel applications. It is this situation which defines the scope and mission of 2D Materials, a new journal that will serve all sides of this multidisciplinary field by publishing urgent research of the highest quality and impact.
Ballesteros, E.; Collados, M.; Bonet, J. A.; Lorenzo, F.; Viera, T.; Reyes, M.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, I.
1996-02-01
In this paper the description of the Solar Correlation Tracker prototype built by the Instituto de Astrof isica de Canarias is presented. The system is mainly conceived as a solar image tranquilizer, although a scanning utility has also been included in order to displace the image on the final focal plane with sub-arcsecond steps, thus allowing to perform two-dimensional high spatial resolution spectroscopy. The behaviour of the different elements of the tracker is shown, as well as their influence in the performance of the system. The restrictions of the Absolute Differences algorithm, used to detect image motion when granulation fields are considered, are extensively discussed. Laboratory and telescope tests have demonstrated the capabilities of the system. The electronic components have been adapted to new optics and mechanics developed at the Kiepenheuer Institut to build an Advanced Solar Correlation Tracker. The final version of the system has been installed at the German VTT of the Spanish Observatorio del Teide. The tests carried out have demonstrated that a bandwidth of about 60Hz (for an attenuation factor of two) is achieved, which is approximately four times larger than that of previous Correlation Trackers, at the same level of attenuation.
Yang, Ren-jie; Yang, Yan-rong; Dong, Gui-mei; Du, Yan-hong; Shan, Hui-yong; Zhang, Wei-yu
2014-08-01
Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra, in terms of the average Euclidian distances between unknown samples and "extreme samples", and average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set, a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed. Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)), and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01-0.3 g x L(-1)) samples were prepared, respectively. The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room temperature. The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk. The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples. Then, the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea, and adiulterated milk with melamine. The "extreme samples", average intra- and inter-Euclidian distances were determined. Finally, the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk. The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%. The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified. The results obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.
The Application of Canonical Correlation to Two-Dimensional Contingency Tables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto F. Restori
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper re-introduces and demonstrates the use of Mickeys (1970 canonical correlation method in analyzing large two-dimensional contingency tables. This method of analysis supplements the traditional analysis using the Pearson chi-square. Examples and a MATLAB source listing are provided.
Two-voxel localization sequence for in vivo two-dimensional homonuclear correlation spectroscopy
Delmas, F; Beloeil, JC; van der Sanden, BPJ; Nicolay, K; Gillet, B
The combination of localized 2D H-1 MR correlation spectroscopy and Hadamard encoding allows the simultaneous acquisition of multiple volumes of interest without an increase in the experimental duration, compared to single-voxel acquisition. In the present study, 2D correlation spectra were acquired
One and two dimensional analysis of 3$\\pi$ correlations measured in Pb+Pb interactions
Bearden, I G; Boissevain, J G; Christiansen, P; Conin, L; Dodd, J; Erazmus, B; Esumi, S C; Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang; Ferenc, D; Fields, D E; Franz, A; Gaardhøje, J J; Hansen, A G; Hansen, O; Hardtke, D; van Hecke, H; Holzer, E B; Humanic, T J; Hummel, P; Jacak, B V; Jayanti, R; Kaimi, K; Kaneta, M; Kohama, T; Kopytine, M L; Leltchouk, M; Ljubicic, A; Lörstad, B; Maeda, N; Martin, L; Medvedev, A; Murray, M; Ohnishi, H; Paic, G; Pandey, S U; Piuz, François; Pluta, J; Polychronakos, V; Potekhin, M V; Poulard, G; Reichhold, D M; Sakaguchi, A; Schmidt-Sørensen, J; Simon-Gillo, J; Sondheim, W E; Sugitate, T; Sullivan, J P; Sumi, Y; Willis, W J; Wolf, K L; Xu, N; Zachary, D S
2001-01-01
$\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}\\pi^{-}$ correlations from Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon are presented as measured by the focusing spectrometer of the NA44 experiment at CERN. The three-body effect is found to be stronger for PbPb than for SPb. The two-dimensional three-particle correlation function is also measured and the longitudinal extension of the source is larger than the transverse extension.
Non-classical photon correlation in a two-dimensional photonic lattice
Gao, Jun; Lin, Xiao-Feng; Jiao, Zhi-Qiang; Feng, Zhen; Zhou, Zheng; Gao, Zhen-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yun; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Hao; Jin, Xian-Min
2016-01-01
Quantum interference and quantum correlation, as two main features of quantum optics, play an essential role in quantum information applications, such as multi-particle quantum walk and boson sampling. While many experimental demonstrations have been done in one-dimensional waveguide arrays, it remains unexplored in higher dimensions due to tight requirement of manipulating and detecting photons in large-scale. Here, we experimentally observe non-classical correlation of two identical photons in a fully coupled two-dimensional structure, i.e. photonic lattice manufactured by three-dimensional femtosecond laser writing. Photon interference consists of 36 Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and 9 bunching. The overlap between measured and simulated distribution is up to $0.890\\pm0.001$. Clear photon correlation is observed in the two-dimensional photonic lattice. Combining with controllably engineered disorder, our results open new perspectives towards large-scale implementation of quantum simulation on integrated phot...
Brûlé, Yoann; Demésy, Guillaume; Gralak, Boris; Popov, Evgeny
2015-04-01
An extensive numerical study of diffraction of a plane monochromatic wave by a single gold cone on a plane gold substrate and by a periodical array of such cones shows formation of curls in the map of the Poynting vector. They result from the interference between the incident wave, the wave reflected by the substrate, and the field scattered by the cone(s). In case of a single cone, when going away from its base along the surface, the main contribution in the scattered field is given by the plasmon surface wave (PSW) excited on the surface. As expected, it has a predominant direction of propagation, determined by the incident wave polarization. Two particular cones with height approximately 1/6 and 1/3 of the wavelength are studied in detail, as they present the strongest absorption and field enhancement when arranged in a periodic array. While the PSW excited by the smaller single cone shows an energy flux globally directed along the substrate surface, we show that curls of the Poynting vector generated with the larger cone touch the diopter surface. At this point, their direction is opposite to the energy flow of the PSW, which is then forced to jump over the vortex regions. Arranging the cones in a two-dimensional subwavelength periodic array (diffraction grating), supporting a specular reflected order only, resonantly strengthens the field intensity at the tip of cones and leads to a field intensity enhancement of the order of 10 000 with respect to the incident wave intensity. The enhanced field is strongly localized on the rounded top of the cones. It is accompanied by a total absorption of the incident light exhibiting large angular tolerances. This strongly localized giant field enhancement can be of much interest in many applications, including fluorescence spectroscopy, label-free biosensing, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), nonlinear optical effects and photovoltaics.
Tang, Shanzhi; Yu, Shengrui; Han, Qingfu; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhao
2016-09-01
Circular test is an important tactic to assess motion accuracy in many fields especially machine tool and coordinate measuring machine. There are setup errors due to using directly centring of the measuring instrument for both of contact double ball bar and existed non-contact methods. To solve this problem, an algorithm for circular test using function construction based on matrix operation is proposed, which is not only used for the solution of radial deviation (F) but also should be applied to obtain two other evaluation parameters especially circular hysteresis (H). Furthermore, an improved optical configuration with a single laser is presented based on a 2D laser heterodyne interferometer. Compared with the existed non-contact method, it has a more pure homogeneity of the laser sources of 2D displacement sensing for advanced metrology. The algorithm and modeling are both illustrated. And error budget is also achieved. At last, to validate them, test experiments for motion paths are implemented based on a gantry machining center. Contrast test results support the proposal.
Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics
Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Corkum, Paul; Jonas, David M.; Miller, R.J. Dwayne.; Weiner, Andrew M.
2007-01-01
Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. By assessing the eccentricity of the elliptic shape of a 2D optical correlation spectrum the value of the underlying frequency-frequency correlation function can be retrieved
Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.; Tipping, R. H.
2014-01-01
The refinement of the Robert-Bonamy (RB) formalism by considering the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines of linear molecules developed in our previous study [Q. Ma, C. Boulet, and R. H. Tipping, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 034305 (2013)] has been extended to infrared P and R lines. In these calculations, the main task is to derive diagonal and off-diagonal matrix elements of the Liouville operator iS1 - S2 introduced in the formalism. When one considers the line coupling for isotropic Raman Q lines where their initial and final rotational quantum numbers are identical, the derivations of off-diagonal elements do not require extra correlation functions of the ^S operator and their Fourier transforms except for those used in deriving diagonal elements. In contrast, the derivations for infrared P and R lines become more difficult because they require a lot of new correlation functions and their Fourier transforms. By introducing two dimensional correlation functions labeled by two tensor ranks and making variable changes to become even functions, the derivations only require the latters' two dimensional Fourier transforms evaluated at two modulation frequencies characterizing the averaged energy gap and the frequency detuning between the two coupled transitions. With the coordinate representation, it is easy to accurately derive these two dimensional correlation functions. Meanwhile, by using the sampling theory one is able to effectively evaluate their two dimensional Fourier transforms. Thus, the obstacles in considering the line coupling for P and R lines have been overcome. Numerical calculations have been carried out for the half-widths of both the isotropic Raman Q lines and the infrared P and R lines of C2H2 broadened by N2. In comparison with values derived from the RB formalism, new calculated values are significantly reduced and become closer to measurements.
Das, Saptarshi
2016-01-01
This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS). PMID:27721489
Das, Saptarshi
2016-10-01
This article proposes a disruptive device concept which meets both low power and high performance criterion for post-CMOS computing and at the same time enables aggressive channel length scaling. This device, hereafter refer to as two-dimensional electrostrictive field effect transistor or 2D-EFET, allows sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing and considerably higher ON current compared to any state of the art FETs. Additionally, by the virtue of its ultra-thin body nature and electrostatic integrity, the 2D-EFET enjoys scaling beyond 10 nm technology node. The 2D-EFET works on the principle of voltage induced strain transduction. It uses an electrostrictive material as gate oxide which expands in response to an applied gate bias and thereby transduces an out-of-plane stress on the 2D channel material. This stress reduces the inter-layer distance between the consecutive layers of the semiconducting 2D material and dynamically reduces its bandgap to zero i.e. converts it into a semi-metal. Thus the device operates with a large bandgap in the OFF state and a small or zero bandgap in the ON state. As a consequence of this transduction mechanism, internal voltage amplification takes place which results in sub-60 mV/decade subthreshold swing (SS).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Caram, Justin R.; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Fidler, Andrew F.; Engel, Gregory S. [Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
2012-03-14
Long-lived excitonic coherence in photosynthetic proteins has become an exciting area of research because it may provide design principles for enhancing the efficiency of energy transfer in a broad range of materials. In this publication, we provide new evidence that long-lived excitonic coherence in the Fenna-Mathew-Olson pigment-protein (FMO) complex is consistent with the assumption of cross correlation in the site basis, indicating that each site shares bath fluctuations. We analyze the structure and character of the beating crosspeak between the two lowest energy excitons in two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of the FMO Complex. To isolate this dynamic signature, we use the two-dimensional linear prediction Z-transform as a platform for filtering coherent beating signatures within 2D spectra. By separating signals into components in frequency and decay rate representations, we are able to improve resolution and isolate specific coherences. This strategy permits analysis of the shape, position, character, and phase of these features. Simulations of the crosspeak between excitons 1 and 2 in FMO under different regimes of cross correlation verify that statistically independent site fluctuations do not account for the elongation and persistence of the dynamic crosspeak. To reproduce the experimental results, we invoke near complete correlation in the fluctuations experienced by the sites associated with excitons 1 and 2. This model contradicts ab initio quantum mechanic/molecular mechanics simulations that observe no correlation between the energies of individual sites. This contradiction suggests that a new physical model for long-lived coherence may be necessary. The data presented here details experimental results that must be reproduced for a physical model of quantum coherence in photosynthetic energy transfer.
Numerically exact correlations and sampling in the two-dimensional Ising spin glass.
Thomas, Creighton K; Middleton, A Alan
2013-04-01
A powerful existing technique for evaluating statistical mechanical quantities in two-dimensional Ising models is based on constructing a matrix representing the nearest-neighbor spin couplings and then evaluating the Pfaffian of the matrix. Utilizing this technique and other more recent developments in evaluating elements of inverse matrices and exact sampling, a method and computer code for studying two-dimensional Ising models is developed. The formulation of this method is convenient and fast for computing the partition function and spin correlations. It is also useful for exact sampling, where configurations are directly generated with probability given by the Boltzmann distribution. These methods apply to Ising model samples with arbitrary nearest-neighbor couplings and can also be applied to general dimer models. Example results of computations are described, including comparisons with analytic results for the ferromagnetic Ising model, and timing information is provided.
Fukuma, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Kenichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro; Noda, Isao
2006-11-01
Generalized two-dimensional (2D) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy has been used to resolve the fluorescence spectra of two tryptophan (Trp) residues in alcohol dehydrogenase and lysozyme. In each protein, one Trp residue is buried in a hydrophobic domain of the protein matrix and the other Trp residue is located at a hydrophilic domain close to the protein-water interface. Fluorescence quenching by iodide ion, a hydrophilic quencher, was employed as a perturbation to induce the intensity change in the spectra. The Trp residue which is located at the hydrophilic domain is effectively quenched by the quencher, while the Trp residue located at the hydrophobic domain is protected from the quenching. Therefore, the fluorescence of these two Trp residues have a different sensitivity to the quenching, showing a different response to the concentration of the quencher. Fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues in alcohol dehydrogenase, which are heavily overlapped in conventional one-dimensional spectra, have been successfully resolved by the 2D correlation technique. From the asynchronous correlation map, it was revealed that the quenching of Trp located at the hydrophobic part was brought about after that of Trp located at the hydrophilic part. In contrast, the fluorescence spectra of the two Trp residues could not be resolved after the alcohol dehydrogenase was denatured with guanidine hydrochloride. These results are consistent with the well-known structure of alcohol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, it was elucidated that the present 2D analysis is not interfered by Raman bands of the solvent, which sometimes bring difficulty into the conventional fluorescence analysis. Fluorescence spectra of the Trp residues in lysozyme could not be resolved by the 2D correlation technique. The differences between the two proteins are attributed to the fact that the Trp residue in the hydrophobic site of lysozyme is not sufficiently protected from the quenching.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: cscientific9@aec.org.sy [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)
2015-07-20
Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vilardy, Juan M; Giacometto, F; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: vilardy.juan@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)
2011-01-01
The two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT 2D) is an essential tool in the two-dimensional discrete signals analysis and processing, which allows developing a large number of applications. This article shows the description and synthesis in VHDL code of the FFT 2D with fixed point binary representation using the programming tool Simulink HDL Coder of Matlab; showing a quick and easy way to handle overflow, underflow and the creation registers, adders and multipliers of complex data in VHDL and as well as the generation of test bench for verification of the codes generated in the ModelSim tool. The main objective of development of the hardware architecture of the FFT 2D focuses on the subsequent completion of the following operations applied to images: frequency filtering, convolution and correlation. The description and synthesis of the hardware architecture uses the XC3S1200E family Spartan 3E FPGA from Xilinx Manufacturer.
Peng, Xianneng; Shao, Zhengzhong; Chen, Xin; Knight, David P; Wu, Peiyi; Vollrath, Fritz
2005-01-01
We used two-dimensional (2D) correlation infrared spectroscopy to study further the potassium-induced conformation transition in Nephila spidroin films. It provided increased resolution and important new information on the sequence of events in the conformation transition process, showing that beta-sheet formed from the helical component before they formed from random coil. It also showed more evidence that formation of the 1691 cm(-1) (turn/bend) peak did not proceed with the same kinetics as the 1620 cm(-1) (antiparallel beta-sheet component) one, so we attribute the 1691 cm(-1) peak to turns which formed with different kinetics as the antiparallel beta-sheets. We present a single coherent and detailed hypothesis for the assembly and secondary structural transition of silk proteins in vivo and in vitro based on our findings and on evidence from other laboratories.
Kuhls-Gilcrist, Andrew T.; Gupta, Sandesh K.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen
2010-01-01
The MTF, NNPS, and DQE are standard linear system metrics used to characterize intrinsic detector performance. To evaluate total system performance for actual clinical conditions, generalized linear system metrics (GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE) that include the effect of the focal spot distribution, scattered radiation, and geometric unsharpness are more meaningful and appropriate. In this study, a two-dimensional (2D) generalized linear system analysis was carried out for a standard flat panel detector (FPD) (194-micron pixel pitch and 600-micron thick CsI) and a newly-developed, high-resolution, micro-angiographic fluoroscope (MAF) (35-micron pixel pitch and 300-micron thick CsI). Realistic clinical parameters and x-ray spectra were used. The 2D detector MTFs were calculated using the new Noise Response method and slanted edge method and 2D focal spot distribution measurements were done using a pin-hole assembly. The scatter fraction, generated for a uniform head equivalent phantom, was measured and the scatter MTF was simulated with a theoretical model. Different magnifications and scatter fractions were used to estimate the 2D GMTF, GNNPS and GDQE for both detectors. Results show spatial non-isotropy for the 2D generalized metrics which provide a quantitative description of the performance of the complete imaging system for both detectors. This generalized analysis demonstrated that the MAF and FPD have similar capabilities at lower spatial frequencies, but that the MAF has superior performance over the FPD at higher frequencies even when considering focal spot blurring and scatter. This 2D generalized performance analysis is a valuable tool to evaluate total system capabilities and to enable optimized design for specific imaging tasks. PMID:21243038
Jun, Brian; Giarra, Matthew; Golz, Brian; Main, Russell; Vlachos, Pavlos
2016-11-01
We present a methodology to mitigate the major sources of error associated with two-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images of nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. The correlation-based velocity measurements from CLSM images are subject to random error due to the Brownian motion of nanometer-sized tracer particles, and a bias error due to the formation of images by raster scanning. Here, we develop a novel ensemble phase correlation with dynamic optimal filter that maximizes the correlation strength, which diminishes the random error. In addition, we introduce an analytical model of CLSM measurement bias error correction due to two-dimensional image scanning of tracer particles. We tested our technique using both synthetic and experimental images of nanoparticles flowing through a microfluidic channel. We observed that our technique reduced the error by up to a factor of ten compared to ensemble standard cross correlation (SCC) for the images tested in the present work. Subsequently, we will assess our framework further, by interrogating nanoscale flow in the cell culture environment (transport within the lacunar-canalicular system) to demonstrate our ability to accurately resolve flow measurements in a biological system.
Ying, Michael; Yung, Dennis M C; Ho, Karen K L
2008-01-01
This study aimed to develop a new two-dimensional (2-D) ultrasound thyroid volume estimation equation using three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound as the standard of reference, and to compare the thyroid volume estimation accuracy of the new equation with three previously reported equations. 2-D and 3-D ultrasound examinations of the thyroid gland were performed in 150 subjects with normal serum thyrotropin (TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels (63 men and 87 women, age range: 17 to 71 y). In each subject, the volume of both thyroid lobes was measured by 3-D ultrasound. On 2-D ultrasound, the craniocaudal (CC), lateromedial (LM) and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions of the thyroid lobes were measured. The equation was derived by correlating the volume of the thyroid lobes measured with 3-D ultrasound and the product of the three dimensions measured with 2-D ultrasound using linear regression analysis, in 75 subjects without thyroid nodule. The accuracy of thyroid volume estimation of the new equation and the three previously reported equations was evaluated and compared in another 75 subjects (without thyroid nodule, n = 30; with thyroid nodule, n = 45). It is suggested that volume of thyroid lobe may be estimated as: volume of thyroid lobe = 0.38.(CC.LM.AP) + 1.76. Result showed that the new equation (16.9% to 36.1%) had a significantly smaller thyroid volume estimation error than the previously reported equations (20.8% to 54.9%) (p thyroid volume estimation error when thyroid glands with nodules were examined (p thyroid volume equation, 2-D ultrasound can be a useful alternative in thyroid volume measurement when 3-D ultrasound is not available.
Huang, Anmin; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Junliang; Fei, Benhua; Sun, Suqin
2008-07-01
Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen, Pterocarpus santalinus L.F. and Pterocarpus soyauxii are three kinds of the most valuable wood species, which are hard to distinguish. In this paper, differentiation of D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative IR spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The three woods have their characteristic peaks in conventional IR spectra. For example, D. odorifera has obvious absorption peaks at 1640 and 1612 cm -1; P. santalinus has only one peak at 1614 cm -1; and P. soyauxii has one peak at 1619 cm -1 and one shoulder peak at 1597 cm -1. To enhance spectrum resolution and amplify the differences between the IR spectra of different woods, the second derivative technology was adopted to examine the three wood samples. More differences could be observed in the region of 800-1700 cm -1. Then, the thermal perturbation is applied to distinguish different wood samples in an easier way, because of the spectral resolution being enhanced by the 2D correlation spectroscopy. In the region of 1300-1800 cm -1, D. odorifera has five auto-peaks at 1518, 1575, 1594, 1620 and 1667 cm -1; P. santalinus has four auto-peaks at 1469, 1518, 1627 and 1639 cm -1 and P. soyauxii has only two auto-peaks at 1627 and 1639 cm -1. It is proved that the 2D correlation IR spectroscopy can be a new method to distinguish D. odorifera, P. santalinus and P. soyauxii.
Two-dimensional nanoscale correlations in the strong negative thermal expansion material ScF3
Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Occhialini, Connor A.; Said, Ayman H.; Hancock, Jason N.
2016-12-01
We present diffuse x-ray scattering data on the strong negative thermal expansion (NTE) material ScF3 and find that two-dimensional nanoscale correlations exist at momentum-space regions associated with possibly rigid rotations of the perovskite octahedra. We address the extent to which rigid octahedral motion describes the dynamical fluctuations behind NTE by generalizing a simple model supporting a single floppy mode that is often used to heuristically describe instances of NTE. We find this model has tendencies toward dynamic inhomogeneities and its application to recent and existing experimental data suggest an intricate link between the nanometer correlation length scale, the energy scale for octahedral tilt fluctuations, and the coefficient of thermal expansion in ScF3. We then investigate the breakdown of the rigid limit and propose a resolution to an outstanding debate concerning the role of molecular rigidity in strong NTE materials.
Correlated rotational switching in two-dimensional self-assembled molecular rotor arrays
Wasio, Natalie A.; Slough, Diana P.; Smith, Zachary C.; Ivimey, Christopher J.; Thomas, Samuel W., III; Lin, Yu-Shan; Sykes, E. Charles H.
2017-07-01
Molecular devices are capable of performing a number of functions from mechanical motion to simple computation. Their utility is somewhat limited, however, by difficulties associated with coupling them with either each other or with interfaces such as electrodes. Self-assembly of coupled molecular devices provides an option for the construction of larger entities that can more easily integrate with existing technologies. Here we demonstrate that ordered organometallic arrays can be formed spontaneously by reaction of precursor molecular rotor molecules with a metal surface. Scanning tunnelling microscopy enables individual rotors in the arrays to be switched and the resultant switches in neighbouring rotors imaged. The structure and dimensions of the ordered molecular rotor arrays dictate the correlated switching properties of the internal submolecular rotor units. Our results indicate that self-assembly of two-dimensional rotor crystals produces systems with correlated dynamics that would not have been predicted a priori.
Oliver, Thomas A A; Lewis, Nicholas H C; Fleming, Graham R
2014-07-15
Multidimensional nonlinear spectroscopy, in the electronic and vibrational regimes, has reached maturity. To date, no experimental technique has combined the advantages of 2D electronic spectroscopy and 2D infrared spectroscopy, monitoring the evolution of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom simultaneously. The interplay and coupling between the electronic state and vibrational manifold is fundamental to understanding ensuing nonradiative pathways, especially those that involve conical intersections. We have developed a new experimental technique that is capable of correlating the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom: 2D electronic-vibrational spectroscopy (2D-EV). We apply this new technique to the study of the 4-(di-cyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-p-(dimethylamino)styryl-4H-pyran (DCM) laser dye in deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide and its excited state relaxation pathways. From 2D-EV spectra, we elucidate a ballistic mechanism on the excited state potential energy surface whereby molecules are almost instantaneously projected uphill in energy toward a transition state between locally excited and charge-transfer states, as evidenced by a rapid blue shift on the electronic axis of our 2D-EV spectra. The change in minimum energy structure in this excited state nonradiative crossing is evident as the central frequency of a specific vibrational mode changes on a many-picoseconds timescale. The underlying electronic dynamics, which occur on the hundreds of femtoseconds timescale, drive the far slower ensuing nuclear motions on the excited state potential surface, and serve as a excellent illustration for the unprecedented detail that 2D-EV will afford to photochemical reaction dynamics.
Booi, Rebecca C; Carson, Paul L; O'Donnell, Matthew; Roubidoux, Marilyn A; Hall, Anne L; Rubin, Jonathan M
2008-01-01
Although simple cysts are easily identified using sonography, description and management of nonsimple cysts remains uncertain. This study evaluated whether the correlation coefficient differences between breast tissue and lesions, obtained from 2D breast elastography, could potentially distinguish nonsimple cysts from cancers and fibroadenomas. We hypothesized that correlation coefficients in cysts would be dramatically lower than surrounding tissue because noise, imaging artifacts, and particulate matter move randomly and decorrelate quickly under compression, compared with solid tissue. For this preliminary study, 18 breast lesions (7 nonsimple cysts, 4 cancers, and 7 fibroadenomas) underwent imaging with 2D elastography at 7.5 MHz through a TPX (a polymethyl pentene copolymer) 2.5 mm mammographic paddle. Breasts were compressed similar to mammographic positioning and then further compressed for elastography by 1 to 7%. Images were correlated using 2D phase-sensitive speckle tracking algorithms and displacement estimates were accumulated. Correlation coefficient means and standard deviations were measured in the lesion and adjacent tissue, and the differential correlation coefficient (DCC) was introduced as the difference between these values normalized to the correlation coefficient of adjacent tissue. Mean DCC values in nonsimple cysts were 24.2 +/- 11.6%, 5.7 +/- 6.3% for fibroadenomas, and 3.8 +/- 2.9 % for cancers (p < 0.05). Some of the cysts appeared smaller in DCC images than gray-scale images. These encouraging results demonstrate that characterization of nonsimple breast cysts may be improved by using DCC values from 2D elastography, which could potentially change management options of these cysts from intervention to imaging follow-up. A dedicated clinical trial to fully assess the efficacy of this technique is recommended.
Zhang, J.; Zhao, Zh.; Wang, L.; Zhu, X.; Shen, L.; Yu, Y.
2015-05-01
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) combined with UV absorption spectroscopy was evaluated as a technique for the identification of spectral regions associated with the residues of thiamethoxam in tea. There is only one absorption peak at 275 nm in the absorption spectrum of a mixture of thiamethoxam and tea, which is the absorption peak of tea. Based on 2D-COS, the absorption peak of thiamethoxam at 250 nm is extracted from the UV spectra of the mixture. To determine the residue of thiamethoxam in tea, 250 nm is selected as the measured wavelength, at which the fitting result is as follows: the residual sum of squares is 0.01375, standard deviation R2 is 0.99068, and F value is 426. Statistical analysis shows that there is a significant linear relationship between the concentration of thiamethoxam in tea and the absorbance at 250 nm in the UV spectra of the mixture. Moreover, the average prediction error is 0.0033 and the prediction variance is 0.1654, indicating good predictive result. Thus, the UV absorption spectrum can be used as a measurement method for rapid detection of thiamethoxam residues in tea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Medellín-Rodríguez
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Electrospun one dimensional (1D and two dimensional (2D carbon based polymer nanocomposites are studied in order to determine the effect provided by the two differently structured nanofillers on crystallinity and thermo-mechanical properties of the nanofibres. The nanomaterials studied are pristine carbon nanotubes, oxidised carbon nanotubes, reduced graphene oxide and graphene oxide. Functional groups associated with the order structure of the polymers are analysed by infrared and Raman spectroscopies; the morphology is studied by scanning electron microscopy and the crystallinity properties are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Differences in crystallisation behaviour between 1D and 2D carbon based nanofibres are shown by their crystallinity degree and their crystal sizes. The nanocomposite crystal sizes perpendicular to the plane (100 decrease with nanofiller content in all cases. The crystallinity trend and crystal sizes are in accordance with storage modulus response. The results also suggest that functionalisation favours interfacial bonding and dispersion of the nanomaterials within the polymer matrix. As a consequence the number of nucleating sites increases which in turn decreases the crystal size in the nanocomposites. These features explain the improved thermo-mechanical properties in the nanocomposites.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何春山; 李志兵
2003-01-01
The correlation function of a two-dimensionalIsing model is calculated by the corner transfer matrix renormalization group method.We obtain the critical exponent η= 0.2496 with few computer resources.
2DCOS and I. Three decades of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy
Noda, Isao
2016-11-01
Historical and personal accounts of the development of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in the last 30 years are presented. 2DCOS originally started as a data sorting technique developed specifically for dynamic IR linear dichroism (DIRLD) spectra of polymers observed under a small amplitude sinusoidal strain. The concept was later generalized to provide a surprisingly versatile analytical tool to study many different types of samples under the influence of not only dynamic but also various static perturbations. Introduction of the efficient computational method based on discrete Hilbert transform and availability of software, as well as the comprehensive textbook in the field, have made the widespread and continuously growing use of 2DCOS technique possible. Evolution of the technique to incorporate new and variant forms of 2DCOS is also noted.
Ghlaifan, Abdulatef; Tounsi, Yassine; Zada, Sara; Muhire, Desire; Nassim, Abdelkrim
2016-12-01
A method for optical phase extraction based on two-dimensional discrete wavelets transform (2-DWT) decomposition is shown. From modulated fringe pattern, phase distribution is extracted by the ratio between detail and approximation. Modulation process is realized digitally by introducing high-frequency spatial carrier, and this process needs two π/2-shifted fringe patterns. We propose to use only single fringe and generate its quadrature by spiral phase transform (SPT). After validation by computer simulation, we apply the 2-DWT algorithm on experimental speckle fringe correlation taken for hard disk surface. The extracted phase using SPT quadrature was compared with that given using this time experimental quadrature, and we show a good performance by multiscale structural similarity metric.
Exact factorization of correlation functions in 2-D critical percolation
Simmons, Jacob J H; Ziff, Robert M
2007-01-01
By use of conformal field theory, we discover several exact factorizations of higher-order density correlation functions in critical two-dimensional percolation. Our formulas are valid in the upper half-plane, or any conformally equivalent region. We find excellent agreement of our results with high-precision computer simulations. There are indications that our formulas hold more generally.
Adib, Adiana Mohamed; Jamaludin, Fadzureena; Kiong, Ling Sui; Hashim, Nuziah; Abdullah, Zunoliza
2014-08-05
Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Corner-Space Renormalization Method for Driven-Dissipative Two-Dimensional Correlated Systems.
Finazzi, S; Le Boité, A; Storme, F; Baksic, A; Ciuti, C
2015-08-21
We present a theoretical method to study driven-dissipative correlated quantum systems on lattices with two spatial dimensions (2D). The steady-state density matrix of the lattice is obtained by solving the master equation in a corner of the Hilbert space. The states spanning the corner space are determined through an iterative procedure, using eigenvectors of the density matrix of smaller lattice systems, merging in real space two lattices at each iteration and selecting M pairs of states by maximizing their joint probability. The accuracy of the results is then improved by increasing the dimension M of the corner space until convergence is reached. We demonstrate the efficiency of such an approach by applying it to the driven-dissipative 2D Bose-Hubbard model, describing lattices of coupled cavities with quantum optical nonlinearities.
Yanagisawa, Takashi
2016-11-01
The ground state of the two-dimensional (2D) Hubbard model is investigated by adopting improved wave functions that take into account intersite electron correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. The ground-state energy is lowered considerably, giving the best estimate of the ground-state energy for the 2D Hubbard model. There is a crossover from weakly to strongly correlated regions as the on-site Coulomb interaction U increases. The antiferromagnetic correlation induced by U is reduced for hole doping when U is large, being greater than the bandwidth, thus increasing the kinetic energy gain. The spin and charge fluctuations are induced in the strongly correlated region. These antiferromagnetic and kinetic charge fluctuations induce electron pairings, which results in high-temperature superconductivity.
Phase diagram and correlation functions of the two-dimensional dissipative quantum XY model
Hou, Changtao; Varma, Chandra M.
2016-11-01
The two-dimensional quantum XY model, with a Caldeira-Leggett form of dissipation, is applicable to the quantum-critical properties of diverse experimental systems, ranging from superconductor to insulator transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic transitions in metals, to the loop-current order transition in cuprates. We solve the reexpression of this model in terms of orthogonal topological excitations, vortices, and a variety of instantons, by renormalization group methods. The calculations explain the extraordinary properties of the model discovered in Monte Carlo calculations: the product form of the quantum-critical fluctuations in space and time, a spatial correlation length proportional to the logarithm of the temporal correlation length near the transition from a disordered to a fully ordered state, and the occurrence of a phase with spatial order without temporal order. They are intimately related to the flow of the metric of time in relation to the metric of space, i.e., of the dynamical critical exponent z . These properties appear to be essential in understanding the strange metallic phase found in a variety of quantum-critical transitions as well as the accompanying high-temperature superconductivity.
Spin dynamics and magnetic correlation length in two-dimensional quantum heisenberg antiferromagnets
Carretta; Ciabattoni; Cuccoli; Mognaschi; Rigamonti; Tognetti; Verrucchi
2000-01-10
The correlated spin dynamics and temperature dependence of the correlation length xi(T) in two-dimensional quantum (S = 1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DQHAF) on a square lattice are discussed in light of experimental results of proton spin lattice relaxation in copper formiate tetradeuterate. In this compound the exchange constant is much smaller than the one in recently studied 2DQHAF, such as La2CuO4 and Sr2CuO2Cl2. Thus the spin dynamics can be probed in detail over a wider temperature range. The NMR relaxation rates turn out to be in excellent agreement with a theoretical mode-coupling calculation. The deduced temperature behavior of xi(T) is in agreement with high-temperature expansions, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, and the pure quantum self-consistent harmonic approximation. Contrary to the predictions of the theories based on the nonlinear sigma model, no evidence of crossover between different quantum regimes is observed.
Tan, Qing-Tian; Tian, Zhen-Hua; Li, Guo-Ying
2011-04-01
Conformational changes and specific interactions in the collagen/hyaluronic acid blends were studied by two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy with the interruption of the component of hyaluronic acid in collagen/ hyaluronic acid blends. It was found that the synchronous cross-peaks, derived from stretching vibrations of C=O at 1 694 cm(-1), wagging of N-H at 1 524 cm(-1) and in-plane deformation of N-H at 1 241 cm(-1) of collagen, were indicative of local conformational changes of collagen. The synchronous negative cross-peak between stretching vibrations of C-OH of hyaluronic acid at 1 045 cm(-1) and streching vibrations of C=O of collagen at 1 694 cm(-1) suggested that the interaction of hydrogen bonding existing between O-H of HA and C=O of collagen with the content of HA varied from 0% to 50%. With the content of HA more than 50%, the cross-peak at 1 045 cm(-1) disappeared in synchronous correlation spectra while the intensity of cross-peak at (1 694, 1 524), (1 694, 1 241), (1 524, 1 241) increased, which indicated that no interaction was found between O-H of HA and collagen, however, the interactions of hydrogen bonding existed between C=O of HA and N-H of collagen, resulting in the conformational changes of collagen.
2D IR Correlation Spectroscopy in Wood Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carmen Mihaela Popescu
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Generalized 2D correlation spectroscopy is a well-established technique that provides considerable utility and benefit in various spectroscopic studies of polymers. Some of the important features of generalized 2D correlation spectra are simplification of complex spectra consisting of many overlapped peaks, enhancement of spectral resolution by spreading peaks along the second dimension, unambiguous assignments through the correlation of bands selectively coupled by various interaction mechanisms, and determination of the sequence of the spectral peak emergence.
Spin correlations in the two-dimensional quantum s=1/2 XY model
Sznajd, J.
1995-08-01
A quantum version of the Niemeijer-van Leeuwen real-space renormalization-group method is used to study the temperature dependence of the two- and four-spin correlations in the quantum XY model on the triangular lattice. The first-order cumulant expansion results suggest, similarly to other methods, a low-temperature phase of an essentially different kind from that predicted for the classical model. The possible explanation of the origin of the spurious 2D Heisenberg-like nontrivial fixed point in some renormalization-group calculations is also proposed.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Sung, Ji Ho; Heo, Hoseok; Jeon, Seong Gi; Lee, Woo; Song, Jae Yong; Hong, Ki-Ha; Choi, Byeongdae; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jo, Moon-Ho
2016-06-21
In general, in thermoelectric materials the electrical conductivity σ and thermal conductivity κ are related and thus cannot be controlled independently. Previously, to maximize the thermoelectric figure of merit in state-of-the-art materials, differences in relative scaling between σ and κ as dimensions are reduced to approach the nanoscale were utilized. Here we present an approach to thermoelectric materials using tin disulfide, SnS2, nanosheets that demonstrated a negative correlation between σ and κ. In other words, as the thickness of SnS2 decreased, σ increased whereas κ decreased. This approach leads to a thermoelectric figure of merit increase to 0.13 at 300 K, a factor ∼1,000 times greater than previously reported bulk single-crystal SnS2. The Seebeck coefficient obtained for our two-dimensional SnS2 nanosheets was 34.7 mV K(-1) for 16-nm-thick samples at 300 K.
Spegazzini, Nicolas; Siesler, Heinz W; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2012-10-02
A sequential identification approach by two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis for the identification of a chemical reaction model, activation, and thermodynamic parameters is presented in this paper. The identification task is decomposed into a sequence of subproblems. The first step is the construction of a reaction model with the suggested information by model-free 2D correlation analysis using a novel technique called derivative double 2D correlation spectroscopy (DD2DCOS), which enables one to analyze intensities with nonlinear behavior and overlapped bands. The second step is a model-based 2D correlation analysis where the activation and thermodynamic parameters are estimated by an indirect implicit calibration or a calibration-free approach. In this way, a minimization process for the spectral information by sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy and kinetic hard modeling (using ordinary differential equations) of the chemical reaction model is carried out. The sequential identification by 2D correlation analysis is illustrated with reference to the isomeric structure of diphenylurethane synthesized from phenylisocyanate and phenol. The reaction was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. The activation and thermodynamic parameters of the isomeric structures of diphenylurethane linked through a hydrogen bonding equilibrium were studied by means of an integration of model-free and model-based 2D correlation analysis called a sequential identification approach. The study determined the enthalpy (ΔH = 15.25 kJ/mol) and entropy (TΔS = 13.20 kJ/mol) of C═O···H hydrogen bonding of diphenylurethane through direct calculation from the differences in the kinetic parameters (δΔ(‡)H, -TδΔ(‡)S) at equilibrium in the chemical reaction system.
Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao
2010-06-01
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is used in combination with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy to conduct rapid non-destructive quantitative research in milk powder without additional separation steps. The experiments conducted in both FT-IR and 2D FT-IR spectra suggest that characteristic spectroscopic features of milk powder containing different carbohydrate can be detected, and then determine the type of carbohydrate. To predict the approximate content of lactose while the carbohydrate is lactose, different amount of crystallized lactose has been added to the reference milk powder. The correlation coefficient could be used to determine the content of crystallized lactose in milk powder. The method provides a rapid and convenient means for assessing the quality of milk powder.
Observation of spatial charge and spin correlations in the 2D Fermi-Hubbard model.
Cheuk, Lawrence W; Nichols, Matthew A; Lawrence, Katherine R; Okan, Melih; Zhang, Hao; Khatami, Ehsan; Trivedi, Nandini; Paiva, Thereza; Rigol, Marcos; Zwierlein, Martin W
2016-09-16
Strong electron correlations lie at the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. Its essence is believed to be captured by the Fermi-Hubbard model of repulsively interacting fermions on a lattice. Here we report on the site-resolved observation of charge and spin correlations in the two-dimensional (2D) Fermi-Hubbard model realized with ultracold atoms. Antiferromagnetic spin correlations are maximal at half-filling and weaken monotonically upon doping. At large doping, nearest-neighbor correlations between singly charged sites are negative, revealing the formation of a correlation hole, the suppressed probability of finding two fermions near each other. As the doping is reduced, the correlations become positive, signaling strong bunching of doublons and holes, in agreement with numerical calculations. The dynamics of the doublon-hole correlations should play an important role for transport in the Fermi-Hubbard model.
Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Joy, Ashwin
2016-11-01
In Navier-Stokes fluids, shear flows are known to become unstable leading to instability and eventually to turbulence. A class of flow namely, Kolmogorov Flows (K-Flows) exhibit such transition at low Reynolds number. Using fluid and molecular dynamics, we address the physics of transition from laminar to turbulent regime in strongly correlated-liquids such as in multi-species plasmas and also in naturally occurring plasmas with K-Flows as initial condition. A 2D phenomenological generalized hydrodynamic model is invoked wherein the effect of strong correlations is incorporated via a viscoelastic memory. To study the stability of K-Flows or in general any shear flow, a generalized eigenvalue solver has been developed along with a spectral solver for the full nonlinear set of fluid equations. A study of the linear and nonlinear features of K-Flow in incompressible and compressible limit exhibits cyclicity and nonlinear pattern formation in vorticity. A first principles based molecular dynamics simulation of particles interacting via Yukawa potential is performed with features such as configurational and kinetic thermostats for K-Flows. This work reveals several interesting similarities and differences between hydrodynamics and molecular dynamics studies.
Siuly; Yin, Xiaoxia; Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Zhang, Yanchun
2016-04-01
This work provides a performance comparison of four different machine learning classifiers: multinomial logistic regression with ridge estimators (MLR) classifier, k-nearest neighbours (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and naïve Bayes (NB) as applied to terahertz (THz) transient time domain sequences associated with pixelated images of different powder samples. The six substances considered, although have similar optical properties, their complex insertion loss at the THz part of the spectrum is significantly different because of differences in both their frequency dependent THz extinction coefficient as well as differences in their refractive index and scattering properties. As scattering can be unquantifiable in many spectroscopic experiments, classification solely on differences in complex insertion loss can be inconclusive. The problem is addressed using two-dimensional (2-D) cross-correlations between background and sample interferograms, these ensure good noise suppression of the datasets and provide a range of statistical features that are subsequently used as inputs to the above classifiers. A cross-validation procedure is adopted to assess the performance of the classifiers. Firstly the measurements related to samples that had thicknesses of 2mm were classified, then samples at thicknesses of 4mm, and after that 3mm were classified and the success rate and consistency of each classifier was recorded. In addition, mixtures having thicknesses of 2 and 4mm as well as mixtures of 2, 3 and 4mm were presented simultaneously to all classifiers. This approach provided further cross-validation of the classification consistency of each algorithm. The results confirm the superiority in classification accuracy and robustness of the MLR (least accuracy 88.24%) and KNN (least accuracy 90.19%) algorithms which consistently outperformed the SVM (least accuracy 74.51%) and NB (least accuracy 56.86%) classifiers for the same number of feature vectors across all studies
Ono, Junichi; Takada, Shoji; Saito, Shinji
2015-06-07
An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.
Lü, Chengxu; Chen, Longjian; Yang, Zengling; Liu, Xian; Han, Lujia
2013-12-01
The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficiency of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) in recognizing the authenticity and purity of fishmeal (FM) and meat and bone meal (MBM), which are both complex mixtures with high similarity. Twenty FM samples and 20 MBM samples were obtained and examined. Temperature-dependent near-infrared (NIR) spectra were obtained using a Spectrum 400 spectrometer from 20 °C to 60 °C with an interval of 10 °C. Wavelet transform (Daubechies 5 wavelet with five levels) and baseline correction were applied to the temperature-dependent spectra in the wave range of 6000-5400 cm(-1). A 2D-COS synchronous map was calculated and scaled to the range between -1 and 1. A correlation coefficient was employed to quantitatively evaluate the visual differences of synchronous maps. The results show minor differences in NIR spectral absorbency of FM and MBM, and such differences are caused by appropriate temperature perturbation and enlarged by the 2D-COS method. The sensitive wave range is found in the area of 5800-5400 cm(-1). FM and MBM have observable pattern differences in the synchronous maps. Further quantitative evaluation of synchronous maps confirms correct recognizing results. Temperature-dependent 2D-COS is capable of recognizing the authenticity and purity of highly similar FM and MBM samples.
2D relaxation/diffusion correlations in porous media.
Godefroy, S; Callaghan, P T
2003-01-01
2D correlations between NMR relaxation and/or diffusion have been used to investigate water and oil dynamics in food and micro-emulsion systems. In the case of Mozzarella and Gouda cheese samples, a significant change in D/T2 correlation is appearing with cheese aging. In the case of a water/toluene micro-emulsion, some evidence for coalescence effects is suggested by D/D exchange spectra.
[Study on the processing of leech by FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy].
Li, Bing-Ning; Wu, Yan-Wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-Qin; Chen, Shun-Cong
2011-04-01
The chemical differences of traditional Chinese medicine leech before and after processing were analyzed by FTIR and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. The result showed that the leech was high in protein, with characteristic peaks of amide I, II bands. Comparing the IR spectra of samples, the primary difference was that the characteristic peak of fresh leech was at 1 543 cm(-1), while that of crude and processed leech was at 1 535 cm(-1). A 2D-IR spectrum with heating perturbation was used to track the processing dynamics of leech In the 2D-IR correlation spectra, fresh leech exhibited stronger automatic peaks of the amide I and II bands than that of processed leech, which indicates that the protein components of the fresh leech were more sensitive to heat perturbation than the processed one. Moreover, the result of FTIR and 2D-IR correlation spectra validated that the 3-dimensional structure of protein was damaged and hydrogen bonds were broken after processing, which resulted in the inactivation of protein. The fatty acids and cholesterol components of leech were also oxidized in this process.
Környei, László; Pleimling, Michel; Iglói, Ferenc
2008-01-01
The universality class, even the order of the transition, of the two-dimensional Ising model depends on the range and the symmetry of the interactions (Onsager model, Baxter-Wu model, Turban model, etc.), but the critical temperature is generally the same due to self-duality. Here we consider a sudden change in the form of the interaction and study the nonequilibrium critical dynamical properties of the nearest-neighbor model. The relaxation of the magnetization and the decay of the autocorrelation function are found to display a power law behavior with characteristic exponents that depend on the universality class of the initial state.
Peng, Yun; Sun, Bingjie; Wu, Peiyi
2008-03-01
Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) converts easily into a thermo-reversible gel through crystallization by standing at room temperature in cyclohexanone. In this study, the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra were measured continuously at room temperature during the conversion of the solution into a gel. The IR difference spectra derived from these spectra by absorbance subtraction clearly indicate the presence of PVDF alpha-crystallites in the gel due to the presence of absorption bands corresponding to the TG+TG- conformation of the alpha-phase. In the time interval from 25 to 45 min after the beginning of the experiment, the IR bands of PVDF increased dramatically, indicating the conversion of polymer chains from random statistical coils to the ordered TG+TG- conformation (alpha-form). In the time interval from 45 to 90 min, the IR bands of PVDF increased slowly, reflecting no further crystallization. Using two-dimensional (2D) IR analysis, it could be shown that the nu(C=O) absorption band of cyclohexanone changed during the gelation process. During the conformational ordering process (25-45 min), the nu(C=O) absorption band of the cyclohexanone dimer (1707 cm(-1)) decreased while the corresponding band of the monomer at 1718 cm(-1) increased. Furthermore, a new band at 1695 cm(-1) increased, which could be assigned to C=O groups of the solvent interacting with the CF2 groups in the polymer chain. The bands of the crystalline PVDF share positive cross-peaks with the bands of cyclohexanone, which indicates that the chain of PVDF changed prior to the cyclohexanone molecules during the conformational ordering process. However, these positive cross-peaks disappeared during the crystallization process, which means that the chain of PVDF changed synchronously with the solvent molecules. As for the bands of PVDF chains, the band at 762 cm(-1) varied prior to the bands at 873 cm(-1) and 796 cm(-1) during the conformational ordering process. The 762 cm(-1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tosch, U.; Witt, H. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Roentgendiagnostisches Zentralinstitut); Hertel, P.; Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Unfallchirurgische Klinik)
1989-11-01
Fifty-eight patients underwent intraarticular reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. This was performed by using an autogenous transplant from the mid portion of the patellar ligament with a proximal and distal bone block, as described by Hertel. For comparison with the conventional X-ray examination, HRCT was performed to study the early postoperative results. In four patients (7%) dislocation of the bone block in the femoral condyle was seen. Two-dimensional reconstruction proved to be a satisfactory method for demonstration of the exact position of the autogenous transplant in both coronary and sagittal planes. (orig.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nevedomskiy, V. N., E-mail: nevedom@mail.ioffe.ru; Bert, N. A.; Chaldyshev, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Preobrazhernskiy, V. V.; Putyato, M. A.; Semyagin, B. R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A single molecular-beam epitaxy process is used to produce GaAs-based heterostructures containing two-dimensional arrays of InAs semiconductor quantum dots and AsSb metal quantum dots. The twodimensional array of AsSb metal quantum dots is formed by low-temperature epitaxy which provides a large excess of arsenic in the epitaxial GaAs layer. During the growth of subsequent layers at a higher temperature, excess arsenic forms nanoinclusions, i.e., metal quantum dots in the GaAs matrix. The two-dimensional array of such metal quantum dots is created by the δ doping of a low-temperature GaAs layer with antimony which serves as a precursor for the heterogeneous nucleation of metal quantum dots and accumulates in them with the formation of AsSb metal alloy. The two-dimensional array of InAs semiconductor quantum dots is formed via the Stranski–Krastanov mechanism at the GaAs surface. Between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots, a 3-nm-thick AlAs barrier layer is grown. The total spacing between the arrays of metal and semiconductor quantum dots is 10 nm. Electron microscopy of the structure shows that the arrangement of metal quantum dots and semiconductor quantum dots in the two-dimensional arrays is spatially correlated. The spatial correlation is apparently caused by elastic strain and stress fields produced by both AsSb metal and InAs semiconductor quantum dots in the GaAs matrix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Sendhil Velan; Department of Exercise Physiology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, U.S.A.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Gender differences in lipid metabolism are poorly understood and difficult to study using conventional approaches. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS permits non-invasive investigation of lipid metabolism. We employed novel two- dimensional MRS techniques to quantify intramyocellular (IMCL and extramyocellular (EMCL lipid compartments and their degree of unsaturation in normal weight adult male and female subjects. Using muscle creatine (Cr for normalization, a statistically significant (p 0.05 increase in IMCL/Cr (7.8 ± 1.6 and EMCL/Cr (22.5 ± 3.6 for female subjects was observed (n = 8, as compared to IMCL/Cr (5.9 ± 1.7 and EMCL/Cr (18.4 ± 2.64 for male subjects. The degree of unsaturation within IMCL and EMCL was lower in female subjects, 1.3 ± 0.075 and 1.04 ± 0.06, respectively, as compared to that observed in males (n = 8, 1.5 ± 0.08 and 1.12 ± 0.03, respectively (p 0.05 male vs female for both comparisons. We conclude that certain salient gender differences in lipid metabolism can be assessed noninvasively by advanced MRS approaches.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Fusheng [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Polizzotto, Matthew L. [Department of Soil Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Guan, Dongxing [Key Laboratory of Surficial Geochemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210026 (China); Wu, Jun [College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Wang, Boren [Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Yu, Guanghui, E-mail: yuguanghui@njau.edu.cn [Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab for Organic Solid Waste Utilization and National Engineering Research Center for Organic-Based Fertilizers, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • The interactions and binding between Cd and functional groups are essential for their fates. • Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy can identify Cd binding to functional groups in soils. • Synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopy shows the micro-scale distribution of Cd in soils. • Soil functional groups controlling Cd binding can be modified by fertilization treatments. - Abstract: Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the Cd concentration in wheat grain. The 2D COS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.
Cross-Correlating 2D and 3D Galaxy Surveys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Passaglia, Samuel [Chicago U., KICP; Manzotti, Alessandro [Chicago U., KICP; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab
2017-02-09
Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ${\\sim}1.2$ to ${\\sim}1.8$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of ${\\sim}2$ to ${\\sim}12$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khanin, Yu. N.; Vdovin, E. E., E-mail: vdov62@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronics Technology and High Purity Materials (Russian Federation); Makarovsky, O. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Henini, M. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Center (United Kingdom)
2013-09-15
Magnetotunneling between two-dimensional GaAs/InAs electron systems in vertical resonant tunneling GaAs/InAs/AlAs heterostructures is studied. A new-type of singularity in the tunneling density of states, specifically a dip at the Fermi level, is found; this feature is drastically different from that observed previously for the case of tunneling between two-dimensional GaAs tunnel systems in terms of both the kind of functional dependence and the energy and temperature parameters. As before, this effect manifests itself in the suppression of resonant tunneling in a narrow range near zero bias voltage in a high magnetic field parallel to the current direction. Magnetic-field and temperature dependences of the effect's parameters are obtained; these dependences are compared with available theoretical and experimental data. The observed effect can be caused by a high degree of disorder in two-dimensional correlated electron systems as a result of the introduction of structurally imperfect strained InAs layers.
Human erythrocytes analyzed by generalized 2D Raman correlation spectroscopy
Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Kozicki, Mateusz; Czepiel, Jacek; Łabanowska, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Grzegorz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Birczyńska, Malwina; Biesiada, Grażyna; Mach, Tomasz; Garlicki, Aleksander
2014-07-01
The most numerous elements of the blood cells, erythrocytes, consist mainly of two components: homogeneous interior filled with hemoglobin and closure which is the cell membrane. To gain insight into their specific properties we studied the process of disintegration, considering these two constituents, and comparing the natural aging process of human healthy blood cells. MicroRaman spectra of hemoglobin within the single RBC were recorded using 514.5, and 785 nm laser lines. The generalized 2D correlation method was applied to analyze the collected spectra. The time passed from blood donation was regarded as an external perturbation. The time was no more than 40 days according to the current storage limit of blood banks, although, the average RBC life span is 120 days. An analysis of the prominent synchronous and asynchronous cross peaks allow us to get insight into the mechanism of hemoglobin decomposition. Appearing asynchronous cross-peaks point towards globin and heme separation from each other, while synchronous shows already broken globin into individual amino acids. Raman scattering analysis of hemoglobin "wrapping", i.e. healthy erythrocyte ghosts, allows for the following peculiarity of their behavior. The increasing power of the excitation laser induced alterations in the assemblage of membrane lipids. 2D correlation maps, obtained with increasing laser power recognized as an external perturbation, allows for the consideration of alterations in the erythrocyte membrane structure and composition, which occurs first in the proteins. Cross-peaks were observed indicating an asynchronous correlation between the senescent-cell antigen (SCA) and heme or proteins vibrations. The EPR spectra of the whole blood was analyzed regarding time as an external stimulus. The 2D correlation spectra points towards participation of the selected metal ion centers in the disintegration process.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
This paper demonstrates the application of step-scan phase modulation Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy(FTIR-PAS) in non-destructively depth profiling of styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer/polyethylene terephthalate(SBS/PET) layered materials.The surface thicknesses of three layered samples were determined to be 1.2,4.3 and 9.4μm by using phase difference analysis,overcoming the spatial detection limits of FTIR.Combined with generalized two-dimensional(G2D) FTIR correlation analysis,the spatial origins of peaks in the SBS/PET spectrum are identified with those having overlapping peaks between different layers are resolved.
Robinson, Nicholas P
2013-01-01
Branched DNA molecules are generated by the essential processes of replication and recombination. Owing to their distinctive extended shapes, these intermediates migrate differently from linear double-stranded DNA under certain electrophoretic conditions. However, these branched species exist in the cell at much low abundance than the bulk linear DNA. Consequently, branched molecules cannot be visualized by conventional electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. Two-dimensional native-native agarose electrophoresis has therefore been developed as a method to facilitate the separation and visualization of branched replication and recombination intermediates. A wide variety of studies have employed this technique to examine branched molecules in eukaryotic, archaeal, and bacterial cells, providing valuable insights into how DNA is duplicated and repaired in all three domains of life.
Law, A D; Buzza, D M A
2009-09-07
The structure and stability of colloidal monolayers depend crucially on the effective pair potential u(r) between colloidal particles. In this paper, we develop a two-dimensional (2D) predictor-corrector method for extracting u(r) from the pair correlation function g(r) of dense colloidal monolayers. The method is based on an extension of the three-dimensional scheme of Rajagopalan and Rao [Phys. Rev. E 55, 4423 (1997)] to 2D by replacing the unknown bridge function B(r) with the hard-disk bridge function B(d)(r); the unknown hard-disk diameter d is then determined using an iterative scheme. We compare the accuracy of our predictor-corrector method to the conventional one-step inversion schemes of hypernetted chain closure (HNC) and Percus-Yevick (PY) closure. Specifically we benchmark all three schemes against g(r) data generated from Monte Carlo simulation for a range of 2D potentials: exponential decay, Stillinger-Hurd, Lennard-Jones, and Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek. We find that for all these potentials, the predictor-corrector method is at least as good as the most accurate one-step method for any given potential, and in most cases it is significantly better. In contrast the accuracy of the HNC and PY methods relative to each other depends on the potential studied. The proposed predictor-corrector scheme is therefore a robust and more accurate alternative to these conventional one-step inversion schemes.
Solving the two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation for strongly correlated neurons
Deniz, Taşkın; Rotter, Stefan
2017-01-01
Pairs of neurons in brain networks often share much of the input they receive from other neurons. Due to essential nonlinearities of the neuronal dynamics, the consequences for the correlation of the output spike trains are generally not well understood. Here we analyze the case of two leaky integrate-and-fire neurons using an approach which is nonperturbative with respect to the degree of input correlation. Our treatment covers both weakly and strongly correlated dynamics, generalizing previous results based on linear response theory.
Transport Experiments on 2D Correlated Electron Physics in Semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsui, Daniel
2014-03-24
This research project was designed to investigate experimentally the transport properties of the 2D electrons in Si and GaAs, two prototype semiconductors, in several new physical regimes that were previously inaccessible to experiments. The research focused on the strongly correlated electron physics in the dilute density limit, where the electron potential energy to kinetic energy ratio rs>>1, and on the fractional quantum Hall effect related physics in nuclear demagnetization refrigerator temperature range on samples with new levels of purity and controlled random disorder.
Two-dimensional analysis of Bose-Einstein correlations in hadronic Z decays at LEP
Heister, A; Barate, R; Brunelière, R; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Goy, C; Jézéquel, S; Lees, J P; Martin, F; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Trocmé, B; Bravo, S; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Pacheco, A; Ruiz, H; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Barklow, T; Buchmüller, O L; Cattaneo, M; Clerbaux, B; Drevermann, H; Forty, R W; Frank, M; Gianotti, F; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Hutchcroft, D E; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kado, M; Mato, P; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Sguazzoni, G; Teubert, F; Valassi, Andrea; Videau, I; Badaud, F; Dessagne, S; Falvard, A; Fayolle, D; Gay, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Pascolo, J M; Perret, P; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Kraan, A C; Muresan, R; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Brient, J C; Machefert, F P; Rougé, A; Videau, H L; Ciulli, V; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Antonelli, A; Antonelli, M; Bencivenni, G; Bossi, F; Capon, G; Cerutti, F; Chiarella, V; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Kennedy, J; Lynch, J G; Negus, P; O'Shea, V; Thompson, A S; Wasserbaech, S R; Cavanaugh, R J; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Cameron, W; Davies, G; Dornan, P J; Girone, M; Hill, R D; Marinelli, N; Nowell, J; Rutherford, S A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thompson, J C; White, R; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bouhova-Thacker, E; Bowdery, C K; Clarke, D P; Ellis, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Pearson, M R; Robertson, N A; Smizanska, M; van der Aa, O; Delaere, C; Leibenguth, G; Lemaître, V; Blumenschein, U; Hölldorfer, F; Jakobs, K; Kayser, F; Kleinknecht, K; Müller, A S; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Schmeling, S; Wachsmuth, H W; Zeitnitz, C; Ziegler, T; Bonissent, A; Coyle, P; Curtil, C; Ealet, A; Fouchez, D; Payre, P; Tilquin, A; Ragusa, F; David, A; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Settles, Ronald; Villegas, M; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Serin, L; Veillet, J J; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Foà, L; Giammanco, A; Giassi, A; Ligabue, F; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Awunor, O; Blair, G A; Cowan, G; García-Bellido, A; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Misiejuk, A; Strong, J A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Norton, P R; Tomalin, I R; Ward, J J; Bloch-Devaux, B; Boumediene, D E; Colas, P; Fabbro, B; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Tuchming, B; Vallage, B; Litke, A M; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S; Combley, F; Hodgson, P N; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Grupen, C; Hess, J; Ngac, A; Prange, G; Borean, C; Giannini, G; He, H; Pütz, J; Rothberg, J E; Armstrong, S R; Berkelman, K; Cranmer, K; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Pan, Y B; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Wiedenmann, W; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Zobernig, G; Aracena, I; Dissertori, G
2004-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations are studied in pairs of charged pions from hadronic Z decays, collected by the ALEPH detector.The correlation function, measured using either the unlike-sign or the mixed reference sample, is studied in terms of the Lorentz-invariant four-momentum difference and its transverse, $Q_{\\textrm{T}}$, and longitudinal, $Q_{\\textrm{L}}$, components with respect to the longitudinal centre-of-mass system. Values for the correlation radii, $R_{\\textrm{T}}$ and $R_{\\textrm{L}}$, are obtained from the fit of the Goldhaber parametrisation.The results indicate that the correlation radii values depend on the chosen kind of reference sample and on the two-jet purity.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Sung, Ji Ho; Heo, Hoseok; Jeon, Seong Gi; Lee, Woo; Song, Jae Yong; Hong, Ki-Ha; Choi, Byeongdae; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Jo, Moon-Ho
2016-01-01
... as dimensions are reduced to approach the nanoscale were utilized. Here we present an approach to thermoelectric materials using tin disulfide, SnS2, nanosheets that demonstrated a negative correlation between σ and κ...
Kondo, Tadashi; Hirohashi, Setsuo
2006-01-01
Proteome data combined with histopathological information provides important, novel clues for understanding cancer biology and reveals candidates for tumor markers and therapeutic targets. We have established an application of a highly sensitive fluorescent dye (CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye), developed for two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), to the labeling of proteins extracted from laser microdissected tissues. The use of the dye dramatically decreases the protein amount and, in turn, the number of cells required for 2D-DIGE; the cells obtained from a 1 mm2 area of an 8-12 microm thick tissue section generate up to 5,000 protein spots in a large-format 2D gel. This protocol allows the execution of large-scale proteomics in a more efficient, accurate and reproducible way. The protocol can be used to examine a single sample in 5 d or to examine hundreds of samples in large-scale proteomics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorczak, N. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Manz, P. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut feur Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom-IPP, 85748Garching (Germany); Thakur, S. C.; Xu, M.; Tynan, G. R. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Xu, G. S.; Liu, S. C. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
2012-12-15
Time delay estimation (TDE) techniques are frequently used to estimate the flow velocity from fluctuating measurements. Tilted structures carried by the flow lead to misinterpretation of the time delays in terms of velocity direction and amplitude. It affects TDE measurements from probes, and is also intrinsically important for beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging measurements. Local eddy shapes estimated from 2D fluctuating field are necessary to gain a more accurate flow estimate from TDE, as illustrated by Langmuir probe array measurements. A least square regression approach is proposed to estimate both flow field and shaping parameters. The technique is applied to a test case built from numerical simulation of interchange fluctuations. The local eddy shape does not only provide corrections for the velocity field but also quantitative information about the statistical interaction mechanisms between local eddies and E Multiplication-Sign B flow shear. The technique is then tested on gaz puff imaging data collected at the edge of EAST tokamak plasmas. It is shown that poloidal asymmetries of the fluctuation fields-velocity and eddy shape-are consistent at least qualitatively with a ballooning type of turbulence immersed in a radially sheared equilibrium flow.
Geometrical Correlation and Matching of 2d Image Shapes
Vizilter, Y. V.; Zheltov, S. Y.
2012-07-01
The problem of image correspondence measure selection for image comparison and matching is addressed. Many practical applications require image matching "just by shape" with no dependence on the concrete intensity or color values. Most popular technique for image shape comparison utilizes the mutual information measure based on probabilistic reasoning and information theory background. Another approach was proposed by Pytiev (so called "Pytiev morphology") based on geometrical and algebraic reasoning. In this framework images are considered as piecewise-constant 2D functions, tessellation of image frame by the set of non-intersected connected regions determines the "shape" of image and the projection of image onto the shape of other image is determined. Morphological image comparison is performed using the normalized morphological correlation coefficients. These coefficients estimate the closeness of one image to the shape of other image. Such image analysis technique can be characterized as an ""ntensity-to-geometry" matching. This paper generalizes the Pytiev morphological approach for obtaining the pure "geometry-to-geometry" matching techniques. The generalized intensity-geometrical correlation coefficient is proposed including the linear correlation coefficient and the square of Pytiev correlation coefficient as its partial cases. The morphological shape correlation coefficient is proposed based on the statistical averaging of images with the same shape. Centered morphological correlation coefficient is obtained under the condition of intensity centering of averaged images. Two types of symmetric geometrical normalized correlation coefficients are proposed for comparison of shape-tessellations. The technique for correlation and matching of shapes with ordered intensities is proposed with correlation measures invariant to monotonous intensity transformations. The quality of proposed geometrical correlation measures is experimentally estimated in the task of
Two-dimensional optical correlation spectroscopy applied to liquid/glass dynamics
Lazonder, Kees; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.
2006-01-01
Correlation spectroscopy was used to study the effects of temperature and phase changes on liquid and glass solvent dynamics. This method yielded both intuitive clues and a quantitative measure of the dynamics of the system. © 2006 Optical Society of America.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
Shinzawa, Hideyuki; Awa, Kimie; Noda, Isao; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2013-02-01
Transient water absorption by cellulosic samples manufactured under varying pressure was monitored by near-infrared spectroscopy to explore the absorption behavior affected by the pressure. A substantial level of variation of the spectral features was induced by the water absorption and changes in the pressure. The detail of the spectral changes was analyzed with a multiple-perturbation, two-dimensional (2D) correlation method to determine the underlying mechanism. The 2D correlation spectra indicated that the compression of the cellulose increased the packing density of the samples, preventing the penetration of water. In addition, the compression substantially disintegrated its crystalline structure and eventually resulted in the development of inter- and intrachain hydrogen-bonded structures arising from an interaction between the water and cellulose. Consequently, the cellulose samples essentially underwent an evolutionary change in the polymer structure as well as in the packing density during the compression. This structural change, in turn, led to the seemingly complicated absorption trends, depending on the pressure.
Zhang, Chun-hui; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Tu, Ya
2010-07-01
2D-IR correlation spectroscopy was used to do the research on crude and prepared drug of radix scutellariae and the extracts of them. The results show that the holistic shape of peaks among them are similar in the FTIR spectra. In second derivative spectra, the two absorption peaks: 1,745 and 1,411 cm(-1) of processed products move to the bigger wavenumber direction, while 1,357 cm(-1) of processed products moves to the smaller wavenumber direction; There are conspicuous differences in Two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy among them: Four characteristic peaks are shown between 1,300 and 1,800 cm(-1). The intensity of peak at 1,575 cm(-1) is the strongest. There are three main districts about the autopeaks of sliced scutellariae. Wine-fried scutellariae has two auto-peak districts, in which all the auto-peaks are positively correlated. The FTIR spectra of total glycoside extract of different samples present characteristic peaks at 1,615, 1,585, 1,450 cm(-1) (vibration of phenyl framework) and 1,658 cm(-1) (=C-O ) respectively, therefore, the authors speculated that their mutual component is the compound of phenolic glycoside. The two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra present five automatic peaks (vibration of phenyl framework) in 800-1,800 cm(-1) (1,366, 1,420, 1,508, 1,585, 1,669 cm(-1)). So the authors can conclude that a lot of information can be provided by macro-fingerprint technology of infrared spectroscopy which can evaluate overall quality of radix scutellariae accurately and be used to study the characteristics of relevance of crude and prepared scutellariae.
Wu, Wan-ye; Wu, Kun; Li, Guo-ying
2015-02-01
The synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study the aggregation behavior of acid-soluble collagen solutions (0.2, 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1)) during the heating process of 10-70 degrees C. It was found that the fluorescence excited at 292 and 282 nm (delta lamda=9 nm) belongs to the tyrosine (Tyr) residues which participate in forming hydrogen bonds or not, respectively. The two dimensional correlation analysis with the temperature varying showed that with the temperature increased (10-30 degrees C) hydrogen bonds among collagen molecular with Tyr residues formed in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) collagen solution, while the higher aggregations of collagen molecular and hydrophobic micro-domains appeared in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions. With approaching the denatured temperature of collagen (36-38 degrees C), the hydrophobic micro-domain and aggregates seemed to be broken in the 0.4 and 1.6 mg x mL(-1) collagen solutions, however the hydrogen bonds in the 0.2 mg x mL(-1) were stable. Above the denaturation temperature of collagen, the triple-helix structure of collagen molecular in solution of each concentration tended to be loose. In the heating process of 45-70 degrees C, this trend was more obvious.
Qu, Lei; Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Gui-jun; Sun, Su-qin; Guo, Yi-zhen
2016-11-01
As a kind of expensive perfume and valuable herb, the commercial Aquilariae Lignum Resinatum (ALR) is often adulterated for economic motivations. In this research, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional (2D) correlation analysis are employed to establish a simple and quick identification method for the authentic and adulterated ALR. In the conventional infrared spectra, the standard ALR has a strong peak at 1658 cm-1 referring to the conjugated carbonyl of resin, while this peak is absent in the adulterated samples. The position, intensity, and shape of the auto-peaks and cross-peaks of the authentic and adulterated ALR are much different in the synchronous 2D correlation spectra with thermal perturbation. In the range of 1700-1500 cm-1, the standard ALR has four obvious auto-peaks, while the strongest one is at 1659 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-1 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1647 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-2 has three obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1519 cm-1. The adulterated sample w-3 has four obvious auto-peaks and the strongest one is at 1690 cm-1. The above auto-peaks confirm that the standard ALR contains a certain content of resin compounds, while the three counterfeits contain little or different resins. The results show the potential of FT-IR spectroscopy and 2D correlation analysis in the simple and quick identification of authentic and adulterated ALR.
Zou, Changji; Larisika, Melanie; Nagy, Gabor; Srajer, Johannes; Oostenbrink, Chris; Chen, Xiaodong; Knoll, Wolfgang; Liedberg, Bo; Nowak, Christoph
2013-08-22
The heme protein cytochrome c adsorbed to a two-layer gold surface modified with a self-assembled monolayer of 2-mercaptoethanol was analyzed using a two-dimensional (2D) heterospectral correlation analysis that combined surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Stepwise increasing electric potentials were applied to alter the redox state of the protein and to induce conformational changes within the protein backbone. We demonstrate herein that 2D heterospectral correlation analysis is a particularly suitable and useful technique for the study of heme-containing proteins as the two spectroscopies address different portions of the protein. Thus, by correlating SERS and SEIRAS data in a 2D plot, we can obtain a deeper understanding of the conformational changes occurring at the redox center and in the supporting protein backbone during the electron transfer process. The correlation analyses are complemented by molecular dynamics calculations to explore the intramolecular interactions.
Two-dimensional cell tracking by FPGA-optical correlation method
Solís, Iraís; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Aviña-Cervantes, J. G.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Debeir, O.; Ledesma-Orozco, S.; Pérez-Careta, E.; Sanchez-Mondragón, J. J.
2009-06-01
Our work uses 1080 images sequence obtained from "in vitro" samples taken every 4 min from a microscope under phase contrast technique. These images are in JPEG format and are 500×700 pixels size with a compression rate of 3:1. We developed an algorithm and characterize it over several image operations against the tracking effectiveness and its robustness respect mitosis and cell shape change. Image equalization, dilation and erosion were the image processing procedures founded to provide best tracking results. Equalization procedure, for example, required a time delay of 5 sec for a size target of 60×90 pixels and 9 sec for size target of 89×100 pixels. This algorithm was implemented into a FPGA which controlled our optical correlator in order to performance all Fourier operations by optical method. Our results showed that the use of the optical correlator can reduce the time consuming in the image process until for 90% which able us to track cells in vascular structure.
de Sousa, N; García-Martín, A; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Marqués, M I
2014-01-01
The effect of spatial correlations on the Purcell effect in a bidimensional dispersion of resonant nanoparticles is analyzed. We perform extensive calculations of the fluorescence decay rate of a point emitter embedded in a system of nanoparticles statistically distributed according to a sim- ple 2D lattice-gas model near the critical point. For short range correlations (high temperature thermalization) the Purcell factors present a non-Gaussian long-tailed statistics which evolves to- wards a bimodal distribution as approaching the critical point where the spatial correlation length diverges. Our results suggest long range correlations as a possible origin of the large fluctuations of experimental decay rates in disordered metal films.
Herran Cuspinera, Roxana M.; Hore, Dennis K.
2016-11-01
We highlight the potential of generalized two-dimensional correlation analysis for the fingerprinting of cell growth in solution monitored by light scattering, where the synchronous and asynchronous responses serve as a sensitive marker for the effect of growth conditions on the distribution of cell morphologies. The polarization of the scattered light varies according to the cell size distribution, and so the changes in the polarization over time are an excellent indicator of the dynamic growth conditions. However, direct comparison of the polarization-, time-, and angle-resolved signals between different experiments is hindered by the subtle changes in the data, and the inability to easily adapt models to account for these differences. Using Mie scattering simulations of different growth conditions, and some preliminary experimental data for a single set of conditions, we illustrate that correlation analysis provides rapid and sensitive qualitative markers of growth characteristics.
Ren, Guo-Dong; Guo, Ai-Ling; Geng, Fang; Ma, Mei-Hu; Huang, Qun; Wu, Xiao-Fen
2012-07-01
The conformation changes of Apo-Ovotransferrin and Holo-Ovotransferrin were studied with the heat treatment 25-95 degrees C by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy analyzer. The results of one-dimensional infrared spectroscopy showed that with the increase in temperature, the peak at 3 300 cm(-1) of Apo-Ovo-transferrin shifted more than that of Holo-Ovotransferrin. The peak at 3 300 cm(-1) derived from stretching vibrations of N-H and O-H indicates that iron-binding enhanced the role of hydrogen bonds and resistance to heat. The changing order of the secondary structure of ovotransferrin was determined by analyzing two-dimensional infrared spectra,witch is beta-sheet>amide II >-CH2 - bending vibration. In addition, it was found that the cross-peaks at 1 652 and 1 688 cm(-1) are different in synchronous and asynchronous counter maps by comparing Apo-Ovotransferrin with Holo-Ovotransferrin. It was suggested that the temperature made less impact on the alpha-helix in Holo-Ovotransferrin than on that in Apo-Ovotransferrin, however, the beta-turn in Holo-Ovotransferrin was more sensitive to temperature.
Liu, Xin-hu; Xu, Chang-hua; Sun, Su-qin; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Ke; Li, Guo-yu; Zhu, Yun; Zhou, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Wang, Jin-hui
2012-11-01
In this study, six varieties of Danshen from different populations and genuine ("Daodi" in Chinese transliteration) regions were discriminated and identified by a three-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)). Though only small differences were found among the FT-IR spectra of the six Danshen samples, the positions and intensities of peaks at 3393, 3371, 1613, 1050, and 1036 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors to discriminate them. More significant differences were exhibited in their SD-IR, particularly for the peaks around 1080, 1144, 695, 665, 800, 1610, 1510, 1450, 1117 and 1077 cm-1. The visual 2D-IR spectra provided dynamic chemical structure information of the six Danshen samples with presenting different particular auto-peak clusters, respectively. Moreover, the contents of salvianolic acid B in all samples were measured quantitatively by a validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), which was consistent with the FT-IR findings. This study provides a promising method for characteristics and quality control of the complicated and extremely similar herbal medicine like Danshen, which is more cost effective and time saving.
Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela; Gradinariu, Petronela; Popescu, Maria-Cristina
2016-11-01
The action of the white rot fungi Phanerochaete crisosporium on the structure of lime wood (Tilia cordata) has been studied. The degree of decay was determined by weight loss, which was of 37% after 110 days. The samples were further analyzed by infrared and two dimensional correlation spectroscopy. The recorded spectra for different intervals of decay indicate variations in the intensities and width or wavenumber shifts of the bands assigned, both, for lignin and carbohydrates. An increase in the intensities of the bands from the carbonyl region due to formation of new structures, accompanied by the reduction of the methoxyl and methyl/methylene groups in lignin was evidenced. Further, the differences between reference and decayed wood spectra were examined in detail using 2DCOS spectroscopy and the second derivative analysis and the sequential order of modifications were established.
Hemimegalencephaly: 2D, 3D Ultrasound and MRI Correlation.
Romero, X C; Molina, F S; Pastor, E; Amaya, F
2011-01-01
Hemimegalencephaly (HMC) is a disorder associated with enlarged and dysplastic hamartomatous overgrowth of all or part of the one cerebral hemisphere that can be isolated or associated with other syndromes. In the normal development of the brain it is important to bear in mind that there are two main processes: firstly the development of the hemispheres and the corpus callosum, and secondly the cortical formation with proliferation, migration and organization of the cortex, which occurs mostly between 12 and 20 weeks of gestation. We present a 22-week-old fetus with macrocephaly depending on HMC and emphasize the possibility of an early ultrasound diagnosis, the correlation in the diagnosis between 2D and 3D ultrasound, and the use of magnetic resonance imaging as an imaging method for a more precise diagnosis of neuronal migration anomalies. The diagnosis of HMC is possible at the time of the anomaly scan. The use and correlation with other diagnostic tools provide essential information for parent counseling in these complex cases. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Jianbo [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhou Qun, E-mail: zhouqun@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Noda, Isao [Procter and Gamble Company, 8611 Beckett Road, West Chester, OH 45069 (United States); Sun Suqin, E-mail: sunsq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2009-09-01
It has been proved to be a very useful method to distinguish similar samples by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy when they are hardly distinguished by the conventional one-dimensional spectroscopy. To acquire the quantitative description of the differences between samples, the similarity of the series dynamic spectra, which reflects the similarity of the samples themselves if obtained under the same perturbation condition, is evaluated by the symmetry of hetero 2DCOS map. Two parameters, the Euclidian distance and correlation coefficient between the upper left and lower right triangular parts of a hetero 2DCOS map, are introduced for the quantitative measure of the symmetry, which in turn characterizes the similarity of the responses of samples to a given perturbation. The above method is used to discriminate one genus of Astragalus from the others to ensure the medicinal efficacy and safety of the herb. Hypothesis tests show that the inter-distances between samples from different genera are significantly larger than the intra-ones within the same genera, while the inter-correlation coefficients are smaller than the intra-ones. The excellent result of the identification for all samples carried out by a t-test based on the distances indicates that this method provides an efficient technique for the quantitative evaluation of similarity between samples.
Sun, Fusheng; Polizzotto, Matthew L; Guan, Dongxing; Wu, Jun; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Yu, Guanghui
2017-03-15
Understanding how heavy metals bind and interact in soils is essential for predicting their distributions, reactions and fates in the environment. Here we propose a novel strategy, i.e., combining two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D COS) and synchrotron radiation based spectromicroscopies, for identifying heavy metal binding to functional groups in soils. The results showed that although long-term (23 yrs) organic fertilization treatment caused the accumulation of Cd (over 3 times) in soils when compared to no fertilization and chemical fertilization treatments, it significantly (pCOS analyses demonstrated that soil functional groups controlling Cd binding were modified by fertilization treatments, providing implications for the reduced bioavailability of heavy metals in organic fertilized soils. Furthermore, correlative micro X-ray fluorescence spectromicroscopy, electron probe micro-analyzer mapping, and synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR spectromicroscopy analysis showed that Cd, minerals, and organic functional groups were heterogeneously distributed at the micro-scale in soil colloids. Only minerals, rather than organic groups, had a similar distribution pattern with Cd. Together, this strategy has a potential to explore the interactions and binding sites among heavy metals, minerals and organic components in soil.
Zhang, Shengzhao; Zhang, Linna; Li, Zhe; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling
2016-10-01
Dynamic spectrum (DS) method is one of the noninvasive approaches to measure the concentration of components in human blood based on the application of photoplethysmogram (PPG). One of the targets of the DS method is to predict the hemoglobin concentration in human blood noninvasively. In previous works, the usually used wavelength in the spectrum is 600-1100 nm which is regarded as the analysis "window" in human tissues. Optimum wavelengths for measurements of hemoglobin concentration have not been investigated yet. In order to improve the precision and reliability of hemoglobin measurements, a method for wavelength selection based on two-dimension (2D) correlation spectroscopy has been studied in this paper. By analyzing the 2D correlation spectroscopy which is generated by the DS data from subject with different blood hemoglobin concentrations, the wavelength bands which are sensible to hemoglobin concentrations in DS can be found. We developed calibration models between the DS data and hemoglobin concentration based on data from 57 subjects. The correlation coefficient is 0.68 in the test set of the model using the whole wavelength band (600-1100nm), while in the test set of the model using the selected wavelength band (850- 950nm) the correlation coefficient is 0.87. Results show the feasibility of wavelength selection utilizing 2Dcorrelation spectroscopy.
Jin, Ying; Kotula, Anthony P; Hight Walker, Angela R; Migler, Kalman B; Lee, Young Jong
2016-11-01
We use moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (MW-2DCOS) for phase-specific Raman analysis of the n-alkane (C21H44) during melting from the crystalline solid phase to the intermediate rotator phase and to the amorphous molten phase. In MW-2DCOS, individual peak-to-peak correlation analysis within a small subset of spectra provides both temperature-resolved and spectrally disentangled Raman assignments conducive to understanding phase-specific molecular interactions and chain configurations. We demonstrate that autocorrelation MW-2DCOS can determine the phase transition temperatures with a higher resolving power than commonly-used analysis methods including individual peak intensity analysis or principal component analysis. Besides the enhanced temperature resolving power, we demonstrate that asynchronous 2DCOS near the orthorhombic-to-rotator transition temperature can spectrally resolve the two overlapping peaks embedded in the Raman CH2 twisting band in the orthorhombic phase, which had been only predicted but not observed due to thermal broadening near the melting temperature.
Durand, Marc; Kraynik, Andrew M; van Swol, Frank; Käfer, Jos; Quilliet, Catherine; Cox, Simon; Ataei Talebi, Shirin; Graner, François
2014-06-01
Bubble monolayers are model systems for experiments and simulations of two-dimensional packing problems of deformable objects. We explore the relation between the distributions of the number of bubble sides (topology) and the bubble areas (geometry) in the low liquid fraction limit. We use a statistical model [M. Durand, Europhys. Lett. 90, 60002 (2010)] which takes into account Plateau laws. We predict the correlation between geometrical disorder (bubble size dispersity) and topological disorder (width of bubble side number distribution) over an extended range of bubble size dispersities. Extensive data sets arising from shuffled foam experiments, surface evolver simulations, and cellular Potts model simulations all collapse surprisingly well and coincide with the model predictions, even at extremely high size dispersity. At moderate size dispersity, we recover our earlier approximate predictions [M. Durand, J. Kafer, C. Quilliet, S. Cox, S. A. Talebi, and F. Graner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 168304 (2011)]. At extremely low dispersity, when approaching the perfectly regular honeycomb pattern, we study how both geometrical and topological disorders vanish. We identify a crystallization mechanism and explore it quantitatively in the case of bidisperse foams. Due to the deformability of the bubbles, foams can crystallize over a larger range of size dispersities than hard disks. The model predicts that the crystallization transition occurs when the ratio of largest to smallest bubble radii is 1.4.
Li, Xiaoming; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Dongqing; Mei, Xinlan; Ran, Wei; Xu, Yangchun; Yu, Guanghui
2013-01-01
While the properties of biochar are closely related to its functional groups, it is unclear under what conditions biochar develops its properties. In this study, two-dimensional (2D) (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlation spectroscopy was for the first time applied to investigate the development of functional groups and establish their relationship with biochar properties. The results showed that the agricultural biomass carbonized to biochars was a dehydroxylation/dehydrogenation and aromatization process, mainly involving the cleavage of O-alkylated carbons and anomeric O-C-O carbons in addition to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures and aromatic C-O groups. With increasing charring temperature, the mass cleavage of O-alkylated groups and anomeric O-C-O carbons occurred prior to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures. The regression analysis between functional groups and biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity) further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both fused-ring aromatic structures and aliphatic O-alkylated (HCOH) carbons. In summary, this work suggests a novel tool for characterising the development of functional groups in biochars.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Li
Full Text Available While the properties of biochar are closely related to its functional groups, it is unclear under what conditions biochar develops its properties. In this study, two-dimensional (2D (13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR correlation spectroscopy was for the first time applied to investigate the development of functional groups and establish their relationship with biochar properties. The results showed that the agricultural biomass carbonized to biochars was a dehydroxylation/dehydrogenation and aromatization process, mainly involving the cleavage of O-alkylated carbons and anomeric O-C-O carbons in addition to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures and aromatic C-O groups. With increasing charring temperature, the mass cleavage of O-alkylated groups and anomeric O-C-O carbons occurred prior to the production of fused-ring aromatic structures. The regression analysis between functional groups and biochar properties (pH and electrical conductivity further demonstrated that the pH and electrical conductivity of rice straw derived biochars were mainly determined by fused-ring aromatic structures and anomeric O-C-O carbons, but the pH of rice bran derived biochars was determined by both fused-ring aromatic structures and aliphatic O-alkylated (HCOH carbons. In summary, this work suggests a novel tool for characterising the development of functional groups in biochars.
Rudd, Timothy R; Macchi, Eleonora; Gardini, Cristina; Muzi, Laura; Guerrini, Marco; Yates, Edwin A; Torri, Giangiacomo
2012-08-07
Risks of contamination of the major clinical anticoagulant heparin can arise from deliberate adulteration with unnatural or natural polysaccharides, including heparin from other animal sources, other natural products, or artifacts of manufacture, and these can escape detection by conventional means. Currently, there is no generally applicable, objective test recommended by regulators that can detect these in pharmaceutical heparin, and this continues to leave heparin exposed to contamination risks. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopic-filtering with iterative random sampling (2D-COS-firs) is reported. It employs a difference covariance matrix with iterative random sampling, and is capable of revealing contamination in pharmaceutical heparin to a high level of sensitivity irrespective of the nature of those features. The technique is suitable to any situation in which a comparison of a single entity to a family of heterogeneous entities, particularly natural products and biosimilars, needs to be made, and will find application in pharmaceutical monitoring, manufacturing quality control, materials science, biotechnology, and metabolomic investigations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ong, R.L.; Yu, R.K.
1986-02-15
The 1H-NMR spectra of the oligosaccharide derived from monosialoganglioside GM1 (GM1 = beta-D-galactosyl-(1-3)-beta-D-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-(1-4)- (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2-3)-)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-b eta-D-glucosylceramide) (GM1OS) and its reduced form (GM1OS-R) have been obtained at 500 MHz in D2O. Through the combined use of one-dimensional and homonuclear two-dimensional spin-echo J-correlated (2D SECSY) spectra of GM1OS-R, the assignments for the ring protons of GM1OS are made. Data on chemical shifts and coupling constants of GM1OS including the alpha-linked neuraminic acid protons, in aqueous solution, are tabulated. Due to the very small coupling constants (less than 2 Hz) and the closeness in chemical shifts (less than 0.04 ppm) for the pair of correlated peaks in the two-dimensional spectrum, the information on the connectivities of the H5 ring protons of the neutral sugar residues is missing. Second-order coupling also blurs this information. Data are compared with those obtained for ganglioside GM1 in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; the actual composition therein was 97% DMSO-d6 and 3% D2O) by T. A. W. Koerner, J. H. Prestegard, P. C. Demou, and R. K. Yu. While the heterogeneity of chemical shifts for the H5, H6a, and H6b protons diminishes in D2O, that for A-9a and A-9b remains. The latter suggests an intraneuraminic acid conformation involving the glycerol side chain unaffected by the solvent. Moreover, the chemical shifts of the III-1, III-2, and A-4 protons (and perhaps the II-4, IV-2, and A-8 protons) in D2O exhibit unusual upfield shifts compared with those in DMSO. This indicates that the intramolecular interactions between GalNAc residue III and neuraminic acid present in DMSO are weakened in D2O. The effect of temperature on the conformation is also examined and appears to be minimal (less than 0.02 ppm) in the range 22-50 degrees C.
Chinthalapalli, Srinivas; Bornet, Aurélien; Segawa, Takuya F.; Sarkar, Riddhiman; Jannin, Sami; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey
2012-07-01
A half-century quest for improving resolution in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has enabled the study of molecular structures, biological interactions, and fine details of anatomy. This progress largely relied on the advent of sophisticated superconducting magnets that can provide stable and homogeneous fields with temporal and spatial variations below ΔB0/B0lungs, tissue-air interfaces, surgical implants, etc., lead to fluctuations and losses of local homogeneity. A new method dubbed “long-lived-coherence correlation spectroscopy” (LLC-COSY) opens the way to overcome both inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadening, which arise from local variations in static fields and fluctuating dipole-dipole interactions, respectively. LLC-COSY makes it possible to obtain ultrahigh resolution two-dimensional spectra, with linewidths on the order of Δν=0.1 to 1 Hz, even in very inhomogeneous fields (ΔB0/B0>10ppm or 5000 Hz at 9.7 T), and can improve resolution by a factor up to 9 when the homogeneous linewidths are determined by dipole-dipole interactions. The resulting LLC-COSY spectra display chemical shift differences and scalar couplings in two orthogonal dimensions, like in “J spectroscopy.” LLC-COSY does not require any sophisticated gradient switching or frequency-modulated pulses. Applications to in-cell NMR and to magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of selected volume elements in MRI appear promising, particularly when susceptibility variations tend to preclude high resolution.
González, J. F.; Lapasset, E.
2003-06-01
We apply the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique TODCOR to derive spectroscopic orbits for the two B-type double-lined spectroscopic binaries HD 66066A and HD 315031, previously mentioned as blue straggler candidates of the open clusters NGC 2516 and NGC 6530, respectively. Reliable radial velocities for both components are measured even for orbital phases for which the separation between the spectral lines are about 0.5 times the quadratic sum of the full-width at half-maximum of the lines. Both binaries have circular orbits and the orbital periods are 1.67 and 1.38 days for HD 66066A and HD 315031, respectively. We calculate minimum masses with errors of 3-5% and obtain the projected radii from the line widths. We derive absolute stellar parameters which are consistent with the age and distance of the clusters. Both binary systems are formed by main-sequence stars and it is expected that they will experience mass-transfer between their components before the end of the core H-burning stage. HD 315031 is likely a triple system as suggested by the variation of the center-of-mass velocity. The observations presented here were obtained at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), which is operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina (CONICET) and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba and San Juan.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Gyoung Min [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hak Jong; Hwang, Sung Il; Chin, Ho Jun [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)
2011-03-15
We wanted to determine the correlation between the renal length as measured on two dimensional (2D) ultrasonography (US) and the renal parenchymal volume as measured with a new three-dimensional (3D) volume probe ultrasound system. We also wanted to determine the correlation between the renal length or renal parenchymal volume and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with glomerulopathy. From July 2007 to December 2007, 26 patients who were pathologically confirmed to have glomerulopathy by biopsy were enrolled. Renal length was measured with 2D US and the renal parenchymal volume was measured with 3D US just prior to biopsy. The GFR was obtained from the electronic medical records. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to analyze the correlation between the renal length and the renal parenchymal volume, the correlation between the renal length and the GFR and the correlation between the renal parenchymal volume and the GFR. The renal length and the renal parenchymal volume showed strong positive correlation (r = 0.850, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient between the renal length and the GFR was 0.623 (p = 0.0007) and the correlation coefficient between the renal volume and the GFR was 0.590 (p = 0.0015). Both the renal length and renal parenchymal volume showed apparently positive correlations with the GFR in glomerulopathy patients. The renal length showed strong positive correlations with the renal parenchymal volume. Both the renal length and the renal parenchymal volume showed apparently positive correlations with the GFR in glomerulopathy patients. In glomerulopathy patients, the renal dimensions measured by ultrasound can reflect the status of the GFR, and the measurement of the 2D renal length could be sufficient for follow up. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of 3D US for assessing patients with renal disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nawrocki, A; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Podtelejnikov, A V
1998-01-01
Separation of proteins on either carrier ampholyte-based or immobilized pH gradient-based two-dimensional (2-D) gels gives rise to electrophoretic patterns that are difficult to compare visually. In this paper we have used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI......-references demonstrated that there is no obvious pattern by which the mobility of a protein in one gel system can be used to predict its mobility in the other. Thus, as laboratories adopt the immobilized pH gradient-based 2-D gel systems, the only reliable means of translating the data gained with the carrier ampholyte......-MS) to determine the identities of 335 protein spots in these two 2-D gel systems, including a substantial number of basic proteins which had never been identified before. Proteins that were identified in both gel systems allowed us to cross-reference the gel patterns. Vector analysis of these cross...
Topological defects in two-dimensional crystals
Chen, Yong; Qi, Wei-Kai
2008-01-01
By using topological current theory, we study the inner topological structure of the topological defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystal. We find that there are two elementary point defects topological current in two-dimensional crystal, one for dislocations and the other for disclinations. The topological quantization and evolution of topological defects in two-dimensional crystals are discussed. Finally, We compare our theory with Brownian-dynamics simulations in 2D Yukawa systems.
Generalised 2D-correlation NMR analysis of a wine fermentation.
Kirwan, Gemma M; Clark, Shona; Barnett, Neil W; Niere, Julie O; Adams, Michael J
2008-11-23
A wine fermentation has been monitored on a daily basis by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Following data pre-processing that includes synthesis of the spectra to ensure all peaks are of constant half-width, the series of spectra were examined using generalised two-dimensional correlation techniques. Synchronous and asynchronous data maps have been generated and employed to interpret the changes in the fermentation process as a function of time. The results illustrate the potential of high resolution NMR with multivariate data analysis as a tool for process monitoring and the manner in which two-dimensional correlation mapping can aid in data interpretation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bian, Liang, E-mail: bianliang@ms.xjb.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Fa-qin; Song, Mian-xin [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Dong, Hai-liang [Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056 (United States); Li, Wei-Min [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Duan, Tao; Xu, Jin-bao [Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Xiao-yan [Key Laboratory of Functional Materials and Devices for Special Environments, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, South West University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan (China)
2015-08-30
Highlights: • Effect of Pu f-shell electron on the electronic property of zircon is calculated via DFT and 2D-CA techniques. • Reasons of Pu f-shell electron influencing on electronic properties are systematically discussed. • Phase transitions are found at two point 2.8 mol% and 7.5 mol%. - Abstract: Understanding how plutonium (Pu) doping affects the crystalline zircon structure is very important for risk management. However, so far, there have been only a very limited number of reports of the quantitative simulation of the effects of the Pu charge and concentration on the phase transition. In this study, we used density functional theory (DFT), virtual crystal approximation (VCA), and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2D-CA) techniques to calculate the origins of the structural and electronic transitions of Zr{sub 1−c}Pu{sub c}SiO{sub 4} over a wide range of Pu doping concentrations (c = 0–10 mol%). The calculations indicated that the low-angular-momentum Pu-f{sub xy}-shell electron excites an inner-shell O-2s{sup 2} orbital to create an oxygen defect (V{sub O-s}) below c = 2.8 mol%. This oxygen defect then captures a low-angular-momentum Zr-5p{sup 6}5s{sup 2} electron to form an sp hybrid orbital, which exhibits a stable phase structure. When c > 2.8 mol%, each accumulated V{sub O-p} defect captures a high-angular-momentum Zr-4d{sub z} electron and two Si-p{sub z} electrons to create delocalized Si{sup 4+} → Si{sup 2+} charge disproportionation. Therefore, we suggest that the optimal amount of Pu cannot exceed 7.5 mol% because of the formation of a mixture of ZrO{sub 8} polyhedral and SiO{sub 4} tetrahedral phases with the orientation (10-1). This study offers new perspective on the development of highly stable zircon-based solid solution materials.
Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa
2016-02-01
The popularity of using the ratio of the second to the fourth digit (2D:4D) to study influences of early androgen exposure on human behavior relies, in part, on a report that the ratio is sex-dimorphic and stable from age 2 years (Manning etal., 1998). However, subsequent research has rarely replicated this finding. Moreover, although 2D:4D has been correlated with many behaviors, these correlations are often inconsistent. Young children's 2D:4D-behavior correlations may be more consistent than those of older individuals, because young children have experienced fewer postnatal influences. To evaluate the usefulness of 2D:4D as a biomarker of prenatal androgen exposure in studies of 2D:4D-behavior correlations, we assessed its sex difference, temporal stability, and behavioral correlates over a 6- to 8-month period in 126, 2- to 3-year-old children, providing a rare same-sample replicability test. We found a moderate sex difference on both hands and high temporal stability. However, between-sex overlap and within-sex variability were also large. Only 3 of 24 correlations with sex-typed behaviors-scores on the Preschool Activities Inventory (PSAI), preference for a boy-typical toy, preference for a girl-typical toy, were significant and in the predicted direction, all of which involved the PSAI, partially confirming findings from another study. Correlation coefficients were larger for behaviors that showed larger sex differences. But, as in older samples, the overall pattern showed inconsistency across time, sex, and hand. Therefore, although sex-dimorphic and stable, 2D:4D-behavior correlations are no more consistent for young children than for older samples. Theoretical and methodological implications are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazani, A., E-mail: ali.ramazani@iehk.rwth-aachen.de [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Mukherjee, K.; Quade, H.; Prahl, U.; Bleck, W. [Department of Ferrous Metallurgy, RWTH Aachen University, Intzestr.1, D-52072 Aachen (Germany)
2013-01-10
A microstructure-based approach by means of representative volume elements (RVEs) is employed to evaluate the flow curve of DP steels using virtual tensile tests. Microstructures with different martensite fractions and morphologies are studied in two- and three-dimensional approaches. Micro sections of DP microstructures with various amounts of martensite have been converted to 2D RVEs, while 3D RVEs were constructed statistically with randomly distributed phases. A dislocation-based model is used to describe the flow curve of each ferrite and martensite phase separately as a function of carbon partitioning and microstructural features. Numerical tensile tests of RVE were carried out using the ABAQUS/Standard code to predict the flow behaviour of DP steels. It is observed that 2D plane strain modelling gives an underpredicted flow curve for DP steels, while the 3D modelling gives a quantitatively reasonable description of flow curve in comparison to the experimental data. In this work, a von Mises stress correlation factor {sigma}{sub 3D}/{sigma}{sub 2D} has been identified to compare the predicted flow curves of these two dimensionalities showing a third order polynomial relation with respect to martensite fraction and a second order polynomial relation with respect to equivalent plastic strain, respectively. The quantification of this polynomial correlation factor is performed based on laboratory-annealed DP600 chemistry with varying martensite content and it is validated for industrially produced DP qualities with various chemistry, strength level and martensite fraction.
Unger, Miriam; Siesler, Heinz W
2009-12-01
In the present study, the orientation of a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB)/poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) blend was monitored during uniaxial elongation by rheo-optical Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and analyzed by generalized two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). The dichroism of the delta(CH(2)) absorption bands of PHB and PCL was employed to determine the polymer chain orientation in the PHB/PCL blend during the elongation up to 267% strain. From the PHB and PCL specific orientation functions it was derived that the PCL chains orient into the drawing direction while the PHB chains orient predominantly perpendicular to the applied strain. To extract more detailed information about the polymer orientation during uniaxial elongation, 2D-COS analysis was employed for the dichroic difference of the polarization spectra recorded during the drawing process. In the corresponding synchronous and asynchronous 2D correlation plots, absorption bands characteristic of the crystalline and amorphous regions of PHB and PCL were separated. Furthermore, the 2D-COS analysis revealed that during the mechanical treatment the PCL domains orient before the PHB domains.
Face Recognition of Illumination Tolerance in 2D Subspace Based on the Optimum Correlation Filter
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Yi Xu
2014-01-01
... subspace based on the optimal correlation filter. Firstly, through the use of a particular class 2D-PCA the face image is reconstructed and by using the optimum projecting image correlation filter (OPICF...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Ming-Xi; QI Sheng-Wen; LIU Yu-Liang
2006-01-01
@@ Based on a two-dimensional electron system with pure gauge field, we demonstrate that the long range order of the electron pairing order parameter can be destroyed by the gauge fluctuation for both s-wave and d-wave symmetric Cooper pair parameters, even if the pure gauge field mediates attractive interaction between the spinup and spin-down electrons, while the signal of the Meissner effect is observable. This model can be used to explain the recent experimental data of the high Tc cuprate superconductors observed.
Corkidi, G; Montoya, F; Hernández-Herrera, P; Ríos-Herrera, W A; Müller, M F; Treviño, C L; Darszon, A
2017-09-01
Are there intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) oscillations correlated with flagellar beating in human sperm? The results reveal statistically significant [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated with the human sperm flagellar beating frequency, when measured in three-dimensions (3D). Fast [Ca2+]i oscillations that are correlated to the beating flagellar frequency of cells swimming in a restricted volume have been detected in hamster sperm. To date, such findings have not been confirmed in any other mammalian sperm species. An important question that has remained regarding these observations is whether the fast [Ca2+]i oscillations are real or might they be due to remaining defocusing effects of the Z component arising from the 3D beating of the flagella. Healthy donors whose semen samples fulfill the WHO criteria between the age of 18-28 were selected. Cells from at least six different donors were utilized for analysis. Approximately the same number of experimental and control cells were analyzed. Motile cells were obtained by the swim-up technique and were loaded with Fluo-4 (Ca2+ sensitive dye) or with Calcein (Ca2+ insensitive dye). Ni2+ was used as a non-specific plasma membrane Ca2+ channel blocker. Fluorescence data and flagella position were acquired in 3D. Each cell was recorded for up to 5.6 s within a depth of 16 microns with a high speed camera (coupled to an image intensifier) acquiring at a rate of 3000 frames per second, while an oscillating objective vibrated at 90 Hz via a piezoelectric device. From these samples, eight experimental and nine control sperm cells were analyzed in both 2D and 3D. We have implemented a new system that allows [Ca2+]i measurements of the human sperm flagellum beating in 3D. These measurements reveal statistically significant [Ca2+]i oscillations that correlate with the flagellar beating frequency. These oscillations may arise from intracellular sources and/or Ca2+ transporters, as they were insensitive to external Ni2+, a non
Wang, Li-Ping; Shen, Qi-Rong; Yu, Guang-Hui; Ran, Wei; Xu, Yang-Chun
2012-02-01
Detailed knowledge of the molecular events during composting is important in improving the efficiency of this process. By combining two-dimensional Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) correlation spectroscopy and multiple fluorescent labeling, it was possible to study the degradation of biopolymers during rapeseed meal and wheat bran composting. Two-dimensional FTIR correlation spectroscopy provided structural information and was used to deconvolute overlapping bands found in the compost FTIR spectra. The degradation of biopolymers in rapeseed meal and wheat bran composts followed the sequence: cellulose, heteropolysaccharides, and proteins. Fluorescent labeling suggested that cellulose formed an intact network-like structure and the other biopolymers were embedded in the core of this structure. The sequence of degradation of biopolymers during composting was related to their distribution patterns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Angelova
2008-07-01
Full Text Available During the preparatory work for the optical-replica synthesizer experiment in the free-electron laser FLASH at DESY, we were able to superimpose a short, approximately 200 fs long pulse from a frequency-doubled mode-locked erbium laser with titanium-sapphire amplifier and an approximately 20 ps long electron bunch in an undulator. This induces an energy modulation in a longitudinal slice of the electron bunch. A magnetic chicane downstream of the undulator converts the energy modulation into a density modulation within the slice that causes the emission of coherent optical transition radiation from a silver-coated silicon screen. Varying the relative timing between electron and laser, we use a camera to record two-dimensional images of the slices as a function of the longitudinal position within the electron bunch.
Modulating the vibronic correlation in 2D superconductor by electric field
Kazempour, Ali; Morshedloo, Toktam
2017-04-01
Superconductivity in the extreme two-dimensional atomic layers has been suffered because of the strong affection dimensionality confinement on electron-phonon binding. Here, using first-principles method, we study the effect of applied perpendicular and parallel electric field on the strength of phonon renormalization and electron-phonon coupling in bi-layer MgB2 as a known 2D superconductor. The changes of phonon frequency and line-width demonstrate that important E2 g optical modes are strongly sensitive to the applied parallel electric field which directs to sharp reduction of vibronic coupling. Whereas, we show that perpendicular electric field modulates the system to the strong-coupling superconductor and predict the enhancement of critical temperature Tc . Our study opens up the use of electric filed to probe and measure the variation amount of electron-phonon renormalization as a gauge in 2D superconductivity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gessmann, T; Petkov, M P; Weber, M H; Lynn, K G; Rodbell, K P; Asoka-Kumar, P; Stoeffl, W; Howell, R H
2001-06-20
Depth-resolved measurements of the two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) were performed at the high-intensity slow-positron beam of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We studied the formation of positronium in thin films of methyl-silsesquioxane (MSSQ) spin-on glass containing open-volume defects in the size of voids. Samples with different average void sizes were investigated and positronium formation could be found in all cases. The width of the angular correlation related to the annihilation of parapositronium increased with the void size indicating the annihilation of non-thermalized parapositronium.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gessmann, T.; Petkov, M.P.; Weber, M.H.; Lynn, K.G. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Rodbell, K.P. [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Asoka-Kumar, P.; Stoeffl, W.; Howell, R.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Physics Dept.
2001-07-01
Depth-resolved measurements of two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) were performed at the intense slow-positron beam at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The formation of positronium was studied in thin films of methylsilsesquioxane (MSSQ) spin-on glass containing large open-volume defects (voids). Two samples with different average void sizes were investigated and positronium formation could be found in both cases. The width of the angular correlation related to annihilation of para-positronium (p-Ps) increased with the void size consistent with the annihilation of nonthermalized p-Ps. (orig.)
Two-Dimensional Planetary Surface Lander
Hemmati, H.; Sengupta, A.; Castillo, J.; McElrath, T.; Roberts, T.; Willis, P.
2014-06-01
A systems engineering study was conducted to leverage a new two-dimensional (2D) lander concept with a low per unit cost to enable scientific study at multiple locations with a single entry system as the delivery vehicle.
Bu, Gui-jun; Yu, Jing; Di, Hui-hui; Luo, Shi-jia; Zhou, Da-zhai; Xiao, Qiang
2015-02-01
The composition and structure of humic acids formed during composting play an important influence on the quality and mature of compost. In order to explore the composition and evolution mechanism, municipal solid wastes were collected to compost and humic and fulvic acids were obtained from these composted municipal solid wastes. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra and two-dimensional correlation analysis were applied to study the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids during composting. The results from fourier transform infrared spectra showed that, the composition of humic acids was complex, and several absorbance peaks were observed at 2917-2924, 2844-2852, 2549, 1662, 1622, 1566, 1454, 1398, 1351, 990-1063, 839 and 711 cm(-1). Compared to humic acids, the composition of fulvci acids was simple, and only three peaks were detected at 1725, 1637 and 990 cm(-1). The appearance of these peaks showed that both humic and fulvic acids comprised the benzene originated from lignin and the polysaccharide. In addition, humic acids comprised a large number of aliphatic and protein which were hardly detected in fulvic acids. Aliphatic, polysaccharide, protein and lignin all were degraded during composting, however, the order of degradation was different between humic and fulvci acids. The result from two-dimensional correlation analysis showed that, organic compounds in humic acids were degraded in the following sequence: aliphatic> protein> polysaccharide and lignin, while that in fulvic acids was as following: protein> polysaccharide and aliphatic. A large number of carboxyl, alcohols and ethers were formed during the degradation process, and the carboxyl was transformed into carbonates. It can be concluded that, fourier transform infrared spectra coupled with two-dimensional correlation analysis not only can analyze the function group composition of humic substances, but also can characterize effectively the degradation sequence of these
Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Bracko, M; Branchini, P; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Geralis, T; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, Sven Olof; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huber, M; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moraes, D; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Neufeld, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Niezurawski, P; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pavel, T; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Ripp-Baudot, I; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Seibert, N; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sokolov, A; Solovyanov, O; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stanitzki, M; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tortosa, P; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Dam, P; Van den Boeck, W; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verdier, P; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zoller, P; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G
2000-01-01
The study of the directional dependence of two-particle correlations in the hadronic decays of the $Z^0$ boson is performed using the data collected by the DELPHI experiment in the 1992--1995 running periods. The comparison between the transverse, $R_{\\perp}$, and longitudinal, $R_{\\parallel}$, correlation radii confirms the string model prediction that the transverse correlation length is smaller than the longitudinal one, with the measured values of $R_{\\perp}=0.53\\pm 0.08\\,\\mathrm{fm}$ and $R_{\\parallel}=0.85\\pm 0.08\\,\\mathrm{fm}$, for selected $Z^0\\rightarrow q\\bar{q}$ events.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
左新章; 张立同; 刘永胜; 成来飞; 龚慧灵
2013-01-01
Two dimensional C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic was prepared via chemical vapor deposition (CVD).Properties and structure evolution and self-healing mechanisms of the C/SiC composite were studied after oxidation for 10 h during 700-1200 ℃.At the same time,the evolution of morphologies,composition and phase for Si-B-C ceramic were also investigated.The experimental results show that the oxidation of Si-B-C ceramic accelerates with the temperature increasing,however,the oxidation scale is shallow and no more than 7 μm.With the temperature increasing,viscosity of borosilicate glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic reduces but volatilization accelerates.When the temperature increases to 1200 ℃,SiO2 crystallizes from borosilicate glass.C/SiC composite coated with Si-B-C ceramic shows an excellent oxidation resistance.Mass loss increases with temperature increasing,which is only 0.47％ after oxidation for 10 h at 1200 ℃.Furthermore,the strength retention ratio is 91.6％ at 1000 ℃,higher than that at other temperatures.The main mechanisms for excellent oxidation resistance of C/SiC composite is that borosilicatc glass oxidized from Si-B-C ceramic can seal cracks in composite effectively.%利用化学气相沉积(CVD)法制备了Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的2D C/SiC复合材料,研究了其在700～1200℃氧化10 h性能和结构的演变规律以及自愈合机制,同时获得了Si-B-C涂层在不同温度氧化后的形貌、组分和物相转变规律.结果表明:涂敷在复合材料表面的Si-B-C陶瓷随温度的升高氧化加快,但氧化程度较低,不深于7μm;随温度的升高,氧化形成的硅硼玻璃黏度降低,挥发增强；当温度达到1200℃时,硅硼玻璃析出SiO2晶体；Si-B-C陶瓷涂敷改性的C/SiC具有优良的抗氧化性能,随氧化温度的升高,复合材料失重率增加,但在1200℃氧化10h后失重率仅为0.47％;此外材料在1000℃氧化后的强度保持率最高,达到91.6％,Si-B-C陶瓷氧化形
Superconducting correlations and thermodynamic properties in 2D square and triangular t-J model
Ogata, Masao
2006-03-01
Equal-time superconducting correlation functions of the two-dimensional t-J model on the square lattice are studied using high-temperature expansion method.[1] The sum of the pairing correlation, its spatial dependence and correlation length are obtained down to T ˜0.2t. By comparison of single-particle contributions in the correlation functions, we find effective attractive interactions between quasi-particles in dx^2-y^2-wave channel. It is shown that d-wave correlation grows rapidly at low temperatures for the doping 0.1 0 with hole doping, a rapid growth of effective d-wave paring interaction is found that indicates the resonating-valence-bond superconductivity. In contrast, when tJ. Phys. Soc. Japan 74, 1390 (2005). [2] T. Koretsune and M. Ogata, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 116401 (2002), and Phys. Rev. B72, 134513 (2005).
Chatelain, Christophe
2014-03-01
The q-state Potts model with long-range correlated disorder is studied by means of large-scale Monte Carlo simulations for q=2, 4, 8, and 16. Evidence is given of the existence of a Griffiths phase, where the thermodynamic quantities display an algebraic finite-size scaling, in a finite range of temperatures. The critical exponents are shown to depend on both the temperature and the exponent of the algebraic decay of disorder correlations, but not on the number of states of the Potts model. The mechanism leading to the violation of hyperscaling relations is observed in the entire Griffiths phase.
Two-dimensional cubic convolution.
Reichenbach, Stephen E; Geng, Frank
2003-01-01
The paper develops two-dimensional (2D), nonseparable, piecewise cubic convolution (PCC) for image interpolation. Traditionally, PCC has been implemented based on a one-dimensional (1D) derivation with a separable generalization to two dimensions. However, typical scenes and imaging systems are not separable, so the traditional approach is suboptimal. We develop a closed-form derivation for a two-parameter, 2D PCC kernel with support [-2,2] x [-2,2] that is constrained for continuity, smoothness, symmetry, and flat-field response. Our analyses, using several image models, including Markov random fields, demonstrate that the 2D PCC yields small improvements in interpolation fidelity over the traditional, separable approach. The constraints on the derivation can be relaxed to provide greater flexibility and performance.
Chen, Jian-bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin
2016-11-01
Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is often used as a simple, fast, and green method for the adulteration screening of botanical materials for foods and herbs. However, the overlapping of absorption signals of various substances significantly decrease the sensitivity and specificity of IR spectroscopy in the detection of adulterated samples. In this research, a model-free approach is proposed for the sensitive and non-targeted screening of botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials. First, the spectra of the entities in the test sample are collected by near-infrared spectroscopic imaging and clustered by unsupervised pattern recognition methods. The sample may be adulterated if there are two or more clusters of the entities. Next, the entities of different clusters are characterized by mid-infrared spectroscopy to interpret the chemical compositions to determine the clustering is caused whether by adulteration or other reasons. Second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy are often needed to resolve the overlapped bands mathematically or experimentally to find the characteristic signals to identify the authentic and adulterant entities. The feasibility of this approach was proved by the simulated adulterated sample of saffron. In conclusion, botanical materials adulterated by adding other plant materials can be detected by a simple, fast, sensitive, and green screening approach using IR spectroscopic imaging, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy, and necessary chemometrics techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mr. Agbo Julius Amaechi
2008-07-01
Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective to establish a nomogram for some left ventricular structures and their alterations in hypertension. Correlations between left ventricular structures and anthropometric variables in hypertension were also established. A sample of 320 normotensive and 80 hypertensive subjects were studied. Echocardiograhic end diastolic diameter, posterior wall thickness and septal wall thickness were obtained. Subject height, weight, age and blood pressures were obtained. Blood pressures were measured in sitting position. The values of left ventricular mass (LVM, left ventricular mass index (LVMI and left relative wall thickness (RWT were computed. Parametric tests were conducted. Tests were two tailed with P < 0.05 indicating statistical significance. Normal values of left ventricular structures were established; LVM: 63.72g – 336.18g, LVMI: 38.16g/m – 222.64g/m, and RWT: 0.25 – 0.52. Significant differences (P < 0.05 were established in LVM, LVMI and RWT between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Positive and significant correlations were noted between these variables and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. A simple linear regression of RWT on Body surface area gives RWT = - 0.058 BSA + 0.475 in normotensive subjects. Normal values of left ventricular structures and a linear regression model have been established which could be used in the assessment of morbidity in hypertension.
Allerdt, Andrew; Feiguin, A. E.; Martins, G. B.
2017-07-01
We calculate exact zero-temperature real-space properties of a substitutional magnetic impurity coupled to the edge of a zigzag silicenelike nanoribbon. Using a Lanczos transformation [A. Allerdt et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 085101 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.91.085101] and the density-matrix renormalization-group method, we obtain a realistic description of stanene and germanene that includes the bulk and the edges as boundary one-dimensional helical metallic states. Our results for substitutional impurities indicate that the development of a Kondo state and the structure of the spin correlations between the impurity and the electron spins in the metallic edge state depend considerably on the location of the impurity. More specifically, our real-space resolution allows us to conclude that there is a sharp distinction between the impurity being located at a crest or a trough site at the zigzag edge. We also observe, as expected, that the spin correlations are anisotropic due to an emerging Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction with the conduction electrons and that the edges scatter from the impurity and "snake" or circle around it. Our estimates for the Kondo temperature indicate that there is a very weak enhancement due to the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
Two-dimensional subwavelength plasmonic lattice solitons
Ye, F; Hu, B; Panoiu, N C
2010-01-01
We present a theoretical study of plasmonic lattice solitons (PLSs) formed in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of metallic nanowires embedded into a nonlinear medium with Kerr nonlinearity. We analyze two classes of 2D PLSs families, namely, fundamental and vortical PLSs in both focusing and defocusing media. Their existence, stability, and subwavelength spatial confinement are studied in detai
Popescu, Maria-Cristina; Froidevaux, Julien; Navi, Parviz; Popescu, Carmen-Mihaela
2013-02-01
It is known that heat treatment of wood combined with a low percent of relative humidity causes transformations in the chemical composition of it. The modifications and/or degradation of wood components occur by hydrolysis, oxidation, and decarboxylation reactions. The aim of this study was to give better insights on wood chemical modifications during wood heat treatment under low temperature at about 140 °C and 10% percentage of relative humidity, by infrared, principal component analysis and two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy. For this purpose, hardwood samples of lime (Tilia cordata) were investigated and analysed. The infrared spectra of treated samples were compared with the reference ones, the most important differences being observed in the "fingerprint" region. Due to the complexity of this region, which have contributions from all the wood constituents the chemical changes during hydro-thermal treatment were examined in detail using principal component analysis and 2D IR correlation spectroscopy. By hydro-thermal treatment of wood results the formation of acetic acid, which catalyse the hydrolysis reactions of hemicelluloses and amorphous cellulose. The cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and splitting of the aliphatic methoxyl chains from the aromatic lignin ring was also observed. For the first treatment interval, a higher extent of carbohydrates degradation was observed, then an increase of the extent of the lignin degradation also took place.
Local doping of two-dimensional materials
Wong, Dillon; Velasco, Jr, Jairo; Ju, Long; Kahn, Salman; Lee, Juwon; Germany, Chad E.; Zettl, Alexander K.; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.
2016-09-20
This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to locally doping two-dimensional (2D) materials. In one aspect, an assembly including a substrate, a first insulator disposed on the substrate, a second insulator disposed on the first insulator, and a 2D material disposed on the second insulator is formed. A first voltage is applied between the 2D material and the substrate. With the first voltage applied between the 2D material and the substrate, a second voltage is applied between the 2D material and a probe positioned proximate the 2D material. The second voltage between the 2D material and the probe is removed. The first voltage between the 2D material and the substrate is removed. A portion of the 2D material proximate the probe when the second voltage was applied has a different electron density compared to a remainder of the 2D material.
Qin, Mingpu; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Shiwei
2017-08-01
Optical lattice experiments with ultracold fermion atoms and quantum gas microscopy have recently realized direct measurements of magnetic correlations at the site-resolved level. We calculate the short-range spin-correlation functions in the ground state of the two-dimensional repulsive Hubbard model with the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) method. The results are numerically exact at half filling where the fermion sign problem is absent. Away from half filling, we employ the constrained path AFQMC approach to eliminate the exponential computational scaling from the sign problem. The constraint employs unrestricted Hartree-Fock trial wave functions with an effective interaction strength U , which is optimized self-consistently within AFQMC. Large supercells are studied, with twist averaged boundary conditions as needed, to reach the thermodynamic limit. We find that the nearest-neighbor spin correlation always increases with the interaction strength U , contrary to the finite-temperature behavior where a maximum is reached at a finite U value. We also observe a change of sign in the next-nearest-neighbor spin correlation with increasing density, which is a consequence of the buildup of the long-range antiferromagnetic correlation. We expect the results presented in this paper to serve as a benchmark as lower temperatures are reached in ultracold atom experiments.
Levashov, V A; Stepanov, M G
2016-01-01
Considerations of local atomic-level stresses associated with each atom represent a particular approach to address structures of disordered materials at the atomic level. We studied structural correlations in a two-dimensional model liquid using molecular dynamics simulations in the following way. We diagonalized the atomic-level stress tensor of every atom and investigated correlations between the eigenvalues and orientations of the eigenvectors of different atoms as a function of distance between them. It is demonstrated that the suggested approach can be used to characterize structural correlations in disordered materials. In particular, we found that changes in the stress correlation functions on decrease of temperature are the most pronounced for the pairs of atoms with separation distance that corresponds to the first minimum in the pair density function. We also show that the angular dependencies of the stress correlation functions previously reported by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 91, 032301 (2015)10.1103/PhysRevE.91.032301] do not represent the anisotropic Eshelby's stress fields, as it is suggested, but originate in the rotational properties of the stress tensors.
Takahashi, Kei; Kabashima, Fumie; Tsuchiya, Fumihiko
2016-03-01
Japanese sake is a traditional alcoholic beverage composed of a wide variety of metabolites, which give it many types of tastes and flavors. Previously, we have reported that medium-chain fatty acids contribute to a fatty odor in sake (Takahashi, K., et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., 62, 8478-8485, 2014). In this study, we have reanalyzed the data obtained using two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The relationship between the chemical components in sake and specific organoleptic properties such as off-flavor and quality has been explored. This led to the identification of the type of chemical compounds present and an assessment of the numerous candidate compounds that correlate with such organoleptic properties in sake. This research provides important fundamental knowledge for the sake-brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Eric Y.; Rieppo, Jarno
2006-11-01
This paper explores a new application of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) in FTIR spectroscopic imaging analysis of biological samples. A particular example demonstrated in this paper is the characterization of concentration gradients of collagen and proteoglycans in human patellar cartilage. A focal plane array detector-based FTIR imaging system has been proven to be an efficient tool to detect early collagen and proteoglycans degradation in developing osteoarthrosis through evaluating compositional changes of osteoarthritic cartilage along the depth. However, the closely overlapped bands of collagen and proteoglycans make normal spectral and spatial analysis difficult. With 2DCOS analysis of the imaging data, it is possible to enhance the spectral resolution and reveal distinctive compositional changes that are normally hidden with conventional approaches. The combined technique, FTIR imaging enhanced with 2DCOS, provides new possibilities to solve challenging problems in the analysis of complex biological systems.
Large-scale genomic 2D visualization reveals extensive CG-AT skew correlation in bird genomes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deng Xuemei
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird genomes have very different compositional structure compared with other warm-blooded animals. The variation in the base skew rules in the vertebrate genomes remains puzzling, but it must relate somehow to large-scale genome evolution. Current research is inclined to relate base skew with mutations and their fixation. Here we wish to explore base skew correlations in bird genomes, to develop methods for displaying and quantifying such correlations at different scales, and to discuss possible explanations for the peculiarities of the bird genomes in skew correlation. Results We have developed a method called Base Skew Double Triangle (BSDT for exhibiting the genome-scale change of AT/CG skew as a two-dimensional square picture, showing base skews at many scales simultaneously in a single image. By this method we found that most chicken chromosomes have high AT/CG skew correlation (symmetry in 2D picture, except for some microchromosomes. No other organisms studied (18 species show such high skew correlations. This visualized high correlation was validated by three kinds of quantitative calculations with overlapping and non-overlapping windows, all indicating that chicken and birds in general have a special genome structure. Similar features were also found in some of the mammal genomes, but clearly much weaker than in chickens. We presume that the skew correlation feature evolved near the time that birds separated from other vertebrate lineages. When we eliminated the repeat sequences from the genomes, the AT and CG skews correlation increased for some mammal genomes, but were still clearly lower than in chickens. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSDT is an expressive visualization method for AT and CG skew and enabled the discovery of the very high skew correlation in bird genomes; this peculiarity is worth further study. Computational analysis indicated that this correlation might be a compositional characteristic
Binding energy of two-dimensional biexcitons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Singh, Jai; Birkedal, Dan; Vadim, Lyssenko;
1996-01-01
Using a model structure for a two-dimensional (2D) biexciton confined in a quantum well, it is shown that the form of the Hamiltonian of the 2D biexciton reduces into that of an exciton. The binding energies and Bohr radii of a 2D biexciton in its various internal energy states are derived...... analytically using the fractional dimension approach. The ratio of the binding energy of a 2D biexciton to that of a 2D exciton is found to be 0.228, which agrees very well with the recent experimental value. The results of our approach are compared with those of earlier theories....
Ma, Fang; Zhang, Fang; Tang, Jin; Chen, Ping; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin
2014-02-01
Different geographical regions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), its chemical composition is different, the accumulation of drug and medicinal properties is different. The accurate identification and analysis of different production area of medicinal herbs is critical for the quality control and pharmacological research of TCM. In this paper, a tri-step infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with second derivative spectra and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-COS) were employed to identify and analyze the main components of Hubei (HB), Anhui (AH), Yun-nan (YN) genuine Poria Cocos peels. The emergence of several characteristic absorption peaks of carbohydrates including 1149, 1079 1036 cm(-1), peaks around 1619, 1315, 780 cm(-1) belonged to calcium oxalate suggested that HB and AH Poria Cocos peels contained calcium oxalate, but peaks around 797, 779, 537, 470 cm(-1) belonged to kaoline suggested that YN Poria Cocos peels contained kaoline. Their carbohydrates were different by comparing the second derivative infrared spectra in the range of 1640-450 cm(-1) and Yongping come from YN contains both calcium oxalate and kaoline. Furthermore, the above differences were visually validated by two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify Poria Cocos peels from different geographical regions and subsequently would be applicable to explain the relevance of geographical regions and medicinal properties for the TCM.
Mao, J D; Xing, B; Schmidt-Rohr, K
2001-05-15
New information on the chemical structure of a peat humic acid has been obtained using a series of two-dimensional 1H-13C heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR (HETCOR) experiments with different contact times and with spectral editing by dipolar dephasing and 13C transverse relaxation filtering. Carbon-bonded methyl groups (C-CH3) are found to be near both aliphatic and O-alkyl but not aromatic groups. The spectra prove that most OCH3 groups are connected directly with the aromatic rings, as is typical in lignin. As a result, about one-third of the aromatic C-O groups is not phenolic C-OH but C-OCH3. Both protonated and unprotonated anomeric O-C-O carbons are identified in the one- and two-dimensional spectra. COO groups are found predominantly in OCHn-COO environments, but some are also bonded to aromatic rings and aliphatic groups. All models of humic acids in the literature lack at least some of the features observed here. Compositional heterogeneity was studied by introducing 1H spin diffusion into the HETCOR experiment. Comparison with data for a synthetic polymer, polycarbonate, indicates that the separation between O-alkyl and aromatic groups in the humic acid is less than 1.5 nm. However, transverse 13C relaxation filtering under 1H decoupling reveals heterogeneity on a nanometer scale, with the slow-relaxing component being rich in lignin-like aromatic-C-O-CH3 moieties and poor in COO groups.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng
2016-02-01
During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.
Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng
2016-02-01
During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.
Guo, Yizhen; Lv, Beiran; Wang, Jingjuan; Liu, Yang; Sun, Suqin; Xiao, Yao; Lu, Lina; Xiang, Li; Yang, Yanfang; Qu, Lei; Meng, Qinghong
2016-01-01
As complicated mixture systems, active components of Chuanxiong Rhizoma are very difficult to identify and discriminate. In this paper, the macroscopic IR fingerprint method including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DCOS-IR), was applied to study and identify Chuanxiong raw materials and its different segmented production of HPD-100 macroporous resin. Chuanxiong Rhizoma is rich in sucrose. In the FT-IR spectra, water eluate is more similar to sucrose than the powder and the decoction. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands and combined with the correlation coefficient, concluding that 50% ethanol eluate had more ligustilide than other eluates. Finally, it can be found from 2DCOS-IR spectra that proteins were extracted by ethanol from Chuanxiong decoction by HPD-100 macroporous resin. It was demonstrated that the above three-step infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for quick, non-destructive and effective analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems of traditional Chinese medicines.
Perspective: Two-dimensional resonance Raman spectroscopy
Molesky, Brian P.; Guo, Zhenkun; Cheshire, Thomas P.; Moran, Andrew M.
2016-11-01
Two-dimensional resonance Raman (2DRR) spectroscopy has been developed for studies of photochemical reaction mechanisms and structural heterogeneity in complex systems. The 2DRR method can leverage electronic resonance enhancement to selectively probe chromophores embedded in complex environments (e.g., a cofactor in a protein). In addition, correlations between the two dimensions of the 2DRR spectrum reveal information that is not available in traditional Raman techniques. For example, distributions of reactant and product geometries can be correlated in systems that undergo chemical reactions on the femtosecond time scale. Structural heterogeneity in an ensemble may also be reflected in the 2D spectroscopic line shapes of both reactive and non-reactive systems. In this perspective article, these capabilities of 2DRR spectroscopy are discussed in the context of recent applications to the photodissociation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. We also address key differences between the signal generation mechanisms for 2DRR and off-resonant 2D Raman spectroscopies. Most notably, it has been shown that these two techniques are subject to a tradeoff between sensitivity to anharmonicity and susceptibility to artifacts. Overall, recent experimental developments and applications of the 2DRR method suggest great potential for the future of the technique.
Superfluid phase transition in two-dimensional excitonic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Apinyan, V.; Kopeć, T.K., E-mail: kopec@int.pan.wroc.pl
2014-03-01
We study the superfluid phase transition in the two-dimensional (2D) excitonic system. Employing the extended Falicov–Kimball model (EFKM) and considering the local quantum correlations in the system composed of conduction band electrons and valence band holes we demonstrate the existence of the excitonic insulator (EI) state in the system. We show that at very low temperatures, the particle phase stiffness in the pure-2D excitonic system, governed by the non-local cross correlations, is responsible for the vortex–antivortex binding phase-field state, known as the Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless (BKT) superfluid state. We demonstrate that the existence of excitonic insulator phase is a necessary prerequisite, leading to quasi-long-range order in the 2D excitonic system.
Van den Hove, L E; Meeus, P; Derom, A; Demuynck, H; Verhoef, G E; Vandenberghe, P; Boogaerts, M A
1998-06-01
The distribution of 27 T-, B-, and natural killer-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 40 patients with multiple myeloma (MM), ten patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), and 40 healthy donors was investigated by means of classical univariate statistics and advanced multivariate data-analytical techniques. The latter approach was used to describe, represent, and analyze lymphocyte subset distribution in a two-dimensional correlation biplot, allowing comparison of complex lymphocyte profiles (i.e., compound lymphocyte subset distributions) of individual subjects rather than isolated subset values of selected patient and/or donor groups. The correlation biplot revealed that, in accordance with the univariate statistics, the MM patients were characterized by marked shifts towards CD8+, CD57+, CD62L-, CD(16+56)+, and HLA-DR+ T cells, suggesting in vivo immune activation. The activation profile was most markedly observed in treated MM patients in the advanced disease stage category. The lymphocyte profiles of MGUS patients were heterogeneous, with approximately half of them located in the swarm of MM patients and the other half in the swarm of healthy donors. Although the univariate statistics revealed significant differences between MGUS patients and healthy donors only within the B-cell compartment, the correlation biplot revealed that two MGUS patients clearly had a typical T-cell activation profile similar to that of the MM patients. One MGUS patient with a T-cell activation profile progressed 13 months later to a stage IA MM and required chemotherapy. A marked lymphocyte profile shift in one MM patient was associated with terminal and aggressive disease transformation. Our study illustrates further the practical use of correlation biplots for the detection of aberrant lymphocyte profiles and/or profile shifts in individual patients.
Two-dimensional photonic crystal surfactant detection.
Zhang, Jian-Tao; Smith, Natasha; Asher, Sanford A
2012-08-07
We developed a novel two-dimensional (2-D) crystalline colloidal array photonic crystal sensing material for the visual detection of amphiphilic molecules in water. A close-packed polystyrene 2-D array monolayer was embedded in a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)-based hydrogel film. These 2-D photonic crystals placed on a mirror show intense diffraction that enables them to be used for visual determination of analytes. Binding of surfactant molecules attaches ions to the sensor that swells the PNIPAAm-based hydrogel. The resulting increase in particle spacing red shifts the 2-D diffracted light. Incorporation of more hydrophobic monomers increases the sensitivity to surfactants.
Bera, A. K.; Yusuf, S. M.; Kumar, Amit; Ritter, C.
2017-03-01
The crystal structure, magnetic ground state, and the temperature-dependent microscopic spin-spin correlations of the frustrated honeycomb lattice antiferromagnet N a2C o2Te O6 have been investigated by powder neutron diffraction. A long-range antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering has been found below TN˜24.8 K . The magnetic ground state, determined to be zigzag antiferromagnetic and characterized by a propagation vector k =(1 /2 0 0 ) , occurs due to the competing exchange interactions up to third-nearest neighbors within the honeycomb lattice. The exceptional existence of a limited magnetic correlation length along the c axis (perpendicular to the honeycomb layers in the a b planes) has been found even at 1.8 K, well below the TN˜24.8 K . The observed limited correlation along the c axis is explained by the disorder distribution of the Na ions within the intermediate layers between honeycomb planes. The reduced ordered moments mCo (1 )=2.77 (3 ) μB/C o2 + and mCo (2 )=2.45 (2 ) μB/C o2 + at 1.8 K reflect the persistence of spin fluctuations in the ordered state. Above TN˜24.8 K , the presence of short-range magnetic correlations, manifested by broad diffuse magnetic peaks in the diffraction patterns, has been found. Reverse Monte Carlo analysis of the experimental diffuse magnetic scattering data reveals that the spin correlations are mainly confined within the two-dimensional honeycomb layers (a b plane) with a correlation length of ˜12 Å at 25 K. The nature of the spin arrangements is found to be similar in both the short-range and long-range ordered magnetic states. This implies that the short-range correlation grows with decreasing temperature and leads to the zigzag AFM ordering at T ≤TN . The present study provides a comprehensive picture of the magnetic correlations over the temperature range above and below the TN and their relation to the crystal structure. The role of intermediate soft Na layers on the magnetic coupling between honeycomb planes is
Wu, Yan-Wen; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhao, Jing; Li, Yi; Zhou, Qun
2008-07-01
The extract of Chinese propolis (ECP) has recently been adulterated with that of poplar buds (EPB), because most of ECP is derived from the poplar plant, and ECP and EPB have almost identical chemical compositions. It is very difficult to differentiate them by using the chromatographic methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Therefore, how to effectively discriminate these two mixtures is a problem to be solved urgently. In this paper, a rapid method for discriminating ECP and EPB was established by the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra combined with the two-dimensional infrared correlation (2D IR) analysis. Forty-three ECP and five EPB samples collected from different areas of China were analyzed by the FT-IR spectroscopy. All the ECP and EPB samples tested show similar IR spectral profiles. The significant differences between ECP and EPB appear in the region of 3000-2800 cm -1 of the spectra. Based on such differences, the two species were successfully classified with the soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique. Furthermore, these differences were well validated by a series of temperature-dependent dynamic FT-IR spectra and the corresponding 2D IR plots. The results indicate that the differences in these two natural products are caused by the amounts of long-chain alkyl compounds (including long-chain alkanes, long-chain alkyl esters and long chain alkyl alcohols) in them, rather than the flavonoid compounds, generally recognized as the bioactive substances of propolis. There are much more long-chain alkyl compounds in ECP than those in EPB, and the carbon atoms of the compounds in ECP remain in an order Z-shaped array, but those in EPB are disorder. It suggests that FT-IR and 2D IR spectroscopy can provide a valuable method for the rapid differentiation of similar natural products, ECP and EPB. The IR spectra could directly reflect the integrated chemical
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周志琴; 陈斌; 颜辉
2011-01-01
Various fatty acids of edible vegetable oil are basically the same or similar, but their concentration distributions are different. The absorption peaks, absorption figures and absorption intensity of one - dimensional near infrared spectra of edible vegetable oils were similar to each other. Several kinds of edible vegetable oils, peanut oil, bean oil, rapeseed oil, sesame oil, oil - tea camellia seed oil and olive oil, were analyzed by two-dimensional correlation near - infrared spectroscopy (2D - NIR). The NIR spectra were measured over a temperature range of 50 ~ 160 ℃, with the rise of temperature, the difference was evident in the map of 2D near - infrared correlation spectroscopy in region 5 500 ~ 6 000 cm-1 . Thus, different kinds of edible vegetable oils could be distinguished directly by autopeaks and crosspeaks. The results proved that the combination of 2D correlation analysis and near - infrared spectroscopy allowed a fast and accurate approach for distinguishing edible vegetable oils.%由于食用植物油中各种脂肪酸的组成基本相同或相近,仅存在含量分布的差异,因此食用植物油的一维近红外光谱图的峰位、峰形、峰强没有明显区别.利用傅里叶变换近红外光谱( FT - NIR)结合二维相关分析技术,分析鉴别了几种不同种类的食用植物油.对花生油、大豆油、菜籽油、芝麻油、油茶籽油和橄榄油,在温度挠动(50～160℃)状态下的动态光谱进行二维相关分析,试验证明6种食用植物油随着温度升高,在5 500 ～6 000 cm-1波段范围内建立的二维相关近红外谱图差异比较明显,凭借二维相关谱图上的自动峰和交叉峰可直观地鉴别不同种类的食用植物油,从而证明了利用二维相关近红外光谱分析技术可快速准确鉴别食用植物油的种类.
Chen, Xiaomei; Koenders, Ludger; Parkinson, Simon
2017-03-20
We have mathematically explicated and experimentally demonstrated how a correlation and convolution filter can dramatically suppress the noise that coexists with the scanned topographic signals of two-dimensional (2D) gratings and lattices with 2D perspectives. To realize pitch evaluation, the true peaks' coordinates have been precisely acquired after detecting the local maxima from the filtered signal, followed by image processing. The combination of 2D filtering, local-maxima detecting, and image processing make up the pitch detection (PD) method. It is elucidated that the pitch average, uniformity, rotation angle, and orthogonal angle can be calculated using the PD method. This has been applied to the pitch evaluation of several 2D gratings and lattices, and the results are compared with the results of using the center-of-gravity (CG) and Fourier-transform-based (FT) method. The differences of pitch averages which are produced using the PD, CG, and FT methods are within 1.5 pixels. Moreover, the PD method has also been applied to detect the dense peaks of Si (111) 7×7 surface and the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) basal plane.
Chen, Jian-bo; Sun, Su-qin; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Qun
2014-07-01
Moving-window two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (MW2DCOS) and principal component analysis (PCA) were combined to interpret the time serial infrared spectra. The curing process of an automotive paint sample was tracked by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Score plots of the first and second principal components showed that the curing process contained three stages. Meanwhile, the loading spectra indicated that the solvent was a mixture of aromatic compounds. Absorption peaks which changed significantly in each stage were revealed by auto-peak MW2DCOS. Furthermore, point-line and point-point MW2DCOS demonstrated the time-resolved relationship between absorption peaks from toluene, xylene and resin. In summary, the evaporation of toluene was the first stage of the curing process of this automotive paint sample. Next, the mixture of o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene began to evaporate in the second stage. After the evaporation of the solvent, the solid paint membrane was formed. For the interpretation of the time serial spectra, PCA is useful to estimate the number of significant chemical components and to find out the important turning points of the process, while MW2DCOS can show the changes of the spectral peaks and the relationship between them step by step. The combination of PCA and MW2DCOS is very interesting to extract and display the time-resolved information in the time serial spectra.
Chen, Yi-Hui; Tian, Hui-Lin; Li, Ji-Heng; Li, Guo-Ying
2012-06-01
The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and two dimensional correlation analysis method were applied to study a denaturing process of uncross-linked collagen and cross-linked collagen during varying temperature. It was found that the intensity of typically characteristic absorptions of collagen decreased and its peak shifted to low frequency, The amide II central absorbance peak moved to a lower frequency by about 10 cm(-1), which indicated that the inter-chain hydrogen bonds which stabilized the triple helix conformation of collagen were disrupted during thermal denaturation, resulting in a conformational change. The intensity of auto-peak at 1 515 cm(-1) was maximum, which suggested that the temperature had a big impact on amide II. In comparison with uncross-linked collagen, the intensity of cross-peaks of cross-linked collagen was weaker, which demonstrated that the effect of temperature on the structure of cross-linked collagen was smaller, and the thermal stability properties of collagen solution could be improved by cross-linking. While the order of second structure changes of cross-linked collagen was different. These fundamental data should provide available information for understanding the relationship between the structure and function of cross-linked collagen.
Shi, Jingya; Wu, Peiyi; Yan, Feng
2010-07-06
The intermolecular interaction and distribution of components in [Bmim][BF(4)]-based polystyrene composite membrane which is composed of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim][BF(4)]), poly(1-(2-methyl acryloyloxyundecyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide) (poly(MAUM-Br)) and polystyrene is investigated by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2DIR) in this study. A proposed model about the structure of this composite material is presented, and a sketch map about the local distributions of components is provided. In this model, alkyl chains in [Bmim][BF(4)], poly(MAUM-Br), and polystyrene in this system were supposed to form a polymeric network through aggregation or copolymerization. Cations of ionic liquids separate into the polymer network, while anions are kept mainly through the Coulomb force and partially by the hydrogen bonding between cations and anions. To support this model, FTIR has provided some hints on the pi-pi interaction existing in this complex material between the imidazole ring of ionic liquids and the benzene ring of polystyrene, based on the discovery of the shifts of IR absorption bands assigned to the C-C stretching vibrational mode. The sequential order of the responses from different chemical groups toward the variation of temperature is calculated by 2DIR, and the results suggest how different components distributed in this [Bmim][BF(4)]-based polystyrene composite membrane.
Litvinov, Rustem I; Mekler, Andrey; Shuman, Henry; Bennett, Joel S; Barsegov, Valeri; Weisel, John W
2012-10-12
Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach named binding-unbinding correlation spectroscopy (BUCS), we describe the two-dimensional kinetics of interactions between fibrinogen and the integrin αIIbβ3, the ligand-receptor pair essential for platelet function during hemostasis and thrombosis. The methodology uses the optical trap to probe force-free association of individual surface-attached fibrinogen and αIIbβ3 molecules and forced dissociation of an αIIbβ3-fibrinogen complex. This novel approach combines force clamp measurements of bond lifetimes with the binding mode to quantify the dependence of the binding probability on the interaction time. We found that fibrinogen-reactive αIIbβ3 pre-exists in at least two states that differ in their zero force on-rates (k(on1) = 1.4 × 10(-4) and k(on2) = 2.3 × 10(-4) μm(2)/s), off-rates (k(off1) = 2.42 and k(off2) = 0.60 s(-1)), and dissociation constants (K(d)(1) = 1.7 × 10(4) and K(d)(2) = 2.6 × 10(3) μm(-2)). The integrin activator Mn(2+) changed the on-rates and affinities (K(d)(1) = 5 × 10(4) and K(d)(2) = 0.3 × 10(3) μm(-2)) but did not affect the off-rates. The strength of αIIbβ3-fibrinogen interactions was time-dependent due to a progressive increase in the fraction of the high affinity state of the αIIbβ3-fibrinogen complex characterized by a faster on-rate. Upon Mn(2+)-induced integrin activation, the force-dependent off-rates decrease while the complex undergoes a conformational transition from a lower to higher affinity state. The results obtained provide quantitative estimates of the two-dimensional kinetic rates for the low and high affinity αIIbβ3 and fibrinogen interactions at the single molecule level and offer direct evidence for the time- and force-dependent changes in αIIbβ3 conformation and ligand binding activity, underlying the dynamics of fibrinogen-mediated platelet adhesion and aggregation.
Two-dimensional Kagome photonic bandgap waveguide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Søndergaard, Thomas; Libori, Stig E. Barkou;
2000-01-01
The transverse-magnetic photonic-bandgap-guidance properties are investigated for a planar two-dimensional (2-D) Kagome waveguide configuration using a full-vectorial plane-wave-expansion method. Single-moded well-localized low-index guided modes are found. The localization of the optical modes...... is investigated with respect to the width of the 2-D Kagome waveguide, and the number of modes existing for specific frequencies and waveguide widths is mapped out....
Fast 2D Convolutions and Cross-Correlations Using Scalable Architectures.
Carranza, Cesar; Llamocca, Daniel; Pattichis, Marios
2017-05-01
The manuscript describes fast and scalable architectures and associated algorithms for computing convolutions and cross-correlations. The basic idea is to map 2D convolutions and cross-correlations to a collection of 1D convolutions and cross-correlations in the transform domain. This is accomplished through the use of the discrete periodic radon transform for general kernels and the use of singular value decomposition -LU decompositions for low-rank kernels. The approach uses scalable architectures that can be fitted into modern FPGA and Zynq-SOC devices. Based on different types of available resources, for P×P blocks, 2D convolutions and cross-correlations can be computed in just O(P) clock cycles up to O(P(2)) clock cycles. Thus, there is a trade-off between performance and required numbers and types of resources. We provide implementations of the proposed architectures using modern programmable devices (Virtex-7 and Zynq-SOC). Based on the amounts and types of required resources, we show that the proposed approaches significantly outperform current methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
崔彩路; 杨仁杰; 朱文碧; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 张伟玉
2015-01-01
The discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were constructed using two-dimensional (2D) infrared correlation spectroscopy by PARAFAC and multivariable linear regression (MLR). First, a total of 96 samples including 48 pure milk samples and three types of adulterated milk (16 melamine-tainted milk, 16 urea-tainted milk, and 16 tetracycline-tainted milk) were prepared. The concentration ranges of all adulterants were 0.01~0.30 g⋅L-1. The mid-infrared spectra of all samples were measured in the regions of 900~1 700 cm-1. Then, the synchronous 2D correlation spectra of all samples were calculated in the region between 900~1 200 cm-1 and 1 200~1 700 cm-1. The 2D correlation spectra of all samples were analyzed based on trilinear decomposition using PARAFAC. Finally, the discriminant models for melamine-tainted milk, urea-tainted milk and tetracycline-tainted milk were constructed combined score matrix extracted from 2D correlation spectra using PARAFAC with MLR. The unknown samples were predicted using the constructed models in prediction set. The results show that using a combination of 2D IR correlation spectra and PARAFAC-MLR is an effective analytical method for the classification of adulterated milk and pure milk.%将二维相关红外谱与平行因子、多元线性回归方法相结合，建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型。采集48个合格牛奶样品，配置浓度范围均为0.01～0.30 g/L的掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶、掺杂尿素牛奶和掺杂四环素牛奶各16个，并在900～1700 cm-1采集各样品的常规一维谱。对各样品在900～1200 cm-1与1200～1700 cm-1进行同步二维相关计算，构建了纯牛奶与掺杂牛奶的二维红外相关谱。采用平行因子算法对所有样品二维相关谱构成的三维矩阵进行三线性分解，得到其得分矩阵。在此基础上，将其得分矩阵与多元线性回归方法相结合，分别建立了掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶、掺杂尿素牛奶、掺
Monitoring the staling of wheat bread using 2D MIR-NIR correlation spectroscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ringsted, Tine; Siesler, Heinz Wilhelm; Engelsen, Søren Balling
2017-01-01
Staling of bread is a major source of food waste and efficient monitoring of it can help the food industry in the development of anti-staling recipes. While the staling fingerprint in the mid-infrared region is fairly well established this paper set out to find the most informative parts of the n......Staling of bread is a major source of food waste and efficient monitoring of it can help the food industry in the development of anti-staling recipes. While the staling fingerprint in the mid-infrared region is fairly well established this paper set out to find the most informative parts...... of the near-infrared spectra with respect to staling. For this purpose, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy on near- and mid-infrared spectra of wheat bread crumb during aging was employed for the first time. The important mid-infrared absorption band at 1047 cm−1 related to amylopectin retrogradation...... was found to correlate positively with increased bread hardness and to co-vary with the near-infrared band at 910 nm in the short wavelength region (r2 = 0.88 to hardness), the near-infrared band at 1688 nm in the 1. overtone region (r2 = 0.97 to hardness) and to the near-infrared band in the long...
Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials
Wu, Tao
2015-02-25
Powering up 2D materials: Recent experimental studies confirmed the existence of piezoelectricity - the conversion of mechanical stress into electricity - in two-dimensional single-layer MoS2 nanosheets. The results represent a milestone towards embedding low-dimensional materials into future disruptive technologies. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, Jose; Stampfer, Christoph
2017-01-01
in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2...
Osserman, Robert
2011-01-01
The basic component of several-variable calculus, two-dimensional calculus is vital to mastery of the broader field. This extensive treatment of the subject offers the advantage of a thorough integration of linear algebra and materials, which aids readers in the development of geometric intuition. An introductory chapter presents background information on vectors in the plane, plane curves, and functions of two variables. Subsequent chapters address differentiation, transformations, and integration. Each chapter concludes with problem sets, and answers to selected exercises appear at the end o
Juday, Richard D. (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A two-dimensional vernier scale is disclosed utilizing a cartesian grid on one plate member with a polar grid on an overlying transparent plate member. The polar grid has multiple concentric circles at a fractional spacing of the spacing of the cartesian grid lines. By locating the center of the polar grid on a location on the cartesian grid, interpolation can be made of both the X and Y fractional relationship to the cartesian grid by noting which circles coincide with a cartesian grid line for the X and Y direction.
A discrete Fourier-encoded, diagonal-free experiment to simplify homonuclear 2D NMR correlations
Huang, Zebin; Guan, Quanshuai; Chen, Zhong; Frydman, Lucio; Lin, Yulan
2017-07-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has long served as an irreplaceable, versatile tool in physics, chemistry, biology, and materials sciences, owing to its ability to study molecular structure and dynamics in detail. In particular, the connectivity of chemical sites within molecules, and thereby molecular structure, becomes visible by multi-dimensional NMR. Homonuclear correlation experiments are a powerful tool for identifying coupled spins. Generally, diagonal peaks in these correlation spectra display the strongest intensities and do not offer any new information beyond the standard one-dimensional spectrum, whereas weaker, symmetrically placed cross peaks contain most of the coupling information. The cross peaks near the diagonal are often affected by the tails of strong diagonal peaks or even obscured entirely by the diagonal. In this paper, we demonstrate a homonuclear encoding approach based on imparting a discrete phase modulation of the targeted cross peaks and combine it with a site-selective sculpting scheme, capable of simplifying the patterns arising in these 2D correlation spectra. The theoretical principles of the new methods are laid out, and experimental observations are rationalized on the basis of theoretical analyses. The ensuing techniques provide a new way to retrieve 2D coupling information within homonuclear spin systems, with enhanced sensitivity, speed, and clarity.
Cai, Fang; Sun, Su-qin; Yan, Wen-rong; Niu, Shi-jie; Li, Xian-en
2009-09-01
The genuine and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora) were examined in terms of their differences by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation IR spectroscopy. The three species were shown very similar in FTIR spectra. The peak of 1318 cm(-1) of genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae is not obvious but this peak could be found sharp in Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora. Generally, the second derivative IR spectrum can clearly enhance the spectral resolution. Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos rosae Chinensis have aromatic compounds distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 617 and 1 618 cm(-1), respectively. Nevertheless, FlosRosa multiflora has the peak at 1612 cm(-1). There is a discrepancy of 5 to 6 cm(-1). FlosRosa multiflora has glucide's distinct fingerprint characteristics at 1 044 cm(-1), but Flos Rosae Rugosae and Flos Rosae Chinensis don't. The second derivative infrared spectra indicated different fingerprint characteristics. Three of them showed aromatic compounds with autopeaks at 1620, 1560 and 1460 cm(-1). Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora have the shoulder peak at 1660 cm(-1). In the range of 850-1250 cm(-1), three of them are distinct different, Flos Rosae Rugosae has the strongest autopeak, Flos Rosae Chinensis has the feeble autopeak and Flos Rosa multiflora has no autopeak at 1050 cm(-1). In third-step identification, the different contents of aromatic compounds and glucide in Flos Rosae Rugosae, Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora were revealed. It is proved that the method is fast and effective for distinguishing and analyzing genuine Flos Rosae Rugosae and false Flos Rosae Rugosae (Flos Rosae Chinensis and Flos Rosa multiflora).
Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage
Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Gogotsi, Yury
2017-07-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. We also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.
Two-dimensional x-ray diffraction
He, Bob B
2009-01-01
Written by one of the pioneers of 2D X-Ray Diffraction, this useful guide covers the fundamentals, experimental methods and applications of two-dimensional x-ray diffraction, including geometry convention, x-ray source and optics, two-dimensional detectors, diffraction data interpretation, and configurations for various applications, such as phase identification, texture, stress, microstructure analysis, crystallinity, thin film analysis and combinatorial screening. Experimental examples in materials research, pharmaceuticals, and forensics are also given. This presents a key resource to resea
Szwed, Joanna; Cieślik-Boczula, Katarzyna; Czarnik-Matusewicz, Bogusława; Jaszczyszyn, Agata; Gąsiorowski, Kazimierz; Świątek, Piotr; Malinka, Wiesław
2010-06-01
The effect of incorporating fluphenazine (FPh) into the dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) multibilayers was studied by means of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectra. DPPC is used as a model membrane that mimics the organization of lipids in biological membranes and their interaction with FPh. ATR-IR spectra for both DPPC dry film alone and the film doped with FPh were recorded as a function of temperature to provide information about the interaction between FPh molecules and DPPC lipid. The chain-melting phase-transition temperature changes are strictly correlated with the conformational order of the lipid hydrocarbon chains. To gain deeper insight into the accompanying spectral changes, we employed moving-window 2D correlation spectroscopy. Subdividing all the measurements from 10 to 90 °C into 20° subsets enables a detailed identification of spectral features induced by embedding FPh into DPPC multilayers. Moving-window analysis of the power spectra for the ν asym,symCH 2, δ sCH 2, and δ rCH 2 vibrations provides evidence that FPh is embedded in the region between the bilayers, penetrating their hydrophilic part, which destabilizes the interchain interaction. Above 60 °C the FPh-DPPC system reaches the liquid crystalline phase with the well-established location of FPh. A further temperature increase to 90 °C has little effect on the intrachain conformational order and the packing character of the FPh-DPPC system in the liquid crystalline phase. In addition, FPh hinders the formation of large domains. Comparison of the moving-window analysis done by using slice spectra for DPPC and FPh-doped DPPC dry film for ν asym,symCH 2, νC dbnd O, and νPO2- shows that the interaction between the DPPC and FPh molecules is accompanied by very distinct spectral changes located in a both lower and narrower temperature range than those observed in pure DPPC film.
Pan, Bing; Yu, Liping; Wu, Dafang
2014-02-01
The ideal pinhole imaging model commonly assumed for an ordinary two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) system is neither perfect nor stable because of the existence of small out-of-plane motion of the test sample surface that occurred after loading, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target due to temperature variation of a camera and unavoidable geometric distortion of an imaging lens. In certain cases, these disadvantages can lead to significant errors in the measured displacements and strains. Although a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens has been strongly recommended to be used in the 2D-DIC system as an essential optical component to achieve high-accuracy measurement, it is not generally applicable due to its fixed field of view, limited depth of focus and high cost. To minimize the errors associated with the imperfectness and instability of a common 2D-DIC system using a low-cost imaging lens, a generalized compensation method using a non-deformable reference sample is proposed in this work. With the proposed method, the displacement of the reference sample rigidly attached behind the test sample is first measured using 2D-DIC, and then it is fitted using a parametric model. The fitted parametric model is then used to correct the displacements of the deformed sample to remove the influences of these unfavorable factors. The validity of the proposed compensation method is first verified using out-of-plane translation, out-of-plane rotation, in-plane translation tests and their combinations. Uniaxial tensile tests of an aluminum specimen were also performed to quantitatively examine the strain accuracy of the proposed compensation method. Experiments show that the proposed compensation method is an easy-to-implement yet effective technique for achieving high-accuracy deformation measurement using an ordinary 2D-DIC system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU Quan; TIAN Qiang
2007-01-01
Two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers in discrete two-dimensional monatomic square lattices are investigated by discussing a generafized discrete two-dimensional monatomic model.It is proven that the twodimensional compact-like discrete breathers exist not only in two-dimensional soft Ф4 potentials but also in hard two-dimensional Ф4 potentials and pure two-dimensional K4 lattices.The measurements of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breather cores in soft and hard two-dimensional Ф4 potential are determined by coupling parameter K4,while those in pure two-dimensional K4 lattices have no coupling with parameter K4.The stabilities of the two-dimensional compact-like discrete breathers correlate closely to the coupling parameter K4 and the boundary condition of lattices.
Two-dimensional optical spectroscopy
Cho, Minhaeng
2009-01-01
Discusses the principles and applications of two-dimensional vibrational and optical spectroscopy techniques. This book provides an account of basic theory required for an understanding of two-dimensional vibrational and electronic spectroscopy.
2014-09-26
Isihara and Y. Nalane, Elementary Excitations and Energy Dispersion in TTF-TCNQ;Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors ...Abano Terme, Molec. Crys. Liq. Crys. 120, 85 (1984). One-dimensiona4 conductors such as TTF-TCNQ are attracting considerable attention for their...A. Isihara and Y. Nakane; Magnetoconductivity of 2D Conductors ; Proc. Internat. Conf. on Phys. and Chem. of Low-Dimen. Syn. Conductors , Abano Terme
A 2D correlation Raman spectroscopy analysis of a human cataractous lens
Sacharz, Julia; Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Chaniecki, Piotr; Błażewicz, Marta
2016-11-01
This work is a continuation of our study of a cataractous human eye lens removed after phacoemulsification surgery. There are clear differences in the lens colors that allowed for distinguishing two opaque phases in the obtained biological material: the white- and yellow-phase. The Raman spectroscopy and 2D correlation spectroscopy method were used to trace a pathologically altered human cataract lens at a molecular level. Although the Raman spectra of these two phases are relatively similar, taking advantage of 2D correlation, and considering time as an external perturbation, the synchronous and asynchronous spectra were obtained showing completely different patterns. Prominent synchronous auto-peaks appear at 3340, 2920, 1736, 1665 and 1083 cm-1 for the white-, and at 2929 and 1670 cm-1 for the yellow phase. The white phase is characterized by intensive asynchronous peaks at -(2936, 3360), -(1650, 1674) and +(1620,1678). The modifications in the water contained in the white phase structure are ahead of the changes in the protein (CH3-groups), furthermore changes in β-conformation are asynchronous with respect to the α-structure. The yellow phase demonstrates asynchronous peaks: +(2857, 2928), +(1645,1673), +(1663, 1679), and +(1672,1707). These illustrate concomitant modifications in the β- and unordered conformation. Both forms of cataractous human eye lens, white- and yellow-phases, are degenerate forms of the eye lens proteins, both are arranged in a different way. The main differences are observed for the amide I, methyl, methylene and Osbnd H vibrational band region. The effect of Asp, Glu and Tyr amino acids in cataractous lens transformations was observed.
In-die photomask registration and overlay metrology with PROVE using 2D correlation methods
Seidel, D.; Arnz, M.; Beyer, D.
2011-11-01
According to the ITRS roadmap, semiconductor industry drives the 193nm lithography to its limits, using techniques like double exposure, double patterning, mask-source optimization and inverse lithography. For photomask metrology this translates to full in-die measurement capability for registration and critical dimension together with challenging specifications for repeatability and accuracy. Especially, overlay becomes more and more critical and must be ensured on every die. For this, Carl Zeiss SMS has developed the next generation photomask registration and overlay metrology tool PROVE® which serves the 32nm node and below and which is already well established in the market. PROVE® features highly stable hardware components for the stage and environmental control. To ensure in-die measurement capability, sophisticated image analysis methods based on 2D correlations have been developed. In this paper we demonstrate the in-die capability of PROVE® and present corresponding measurement results for shortterm and long-term measurements as well as the attainable accuracy for feature sizes down to 85nm using different illumination modes and mask types. Standard measurement methods based on threshold criteria are compared with the new 2D correlation methods to demonstrate the performance gain of the latter. In addition, mask-to-mask overlay results of typical box-in-frame structures down to 200nm feature size are presented. It is shown, that from overlay measurements a reproducibility budget can be derived that takes into account stage, image analysis and global effects like mask loading and environmental control. The parts of the budget are quantified from measurement results to identify critical error contributions and to focus on the corresponding improvement strategies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mora Melendez, R.; Seguro Fernandez, A.; Iborra Oquendo, M.; Urena Llinares, A.
2013-07-01
The main objective of our study is to find correction factors dependent on the 2D array incidence angles, and to give account of the phenomenon, allowing the Planner to faithfully reproduce data and curves measured experimentally. (Author)
Ab Initio Prediction of Piezoelectricity in Two-Dimensional Materials.
Blonsky, Michael N; Zhuang, Houlong L; Singh, Arunima K; Hennig, Richard G
2015-10-27
Two-dimensional (2D) materials present many unique materials concepts, including material properties that sometimes differ dramatically from those of their bulk counterparts. One of these properties, piezoelectricity, is important for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems applications. Using symmetry analysis, we determine the independent piezoelectric coefficients for four groups of predicted and synthesized 2D materials. We calculate with density-functional perturbation theory the stiffness and piezoelectric tensors of these materials. We determine the in-plane piezoelectric coefficient d11 for 37 materials within the families of 2D metal dichalcogenides, metal oxides, and III-V semiconductor materials. A majority of the structures, including CrSe2, CrTe2, CaO, CdO, ZnO, and InN, have d11 coefficients greater than 5 pm/V, a typical value for bulk piezoelectric materials. Our symmetry analysis shows that buckled 2D materials exhibit an out-of-plane coefficient d31. We find that d31 for 8 III-V semiconductors ranges from 0.02 to 0.6 pm/V. From statistical analysis, we identify correlations between the piezoelectric coefficients and the electronic and structural properties of the 2D materials that elucidate the origin of the piezoelectricity. Among the 37 2D materials, CdO, ZnO, and CrTe2 stand out for their combination of large piezoelectric coefficient and low formation energy and are recommended for experimental exploration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doria, Andre S. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia; Rebelo, Marina de Sa [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Informatica; Castro, Claudio Campi de [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica] [and others
2000-06-01
In this cross-sectional study in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis the authors compare two-dimensional evaluation of the maximum synovial diameter on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SE (spin-echo) sequences with volumetric (three-dimensional assessment) on post-contrast axial T1-weighted SPIR (spectral presaturation with inversion recovery) SE sequences. With the aim of determining their cost-effectiveness these two methods of assessment were compared to clinical and laboratorial parameters, as well as the presence of synovial enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging. (author)
Kehimkar, Benjamin; Hoggard, Jamin C; Marney, Luke C; Billingsley, Matthew C; Fraga, Carlos G; Bruno, Thomas J; Synovec, Robert E
2014-01-31
There is an increased need to more fully assess and control the composition of kerosene-based rocket propulsion fuels such as RP-1. In particular, it is critical to make better quantitative connections among the following three attributes: fuel performance (thermal stability, sooting propensity, engine specific impulse, etc.), fuel properties (such as flash point, density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and hydrogen content), and the chemical composition of a given fuel, i.e., amounts of specific chemical compounds and compound classes present in a fuel as a result of feedstock blending and/or processing. Recent efforts in predicting fuel chemical and physical behavior through modeling put greater emphasis on attaining detailed and accurate fuel properties and fuel composition information. Often, one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is employed to provide chemical composition information. Building on approaches that used GC-MS, but to glean substantially more chemical information from these complex fuels, we recently studied the use of comprehensive two dimensional (2D) gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) using a "reversed column" format: RTX-wax column for the first dimension, and a RTX-1 column for the second dimension. In this report, by applying chemometric data analysis, specifically partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we are able to readily model (and correlate) the chemical compositional information provided by use of GC×GC-TOFMS to RP-1 fuel property information such as density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, and so on. Furthermore, we readily identified compounds that contribute significantly to measured differences in fuel properties based on results from the PLS models. We anticipate this new chemical analysis strategy will have broad implications for the development of high fidelity composition-property models, leading to an
Two-dimensional effects in nonlinear Kronig-Penney models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Rasmussen, Kim
1997-01-01
An analysis of two-dimensional (2D) effects in the nonlinear Kronig-Penney model is presented. We establish an effective one-dimensional description of the 2D effects, resulting in a set of pseudodifferential equations. The stationary states of the 2D system and their stability is studied...
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M.; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-01
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
A two-dimensional Dirac fermion microscope.
Bøggild, Peter; Caridad, José M; Stampfer, Christoph; Calogero, Gaetano; Papior, Nick Rübner; Brandbyge, Mads
2017-06-09
The electron microscope has been a powerful, highly versatile workhorse in the fields of material and surface science, micro and nanotechnology, biology and geology, for nearly 80 years. The advent of two-dimensional materials opens new possibilities for realizing an analogy to electron microscopy in the solid state. Here we provide a perspective view on how a two-dimensional (2D) Dirac fermion-based microscope can be realistically implemented and operated, using graphene as a vacuum chamber for ballistic electrons. We use semiclassical simulations to propose concrete architectures and design rules of 2D electron guns, deflectors, tunable lenses and various detectors. The simulations show how simple objects can be imaged with well-controlled and collimated in-plane beams consisting of relativistic charge carriers. Finally, we discuss the potential of such microscopes for investigating edges, terminations and defects, as well as interfaces, including external nanoscale structures such as adsorbed molecules, nanoparticles or quantum dots.
Mecozzi, Mauro; Pietrantonio, Eva; Pietroletti, Marco
2009-01-01
In this paper the marine organic matter soluble in an alkaline medium called extractable humic substance (EHS), was extracted from three sediment samples of Tyrrhenian Sea and separated by precipitation at pH 2 in the two fractions of fulvic acids (FAs) and humic acids (HAs). FAs were further fractionated in seven sub-samples of different molecular weight (mw) by means of seven different ultrafiltration membranes operating in the range between mw 100 kDa. Then the qualitative composition of each sample of fractionated FAs and HAs was studied by means of one-dimensional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode (FTIR-DRIFT) and by two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy both in wavelength-wavelength (WW) and in sample-sample (SS) mode. The application of 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to elucidate the different roles played by carbohydrates and proteins with respect to some lipid compounds such as fatty acids and ester fatty acids during the process of aggregate formations from mw ˜1 kDa to higher size aggregates. In addition, 2D correlation WW spectroscopy allows to observe some peculiar interactions between carbohydrates and proteins in the formation of EHS aggregates, interactions which vary from a sample to another sample. The results of 2D correlation SS spectroscopy confirm the general evidences obtained by 2D WW spectroscopy and moreover, they also describe the formation of EHS aggregates as a complex process where evolutionary links and connectivity between aggregates of neighbour molecular size ranges are not evident. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy applied to FTIR spectroscopy shows to be a powerful tool for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in EHS aggregation because it supports the acquisition of structural information which sometimes can be hardly obtained by one-dimensional FTIR spectroscopy.
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Liu, Zhirong
2016-01-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon scattering was theoretically studied with the deformation potential theory. Based on Boltzmann equation with relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was deduced, which shows that the influence of effective mass to the mobility anisotropy is larger than that of deformation potential constant and elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic 2D materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC$_2$N, MXene, TiS$_3$, GeCH$_3$) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio was overestimated in the past.
Zhang, Fang-Da; Xu, Chang-Hua; Li, Ming-Yu; Huang, An-Min; Sun, Su-Qin
2014-07-01
Since Pterocarpus santalinus and Dalbergia louvelii, which are of precious Rosewood, are very similar in their appearance and anatomy characteristics, cheaper Hongmu D. louvelii is often illegally used to impersonate valuable P. santalinus, especially in Chinese furniture manufacture. In order to develop a rapid and effective method for easy confused wood furniture differentiation, we applied tri-step identification method, i.e., conventional infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative infrared (SD-IR) spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared (2DCOS-IR) spectroscopy to investigate P. santalinus and D. louvelii furniture. According to FT-IR and SD-IR spectra, it has been found two unconditional stable difference at 848 cm-1 and 700 cm-1 and relative stable differences at 1735 cm-1, 1623 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, 1602 cm-1, 1509 cm-1, 1456 cm-1, 1200 cm-1, 1158 cm-1, 1055 cm-1, 1034 cm-1 and 895 cm-1 between D. louvelii and P. santalinus IR spectra. The stable discrepancy indicates that the category of extractives is different between the two species. Besides, the relative stable differences imply that the content of holocellulose in P. santalinus is more than that of D. louvelii, whereas the quantity of extractives in D. louvelii is higher. Furthermore, evident differences have been observed in their 2DCOS-IR spectra of 1550-1415 cm-1 and 1325-1030 cm-1. P. santalinus has two strong auto-peaks at 1459 cm-1 and 1467 cm-1, three mid-strong auto-peaks at 1518 cm-1, 1089 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1 and five weak auto-peaks at 1432 cm-1, 1437 cm-1, 1046 cm-1, 1056 cm-1 and 1307 cm-1 while D. louvelii has four strong auto-peaks at 1465 cm-1, 1523 cm-1, 1084 cm-1 and 1100 cm-1, four mid-strong auto-peaks at 1430 cm-1, 1499 cm-1, 1505 cm-1 and 1056 cm-1 and two auto-peaks at 1540 cm-1 and 1284 cm-1. This study has proved that FT-IR integrated with 2DCOS-IR could be applicable for precious wood furniture authentication in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.
Oriented Two-Dimensional Porous Organic Cage Crystals.
Jiang, Shan; Song, Qilei; Massey, Alan; Chong, Samantha Y; Chen, Linjiang; Sun, Shijing; Hasell, Tom; Raval, Rasmita; Sivaniah, Easan; Cheetham, Anthony K; Cooper, Andrew I
2017-08-01
The formation of two-dimensional (2D) oriented porous organic cage crystals (consisting of imine-based tetrahedral molecules) on various substrates (such as silicon wafers and glass) by solution-processing is reported. Insight into the crystallinity, preferred orientation, and cage crystal growth was obtained by experimental and computational techniques. For the first time, structural defects in porous molecular materials were observed directly and the defect concentration could be correlated with crystal growth rate. These oriented crystals suggest potential for future applications, such as solution-processable molecular crystalline 2D membranes for molecular separations. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.
2016-08-01
A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.
Isaaz, K; Cloez, J L; Danchin, N; Marçon, F; Worms, A M; Pernot, C
1985-09-15
Evaluation of the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract in congenital heart disease is extremely important for surgical management. Therefore, the value of 2-dimensional echocardiography (2-D echo) to assess the RV outflow tract was studied using a new approach: the subcostal elongated right oblique view. Twenty normal children and 49 children with congenital heart disease, aged 1 day to 11 years, were studied. Significant pulmonary infundibular obstruction was present in 22 patients with conotruncal malformations. To obtain the subcostal elongated right oblique view from the short-axis view at the aortic valve level, the transducer was slightly rotated clockwise with an anterior angulation of about 30 degrees so that the ascending aorta was seen in its long axis, providing an image similar to that obtained by a right ventriculogram in the elongated right anterior oblique view. The deviation of infundibular septum was appreciated by measurement of the angle alpha, defined by the long axis of the infundibular septum and the plane of aortic cusps. This view could be obtained in 64 patients (92%). In correlation with angiographic or anatomic data, the subcostal elongated right oblique view permitted recognition of several types of RV outflow tract: type I--normally formed RV outflow tract; type II--disorganized RV outflow tract with obstruction (alpha less than 90 degrees); type III and IV--disorganized RV outflow tract with obstruction (alpha greater than 90 degrees). This view could visualize the crista supraventricularis in type I, but also the anatomic components of RV outflow tract that may contribute to obstruction in the other types: infundibular septum, septoparietal trabeculations and trabecula septomarginalis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Sun, Yan-Qiong; Zhong, Jie-Cen; Liu, Le-Hui; Qiu, Xing-Tai; Chen, Yi-Ping
2016-11-01
An organo-bismuth benzoate with phen as auxiliary ligand, [Bi(phen)(C6H5COO)(C6H4COO)] (1) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) has been hydrothermally synthesized from bismuth nitrate, 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid with phen as auxiliary ligand and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analyses, PXRD, IR spectra, TG analyses, temperature-depended 2D-IR COS (two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy). Interestingly, benzoate anions in 1 came from the desulfuration reaction of 2-mercaptonbenzoic acid under hydrothermal condition. Compound 1 is a discrete organo-bismuth compound with benzoate and phen ligands. The offset face-to-face π-π stacking interactions and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the isolate complex into a 3D supramolecular network. The temperature-depended 2D-IR COS indicates that the stretching vibrations of Cdbnd C/Cdbnd N of aromatic rings and Cdbnd O bonds are sensitive to the temperature change.
Imaging hemodynamic changes in preterm infant brains with two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography
Gao, Feng; Ma, Yiwen; Yang, Fang; Zhao, Huijuan; Jiang, Jingying; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio
2008-02-01
We present our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2-D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes of two preterm infant brains in different ventilation settings conditions. The investigations use the established two-wavelength, 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection, and the generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that two-dimensional diffuse optical tomography may be a potent and relatively simple way of investigating the functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.
Spatial Correlation of Rain Drop Size Distribution from Polarimetric Radar and 2D-Video Disdrometers
Thurai, Merhala; Bringi, Viswanathan; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Wingo, Matt; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Carey, Lawrence D.
2011-01-01
Spatial correlations of two of the main rain drop-size distribution (DSD) parameters - namely the median-volume diameter (Do) and the normalized intercept parameter (Nw) - as well as rainfall rate (R) are determined from polarimetric radar measurements, with added information from 2D video disdrometer (2DVD) data. Two cases have been considered, (i) a widespread, long-duration rain event in Huntsville, Alabama, and (ii) an event with localized intense rain-cells within a convection line which occurred during the MC3E campaign. For the first case, data from a C-band polarimetric radar (ARMOR) were utilized, with two 2DVDs acting as ground-truth , both being located at the same site 15 km from the radar. The radar was operated in a special near-dwelling mode over the 2DVDs. In the second case, data from an S-band polarimetric radar (NPOL) data were utilized, with at least five 2DVDs located between 20 and 30 km from the radar. In both rain event cases, comparisons of Do, log10(Nw) and R were made between radar derived estimates and 2DVD-based measurements, and were found to be in good agreement, and in both cases, the radar data were subsequently used to determine the spatial correlations For the first case, the spatial decorrelation distance was found to be smallest for R (4.5 km), and largest fo Do (8.2 km). For log10(Nw) it was 7.2 km (Fig. 1). For the second case, the corresponding decorrelation distances were somewhat smaller but had a directional dependence. In Fig. 2, we show an example of Do comparisons between NPOL based estimates and 1-minute DSD based estimates from one of the five 2DVDs.
Díaz-Visurraga, Judith; Daza, Carla; Pozo, Claudio; Becerra, Abraham; von Plessing, Carlos; García, Apolinaria
2012-01-01
Background The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) and sodium alginate (NaAlg) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1) the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2) structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix. Methods Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to studying the stabilization mechanism of Cu NPs by NaAlg molecules. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of stabilized Cu NPs against five bacterial strains (Staphylococccus aureus ATCC 6538P, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and O157: H7, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 and 14028) were evaluated with macrodilution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Díaz-Visurraga J
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Judith Díaz-Visurraga,1,2 Carla Daza,2 Claudio Pozo,2 Abraham Becerra,2 Carlos von Plessing,1,2 Apolinaria García31Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion; 2Research Center of Advanced Polymers (CIPA, CONICYT REGIONAL/CIPA R08C1002; 3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepción, ChileBackground: The objective of this study was to clarify the intermolecular interaction between antibacterial copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs and sodium alginate (NaAlg by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and to process the spectra applying two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR correlation analysis. To our knowledge, the addition of NaAlg as a stabilizer of copper nanoparticles has not been previously reported. It is expected that the obtained results will provide valuable additional information on: (1 the influence of reducing agent ratio on the formation of copper nanoparticles in order to design functional nanomaterials with increased antibacterial activity, and (2 structural changes related to the incorporation of Cu NPs into the polymer matrix.Methods: Cu NPs were prepared by microwave heating using ascorbic acid as reducing agent and NaAlg as stabilizing agent. The characterization of synthesized Cu NPs by ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electron diffraction analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and semiquantitative analysis of the weight percentage composition indicated that the average particle sizes of Cu NPs are about 3–10 nm, they are spherical in shape, and consist of zerovalent Cu and Cu2O. Also, crystallite size and relative particle size of stabilized Cu NPs were calculated by XRD using Scherrer’s formula and FT from the X-ray diffraction data. Thermogravimetric analysis, differential thermal analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, FT-IR, second-derivative spectra, and 2D-IR correlation analysis were applied to
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨仁杰; 杨延荣; 杜艳红; 常若葵; 张志勇
2011-01-01
将红外光谱与二维相关谱技术结合起来对牛奶中掺杂的目标物三聚氰胺进行了检测。配置浓度为3g/L三聚氰胺牛奶溶液，并采集样品在不同温度下的红外光谱图。以温度为外扰，分别构建纯牛奶与掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶的二维相关谱，研究了各自的二维相关特性，并进行对比、分析。结果表明：在14001800cm-1区间内，掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶在同步图上出现3个自相关峰，分别在1448cm-1，1552cm-1和1640cm-1，这三个峰是牛奶中掺杂三聚氰胺的特征吸收。该方法可实现对纯牛奶与掺杂牛奶的正确识别，对提高乳制品的质量和保护消费者的利益具有重要的意义。%In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional （2D） correlation spectroscopy was used to investigate the melamine of milk. The sample adulterated with concentration of melamine （3 g/L ） was prepared and the infrared spectra were measured at different temperature. Then the 2D correlation spectroscopy was calculated under the perturbation of temperature. In the range between 1 400 and 1 800 cm-1, three autopeaks were aroused at 1 448 cm-1, 1 552 cm-2 and 1 640 cm-2 in synchronous spectrum, which are the absorbance features of melamine in milk. The method can be used for a correct discrimination on whether the milk is adulterated. The study is important to improve the quality of dairy products and to protect the benefits of consumers.
Two dimensional electron spin resonance: Structure and dynamics of biomolecules
Saxena, Sunil; Freed, Jack H.
1998-03-01
The potential of two dimensional (2D) electron spin resonance (ESR) for measuring the structural properties and slow dynamics of labeled biomolecules will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown how the recently developed method of double quantum (DQ) 2D ESR (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Chem. Phys. 107), 1317, (1997) can be used to measure large interelectron distances in bilabeled peptides. The need for DQ ESR spectroscopy, as well as the challenges and advantages of this method will be discussed. The elucidation of the slow reorientational dynamics of this peptide (S. Saxena and J. H. Freed, J. Phys. Chem. A, 101) 7998 (1997) in a glassy medium using COSY and 2D ELDOR ESR spectroscopy will be demonstrated. The contributions to the homogeneous relaxation time, T_2, from the overall and/or internal rotations of the nitroxide can be distinguished from the COSY spectrum. The growth of spectral diffusion cross-peaks^2 with mixing time in the 2D ELDOR spectra can be used to directly determine a correlation time from the experiment which can be related to the rotational correlation time.
Nonlocal bottleneck effect in two-dimensional turbulence
Biskamp, D; Schwarz, E
1998-01-01
The bottleneck pileup in the energy spectrum is investigated for several two-dimensional (2D) turbulence systems by numerical simulation using high-order diffusion terms to amplify the effect, which is weak for normal diffusion. For 2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, 2D electron MHD (EMHD) turbulence and 2D thermal convection, which all exhibit direct energy cascades, a nonlocal behavior is found resulting in a logarithmic enhancement of the spectrum.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
潘兵; 俞立平; 吴大方
2013-01-01
By comparing the two images recorded in different configurations on the same object surface, two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D-DIC) method produces full-field displacement with sub-pixel accuracy and full-field strains in the recorded images. In a practical measurement, however, various deteriorative factors, such as small out-of-plane motion of the test object surface, small out-of-plane motion of the sensor target and geometric distortion of the imaging lens may seriously impair the originally assumed linear correspondence between images displacement and object motions. In certain cases, these disadvantages may lead to significant errors in measuring displacements and strains. The measurement errors of 2D-DIC due to the above three unavoidable deteriorative factors are first described briefly. Then, the performances of three typical imaging lenses, including a standard lens, an object-side telecentric lens and a bilateral telecentric lens, against these three deteriorative factors are investigated experimentally using easy-to-implement static, out-of-plane and in-plane rigid body translation tests. A detailed examination reveals that a high-quality bilateral telecentric lens is not only insensitive to out-of-plane motions of the test object and the self-heating of a camera being used, but also demonstrates negligible lens distortion. So the bilateral lens is highly recommended for high accuracy 2D-DIC measurement.%通过比较变形前后同一平面物体表面的两幅数字图像,二维数字图像相关方法可获得亚像素精度的像面位移(以像素为单位)和应变.但在实际测量中,变形物体表面的离面位移、相机传感器平面位置的微小改变以及镜头的成像畸变,都会使原先假设的物、像面位移间的线性对应关系不再严格成立,在某些情况下会引起不能忽略的测量误差.详细分析了被测物体的离面位移、相机自热和镜头畸变对二维数字图像相关方法位
Structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional dusty plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘斌; 刘艳红; 陈雁萍; 杨思泽; 王龙
2003-01-01
The structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma have been investigated in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. Pair correlation function, static structure factor, mean square displacement, and bond angle correlation function have been calculated to characterize the structural properties. The variation of internal energy, shear modulus, particle trajectories and structural properties with temperature has been monitored to study the phase transition of the 2D dusty plasma system. The simulation results are in favour of a two-step continuous transition for this kind of plasma.
Rationally synthesized two-dimensional polymers.
Colson, John W; Dichtel, William R
2013-06-01
Synthetic polymers exhibit diverse and useful properties and influence most aspects of modern life. Many polymerization methods provide linear or branched macromolecules, frequently with outstanding functional-group tolerance and molecular weight control. In contrast, extending polymerization strategies to two-dimensional periodic structures is in its infancy, and successful examples have emerged only recently through molecular framework, surface science and crystal engineering approaches. In this Review, we describe successful 2D polymerization strategies, as well as seminal research that inspired their development. These methods include the synthesis of 2D covalent organic frameworks as layered crystals and thin films, surface-mediated polymerization of polyfunctional monomers, and solid-state topochemical polymerizations. Early application targets of 2D polymers include gas separation and storage, optoelectronic devices and membranes, each of which might benefit from predictable long-range molecular organization inherent to this macromolecular architecture.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szybisz, L. (Lab. TANDAR, Dept. de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina))
1990-08-01
The ground-state wave function for a two-dimensional homogeneous liquid 4He at zero temperature is obtained from a paired-phonon analysis within the HNC/0 approximation. The long-wavelength behavior of the twobody correlation factor, u(q), is studied by following the procedure previously applied to three-dimensional bulk systems. It is shown that a cut-off law for the phonons can be determined by analyzing u(q) at small two-dimensional momenta q. The numerical results strongly support an exponential cut-off similar to that suggested by Chester and Reatto for the bulk liquid. The first-sound velocity c{sub 1} and the cut-off momentum q{sub c} are calculated at several densities in the range 0.028-0.080 A - 2. (orig.).
Elucidation of Chemical Reactions by Two-Dimensional Resonance Raman Spectroscopy
Moran, Andrew
Two-dimensional (2D) Raman spectroscopies were proposed by Mukamel and Loring in1985 as a method for resolving line broadening mechanisms of vibrational motions in liquids. Significant technical issues challenged the development of both five- and seven-pulse 2D Raman spectroscopies. For this reason, 2D Raman experiments were largely abandoned in 2002 following the first demonstrations of 2D infrared spectroscopies (i.e., an alternate approach for obtaining similar information). We have recently shown that 2D Raman experiments conducted under electronically resonant conditions are much less susceptible to the problems encountered in the earlier 2D Raman work, which was carried out off-resonance. In effect, Franck-Condon activity obviates the problematic selection rules encountered under electronically off-resonant conditions. In this presentation, I will discuss applications of 2D resonance Raman spectroscopies to photodissocation reactions of triiodide and myoglobin. It will be shown that vibrational resonances of the reactants and products can be displayed in separate dimensions of a 2D resonance Raman spectrum when the photo-dissociation reaction is fast compared to the vibrational period. Such 2D spectra expose correlations between the nonequilibrium geometry of the reactant and the distribution of vibrational quanta in the product, thereby yielding insight in the photo-dissociation mechanism. Our results suggest that the ability of 2D resonance Raman spectroscopy to detect correlations between reactants and products will generalize to other ultrafast processes such as electron transfer and energy transfer.
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of assem
Two-Dimensional Mesoscale-Ordered Conducting Polymers
Liu, Shaohua; Zhang, Jian; Dong, Renhao; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Mai, Yiyong; Liu, Feng; Herrmann, Andreas; Feng, Xinliang
2016-01-01
Despite the availability of numerous two-dimensional (2D) materials with structural ordering at the atomic or molecular level, direct construction of mesoscale-ordered superstructures within a 2D monolayer remains an enormous challenge. Here, we report the synergic manipulation of two types of
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Forensic potential of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
Sampat, A.; Lopatka, M.; Sjerps, M.; Vivo-Truyols, G.; Schoenmakers, P.; van Asten, A.
2016-01-01
In this study, the application of comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) in forensic science is reviewed. The peer-reviewed publications on the forensic use of GC × GC and 2D gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC × GC-MS) have been studied in detail, not o
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Riffel, Rogerio; Vale, Tiberio Borges [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Riffel, Rogemar A.; Diniz, Marlon R. [Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); McGregor, Peter J., E-mail: thaisa@ufrgs.br [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)
2012-08-20
We report the first two-dimensional mapping of the stellar population and non-stellar continua within the inner 180 pc (radius) of NGC 1068 at a spatial resolution of 8 pc, using integral field spectroscopy in the near-infrared. We have applied the technique of spectral synthesis to data obtained with the instrument NIFS and the adaptive optics module ALTAIR at the Gemini North Telescope. Two episodes of recent star formation are found to dominate the stellar population contribution: the first occurred 300 Myr ago, extending over most of the nuclear region; the second occurred just 30 Myr ago, in a ring-like structure at Almost-Equal-To 100 pc from the nucleus, where it is coincident with an expanding ring of H{sub 2} emission. Inside the ring, where a decrease in the stellar velocity dispersion is observed, the stellar population is dominated by the 300 Myr age component. In the inner 35 pc, the oldest age component (age {>=} 2 Gyr) dominates the mass, while the flux is dominated by blackbody components with temperatures in the range 700 K {<=} T {<=} 800 K which we attribute to the dusty torus. We also find some contribution from blackbody and power-law components beyond the nucleus which we attribute to dust emission and scattered light.
Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain
Gao, Feng; Xue, Yuan; Zhao, Huijuan; Kusaka, Takashi; Ueno, Masanori; Yamada, Yukio
2007-08-01
Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.
Two-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Feng Gao; Yuan Xue; Huijuan Zhao; Takashi Kusaka; Masanori Ueno; Yukio Yamada
2007-01-01
Our preliminary results on two-dimensional (2D) optical tomographic imaging of hemodynamic changes in a preterm infant brain are reported. We use the established 16-channel time-correlated single photon counting system for the detection and generalized pulse spectrum technique based algorithm for the image reconstruction. The experiments demonstrate that diffuse optical tomography may be a potent means for investigating brain functions and neural development of infant brains in the perinatal period.
TreePM Method for Two-Dimensional Cosmological Simulations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suryadeep Ray
2004-09-01
We describe the two-dimensional TreePM method in this paper. The 2d TreePM code is an accurate and efficient technique to carry out large two-dimensional N-body simulations in cosmology. This hybrid code combines the 2d Barnes and Hut Tree method and the 2d Particle–Mesh method. We describe the splitting of force between the PM and the Tree parts. We also estimate error in force for a realistic configuration. Finally, we discuss some tests of the code.
The convolution theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG CHI
2013-01-01
In this paper , application of two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to image processes is studied. We first show that the convolution and correlation of two continuous wavelets satisfy the required admissibility and regularity conditions ,and then we derive the convolution and correlation theorem for two-dimensional continuous wavelet transform. Finally, we present numerical example showing the usefulness of applying the convolution theorem for two -dimensional continuous wavelet transform to perform image restoration in the presence of additive noise.
CC2D2A mutations in Meckel and Joubert syndromes indicate a genotype-phenotype correlation.
Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Thomas, Sophie; Szenker, Emmanuelle; Audollent, Sophie; Elkhartoufi, Nadia; Babarit, Candice; Romano, Stéphane; Salomon, Rémi; Amiel, Jeanne; Esculpavit, Chantal; Gonzales, Marie; Escudier, Estelle; Leheup, Bruno; Loget, Philippe; Odent, Sylvie; Roume, Joëlle; Gérard, Marion; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Khung, Suonavy; Patrier, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Bouvier, Raymonde; Martinovic, Jéléna; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Boddaert, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Encha-Razavi, Férechté; Valente, Enza Maria; Saad, Ali; Saunier, Sophie; Vekemans, Michel; Attié-Bitach, Tania
2009-11-01
Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is a lethal fetal disorder characterized by diffuse renal cystic dysplasia, polydactyly, a brain malformation that is usually occipital encephalocele, and/or vermian agenesis, with intrahepatic biliary duct proliferation. Joubert syndrome (JBS) is a viable neurological disorder with a characteristic "molar tooth sign" (MTS) on axial images reflecting cerebellar vermian hypoplasia/dysplasia. Both conditions are classified as ciliopathies with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allelism of MKS and JBS has been reported for TMEM67/MKS3, CEP290/MKS4, and RPGRIP1L/MKS5. Recently, one homozygous splice mutation with a founder effect was reported in the CC2D2A gene in Finnish fetuses with MKS, defining the 6th locus for MKS. Shortly thereafter, CC2D2A mutations were also reported in JBS. The analysis of the CC2D2A gene in our series of MKS fetuses, identified 14 novel truncating mutations in 11 cases. These results confirm the involvement of CC2D2A in MKS and reveal a major contribution of CC2D2A to the disease. We also identified three missense CC2D2A mutations in two JBS cases. Therefore, and in accordance with the data reported regarding RPGRIP1L, our results indicate phenotype-genotype correlations, as missense and presumably hypomorphic mutations lead to JBS while all null alleles lead to MKS.
CC2D2A mutations in Meckel and Joubert syndromes indicate a genotype-phenotype correlation
Mougou-Zerelli, Soumaya; Thomas, Sophie; Szenker, Emmanuelle; Audollent, Sophie; Elkhartoufi, Nadia; Babarit, Candice; Romano, Stéphane; Salomon, Rémi; Amiel, Jeanne; Esculpavit, Chantal; Gonzales, Marie; Escudier, Estelle; Leheup, Bruno; Loget, Philippe; Odent, Sylvie; Roume, Joëlle; Gérard, Marion; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Khung, Suonavy; Patrier, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Bouvier, Raymonde; Martinovic, Jéléna; Gubler, Marie-Claire; Boddaert, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Encha-Razavi, Férechté; Valente, Enza Maria; Saad, Ali; Saunier, Sophie; Vekemans, Michel; Attié-Bitach, Tania
2009-01-01
The Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal fetal disorder characterized by diffuse renal cystic dysplasia, polydactyly, a brain malformation that is usually occipital encephalocele and/or vermian agenesis, with intrahepatic biliary duct proliferation. Joubert syndrome (JBS) is a viable neurological disorder with a characteristic “molar tooth sign” (MTS) on axial images reflecting cerebellar vermian hypoplasia/dysplasia. Both conditions are classified as ciliopathies with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Allelism of MS and JBS has been reported for TMEM67/MKS3, CEP290/MKS4, and RPGRIP1L/MKS5. Recently, one homozygous splice mutation with a founder effect was reported in the CC2D2A gene in Finnish fetuses with MKS, defining the 6th locus for MKS. Shortly thereafter, CC2D2A mutations were reported in JBS also. The analysis of the CC2D2A gene in our series of MKS fetuses, identified 14 novel truncating mutations in 11 cases. These results confirm the involvement of CC2D2A in MKS and reveal a major contribution of CC2D2A to the disease. We also identified three missense CC2D2A mutations in two JBS cases. Therefore and in accordance with the data reported regarding RPGRIP1L, our results indicate phenotype-genotype correlations, as missense and presumably hypomorphic mutations lead to JBS while all null alleles lead to MKS. PMID:19777577
Magnetic correlations in the 2D S=5/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet MnPS_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønnow, H.M.; Wildes, A.R.; Bramwell, S.T.
2000-01-01
MnPS3 is a quasi-2D S = 5/2 antiferromagnet on a honeycomb lattice. Using an energy integrating neutron scattering technique, we have measured the structure factor S(k) of the instantaneous magnetic fluctuations. The temperature dependence of the correlation length xi follows the Kosterlitz...
Theory of two-dimensional transformations
Kanayama, Yutaka J.; Krahn, Gary W.
1998-01-01
The article of record may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/70.720359 Robotics and Automation, IEEE Transactions on This paper proposes a new "heterogeneous" two-dimensional (2D) transformation group ___ to solve motion analysis/planning problems in robotics. In this theory, we use a 3×1 matrix to represent a transformation as opposed to a 3×3 matrix in the homogeneous formulation. First, this theory is as capable as the homogeneous theory, Because of the minimal size, its implement...
Modeling correlated nakagami-MIMO channel based on 2D rank matching%相关Nakagami-MIMO信道二维秩匹配模型
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈学强; 王成华; 朱秋明; 陈超
2013-01-01
针对现有Nakagami-MIMO信道仿真方法非常复杂的问题,提出了一种基于二维秩匹配的Nakagami-MIMO空时相关衰落仿真模型.该模型首先利用高效舍弃法产生多支路独立Nakagami随机过程,然后基于二维秩匹配技术引入各子信道空时相关性且保持子信道原有统计特性不变.仿真结果表明,该模型输出各子信道的衰落包络分布和空时相关系数等统计特性均与理论结果吻合,可应用于任意衰落参数和空时相关特性的Nakagami-MIMO信道仿真场合.%The traditional Nakagami-MIMO(multiple-input & multiple-output) channel simulation methods are very complex,and a novel simulator for spatial and temporal correlated Nakagami-MIMO fading channel based on 2D rank matching technique was proposed.Firstly,a high efficient rejection method was used to generate several Nakagami random processes as sub-branches of the MIMO channel.Then,the spatial and temporal correlation between each sub-channels were introduced by a new two-dimensional rank matching technique,which keeps the statistical properties of Nakagami fading unchanged.Simulation results show that the new simulator agrees well with the theoretical results on envelope distribution and spatialtemporal correlation,which can be applied to simulating the Nakagami-MIMO channel with arbitrary fading parameters and correlation features.
Predicting Two-Dimensional Silicon Carbide Monolayers.
Shi, Zhiming; Zhang, Zhuhua; Kutana, Alex; Yakobson, Boris I
2015-10-27
Intrinsic semimetallicity of graphene and silicene largely limits their applications in functional devices. Mixing carbon and silicon atoms to form two-dimensional (2D) silicon carbide (SixC1-x) sheets is promising to overcome this issue. Using first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion method, we perform a comprehensive study on the thermodynamic stability and electronic properties of 2D SixC1-x monolayers with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1. Upon varying the silicon concentration, the 2D SixC1-x presents two distinct structural phases, a homogeneous phase with well dispersed Si (or C) atoms and an in-plane hybrid phase rich in SiC domains. While the in-plane hybrid structure shows uniform semiconducting properties with widely tunable band gap from 0 to 2.87 eV due to quantum confinement effect imposed by the SiC domains, the homogeneous structures can be semiconducting or remain semimetallic depending on a superlattice vector which dictates whether the sublattice symmetry is topologically broken. Moreover, we reveal a universal rule for describing the electronic properties of the homogeneous SixC1-x structures. These findings suggest that the 2D SixC1-x monolayers may present a new "family" of 2D materials, with a rich variety of properties for applications in electronics and optoelectronics.
FACE RECOGNITION USING TWO DIMENSIONAL LAPLACIAN EIGENMAP
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Jiangfeng; Yuan Baozong; Pei Bingnan
2008-01-01
Recently,some research efforts have shown that face images possibly reside on a nonlinear sub-manifold. Though Laplacianfaces method considered the manifold structures of the face images,it has limits to solve face recognition problem. This paper proposes a new feature extraction method,Two Dimensional Laplacian EigenMap (2DLEM),which especially considers the manifold structures of the face images,and extracts the proper features from face image matrix directly by using a linear transformation. As opposed to Laplacianfaces,2DLEM extracts features directly from 2D images without a vectorization preprocessing. To test 2DLEM and evaluate its performance,a series of ex-periments are performed on the ORL database and the Yale database. Moreover,several experiments are performed to compare the performance of three 2D methods. The experiments show that 2DLEM achieves the best performance.
The Rare Two-Dimensional Materials with Dirac Cones
Wang, Jinying; Deng, Shibin; Liu, Zhongfan; Liu, Zhirong
2014-01-01
Inspired by the great development of graphene, more and more works have been conducted to seek new two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac cones. Although 2D Dirac materials possess many novel properties and physics, they are rare compared with the numerous 2D materials. To provide explanation for the rarity of 2D Dirac materials as well as clues in searching for new Dirac systems, here we review the recent theoretical aspects of various 2D Dirac materials, including graphene, silicene, ger...
FT-Raman study of quinine aqueous solutions with varying pH: 2D correlation study
Wesełucha-Birczyńska, Aleksandra
2007-01-01
Quinine (C 20H 24N 2O 2) is one of the best known, for its antimalarial activity, Cinchona alkaloid. In the current study 2D correlation method was applied to analyze FT-Raman spectra of quinine aqueous solutions with varying pH, which was regarded as an external perturbation. Protonation appears to be the main cause leading to the emergence of cross peaks in the synchronous and asynchronous correlation maps. One should know that protonation process is an important step associated with quinine antimalarial activity. Methoxy group manifests its presence by creation of the respective correlation peaks and seems to be significant for quinine mode of action.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦竹; 许长华; 周群; 王晶; 方向; 孙素琴
2004-01-01
采用红外光谱法(FT-IR)并结合二阶导数谱对几种奶粉产品进行了无损快速鉴别.结果表明:不同脂肪含量的奶粉其最主要的差别直观地表现在1747 cm-1对应的脂肪CO吸收峰强度的不同;同理,不同糖含量的奶粉红外谱图上的主要差别就体现在糖的特征峰带(1150～900 cm-1)的强度上.最后,采用二维相关红外光谱法(2D-IR)对全脂奶粉和全脂甜奶粉进行了热扰动过程研究,发现由于糖类物质的加入,奶粉蛋白成分在常温下变得相对稳定.该法为研究奶粉的稳定性提供了一条新的途径.
Two-dimensional signal analysis
Garello, René
2010-01-01
This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.
Criticality in Two-Dimensional Quantum Systems: Tensor Network Approach
Ran, Shi-Ju; Li, Wei; Lewenstein, Maciej; Su, Gang
2016-01-01
Determination and characterization of criticality in two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body systems belong to the most important challenges and problems of quantum physics. In this paper we propose an efficient scheme to solve this problem by utilizing the infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS), and tensor network (TN) representations. We show that the criticality of a 2D state is faithfully reproduced by the ground state (dubbed as boundary state) of a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian constructed from its iPEPS representation. We demonstrate that for a critical state the correlation length and the entanglement spectrum of the boundary state are essentially different from those of a gapped iPEPS. This provides a solid indicator that allows to identify the criticality of the 2D state. Our scheme is verified on the resonating valence bond (RVB) states on kagom\\'e and square lattices, where the boundary state of the honeycomb RVB is found to be described by a $c=1$ conformal field theory. We apply ...
Experimental determination of the correlation properties of plasma turbulence using 2D BES systems
Fox, M F J; van Wyk, F; Ghim, Y -c; Schekochihin, A A
2016-01-01
A procedure is presented to map from the spatial correlation parameters of a turbulent density field (the radial and binormal correlation lengths and wavenumbers, and the fluctuation amplitude) to correlation parameters that would be measured by a Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic. The inverse mapping is also derived, which results in resolution criteria for recovering correct correlation parameters, depending on the spatial response of the instrument quantified in terms of Point-Spread Functions (PSFs). Thus, a procedure is presented that allows for a systematic comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This procedure is illustrated using the MAST BES system and the validity of the underlying assumptions is tested on fluctuating density fields generated by direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code GS2. The measurement of the correlation time, by means of the cross-correlation time-delay (CCTD) method, is also investigated and is shown to be sensitive to...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Hollander, J. [Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands); Fraser, N. [University of Glasgow, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United Kingdom); Gast, P.; Hoff, A.J. [Leiden University, Huygens Laboratories (Netherlands); Cogdell, R. [University of Glasgow, Division of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United Kingdom); Groot, H.J.M. de; Baldus, M. [Gorlaeus Laboratories (Netherlands)
2001-03-15
One- and two-dimensional solid-state NMR experiments on a uniformly labeled intrinsic membrane-protein complex at ultra-high magnetic fields are presented. Two-dimensional backbone and side-chain correlations for a [U-{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N] labeled version of the LH2 light-harvesting complex indicate significant resolution at low temperatures and under Magic Angle Spinning. Tentative assignments of some of the observed correlations are presented and attributed to the {alpha}-helical segments of the protein, mostly found in the membrane interior.
Zhao, Hongbo; Engelbrecht, Jan R.
2000-03-01
At the Mean Field level (G. Murthy and R. Shankar, J. Phys. Condens. Matter, 7) (1995), the frustration due to an external field first makes the uniform BCS ground state unstable to an incommensurate (qne0) superconducting state and then to a spin-polarized Fermi Liquid state. Our interest is how fluctuations modify this picture, as well as the normal state of this system which has a quantum critical point. We use the Fluctuation-Exchange Approximation for the 2D Attractive Hubbard Model, to study this system beyond the Mean-Field level. Earlier work in zero field has shown that this numerical method successfully captures the critical scaling of the KT superconducting transition upon cooling in the normal state. Here we investigate how the pair-breaking external field modifies this picture, and the development of incommensurate pairing.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
of this thesis is on online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (online LC×LC) with reverse phase in both dimensions (online RP×RP). Since online RP×RP has not been attempted before within this research group, a significant part of this thesis consists of knowledge and experience gained...
In vivo 1D and 2D correlation MR spectroscopy of the soleus muscle at 7T
Ramadan, Saadallah; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Wald, Lawrence L.; Mountford, Carolyn E.
2010-05-01
AimThis study aims to (1) undertake and analyse 1D and 2D MR correlation spectroscopy from human soleus muscle in vivo at 7T, and (2) determine T1 and T2 relaxation time constants at 7T field strength due to their importance in sequence design and spectral quantitation. MethodSix healthy, male volunteers were consented and scanned on a 7T whole-body scanner (Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany). Experiments were undertaken using a 28 cm diameter detunable birdcage coil for signal excitation and an 8.5 cm diameter surface coil for signal reception. The relaxation time constants, T1 and T2 were recorded using a STEAM sequence, using the 'progressive saturation' method for the T1 and multiple echo times for T2. The 2D L-Correlated SpectroscopY (L-COSY) method was employed with 64 increments (0.4 ms increment size) and eight averages per scan, with a total time of 17 min. ResultsT1 and T2 values for the metabolites of interest were determined. The L-COSY spectra obtained from the soleus muscle provided information on lipid content and chemical structure not available, in vivo, at lower field strengths. All molecular fragments within multiple lipid compartments were chemically shifted by 0.20-0.26 ppm at this field strength. 1D and 2D L-COSY spectra were assigned and proton connectivities were confirmed with the 2D method. ConclusionIn vivo 1D and 2D spectroscopic examination of muscle can be successfully recorded at 7T and is now available to assess lipid alterations as well as other metabolites present with disease. T1 and T2 values were also determined in soleus muscle of male healthy volunteers.
Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Stock, Markus; Figl, Michael; Gendrin, Christelle; Hummel, Johann; Dong, Shuo; Kettenbach, Joachim; Georg, Dietmar; Bergmann, Helmar
2009-08-01
In this article, the authors evaluate a merit function for 2D/3D registration called stochastic rank correlation (SRC). SRC is characterized by the fact that differences in image intensity do not influence the registration result; it therefore combines the numerical advantages of cross correlation (CC)-type merit functions with the flexibility of mutual-information-type merit functions. The basic idea is that registration is achieved on a random subset of the image, which allows for an efficient computation of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. This measure is, by nature, invariant to monotonic intensity transforms in the images under comparison, which renders it an ideal solution for intramodal images acquired at different energy levels as encountered in intrafractional kV imaging in image-guided radiotherapy. Initial evaluation was undertaken using a 2D/3D registration reference image dataset of a cadaver spine. Even with no radiometric calibration, SRC shows a significant improvement in robustness and stability compared to CC. Pattern intensity, another merit function that was evaluated for comparison, gave rather poor results due to its limited convergence range. The time required for SRC with 5% image content compares well to the other merit functions; increasing the image content does not significantly influence the algorithm accuracy. The authors conclude that SRC is a promising measure for 2D/3D registration in IGRT and image-guided therapy in general.
Experimental determination of the correlation properties of plasma turbulence using 2D BES systems
Fox, M. F. J.; Field, A. R.; van Wyk, F.; Ghim, Y.-c.; Schekochihin, A. A.; the MAST Team
2017-04-01
A procedure is presented to map from the spatial correlation parameters of a turbulent density field (the radial and binormal correlation lengths and wavenumbers, and the fluctuation amplitude) to correlation parameters that would be measured by a beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic. The inverse mapping is also derived, which results in resolution criteria for recovering correct correlation parameters, depending on the spatial response of the instrument quantified in terms of point-spread functions (PSFs). Thus, a procedure is presented that allows for a systematic comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental observations. This procedure is illustrated using the Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak BES system and the validity of the underlying assumptions is tested on fluctuating density fields generated by direct numerical simulations using the gyrokinetic code GS2. The measurement of the correlation time, by means of the cross-correlation time-delay method, is also investigated and is shown to be sensitive to the fluctuating radial component of velocity, as well as to small variations in the spatial properties of the PSFs.
Heidberg, J.; Kampshoff, E.; Kühnemuth, R.; Schönekäs, O.
Molecular reorientation and correlation field breakdown in the two-dimesional evaporation of CO 2 on NaCl(100) were measured by polarization Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. In the ordered 2D-condensed phase with p(2 × 1) structure a the correlation field exists, the CO 2 molecules being tilted 34° ± 5° from the surface. In the 2D-vapor the CO 2 molecules lie flat on surface, and no correlation field is detected. Both coexisting phases, clearly distinguished in the spectra, have constant density at constant temperature independent of coverage. From the variation of the 2D-vapor density with temperature the enthalpy of the 2D-evaporation was found to be Δ H v2D = 3.0 ± 0.1kJ/mol. The isosteric heats of adsorption of the 2D-gas and the 2D-solid were determined to 32.4 ± 1.1kJ/mol and35.6 ± 1.3kJ/mol, respectively.
Graphene and Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronic Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Bablich
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This article reviews optoelectronic devices based on graphene and related two-dimensional (2D materials. The review includes basic considerations of process technology, including demonstrations of 2D heterostructure growth, and comments on the scalability and manufacturability of the growth methods. We then assess the potential of graphene-based transparent conducting electrodes. A major part of the review describes photodetectors based on lateral graphene p-n junctions and Schottky diodes. Finally, the progress in vertical devices made from 2D/3D heterojunctions, as well as all-2D heterostructures is discussed.
Two dimensional unstable scar statistics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Warne, Larry Kevin; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Lee, Kelvin S. H. (ITT Industries/AES Los Angeles, CA)
2006-12-01
This report examines the localization of time harmonic high frequency modal fields in two dimensional cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This paper examines the enhancements for these unstable orbits when the opposing mirrors are both convex and concave. In the latter case the construction includes the treatment of interior foci.
Juday, Richard D.
1992-01-01
Modified vernier scale gives accurate two-dimensional coordinates from maps, drawings, or cathode-ray-tube displays. Movable circular overlay rests on fixed rectangular-grid overlay. Pitch of circles nine-tenths that of grid and, for greatest accuracy, radii of circles large compared with pitch of grid. Scale enables user to interpolate between finest divisions of regularly spaced rule simply by observing which mark on auxiliary vernier rule aligns with mark on primary rule.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘蓉; 杨仁杰; 徐可欣
2013-01-01
20 pure milk samples and 20 adulterated milk samples with different mass concentration of melamine(0. 01～3 g/L) were prepared and their near infrared spectra were collected. The two-dimensional correlation spectra were calculated under the perturbation of adulteration concentration. The characteristics of two-dimensional correlation spectra of adulterated milk were studied. Partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to differentiate the pure milk samples and the adulterated milk samples. The classification accuracy was 100%. At the same time, the model for quantitative analysis of melamine concentration in the adulterated milk samples was constructed by partial least square (PLS) combined with two-dimensional near infrared correction spectra. Results showed that the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 0. 18 g/L. The correlation coefficient between reference values and predicted values was 0. 98. The method does not rely on sample separation, and provides alternative way to detect the adulterant of milk.%配置合格的纯牛奶样本及含有三聚氰胺质量浓度范围为0.01 g/L～3 g/L的掺杂牛奶样本各20个,并采集其近红外光谱.以牛奶中掺杂三聚氰胺浓度为外扰,构建二维相关同步谱,研究其相关谱特性.在此基础上,结合偏最小二乘判别分析法(PLS-DA)建立定性模型,可以实现纯牛奶与掺伪牛奶的定性鉴别,正确识别率达100％.同时,将二维相关近红外同步谱矩阵与偏最小二乘法(PLS)结合起来,建立定量分析牛奶中掺杂三聚氰胺的数学模型.对未知样品的预测相关系数R达到0.98,预测均方根误差(RM-SEP)为0.18 g/L,说明基于同步相关谱矩阵建立定量分析的数学模型是可行的.该方法无需样品处理,成本低,为快速检测掺伪牛奶提供了一种新的途径.
On Correlation Numbers in 2D Minimal Gravity and Matrix Models
Belavin, A A
2008-01-01
We test recent results for the four-point correlation numbers in Minimal Liouville Gravity against calculations in the one-Matrix Models, and find full agreement. In the process, we construct the resonance transformation which relates coupling parameters of the Liouville Gravity with the couplings of the Matrix Models, up to the terms of the order 4. We also conjecture the general form of this transformation.
Photodetectors based on two dimensional materials
Zheng, Lou; Zhongzhu, Liang; Guozhen, Shen
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials with unique properties have received a great deal of attention in recent years. This family of materials has rapidly established themselves as intriguing building blocks for versatile nanoelectronic devices that offer promising potential for use in next generation optoelectronics, such as photodetectors. Furthermore, their optoelectronic performance can be adjusted by varying the number of layers. They have demonstrated excellent light absorption, enabling ultrafast and ultrasensitive detection of light in photodetectors, especially in their single-layer structure. Moreover, due to their atomic thickness, outstanding mechanical flexibility, and large breaking strength, these materials have been of great interest for use in flexible devices and strain engineering. Toward that end, several kinds of photodetectors based on 2D materials have been reported. Here, we present a review of the state-of-the-art in photodetectors based on graphene and other 2D materials, such as the graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, and so on. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61377033, 61574132, 61504136) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Molecular assembly on two-dimensional materials
Kumar, Avijit; Banerjee, Kaustuv; Liljeroth, Peter
2017-02-01
Molecular self-assembly is a well-known technique to create highly functional nanostructures on surfaces. Self-assembly on two-dimensional (2D) materials is a developing field driven by the interest in functionalization of 2D materials in order to tune their electronic properties. This has resulted in the discovery of several rich and interesting phenomena. Here, we review this progress with an emphasis on the electronic properties of the adsorbates and the substrate in well-defined systems, as unveiled by scanning tunneling microscopy. The review covers three aspects of the self-assembly. The first one focuses on non-covalent self-assembly dealing with site-selectivity due to inherent moiré pattern present on 2D materials grown on substrates. We also see that modification of intermolecular interactions and molecule–substrate interactions influences the assembly drastically and that 2D materials can also be used as a platform to carry out covalent and metal-coordinated assembly. The second part deals with the electronic properties of molecules adsorbed on 2D materials. By virtue of being inert and possessing low density of states near the Fermi level, 2D materials decouple molecules electronically from the underlying metal substrate and allow high-resolution spectroscopy and imaging of molecular orbitals. The moiré pattern on the 2D materials causes site-selective gating and charging of molecules in some cases. The last section covers the effects of self-assembled, acceptor and donor type, organic molecules on the electronic properties of graphene as revealed by spectroscopy and electrical transport measurements. Non-covalent functionalization of 2D materials has already been applied for their application as catalysts and sensors. With the current surge of activity on building van der Waals heterostructures from atomically thin crystals, molecular self-assembly has the potential to add an extra level of flexibility and functionality for applications ranging
Bhattacharjee, Suraka; Chaudhury, Ranjan
2016-11-01
The generalized spin stiffness constant for a doped quantum antiferromagnet has been investigated both analytically and numerically as a function of doping concentration at zero temperature, based on the strongly correlated t-J model on two-dimensional square lattice. The nature of the theoretical dependence of the stiffness constant on doping shows a striking similarity with that of the effective exchange constant, obtained from the combination of other theoretical and experimental techniques in the low doping region. This correspondence once again establishes that spin stiffness can very well play the role of an effective exchange constant even in the strongly correlated semi-itinerant systems. Our theoretical plot of the stiffness constant against doping concentration in the whole doping region exhibits the various characteristic features like a possible crossover in the higher doping regions and persistence of short range ordering even for very high doping with the complete vanishing of spin stiffness occurring only close to 100% doping. Our results receive very good support from various other theoretical approaches and also brings out a few limitations of some of them. Our detailed analysis highlights the crucial importance of the study of spin stiffness for the proper understanding of magnetic correlations in a semi-itinerant magnetic system described by the strongly correlated t-J model. Moreover, our basic formalism can also be utilized for determination of the effective exchange constant and magnetic correlations for itinerant magnetic systems, in general in a novel way.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2016-10-25
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Two-dimensional fourier transform spectrometer
DeFlores, Lauren; Tokmakoff, Andrei
2013-09-03
The present invention relates to a system and methods for acquiring two-dimensional Fourier transform (2D FT) spectra. Overlap of a collinear pulse pair and probe induce a molecular response which is collected by spectral dispersion of the signal modulated probe beam. Simultaneous collection of the molecular response, pulse timing and characteristics permit real time phasing and rapid acquisition of spectra. Full spectra are acquired as a function of pulse pair timings and numerically transformed to achieve the full frequency-frequency spectrum. This method demonstrates the ability to acquire information on molecular dynamics, couplings and structure in a simple apparatus. Multi-dimensional methods can be used for diagnostic and analytical measurements in the biological, biomedical, and chemical fields.
Statistical anomalies in 2011-2012 Russian elections revealed by 2D correlation analysis
Kobak, Dmitry; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S
2012-01-01
Here we perform a statistical analysis of the official data from recent Russian parliamentary and presidential elections (held on December 4th, 2011 and March 4th, 2012, respectively). A number of anomalies are identified that persistently skew the results in favour of the pro-government party, United Russia (UR), and its leader Vladimir Putin. The main irregularities are: (i) remarkably high correlation between turnout and voting results; (ii) a large number of polling stations where the UR/Putin results are given by a round number of percent; (iii) constituencies showing improbably low or (iv) anomalously high dispersion of results across polling stations; (v) substantial difference between results at paper-based and electronic polling stations. These anomalies, albeit less prominent in the presidential elections, hardly conform to the assumptions of fair and free voting. The approaches proposed here can be readily extended to quantify fingerprints of electoral fraud in any other problematic elections.
Impact of lens distortions on strain measurements obtained with 2D digital image correlation
Lava, P.; Van Paepegem, W.; Coppieters, S.; De Baere, I.; Wang, Y.; Debruyne, D.
2013-05-01
The determination of strain fields based on displacements obtained via digital image correlation (DIC) at the micro-strain level (≤1000 μm/m) is still a cumbersome task. In particular when high-strain gradients are involved, e.g. in composite materials with multidirectional fibre reinforcement, uncertainties in the experimental setup and errors in the derivation of the displacement fields can substantially hamper the strain identification process. In this contribution, the aim is to investigate the impact of lens distortions on strain measurements. To this purpose, we first perform pure rigid body motion experiments, revealing the importance of precise correction of lens distortions. Next, a uni-axial tensile test on a textile composite with spatially varying high strain gradients is performed, resulting in very accurately determined strains along the fibers of the material.
Pseudo-two-dimensional random dimer lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naether, U., E-mail: naether@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Mejía-Cortés, C.; Vicencio, R.A. [Departamento de Física and MSI – Nucleus for Advanced Optics, Center for Optics and Photonics (CEFOP), Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
2015-06-05
We study the long-time wave transport in correlated and uncorrelated disordered 2D arrays. When a separation of dimensions is applied to the model, we find that the previously predicted 1D random dimer phenomenology also appears in so-called pseudo-2D arrays. Therefore, a threshold behavior is observed in terms of the effective size for eigenmodes, as well as in long-time dynamics. A minimum system size is required to observe this threshold, which is very important when considering a possible experimental realization. For the long-time evolution, we find that for correlated lattices a super-diffusive long-range transport is observed. For completely uncorrelated disorder 2D transport becomes sub-diffusive within the localization length and for random binary pseudo-2D arrays localization is observed.
Divorticity and dihelicity in two-dimensional hydrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shivamoggi, B.K.; van Heijst, G.J.F.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
2010-01-01
A framework is developed based on the concepts of divorticity B (≡×ω, ω being the vorticity) and dihelicity g (≡vB) for discussing the theoretical structure underlying two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamics. This formulation leads to the global and Lagrange invariants that could impose significant...
Zero sound in a two-dimensional dipolar Fermi gas
Lu, Z.K.; Matveenko, S.I.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.
2013-01-01
We study zero sound in a weakly interacting two-dimensional (2D) gas of single-component fermionic dipoles (polar molecules or atoms with a large magnetic moment) tilted with respect to the plane of their translational motion. It is shown that the propagation of zero sound is provided by both mean-f
On the continua in two-dimensional nonadiabatic magnetohydrodynamic spectra
De Ploey, A.; Van der Linden, R. A. M.; Belien, A. J. C.
2000-01-01
The equations for the continuous subspectra of the linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) normal modes spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) plasmas are derived in general curvilinear coordinates, taking nonadiabatic effects in the energy equation into account. Previously published derivations of continuous sp
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
2000-01-01
Bounds on the capacity of constrained two-dimensional (2-D) codes are presented. The bounds of Calkin and Wilf apply to first-order symmetric constraints. The bounds are generalized in a weaker form to higher order and nonsymmetric constraints. Results are given for constraints specified by run...
Linkage analysis by two-dimensional DNA typing
te Meerman, G J; Mullaart, E; van der Meulen, M A; den Daas, J H; Morolli, B; Uitterlinden, A G; Vijg, J
1993-01-01
In two-dimensional (2-D) DNA typing, genomic DNA fragments are separated, first according to size by electrophoresis in a neutral polyacrylamide gel and second according to sequence by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, followed by hybridization analysis using micro- and minisatellite core pro
Exact solution of the 2d dimer model: Corner free energy, correlation functions and combinatorics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Allegra, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.allegra@univ-lorraine.fr
2015-05-15
In this work, some classical results of the pfaffian theory of the dimer model based on the work of Kasteleyn, Fisher and Temperley are introduced in a fermionic framework. Then we shall detail the bosonic formulation of the model via the so-called height mapping and the nature of boundary conditions is unravelled. The complete and detailed fermionic solution of the dimer model on the square lattice with an arbitrary number of monomers is presented, and finite size effect analysis is performed to study surface and corner effects, leading to the extrapolation of the central charge of the model. The solution allows for exact calculations of monomer and dimer correlation functions in the discrete level and the scaling behavior can be inferred in order to find the set of scaling dimensions and compare to the bosonic theory which predicts particular features concerning corner behaviors. Finally, some combinatorial and numerical properties of partition functions with boundary monomers are discussed, proved and checked with enumeration algorithms.
Mathematical modeling of the neuron morphology using two dimensional images.
Rajković, Katarina; Marić, Dušica L; Milošević, Nebojša T; Jeremic, Sanja; Arsenijević, Valentina Arsić; Rajković, Nemanja
2016-02-01
In this study mathematical analyses such as the analysis of area and length, fractal analysis and modified Sholl analysis were applied on two dimensional (2D) images of neurons from adult human dentate nucleus (DN). Using mathematical analyses main morphological properties were obtained including the size of neuron and soma, the length of all dendrites, the density of dendritic arborization, the position of the maximum density and the irregularity of dendrites. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for modeling the size of neurons and the length of all dendrites. However, the RSM model based on the second-order polynomial equation was only possible to apply to correlate changes in the size of the neuron with other properties of its morphology. Modeling data provided evidence that the size of DN neurons statistically depended on the size of the soma, the density of dendritic arborization and the irregularity of dendrites. The low value of mean relative percent deviation (MRPD) between the experimental data and the predicted neuron size obtained by RSM model showed that model was suitable for modeling the size of DN neurons. Therefore, RSM can be generally used for modeling neuron size from 2D images.
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Græsbøll, Rune
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has received increasing interest due to the rise in demand for analysis of complex chemical mixtures. Separation of complex mixtures is hard to achieve as a simple consequence of the sheer number of analytes, as these samples might contain hundreds or even...... dimensions. As a consequence of the conclusions made within this thesis, the research group has, for the time being, decided against further development of online LC×LC systems, since it was not deemed ideal for the intended application, the analysis of the polar fraction of oil. Trap-and...
Daniel J. Yelle; Prasad Kaparaju; Christopher G. Hunt; Kolby Hirth; Hoon Kim; John Ralph; Claus Felby
2012-01-01
Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of plant cell walls is a powerful tool for characterizing changes in cell wall chemistry during the hydrothermal pretreatment process of wheat straw for second-generation bioethanol production. One-bond 13C-1H NMR correlation spectroscopy, via...
Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Trainor, Thomas A
2014-01-01
The expression "multiple parton interactions" (MPI) denotes a conjectured QCD mechanism representing contributions from secondary (semi)hard parton scattering to the transverse azimuth region (TR) of jet-triggered p-p collisions. MPI is an object of underlying-event (UE) studies that consider variation of TR $n_{ch}$ or $p_t$ yields relative to a trigger condition (leading hadron or jet $p_t$). An alternative approach is 2D trigger-associated (TA) correlations on hadron transverse momentum $p_t$ or rapidity $y_t$ in which all hadrons from all p-p events are included. Based on a two-component (soft+hard) model (TCM) of TA correlations a jet-related TA hard component is isolated. Contributions to the hard component from the triggered dijet and from secondary dijets (MPI) can be distinguished, including their azimuth dependence relative to the trigger direction. Measured $e^+$-$e^-$ and p-\\=p fragmentation functions and a minimum-bias jet spectrum from 200 GeV p-\\=p collisions are convoluted to predict the 2D ha...
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu
2016-01-08
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.
Zhao, Zhihua; Zheng, Zhiqin; Roux, Clément; Delmas, Céline; Marty, Jean-Daniel; Kahn, Myrtil L; Mingotaud, Christophe
2016-08-22
Analysis of nanoparticle size through a simple 2D plot is proposed in order to extract the correlation between length and width in a collection or a mixture of anisotropic particles. Compared to the usual statistics on the length associated with a second and independent statistical analysis of the width, this simple plot easily points out the various types of nanoparticles and their (an)isotropy. For each class of nano-objects, the relationship between width and length (i.e., the strong or weak correlations between these two parameters) may suggest information concerning the nucleation/growth processes. It allows one to follow the effect on the shape and size distribution of physical or chemical processes such as simple ripening. Various electron microscopy pictures from the literature or from the authors' own syntheses are used as examples to demonstrate the efficiency and simplicity of the proposed 2D plot combined with a multivariate analysis.
Extraordinary behaviors in a two-dimensional decoherent alternative quantum walk
Chen, Tian; Zhang, Xiangdong
2016-07-01
We reveal the quantum and classical behaviors of the two-dimensional (2D) alternative quantum walk (AQW) in the presence of decoherence. For different kinds of decoherence, the analytic expressions for the moments of position distribution of the AQW are obtained. Taking the broken line noise and coin decoherence as examples of decoherence, we find that when decoherence emerges in only one direction, the anisotropic position distribution pattern appears, and not all the motions of the walker exhibit the transition from quantum to classical behaviors. Considering the effect of decoherence, we reveal the anisotropic correlations between the x (y ) position of the 2D walker and the state of the coin in 2D AQWs.
In-situ Hydrogen Sorption 2D-ACAR Facility for the Study of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage
Legerstee, W.J.; De Roode, J.; Anastasopol, A.; Falub, C.V.; Eijt, S.W.H.
2012-01-01
We developed a dedicated hydrogen sorption setup coupled to a positron 2D-ACAR (two-dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) setup employing a 22Na-source, which will enable to collect 2D-ACAR momentum distributions in-situ as a function of temperature, hydrogen pressure and
In-situ Hydrogen Sorption 2D-ACAR Facility for the Study of Metal Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage
Legerstee, W.J.; De Roode, J.; Anastasopol, A.; Falub, C.V.; Eijt, S.W.H.
2012-01-01
We developed a dedicated hydrogen sorption setup coupled to a positron 2D-ACAR (two-dimensional Angular Correlation of Annihilation Radiation) setup employing a 22Na-source, which will enable to collect 2D-ACAR momentum distributions in-situ as a function of temperature, hydrogen pressure and hydrog
Analysis of 2D CS Spectra for Systems with Non-Gaussian Dynamics
Roy, Santanu; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Jansen, Thomas L. C.
2011-01-01
We investigate how accurate different methods of the spectral line shape analysis work in two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D CS) for systems with non-Gaussian dynamics. A direct link is established between the frequency dependent correlation functions and a number of line shape metrics. Tw
Stuckey, Daniel J; Carr, Carolyn A; Tyler, Damian J; Clarke, Kieran
2008-08-01
Two-dimensional echocardiography is the most commonly used non-invasive method for measuring in vivo cardiac function in experimental animals. In humans, measurements of cardiac function made using cine-MRI compare favourably with those made using echocardiography. However, no rigorous comparison has been made in small animals. Here, standard short-axis two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography (2D-echo) and cine-MRI measurements were made in the same rats, both control and after chronic myocardial infarction. Correlations between the two techniques were found for end diastolic area, stroke area and ejection fraction, but cine-MRI measurements of ejection fraction were 12+/-6% higher than those made using 2D-echo, because of the 1.8-fold higher temporal resolution of the MRI technique (4.6 ms vs 8.3 ms). Repeated measurements on the same group of rats over several days showed that the cine-MRI technique was more reproducible than 2D-echo, in that 2D-echo would require five times more animals to find a statistically significant difference. In summary, caution should be exercised when comparing functional results acquired using short-axis 2D-echo vs cine-MRI. The accuracy of cine-MRI allows identification of alterations in heart function that may be missed when using 2D-echo.
Ultrafast two dimensional infrared chemical exchange spectroscopy
Fayer, Michael
2011-03-01
The method of ultrafast two dimensional infrared (2D IR) vibrational echo spectroscopy is described. Three ultrashort IR pulses tuned to the frequencies of the vibrational transitions of interest are directed into the sample. The interaction of these pulses with the molecular vibrational oscillators produces a polarization that gives rise to a fourth pulse, the vibrational echo. The vibrational echo pulse is combined with another pulse, the local oscillator, for heterodyne detection of the signal. For fixed time between the second and third pulses, the waiting time, the first pulse is scanned. Two Fourier transforms of the data yield a 2D IR spectrum. The waiting time is increased, and another spectrum is obtained. The change in the 2D IR spectra with increased waiting time provides information on the time evolution of the structure of the molecular system under observation. In a 2D IR chemical exchange experiment, two species A and B, are undergoing chemical exchange. A's are turning into B's, and B's are turning into A's, but the overall concentrations of the species are not changing. The kinetics of the chemical exchange on the ground electronic state under thermal equilibrium conditions can be obtained 2D IR spectroscopy. A vibration that has a different frequency for the two species is monitored. At very short time, there will be two peaks on the diagonal of the 2D IR spectrum, one for A and one for B. As the waiting time is increased, chemical exchange causes off-diagonal peaks to grow in. The time dependence of the growth of these off-diagonal peaks gives the chemical exchange rate. The method is applied to organic solute-solvent complex formation, orientational isomerization about a carbon-carbon single bond, migration of a hydrogen bond from one position on a molecule to another, protein structural substate interconversion, and water hydrogen bond switching between ions and water molecules. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific
Chen, Xiaomei; Koenders, Ludger; Parkinson, Simon
2017-01-01
We have mathematically explicated and experimentally demonstrated how a correlation and convolution filter can dramatically suppress the noise that coexists with the scanned topographic signals of 2D gratings and lattices with 2-dimensional (2D) perspectives. To realize pitch evaluation, the true peaks’ coordinates have been precisely acquired after detecting the local maxima from the filtered signal, followed by image processing. The combination of 2D filtering, local-maxima dete...
Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional crystals
Kolesnikova, A. L.; Orlova, T. S.; Hussainova, I.; Romanov, A. E.
2014-12-01
Elastic models of defects in two-dimensional (2D) crystals are presented in terms of continuum mechanics. The models are based on the classification of defects, which is founded on the dimensionality of the specification region of their self-distortions, i.e., lattice distortions associated with the formation of defects. The elastic field of an infinitesimal dislocation loop in a film is calculated for the first time. The fields of the center of dilatation, dislocation, disclination, and circular inclusion in planar 2D elastic media, namely, nanofilms and graphenes, are considered. Elastic fields of defects in 2D and 3D crystals are compared.
Nishii, Takashi; Genkawa, Takuma; Watari, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro
2012-01-01
A new selection procedure of an informative near-infrared (NIR) region for regression model building is proposed that uses an online NIR/mid-infrared (mid-IR) dual-region spectrometer in conjunction with two-dimensional (2D) NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy. In this procedure, both NIR and mid-IR spectra of a liquid sample are acquired sequentially during a reaction process using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer; the 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum is subsequently calculated from the obtained spectral data set. From the calculated 2D spectrum, a NIR region is selected that includes bands of high positive correlation intensity with mid-IR bands assigned to the analyte, and used for the construction of a regression model. To evaluate the performance of this procedure, a partial least-squares (PLS) regression model of the ethanol concentration in a fermentation process was constructed. During fermentation, NIR/mid-IR spectra in the 10000 - 1200 cm(-1) region were acquired every 3 min, and a 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectrum was calculated to investigate the correlation intensity between the NIR and mid-IR bands. NIR regions that include bands at 4343, 4416, 5778, 5904, and 5955 cm(-1), which result from the combinations and overtones of the C-H group of ethanol, were selected for use in the PLS regression models, by taking the correlation intensity of a mid-IR band at 2985 cm(-1) arising from the CH(3) asymmetric stretching vibration mode of ethanol as a reference. The predicted results indicate that the ethanol concentrations calculated from the PLS regression models fit well to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thus, it can be concluded that the selection procedure using the NIR/mid-IR dual-region spectrometer combined with 2D NIR/mid-IR heterospectral correlation spectroscopy is a powerful method for the construction of a reliable regression model.
Two-dimensional quantum repeaters
Wallnöfer, J.; Zwerger, M.; Muschik, C.; Sangouard, N.; Dür, W.
2016-11-01
The endeavor to develop quantum networks gave rise to a rapidly developing field with far-reaching applications such as secure communication and the realization of distributed computing tasks. This ultimately calls for the creation of flexible multiuser structures that allow for quantum communication between arbitrary pairs of parties in the network and facilitate also multiuser applications. To address this challenge, we propose a two-dimensional quantum repeater architecture to establish long-distance entanglement shared between multiple communication partners in the presence of channel noise and imperfect local control operations. The scheme is based on the creation of self-similar multiqubit entanglement structures at growing scale, where variants of entanglement swapping and multiparty entanglement purification are combined to create high-fidelity entangled states. We show how such networks can be implemented using trapped ions in cavities.
Two-dimensional capillary origami
Brubaker, N. D.; Lega, J.
2016-01-01
We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid.
Trainor, Thomas A
2016-01-01
According to the flow narrative commonly applied to high-energy nuclear collisions a 1D cylindrical-quadrupole component of 2D angular correlations conventionally denoted by quantity $v_2$ is interpreted to represent elliptic flow: azimuth modulation of transverse or radial flow in noncentral nucleus-nucleus (A-A) collisions. The nonjet (NJ) quadrupole component exhibits various properties inconsistent with a flow or hydro interpretation, including the observation that NJ-quadrupole centrality variation in $A$-$A$ collisions has no relation to strongly-varying jet modification ("jet quenching") in those collisions commonly attributed to jet interaction with a dense flowing medium. In the present study I report isolation of quadrupole spectra from $p_t$-differential $v_2(p_t)$ data obtained at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and large hadron collider (LHCr). I demonstrate that NJ quadrupole spectra have characteristics very different from the single-particle spectra for most hadrons, that quadrupole...
Shape-induced chiral ordering in two-dimensional packing of snowmanlike dimeric particles.
Han, Youngkyu; Lee, Juncheol; Choi, Siyoung Q; Choi, Myung Chul; Kim, Mahn Won
2013-10-01
Understanding the distinctive phase behaviors in random packing due to particle shapes is an important issue in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we investigate the random packing structure of two-dimensional (2D) snowmen via wax-snowman packing experiments and Brownian dynamics simulations. Both experiments and simulations reveal that neighboring snowmen have a strong short-range orientational correlation and consequently locally form particular conformations. A chiral conformation is dominant for high area fractions near the jamming condition (φ>0.8), and the proportion of the chiral conformation increases with γ. We also found that the attractive interaction does not have a significant impact on the results. The geometry of chirally ordered snowmen causes a mismatch with 2D crystalline symmetries and thus inhibits the development of long-range spatial order, despite the strong orientational correlation between neighbors.
Vibrational Properties of a Two-Dimensional Silica Kagome Lattice.
Björkman, Torbjörn; Skakalova, Viera; Kurasch, Simon; Kaiser, Ute; Meyer, Jannik C; Smet, Jurgen H; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V
2016-12-27
Kagome lattices are structures possessing fascinating magnetic and vibrational properties, but in spite of a large body of theoretical work, experimental realizations and investigations of their dynamics are scarce. Using a combination of Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations, we study the vibrational properties of two-dimensional silica (2D-SiO2), which has a kagome lattice structure. We identify the signatures of crystalline and amorphous 2D-SiO2 structures in Raman spectra and show that, at finite temperatures, the stability of 2D-SiO2 lattice is strongly influenced by phonon-phonon interaction. Our results not only provide insights into the vibrational properties of 2D-SiO2 and kagome lattices in general but also suggest a quick nondestructive method to detect 2D-SiO2.
Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene
Zhang, Yuanbo; Rubio, Angel; Le Lay, Guy
2017-02-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.
Computationally Driven Two-Dimensional Materials Design: What Is Next?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, Jie [Materials Science; Lany, Stephan [Materials Science; Qi, Yue [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, United States
2017-07-17
Two-dimensional (2D) materials offer many key advantages to innovative applications, such as spintronics and quantum information processing. Theoretical computations have accelerated 2D materials design. In this issue of ACS Nano, Kumar et al. report that ferromagnetism can be achieved in functionalized nitride MXene based on first-principles calculations. Their computational results shed light on a potentially vast group of materials for the realization of 2D magnets. In this Perspective, we briefly summarize the promising properties of 2D materials and the role theory has played in predicting these properties. In addition, we discuss challenges and opportunities to boost the power of computation for the prediction of the 'structure-property-process (synthesizability)' relationship of 2D materials.
Classifying Two-dimensional Hyporeductive Triple Algebras
Issa, A Nourou
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional real hyporeductive triple algebras (h.t.a.) are investigated. A classification of such algebras is presented. As a consequence, a classification of two-dimensional real Lie triple algebras (i.e. generalized Lie triple systems) and two-dimensional real Bol algebras is given.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于舸; 杨仁杰; 吕爱君; 谭恩忠
2015-01-01
New approach for discriminant analysis of adulterated milk is proposed based on combining hetero‐spectral two‐dimen‐sional (2D) near‐infrared (NIR) and mid‐infrared (IR) correlation spectroscopy along with multi‐way partial least squares dis‐criminant analysis (NPLS‐DA) .Firstly ,36 pure milk samples were collected and 36 adulterated milk with starch samples (0.01 to 1 g · L -1 ) were prepared by adding appropriate mass of starch into pure milk .Then ,one‐dimensional NIR transmittance spectra and IR attenuated total reflection spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk with starch were measured at room tempera‐ture .And the synchronous 2D NIR‐IR (4 200~4 800 vs .900~1 700 cm -1 ) correlation spectra of all samples were calculated . Due to the trace of adulterants ,the synchronous 2D IR‐NIR correlation spectral differences between adulterated milk with starch and pure milk are very subtle .Consequently ,it was impossible to directly distinguish whether the sample was pure milk or adul‐terated milk .Finally ,2D IR‐NIR correlation spectra were to build a discriminant model to classify adulterated milk and pure milk .The classification accuracy rates of samples in calibration set and in prediction set were 95.8% and 100% respectively .Al‐so ,the NPLS‐DA models were built based on 2D NIR and 2D IR correlation spectra ,respectively .The classification accuracy rates of samples in prediction set were 95.8% .Comparison results showed that the NPLS‐DA model could provide better results using 2D NIR‐IR correlation spectra than using 2D NIR ,and 2D IR correlation spectra .The proposed method can not only effec‐tively extract the feature information of adulterants in milk ,but also explores a new perspective method for detection of adultera‐ted food .%为更快、更准确的判别掺杂牛奶和纯牛奶，将二维异谱 N IR‐IR相关谱与多维偏最小二乘判别（NPLS‐DA）相结合，建立了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶 NPLS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨仁杰; 杨延荣; 董桂梅; 杜艳红; 单慧勇; 张伟玉
2014-01-01
Based on Euclidian distances between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra,in terms of the aver-age Euclidian distances between unknown samples and “extreme samples”,and average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances of samples in the calibration set,a new method for the discrimination of adulterated milk was proposed.Sixteen pure milk samples were collected and 16 adulterated milk samples with urea (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 ),and 16 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0. 01~0. 3 g·L-1 )samples were prepared,respectively.The IR absorption spectra of all samples were measured at room tem-perature.The synchronous two-dimensional correlation spectra were generated from concentration-dependent spectral variation of adulterant in milk.The Euclidian distances were calculated between synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra of all samples.Then,the classification models were built respectively for adulterated milk with urea,and adulterated milk with melamine.The “extreme samples”,average intra- and inter- Euclidian distances were determined.Finally,the unknown samples in prediction set were predicted using constructed models in terms of classification rules of adulterated milk.The classification accuracy rates for pure milk and adulterated milk were 100%.The effectiveness of the proposed method was verified.The re-sults obtained in this study revealed that synchronous two-dimensional infrared correlation spectra in combination with Euclidian distance has a feasible potential to discriminate adulterated milk and pure milk.%基于纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶样品间二维红外相关谱欧氏距离，依据未知样品与校正集中“极值样品”欧氏距离平均值、组内、组间样品欧氏距离平均值，提出了一种掺杂牛奶判别的新方法。分别配置掺杂尿素牛奶（0．01～0．3 g·L-1）和掺杂三聚氰胺牛奶（0．01～0．3 g·L-1）样品各16个，采集纯牛奶及掺杂牛奶样品的红外
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy Using Incoherent Light: Theoretical Analysis
Turner, Daniel B; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2012-01-01
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I(4) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and opp...
Two-dimensional energy spectra in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer
Chandran, Dileep; Baidya, Rio; Monty, Jason; Marusic, Ivan
2016-11-01
The current study measures the two-dimensional (2D) spectra of streamwise velocity component (u) in a high Reynolds number turbulent boundary layer for the first time. A 2D spectra shows the contribution of streamwise (λx) and spanwise (λy) length scales to the streamwise variance at a given wall height (z). 2D spectra could be a better tool to analyse spectral scaling laws as it is devoid of energy aliasing errors that could be present in one-dimensional spectra. A novel method is used to calculate the 2D spectra from the 2D correlation of u which is obtained by measuring velocity time series at various spanwise locations using hot-wire anemometry. At low Reynolds number, the shape of the 2D spectra at a constant energy level shows λy √{ zλx } behaviour at larger scales which is in agreement with the literature. However, at high Reynolds number, it is observed that the square-root relationship gradually transforms into a linear relationship (λy λx) which could be caused by the large packets of eddies whose length grows proportionately to the growth of its width. Additionally, we will show that this linear relationship observed at high Reynolds number is consistent with attached eddy predictions. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Australian Research Council.
Moment-based method for computing the two-dimensional discrete Hartley transform
Dong, Zhifang; Wu, Jiasong; Shu, Huazhong
2009-10-01
In this paper, we present a fast algorithm for computing the two-dimensional (2-D) discrete Hartley transform (DHT). By using kernel transform and Taylor expansion, the 2-D DHT is approximated by a linear sum of 2-D geometric moments. This enables us to use the fast algorithms developed for computing the 2-D moments to efficiently calculate the 2-D DHT. The proposed method achieves a simple computational structure and is suitable to deal with any sequence lengths.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iñaki González-Foruria
Full Text Available Endometriosis is a benign gynaecological disease. Abundant bulk of evidence suggests that patients with endometriosis have an immunity dysfunction that enables ectopic endometrial cells to implant and proliferate. Previous studies show that natural killer cells have a pivotal role in the immune control of endometriosis.This is a prospective laboratory study conducted in a tertiary-care university hospital between January 2011 and April 2013. We investigated non-pregnant, younger than 42-year-old patients (n= 202 during surgery for benign gynaecological conditions. After complete surgical exploration of the abdominopelvic cavity, 121 women with histologically proven endometriosis and 81 endometriosis-free controls women were enrolled. Patients with endometriosis were classified according to a surgical classification in three different types of endometriosis: superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SUP, ovarian endometrioma (OMA and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from all study participants during the surgery in order to detect soluble NKG2D ligands (MICA, MICB and ULBP-2. When samples with undetectable peritoneal fluid levels of MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 were excluded, MICA ratio levels were significantly higher in endometriosis patients than in controls (median, 1.1 pg/mg; range, 0.1-143.5 versus median, 0.6 pg/mg; range, 0.1-3.5; p=0.003. In a similar manner peritoneal fluid MICB levels were also increased in endometriosis-affected patients compared with disease-free women (median, 4.6 pg/mg; range, 1.2-4702 versus median, 3.4 pg/mg; range, 0.7-20.1; p=0.001. According to the surgical classification, peritoneal fluid soluble MICA, MICB and ULBP-2 ratio levels were significantly increased in DIE as compared to controls (p=0.015, p=0.003 and p=0.045 respectively. MICA ratio levels also correlated with dysmenorrhea (r=0.232; p=0.029, total rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0.031 and adhesions rAFS score (r=0.221; p=0
Finger length ratio (2D:4D) correlates with physical aggression in men but not in women.
Bailey, Allison A; Hurd, Peter L
2005-03-01
Finger length ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have relatively shorter second digits (index fingers) than fourth digits (ring fingers). Smaller, more masculine, digit ratios are thought to be associated with either higher prenatal testosterone levels or greater sensitivity to androgens, or both. Men with more masculine finger ratios are perceived as being more masculine and dominant by female observers, and tend to perform better in a number of physical sports. We hypothesized that digit ratio would correlate with propensity to engage in aggressive behavior. We examined the relationship between trait aggression, assayed using a questionnaire, and finger length ratio in both men and women. Men with lower, more masculine, finger length ratios had higher trait physical aggression scores (r(partial) = -0.21, N = 134, P = 0.028). We found no correlation between finger length ratio and any form of aggression in females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has an organizational effect on adult physical aggression in men.
Brewster, Victoria L; Ashton, Lorna; Goodacre, Royston
2013-04-02
Assessing the stability of proteins by comparing their unfolding profiles is a very important characterization and quality control step for any biopharmaceutical, and this is usually measured by fluorescence spectroscopy. In this paper we propose Raman spectroscopy as a rapid, noninvasive alternative analytical method and we shall show this has enhanced sensitivity and can therefore reveal very subtle protein conformational changes that are not observed with fluorescence measurements. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful nondestructive method that has a strong history of applications in protein characterization. In this work we describe how Raman microscopy can be used as a fast and reliable method of tracking protein unfolding in the presence of a chemical denaturant. We have compared Raman spectroscopic data to the equivalent samples analyzed using fluorescence spectroscopy in order to validate the Raman approach. Calculations from both Raman and fluorescence unfolding curves of [D]50 values and Gibbs free energy correlate well with each other and more importantly agree with the values found in the literature for these proteins. In addition, 2D correlation analysis has been performed on both Raman and fluorescence data sets in order to allow further comparisons of the unfolding behavior indicated by each method. As many biopharmaceuticals are glycosylated in order to be functional, we compare the unfolding profiles of a protein (RNase A) and a glycoprotein (RNase B) as measured by Raman spectroscopy and discuss the implications that glycosylation has on the stability of the protein.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu
2016-01-01
In this paper, we have firstly proposed two-dimensional function photonic crystals, which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates $\\vec{r}$, it is different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals constituting by the medium columns of dielectric constants are constants. We find the band gaps of two-dimensional function photonic crystals are different from the two-dimensional conventional photonic crystals, and when the functions form of dielectric constants are different, the band gaps structure should be changed, which can be designed into the appropriate band gaps structures by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals.
Phase-sensitive two-dimensional neutron shearing interferometer and Hartmann sensor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baker, Kevin
2015-12-08
A neutron imaging system detects both the phase shift and absorption of neutrons passing through an object. The neutron imaging system is based on either of two different neutron wavefront sensor techniques: 2-D shearing interferometry and Hartmann wavefront sensing. Both approaches measure an entire two-dimensional neutron complex field, including its amplitude and phase. Each measures the full-field, two-dimensional phase gradients and, concomitantly, the two-dimensional amplitude mapping, requiring only a single measurement.
Self-assembly of coherently dynamic, auxetic, two-dimensional protein crystals.
Suzuki, Yuta; Cardone, Giovanni; Restrepo, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D; Baker, Timothy S; Tezcan, F Akif
2016-05-19
Two-dimensional (2D) crystalline materials possess unique structural, mechanical and electronic properties that make them highly attractive in many applications. Although there have been advances in preparing 2D materials that consist of one or a few atomic or molecular layers, bottom-up assembly of 2D crystalline materials remains a challenge and an active area of development. More challenging is the design of dynamic 2D lattices that can undergo large-scale motions without loss of crystallinity. Dynamic behaviour in porous three-dimensional (3D) crystalline solids has been exploited for stimuli-responsive functions and adaptive behaviour. As in such 3D materials, integrating flexibility and adaptiveness into crystalline 2D lattices would greatly broaden the functional scope of 2D materials. Here we report the self-assembly of unsupported, 2D protein lattices with precise spatial arrangements and patterns using a readily accessible design strategy. Three single- or double-point mutants of the C4-symmetric protein RhuA were designed to assemble via different modes of intermolecular interactions (single-disulfide, double-disulfide and metal-coordination) into crystalline 2D arrays. Owing to the flexibility of the single-disulfide interactions, the lattices of one of the variants ((C98)RhuA) are essentially defect-free and undergo substantial, but fully correlated, changes in molecular arrangement, yielding coherently dynamic 2D molecular lattices. (C98)RhuA lattices display a Poisson's ratio of -1-the lowest thermodynamically possible value for an isotropic material-making them auxetic.
Comparative Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Gel Electrophoresis.
Ackermann, Doreen; König, Simone
2018-01-01
Two-dimensional comparative fluorescence gel electrophoresis (CoFGE) uses an internal standard to increase the reproducibility of coordinate assignment for protein spots visualized on 2D polyacrylamide gels. This is particularly important for samples, which need to be compared without the availability of replicates and thus cannot be studied using differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE). CoFGE corrects for gel-to-gel variability by co-running with the sample proteome a standardized marker grid of 80-100 nodes, which is formed by a set of purified proteins. Differentiation of reference and analyte is possible by the use of two fluorescent dyes. Variations in the y-dimension (molecular weight) are corrected by the marker grid. For the optional control of the x-dimension (pI), azo dyes can be used. Experiments are possible in both vertical and horizontal (h) electrophoresis devices, but hCoFGE is much easier to perform. For data analysis, commercial software capable of warping can be adapted.
Development of Novel Two-dimensional Layers, Alloys and Heterostructures
Liu, Zheng
2015-03-01
The one-atom-think graphene has fantastic properties and attracted tremendous interests in these years, which opens a window towards various two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers. However, making large-size and high-quality 2D layers is still a great challenge. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, we have successfully synthesized a wide varieties of highly crystalline and large scale 2D atomic layers, including h-BN, metal dichalcogenides e.g. MoS2, WS2, CdS, GaSe and MoSe2 which belong to the family of binary 2D materials. Ternary 2D alloys including BCN and MoS2xSe2 (1 - x) are also prepared and characterized. In addition, synthesis of 2D heterostructures such as vertical and lateral graphene/h-BN, vertical and lateral TMDs are also demonstrated. Complementary to CVD grown 2D layers, 2D single-crystal (bulk) such as Phosphorene (P), WTe2, SnSe2, PtS2, PtSe2, PdSe2, WSe2xTe2 (1 - x), Ta2NiS5andTa2NiSe5 are also prepared by solid reactions. There work provide a better understanding of the atomic layered materials in terms of the synthesis, atomic structure, alloying and their physical properties. Potential applications of these 2D layers e.g. optoelectronic devices, energy device and smart coating have been explored.
А heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional strip packing problem
Dayong, Cao; Kotov, V.M.
2011-01-01
In this paper, we construct an improved best-fit heuristic algorithm for two-dimensional rectangular strip packing problem (2D-RSPP), and compare it with some heuristic and metaheuristic algorithms from literatures. The experimental results show that BFBCC could produce satisfied packing layouts than these methods, especially for the large problem of 50 items or more, BFBCC could get better results in shorter time.
Colloidal interactions in two-dimensional nematic emulsions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
N M Silvestre; P Patrício; M M Telo Da Gama
2005-06-01
We review theoretical and experimental work on colloidal interactions in two-dimensional (2D) nematic emulsions. We pay particular attention to the effects of (i) the nematic elastic constants, (ii) the size of the colloids, and (iii) the boundary conditions at the particles and the container. We consider the interactions between colloids and fluid (deformable) interfaces and the shape of fluid colloids in smectic-C films.
Xi, Caiping; Zhang, Shunning; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Huichang
2016-07-01
Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MFDFA) and multifractal detrended moving average (MFDMA) algorithm have been established as two important methods to estimate the multifractal spectrum of the one-dimensional random fractal signal. They have been generalized to deal with two-dimensional and higher-dimensional fractal signals. This paper gives a brief introduction of the two-dimensional multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (2D-MFDFA) and two-dimensional multifractal detrended moving average (2D-MFDMA) algorithm, and a detailed description of the application of the two-dimensional fractal signal processing by using the two methods. By applying the 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA to the series generated from the two-dimensional multiplicative cascading process, we systematically do the comparative analysis to get the advantages, disadvantages and the applicabilities of the two algorithms for the first time from six aspects such as the similarities and differences of the algorithm models, the statistical accuracy, the sensitivities of the sample size, the selection of scaling range, the choice of the q-orders and the calculation amount. The results provide a valuable reference on how to choose the algorithm from 2D-MFDFA and 2D-MFDMA, and how to make the schemes of the parameter settings of the two algorithms when dealing with specific signals in practical applications.
Two-dimensional numerical assessment of the hydrodynamics of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Petersen, G; Fohrer, N
2010-01-01
A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic assessment of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan has been carried out using DHI MIKE 21 software based on a ground referenced and corrected Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...
Logarithmic divergent thermal conductivity in two-dimensional nonlinear lattices.
Wang, Lei; Hu, Bambi; Li, Baowen
2012-10-01
Heat conduction in three two-dimensional (2D) momentum-conserving nonlinear lattices are numerically calculated via both nonequilibrium heat-bath and equilibrium Green-Kubo algorithms. It is expected by mainstream theories that heat conduction in such 2D lattices is divergent and the thermal conductivity κ increases with lattice length N logarithmically. Our simulations for the purely quartic lattice firmly confirm it. However, very robust finite-size effects are observed in the calculations for the other two lattices, which well explain some existing studies and imply the extreme difficulties in observing their true asymptotic behaviors with affordable computation resources.
Absolute band gaps in two-dimensional graphite photonic crystal
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Gaoxin Qiu(仇高新); Fanglei Lin(林芳蕾); Hua Wang(王华); Yongping Li(李永平)
2003-01-01
The off-plane propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in a two-dimensional (2D) graphite photoniccrystal structure was studied using transfer matrix method. Transmission spectra calculations indicatethat such a 2D structure has a common band gap from 0.202 to 0.2035 c/a for both H and E polarizationsand for all off-plane angles form 0° up to 90°. The presence of such an absolute band gap implies that 2Dgraphite photonic crystal, which is much easier and more feasible to fabricate, can exhibit some propertiesof a three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal.
Two-dimensional carbon fundamental properties, synthesis, characterization, and applications
Yihong, Wu; Ting, Yu
2013-01-01
After a brief introduction to the fundamental properties of graphene, this book focuses on synthesis, characterization and application of various types of two-dimensional (2D) nanocarbons ranging from single/few layer graphene to carbon nanowalls and graphene oxides. Three major synthesis techniques are covered: epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC, chemical synthesis of graphene on metal, and chemical vapor deposition of vertically aligned carbon nanosheets or nanowalls. One chapter is dedicated to characterization of 2D nanocarbon using Raman spectroscopy. It provides extensive coverage for a
Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures
Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhang, S B
2016-01-01
Band alignment in two-dimensional (2D) lateral heterostructures is fundamentally different from three-dimensional (3D), as Schottky barrier height is at the Schottky-Mott limit and band offset is at the Anderson limit, regardless interfacial conditions. This robustness arises because, in the asymptotic limit, effect of interfacial dipole vanishes. First-principles calculations of graphene/h-BN and MoS2/WS2 show that 2D junction width W is typically an order of magnitude longer than 3D. Therefore, heterostructures with dimension less than W can also be made, leading to tunable band alignment.
A Direct Two-Dimensional Pressure Formulation in Molecular Dynamics
YD, Sumith
2016-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) pressure field estimation in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations has been done using three-dimensional (3D) pressure field calculations followed by averaging, which is computationally expensive due to 3D convolutions. In this work, we develop a direct 2D pressure field estimation method which is much faster than 3D methods without losing accuracy. The method is validated with MD simulations on two systems: a liquid film and a cylindrical drop of argon suspended in surrounding vapor.
A Two-dimensional Magnetohydrodynamics Scheme for General Unstructured Grids
Livne, Eli; Dessart, Luc; Burrows, Adam; Meakin, Casey A.
2007-05-01
We report a new finite-difference scheme for two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, with and without rotation, in unstructured grids with quadrilateral cells. The new scheme is implemented within the code VULCAN/2D, which already includes radiation hydrodynamics in various approximations and can be used with arbitrarily moving meshes (ALEs). The MHD scheme, which consists of cell-centered magnetic field variables, preserves the nodal finite difference representation of divB by construction, and therefore any initially divergence-free field remains divergence-free through the simulation. In this paper, we describe the new scheme in detail and present comparisons of VULCAN/2D results with those of the code ZEUS/2D for several one-dimensional and two-dimensional test problems. The code now enables two-dimensional simulations of the collapse and explosion of the rotating, magnetic cores of massive stars. Moreover, it can be used to simulate the very wide variety of astrophysical problems for which multidimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) is relevant.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
卢明倩; 黄桂媛; 王巧贞; 许超; 黄庶识
2016-01-01
Abtract:[Objective]The aim of this study is to analyze the interaction between the different groups ofβ-carotene in the heating process.[Methods]Two-dimensional correlation spectrosco-py was applied to study the dynamic spectral changes ofβ-carotene from 30℃ to 100℃.[Re-sults]The changes of absorption characteristic peaks ofβ-carotene were inconspicuous in the conventional FTIR spectra and second derivative FTIR spectra during 30℃ to 100℃,which in-dicated that they had no oxidation reation.Two-dimensional correlation analysis showed that the changes of absorption peaks at 968 cm-1 ,1 442 cm-1 ,2 9 6 6 cm-1 and 3 0 1 2 cm-1 were more sen-sitive to temperature.Meanwhile,the order of different groups changes induced by temperature were as follows:the spectral changes of methyl-ene were faster than methyl,the spectral changes of methyl C-H symmetric stretching vibration in low wavenumber were faster than methyl anti-symmetric stretching vibration in high wavenumber,and olefin hydrocarbon symmetric stretching vibration were prior to olefin hydrocarbon anti-symmetric stretching vibration.[Con-clusion]This provides experimental basis for the mechanism of the conformational change ofβ-carotene in heating process.%【目的】了解在升温过程中β-胡萝卜素分子内不同基团之间的相互影响。【方法】采用二维相关红外光谱分析技术,研究β-胡萝卜素在30~100℃变温微扰过程中的动态光谱变化。【结果】β-胡萝卜素分子的吸收特征峰在一维红外光谱和二阶导数谱上变化不明显,表明其没有发生氧化反应。二维相关分析表明,反式共轭烯烃C—H 面外弯曲振动的968 cm-1,烯烃C—H 基团反对称弯曲振动的1442cm-1,甲基C—H 反对称伸缩振动的2966 cm-1和烯烃C—H 的对称伸缩振动的3012 cm-1,这些吸收峰的光谱变化对温度比较敏感。同时在微扰过程中,不同基团变化的先后顺序：亚甲基热运动引起的光谱变化快于
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, A.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space and Remote Sensing Science Group; Clothiaux, E. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Meteorology
1999-03-01
Because of Earth`s gravitational field, its atmosphere is strongly anisotropic with respect to the vertical; the effect of the Earth`s rotation on synoptic wind patterns also causes a more subtle form of anisotropy in the horizontal plane. The authors survey various approaches to statistically robust anisotropy from a wavelet perspective and present a new one adapted to strongly non-isotropic fields that are sampled on a rectangular grid with a large aspect ratio. This novel technique uses an anisotropic version of Multi-Resolution Analysis (MRA) in image analysis; the authors form a tensor product of the standard dyadic Haar basis, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub z} = 2, and a nonstandard triadic counterpart, where the dividing ratio is {lambda}{sub x} = 3. The natural support of the field is therefore 2{sup n} pixels (vertically) by 3{sup n} pixels (horizontally) where n is the number of levels in the MRA. The natural triadic basis includes the French top-hat wavelet which resonates with bumps in the field whereas the Haar wavelet responds to ramps or steps. The complete 2D basis has one scaling function and five wavelets. The resulting anisotropic MRA is designed for application to the liquid water content (LWC) field in boundary-layer clouds, as the prevailing wind advects them by a vertically pointing mm-radar system. Spatial correlations are notoriously long-range in cloud structure and the authors use the wavelet coefficients from the new MRA to characterize these correlations in a multifractal analysis scheme. In the present study, the MRA is used (in synthesis mode) to generate fields that mimic cloud structure quite realistically although only a few parameters are used to control the randomness of the LWC`s wavelet coefficients.
The potential of 2D Kalman filtering for soil moisture data assimilation
We examine the potential for parameterizing a two-dimensional (2D) land data assimilation system using spatial error auto-correlation statistics gleaned from a triple collocation analysis and the triplet of: (1) active microwave-, (2) passive microwave- and (3) land surface model-based surface soil ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kehimkar, Benjamin; Hoggard, Jamin C.; Marney, Luke C.; Billingsley, Matthew; Fraga, Carlos G.; Bruno, Thomas J.; Synovec, Robert E.
2014-01-31
There is an increased need to more fully assess and control the composition of kerosene based rocket propulsion fuels, namely RP-1 and RP-2. In particular, it is crucial to be able to make better quantitative connections between the following three attributes: (a) fuel performance, (b) fuel properties (flash point, density, kinematic viscosity, net heat of combustion, hydrogen content, etc) and (c) the chemical composition of a given fuel (i.e., specific chemical compounds and compound classes present as a result of feedstock blending and processing). Indeed, recent efforts in predicting fuel performance through modeling put greater emphasis on detailed and accurate fuel properties and fuel compositional information. In this regard, advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology provides improved data relative to classical boiling point and volatility curve techniques. Using ADC metrology, data obtained from RP-1 and RP-2 fuels provides compositional variation information that is directly relevant to predictive modeling of fuel performance. Often, in such studies, one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is typically employed to provide chemical composition information. Building on approaches using GC-MS, but to glean substantially more chemical composition information from these complex fuels, we have recently studied the use of comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC - TOFMS) to provide chemical composition data that is significantly richer than that provided by GC-MS methods. In this report, by applying multivariate data analysis techniques, referred to as chemometrics, we are able to readily model (correlate) the chemical compositional information from RP-1 and RP-2 fuels provided using GC × GC - TOFMS, to the fuel property information such as that provided by the ADC method and other specification properties. We anticipate that this new chemical analysis
Wen, Yongli; Li, Huan; Xiao, Jian; Wang, Chang; Shen, Qirong; Ran, Wei; He, Xinhua; Zhou, Quansuo; Yu, Guanghui
2014-09-01
Understanding the organomineral associations in soils is of great importance. Using two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) and high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques, this study compared the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under short-term (3-years) and long-term (22-years) fertilizations. Three fertilization treatments were examined: (i) no fertilization (Control), (ii) chemical nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK), and (iii) NPK plus swine manure (NPKM). Soil spectra detected by the 2DCOS Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed that fertilization modified the binding characteristics of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM at both short- and long- term location sites. The CH deformations in aliphatic groups played an important role in binding to Al(III) but with minor differences among the Control, NPK and NPKM at the short-term site. While at the long-term site both C-O stretching of polysaccharides or polysaccharide-like substances and aliphatic O-H were bound to Al(III) under the Control, whereas only aliphatic O-H, and only polysaccharides and silicates, were bound to Al(III) under NPK and NPKM, respectively. Images from HRTEM demonstrated that crystalline nanominerals, composed of Fe and O, were predominant in soil DOM under NPK, while amorphous nanominerals, predominant in Al, Si, and O, were dominant in soil DOM under Control and NPKM. In conclusion, fertilization strategies, especially under long-term, could affect the binding of organic ligands to Al(III) in soil DOM, which resulted in alterations in the turnover, reactivity, and bioavailability of soil organic matter. Our results demonstrated that the FTIR-2DCOS combined with HRTEM techniques could enhance our understanding in the binding characteristics of DOM to Al(III) and the resulted nanominerals in soils.
Response Functions for the Two-Dimensional Ultracold Fermi Gas: Dynamical BCS Theory and Beyond
Vitali, Ettore; Shi, Hao; Qin, Mingpu; Zhang, Shiwei
2017-08-01
Response functions are central objects in physics. They provide crucial information about the behavior of physical systems, and they can be directly compared with scattering experiments involving particles such as neutrons or photons. Calculations of such functions starting from the many-body Hamiltonian of a physical system are challenging and extremely valuable. In this paper, we focus on the two-dimensional (2D) ultracold Fermi atomic gas which has been realized experimentally. We present an application of the dynamical BCS theory to obtain response functions for different regimes of interaction strengths in the 2D gas with zero-range attractive interaction. We also discuss auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods for the calculation of imaginary time correlations in these dilute Fermi gas systems. Illustrative results are given and comparisons are made between AFQMC and dynamical BCS theory results to assess the accuracy of the latter.
Size Effect of a Negatively Charged Exciton in a Two-Dimensional Quantum Dot
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Chao; XIE Wen-Fang
2009-01-01
In this paper we study a negatively charged exciton (NCE), which is trapped by a two-dimensional (2D) parabolic potential.By using matrix diagonalization techniques, the correlation energies of the low-lying states with L = O, 1, and 2 are calculated as a function of confinement strength.We find that the size effects of different states are different.This phenomenon can be explained as a hidden symmetry, which is originated purely from symmetry.Based on symmetry, the features of the low-lying states are discussed in the influence of the 2D parabolic potential well.It is found that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states.It is shown that the effect of quantum confinement on the binding energy of the heavy hole is stronger than that of a light hole.
Separation of colloidal two dimensional materials by density gradient ultracentrifugation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuang, Yun; Song, Sha [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Huang, Jinyang, E-mail: huangjy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Sun, Xiaoming, E-mail: sunxm@mail.buct.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)
2015-04-15
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials. Isopycnic separation was applied on thickness-dependent separation of graphene nanosheets. And rate-zonal separation, as a more versatile separation method, demonstrated its capability in sorting nanosheets of chemically modified single layered graphene, layered double hydroxide, and even metallic Ag. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have been made through various approaches but obtaining monodispersed simply by synthesis optimization gained little success, which highlighted the need for introducing nanoseparation methods. Density gradient ultracentrifugation method has emerged as a versatile and scalable method for sorting colloidal 2D nanomaterials according to their size of thickness difference. Establishing such density gradient ultracentrifugation method not only achieves monodispersed nanosheets and provides new opportunities for investigation on size dependent properties of 2D materials, but also makes the surface modification possible by introducing “reaction zones” during sedimentation of the colloids. - Highlights: • Density gradient ultracentrifugation was applied on size separation of 2D material. • Isopycnic separation was applied on separation of low density materials. • Rate-zonal separation was applied on separation of large density materials. • Size
Hadamard States and Two-dimensional Gravity
Salehi, H
2001-01-01
We have used a two-dimensional analog of the Hadamard state-condition to study the local constraints on the two-point function of a linear quantum field conformally coupled to a two-dimensional gravitational background. We develop a dynamical model in which the determination of the state of the quantum field is essentially related to the determination of a conformal frame. A particular conformal frame is then introduced in which a two-dimensional gravitational equation is established.
Tunable states of interlayer cations in two-dimensional materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sato, K.; Numata, K. [Department of Environmental Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Dai, W. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy Materials Chemistry (Ministry of Education), College of Chemistry, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Hunger, M. [Institute of Chemical Technology, University of Stuttgart, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)
2014-03-31
The local state of cations inside the Ångstrom-scale interlayer spaces is one of the controlling factors for designing sophisticated two-dimensional (2D) materials consisting of 2D nanosheets. In the present work, the molecular mechanism on how the interlayer cation states are induced by the local structures of the 2D nanosheets is highlighted. For this purpose, the local states of Na cations in inorganic 2D materials, in which the compositional fluctuations of a few percent are introduced in the tetrahedral and octahedral units of the 2D nanosheets, were systematically studied by means of {sup 23}Na magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and {sup 23}Na multiple-quantum MAS (MQMAS) NMR spectroscopy. In contrast with an uniform distribution of Na cations expected so far, various well-defined cation states sensitive to the local structures of the 2D nanosheets were identified. The tunability of the interlayer cation states along with the local structure of the 2D nanosheets, as the smallest structural unit of the 2D material, is discussed.
Two-dimensional gallium nitride realized via graphene encapsulation
Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.; Wang, Ke; Ghosh, Ram Krishna; Vilá, Rafael A.; Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Qin, Xiaoye; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Desario, Paul A.; Stone, Greg; Subramanian, Shruti; Paul, Dennis F.; Wallace, Robert M.; Datta, Suman; Redwing, Joan M.; Robinson, Joshua A.
2016-11-01
The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials `beyond graphene’ offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (~5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides `beyond hBN’ and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.
Ruaño, Gualberto; Szarek, Bonnie L; Villagra, David; Gorowski, Krystyna; Kocherla, Mohan; Seip, Richard L; Goethe, John W; Schwartz, Harold I
2016-01-01
Aim This study aimed to determine the effect of the CYP2D6 genotype on the length of hospitalization stay for patients treated for major depressive disorder. Methods A total of 149 inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder at the Institute of Living, Hartford Hospital (CT, USA), were genotyped to detect altered alleles in the CYP2D6 gene. Prospectively defined drug metabolism indices (metabolic reserve, metabolic alteration and allele alteration) were determined quantitatively and assessed for their relationship to length of hospitalization stay. Results Hospital stay was significantly longer in deficient CYP2D6 metabolizers (metabolic reserve <2) compared with functional or suprafunctional metabolizers (metabolic reserve ≥2; 7.8 vs 5.7 days, respectively; p = 0.002). Conclusion CYP2D6 enzymatic functional status significantly affected length of hospital stay, perhaps due to reduced efficacy or increased side effects of the medications metabolized by the CYP2D6 isoenzyme. Functional scoring of CYP2D6 alleles may have a substantial impact on the quality of care, patient satisfaction and the economics of psychiatric treatment. PMID:23734807
van der Waals epitaxy and photoresponse of two-dimensional CdSe plates
Zhu, Dan-Dan; Xia, Jing; Wang, Lei; Li, Xuan-Ze; Tian, Li-Feng; Meng, Xiang-Min
2016-06-01
Here we demonstrate the first growth of two-dimensional (2D) single-crystalline CdSe plates on mica substrates via van der Waals epitaxy. The as-synthesized 2D plates exhibit hexagonal, truncated triangular and triangular shapes with the lateral size around several microns. Photodetectors based on 2D CdSe plates present a fast response time of 24 ms, revealing that 2D CdSe is a promising building block for ultrathin optoelectronic devices.
Smith, Benjamin R; Ashton, Katherine M; Brodbelt, Andrew; Dawson, Timothy; Jenkinson, Michael D; Hunt, Neil T; Palmer, David S; Baker, Matthew J
2016-06-07
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has long been established as an analytical technique for the measurement of vibrational modes of molecular systems. More recently, FTIR has been used for the analysis of biofluids with the aim of becoming a tool to aid diagnosis. For the clinician, this represents a convenient, fast, non-subjective option for the study of biofluids and the diagnosis of disease states. The patient also benefits from this method, as the procedure for the collection of serum is much less invasive and stressful than traditional biopsy. This is especially true of patients in whom brain cancer is suspected. A brain biopsy is very unpleasant for the patient, potentially dangerous and can occasionally be inconclusive. We therefore present a method for the diagnosis of brain cancer from serum samples using FTIR and machine learning techniques. The scope of the study involved 433 patients from whom were collected 9 spectra each in the range 600-4000 cm(-1). To begin the development of the novel method, various pre-processing steps were investigated and ranked in terms of final accuracy of the diagnosis. Random forest machine learning was utilised as a classifier to separate patients into cancer or non-cancer categories based upon the intensities of wavenumbers present in their spectra. Generalised 2D correlational analysis was then employed to further augment the machine learning, and also to establish spectral features important for the distinction between cancer and non-cancer serum samples. Using these methods, sensitivities of up to 92.8% and specificities of up to 91.5% were possible. Furthermore, ratiometrics were also investigated in order to establish any correlations present in the dataset. We show a rapid, computationally light, accurate, statistically robust methodology for the identification of spectral features present in differing disease states. With current advances in IR technology, such as the development of rapid discrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Zhou
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A novel algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional direction of arrival (2D-DOA estimation with uniform rectangular array using reduced-dimension propagator method (RD-PM. The proposed algorithm requires no eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix of the receive data and simplifies two-dimensional global searching in two-dimensional PM (2D-PM to one-dimensional local searching. The complexity of the proposed algorithm is much lower than that of 2D-PM. The angle estimation performance of the proposed algorithm is better than that of estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT algorithm and conventional PM algorithms, also very close to 2D-PM. The angle estimation error and Cramér-Rao bound (CRB are derived in this paper. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can achieve automatically paired 2D-DOA estimation. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions
Lim, L.K.; Lazarides, A.; Hemmerich, Andreas; de Morais Smith, C.
2009-01-01
We show how strongly interacting two-dimensional Dirac fermions can be realized with ultracold atoms in a two-dimensional optical square lattice with an experimentally realistic, inherent gauge field, which breaks time reversal and inversion symmetries. We find remarkable phenomena in a temperature
Topology optimization of two-dimensional waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole
2003-01-01
In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss.......In this work we use the method of topology optimization to design two-dimensional waveguides with low transmission loss....
Interaction of two-dimensional magnetoexcitons
Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.; Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.
2017-04-01
We study interaction of the two-dimensional magnetoexcitons with in-plane wave vector k→∥ = 0 , taking into account the influence of the excited Landau levels (ELLs) and of the external electric field perpendicular to the surface of the quantum well and parallel to the external magnetic field. It is shown that the account of the ELLs gives rise to the repulsion between the spinless magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 in the Fock approximation, with the interaction constant g decreasing inverse proportional to the magnetic field strength B (g (0) ∼ 1 / B) . In the presence of the perpendicular electric field the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (RSOC), Zeeman splitting (ZS) and nonparabolicity of the heavy-hole dispersion law affect the Landau quantization of the electrons and holes. They move along the new cyclotron orbits, change their Coulomb interactions and cause the interaction between 2D magnetoexcitons with k→∥ = 0 . The changes of the Coulomb interactions caused by the electrons and by the holes moving with new cyclotron orbits are characterized by some coefficients, which in the absence of the electric field turn to be unity. The differences between these coefficients of the electron-hole pairs forming the magnetoexcitons determine their affinities to the interactions. The interactions between the homogeneous, semihomogeneous and heterogeneous magnetoexcitons forming the symmetric states with the same signs of their affinities are attractive whereas in the case of different sign affinities are repulsive. In the heterogeneous asymmetric states the interactions have opposite signs in comparison with the symmetric states. In all these cases the interaction constant g have the dependence g (0) 1 /√{ B} .
Hawrył, Mirosław A; Niemiec, Małgorzata A; Słomka, Kamil; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Szymczak, Grażyna
2016-01-01
Micro-thin-layer chromatography in two-dimensional (2D-mTLC) mode in normal- (NP) and reversed-phase (RP) systems by use of cyanopropyl-bonded stationary phases was applied to make fingerprints of 11 species of Mentha genus and two finished pharmaceutical products. Non-aqueous eluents were used in the NP systems. Mixtures of acetonitrile with water and methanol with water were used in the RP chromatographic systems. Optimization of one-dimensional systems was performed by determining RM vs. composition of mobile phase dependencies for standards occurring in various Mentha sp. On the basis of these dependencies, the most selective chromatographic systems for each run were chosen. Then most selective eluents were applied to optimize two-dimensional systems by creating RF in NP systems vs. RF in RP systems correlations. The best two-dimensional systems were chosen on the basis of R(2) values for RF vs. RF correlations (the lowest values of R(2) coefficients). The 2D-mTLC optimized systems were applied to separate phenolic compounds and make fingerprints of the examined plant materials.
2-D Animation's Not Just for Mickey Mouse.
Weinman, Lynda
1995-01-01
Discusses characteristics of two-dimensional (2-D) animation; highlights include character animation, painting issues, and motion graphics. Sidebars present Silicon Graphics animations tools and 2-D animation programs for the desktop computer. (DGM)
Trainor, Thomas A
2015-01-01
An established phenomenology and theoretical interpretation of $p$-$p$ collision data at lower collision energies should provide a reference for $p$-$p$ and other collision systems at higher energies, against which claims of novel physics may be tested. The description of $p$-$p$ collisions at the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) has remained incomplete even as claims for collectivity and other novelties in data from smaller systems at the large hadron collider (LHC) have emerged recently. In this study we report the charge-multiplicity dependence of two-dimensional (2D) angular correlations and of single-particle (SP) densities on transverse rapidity $y_t$ and pseudorapidity $\\eta$ from 200 GeV $p$-$p$ collisions. We define a comprehensive and self-consistent two-component (soft + hard) model (TCM) for hadron production and report a significant $p$-$p$ nonjet (NJ) quadrupole component as a third (angular-correlation) component. Our results have implications for $p$-$p$ centrality, the underlying event ...
Sychev, Dmitry Alekseevich; Zastrozhin, Mikhail Sergeevich; Smirnov, Valery Valerieevich; Grishina, Elena Anatolievna; Savchenko, Ludmila Mikhailovna; Bryun, Evgeny Alekseevich
2016-01-01
Background Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse. Methods The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years) with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A) was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs) between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =−0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001]) and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =−0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001]). Conclusion This study demonstrated the correlations between the activity of CYP2D6 isozyme and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with alcohol addiction. PMID:27695358
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
肖蕾; 王玲; 闻小林; 崔亚云
2013-01-01
目的探讨二维超声心动图联合时间-空间关联成像(STIC)技术在胎儿先天性心脏病(CHD)筛查中的应用价值。方法采用多切面顺序扫查法对11036例胎儿进行心脏检查,部分胎儿进行STIC技术容积数据库采集及脱机分析,CHD胎儿引产后进行尸体解剖或出生后随访结果对照。结果单纯二维超声心动图筛查出176例胎儿先天性心脏大血管结构异常(不包括心律失常),其中97例在二维超声基础上进行 STIC 技术检查,92例两种方法检查结果一致(其中1例合并心内畸形漏诊)；检出的CHD胎儿中,87例记录二维筛查时间,平均每个胎儿心脏用时(9.68±2.13) min,79例记录STIC技术扫描时间,平均每次STIC扫描用时(7.76±2.42)min；不同孕周二维超声心动图与STIC技术各重要切面显示合格率差异无统计学意义。结论STIC技术可作为二维超声心动图的有效补充手段,二者联合可进一步提高胎儿CHD的产前诊断率。%Objective To explore the application value of two-dimensional echocardiography with spatio-temporal im-age correlation (STIC) in fetal congenital heart disease (CHD) prenatal ultrasonography. Methods 11 036 hearts of fetus were inspected by severalviews order scanning method and for STIC volume database acquisition and off-line a-nalysis congenital heart disease fetus for autopsy after induced labor or contrast the follow-up results after birth. Re-sults 97 cases with spatio-temp-oral image correlation in 176 cases congenital heart and great vessels exception (dysrhythmias not including) with simple two-dimensional echocardiography,92 cases were accordant (one case with incorporative intracardiac malformation missed diagnosis);in screened congenital heart disease fetus,STIC (n=79) and routine ultrasonography (n=87) took (7.76±2.42) min and (9.68±2.13) min per case,respectively;in dif-ferent gestational weeks,the quality of the images derived from volume datasets were comparable to
Mapping two-dimensional polar active fluids to two-dimensional soap and one-dimensional sandblasting
Chen, Leiming; Lee, Chiu Fan; Toner, John
2016-07-01
Active fluids and growing interfaces are two well-studied but very different non-equilibrium systems. Each exhibits non-equilibrium behaviour distinct from that of their equilibrium counterparts. Here we demonstrate a surprising connection between these two: the ordered phase of incompressible polar active fluids in two spatial dimensions without momentum conservation, and growing one-dimensional interfaces (that is, the 1+1-dimensional Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation), in fact belong to the same universality class. This universality class also includes two equilibrium systems: two-dimensional smectic liquid crystals, and a peculiar kind of constrained two-dimensional ferromagnet. We use these connections to show that two-dimensional incompressible flocks are robust against fluctuations, and exhibit universal long-ranged, anisotropic spatio-temporal correlations of those fluctuations. We also thereby determine the exact values of the anisotropy exponent ζ and the roughness exponents χx,y that characterize these correlations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leticia Huergo-Zapico
Full Text Available The immune system may mediate anti-tumor responses in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL which may affect disease progression and survival. In this study, we analyzed the immune characteristics of 99 consecutive previously diagnosed CLL patients and 50 healthy controls. The distribution of lymphocyte subsets at diagnosis was retrospectively analyzed. Compared with controls, leukemia patients showed an expansion of NK and CD8 T cells at diagnosis. The relative number of CD8 T cells at diagnosis was associated with time to treatment, suggesting that CD8 T cells may modify disease progression. The distribution of lymphocyte subsets was analyzed again when patients were enrolled in this study. The median time since these patients were diagnosed was 277 weeks. Compared with diagnosis, the absolute number of CD8 T cells significantly decreased in these patients, reaching similar values to healthy controls; however NK cells kept significantly elevated overtime. Nevertheless, NK cells showed an impaired expression of NKG2D receptor and a defective cytotoxic activity. This down-regulation of NKG2D expression was further enhanced in patients with advanced and progressive disease. Additionally, membrane NKG2D levels significantly decreased on CD8 T cells, but a significant increase of NKG2D+CD4+ T cells was observed in CLL patients. The cytotoxic activity of NK cells was diminished in CLL patients; however the treatments with IL-2, IL-15, IL-21 and lenalidomide were able to restore their activity. The effect of IL-2 and IL-15 was associated with the increase of NKG2D expression on immune cells, but the effect of IL-21 and lenalidomide was not due to NKG2D up-regulation. The expansion of NK cells and the reversibility of NK cell defects provide new opportunities for the immunotherapeutic intervention in CLL.
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.org, E-mail: bredenbeck@biophysik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institut für Biophysik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
2015-08-15
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio [IFN-CNR, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Nonlinear optical response of a two-dimensional atomic crystal.
Merano, Michele
2016-01-01
The theory of Bloembergen and Pershan for the light waves at the boundary of nonlinear media is extended to a nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystal, i.e., a single planar atomic lattice, placed between linear bulk media. The crystal is treated as a zero-thickness interface, a real 2D system. Harmonic waves emanate from it. Generalization of the laws of reflection and refraction give the direction and the intensity of the harmonic waves. As a particular case that contains all the essential physical features, second-order harmonic generation is considered. The theory, due to its simplicity that stems from the special character of a single planar atomic lattice, is able to elucidate and explain the rich experimental details of harmonic generation from a 2D atomic crystal.
A spectroelectrochemical cell for ultrafast two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy
El Khoury, Youssef; Van Wilderen, Luuk J. G. W.; Vogt, Tim; Winter, Ernst; Bredenbeck, Jens
2015-08-01
A spectroelectrochemical cell has been designed to combine electrochemistry and ultrafast two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy, which is a powerful tool to extract structure and dynamics information on the femtosecond to picosecond time scale. Our design is based on a gold mirror with the dual role of performing electrochemistry and reflecting IR light. To provide the high optical surface quality required for laser spectroscopy, the gold surface is made by electron beam evaporation on a glass substrate. Electrochemical cycling facilitates in situ collection of ultrafast dynamics of redox-active molecules by means of 2D-IR. The IR beams are operated in reflection mode so that they travel twice through the sample, i.e., the signal size is doubled. This methodology is optimal for small sample volumes and successfully tested with the ferricyanide/ferrocyanide redox system of which the corresponding electrochemically induced 2D-IR difference spectrum is reported.
Synthesis of borophenes: Anisotropic, two-dimensional boron polymorphs
Mannix, Andrew J.; Zhou, Xiang-Feng; Kiraly, Brian; Wood, Joshua D.; Alducin, Diego; Myers, Benjamin D.; Liu, Xiaolong; Fisher, Brandon L.; Santiago, Ulises; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Yacaman, Miguel Jose; Ponce, Arturo; Oganov, Artem R.; Hersam, Mark C.; Guisinger, Nathan P.
2016-01-01
At the atomic-cluster scale, pure boron is markedly similar to carbon, forming simple planar molecules and cage-like fullerenes.Theoretical studies predict that two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets will adopt an atomic configuration similar to that of boron atomic clusters. We synthesized atomically thin, crystalline 2D boron sheets (i.e., borophene) on silver surfaces under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Atomic-scale characterization, supported by theoretical calculations, revealed structures reminiscent of fused boron clusters with multiple scales of anisotropic, out-of-plane buckling. Unlike bulk boron allotropes, borophene shows metallic characteristics that are consistent with predictions of a highly anisotropic, 2D metal. PMID:26680195
Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Morten
a voltage is passed through the Josephson junction, we observe multiple Andreev reflections and preliminary results point to a highly transmissive interface between the 2D electron gas and the superconductor. In the theoretical section we demonstrate analytically and numerically, that in a 1D nanowire......This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show...... that a superconducting 1D nanowire can harbor Majorana bound states in the absence of spin–orbit coupling. We fabricate and measure micrometer–sized mesoscopic devices demonstrating the inheritance of superconducting properties in the 2D electron gas. By placing a quantum point contact proximal to the interface between...
A renormalization group analysis of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Liang, Wenli Z.; Diamond, P. H.
1993-01-01
The renormalization group (RNG) method is used to study the physics of two-dimensional (2D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. It is shown that, for a turbulent magnetofluid in two dimensions, no RNG transformation fixed point exists on account of the coexistence of energy transfer to small scales and mean-square magnetic flux transfer to large scales. The absence of a fixed point renders the RNG method incapable of describing the 2D MHD system. A similar conclusion is reached for 2D hydrodynamics, where enstrophy flows to small scales and energy to large scales. These analyses suggest that the applicability of the RNG method to turbulent systems is intrinsically limited, especially in the case of systems with dual-direction transfer.
Quasi-Two-Dimensional Magnetism in Co-Based Shandites
Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki
2016-06-01
We report quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) itinerant electron magnetism in the layered Co-based shandites. Comprehensive magnetization measurements were performed using single crystals of Co3Sn2-xInxS2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) and Co3-yFeySn2S2 (0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5). The magnetic parameters of both systems; the Curie temperature TC, effective moment peff and spontaneous moment ps; exhibit almost identical variations against the In- and Fe-concentrations, indicating significance of the electron count on the magnetism in the Co-based shandite. The ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic quantum phase transition is found around xc ˜ 0.8. Analysis based on the extended Q2D spin fluctuation theory clearly reveals the highly Q2D itinerant electron character of the ferromagnetism in the Co-based shandites.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yi-Ping; ZHANG Han-Hui; KE Da-Mei; SHEN Xiao-Min; HUANG Chang-Cang; SUN Rui-Qing
2005-01-01
A novel compound, (4,4'-Hbpy)3[NaMo8O26](4,4'-bpy)2(H2O)4 1 (bpy = bipydine),was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction shows that compound 1 belongs to the monoclinic system, space group C2/m with a = 19.1921(5), b = 18.6931(6), c = 9.3821 (3) (A), β = 104.8020(11)°, V = 3254.22(17) (A)3, C50H51Mo8N10NaO30, Mr = 2062.52, Z = 2,F(000) = 2016,μ = 1.591 mm- 1 and Dc = 2.105 g/cm3. The final R = 0.0283 and wR = 0.0912 for 3118 observed reflections (I ＞ 2σ(Ⅰ)). Compound 1 contains the β-[Mo8O26]4- anion, sodium ion, 4,4'-bpy and lattice crystalline water molecules. The β-[Mo8O26] units link the sodium ion to form a chain structure. The infinitechains of [Na(Mo8O26)]3- blocks are surrounded by protonized 4,4'-bpy cations,4,4'-bpy and lattice crystalline water molecules. The 2D-IR correlation spectroscopy study indicates that the stretching vibrations of Mo=O occur more preferentially due to the thermal effect. The TGA analysis shows that compound 1 has high thermal stability.
Two-dimensional Imaging Velocity Interferometry: Technique and Data Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erskine, D J; Smith, R F; Bolme, C; Celliers, P; Collins, G
2011-03-23
We describe the data analysis procedures for an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image at a moment in time, i.e. a snapshot 2d-VISAR. Velocity interferometers (VISAR) measuring target motion to high precision have been an important diagnostic in shockwave physics for many years Until recently, this diagnostic has been limited to measuring motion at points or lines across a target. We introduce an emerging interferometric technique for measuring motion across a two-dimensional image, which could be called a snapshot 2d-VISAR. If a sufficiently fast movie camera technology existed, it could be placed behind a traditional VISAR optical system and record a 2d image vs time. But since that technology is not yet available, we use a CCD detector to record a single 2d image, with the pulsed nature of the illumination providing the time resolution. Consequently, since we are using pulsed illumination having a coherence length shorter than the VISAR interferometer delay ({approx}0.1 ns), we must use the white light velocimetry configuration to produce fringes with significant visibility. In this scheme, two interferometers (illuminating, detecting) having nearly identical delays are used in series, with one before the target and one after. This produces fringes with at most 50% visibility, but otherwise has the same fringe shift per target motion of a traditional VISAR. The 2d-VISAR observes a new world of information about shock behavior not readily accessible by traditional point or 1d-VISARS, simultaneously providing both a velocity map and an 'ordinary' snapshot photograph of the target. The 2d-VISAR has been used to observe nonuniformities in NIF related targets (polycrystalline diamond, Be), and in Si and Al.
Analysis of the IEA 2D test. 2D, 3D, steady or unsteady airflow?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cortes, Ines Olmedo; Nielsen, Peter V.
The “IEA Annex 20 two-dimensional test case” was defined by proffesor Peter V. Nielsen (1990) and was originally considered two-dimensional and steady flow. However, some recent works considering the case as three dimensional have shown different solutions from the 2D case as well as different so...
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Moore, Gregory; Plesser, Ronen
1993-04-01
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c = 1 system to KP flow nd W 1 + ∞ constraints. Moreover we derive a Kontsevich-Penner integral representation of this generating functional.
The partition function of two-dimensional string theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dijkgraaf, R. (School of Natural Sciences, Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States) Dept. of Mathematics, Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Moore, G.; Plesser, R. (Dept. of Physics, Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))
1993-04-12
We derive a compact and explicit expression for the generating functional of all correlation functions of tachyon operators in two-dimensional string theory. This expression makes manifest relations of the c=1 system to KP flow and W[sub 1+[infinity
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of a Model Dimer System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prokhorenko V.I.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional spectra of a dimer were measured to determine the timescale for electronic decoherence at room temperature. Anti-correlated beats in the crosspeaks were observed only during the period corresponding to the measured homogeneous lifetime.
Extension of modified power method to two-dimensional problems
Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung
2016-09-01
In this study, the generalized modified power method was extended to two-dimensional problems. A direct application of the method to two-dimensional problems was shown to be unstable when the number of requested eigenmodes is larger than a certain problem dependent number. The root cause of this instability has been identified as the degeneracy of the transfer matrix. In order to resolve this instability, the number of sub-regions for the transfer matrix was increased to be larger than the number of requested eigenmodes; and a new transfer matrix was introduced accordingly which can be calculated by the least square method. The stability of the new method has been successfully demonstrated with a neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem and the 2D C5G7 benchmark problem.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Two dimensional density and its fluctuation measurements by using phase imaging method in GAMMA 10
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshikawa, M.; Negishi, S.; Shima, Y.; Hojo, H.; Imai, T. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Mase, A. [Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Kogi, Y. [Fukuoka Institute of Technology, 3-30-1 Wajiro-higashi, Higashiku, Fukuoka 811-0295 (Japan)
2010-10-15
Two dimensional (2D) plasma image analysis is useful to study the improvement of plasma confinement in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. We have constructed a 2D interferometer system with phase imaging method for studying 2D plasma density distribution and its fluctuation measurement in the tandem mirror GAMMA 10. 2D profiles of electron density and its fluctuation have been successfully obtained by using this 2D phase imaging system. We show that 2D plasma density and fluctuation profiles clearly depends on the axial confining potential formation with application of plug electron cyclotron heating in GAMMA 10.
Two-dimensional coupled electron-hole layers in high magnetic fields
Parlangeli, Andrea
2000-01-01
In solids, it is nowadays possible to create structures in which electrons are confined into a two-dimensional (2D) plane. The physics of a 2D electron gas (2DEG) has proved to be very rich, in particular in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. The Quantum Hall Effect, i.e. the quantization
Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory
Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.
2015-01-01
A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…
Dipeptide Structural Analysis Using Two-Dimensional NMR for the Undergraduate Advanced Laboratory
Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Dolino, Drew; Schwartzenburg, Danielle; Steiger, Michelle A.
2015-01-01
A laboratory experiment was developed to introduce students in either an organic chemistry or biochemistry lab course to two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) spectroscopy using simple biomolecules. The goal of this experiment is for students to understand and interpret the information provided by a 2D NMR spectrum. Students are…
Fang, Changming; Van Blaaderen, Alfons; Van Huis, Marijn A.
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) hydrous silica sheets (HSSs) and hydrous silica nanotubes (HSNTs) have many unique properties and potential applications. Although preparation of 2D HSSs was patented already about half a century ago, very little is known about their structure and physical properties. He we pred
Spectral Radiative Properties of Two-Dimensional Rough Surfaces
Xuan, Yimin; Han, Yuge; Zhou, Yue
2012-12-01
Spectral radiative properties of two-dimensional rough surfaces are important for both academic research and practical applications. Besides material properties, surface structures have impact on the spectral radiative properties of rough surfaces. Based on the finite difference time domain algorithm, this paper studies the spectral energy propagation process on a two-dimensional rough surface and analyzes the effect of different factors such as the surface structure, angle, and polarization state of the incident wave on the spectral radiative properties of the two-dimensional rough surface. To quantitatively investigate the spatial distribution of energy reflected from the rough surface, the concept of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function is introduced. Correlation analysis between the reflectance and different impact factors is conducted to evaluate the influence degree. Comparison between the theoretical and experimental data is given to elucidate the accuracy of the computational code. This study is beneficial to optimizing the surface structures of optoelectronic devices such as solar cells.
Two-dimensional multiferroics in monolayer group IV monochalcogenides
Wang, Hua; Qian, Xiaofeng
2017-03-01
Low-dimensional multiferroic materials hold great promises in miniaturized device applications such as nanoscale transducers, actuators, sensors, photovoltaics, and nonvolatile memories. Here, using first-principles theory we predict that two-dimensional (2D) monolayer group IV monochalcogenides including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe are a class of 2D semiconducting multiferroics with giant strongly-coupled in-plane spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous ferroelastic lattice strain that are thermodynamically stable at room temperature and beyond, and can be effectively modulated by elastic strain engineering. Their optical absorption spectra exhibit strong in-plane anisotropy with visible-spectrum excitonic gaps and sizable exciton binding energies, rendering the unique characteristics of low-dimensional semiconductors. More importantly, the predicted low domain wall energy and small migration barrier together with the coupled multiferroic order and anisotropic electronic structures suggest their great potentials for tunable multiferroic functional devices by manipulating external electrical, mechanical, and optical field to control the internal responses, and enable the development of four device concepts including 2D ferroelectric memory, 2D ferroelastic memory, and 2D ferroelastoelectric nonvolatile photonic memory as well as 2D ferroelectric excitonic photovoltaics.
On the critical behaviour of two-dimensional liquid crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.l. Fariñas-Sánchez
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The Lebwohl-Lasher (LL model is the traditional model used to describe the nematic-isotropic transition of real liquid crystals. In this paper, we develop a numerical study of the temperature behaviour and of finite-size scaling of the two-dimensional (2D LL-model. We discuss two possible scenarios. In the first one, the 2D LL-model presents a phase transition similar to the topological transition appearing in the 2D XY-model. In the second one, the 2D LL-model does not exhibit any critical transition, but its low temperature behaviour is rather characterized by a crossover from a disordered phase to an ordered phase at zero temperature. We realize and discuss various comparisons with the 2D XY-model and the 2D Heisenberg model. Having added finite-size scaling behaviour of the order parameter and conformal mapping of order parameter profile to previous studies, we analyze the critical scaling of the probability distribution function, hyperscaling relations and stiffness order parameter and conclude that the second scenario (no critical transition is the most plausible.
Soluble, Exfoliated Two-Dimensional Nanosheets as Excellent Aqueous Lubricants.
Zhang, Wenling; Cao, Yanlin; Tian, Pengyi; Guo, Fei; Tian, Yu; Zheng, Wen; Ji, Xuqiang; Liu, Jingquan
2016-11-30
Dispersion in water of two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is conducive to their practical applications in fundamental science communities due to their abundance, low cost, and ecofriendliness. However, it is difficult to achieve stable aqueous 2D material suspensions because of the intrinsic hydrophobic properties of the layered materials. Here, we report an effective and economic way of producing various 2D nanosheets (h-BN, MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and graphene) as aqueous dispersions using carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as exfoliation agents and stabilizers. The dispersion was prepared through a liquid phase exfoliation. The as-synthesized stable 2D nanosheets based dispersions were characterized by UV-vis, HRTEM, AFM, Raman, XPS, and XRD. The solutions based on CQD decorated 2D nanosheets were utilized as aqueous lubricants, which realized a friction coefficient as low as 0.02 and even achieved a superlubricity under certain working conditions. The excellent lubricating properties were attributed to the synergetic effects of the 2D nanosheets and CQDs, such as good dispersion stability and easy-sliding interlayer structure. This work thus proposes a novel strategy for the design and preparation of high-performance water based green lubricants.
Daugman, J G
1985-07-01
Two-dimensional spatial linear filters are constrained by general uncertainty relations that limit their attainable information resolution for orientation, spatial frequency, and two-dimensional (2D) spatial position. The theoretical lower limit for the joint entropy, or uncertainty, of these variables is achieved by an optimal 2D filter family whose spatial weighting functions are generated by exponentiated bivariate second-order polynomials with complex coefficients, the elliptic generalization of the one-dimensional elementary functions proposed in Gabor's famous theory of communication [J. Inst. Electr. Eng. 93, 429 (1946)]. The set includes filters with various orientation bandwidths, spatial-frequency bandwidths, and spatial dimensions, favoring the extraction of various kinds of information from an image. Each such filter occupies an irreducible quantal volume (corresponding to an independent datum) in a four-dimensional information hyperspace whose axes are interpretable as 2D visual space, orientation, and spatial frequency, and thus such a filter set could subserve an optimally efficient sampling of these variables. Evidence is presented that the 2D receptive-field profiles of simple cells in mammalian visual cortex are well described by members of this optimal 2D filter family, and thus such visual neurons could be said to optimize the general uncertainty relations for joint 2D-spatial-2D-spectral information resolution. The variety of their receptive-field dimensions and orientation and spatial-frequency bandwidths, and the correlations among these, reveal several underlying constraints, particularly in width/length aspect ratio and principal axis organization, suggesting a polar division of labor in occupying the quantal volumes of information hyperspace.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities on Moire Surfaces
Balci, Sinan; Kocabas, Askin; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Kocabas, Coskun; Aydinli, Atilla
2010-03-01
We investigate surface plasmon polariton (SPP) cavitiy modes on two dimensional Moire surfaces in the visible spectrum. Two dimensional hexagonal Moire surface can be recorded on a photoresist layer using Interference lithography (IL). Two sequential exposures at slightly different angles in IL generate one dimensional Moire surfaces. Further sequential exposure for the same sample at slightly different angles after turning the sample 60 degrees around its own axis generates two dimensional hexagonal Moire cavity. Spectroscopic reflection measurements have shown plasmonic band gaps and cavity states at all the azimuthal angles (omnidirectional cavity and band gap formation) investigated. The plasmonic band gap edge and the cavity states energies show six fold symmetry on the two dimensional Moire surface as measured in reflection measurements.
Two-dimensional function photonic crystals
Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Ma, Ji; Zhang, Si-Qi; Li, Hong; Wu, Xiang-Yao; Wu, Yi-Heng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we have studied two-dimensional function photonic crystals, in which the dielectric constants of medium columns are the functions of space coordinates , that can become true easily by electro-optical effect and optical kerr effect. We calculated the band gap structures of TE and TM waves, and found the TE (TM) wave band gaps of function photonic crystals are wider (narrower) than the conventional photonic crystals. For the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, when the dielectric constant functions change, the band gaps numbers, width and position should be changed, and the band gap structures of two-dimensional function photonic crystals can be adjusted flexibly, the needed band gap structures can be designed by the two-dimensional function photonic crystals, and it can be of help to design optical devices.
Albrecht, Daniel S; Skosnik, Patrick D; Vollmer, Jennifer M; Brumbaugh, Margaret S; Perry, Kevin M; Mock, Bruce H; Zheng, Qi-Huang; Federici, Lauren A; Patton, Elizabeth A; Herring, Christine M; Yoder, Karmen K
2013-02-01
Although the incidence of cannabis abuse/dependence in Americans is rising, the neurobiology of cannabis addiction is not well understood. Imaging studies have demonstrated deficits in striatal D(2)/D(3) receptor availability in several substance-dependent populations. However, this has not been studied in currently using chronic cannabis users. The purpose of this study was to compare striatal D(2)/D(3) receptor availability between currently using chronic cannabis users and healthy controls. Eighteen right-handed males age 18-34 were studied. Ten subjects were chronic cannabis users; eight were demographically matched controls. Subjects underwent a [(11)C]raclopride (RAC) PET scan. Striatal RAC binding potential (BP(ND)) was calculated on a voxel-wise basis. Prior to scanning, urine samples were obtained from cannabis users for quantification of urine Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and THC metabolites (11-nor-Δ-9-THC-9-carboxylic acid; THC-COOH and 11-hydroxy-THC;OH-THC). There were no differences in D(2)/D(3) receptor availability between cannabis users and controls. Voxel-wise analyses revealed that RAC BP(ND) values were negatively associated with both urine levels of cannabis metabolites and self-report of recent cannabis consumption. In this sample, current cannabis use was not associated with deficits in striatal D(2)/D(3) receptor availability. There was an inverse relationship between chronic cannabis use and striatal RAC BP(ND). Additional studies are needed to identify the neurochemical consequences of chronic cannabis use on the dopamine system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dawkins, Joshua B N; Wang, Jun; Maniati, Eleni; Heward, James A; Koniali, Lola; Kocher, Hemant M; Martin, Sarah A; Chelala, Claude; Balkwill, Frances R; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Grose, Richard P
2016-08-15
Genes encoding the histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases KMT2C and KMT2D are subject to deletion and mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where these lesions identify a group of patients with a more favorable prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that low KMT2C and KMT2D expression in biopsies also defines better outcome groups, with median survivals of 15.9 versus 9.2 months (P = 0.029) and 19.9 versus 11.8 months (P = 0.001), respectively. Experiments with eight human pancreatic cell lines showed attenuated cell proliferation when these methyltransferases were depleted, suggesting that this improved outcome may reflect a cell-cycle block with diminished progression from G0-G1 RNA-seq analysis of PDAC cell lines following KMT2C or KMT2D knockdown identified 31 and 124 differentially expressed genes, respectively, with 19 genes in common. Gene-set enrichment analysis revealed significant downregulation of genes related to cell-cycle and growth. These data were corroborated independently by examining KMT2C/D signatures extracted from the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Furthermore, these experiments highlighted a potential role for NCAPD3, a condensin II complex subunit, as an outcome predictor in PDAC using existing gene expression series. Kmt2d depletion in KC/KPC cell lines also led to an increased response to the nucleoside analogue 5-fluorouracil, suggesting that lower levels of this methyltransferase may mediate the sensitivity of PDAC to particular treatments. Therefore, it may also be therapeutically beneficial to target these methyltransferases in PDAC, especially in those patients demonstrating higher KTM2C/D expression. Cancer Res; 76(16); 4861-71. ©2016 AACR.
Dawkins, Joshua B.N.; Wang, Jun; Maniati, Eleni; Heward, James A.; Koniali, Lola; Kocher, Hemant M.; Martin, Sarah A.; Chelala, Claude; Balkwill, Frances R.; Fitzgibbon, Jude; Grose, Richard P.
2017-01-01
Genes encoding the histone H3 lysine 4 methyltransferases KMT2C and KMT2D are subject to deletion and mutation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), where these lesions identify a group of patients with a more favorable prognosis. In this study, we demonstrate that low KMT2C and KMT2D expression in biopsies also defines better outcome groups, with median survivals of 15.9 versus 9.2 months (P = 0.029) and 19.9 versus 11.8 months (P = 0.001), respectively. Experiments with eight human pancreatic cell lines showed attenuated cell proliferation when these methyltransferases were depleted, suggesting that this improved outcome may reflect a cell-cycle block with diminished progression from G0–G1. RNA-seq analysis of PDAC cell lines following KMT2C or KMT2D knockdown identified 31 and 124 differentially expressed genes, respectively, with 19 genes in common. Gene-set enrichment analysis revealed significant downregulation of genes related to cell-cycle and growth. These data were corroborated independently by examining KMT2C/D signatures extracted from the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets. Furthermore, these experiments highlighted a potential role for NCAPD3, a condensin II complex subunit, as an outcome predictor in PDAC using existing gene expression series. Kmt2d depletion in KC/KPC cell lines also led to an increased response to the nucleoside analogue 5-fluorouracil, suggesting that lower levels of this methyltransferase may mediate the sensitivity of PDAC to particular treatments. Therefore, it may also be therapeutically beneficial to target these methyltransferases in PDAC, especially in those patients demonstrating higher KTM2C/D expression. PMID:27280393
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陆忞; 鲍旭东; 罗立民; 李鉴轶
2007-01-01
介绍了一种基于改进SLNC(sum of local normalized correlation,SLNC)的2D-3D医学图像配准方法.首先对CT体积数据进行三线性插值,得到各向分辨率相同的体积数据,采用光线跟踪算法对其进行数字图像重建.针对不同位置和方向的重建图像,在灰度级压缩的基础上,用改进SLNC函数评价其与X线透视图像的相似性,利用与Brent相结合的Powell优化方法,搜索出相似性最大时的投影变换参数.将此方法用于移动数字X线投影设备--Biplanar 500采集的X线透视图像与相应CT体积数据的配准实验,得到较好的2D-3D图像配准效果.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sychev DA
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Dmitry Alekseevich Sychev,1 Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin,1–3 Valery Valerieevich Smirnov,4 Elena Anatolievna Grishina,1 Ludmila Mikhailovna Savchenko,1 Evgeny Alekseevich Bryun1,2 1Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, 2Department of Public Health, Moscow Research and Practical Centre for Narcology, 3Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 4National Research Center, Institute of Immunology Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia Background: Today, it is proved that isoenzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 are involved in metabolism of haloperidol. In our previous investigation, we found a medium correlation between the efficacy and safety of haloperidol and the activity of CYP3A4 in patients with alcohol abuse.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the activity of CYP2D6 and the efficacy and safety of haloperidol in patients with diagnosed alcohol abuse.Methods: The study involved 70 men (average age: 40.83±9.92 years with alcohol addiction. A series of psychometric scales were used in the research. The activity of CYP2D6 was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry using the ratio of 6-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline to pinoline. Genotyping of CYP2D6 (1846G>A was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results: According to results of correlation analysis, statistically significant values of Spearman correlation coefficient (rs between the activity of CYP2D6 and the difference of points in psychometric scale were obtained in patients receiving haloperidol in injection form (Sheehan Clinical Anxiety Rating Scale =-0.721 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.692 [P<0.001] and in those receiving haloperidol in tablet form (Covi Anxiety Scale =-0.851 [P<0.001] and Udvald for Kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale =0.797 [P<0.001].Conclusion
Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Mondal, Sayan; Liu, Fei; Canton, Gador; Hatsukami, Thomas S; Yuan, Chun
2008-01-01
It is well accepted that atherosclerosis initiation and progression correlate positively with low and oscillating flow wall shear stresses (FSS). However, this mechanism cannot explain why advanced plaques continue to grow under elevated FSS conditions. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based 2D/3D multi-component models with fluid-structure interactions (FSI, 3D only) for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques were introduced to quantify correlations between plaque progression measured by wall thickness increase (WTI) and plaque wall (structure) stress (PWS) conditions. A histologically validated multi-contrast MRI protocol was used to acquire multi-year in vivo MRI images. Our results using 2D models (200-700 data points/patient) indicated that 18 out of 21 patients studied showed significant negative correlation between WTI and PWS at time 2 (T2). The 95% confidence interval for the Pearson correlation coefficient is (-0.443,-0.246), p<0.0001. Our 3D FSI model supported the 2D correlation results and further indicated that combining both plaque structure stress and flow shear stress gave better approximation results (PWS, T2: R(2)=0.279; FSS, T1: R(2)=0.276; combining both: R(2)=0.637). These pilot studies suggest that both lower PWS and lower FSS may contribute to continued plaque progression and should be taken into consideration in future investigations of diseases related to atherosclerosis.
Three-dimensional versus two-dimensional vision in laparoscopy
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Stine Maya Dreier; Savran, Mona M; Konge, Lars;
2016-01-01
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic surgery is widely used, and results in accelerated patient recovery time and hospital stay were compared with laparotomy. However, laparoscopic surgery is more challenging compared with open surgery, in part because surgeons must operate in a three-dimensional (3D) space...... through a two-dimensional (2D) projection on a monitor, which results in loss of depth perception. To counter this problem, 3D imaging for laparoscopy was developed. A systematic review of the literature was performed to assess the effect of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature...
Complex Saddles in Two-dimensional Gauge Theory
Buividovich, P V; Valgushev, S N
2015-01-01
We study numerically the saddle point structure of two-dimensional (2D) lattice gauge theory, represented by the Gross-Witten-Wadia unitary matrix model. The saddle points are in general complex-valued, even though the original integration variables and action are real. We confirm the trans-series/instanton gas structure in the weak-coupling phase, and identify a new complex-saddle interpretation of non-perturbative effects in the strong-coupling phase. In both phases, eigenvalue tunneling refers to eigenvalues moving off the real interval, into the complex plane, and the weak-to-strong coupling phase transition is driven by saddle condensation.
Two Dimensional Spatial Independent Component Analysis and Its Application in fMRI Data Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Hua-fu; YAO De-zhong
2005-01-01
One important application of independent component analysis (ICA) is in image processing. A two dimensional (2-D) composite ICA algorithm framework for 2-D image independent component analysis (2-D ICA) is proposed. The 2-D nature of the algorithm provides it an advantage of circumventing the roundabout transforming procedures between two dimensional (2-D) image data and one-dimensional (1-D) signal. Moreover the combination of the Newton (fixed-point algorithm) and natural gradient algorithms in this composite algorithm increases its efficiency and robustness. The convincing results of a successful example in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) show the potential application of composite 2-D ICA in the brain activity detection.
Dubinskii, Alexander A.; Maresch, Günter G.; Spiess, Hans-Wolfgang
1994-02-01
The combination of concepts of two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy with the well-known field step electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) method offers a practical route to recording 2D ELDOR spectra covering the full spectral range needed for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of nitroxide spin labels in the solid state. The 2D ELDOR pattern provides information about molecular reorientation measured in real time, the anisotropies of electron phase, and electron spin-lattice relaxation as well as nuclear spin-lattice relaxation all of which are connected with the detailed geometry of the molecular reorientation. Thus, in 2D ELDOR the same electron spin probes the motional behavior over a wide range of correlation times from 10-4 to 10-12 s. An efficient algorithm for simulating 2D ELDOR spectra is derived, based on analytical solutions of the spin relaxation behavior for small-angle fluctuations and offers a means of quantitatively analyzing experimental data. As an example, the motion of nitroxide spin labels in a liquid-crystalline side-group polymer well below its glass transition is determined as a β-relaxation process with a mean angular amplitude of 5° and a distribution of correlation times with a mean correlation time of 0.9×10-10 s and a width of 2.5 decades.
Jameson, A. R.; Larsen, M. L.
2016-06-01
Microphysical understanding of the variability in rain requires a statistical characterization of different drop sizes both in time and in all dimensions of space. Temporally, there have been several statistical characterizations of raindrop counts. However, temporal and spatial structures are neither equivalent nor readily translatable. While there are recent reports of the one-dimensional spatial correlation functions in rain, they can only be assumed to represent the two-dimensional (2D) correlation function under the assumption of spatial isotropy. To date, however, there are no actual observations of the (2D) spatial correlation function in rain over areas. Two reasons for this deficiency are the fiscal and the physical impossibilities of assembling a dense network of instruments over even hundreds of meters much less over kilometers. Consequently, all measurements over areas will necessarily be sparsely sampled. A dense network of data must then be estimated using interpolations from the available observations. In this work, a network of 19 optical disdrometers over a 100 m by 71 m area yield observations of drop spectra every minute. These are then interpolated to a 1 m resolution grid. Fourier techniques then yield estimates of the 2D spatial correlation functions. Preliminary examples using this technique found that steadier, light rain decorrelates spatially faster than does the convective rain, but in both cases the 2D spatial correlation functions are anisotropic, reflecting an asymmetry in the physical processes influencing the rain reaching the ground not accounted for in numerical microphysical models.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, Reiko; Uemura, Koji; Uchiyama, Akihiko [Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering; Toyama, Hinako; Ishii, Kenji; Senda, Michio
2001-05-01
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the extent of atrophy and the decline in brain function objectively and quantitatively. Two-dimensional (2D) projection images of three-dimensional (3D) transaxial images of positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were made by means of the Mollweide method which keeps the area of the brain surface. A correlation image was generated between 2D projection images of MRI and cerebral blood flow (CBF) or {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images and the sulcus was extracted from the correlation image clustered by K-means method. Furthermore, the extent of atrophy was evaluated from the extracted sulcus on 2D-projection MRI and the cerebral cortical function such as blood flow or glucose metabolic rate was assessed in the cortex excluding sulcus on 2D-projection PET image, and then the relationship between the cerebral atrophy and function was evaluated. This method was applied to the two groups, the young and the aged normal subjects, and the relationship between the age and the rate of atrophy or the cerebral blood flow was investigated. This method was also applied to FDG-PET and MRI studies in the normal controls and in patients with corticobasal degeneration. The mean rate of atrophy in the aged group was found to be higher than that in the young. The mean value and the variance of the cerebral blood flow for the young are greater than those of the aged. The sulci were similarly extracted using either CBF or FDG PET images. The purposed method using 2-D projection images of MRI and PET is clinically useful for quantitative assessment of atrophic change and functional disorder of cerebral cortex. (author)
Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.
2010-01-01
Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possi...
25th anniversary article: hybrid nanostructures based on two-dimensional nanomaterials.
Huang, Xiao; Tan, Chaoliang; Yin, Zongyou; Zhang, Hua
2014-04-09
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), receive a lot of attention, because of their intriguing properties and wide applications in catalysis, energy-storage devices, electronics, optoelectronics, and so on. To further enhance the performance of their application, these 2D nanomaterials are hybridized with other functional nanostructures. In this review, the latest studies of 2D nanomaterial-based hybrid nanostructures are discussed, focusing on their preparation methods, properties, and applications.
Thill, Marc; Fischer, Dorothea; Hoellen, Friederike; Kelling, Katharina; Dittmer, Christine; Landt, Solveig; Salehin, Darius; Diedrich, Klaus; Friedrich, Michael; Becker, Steffi
2010-05-01
Breast cancer is associated with inflammatory processes based on an up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. The antiproliferative effects of calcitriol (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) mediated via the vitamin D receptor (VDR) render vitamin D a promising target in breast cancer therapy. First data suggest a correlation between vitamin D and prostaglandin metabolism. We determined the expression of VDR, COX-2, 15-PGDH and the prostaglandin receptors EP(2)/EP(4) in normal and malignant breast tissue by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, as well as 25(OH)(2)D(3) and PGE(2) plasma levels from healthy and breast cancer patients. Significantly higher COX-2, lower VDR and lower EP(2) and EP(4) receptor protein levels in the malignant tissue and a significantly lower 15-PGDH protein level in normal breast tissue were detected. Breast cancer patients older than 45 years, diagnosed and sampled in the winter time had significantly lower 25(OH)(2)D(3) and higher PGE(2) serum levels. The inverse correlation between VDR and both COX-2 and 15-PGDH, as well as between PGE(2) and 25(OH)(2)D(3) levels, suggests a possible link between VDR-associated target genes and prostaglandin metabolism.
Perspectives for spintronics in 2D materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Han
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The past decade has been especially creative for spintronics since the (rediscovery of various two dimensional (2D materials. Due to the unusual physical characteristics, 2D materials have provided new platforms to probe the spin interaction with other degrees of freedom for electrons, as well as to be used for novel spintronics applications. This review briefly presents the most important recent and ongoing research for spintronics in 2D materials.
Two Dimensional Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanorods with Tunable Optical Properties.
Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz
2016-05-11
Organo-metal halide perovskite is an efficient light harvester in photovoltaic solar cells. Organometal halide perovskite is used mainly in its "bulk" form in the solar cell. Confined perovskite nanostructures could be a promising candidate for efficient optoelectronic devices, taking advantage of the superior bulk properties of organo-metal halide perovskite, as well as the nanoscale properties. In this paper, we present facile low-temperature synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) lead halide perovskite nanorods (NRs). These NRs show a shift to higher energies in the absorbance and in the photoluminescence compared to the bulk material, which supports their 2D structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the NRs demonstrates their 2D nature combined with the tetragonal 3D perovskite structure. In addition, by alternating the halide composition, we were able to tune the optical properties of the NRs. Fast Fourier transform, and electron diffraction show the tetragonal structure of these NRs. By varying the ligands ratio (e.g., octylammonium to oleic acid) in the synthesis, we were able to provide the formation mechanism of these novel 2D perovskite NRs. The 2D perovskite NRs are promising candidates for a variety of optoelectronic applications, such as light-emitting diodes, lasing, solar cells, and sensors.
Generalized non-separable two-dimensional Dammann encoding method
Yu, Junjie; Zhou, Changhe; Zhu, Linwei; Lu, Yancong; Wu, Jun; Jia, Wei
2017-01-01
We generalize for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the Dammann encoding method into non-separable two-dimensional (2D) structures for designing various pure-phase Dammann encoding gratings (DEGs). For examples, three types of non-separable 2D DEGs, including non-separable binary Dammann vortex gratings, non-separable binary distorted Dammann gratings, and non-separable continuous-phase cubic gratings, are designed theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Correspondingly, it is shown that 2D square arrays of optical vortices with topological charges proportional to the diffraction orders, focus spots shifting along both transversal and axial directions with equal spacings, and Airy-like beams with controllable orientation for each beam, are generated in symmetry or asymmetry by these three DEGs, respectively. Also, it is shown that a more complex-shaped array of modulated beams could be achieved by this non-separable 2D Dammann encoding method, which will be a big challenge for those conventional separable 2D Dammann encoding gratings. Furthermore, the diffractive efficiency of the gratings can be improved around ∼10% when the non-separable structure is applied, compared with their conventional separable counterparts. Such improvement in the efficiency should be of high significance for some specific applications.
Gate-induced superconductivity in two-dimensional atomic crystals
Saito, Yu; Nojima, Tsutomu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) crystals are attracting growing interest in condensed matter physics, since these systems exhibit not only rich electronic and photonic properties but also exotic electronic phase transitions including superconductivity and charge density wave. Moreover, owing to the recent development of transfer methods after exfoliation and electric-double-layer transistors, superconducting 2D atomic crystals, the thicknesses of which are below 1-2 nm, have been successfully obtained. Here, we present a topical review on the recent discoveries of 2D crystalline superconductors by ionic-liquid gating and a series of their novel properties. In particular, we highlight two topics; quantum metallic states (or possible metallic ground states) and superconductivity robust against in-plane magnetic fields. These phenomena can be discussed with the effects of weakened disorder and/or broken spacial inversion symmetry leading to valley-dependent spin-momentum locking (spin-valley locking). These examples suggest the superconducting 2D crystals are new platforms for investigating the intrinsic quantum phases as well as exotic nature in 2D superconductors.
Band alignment of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures
Zhang, Junfeng; Xie, Weiyu; Zhao, Jijun; Zhang, Shengbai
2017-03-01
Recent experimental synthesis of two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures opens a door to new opportunities in tailoring the electronic properties for novel 2D devices. Here, we show that a wide range of lateral 2D heterostructures could have a prominent advantage over the traditional three-dimensional (3D) heterostructures, because their band alignments are insensitive to the interfacial conditions. They should be at the Schottky-Mott limits for semiconductor-metal junctions and at the Anderson limits for semiconductor junctions, respectively. This fundamental difference from the 3D heterostructures is rooted in the fact that, in the asymptotic limit of large distance, the effect of the interfacial dipole vanishes for 2D systems. Due to the slow decay of the dipole field and the dependence on the vacuum thickness, however, studies based on first-principles calculations often failed to reach such a conclusion. Taking graphene/hexagonal-BN and MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures as the respective prototypes, we show that the converged junction width can be order of magnitude longer than that for 3D junctions. The present results provide vital guidance to high-quality transport devices wherever a lateral 2D heterostructure is involved.
Two-Dimensional Tail-Biting Convolutional Codes
Alfandary, Liam
2011-01-01
The multidimensional convolutional codes are an extension of the notion of convolutional codes (CCs) to several dimensions of time. This paper explores the class of two-dimensional convolutional codes (2D CCs) and 2D tail-biting convolutional codes (2D TBCCs), in particular, from several aspects. First, we derive several basic algebraic properties of these codes, applying algebraic methods in order to find bijective encoders, create parity check matrices and to inverse encoders. Next, we discuss the minimum distance and weight distribution properties of these codes. Extending an existing tree-search algorithm to two dimensions, we apply it to find codes with high minimum distance. Word-error probability asymptotes for sample codes are given and compared with other codes. The results of this approach suggest that 2D TBCCs can perform better than comparable 1D TBCCs or other codes. We then present several novel iterative suboptimal algorithms for soft decoding 2D CCs, which are based on belief propagation. Two ...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
黄俊; 胡元平; 宋樟伟; 杨炜宇; 徐瑞; 倪显达
2012-01-01
Objective To assess the left ventricular systolic function in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy ( DCM ) . Methods 35 healthy subjects and 39 dilated cardiomyopathy patients underwent conventional echocardiography examination. Left atrial ( LA) diameter were measured by M - mode echocardiography, left ventricular( LV) end - systolic volume, end - diastolic volume and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were calculated by bi -plane Simpson's method. The peak velocity during early diastole(Ve) and late diastole (Va) of anterior mitral valve were measured by pulse -waved doppler, and the ratio Ve/Va was calculated. We acquired the apical four - chamber, two - chamber and the long - axis views of the left ventricular images in these patients with GE - Vivid7 - dimension. Then the peak longitudinal velocity, strain and strain rate in systolic period were measured and recorded. Results The values of LAD, LVESV and LVEDV in DCM patients were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (P 0. 05 ) . The peak velocity in systolic period of the base and middle LV segments in DCM patients were lower than those of the healthy subjects (P < 0. 05). The peak longitudinal strain and strain rate were significantly lower than healthy subjects (P < 0. 01). The peak velocity of the healthy subjects and the DCM patients were descent from the base to the apex. Conclusion The peak velocity, stain and strain rate of regional myocardial function in long - axis of left ventricular can be analyzed by 2D - STI, and it is a feasible technique for the assessment of cardiac longitudinal systolic function in DCM patients, and it can be widely used in the cardiac examination.%目的 评价二维斑点追踪成像技术(2D - STI)在扩张型心肌病(dilated cardiomyopathy,DCM)患者的左心室心肌纵向收缩功能应用价值.方法 对39例DCM患者和35例正常对照组行常规超声心动图检查得到左心房内径(LAD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF)、过二尖瓣口
Interpolation by two-dimensional cubic convolution
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E.
2003-08-01
This paper presents results of image interpolation with an improved method for two-dimensional cubic convolution. Convolution with a piecewise cubic is one of the most popular methods for image reconstruction, but the traditional approach uses a separable two-dimensional convolution kernel that is based on a one-dimensional derivation. The traditional, separable method is sub-optimal for the usual case of non-separable images. The improved method in this paper implements the most general non-separable, two-dimensional, piecewise-cubic interpolator with constraints for symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The improved method of two-dimensional cubic convolution has three parameters that can be tuned to yield maximal fidelity for specific scene ensembles characterized by autocorrelation or power-spectrum. This paper illustrates examples for several scene models (a circular disk of parametric size, a square pulse with parametric rotation, and a Markov random field with parametric spatial detail) and actual images -- presenting the optimal parameters and the resulting fidelity for each model. In these examples, improved two-dimensional cubic convolution is superior to several other popular small-kernel interpolation methods.
Epi-two-dimensional flow and generalized enstrophy
Yoshida, Zensho
2016-01-01
The conservation of the enstrophy ($L^2$ norm of the vorticity $\\omega$) plays an essential role in the physics and mathematics of two-dimensional (2D) Euler fluids. Generalizing to compressible ideal (inviscid and barotropic) fluids, the generalized enstrophy $\\int_{\\Sigma(t)} f(\\omega/\\rho)\\rho\\, d^2 x$, ($f$ an arbitrary smooth function, $\\rho$ the density, and $\\Sigma(t)$ an arbitrary 2D domain co-moving with the fluid) is a constant of motion, and plays the same role. On the other hand, for the three-dimensional (3D) ideal fluid, the helicity $\\int_{M} {V}\\cdot\\omega\\,d^3x$, ($V$ the flow velocity, $\\omega=\
Two-dimensional atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum
Wang, Fei; Xu, Jun
2016-10-01
A scheme of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization induced by a squeezed vacuum is proposed, in which the three-level V-type atoms interact with two classical standing-wave fields. It is found that when the environment is changed from an ordinary vacuum to a squeezed vacuum, the 2D atom localization is realized by detecting the position-dependent resonance fluorescence spectrum. For comparison, we demonstrate that the atom localization originating from the quantum interference effect is distinct from that induced by a squeezed vacuum. Furthermore, the combined effects of the squeezed vacuum and quantum interference are also discussed under appropriate conditions. The internal physical mechanism is analyzed in terms of dressed-state representation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574179 and 11204099) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. 2014CFC1148).
Thermal conductivity of disordered two-dimensional binary alloys.
Zhou, Yang; Guo, Zhi-Xin; Cao, Hai-Yuan; Chen, Shi-You; Xiang, Hong-Jun; Gong, Xin-Gao
2016-10-20
Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the effect of disorder on the thermal conductivity of two-dimensional (2D) C1-xNx alloys. We find that the thermal conductivity not only depends on the substitution concentration of nitrogen, but also strongly depends on the disorder distribution. A general linear relationship is revealed between the thermal conductivity and the participation ratio of phonons in 2D alloys. Localization mode analysis further indicates that the thermal conductivity variation in the ordered alloys can be attributed to the number of inequivalent atoms. As for the disordered alloys, we find that the thermal conductivity variation can be described by a simple linear formula with the disorder degree and the substitution concentration. The present study suggests some general guidance for phonon manipulation and thermal engineering in low dimensional alloys.
Two-dimensional random arrays for real time volumetric imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Davidsen, Richard E.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Smith, Stephen W.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional arrays are necessary for a variety of ultrasonic imaging techniques, including elevation focusing, 2-D phase aberration correction, and real time volumetric imaging. In order to reduce system cost and complexity, sparse 2-D arrays have been considered with element geometries...... real time volumetric imaging system, which employs a wide transmit beam and receive mode parallel processing to increase image frame rate. Depth-of-field comparisons were made from simulated on-axis and off-axis beamplots at ranges from 30 to 160 mm for both coaxial and offset transmit and receive...... selected ad hoc, by algorithm, or by random process. Two random sparse array geometries and a sparse array with a Mills cross receive pattern were simulated and compared to a fully sampled aperture with the same overall dimensions. The sparse arrays were designed to the constraints of the Duke University...
Soliton nanoantennas in two-dimensional arrays of quantum dots
Gligorić, G; Hadžievski, Lj; Slepyan, G Ya; Malomed, B A
2015-01-01
We consider two-dimensional (2D) arrays of self-organized semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) strongly interacting with electromagnetic field in the regime of Rabi oscillations. The QD array built of two-level states is modelled by two coupled systems of discrete nonlinear Schr\\"{o}dinger equations. Localized modes in the form of single-peaked fundamental and vortical stationary Rabi solitons and self-trapped breathers have been found. The results for the stability, mobility and radiative properties of the Rabi modes suggest a concept of a self-assembled 2D \\textit{% soliton-based nano-antenna}, which should be stable against imperfections In particular, we discuss the implementation of such a nano-antenna in the form of surface plasmon solitons in graphene, and illustrate possibilities to control their operation by means of optical tools.
Design of two-dimensional digital filters using neural networks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Xiaohua; He Yigang
2005-01-01
A new approach for the design of two-dimensional (2-D) linear phase FIR digital filters based on a new neural networks algorithm (NNA) is provided. A compact expression for the transfer function of a 2-D linear phase FIR filter is derived based on its frequency response characteristic, and the NNA, based on minimizing the square-error in the frequency-domain, is established according to the compact expression. To illustrate the stability of the NNA, the convergence theorem is presented and proved. Design examples are also given, and the results show that the ripple is considerably small in passband and stopband, and the NNA-based method is of powerful stability and requires quite little amount of computations.
Two-dimensional spatial patterning in developmental systems.
Torii, Keiko U
2012-08-01
Multicellular organisms produce complex tissues with specialized cell types. During animal development, numerous cell-cell interactions shape tissue patterning through mechanisms involving contact-dependent cell migration and ligand-receptor-mediated lateral inhibition. Owing to the presence of cell walls, plant cells neither migrate nor undergo apoptosis as a means to correct for mis-specified cells. How can plants generate functional tissue patterns? This review aims to deduce fundamental principles of pattern formation through examining two-dimensional (2-D) spatial tissue patterning in plants and animals. Turing's mathematical framework will be introduced and applied to classic examples of de novo 2-D patterning in both animal and plant systems. By comparing their regulatory circuits, new insights into the similarities and differences of the basic principles governing tissue patterning will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Two-Dimensional Hexagonal Transition-Metal Oxide for Spintronics.
Kan, Erjun; Li, Ming; Hu, Shuanglin; Xiao, Chuanyun; Xiang, Hongjun; Deng, Kaiming
2013-04-04
Two-dimensional materials have been the hot subject of studies due to their great potential in applications. However, their applications in spintronics have been blocked by the difficulty in producing ordered spin structures in 2D structures. Here we demonstrated that the ultrathin films of recently experimentally realized wurtzite MnO can automatically transform into a stable graphitic structure with ordered spin arrangement via density functional calculation, and the stability of graphitic structure can be enhanced by external strain. Moreover, the antiferromagnetic ordering of graphitic MnO single layer can be switched into half-metallic ferromagnetism by small hole-doping, and the estimated Curie temperature is higher than 300 K. Thus, our results highlight a promising way toward 2D magnetic materials.
Review—Two-Dimensional Layered Materials for Energy Storage Applications
Kumar, Pushpendra
2016-07-02
Rechargeable batteries are most important energy storage devices in modern society with the rapid development and increasing demand for handy electronic devices and electric vehicles. The higher surface-to-volume ratio two-dimensional (2D) materials, especially transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) and transition metal carbide/nitrite generally referred as MXene, have attracted intensive research activities due to their fascinating physical/chemical properties with extensive applications. One of the growing applications is to use these 2D materials as potential electrodes for rechargeable batteries and electrochemical capacitors. This review is an attempt to summarize the research and development of TMDCs, MXenes and their hybrid structures in energy storage systems. (C) The Author(s) 2016. Published by ECS. All rights reserved.
TWO-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGY OF COSMOLOGICAL REIONIZATION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei [Key Laboratory of Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 China (China); Park, Changbom [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Juhan, E-mail: wangyg@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: cbp@kias.re.kr [Center for Advanced Computation, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, 85 Hoegiro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-11-20
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two-dimensional genus curve for the early, middle, and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometre Array.
Two dimensional topology of cosmological reionization
Wang, Yougang; Xu, Yidong; Chen, Xuelei; Kim, Juhan
2015-01-01
We study the two-dimensional topology of the 21-cm differential brightness temperature for two hydrodynamic radiative transfer simulations and two semi-numerical models. In each model, we calculate the two dimensional genus curve for the early, middle and late epochs of reionization. It is found that the genus curve depends strongly on the ionized fraction of hydrogen in each model. The genus curves are significantly different for different reionization scenarios even when the ionized faction is the same. We find that the two-dimensional topology analysis method is a useful tool to constrain the reionization models. Our method can be applied to the future observations such as those of the Square Kilometer Array.
On final states of two-dimensional decaying turbulence
Yin, Z.
2004-12-01
Numerical and analytical studies of final states of two-dimensional (2D) decaying turbulence are carried out. The first part of this work is trying to give a definition for final states of 2D decaying turbulence. The functional relation of ω-ψ, which is frequently adopted as the characterization of those final states, is merely a sufficient but not necessary condition; moreover, it is not proper to use it as the definition. It is found that the method through the value of the effective area S covered by the scatter ω-ψ plot, initially suggested by Read, Rhines, and White ["Geostrophic scatter diagrams and potential vorticity dynamics," J. Atmos. Sci. 43, 3226 (1986)] is more general and suitable for the definition. Based on this concept, a definition is presented, which covers all existing results in late states of decaying 2D flows (including some previous unexplainable weird double-valued ω-ψ scatter plots). The remaining part of the paper is trying to further study 2D decaying turbulence with the assistance of this definition. Some numerical results, leading to "bar" final states and further verifying the predictive ability of statistical mechanics [Yin, Montgomery, and Clercx, "Alternative statistical-mechanical descriptions of decaying two-dimensional turbulence in terms of patches and points," Phys. Fluids 15, 1937 (2003)], are reported. It is realized that some simulations with narrow-band energy spectral initial conditions result in some final states that cannot be very well interpreted by the statistical theory (meanwhile, those final states are still in the scope of the definition).
Materials synthesis: Two-dimensional gallium nitride
Koratkar, Nikhil A.
2016-11-01
Graphene is used as a capping sheet to synthesize 2D gallium nitride by means of migration-enhanced encapsulation growth. This technique may allow the stabilization of 2D materials that are not amenable to synthesis by traditional methods.
Structures and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Confined Dusty Plasma System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUANG Feng; LIU Yan-Hong; WANG Long
2005-01-01
The influence of the confining potential strength and temperature on the structures and dynamics of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma system is investigated through molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. The circular symmetric confining potential leads to the nonuniform packing of particles, that is, an inner core with a hexagon lattice surrounded by a few outer circular shells. Under the appropriate confining potential and temperature, the particle trajectories on middle shells form a series of concentric and nested hexagons due to tangential movements of particles.Mean square displacement, self-diffusion constant, pair correlation function, and the nearest bond are used to characterize the structural and dynamical properties of the system. With the increase of the confining potential, the radial and tangential movements of particles have different behaviors. With the increase of temperature, the radial and tangential motions strengthen, particle trajectories gradually become disordered, and the system gradually changes from a crystal or liquid state to a gas state.
Nonlocal Coulomb interaction in the two-dimensional spin-1/2 Falicov–Kimball model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S K Bhowmick; N K Ghosh
2012-02-01
The two-dimensional (2D) extended Falicov–Kimball model has been studied to observe the role of nonlocal Coulomb interaction (nc) using an exact diagonalization technique. The f-state occupation ($n^f$), the f–d intersite correlation function (fd), the speciﬁc heat (), entropy () and the speciﬁc heat coefﬁcient () have been examined. Nonlocal Coulomb interaction-induced discontinuous insulator-to-metal transition occurs at a critical f-level energy. More ordered state is obtained with the increase of nc. In the speciﬁc heat curves, two-peak structure as well as a singlepeak structure appears. At low-temperature region, a sharp rise in the speciﬁc heat coefﬁcient is observed. The peak value of shifts to the higher temperature region with nc.
Atom-Based Geometrical Fingerprinting of Conformal Two-Dimensional Materials
Mehboudi, Mehrshad
The shape of two-dimensional materials plays a significant role on their chemical and physical properties. Two-dimensional materials are basic meshes that are formed by mesh points (vertices) given by atomic positions, and connecting lines (edges) between points given by chemical bonds. Therefore the study of local shape and geometry of two-dimensional materials is a fundamental prerequisite to investigate physical and chemical properties. Hereby the use of discrete geometry to discuss the shape of two-dimensional materials is initiated. The local geometry of a surface embodied in 3D space is determined using four invariant numbers from the metric and curvature tensors which indicates how much the surface is stretched and curved under a deformation as compared to a reference pre-deformed conformation. Many different disciplines advance theories on conformal two-dimensional materials by relying on continuum mechanics and fitting continuum surfaces to the shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. However two-dimensional materials are inherently discrete. The continuum models are only applicable when the size of two-dimensional materials is significantly large and the deformation is less than a few percent. In this research, the knowledge of discrete differential geometry was used to tell the local shape of conformal two-dimensional materials. Three kind of two-dimensional materials are discussed: 1) one atom thickness structures such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride; 2) high and low buckled 2D meshes like stanene, leadene, aluminum phosphate; and, 3) multi layer 2D materials such as Bi2Se3 and WSe2. The lattice structures of these materials were created by designing a mechanical model - the mechanical model was devised in the form of a Gaussian bump and density-functional theory was used to inform the local height; and, the local geometries are also discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋海燕; 程旭
2014-01-01
为了能进一步分析水分对土壤近红外光谱检测的影响，分别从三个地方（桃园堡、牧场和农大示范田）采集了三种土壤，经过筛、烘干后分别配制了含水率为20％，15％和10％的土壤，然后采用ASD公司的FieldSpec3光谱仪在保证其他检测条件不变的情况下，对不同含水率下不同采集地的土壤进行了检测，获得了其不同含水率下的动态光谱图。最后视水分为外部干扰，应用二维相关光谱的理论对其进行了分析。结果表明，在350～2500 nm波段范围内，三个不同采集地土壤的同步二维相关光谱图比较类似，都在2210和1929 nm附近处出现较强的自动峰，在1415 nm附近处有较弱的自动峰；从三处自相关峰的密集程度来看，1929 nm处对应的官能团对水分最敏感，2210 nm处次之，1415 nm处最不敏感。该研究明确找出了水分对土壤近红外光谱检测影响的敏感波段和敏感程度，为今后消除水分影响建立抗水分干扰模型提供了依据。%In order to analyze the effects of moisture on soil spectra detection ,soil samples from three different places (Taoyuan-bao ,Muchang ,and Shanxi agricultural university) were collected .All soil samples were sieved ,dried and prepared with differ-ent water content (20% ,15% and 10% ) .The spectra of soil samples with different water content were collected by ASD Field-Spec3 .Finally ,moisture was looked as the the external disturbance ,and two-dimensional correlation near-infrared spectroscopy (2D-NIR) technique was applied to analyze the effect of moisture on soil spectra detection .2D-NIR analysis was realized by using shige software (2Dshige shigeaki Morita ,Kwansei-Gakuin University ) .The results showed that ,the sensitive bands of moisture in 2D-NIR spectra were more obvious than one-dimensional spectra .In the region 350~2 500 nm ,the synchronous spectra of soil samples from different places were similar .Two
Image interpolation by two-dimensional parametric cubic convolution.
Shi, Jiazheng; Reichenbach, Stephen E
2006-07-01
Cubic convolution is a popular method for image interpolation. Traditionally, the piecewise-cubic kernel has been derived in one dimension with one parameter and applied to two-dimensional (2-D) images in a separable fashion. However, images typically are statistically nonseparable, which motivates this investigation of nonseparable cubic convolution. This paper derives two new nonseparable, 2-D cubic-convolution kernels. The first kernel, with three parameters (designated 2D-3PCC), is the most general 2-D, piecewise-cubic interpolator defined on [-2, 2] x [-2, 2] with constraints for biaxial symmetry, diagonal (or 90 degrees rotational) symmetry, continuity, and smoothness. The second kernel, with five parameters (designated 2D-5PCC), relaxes the constraint of diagonal symmetry, based on the observation that many images have rotationally asymmetric statistical properties. This paper also develops a closed-form solution for determining the optimal parameter values for parametric cubic-convolution kernels with respect to ensembles of scenes characterized by autocorrelation (or power spectrum). This solution establishes a practical foundation for adaptive interpolation based on local autocorrelation estimates. Quantitative fidelity analyses and visual experiments indicate that these new methods can outperform several popular interpolation methods. An analysis of the error budgets for reconstruction error associated with blurring and aliasing illustrates that the methods improve interpolation fidelity for images with aliased components. For images with little or no aliasing, the methods yield results similar to other popular methods. Both 2D-3PCC and 2D-5PCC are low-order polynomials with small spatial support and so are easy to implement and efficient to apply.
Matching Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis' Spots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dos Anjos, António; AL-Tam, Faroq; Shahbazkia, Hamid Reza
2012-01-01
This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches. This ar......This paper describes an approach for matching Two-Dimensional Electrophoresis (2-DE) gels' spots, involving the use of image registration. The number of false positive matches produced by the proposed approach is small, when compared to academic and commercial state-of-the-art approaches...
Mobility anisotropy of two-dimensional semiconductors
Lang, Haifeng; Zhang, Shuqing; Liu, Zhirong
2016-12-01
The carrier mobility of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors under longitudinal acoustic phonon scattering was theoretically studied using deformation potential theory. Based on the Boltzmann equation with the relaxation time approximation, an analytic formula of intrinsic anisotropic mobility was derived, showing that the influence of effective mass on mobility anisotropy is larger than those of deformation potential constant or elastic modulus. Parameters were collected for various anisotropic two-dimensional materials (black phosphorus, Hittorf's phosphorus, BC2N , MXene, TiS3, and GeCH3) to calculate their mobility anisotropy. It was revealed that the anisotropic ratio is overestimated by the previously described method.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Statistical properties of inf...
The two dimensional fold test in paleomagnetism using ipython notebook
Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Piper, John D. A.
2016-01-01
One aspect of paleomagnetic analysis prone to controversy is the result of the fold test used to evaluate the age of a magnetisation component relative to the age of a structural event. Initially, the fold test was conducted by comparing the Fisherian precision parameter (k) to results from different limbs of a fold structure before and after tilt adjustment. To accommodate synfolding magnetisation, the tilt correction can be performed in stepwise fashion to both limbs simultaneously, here called one dimensional (1D) fold test. The two dimensional (2D) fold test described in this paper is carried out by applying stepwise tilt adjustment to each limb of the fold separately. The rationale for this is that tilts observed on contrasting limbs of deformed structure may not be synchronous or even belong to the same episode of deformation. A program for the procedure is presented here which generates two dimensional values of the k-parameter visually presented in contoured form. The use of ipython notebook enables this 2D fold test to be performed interactively and yield a more precise evaluation than the primitive 1D fold test.
Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatographic analysis of poloxamers.
Malik, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Sanghoon; Chang, Taihyun
2016-04-15
Poloxamers are low molar mass triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), having number of applications as non-ionic surfactants. Comprehensive one and two-dimensional liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis of these materials is proposed in this study. The separation of oligomers of both types (PEO and PPO) is demonstrated for several commercial poloxamers. This is accomplished at the critical conditions for one of the block while interaction for the other block. Reversed phase LC at CAP of PEO allowed for oligomeric separation of triblock copolymers with regard to PPO block whereas normal phase LC at CAP of PPO renders oligomeric separation with respect to PEO block. The oligomeric separation with regard to PEO and PPO are coupled online (comprehensive 2D-LC) to reveal two-dimensional contour plots by unconventional 2D IC×IC (interaction chromatography) coupling. The study provides chemical composition mapping of both PEO and PPO, equivalent to combined molar mass and chemical composition mapping for several commercial poloxamers.
Existence of semi-Dirac cones and symmetry of two-dimensional materials.
Damljanovic, Vladimir; Gajic, Rados
2017-03-06
There have been growing efforts in finding new two-dimensional (2D) materials with anisotropic properties due to their potential applications in electronics. Although in such a search, a symmetry based analysis can be useful, it has not been reported so far. By use of group theory we have found sufficient conditions for the existence of linear dispersion in one direction and quadratic one in perpendicular direction, in the vicinity of points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone (BZ) of any non-magnetic, 2D material with negligible spin-orbit coupling. We have formulated a set of symmetry conditions that lead to the semi-Dirac dispersion and analyzed all possible symmetries of 2D materials. In four, out of all eighty symmetry groups, combined time-reversal and crystal symmetry leads, at given points in the BZ, to such dispersion. The result is valid irrespectively of strength of electronic correlations in the system, model used to calculate the band structure or the actual crystal structure that realizes given groups. We have illustrated our findings by a tight-binding example.
Probability-changing cluster algorithm for two-dimensional XY and clock models
Tomita, Yusuke; Okabe, Yutaka
2002-05-01
We extend the newly proposed probability-changing cluster (PCC) Monte Carlo algorithm to the study of systems with the vector order parameter. Wolff's idea of the embedded cluster formalism is used for assigning clusters. The Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) transitions for the two-dimensional (2D) XY and q-state clock models are studied by using the PCC algorithm. Combined with the finite-size scaling analysis based on the KT form of the correlation length, ξ~exp(c/(T/TKT-1)), we determine the KT transition temperature and the decay exponent η as TKT=0.8933(6) and η=0.243(4) for the 2D XY model. We investigate two transitions of the KT type for the 2D q-state clock models with q=6,8,12 and confirm the prediction of η=4/q2 at T1, the low-temperature critical point between the ordered and XY-like phases, systematically.
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa systems across coupling regimes
Kryuchkov, Nikita P.; Khrapak, Sergey A.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.
2017-04-01
Thermodynamics of two-dimensional Yukawa (screened Coulomb or Debye-Hückel) systems is studied systematically using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Simulations cover very broad parameter range spanning from weakly coupled gaseous states to strongly coupled fluid and crystalline states. Important thermodynamic quantities, such as internal energy and pressure, are obtained and accurate physically motivated fits are proposed. This allows us to put forward simple practical expressions to describe thermodynamic properties of two-dimensional Yukawa systems. For crystals, in addition to numerical simulations, the recently developed shortest-graph interpolation method is applied to describe pair correlations and hence thermodynamic properties. It is shown that the finite-temperature effects can be accounted for by using simple correction of peaks in the pair correlation function. The corresponding correction coefficients are evaluated using MD simulation. The relevance of the obtained results in the context of colloidal systems, complex (dusty) plasmas, and ions absorbed to interfaces in electrolytes is pointed out.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan, E-mail: dhanabalanraj@gmail.com; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Sukumar, Prabakar; Ranganathan, Arulpandiyan; Johnjothi, Samdevakumar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan
2014-01-01
In this study, we investigated the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D gamma analysis using the new PTW OCTAVIUS 4D system for various parameters. For this study, we selected 150 clinically approved volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans of head and neck (50), thoracic (esophagus) (50), and pelvic (cervix) (50) sites. Individual verification plans were created and delivered to the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared using the 2D and 3D gamma analysis by global (maximum), local and selected (isocenter) dose methods. The average gamma passing rate for 2D global gamma analysis in coronal and sagittal plane was 94.81% ± 2.12% and 95.19% ± 1.76%, respectively, for commonly used 3-mm/3% criteria with 10% low-dose threshold. Correspondingly, for the same criteria, the average gamma passing rate for 3D planar global gamma analysis was 95.90% ± 1.57% and 95.61% ± 1.65%. The volumetric 3D gamma passing rate for 3-mm/3% (10% low-dose threshold) global gamma was 96.49% ± 1.49%. Applying stringent gamma criteria resulted in higher differences between 2D planar and 3D planar gamma analysis across all the global, local, and selected dose gamma evaluation methods. The average gamma passing rate for volumetric 3D gamma analysis was 1.49%, 1.36%, and 2.16% higher when compared with 2D planar analyses (coronal and sagittal combined average) for 3 mm/3% global, local, and selected dose gamma analysis, respectively. On the basis of the wide range of analysis and correlation study, we conclude that there is no assured correlation or notable pattern that could provide relation between planar 2D and volumetric 3D gamma analysis. Owing to higher passing rates, higher action limits can be set while performing 3D quality assurance. Site-wise action limits may be considered for patient-specific QA in VMAT.
Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Sukumar, Prabakar; Ranganathan, Arulpandiyan; Johnjothi, Samdevakumar; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan
2014-01-01
In this study, we investigated the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D gamma analysis using the new PTW OCTAVIUS 4D system for various parameters. For this study, we selected 150 clinically approved volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans of head and neck (50), thoracic (esophagus) (50), and pelvic (cervix) (50) sites. Individual verification plans were created and delivered to the OCTAVIUS 4D phantom. Measured and calculated dose distributions were compared using the 2D and 3D gamma analysis by global (maximum), local and selected (isocenter) dose methods. The average gamma passing rate for 2D global gamma analysis in coronal and sagittal plane was 94.81% ± 2.12% and 95.19% ± 1.76%, respectively, for commonly used 3-mm/3% criteria with 10% low-dose threshold. Correspondingly, for the same criteria, the average gamma passing rate for 3D planar global gamma analysis was 95.90% ± 1.57% and 95.61% ± 1.65%. The volumetric 3D gamma passing rate for 3-mm/3% (10% low-dose threshold) global gamma was 96.49% ± 1.49%. Applying stringent gamma criteria resulted in higher differences between 2D planar and 3D planar gamma analysis across all the global, local, and selected dose gamma evaluation methods. The average gamma passing rate for volumetric 3D gamma analysis was 1.49%, 1.36%, and 2.16% higher when compared with 2D planar analyses (coronal and sagittal combined average) for 3mm/3% global, local, and selected dose gamma analysis, respectively. On the basis of the wide range of analysis and correlation study, we conclude that there is no assured correlation or notable pattern that could provide relation between planar 2D and volumetric 3D gamma analysis. Owing to higher passing rates, higher action limits can be set while performing 3D quality assurance. Site-wise action limits may be considered for patient-specific QA in VMAT. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kronecker Product of Two-dimensional Arrays
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lei Hu
2006-01-01
Kronecker sequences constructed from short sequences are good sequences for spread spectrum communication systems. In this paper we study a similar problem for two-dimensional arrays, and we determine the linear complexity of the Kronecker product of two arrays. Our result shows that similar good property on linear complexity holds for Kronecker product of arrays.
Two-Dimensional Toda-Heisenberg Lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim E. Vekslerchik
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider a nonlinear model that is a combination of the anisotropic two-dimensional classical Heisenberg and Toda-like lattices. In the framework of the Hirota direct approach, we present the field equations of this model as a bilinear system, which is closely related to the Ablowitz-Ladik hierarchy, and derive its N-soliton solutions.
A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor
Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.
2013-01-01
In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica
Two-dimensional microstrip detector for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oed, A. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Because of their robust design, gas microstrip detectors, which were developed at ILL, can be assembled relatively quickly, provided the prefabricated components are available. At the beginning of 1996, orders were received for the construction of three two-dimensional neutron detectors. These detectors have been completed. The detectors are outlined below. (author). 2 refs.
Two-dimensional magma-repository interactions
Bokhove, O.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional simulations of magma-repository interactions reveal that the three phases --a shock tube, shock reflection and amplification, and shock attenuation and decay phase-- in a one-dimensional flow tube model have a precursor. This newly identified phase ``zero'' consists of the impact of
Generation of efficient 2D templates from 3D multisensor data for correlation-based target tracking
Witte, Carmen; Armbruster, Walter; Jäger, Klaus; Hebel, Marcus
2008-04-01
The general demand for the prevention of collateral damages in military operations requires methods of robust automatic identification of target objects like vehicles especially during target approach. This requires the development of sophisticated techniques for automatic and semi-automatic interpretation of sensor data. In particular the automatic pre-analysis of reconnaissance data is important for the human observer as well as for autonomous systems. In the phase of target approach fully automatic methods are needed for the recognition of predefined objects. For this purpose appropriate sensors are used like imaging IR sensors suitable for day/night operation and laser radar supplying 3D information of the scenario. Classical methods for target recognition based on comparison with synthetic IR object models imply certain shortcomings, e.g. unknown weather conditions and the engine status of vehicles. We propose a concept of generating efficient 2D templates for IR target signatures based on the evaluation of a precise 3D model of the target generated from real multisensor data. This model is created from near-term laser range and IR data gathered by reconnaissance in advance to gain realistic and up-to-date target signatures. It consists of the visible part of the object surface textured with measured infrared values. This enables recognition from slightly differing viewing angles. Our test bed is realized by a helicopter equipped with a multisensor suite (laser radar, imaging IR, GPS, and IMU). Results are demonstrated by the analysis of a complex scenario with different vehicles.
Performance Estimation for Two-Dimensional Brownian Rotary Ratchet Systems
Tutu, Hiroki; Horita, Takehiko; Ouchi, Katsuya
2015-04-01
Within the context of the Brownian ratchet model, a molecular rotary system that can perform unidirectional rotations induced by linearly polarized ac fields and produce positive work under loads was studied. The model is based on the Langevin equation for a particle in a two-dimensional (2D) three-tooth ratchet potential of threefold symmetry. The performance of the system is characterized by the coercive torque, i.e., the strength of the load competing with the torque induced by the ac driving field, and the energy efficiency in force conversion from the driving field to the torque. We propose a master equation for coarse-grained states, which takes into account the boundary motion between states, and develop a kinetic description to estimate the mean angular momentum (MAM) and powers relevant to the energy balance equation. The framework of analysis incorporates several 2D characteristics and is applicable to a wide class of models of smooth 2D ratchet potential. We confirm that the obtained expressions for MAM, power, and efficiency of the model can enable us to predict qualitative behaviors. We also discuss the usefulness of the torque/power relationship for experimental analyses, and propose a characteristic for 2D ratchet systems.
Filtering and control for classes of two-dimensional systems
Wu, Ligang
2015-01-01
This book focuses on filtering, control and model-reduction problems for two-dimensional (2-D) systems with imperfect information. The time-delayed 2-D systems covered have system parameters subject to uncertain, stochastic and parameter-varying changes. After an initial introduction of 2-D systems and the ideas of linear repetitive processes, the text is divided into two parts detailing: · general theory and methods of analysis and optimal synthesis for 2-D systems; and · application of the general theory to the particular case of differential/discrete linear repetitive processes. The methods developed provide a framework for stability and performance analysis, optimal and robust controller and filter design and model approximation for the systems considered. Solutions to the design problems are couched in terms of linear matrix inequalities. For readers interested in the state of the art in linear filtering, control and model reduction, Filtering and Control for Classes of ...
Two-dimensional state in driven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.
Bigot, Barbara; Galtier, Sébastien
2011-02-01
The dynamics of the two-dimensional (2D) state in driven three-dimensional (3D) incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is investigated through high-resolution direct numerical simulations and in the presence of an external magnetic field at various intensities. For such a flow the 2D state (or slow mode) and the 3D modes correspond, respectively, to spectral fluctuations in the plane k(∥)=0 and in the area k(∥)>0. It is shown that if initially the 2D state is set to zero it becomes nonnegligible in few turnover times, particularly when the external magnetic field is strong. The maintenance of a large-scale driving leads to a break for the energy spectra of 3D modes; when the driving is stopped, the previous break is removed and a decay phase emerges with Alfvénic fluctuations. For a strong external magnetic field the energy at large perpendicular scales lies mainly in the 2D state, and in all situations a pinning effect is observed at small scales.
Low-cost two-dimensional gel densitometry.
Levenson, R M; Maytin, E V; Young, D A
1986-11-01
A major obstacle to full utilization of the powerful technique of two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis is the expense and complexity of quantifying the results. Using an analog-to-digital converter already present in the widely available Commodore 64 or Commodore 128 microcomputer, we have developed a 2-D gel densitometer (GELSCAN) which adds only $20.00 to the cost of the Commodore system (currently around $700.00). The system is designed to work with autoradiograms of 2-D gels. Spots of interest are identified visually and then positioned manually over a light source. A pinhole photoelectric sensor mounted in a hand-held, Plexiglas holder, or "mouse," is briefly rubbed over each spot. Maximum density of the spot is determined and its value is converted to counts per minute via an internal calibration curve which corrects for the nonlinear response of film to radiation. Local spot backgrounds can be subtracted and values can be normalized between gels to adjust for variation in amount of radioactivity applied or in exposure time. Reproducibility is excellent and the technique has some practical as well as theoretical advantages over other more complicated approaches to 2-D gel densitometry. In addition, the GELSCAN system can also be used for scanning individual bands in 1-D gels, quantitation of "dot-blot" autoradiograms and other tasks involving transmission densitometry.
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A
2016-05-11
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.
Broken Ergodicity in Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence
Shebalin, John V.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional (2-D) homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence has many of the same qualitative features as three-dimensional (3-D) homogeneous MHD turbulence.The se features include several ideal invariants, along with the phenomenon of broken ergodicity. Broken ergodicity appears when certain modes act like random variables with mean values that are large compared to their standard deviations, indicating a coherent structure or dynamo.Recently, the origin of broken ergodicity in 3-D MHD turbulence that is manifest in the lowest wavenumbers was explained. Here, a detailed description of the origins of broken ergodicity in 2-D MHD turbulence is presented. It will be seen that broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D MHD turbulence can be manifest in the lowest wavenumbers of a finite numerical model for certain initial conditions or in the highest wavenumbers for another set of initial conditions.T he origins of broken ergodicity in ideal 2-D homogeneous MHD turbulence are found through an eigen analysis of the covariance matrices of the modal probability density functions.It will also be shown that when the lowest wavenumber magnetic field becomes quasi-stationary, the higher wavenumber modes can propagate as Alfven waves on these almost static large-scale magnetic structures
Photonics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional materials beyond graphene
Ponraj, Joice Sophia; Xu, Zai-Quan; Chander Dhanabalan, Sathish; Mu, Haoran; Wang, Yusheng; Yuan, Jian; Li, Pengfei; Thakur, Siddharatha; Ashrafi, Mursal; Mccoubrey, Kenneth; Zhang, Yupeng; Li, Shaojuan; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang
2016-11-01
Apart from conventional materials, the study of two-dimensional (2D) materials has emerged as a significant field of study for a variety of applications. Graphene-like 2D materials are important elements of potential optoelectronics applications due to their exceptional electronic and optical properties. The processing of these materials towards the realization of devices has been one of the main motivations for the recent development of photonics and optoelectronics. The recent progress in photonic devices based on graphene-like 2D materials, especially topological insulators (TIs) and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with the methodology level discussions from the viewpoint of state-of-the-art designs in device geometry and materials are detailed in this review. We have started the article with an overview of the electronic properties and continued by highlighting their linear and nonlinear optical properties. The production of TIs and TMDs by different methods is detailed. The following main applications focused towards device fabrication are elaborated: (1) photodetectors, (2) photovoltaic devices, (3) light-emitting devices, (4) flexible devices and (5) laser applications. The possibility of employing these 2D materials in different fields is also suggested based on their properties in the prospective part. This review will not only greatly complement the detailed knowledge of the device physics of these materials, but also provide contemporary perception for the researchers who wish to consider these materials for various applications by following the path of graphene.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苗静; 曹玉珍; 杨仁杰; 刘蓉; 孙惠丽; 徐可欣
2013-01-01
Discriminant models of adulterated milk and pure milk were established using BP neural network combined with two-dimensional (2D) correlation near-infrared spectra parameterization .Forty pure milk samples ,40 adulterated milk samples with urea (1~20 g · L -1 ) and 40 adulterated milk samples with melamine (0.01~3 g · L -1 ) were prepared respectively .Based on the characteristics of 2D correlation near-infrared spectra of pure milk and adulterated milk ,5 apparent statistic parameters were calculated based on the parameterization theory .Using 5 characteristic parameters ,discriminant models of urea adulterated milk , melamine adulterated milk and two types of adulterated milk were built by BP neural network .The prediction rate of unknown samples were 95% ,100% and 96.7% ,respectively .The results show that this method can extract effectively feature informa-tion of adulterant ,reduce the input dimensions of BP neural network ,and better realize qualitative analysis of adulterant in milk .%将二维相关近红外谱参数化方法与BP神经网络结合，建立掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型。分别配制含有尿素牛奶（1～20g·L -1）和三聚氰胺牛奶（0.01～3g·L -1）样品各40个。研究了纯牛奶、掺杂牛奶的二维相关近红外谱特性，在此基础上，分别提取了各样品二维相关同步谱的5个特征参数。将这5个特征参数作为BP神经网络的输入，分别建立掺杂尿素、掺杂三聚氰胺、两种掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的判别模型，采用这些模型对未知样品进行预测，其预测正确率分别为95％，100％和96.7％。研究结果表明：该方法有效地提取了牛奶中掺杂目标物的特征光谱信息，同时又减少了BP神经网络输入变量的维数，实现了掺杂牛奶与纯牛奶的鉴别。
Anisotropic dielectric properties of two-dimensional matrix in pseudo-spin ferroelectric system
Kim, Se-Hun
2016-10-01
The anisotropic dielectric properties of a two-dimensional (2D) ferroelectric system were studied using the statistical calculation of the pseudo-spin Ising Hamiltonian model. It is necessary to delay the time for measurements of the observable and the independence of the new spin configuration under Monte Carlo sampling, in which the thermal equilibrium state depends on the temperature and size of the system. The autocorrelation time constants of the normalized relaxation function were determined by taking temperature and 2D lattice size into account. We discuss the dielectric constants of a two-dimensional ferroelectric system by using the Metropolis method in view of the Slater-Takagi defect energies.
Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) adaptive analysis will be tested NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission database in phase I in...
Non-Linear Non Stationary Analysis of Two-Dimensional Time-Series Applied to GRACE Data Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovative two-dimensional (2D) empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis was applied to NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)...
Eresen, Aydin; Li, Peng; Ji, Jim Xiuquan
2014-01-01
In muscle dystrophy studies, registration of histological image with MRI image volume enables cross validation of MRI biomarkers using pathological result. However, correlation of 2D histology slice with 3D MRI volume is technically challenging due to the potentially non-orthogonal slice plane and incomplete or distorted histological slice. This paper presents an efficient method to directly perform the 2D-3D registration. The method is unique in that it uses smart phone as a navigation tool for initial alignment followed by an overlap invariant mutual information-based refinement. Experimental results using animal muscle samples images from a 3T MRI and HE stained histological images show that the proposed method is capable of aligning the histological slice with an oblique slice in MR volume.
Maurya, P. K.; Rønde, V. K.; Fiandaca, G.; Balbarini, N.; Auken, E.; Bjerg, P. L.; Christiansen, A. V.
2017-03-01
Leaching of organic and inorganic contamination from landfills is a serious environmental problem as surface water and aquifers are affected. In order to assess these risks and investigate the migration of leachate from the landfill, 2D and large scale 3D electrical resistivity tomography were used at a heavily contaminated landfill in Grindsted, Denmark. The inverted 2D profiles describe both the variations along the groundwater flow as well as the plume extension across the flow directions. The 3D inversion model shows the variability in the low resistivity anomaly pattern corresponding to differences in the ionic strength of the landfill leachate. Chemical data from boreholes agree well with the observations indicating a leachate plume which gradually sinks and increases in size while migrating from the landfill in the groundwater flow direction. Overall results show that the resistivity method has been very successful in delineating the landfill leachate plume and that good correlation exists between the resistivity model and leachate ionic strength.
Two-dimensional graphene analogues for biomedical applications.
Chen, Yu; Tan, Chaoliang; Zhang, Hua; Wang, Lianzhou
2015-05-07
The increasing demand of clinical biomedicine and fast development of nanobiotechnology has substantially promoted the generation of a variety of organic/inorganic nanosystems for biomedical applications. Biocompatible two-dimensional (2D) graphene analogues (e.g., nanosheets of transition metal dichalcogenides, transition metal oxides, g-C3N4, Bi2Se3, BN, etc.), which are referred to as 2D-GAs, have emerged as a new unique family of nanomaterials that show unprecedented advantages and superior performances in biomedicine due to their unique compositional, structural and physicochemical features. In this review, we summarize the state-of-the-art progress of this dynamically developed material family with a particular focus on biomedical applications. After the introduction, the second section of the article summarizes a range of synthetic methods for new types of 2D-GAs as well as their surface functionalization. The subsequent section provides a snapshot on the use of these biocompatible 2D-GAs for a broad spectrum of biomedical applications, including therapeutic (photothermal/photodynamic therapy, chemotherapy and synergistic therapy), diagnostic (fluorescent/magnetic resonance/computed tomography/photoacoustic imaging) and theranostic (concurrent diagnostic imaging and therapy) applications, especially on oncology. In addition, we briefly present the biosensing applications of these 2D-GAs for the detection of biomacromolecules and their in vitro/in vivo biosafety evaluations. The last section summarizes some critical unresolved issues, possible challenges/obstacles and also proposes future perspectives related to the rational design and construction of 2D-GAs for biomedical engineering, which are believed to promote their clinical translations for benefiting the personalized medicine and human health.
Two-dimensional materials for novel liquid separation membranes
Ying, Yulong; Yang, Yefeng; Ying, Wen; Peng, Xinsheng
2016-08-01
Demand for a perfect molecular-level separation membrane with ultrafast permeation and a robust mechanical property for any kind of species to be blocked in water purification and desalination is urgent. In recent years, due to their intrinsic characteristics, such as a unique mono-atom thick structure, outstanding mechanical strength and excellent flexibility, as well as facile and large-scale production, graphene and its large family of two-dimensional (2D) materials are regarded as ideal membrane materials for ultrafast molecular separation. A perfect separation membrane should be as thin as possible to maximize its flux, mechanically robust and without failure even if under high loading pressure, and have a narrow nanochannel size distribution to guarantee its selectivity. The latest breakthrough in 2D material-based membranes will be reviewed both in theories and experiments, including their current state-of-the-art fabrication, structure design, simulation and applications. Special attention will be focused on the designs and strategies employed to control microstructures to enhance permeation and selectivity for liquid separation. In addition, critical views on the separation mechanism within two-dimensional material-based membranes will be provided based on a discussion of the effects of intrinsic defects during growth, predefined nanopores and nanochannels during subsequent fabrication processes, the interlayer spacing of stacking 2D material flakes and the surface charge or functional groups. Furthermore, we will summarize the significant progress of these 2D material-based membranes for liquid separation in nanofiltration/ultrafiltration and pervaporation. Lastly, we will recall issues requiring attention, and discuss existing questionable conclusions in some articles and emerging challenges. This review will serve as a valuable platform to provide a compact source of relevant and timely information about the development of 2D material-based membranes as
Vyas, Nora S; Buchsbaum, Monte S; Lehrer, Douglas S; Merrill, Brian M; DeCastro, Alex; Doninger, Nicholas A; Christian, Bradley T; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar
2017-05-30
Converging evidence indicates that the prefrontal cortex is critically involved in executive control and that executive dysfunction is implicated in schizophrenia. Reduced dopamine D2/D3 receptor binding potential has been reported in schizophrenia, and the correlations with neuropsychological test scores have been positive and negative for different tasks. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels with frontal and temporal neurocognitive performance in schizophrenia. Resting-state (18)F-fallypride positron emission tomography was performed on 20 medication-naïve and 5 previously medicated for brief earlier periods patients with schizophrenia and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Striatal and extra-striatal dopamine D2/D3 receptor levels were quantified as binding potential using fallypride imaging. Magnetic resonance images in standard Talairach position and segmented into gray and white matter were co-registered to the fallypride images, and the AFNI stereotaxic atlas was applied. Two neuropsychological tasks known to activate frontal and temporal lobe function were chosen, specifically the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT). Images of the correlation coefficient between fallypride binding and WCST and CVLT performance showed a negative correlation in contrast to positive correlations in healthy volunteers. The results of this study demonstrate that lower fallypride binding potential in patients with schizophrenia may be associated with better performance. Our findings are consistent with previous studies that failed to find cognitive improvements with typical dopamine-blocking medications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
2dFLenS and KiDS: Determining source redshift distributions with cross-correlations
Johnson, Andrew; Amon, Alexandra; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joudaki, Shahab; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Marin, Felipe A; McFarland, John; Morrison, Christopher B; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B; Radovich, Mario; Wolf, Christian
2016-01-01
We develop a statistical estimator to infer the redshift probability distribution of a photometric sample of galaxies from its angular cross-correlation in redshift bins with an overlapping spectroscopic sample. This estimator is a minimum variance weighted quadratic function of the data: a quadratic estimator. This extends and modifies the methodology presented by McQuinn & White (2013). The derived source redshift distribution is degenerate with the source galaxy bias, which must be constrained via additional assumptions. We apply this estimator to constrain source galaxy redshift distributions in the Kilo-Degree imaging survey through cross-correlation with the spectroscopic 2-degree Field Lensing Survey, presenting results first as a binned step-wise distribution in the range z < 0.8, and then building a continuous distribution using a Gaussian process model. We demonstrate the robustness of our methodology using mock catalogues constructed from N-body simulations, and comparisons with other techni...
2dFLenS and KiDS: determining source redshift distributions with cross-correlations
Johnson, Andrew; Blake, Chris; Amon, Alexandra; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Deraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Joudaki, Shahab; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Marin, Felipe A.; McFarland, John; Morrison, Christopher B.; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B.; Radovich, Mario; Wolf, Christian
2017-03-01
We develop a statistical estimator to infer the redshift probability distribution of a photometric sample of galaxies from its angular cross-correlation in redshift bins with an overlapping spectroscopic sample. This estimator is a minimum-variance weighted quadratic function of the data: a quadratic estimator. This extends and modifies the methodology presented by McQuinn & White. The derived source redshift distribution is degenerate with the source galaxy bias, which must be constrained via additional assumptions. We apply this estimator to constrain source galaxy redshift distributions in the Kilo-Degree imaging survey through cross-correlation with the spectroscopic 2-degree Field Lensing Survey, presenting results first as a binned step-wise distribution in the range z inferring the redshift distribution.
Defect Characterization Using Two-Dimensional Arrays
Velichko, A.; Wilcox, P. D.
2011-06-01
2D arrays are able to `view' a given defect from a range of angles leading to the possibility of obtaining richer characterization detail than possible with 1D arrays. In this paper a quantitative comparison of 2D arrays with different element layouts is performed. A technique for extracting the scattering matrix of a defect from the raw 2D array data is also presented. The method is tested on experimental data for characterization of various volumetric defects.
2d Di-Hadron Correlations at $\\sqrt(s_NN)$ = 2.76 TeV using the ALICE Experiment
Piyarathna, Badrajee
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN Geneva, Switzerland, attempts to recreate the initial conditions at the beginning of our universe. Heavy ions ( 208 Pb ) are accelerated up to 0.999999 of the speed of the light and collided at sqrt(sNN) = 2.76 TeV (center of mass energy per nucleon) in order to recreate the initial energy density around 10^-6 s after the Big Bang. The theory of Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) predicts the formation of a primordial nuclear matter phase known as Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) under these experimental conditions. This dissertation focuses on studying this QCD medium using data from the `A Large Ion Collider Experiment' (ALICE). The study of two-dimensional two-particle correlations of emitted charged particles carries valuable time integrated information of the dynamical QCD medium. Long-range correlations between particles in angular and momentum space generally can be attributed to collective behavior, which is not found in a superposition of elementary collisions. The focus of...
Ye, Long; Zhang, Shaoqing; Huo, Lijun; Zhang, Maojie; Hou, Jianhui
2014-05-20
As researchers continue to develop new organic materials for solar cells, benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT)-based polymers have come to the fore. To improve the photovoltaic properties of BDT-based polymers, researchers have developed and applied various strategies leading to the successful molecular design of highly efficient photovoltaic polymers. Novel polymer materials composed of two-dimensional conjugated BDT (2D-conjugated BDT) have boosted the power conversion efficiency of polymer solar cells (PSCs) to levels that exceed 9%. In this Account, we summarize recent progress related to the design and synthesis of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and discuss their applications in highly efficient photovoltaic devices. We introduce the basic considerations for the construction of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers and systematic molecular design guidelines. For example, simply modifying an alkoxyl-substituted BDT to form an alkylthienyl-substituted BDT can improve the polymer hole mobilities substantially with little effect on their molecular energy level. Secondly, the addition of a variety of chemical moieties to the polymer can produce a 2D-conjugated BDT unit with more functions. For example, the introduction of a conjugated side chain with electron deficient groups (such as para-alkyl-phenyl, meta-alkoxyl-phenyl, and 2-alkyl-3-fluoro-thienyl) allowed us to modulate the molecular energy levels of 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers. Through the rational design of BDT analogues such as dithienobenzodithiophene (DTBDT) or the insertion of larger π bridges, we can tune the backbone conformations of these polymers and modulate their photovoltaic properties. We also discuss the influence of 2D-conjugated BDT on polymer morphology and the blends of these polymers with phenyl-C61 (or C71)-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). Finally, we summarize the various applications of the 2D-conjugated BDT-based polymers in highly efficient PSC devices. Overall, this Account
Mérot, Oriane; Guillot, Pascale; Maugars, Yves; Le Goff, Benoit
2014-01-01
To compare the intra- and interobserver reliability of three-dimensional (3D) volumetric versus conventional two-dimensional (2D) power Doppler ultrasonography (US) in the assessment of peripheral enthesitis in spondylarthritis (SpA). Sixteen patients with SpA according to ASAS criteria were included. Two rheumatologists (one experimented in musculoskeletal US (sonographer 1) and one beginner (sonographer 2)) performed independently a 2D US scoring of the enthesis using the Madrid Sonographic Enthesis Index score followed by a 3D acquisition of the same entheseal sites. The reading of the 3D acquisition was performed a minimum of 1 week apart. Intraobserver reliability was evaluated by a second reading of the same images. The duration of 2D US scanning, 3D US acquisition and reading was recorded. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used for the reliability analysis. Intraobserver reproducibility was good to excellent for 2D US and good for 3D US (ICC (95 %CI) 2D US 0.776 (0.471-0.916) and 0.96 (0.892-0.986) and ICC (95 %CI) 3D US 0.796 (0.498-0.921) and 0.703 (0.325-0.886) for sonographer 1 and 2, respectively). Interobserver reliability was slightly better for 3D US than for 2D US (ICC (95 %CI) 0.776 (0.471-0.916) for 3D US versus 0.641 (0.221-0.859) for 2D US). The mean time (±SD) for 2D US scanning was 23 min (±4) whereas the mean time for 3D US volume acquisition and reading was 16.5 min (±2.6) (p < 0.001). 3D US showed good intra- and interobserver reliability in the assessment of enthesitis in SpA and shortened the needed time for scanning. It can be performed by a nonexperienced examiner without loss of reliability.
Ortiz, Alexis; Rosario-Canales, Martin; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Seda, Alexie; Figueroa, Carla; Venegas-Ríos, Heidi L
2016-01-01
Purpose The aim of this study was to establish the concurrent validity and reliability of four different two-dimensional (2D) video-based techniques for quantifying frontal plane knee kinematics during a 40 cm double-legged drop jump. Participants and methods A convenience sample of 16 healthy participants (nine males and seven females; age: [mean ± standard deviation] 25.5±2 years; body mass index: 24.33±2.98 kg/m2) participated in this investigation. A total of five trials during a 40 cm drop jump maneuver with a countermovement jump were used as the functional task. Four knee valgus measures, such as two different frontal plane projection angle measures, knee-to-ankle separation ratio (KASR), and knee separation distance (KSD), were measured using 2D and three-dimensional (3D) systems. To generalize to the greater population of possible evaluators, the testers performing the biomechanical analyses were three novice physical therapists. Intra- and intertester intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were estimated for 2D analysis variables. ICCs were estimated for all measures between systems to determine concurrent validity of the 2D system. Results All four 2D measures showed good to excellent reliability (ICC: 0.89–0.99). KASR and KSD showed excellent correlation (ICC: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.82–0.98 and ICC: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.90–0.96, respectively) with the 3D system, while both methods of frontal plane projection angle showed poor to moderate correlation (ICC: 0–0.57) with the 3D system. Conclusion 2D KASR and KSD measures are cost effective, reliable, and highly correlated with the same measures using 3D techniques for the evaluation of knee valgus. PMID:27313480
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husanu, M.A.; Ganea, C.P. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Anghel, I. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma & Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, 077125 Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, Atomistilor 405, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Florica, C.; Rasoga, O. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania); Popescu, D.G., E-mail: dana.popescu@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Atomistilor 105b, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)
2015-11-15
Highlights: • Laser ablation is used for drilling a periodic 2D photonic structure. • Confinement of radiation is revealed by infra-red spectromicroscopy correlated with numerical calculations. • Telecommunication range is accessible upon tuning conveniently the processing parameters. - Abstract: Light confinement in a two dimensional photonic crystal (2D PhC) with hexagonal symmetry is studied using infra-red reflectance spectromicroscopy and numerical calculations. The structure has been realized by laser ablation, using a pulsed laser (λ = 775 nm), perforating an In-doped Ge wafer and creating a lattice of holes with well-defined symmetry. Correlating the spectral signature of the photonic gaps recorded experimentally with the results obtained in the finite difference time domain and finite difference frequency domain calculations, we established the relationship between the geometric parameters of the structure (lattice constants, shape of the hole) and its efficiency in trapping and guiding the radiation in a well-defined frequency range. Besides the gap in the low energy range of transversal electric modes, a second one is identified in the telecommunication range, originating in the localization of the leaky modes within the radiation continuum. The emerging picture is of a device with promising characteristics as an alternative to Si-based technology in photonic device fabrication with special emphasize in energy storage and conversion.
Ramer, Georg; Ashton, Lorna
2016-11-01
The first Raman optical activity (ROA) two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) study in 2006, monitoring the temperature-induced α-helix-to-β-sheet transition in poly(L-lysine), demonstrated the versatility of 2DCOS. The combination of ROA and 2DCOS provided new ROA band assignments, enabled a direct comparison between the simultaneously collected Raman and ROA data using heterocorrelations and probed sequential information. This study also confirmed that 2DCOS can be successfully used with bisignate data, although specific care is needed when interpreting the results. However, as time has passed, doubts have been raised about not only the sequential orders reported in the study but also the general reliability of sequential data. This issue has now been addressed with the introduction of 2D codistribution (2DCDS) which is specifically designed to provide the sequence of the distributed presence of species along the perturbation variable axis. In light of these new developments in 2D correlation techniques we have revisited the original ROA data and we present our updated results. Furthermore, we demonstrate how 2DCDS can be successfully applied to bisignate data using new spectral data sets of perturbation-induced transitions in polynucleotides.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khatib, Alfi [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wilson, Erica G. [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kim, Hye Kyong [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lefeber, Alfons W.M. [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Erkelens, Cornelis [Division of NMR, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Choi, Young Hae [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)]. E-mail: y.choi@chem.leidenuniv.nl; Verpoorte, Robert [Division of Pharmacognosy, Section Metabolomics, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)
2006-02-16
A number of ingredients in beer that directly or indirectly affect its quality require an unbiased wide-spectrum analytical method that allows for the determination of a wide array of compounds for its efficient control. {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a method that clearly meets this description as the broad range of compounds in beer is detectable. However, the resulting congestion of signals added to the low resolution of {sup 1}H NMR spectra makes the identification of individual components very difficult. Among two-dimensional (2D) NMR techniques that increase the resolution, J-resolved NMR spectra were successfully applied to the analysis of 2-butanol extracts of beer as overlapping signals in {sup 1}H NMR spectra were fully resolved by the additional axis of the coupling constant. Principal component analysis based on the projected J-resolved NMR spectra showed a clear separation between all of the six brands of pilsner beer evaluated in this study. The compounds responsible for the differentiation were identified by 2D NMR spectra including correlated spectroscopy and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation spectra together with J-resolved spectra. They were identified as nucleic acid derivatives (adenine, uridine and xanthine), amino acids (tyrosine and proline), organic acid (succinic and lactic acid), alcohol (tyrosol and isopropanol), cholines and carbohydrates.
Synthesis of two-dimensional materials by selective extraction.
Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury
2015-01-20
CONSPECTUS: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from
Two-Dimensional Plasmonics in Massive and Massless Electron Gases
Yoon, Hosang
Plasmonic waves in solid-state are caused by collective oscillation of mobile charges inside or at the surface of conductors. In particular, surface plasmonic waves propagating at the skin of metals have recently attracted interest, as they reduce the wavelength of electromagnetic waves coupled to them by up to ˜10 times, allowing one to create miniaturized wave devices at optical frequencies. In contrast, plasmonic waves on two-dimensional (2D) conductors appear at much lower infrared and THz-GHz frequencies, near or in the electronics regime, and can achieve far stronger wavelength reduction factor reaching well above 100. In this thesis, we study the unique machinery of 2D plasmonic waves behind this ultra-subwavelength confinement and explore how it can be used to create various interesting devices. To this end, we first develop a physically intuitive theoretical formulation of 2D plasmonic waves, whose two main components---the Coulomb restoration force and inertia of the collectively oscillating charges---are combined into a transmission-line-like model. We then use this formulation to create various ultra-subwavelength 2D plasmonic devices. For the 2D conductor, we first choose GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure---a 2D electron gas consisting of massive (m* > 0) electrons---demonstrating plasmonic bandgap crystals, interferometers, and negatively refracting metamaterials. We then examine a 2D plasmonic device based on graphene, a 2D electron gas consisting of effectively massless (m* = 0) electrons. We theoretically show and experimentally demonstrate that the massless electrons in graphene can surprisingly exhibit a collective mass when subjected to a collective excitation, providing the inertia that is essential for the propagation of 2D plasmonic waves. Lastly, we theoretically investigate the thermal current fluctuation behaviors in massive and massless electron gases. While seemingly unrelated on first sight, we show that the thermal current fluctuation is
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘伟伟; 王岳恒; 周金玲; 白晖; 王凤; 毛天杰
2015-01-01
目的：探讨二维斑点追踪技术评估肺动脉高压患者右房心肌功能的临床价值，并明确右房功能和心功能评级的关系。方法选择38例肺动脉高压患者和25例相匹配的健康志愿者，应用二维斑点追踪技术测量右房心肌纵向应变(PALS)和应变率(SR)。PALS 为心尖四腔观测量的右房心肌所有节段的平均值。结果与对照组相比，肺动脉高压患者右房 PALS 明显降低，而且随心功能不全的进展逐渐降低。右房 PALS 与6 min 步行距离呈正相关。右房 PALS <38.08%在预测患者心功能状态方面表现出非常高的诊断准确率(ROC 曲线下面积0.979)，其敏感性和特异性分别为86.8%、84.0%。结论肺动脉高压患者右房形变显著受损。运用二维斑点追踪技术可评估右房储器功能，右房 PALS 可以预测肺动脉高压患者心功能状态和活动耐力。%Objective To assess right atrial (RA)myocardial mechanics in pulmonary hypertension (PH ) patients using two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI ),and define the relationship between RA function and exercise capacity in PH patients.Methods Thirty-eight consecutive PH patients were studied and compared with a control group of 25 healthy volunteers.Peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS)and strain rate of RA were measured in all subjects.PALS values were obtained by averaging all segments (global PALS)measured in the 4-chamber view.Results RA PALS was significantly lower in PH patients than in controls,and gradually reduced with the development of cardiac insufficiency.A significantly postive correlation between global PALS and 6-minute walk distance was found(P =0.003). Furthermore,global PALS demonstrated the highest diagnositic accuracy (AUC of 0.979 )and excellent sensitivity and specificity of 86.8% and 84.0%,respectively,to predict functional status using a cutoff value less than 38.08%.Conclusions RA deformation is significantly damaged in PH patients
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
国伟华; 黄永箴; 陆巧银; 于丽娟
2004-01-01
Free spectral range of whispering-gallery (WG)-like modes in a two-dimensional (2D) square microcavity is found to be twice that in a 2D circular microcavity. The quality factor of the WG-like mode with the low mode number in a 2D square microcavity, calculated by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique and the Pade approximation method, is found to exceed that of the WG mode in 2D circular microcavity with the same cavity dimension and close mode wavelength.
Electronics based on two-dimensional materials.
Fiori, Gianluca; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Palacios, Tomás; Neumaier, Daniel; Seabaugh, Alan; Banerjee, Sanjay K; Colombo, Luigi
2014-10-01
The compelling demand for higher performance and lower power consumption in electronic systems is the main driving force of the electronics industry's quest for devices and/or architectures based on new materials. Here, we provide a review of electronic devices based on two-dimensional materials, outlining their potential as a technological option beyond scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor switches. We focus on the performance limits and advantages of these materials and associated technologies, when exploited for both digital and analog applications, focusing on the main figures of merit needed to meet industry requirements. We also discuss the use of two-dimensional materials as an enabling factor for flexible electronics and provide our perspectives on future developments.
Two-dimensional ranking of Wikipedia articles
Zhirov, A. O.; Zhirov, O. V.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2010-10-01
The Library of Babel, described by Jorge Luis Borges, stores an enormous amount of information. The Library exists ab aeterno. Wikipedia, a free online encyclopaedia, becomes a modern analogue of such a Library. Information retrieval and ranking of Wikipedia articles become the challenge of modern society. While PageRank highlights very well known nodes with many ingoing links, CheiRank highlights very communicative nodes with many outgoing links. In this way the ranking becomes two-dimensional. Using CheiRank and PageRank we analyze the properties of two-dimensional ranking of all Wikipedia English articles and show that it gives their reliable classification with rich and nontrivial features. Detailed studies are done for countries, universities, personalities, physicists, chess players, Dow-Jones companies and other categories.
Two-Dimensional NMR Lineshape Analysis
Waudby, Christopher A.; Ramos, Andres; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John
2016-04-01
NMR titration experiments are a rich source of structural, mechanistic, thermodynamic and kinetic information on biomolecular interactions, which can be extracted through the quantitative analysis of resonance lineshapes. However, applications of such analyses are frequently limited by peak overlap inherent to complex biomolecular systems. Moreover, systematic errors may arise due to the analysis of two-dimensional data using theoretical frameworks developed for one-dimensional experiments. Here we introduce a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of such data, based on the direct quantum mechanical simulation and fitting of entire two-dimensional experiments, which we implement in a new software tool, TITAN (TITration ANalysis). We expect the approach, which we demonstrate for a variety of protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, to be particularly useful in providing information on multi-step or multi-component interactions.
Towards two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2011-01-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way the ranking of nodes becomes two-dimensional that paves the way for development of two-dimensional search engines of new type. Information flow properties on PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian Universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Toward two-dimensional search engines
Ermann, L.; Chepelianskii, A. D.; Shepelyansky, D. L.
2012-07-01
We study the statistical properties of various directed networks using ranking of their nodes based on the dominant vectors of the Google matrix known as PageRank and CheiRank. On average PageRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of ingoing links, while CheiRank orders nodes proportionally to a number of outgoing links. In this way, the ranking of nodes becomes two dimensional which paves the way for the development of two-dimensional search engines of a new type. Statistical properties of information flow on the PageRank-CheiRank plane are analyzed for networks of British, French and Italian universities, Wikipedia, Linux Kernel, gene regulation and other networks. A special emphasis is done for British universities networks using the large database publicly available in the UK. Methods of spam links control are also analyzed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panebianco, Valeria; Osimani, Marcello; Lisi, Danilo; Passariello, Roberto [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' -Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Sciarra, Alessandro; Ciccariello, Mauro; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Di Silverio, Franco [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' -Policlinico Umberto I, Department of Urology, Rome (Italy)
2009-01-15
The aim of this study was to assess the capability of a 3D isotropic MRI T2-weighted sequence (3D T2 ISO) in the depiction of changes of neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, our aim was also to introduce a new MRI classification score of the NVB alteration patterns using the International Index Erectile Function Five-Item (IIEF-5) score as standard of reference. Fifty-three consecutive patients were postoperatively submitted to two MR examinations, including both 2D TSE T2-weighted (2D T2) and 3D T2 ISO sequences. Image findings were scored using a relative five-point classification and correlated with the postoperative IIEF-5 score. Radiologists attributed 13.2% of patients to class 0, 11.3% to class I, 34% to class II, 24.5% to class III, and 16.9% to class IV. With 3D T2 ISO images, the same radiologists determined 43.3% class 0, 32% class I, 11.4% class II, 7.5% class III, and 5.7% class IV. In all cases, the correlation and regression analysis between the 3D T2 ISO and IIEF-5 score resulted in higher coefficients values. The 3D sequence correlated most closely with patients' grading of erectile function. (orig.)
Panebianco, Valeria; Sciarra, Alessandro; Osimani, Marcello; Lisi, Danilo; Ciccariello, Mauro; Salciccia, Stefano; Gentile, Vincenzo; Di Silverio, Franco; Passariello, Roberto
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the capability of a 3D isotropic MRI T2-weighted sequence (3D T2 ISO) in the depiction of changes of neurovascular bundles (NVBs) after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP). Furthermore, our aim was also to introduce a new MRI classification score of the NVB alteration patterns using the International Index Erectile Function Five-Item (IIEF-5) score as standard of reference. Fifty-three consecutive patients were postoperatively submitted to two MR examinations, including both 2D TSE T2-weighted (2D T2) and 3D T2 ISO sequences. Image findings were scored using a relative five-point classification and correlated with the postoperative IIEF-5 score. Radiologists attributed 13.2% of patients to class 0, 11.3% to class I, 34% to class II, 24.5% to class III, and 16.9% to class IV. With 3D T2 ISO images, the same radiologists determined 43.3% class 0, 32% class I, 11.4% class II, 7.5% class III, and 5.7% class IV. In all cases, the correlation and regression analysis between the 3D T2 ISO and IIEF-5 score resulted in higher coefficients values. The 3D sequence correlated most closely with patients' grading of erectile function.
Two-Dimensional Scheduling: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuolei Xiao
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In this study, we present a literature review, classification schemes and analysis of methodology for scheduling problems on Batch Processing machine (BP with both processing time and job size constraints which is also regarded as Two-Dimensional (TD scheduling. Special attention is given to scheduling problems with non-identical job sizes and processing times, with details of the basic algorithms and other significant results.
Two dimensional fermions in four dimensional YM
Narayanan, R
2009-01-01
Dirac fermions in the fundamental representation of SU(N) live on a two dimensional torus flatly embedded in $R^4$. They interact with a four dimensional SU(N) Yang Mills vector potential preserving a global chiral symmetry at finite $N$. As the size of the torus in units of $\\frac{1}{\\Lambda_{SU(N)}}$ is varied from small to large, the chiral symmetry gets spontaneously broken in the infinite $N$ limit.
String breaking in two-dimensional QCD
Hornbostel, K J
1999-01-01
I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.
Two-dimensional supramolecular electron spin arrays.
Wäckerlin, Christian; Nowakowski, Jan; Liu, Shi-Xia; Jaggi, Michael; Siewert, Dorota; Girovsky, Jan; Shchyrba, Aneliia; Hählen, Tatjana; Kleibert, Armin; Oppeneer, Peter M; Nolting, Frithjof; Decurtins, Silvio; Jung, Thomas A; Ballav, Nirmalya
2013-05-07
A bottom-up approach is introduced to fabricate two-dimensional self-assembled layers of molecular spin-systems containing Mn and Fe ions arranged in a chessboard lattice. We demonstrate that the Mn and Fe spin states can be reversibly operated by their selective response to coordination/decoordination of volatile ligands like ammonia (NH3). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Two dimensional echocardiographic detection of intraatrial masses.
DePace, N L; Soulen, R L; Kotler, M N; Mintz, G S
1981-11-01
With two dimensional echocardiography, a left atrial mass was detected in 19 patients. Of these, 10 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis had a left atrial thrombus. The distinctive two dimensional echocardiographic features of left atrial thrombus included a mass of irregular nonmobile laminated echos within an enlarged atrial cavity, usually with a broad base of attachment to the posterior left atrial wall. Seven patients had a left atrial myxoma. Usually, the myxoma appeared as a mottled ovoid, sharply demarcated mobile mass attached to the interatrial septum. One patient had a right atrial angiosarcoma that appeared as a nonmobile mass extending from the inferior vena caval-right atrial junction into the right atrial cavity. One patient had a left atrial leiomyosarcoma producing a highly mobile mass attached to the lateral wall of the left atrium. M mode echocardiography detected six of the seven myxomas, one thrombus and neither of the other tumors. Thus, two dimensional echocardiography appears to be the technique of choic